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Sample records for salinas sierras pampeanas

  1. Late holocene tectonic damming up in eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massabie, A.C.; Limarino, C.O; Panarello, H.O.; Cordero, R.R; Bertels, A

    2001-01-01

    Neogene deformation due to Andean Orogeny has caused block faulting in the Sierras Pampeanas area, fracturing a Precambrian Paleozoic crystalline basement. These dislocations produced Late Tertiary to Quaternary landscape changes which are mainly expressed in clear and good preserved fluvial path modifications in sedimentary cover. The study of alterations of fluvial channel pattern associated with Quaternary tectonics has special neotectonic value in this central area of Argentina as a basic method to gain more precise temporal restrain of recent movements. Attention to this specific neotectonic field parallels general geologic knowledge evolution in Sierras Pampeanas. But in spite that nowadays better stratigraphic controls are available based on morphostructural, sedimentologic and paleontologic constraints (Massabie, 1999), still remain temporal uncertainties. Major difficulties for a more precise dating of neotectonic in the area of Sierras Pampeanas is a direct consequence of the random distribution of Neogene continental sediments located in different isolated basins which are mainly lacking of good bioestratigraphic control for comprehensive correlation. First steps in the study of Quaternary faulting dating in Sierras Pampeanas starts with the pioneer paper of Schlagintweit (1954) which reported a Quaternary faulting backed by stratigraphic and morphostructural considerations. Afterthen other papers about Quaternary faulting were presented based on similar geologic constraints (Lencinas y Timonieri, 1968; Massabie, 1976, 1987; Massabie and Szlafsztein, 1991; Kraemer et al., 1993; Massabie et al.,1998). In the way up to manage better adjust of Quaternary faulting dating in Sierras Pampeanas, there is a first work for Eastern Sierras Pampeanas presenting 14 C dating (Costa and Vita-Finzi, 1996). The authors postulated a late step of faulting younger than 1,300 for Comechingones fault with radiocarbon analysis based on organic matter in footwall colluvium

  2. Active deformation in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gustavo; Alvarado, Patricia; Fosdick, Julie C.; Perucca, Laura; Saez, Mauro; Venerdini, Agostina

    2015-12-01

    The Western Sierras Pampeanas region in the San Juan Province is characterized by thick-skinned deformation with approximately N-S trending ranges of average heights of 2500 m and a high frequency occurrence of seismic activity. Its location to the east of the mainly thin-skinned tectonics of the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt suggests that at 30°S, deformation is concentrated in a narrow zone involving these two morphostructural units. In this paper, we present new apatite (U-Th)/He results (AHe) across the northern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil (around 30°S) and analyze them in a framework of thermochronologic available datasets. We found Pliocene AHe results for Carboniferous and Triassic strata in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with the hypothesis of recent cooling and inferred erosional denudation concentrated along the northern end of this mountain range. Our analysis shows that this northern region may have evolved under different conditions than the central part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil. Previous studies have observed AHe ages consistent with Permian through Cretaceous cooling, indicating the middle part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil remained near surface before the Pampean slab subduction flattening process. Those studies also obtained ˜5 My cooling ages in the southern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil, which are similar to our results in the northern end of the range. Taken together, these results suggest a pattern of young deformation in the northern and southern low elevation ends of the Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with regions of high seismic activity, and Quaternary active faulting along the western-bounding thrust fault of the Sierra de Valle Fértil.

  3. Tectonic, volcanic, and climatic geomorphology study of the Sierras Pampeanas Andes, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. L.; Strecker, M. R.; Fielding, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed analysis of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) data extends current research in the Sierras Pampeanas and the Puna of northwestern Argentina to the determination - by the digital analysis of mountain-front sinuousity - of the relative age and amount of fault movement along mountain fronts of the late-Cenozoic Sierras Pampeanas basement blocks; the determination of the age and history of the boundary across the Andes at about 27 S latitude between continuing volcanism to the north and inactive volcanism to the south; and the determination of the age and extent of Pleistocene glaciation in the High Sierras, as well as the comparative importance of climatic change and tectonic movements in shaping the landscape. The integration of these studies into other ongoing geology projects contributes to the understanding of landform development in this active tectonic environment and helps distinguish between climatic and tectonic effects on landforms.

  4. Anfibios de las Sierras Pampeanas Centrales de Argentina: diversidad y distribución altitudinal

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    Julián N. Lescano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians from Sierras Pampeanas Centrales of Argentina: diversity and altitudinal distribution. Sierras Pampeanas Centrales (SPC mountains are located in Córdoba and San Luis provinces (Argentina and represent an area of unique biogeographic importance. In this paper we provide a synthesis about the knowledge of diversity and altitudinal distribution of anurans that inhabit SPC mountains. We compiled a species list through different information sources (field data, biological collections and bibliography. Using this information we characterize altitudinal distribution range of each species and analyze associations between species richness and composition and altitude gradient. We recorded 24 amphibians species belonging to five families. These species are heterogeneously distributed over the altitude gradient of SPC. We detect a linear negative relationship between altitude and species richness and defined assemblages associated with different altitude sectors. The results obtained in the paper represent basic information that will be useful to evaluate anthropogenic impact on this particular and fragile mountain system.

  5. Searching pristine source of two gabbric plutons outcroping in Central Sierras Pampeanas Range, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daziano, C.; Ayala, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the study of two gabbric plutons outcrop ing throughout Central Sierras Pampeanas range (Cordoba province, Argentina). San Lorenzo hill gabbric plutons is in the Upper proterozoic age whereas Cañada del Puerto belongs to the Early proterozoic.They are stock-type igneous bodies and they are intrusive s in an Upper Precambrian crystalline basement; it is mainly composed by gneisses, migmatites, schistes, marbles, amphibolite s, tact's, serpentinites and related rocks

  6. The geodynamic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas based on geochemical, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and SHRIMP data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M; Lopez de Luchi, M; Steenken, A

    2011-01-01

    , have been carried out to unravel the provenance and the geodynamic history of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Central Argentina. The geochemical and the Sm–Nd data point to a slightly stronger mafic and less-fractionated material in the provenance area of the Sierras de Co´rdoba when compared...

  7. Long-lived Control of Sierras Pampeanas Ranges on Andean Foreland Basin Evolution Revealed by Coupled Low-temperature Thermochronology and Sedimentology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens Goddard, A.; Carrapa, B.; Larrovere, M.; Aciar, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Sierras Pampeanas ranges of west-central Argentina (28º- 31ºS) are a classic example of thick-skinned style basement block uplifts. The style and timing of uplift in these mountain ranges has widely been attributed to the onset of flat-slab subduction in the middle to late Miocene. However, the majority of low-temperature thermochronometers in the Sierras Pampeanas have much older cooling dates. Thermal modeling derived from new low-temperature thermochronometers in Sierra de Velasco, one of the highest relief (> 4 km) mountains in the Sierras Pampeanas, suggest that the rocks in these ranges have been at near-surface temperatures (history of long-lived topography illustrated in Sierra de Velasco can be expanded to other ranges in the Sierras Pampeanas by integrating multiple data sets.

  8. Regional polyphase deformation of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina Andean foreland): strengths and weaknesses of paleostress inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Zampieri, Dario; Massironi, Matteo; Viola, Giulio; Alvarado, Patricia; Di Toro, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas of central Argentina are composed of a series of basement-cored ranges, located in the Andean foreland c. 600 km east of the Andean Cordillera. Although uplift of the ranges is partly attributed to the regional Neogene evolution (Ramos et al. 2002), many questions remain as to the timing and style of deformation. In fact, the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas show compelling evidence of a long lasting brittle history (spanning the Early Carboniferous to Present time), characterised by several deformation events reflecting different tectonic regimes. Each deformation phase resulted in further strain increments accommodated by reactivation of inherited structures and rheological anisotropies (Martino 2003). In the framework of such a polyphase brittle tectonic evolution affecting highly anisotropic basement rocks, the application of paleostress inversion methods, though powerful, suffers from some shortcomings, such as the likely heterogeneous character of fault slip datasets and the possible reactivation of even highly misoriented structures, and thus requires careful analysis. The challenge is to gather sufficient fault-slip data, to develop a proper understanding of the regional evolution. This is done by the identification of internally consistent fault and fracture subsets (associated to distinct stress states on the basis of their geometric and kinematic compatibility) in order to generate a chronologically-constrained evolutionary conceptual model. Based on large fault-slip datasets collected in the Sierras de Cordoba (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas), reduced stress tensors have been generated and interpreted as part of an evolutionary model by considering the obtained results against: (i) existing K-Ar illite ages of fault gouges in the study area (Bense et al. 2013), (ii) the nature and orientation of pre-existing anisotropies and (iii) the present-day stress field due to the convergence of the Nazca and South America plates (main shortening

  9. The metamorphic basement of the southern Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas: Provenance and tectonic setting of a Neoproterozoic back-arc basin

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    Cisterna, Clara Eugenia; Altenberger, Uwe; Mon, Ricardo; Günter, Christina; Gutiérrez, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas are mainly composed of Neoproterozoic-early Palaeozoic metamorphic complexes whose protoliths were sedimentary sequences deposited along the western margin of Gondwana. South of the Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, a voluminous metamorphic complex crops out. It is mainly composed of schists, gneisses, marbles, calk-silicate schists, thin layers of amphibolites intercalated with the marbles and granitic veins. The new data correlate the Sierra de Aconquija with others metamorphic units that crop out to the south, at the middle portion of the Sierra de Ancasti. Bulk rock composition reflects originally shales, iron rich shales, wackes, minor litharenites and impure limestones as its protoliths. Moreover, comparisons with the northern Sierra de Aconquija and from La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) show similar composition. Amphibolites have a basaltic precursor, like those from the La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) ones. The analyzed metamorphic sequence reflects low to moderate weathering conditions in the sediments source environment and their chemical composition would be mainly controlled by the tectonic setting of the sedimentary basin rather than by the secondary sorting and reworking of older deposits. The sediments composition reveal relatively low maturity, nevertheless the Fe - shale and the litharenite show a tendency of minor maturity among them. The source is related to an acid one for the litharenite protolith and a more basic to intermediate for the other rocks, suggesting a main derivation from intermediate to felsic orogen. The source of the Fe-shales may be related to and admixture of the sediments with basic components. Overall the composition point to an upper continental crust as the dominant sediment source for most of the metasedimentary rocks. The protolith of the amphibolites have basic precursors, related to an evolving back-arc basin. The chemical data in combination with the specific sediment association

  10. New fission-track ages of mio-pliocene tuffs in the Sierras Pampeanas and Precordillera of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbutt, K.; Naeser, C.W.; Jordan, T.E.; Cerveny, P.F.

    1989-01-01

    Fission-track dates were determined for 18 volcanic tuff horizons located in nine Neogene foreland basin sequences distributed throughout the Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas of Northwestern Argentina, an area of nearly horizontal subduction. These and other data indicate that a lower age limit for the sedimentary sequences studied is approximately 17 Ma. Therefore these fission-track dates constrain both the history of volcanic activity and the time of deposition in several foreland basins from the middle Miocene to Recent. Although the dates range from 3.6±0.8 Ma to 17.0±1.9 Ma, there is a marked increase in the number of ashes younger than 9 Ma. This implies that two distinct episodes of volcanic activity affected the region. The source of some of these tuffs is unknown but they are probably limited to the 'flat-slab' region between 27 deg and 32 deg S. Tuffs at Rio Blanco and Santa Florentina that are spatially associated with the Mogotes dacite domes of the Famatina Range represented magmatism bracketed from about 7 to 4 Ma in the region underlain by the flat-subducted plate. The stratigraphic relations in the basins show that the faulting that uplifted Sierra de Famatina was contemporaneous with the volcanism which reached the surface along the bounding faults. (Author) [es

  11. Mississippian lamprophyre dikes in western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: Evidence of transtensional tectonics along the SW margin of Gondwana

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    Martina, Federico; Canelo, Horacio N.; Dávila, Federico M.; de Hollanda, María Helena M.; Teixeira, Wilson

    2018-04-01

    In the Famatina range, Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina (SW Gondwana), subvertical calc-alkaline lamprophyric dike swarms crop out through >300 km. The dikes cut Ordovician units with a prominent NW-SE trending and are covered by continental sedimentary successions of Pennsylvanian to Permian age. The dikes show a strong structural control associated with Riedel fault systems. Detailed field analysis suggested a ∼N-S opening direction oblique to the attitude of dike walls and a left-lateral transtensional tectonics during the emplacement. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of a lamprophyric sample defined a crystallization age (plateau; whole rock) of 357.1 ± 7.1 Ma (MSWD = 2.3). Coetaneous ductile zones with dominant strike-slip motion, documented along western Argentina for >600 km, suggest a regional event in SW Gondwana during the Mississippian. We propose that this deformation was the result of the counterclockwise fast rotation of Gondwana between 365 and 345 Ma, when the Famatina range and western Argentina occupied a sub-polar position. A transform margin along SW Gondwana better explains our (and others) data rather than a subduction margin. This scenario is also consistent with the occurrence of A-type granites and normal-fault basins within the foreland as well as bimodal volcanics.

  12. Differential cooling and uplift of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenken, A; Martino, R.; Wemmer, K.; Siegesmund, S.; Drobe, M.; Lopez de Luchi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampean as are constituted by the Neo proterozoic to early Cambrian basement of the Sierras de Cordoba, San Luis and eastern La Rioja (29grades 00seconds - 33grades 30seconds, 64grades 00seconds - 6 00W) outcropping in the east of the Chaco-Parana basin. High-grade metamorphic gneisses and schists dominate the basement. The intrusion of magmatic rocks took place during the Pampean, Famatinian and Achalian cycles. The basement is divided in different lithological and structural domains by N-S trending ductile shear-zones. The east-dipping compressive Los Tuneles and Guacha Corral shear-zones at the western limit of the Sierras de Cordoba are the most important with respect to the exhumation history of the Sierras. An extensive survey on the cooling history by K/Ar biotite and muscovite dating of the basement rocks of the Sierras de Cordoba and San Luis was carried out and interpreted in terms of a differential exhumation history of the different blocks. Beginning of cooling in the Sierra de San Luis is documented by large muscovite booklets from pegmatites yielding ages between 438 Ma and 448 Ma. Slow cooling rates (3grades/Ma) led to a systematic reset of the K/Ar ages in the fine-grained muscovites forming two groups between 430 Ma and 410 Ma and 410 Ma and 380 Ma resulting from the Achalian deformation in the upper Silurian-Upper Devonian. In contrast to the Upper Ordovician/-Llandoverian cooling onset in the Sierra de San Luis, large pegmatitic muscovites from the Sierras de Cordoba record late Cambrian to Early Ordovician ages between 493 Ma and 474 Ma. The limit between those age domains is marked by the Los Tuneles and Guacha Corral shear-zones accommodating the vertical displacement responsible for the different ages. Cooling ages from the shear-zone rocks at 430 Ma define the upper limit for the contraction that is related to the collision with the Cuyania Terrane to the western outboard of Gondwana

  13. Late Miocene ignimbrites at the southern Puna-northern Sierras Pampeanas border (˜27°S): Stratigraphic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-López, Carolina; Guzmán, Silvina; Barrios, Fabiola

    2015-10-01

    New field observations and petrographic and geochemical data of pyroclastic deposits exposed along the Las Papas valley (border between southern Puna and northern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina) and further north, lead us to propose a new stratigraphic correlation and classification of the late Miocene volcanism in this area. We redefine the Las Papas, Las Juntas, Aguada Alumbrera and Rosada ignimbrites and define the Agua Caliente and Del Medio ignimbrites. The whole set of ignimbrites are rhyolites and less frequently dacites of calc-alkaline affinity. In the present contribution we divide ignimbrites into the Agua Negra and Rincón groups, based mainly on their geochemical signature. The Agua Negra Group is formed by the Las Papas and Las Juntas ignimbrites, indurated and welded, lithic-rich, with crystal-poor pumices and crystal-rich matrix. The Rincón Group comprises the Agua Caliente, Aguada Alumbrera, Rosada and Del Medio ignimbrites, with variable welding degrees, lithic and crystal content. The greater enrichment of crystals in the matrix in comparison with the crystal content in pumices indicates significant elutriation during flow transport and thus volume estimations are to be considered lower bounds for the actual erupted volume. The total minimum estimated volume for the ignimbrites of the Agua Negra and Rincón groups is 2.8 km3 (2.3 km3 DRE). Field relationships and new analytical data indicate that the different acid ignimbrites that crop out in this small area are related to at least two different magma chambers. The widespread Quaternary volcanism in this area covers the older deposits, thus making it difficult to recognize the volcanic centers that produced these late Miocene ignimbrites.

  14. Time constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegesmund, Siegfried; Steenken, A; Martino, R D

    2010-01-01

    The application of the SHRIMP U/Pb dating technique to zircon and monazite of different rock types of the Sierras de Córdoba provides an important insight into the metamorphic history of the basement domains. Additional constraints on the Pampean metamorphic episode were gained by Pb/Pb stepwise...... leaching (PbSL) experiments on two titanite and garnet separates. Results indicate that the metamorphic history recorded by Crd-free gneisses (M2) started in the latest Neoproterozoic/earliest Cambrian (553 and 543 Ma) followed by the M4 metamorphism at ~530 Ma that is documented in the diatexites. Zircon...

  15. Relaciones isotópicas Sm/Nd en rocas graníticas y miloníticas de Sierras Pampeanas del noroeste Argentino

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    Kawashita, K.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The Velasco, Copacabana and Paimán Ranges in Sierras Pampeanas, are constituted mainly by paleozoic plutonic bodies of the Famatinian cycle (Huaco, Antinaco and Paimán and for mylonitic rocks (TIPA Shear Zone, originated as a consequence of dynamic events happening during the Upper Ordovician-Devonian. The last magmatic event of the area would probably have of devonian age (Granite San Blas. Model-ages of two stages were calculated based on 147Sm/144Nd relationships; the obtained values are closely grouped at around 1594 Ma. and the more plausible interpretation seems to be a reworking of an Early Proterozoic protolith.Las sierras de Velasco, Copacabana y Paimán, en el ambiente de Sierras Pampeanas, están constituidas principalmente por cuerpos plutónicos del Paleozoico inferior, relacionados con el ciclo Famatiniano (Granitos Huaco, Antinaco y Paimán y por rocas miloníticas (Faja Milonítica TiPA, originadas a partir de estos protolitos como consecuencia de eventos dinámicos acaecidos durante el Ordovícico superior-Devónico. El último evento magmático del área es de edad probablemente devónica (Granito San Blas. Se calcularon edades modelos de «dos estadios» en base a relaciones 147Sm/144Nd; los valores obtenidos se presentan estrechamente agrupadas en torno a 1594 Ma. y se interpretan a este basamento como un protolito del Proterozoico medio retrabajado.

  16. Anomalously deep earthquakes related to the Ojo de Agua Lineament and its tectonic significance, Sierras Pampeanas of Córdoba, Central Argentina

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    Ana Caro Montero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sierras de Córdoba are the easternmost uplifted ranges of the Sierras Pampeanas geological province of Argentina. They are composed of a Neoproterozoic–Paleozoic basement arranged in north–south aligned mountain ranges, limited by west-vergent reverse faults, reactivated or formed by compressive tectonics during the Andean orogeny. The ranges are also affected by oblique subvertical lineaments, probably related to pan-Gondwanan structures. The recorded seismicity shows anomalously deep earthquakes (up to 80 km depth concentrated in the northwestern area. We attribute this seismicity to the current tectonic activity of the Ojo de Agua Lineament. This lineament is a N130º–135° strike, 70º–80° NE dip, macrostructure with more than 80 km depth and 160 km length. A sinistral transcompressional kinematics (convergent oblique shear is deduced by the focal mechanism of a deep earthquake, together with hydrological and geomorphological features strongly modified. The continental lithosphere under the Sierras de Córdoba would be colder and more rigid than in a normal subduction area, due to the retraction of the asthenospheric wedge to the foreland, causing seismicity to depths greater than 40 km, below the Mohorovičić discontinuity. Neogene volcanism would be closely related to this lineament, allowing the rapid ascent of melts from the mantle.

  17. The tectonic significance of K/Ar illite fine-fraction ages from the San Luis Formation (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemmer, Klaus; Steenken, André; Müller, Stefan; de Luchi, Mónica G. López; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2011-04-01

    The Sierra de San Luis forms the southern tip of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas in central Argentina. Two narrow belts of low-grade phyllites and quartz arenites, i.e. the San Luis Formation, have accommodated part of the strain-related differential exhumation of the medium- to high-grade metamorphic domains that constitute to the basement complex of the sierra. Eleven phyllite samples were subjected to the K/Ar fine-fraction dating technique. Results are interpreted in relation to the Kübler index of the illites, which indicate epimetamorphic conditions for the majority of the samples. Obtained ages between 330 and 290 Ma cover a period of compressional tectonics in the late Mississippian (Visean/Serpukhovian boundary) followed by the subsidence during the formation of the Paganzo Basin in the provinces of La Rioja and San Luis. These tectonic movements are coincident with the Toco orogeny in northern Chile and southern Bolivia. This suggests that the older K/Ar ages document the compressional stage and that younger ages record the cooling of the basement during the subsequent extensional uplift of the basement.

  18. Provencance of the late Proterozoic to early Cambrian metaclastic sediments ot the Sierra de San Luis (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas) and Cordillera Oriental, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M.; López de Luchi, M.; Steenken, A.

    2009-01-01

    Provenance studies have been performed utilising major and trace elements, Nd systematics, whole rock Pb-Pb isotopes and zircon U/Pb SHRIMP data on metasedimentary rocks of the Sierra de San Luis (Nogolí Metamorphic Complex, Pringles Metamorphic Complex, Conlara Metamorphic Complex and San Luis...... is depicted for all the complexes using major and trace elements. The Pringles Metamorphic Complex shows indications for crustal recycling, pointing to a bimodal provenance. Major volcanic input has to be rejected due to Th/Sc, Y/Ni and Cr/V ratios for all units. The eNd(540 Ma) data is lower for the San Luis...... Formation and higher for the Conlara Metamorphic Complex, as compared to the other units, in which a good consistency is given. This is similar to the TDM ages, where the metapsammitic samples of the San Luis Formation are slightly older. The spread of data is largest for the Pringles Metamorphic Complex...

  19. A Cambrian mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform in SW Gondwana: evidence from the Western Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina) and implications for the early Paleozoic paleogeography of the proto-Andean margin

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    Ramacciotti, Carlos D.; Casquet, César; Baldo, Edgardo G.; Galindo, Carmen; Pankhurst, Robert J.; Verdecchia, Sebastián O.; Rapela, Carlos W.; Fanning, Mark

    2018-05-01

    The Western Sierras Pampeanas (WSP) of Argentina record a protracted geological history from the Mesoproterozoic assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent to the early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of SW Gondwana. Two well-known orogenies took place at the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana in the Cambrian and the Ordovician, i.e., the Pampean (545-520 Ma) and Famatinian (490-440 Ma) orogenies, respectively. Between them, an extensive continental platform was developed, where mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation occurred. This platform was later involved in the Famatinian orogeny when it underwent penetrative deformation and metamorphism. The platform apparently extended from Patagonia to northwestern Argentina and the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, and has probable equivalents in SW Africa, Peru, and Bolivia. The WSP record the outer (deepest) part of the platform, where carbonates were deposited in addition to siliciclastic sediments. Detrital zircon U-Pb SHRIMP ages from clastic metasedimentary successions and Sr-isotope compositions of marbles from the WSP suggest depositional ages between ca. 525 and 490 Ma. The detrital zircon age patterns further suggest that clastic sedimentation took place in two stages. The first was sourced mainly from re-working of the underlying Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and the uplifted core of the early Cambrian Pampean orogen, without input from the Paleoproterozoic Río de la Plata craton. Sediments of the second stage resulted from the erosion of the still emerged Pampean belt and the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogen in the NE with some contribution from the Río de la Plata craton. An important conclusion is that the WSP basement was already part of SW Gondwana in the early Cambrian, and not part of the exotic Precordillera/Cuyania terrane, as was previously thought.

  20. Patrimonio arqueológico, preservación y turismo. El caso de las Sierras de Curicó (Sistema de Tandilia, Región Pampeana, Argentina

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    Patricia Madrid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es discutir los efectos positivos y negativos del uso de la localidad arqueológica Sierras de Curicó (partido de Olavarría, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina en el marco de potenciales emprendimientos turísticos. El atractivo natural de este paisaje arqueológico conformado por pinturas rupestres, estructuras de piedra, un montículo rocoso y un alero, en las serranías bajas de Tandilia, ha concitado desde hace algunos años un uso recreativo espontáneo en un área no planificada para su uso turístico. En efecto, al impacto natural creciente se suma la acción antrópica cada vez más frecuente, poniendo a la localidad arqueológica en situación de vulnerabilidad y riesgo de conservación. Esto se acentúa particularmente en el caso de las representaciones rupestres, que constituyen sectores de visibilidad regular y altamente sensibles a la atención del visitante. En este contexto, es primordial evaluar la preservación del paisaje arqueológico como un todo antes de considerar su inclusión en proyectos de desarrollo sustentable que incluyan actividades turísticas. Previo diagnóstico, se analizan las estrategias mas adecuadas para poner en valor las Sierras de Curicó como alternativas a un uso turístico convencional en el contexto de escasas o nulas posibilidades de regular medidas efectivas de protección del patrimonio local. Por último, se recomienda un plan de manejo y la no apertura del sitio al público.

  1. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programer-notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  2. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  3. El basamento de la sierra de San Luis: Nuevas evidencias magnéticas y sus implicancias tectónicas The basement of Sierra de San Luis: New magnetic evidence and tectonic implication

    OpenAIRE

    CJ Chernicoff; VA Ramos

    2003-01-01

    Los mapas aeromagnéticos disponibles de las sierras de San Luis y Comechingones en el sector sudoriental de las Sierras Pampeanas de Argentina, permiten examinar las características geológicas y estructurales de las unidades metamórficas e intrusivas del basamento de la región. A través de la aplicación del filtro de continuación ascendente a los datos del campo magnético total reducido al polo, se ha podido observar la configuración profunda de las distintas unidades. Entre ellas se destaca ...

  4. Carotenoid fluorescence in Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Es, van M.A.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dunaliella salina is a halotolerant green alga that is well known for its carotenoid producing capacity. The produced carotenoids are mainly stored in lipid globules. For various research purposes, such as production and extraction kinetics, we would like to determine and/or localise the carotenoid

  5. Salinas. Theory Manual Version 2.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bhardwaj, Manoj K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, Users Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  6. Superficial deposits in northeast flank of Sierras Australes (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, R.; Fucks, E.; De Francesco, F.

    2004-01-01

    Pleistocene and Holocene superficial deposits, which have been recognized in an area of 1500 km2 in the northeast flank of Sierras Australes, are characterized. In divide they are underlain by silts and siltstone which are called Sediments Pampeanas. There, a lower sequence, consisting mainly of aeolian sediments (loess) with scarce fluvial deposits and diamictons, was recognized. In some places an upper sequence that is product of aeolian and anthropogenic activity, was also recognized. In the valley sequences, the loess deposits can not only be underlain by fluvial sediments but can also overlain them. The more recent fluvial deposits which have eroded loess sequences are of the post conquest age [es

  7. El basamento de la sierra de San Luis: Nuevas evidencias magnéticas y sus implicancias tectónicas

    OpenAIRE

    CJ Chernicoff; VA Ramos

    2003-01-01

    Los mapas aeromagnéticos disponibles de las sierras de San Luis y Comechingones en el sector sudoriental de las Sierras Pampeanas de Argentina, permiten examinar las características geológicas y estructurales de las unidades metamórficas e intrusivas del basamento de la región. A través de la aplicación del filtro de continuación ascendente a los datos del campo magnético total reducido al polo, se ha podido observar la configuración profunda de las distintas unidades. Entre ellas se destaca ...

  8. Variabilidad morfológica craneofacial en el valle inferior del Rio Negro: implicaciones para el análisis de la dinámica poblacional en nordpatagonia y en el sudeste de la Región Pampeana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, Sergio Iván

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se propuso, en base a distintas líneas de evidencia arqueológica y bioarqueológica, que los grupos humanos que habitaron el Sudeste de la Región Pampeana en distintos momentos del Holoceno fueron poblaciones locales pertenecientes a metapoblaciones alocrónicas, con un rango de distribución geográfica desconocido, pero que probablemente abarcó regiones vecinas como el norte de la Pampa Húmeda, Pampa Seca, Sierras Centrales y el norte de Patagonia. Con el fin de poner a prueba tales hipótesis, se diseñó una investigación orientada a establecer, en cada caso, el grado de similitud morfológica a nivel craneofacial (tamaño y forma, mediante análisis discriminante aplicado a variables Howellianas. En una primera etapa se analizaron muestras masculinas y femeninas provenientes del valle inferior del Río Negro (colección del Museo de La Plata; n= 133, de cronología desconocida, y muestras diacrónicas del Sudeste de la Región Pampeana, con cronología determinada radiocarbónicamente (n= 36. Los resultados preliminares muestran que: a gran parte de la variabilidad registrada en la muestra de Río Negro tiene su correlato en la registrada en la Región Pampeana, lo que sugiere una estrecha relación biológica entre los habitantes prehispánicos de estas dos regiones, y b la muestra del valle del Río Negro está probablemente integrada por individuos correspondientes a distintos momentos del Holoceno.

  9. Understanding Environmental Factors that Affect Violence in Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    the lettuce produced in the United States is grown there, earning the Salinas Valley the nickname “Salad Bowl of the World.”1 The agricultural...1 City of Salinas, “ History of Salinas,” http://www.ci.salinas.ca.us/visitors/history.cfm. 2 State of the Cities...Chief of Police Louis Fetherolf reviewed the history of gang problems in Salinas. Highlights included: gang fights reaching ‘epidemic

  10. Estudio de la Orientación Cristalográfica Preferente del Cuarzo en el Contacto entre Gneises y Metatexitas - Diatexitas del Macizo Cerro Pelado (Sierra de Comechingones, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Castellarlni, P.; Fernández Rodríguez, Carlos; Otamendi, Juan E.

    2003-01-01

    The quartz c-axis fabrics measured in the rocks of the high-grade unit of the Cerro Pelado massif (northern Sierra de Comechingones, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina) allow to deduce a normal-sinistral sense of movement for the south-dipping shear zone separating the diatexite-metatexite domain to the north, from the gneissic terrane to the south. The crystallographic fabrics also indicate that the activity of this shear zone took place under high-T conditions. The deduced kinematics can account ...

  11. Active basement uplift as seen with cosmogenic lenses: the Sierra Pie de Palo case (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, L. L.; Sébrier, M.; Costa, C. H.; Ahumada, E. A.; Bellier, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S) corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere, and associated with high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology can be integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina has to be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this domain, the Sierra Pie de Palo is a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations. Located in the westernmost Sierras Pampeanas, the Sierra Pie de Palo forms a NNE striking, 80 km-long and 35-40 km-wide, ellipsoid range that reaches elevation as high as 3162 m. This mountain range is an actively growing basement fold associated with a high level of seismic activity (e.g., the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Mw 7.4 earthquake). To evaluate the degree of tectonic activity around the Sierra Pie de Palo, we combined a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography together with in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations measured in (1) bedrock outcrops corresponding to the exhumed erosional regional surface, (2) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial fans deformed by active faults, and (3) in fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of selected watersheds that drains out from the Sierra Pie de Palo. All together, our results allows: (1) assessing quantitative constraints on the rate of tectonic and denudation processes that are responsible for the active growth and erosion of the Sierra

  12. Crime Trend Prediction Using Regression Models for Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    2 1. History of Violence in Salinas ................................................. 2 2. Current and Past Efforts to...BACKGROUND 1. History of Violence in Salinas Small tribes of Native Americans inhabited the City of Salinas until around 1822. In 1822, Mexico...In the 1920s, sugar beets and beans gave way to the farming of lettuce because of the ice bunkered railroad, allowing fresh produce shipment

  13. The Selectivity of Milking of Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The process of the simultaneous production and extraction of carotenoids, milking, of Dunaliella salina was studied. We would like to know the selectivity of this process. Could all the carotenoids produced be extracted? And would it be possible to vary the profile of the produced carotenoids and,

  14. Greisen deposits associated to carboniferous post-orogenic granites with mineralization potential, Sierra de Fiambala, Catamarca, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliata, A. S.; Rubinstein, N. R.; Avila, J. C.; Baez, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Fiambala range is located in the central south part of the province of Catamarca, Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina. It is largely conformed by Precambrian metamorphic rocks, a Cambrian granitic intrusive, Ordovician basic and ultra basic rocks and epi zonal Carboniferous granites (Los Ratones, El Salto and Ayacucho Granites). The Carboniferous granites are sub alkaline, weakly peraluminous, high silica (except for the porphyritic facies of Los Ratones granite) and moderately enriched in K. Contents of trace elements and REE indicate that El S alto and Ayacucho granites and the granular facies of Los Ratones granite have characteristics of evolved and differentiated granite associated with hydrothermal systems. The variations of trace elements, particularly Sn, W, U, Rb, Ba, Zr and Sr suggest that they correspond to granites with mineralization potential. Genetically linked to these granites there are Sn, W, U and minor base metals greisen deposits. The hydrothermal process that yield to these deposits involved two main alteration stages, beginning with alkali metasomatism follow by greissenization. According to the isotopic ages the hydrothermal processes postdate about 1 Ma the magmatic activity. The analyses of the granites and the associated greisen deposits confirm that the post orogenic carboniferous magmatism is the major metallogenetic control of the ore deposits from the studied area. This metallogenetic control could be a useful tool in prospecting similar deposits in the rest of the Western Sierras Pampeanas. (Author)

  15. Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and K-Ar age constraints of the El Molle and Barroso plutons, western Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, A.M.; Gonzalez, P.D; Petronilho, L.A; Llambias, E.J.; Varela, R; Basei, M.A.S

    2001-01-01

    Within the Early Paleozoic Famatinian orogeny of Southern Sierras Pampeanas (Sierra de San Luis and Sierra de Cordoba), the post-orogenic granitoids are characterized by circular intrusions. The published Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages from plutons in the Sierra de San Luis range between 408 and 320 Ma (see synthesis in Llambias et al., 1998). The El Molle and Barroso plutons (Sims et al., 1997; Gonzalez and Sato, 2000) are the two main exposures of a post-orogenic intrusive complex located in the western area of the Sierra de San Luis basement. They also exhibit an overall circular map view of almost 8 km in diameter, and are emplaced in a metamorphic complex developed through pre-Famatinian (Proterozoic? to Early Paleozoic) to Famatinian (Early Paleozoic) orogenies (Gonzalez and Llambias, 1998; von Gosen and Prozzi, 1998). We are carrying out isotopic datings of the El Molle and Barroso plutons in order to contribute to the understanding of the magmatic and metamorphic evolution of the final stages of the Famatinian orogenic cycle in the Sierra de San Luis. The first results of the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and K-Ar dates are here presented (au)

  16. Pedro Salinas: la letra y la persona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín Gual, Montserrat

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a Pedro Salinas's homage in the fifty anniversary of his death. Here, we analise his attitude in front of life and his securities through his poems, personal letters and essais. The poet criticizes the materialistic american stil of life, where he should live during his exile until his death (1936-1951. Against the hurry, the profitable things, the technology, the money..., Salinas believes in his language, slowness, friendship, contemplation of countryside, art, spiritualism, optimism, etc. Son of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza's ideas, his personal ethics looked for the biggest perfection trought the will.Este artículo es un homenaje a Pedro Salinas al cumplirse el cincuentenario de su muerte. En él, se analiza su actitud ante la vida y sus valores a través de sus poesías, cartas personales y ensayos. El poeta critica el materialismo del modelo americano en el que se vio obligado a vivir desde que se exilió hasta su muerte (1936-1951. Frente a la prisa, lo rentable, la tecnología, el dinero...; Salinas cree en su idioma, la lentitud, la amistad, la contemplación del paisaje, el arte, lo espiritual, el optimismo, etc. Hijo de las ideas de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, su ética personal buscó la mayor perfección a través de la voluntad.

  17. Pedro Salinas y el teatro desde dentro (Pedro Salinas and Theatre from Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Benítez Vega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Pedro Salinas y el teatro, desde dentro” es el título de este artículo cuya finalidad consiste en realizar un recorrido por la vocación teatral de Pedro Salinas desde sus primeros años hasta el final de sus días: su asistencia a representaciones teatrales, sus contactos con el teatro y sus proyectos como autor dramático tanto los que se realizaron como los que no llegaron a materializarse. El propósito es adentrarnos en el alma teatral del poeta: cómo, cuándo, por qué surge su vocación por el arte escénico, insistiendo en la necesidad de rescatar la faceta de dramaturgo de Pedro Salinas como una constante más en la labor del poeta, profesor y crítico.Abstract: "Pedro Salinas and the theatre, from inside " it is the title of this article which purpose consists of realizing a tour for Pedro Salinas's theatrical vocation from his first years until the end of his days: his assistance to theatrical representations, his contacts with the theatre and his projects like dramatic author so much those who were realized as those who did not manage to materialize. The intention is to enter the theatrical soul of the poet: how, when, why his vocation arises for the scenic art, insisting on the need to rescue the playwright's facet of Pedro Salinas as one more constant in the labor of the poet, teacher and critic.

  18. Plutón La Costa, una expresión de magmatismo tipo-s en el sector noreste de la Sierra de Velasco, Sierras Pampeanas.

    OpenAIRE

    Alasino, Pablo H.; Dahlquist, Juan A.; Galindo Francisco, Mª del Carmen; Casquet, César

    2006-01-01

    Estudios combinados de petrología, química mineral y geoquímcia de roca total revelan la presencia de dos unidades graníticas peraluminosas con minerales aluminosos magmáticos tales como granate y mica blanca y la presencia distintiva de turmalina. Las evidencias aquí presentadas indican que estas dos facies, Anillaco y Anjullón, junto a la unidad peraluminosa Santa Cruz estudiada en trabajos previos, constituyen una serie de rocas co-sanguíneas, emplazadas en niveles someros de la c...

  19. Control estructural sobre el plutón Los Ratones y la mineralización de uranio en la Sierra de Fiambalá, Sierras Pampeanas, Catamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongn, F.; Kirschbaum, A.; Ferreira, L.; Morello, O.; Guidi, F.; Anesa, J.; Rubinstein, N.

    2010-01-01

    The Carboniferous Los Ratones pluton is composed by two main facies: equigranular and porphyric. The uranium mineralization hosted by the metamorphic rock on the NW border of the pluton is related to a fluor- rich greisen related to the equigranular facies. The detailed mapping of the pluton host rock and the uranium mineralization shows a well-defined structural control on both the granite emplacement, particularly on the porphyric facies, and on the migration of the mineralized fluids. Four sets of fractures participate on this control. The two main with N and NE trends coincide clearly with the west and northwest border of the pluton as well as with the high-grade uranium manifestations. The third and fourth ones respectively corresponds to E-W and NW striking fractures, which are less developed in relation to the main fractures considering their frequency and size. Fractures of the four sets are high dipping close to vertical, attitude corroborated by geophysical studies in the area where the NE fractures are the best developed. In addition to the mentioned features, granite-related acidic and basic dikes follow mainly these orientations. The fracture sets seem to be related to a high-east dipping meridian fault system with right horizontal main movement component and subordinate normal displacement. These faults partially reactivated heterogeneities of the metamorphic rocks, mainly the dominant foliation. Changes on the strike of these fractures formed dilatant zones where magmatism and related mineralization were concentrated. (authors) [es

  20. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Joel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  1. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip; Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Miller, Joel D.

    2017-04-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  2. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  3. Harvesting of Dunaliella salina by membrane filtration at pilot scale

    KAUST Repository

    Monte, Joana

    2017-09-02

    The microalgae Dunaliella salina is industrially produced due to its high content in carotenoids induced by low nitrogen and high salinity conditions. D. salina with low carotenoids content also produces other added value compounds, however its recovery have hardly been studied. This work aims to examine the potential of pre-concentrating D. salina by membrane processing prior to a final harvesting step by low-shear centrifugation. The aim is to minimize the overall energy expenditure and reduce capital costs, while assuring a minimal loss of cell integrity. This task is challenging, considering the sensitivity of D. salina to shear. Harvesting of D. salina by ultrafiltration allowed reaching a final concentration factor of 5.9, with an average permeate flux of 31 L/(m2 h). The Total Cost of Ownership and energy consumption for harvesting are respectively 52% and 45% lower when applying a two-step approach with pre-concentration (ultrafiltration) compared to only harvesting by centrifugation.

  4. Harvesting of Dunaliella salina by membrane filtration at pilot scale

    KAUST Repository

    Monte, Joana; Sá , Marta; Galinha, Clá udia F.; Costa, Luí s; Hoekstra, Herre; Brazinha, Carla; Crespo, Joã o G.

    2017-01-01

    The microalgae Dunaliella salina is industrially produced due to its high content in carotenoids induced by low nitrogen and high salinity conditions. D. salina with low carotenoids content also produces other added value compounds, however its recovery have hardly been studied. This work aims to examine the potential of pre-concentrating D. salina by membrane processing prior to a final harvesting step by low-shear centrifugation. The aim is to minimize the overall energy expenditure and reduce capital costs, while assuring a minimal loss of cell integrity. This task is challenging, considering the sensitivity of D. salina to shear. Harvesting of D. salina by ultrafiltration allowed reaching a final concentration factor of 5.9, with an average permeate flux of 31 L/(m2 h). The Total Cost of Ownership and energy consumption for harvesting are respectively 52% and 45% lower when applying a two-step approach with pre-concentration (ultrafiltration) compared to only harvesting by centrifugation.

  5. Primer registro fehaciente de Nopachtus coagmentatus (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae en la región Pampeana, Argentina. Contexto estratigráfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamorano, M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The species Nopachtus coagmentatus was recognized by Amegino in 1888, on the basis of sections of the caudal tube and the dorsal carapace. These remains comes from Valles de las Sierras de Córdoba near Villa Cura Brochero, and stratigraphically from the Brochero Formation (Montehermosan-Chapadmalalan [early Pliocene - late Pliocene]. Ameghino also mentioned N. coagmentatus for the Monte Hermoso Formation (Montehermosan, but the determination Ameghino is highly questionable. The exploitation of Precambrian rocks from the center of the Sierras Bayas in Olavarría (Buenos Aires province allowed the identification from the bottom to the top, of La Alcancía Formation (Miocene, El Polvorín Formation (Pliocene, La Esperanza Formation and El Búho Formation (both late Pleistocene. In this contribution present osteoderms of the latero-dorsal portion of the posterior region of the dorsal carapace of N. coagmentatus. The specimen was extracted from brownish sandy-silt sediments of La Alcancía Quarry (36°58′40′′.06 S; 60°12′23′′.92 W corresponding to El Polvorín Formation (Upper Chapadmalalan and correspond to the first reliable record of N. coagmentatus for the Pampean region. Finally, we offer a detailed description of the specimen, and its geographic and stratigraphic provenance.La especie Nopachtus coagmentatus fue reconocida por Ameghino en 1888, basándose en porciones del tubo caudal y la coraza dorsal; estos restos proceden de los Valles de las Sierras de Córdoba, en las cercanías de Villa Cura Brochero; y, estratigráficamente, de la Formación Brochero (Montehermosense - Chapadmalalense [Plioceno temprano - Plioceno tardío]. Ameghino también la menciona para la Formación Monte Hermoso (Montehermosense, pero la determinación es altamente dudosa. La explotación de rocas precámbricas en el núcleo central de las Sierras Bayas de Olavarría (provincia Buenos Aires posibilitó el reconocimiento de la Formación El Polvor

  6. Nuevos aportes a la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín M. Abba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Desmarest, 1804 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de cuatro establecimientos agropecuarios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante tres años se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y liberación. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 71 capturas. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue material vegetal, seguido por hormigas e insectos coleópteros; no se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios. La actividad de las mulitas se concentra durante el día, existió una baja en la frecuencia de observación durante las estaciones frías (otoño e invierno. La mulita pampeana prefiere suelos húmicos, terrenos altos y pastizales densos y altos; asimismo seleccionan los montes para refugiarse. Son individuos asociales. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan parcialmente con lo observado para otras especies del género, destacando las tendencias observadas en los hábitos alimentarios y en la estrategia termorregulatoria. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos de una especie poco estudiada en una zona bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat.

  7. SMART SfM: SALINAS ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Inzerillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In these last years, there has been an increasing use of the Structure from Motion (SfM techniques applied to Cultural Heritage. The accessibility of SfM software can be especially advantageous to users in non-technical fields or to those with limited resources. Thanks to SfM using, everyone can make with a digital camera a 3D model applied to an object of both Cultural Heritage, and physically Environment, and work arts, etc. One very interesting and useful application can be envisioned into museum collection digitalization. In the last years, a social experiment has been conducted involving young generation to live a social museum using their own camera to take pictures and videos. Students of university of Catania and Palermo were involved into a national event #digitalinvasion (2015-2016 editions offering their personal contribution: they realized 3D models of the museums collection through the SfM techniques. In particular at the National Archaeological Museum Salinas in Palermo, it has been conducted an organized survey to recognize the most important part of the archaeological collection. It was a success: in both #digitalinvasion National Event 2015 and 2016 the young students of Engineering classes carried out, with Photoscan Agisoft, more than one hundred 3D models some of which realized by phone camera and some other by reflex camera and some other with compact camera too. The director of the museum has been very impressed from these results and now we are going to collaborate at a National project to use the young generation crowdsourcing to realize a semi-automated monitoring system at Salinas Archaeological Museum.

  8. Smart SfM: Salinas Archaeological Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzerillo, L.

    2017-08-01

    In these last years, there has been an increasing use of the Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques applied to Cultural Heritage. The accessibility of SfM software can be especially advantageous to users in non-technical fields or to those with limited resources. Thanks to SfM using, everyone can make with a digital camera a 3D model applied to an object of both Cultural Heritage, and physically Environment, and work arts, etc. One very interesting and useful application can be envisioned into museum collection digitalization. In the last years, a social experiment has been conducted involving young generation to live a social museum using their own camera to take pictures and videos. Students of university of Catania and Palermo were involved into a national event #digitalinvasion (2015-2016 editions) offering their personal contribution: they realized 3D models of the museums collection through the SfM techniques. In particular at the National Archaeological Museum Salinas in Palermo, it has been conducted an organized survey to recognize the most important part of the archaeological collection. It was a success: in both #digitalinvasion National Event 2015 and 2016 the young students of Engineering classes carried out, with Photoscan Agisoft, more than one hundred 3D models some of which realized by phone camera and some other by reflex camera and some other with compact camera too. The director of the museum has been very impressed from these results and now we are going to collaborate at a National project to use the young generation crowdsourcing to realize a semi-automated monitoring system at Salinas Archaeological Museum.

  9. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  10. Larvicidal activity of some marine macrophytes against Artemia salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    and Microdictyon pseudohapteron, seagrasses (Halophila ovalis and Syringodium isoetifolium and lichens (Umbilicaria arpina) were tested for larvicidal activity using Artemia salina nauplii. The LC50 values for the PE-fraction of M. pseudohapteron and A. muscoides...

  11. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MHRL

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. (A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone). ©Sierra Leone Journal .... was used to. She seemed to have had a change of mind after ingesting.

  12. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  13. Plutón La Costa, una expresión de magmatismo tipo-s en el sector noreste de la Sierra de Velasco, Sierras Pampeanas La Costa pluton, an expresion of S- type magmatism in the northeastern sector of the Sierra de Velasco, Sierras Pampeanas

    OpenAIRE

    P.H. Alasino; J.A. Dahlquist; C. Galindo; C. Casquet

    2006-01-01

    Estudios combinados de petrología, química mineral y geoquímcia de roca total revelan la presencia de dos unidades graníticas peraluminosas con minerales aluminosos magmáticos tales como granate y mica blanca y la presencia distintiva de turmalina. Las evidencias aquí presentadas indican que estas dos facies, Anillaco y Anjullón, junto a la unidad peraluminosa Santa Cruz estudiada en trabajos previos, constituyen una serie de rocas co-sanguíneas, emplazadas en niveles someros de la corteza y ...

  14. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Salina Quadrangle, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupe, R.D.; Campbell, J.A.; Franczyk, K.J.; Luft, S.J.; Peterson, F.; Robinson, K.

    1982-09-01

    Two stratigraphic units, the Late Jurassic Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation and the Triassic Chinle Formation, were determined to be favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the US Department of Energy in the Salina 1 x 2 0 Quadrangle, Utah. Three areas judged favorable for the Salt Wash Member are the Tidwell and Notom districts, and the Henry Mountains mineral belt. The criteria used to establish favorability were the presence of: (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Four favorable areas have been outlined for the Chinle Formation. These are the San Rafael Swell, Inter River, and the Orange Cliffs subareas and the Capitol Reef area. The criteria used to establish these areas are: the sandstone-to-mudstone ratios and the geographic distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation which is considered as the probable source for the uranium

  15. Tubulinosema pampeana sp. n. (Microsporidia, Tubulinosematidae), a pathogen of the South American bumble bee Bombus atratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plischuk, Santiago; Sanscrainte, Neil D; Becnel, James J; Estep, Alden S; Lange, Carlos E

    2015-03-01

    An undescribed microsporidium was detected and isolated from the South American bumble bee Bombus atratus collected in the Pampas region of Argentina. Infection intensity in workers averaged 8.2 × 10(7)spores/bee. The main site of infection was adipose tissue where hypertrophy of adipocytes resulted in cyst-like body formation. Mature spores were ovoid and monomorphic. They measured 4.00 μm × 2.37 μm (fresh) or 3.98 μm × 1.88 μm (fixed). All stages were diplokariotic and developed in direct contact with host cytoplasm. Isofilar polar filament was arranged in 16 coils in one or, posteriorly, two layers. Coiling angle was variable, between perpendicular and almost parallel to major spore axis. Late meronts and sporogonial stages were surrounded by vesicles of approximately 60 nm in diameter. Based on both new and already designed primers, a 1827 bp (SSUrRNA, ITS, LSUrRNA) sequence was obtained. Data analyses suggest that this microsporidium is a new species of the genus Tubulinosema. The name Tubulinosema pampeana sp. n. is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. African Journals Online: Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical ...

  17. Ruralidad del empleo agropecuario en la región pampeana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Pellegrini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En esta tesis se ofrece una explicación económica para la proporción de población ocupada en el sector agropecuario que es rural y su distribución espacial, en la región pampeana al comenzar el siglo XXI. Por rural se entiende que reside en campo abierto, de acuerdo a los criterios censales utilizados en la Argentina para definir a la población rural dispersa. Se sostiene que la ruralidad del empleo agropecuario en cada área y sus alrededores depende de la importancia relativa de la agricultura y otras producciones agropecuarias, pero también de variables menos evidentes que a la postre resultan empíricamente más relevantes: los grados de urbanización del área y riqueza de la población agraria. Se obtienen esas conclusiones mediante un análisis conceptual de los costos comparativos de organizar la transacción de trabajo agropecuario con población rural o población urbana, en tanto el lugar de residencia afecta las actividades productivas y domésticas de los trabajadores. El problema se define como de organización económica en el nivel mesoeconómico, que tiene detrás uno más elemental: el de organización de la transacción de trabajo. Metodológicamente, en el aspecto conceptual se procede de manera abstracto-deductiva a partir de una representación estilizada del problema en cuestión, y en el empírico se realiza un estudio de corte transversal con datos censales, que culmina en un análisis econométrico espacial que no rechaza las principales hipótesis específicas deducidas.

  18. Sierra Nevada Subregional Boundary - Sierra Nevada Conservancy [ds542

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Sierra Nevada Conservancy (SNC) boundary. The boundary was mapped to correspond with statute AB 2600 (2004) and as re-defined in AB 1201 (2005). Work on the boundary...

  19. Nesting ecology of Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta in Sfax salina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we use the results of a one-year monitoring of nests in Sfax salina to provide information on its nesting parameters, in particular nesting phenology, colony size and hatching success. Our results show that Pied Avocets formed dense colonies at the beginning of the nesting season, but colony size decreased as ...

  20. Effect of enriched Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth, developmental stages and survival rates of Sparus aurata larvae fed with Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii enriched by microalga Tetraselmis chuii were studied. Two experiments were carried out; the first concerning with culturing the microalga (T. chuii) in four different media, then using these ...

  1. Growth effects on mixed culture of Dunaliella salina and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dunaliella salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum are two important marine microalgae rich in bioactive substances and other high-value constituents. In this study, growth effects on mixed culture of these two microalgae were studied under different inoculation proportions (10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 0:10) and low, medium and high ...

  2. Petrogenesis of the postcollisional Middle Devonian monzonitic to granitic magmatism of the Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Siegesmund, Siegfried; Wemmer, Klaus; Nolte, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Middle Devonian granitoids intruded the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas basement ca. 600 km east of the inferred proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana along which a ca. 390 Ma collisional event developed. In the Sierra de San Luis, voluminous Middle Devonian (393-382 Ma) batholiths are composed of I- to A-type hybrid Monzonite and Granite suites. Shoshonite and subordinated high-K series, stocks, synplutonic dikes and enclaves make up the Monzonite Suite; rocks are metaluminous alkali-calcic magnesian porphyritic or equigranular monzonite, quartz monzonite, monzodiorite and scarce monzogabbro. High-K and subordinated shoshonite series metaluminous to mildly peraluminous magnesian alkali-calcic to calc-alkalic porphyritic or equigranular quartz monzonite, granodiorite, monzogranite and equigranular leucomonzogranites make up the Granite Suite plutons and batholiths. Only a small group of highly evolved granites are ferroan. SiO2 (46-62%), Cr, Ni, V, Sc, LILE, LREE, Th, Zr and variable, Sr/Y, (La/Yb)N and (Tb/Yb)N, smooth Eu/Eu*, moderate Na2O (ca 3.5), and troughs at Nb and Ta for Monzonite Suite rocks suggest an subduction-related enriched lithospheric mantle source. Sm-Nd data (TDM 0.98-1.08 Ga, εNd(380 Ma) 0.66-1.47) and 87Sr/86Sri (0.703520-0.704203) are compatible with an enriched mantle source. The metaluminous porphyritic quartz monzonite-monzogranite and the mildly peraluminous equigranular biotite monzogranites of the Granite Suite are characterized by relatively moderate Al2O3, CaO, and 87Sr/86Sri, high LILE, Cr, variable Sr/Y, (La/Yb)N and Eu/Eu* and low Rb/Sr ( 1.5, ASI 1.05-1.18, and Ga/Al 2.6-3.9, εNd(380 Ma) - 3.74 to - 3.95 and (87Sr/86Sr)i 0.710743-0.712955 which would point to metasedimentary or felsic igneous crustal sources. Nevertheless their TDM 1.36-1.38 Ga is considerably younger than the mean 1.8-1.6 Ga Eastern Sierras Pampeanas crustal residence age and less radiogenic. Middle Devonian magmatism would record an episode of crustal growth by enriched

  3. Antifouling potential of the marine microalga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Li, Fengchao; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Marine organisms have usually been viewed as sources of environmentally friendly compounds with antifouling activity. We performed a series of operations to investigate the antifouling potential of the marine microalga Dunaliella salina. For the ethyl acetate crude extract, the antialgal activity was significant, and the EC50 value against Skeletonema costatum was 58.9 μg ml(-1). The isolated purified extract was tested for antifouling activity, the EC 50 value against S. costatum was 21.2 μg ml(-1), and the LC50 against Balanus amphitrite larvae was 18.8 μg ml(-1). Subsequently, both UHR-TOF-MS and GC-MS were used for the structural elucidation of the compounds, and a series of unsaturated and saturated 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids were detected. The data suggested that the fatty acid extracts from D. salina possess high antifouling activity, and could be used as substitutes for potent, toxic antifouling compounds.

  4. Em torno da luz cristalina: clara voz de Pedro Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Moreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2176-8552.2016n20p147 O texto que segue pretende ler a poesia de Pedro Salinas e Jorge Guillén diante de uma perspectiva que faz da voz uma iluminação e uma resistência diante do tempo histórico e da predominância de uma leitura simples das imagens. Assim, alguns poemas escolhidos permitem uma leitura contemporânea a respeito da voz, seguindo o conceito de Stimmung recuperado por Giorgio Agamben e as lições de poesia de Paul Valéry, e formam aspectos imprescindíveis para ler a poesia destes poetas. Ao manter em sua produção uma conversação com seus predecessores, Pedro Salinas joga com o logos e faz da phoné matéria prima para sua obra.

  5. Toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatchability and early stage development of Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    ALYÜRÜK, Hakan; ÇAVAŞ, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Booster biocides are widely used in antifouling paints as bioactive agents against fouling organisms. In previously published reports, acute toxicity tests on Artemia salina (Linnaeus, 1758) were only focused on a part of the life cycle of the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatching stage of A. salina. According to the results, diuron significantly decreased the hatching percentage of A. salina cysts and prevented the hatching of...

  6. Estructura productiva, pobreza y problemas de empleo en las provincias pampeanas y norteñas de Argentina en los primeros años del siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Longhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Argentina, históricamente, ha presentado profundas desigualdades socioeconómicas regionales. Las provincias del Noroeste mostraron notorias diferencias respecto a las pampeanas en la producción de riqueza. Así, a fines del siglo xx, mientras en las provincias pampeanas la pobreza alcanzaba al 32,9% de su población, en el norte estas privaciones se duplicaban. Este artículo tiene por objeto analizar comparativamente las características de estas privaciones —considerando escalas provinciales y departamentales—, vinculándolas a su vez con las transformaciones económicas y productivas y con los problemas de empleo a lo largo del siglo xx e inicios del xxi. Los resultados advierten un notorio proceso de fragmentación socioterritorial como corolario de la persistencia de la desigualdad. Se destaca el recrudecimiento de dicha fragmentación en determinadas provincias y departamentos argentinos.

  7. Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.

  8. Optimization of photosynthesis, growth, and biochemical composition of the microalga Rhodomonas salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuy, Minh Vu Thi; Douëtte, Claire; Rayner, Thomas Allan

    2016-01-01

    The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina is widely used as feed for copepod cultures. However, culturing conditions to obtain high-quality algae have not yet been efficiently optimized. Therefore, we aimed to develop a cultivation protocol for R. salina to optimize its nutritional value and provide tech...

  9. ESTIMACIONES ACERCA DE LA SALUD DE POBLACIONES QUE OCUPARON LAS SIERRAS CENTRALES Y PLANICIES ORIENTALES (CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA EN EL HOLOCENO TARDÍO: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LA ANTROPOLOGÍA DENTAL / Estimating Late Holocene health from Cordoba´s...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudina Victoria González

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar desde una perspectiva bioarqueológica las condiciones generales de salud de las poblaciones humanas que ocuparon la región austral de las Sierras Pampeanas en el Holoceno tardío (ca. 2500-400 años A.P., particularmente a través del estudio de bioindicadores dentales tales como hipoplasias del esmalte dental, abscesos y pérdidas dentales ante mortem. Se analizó una muestra de 80 individuos adultos de ambos sexos, procedentes de 48 sitios de toda la región. Se calcularon prevalencias por sexo, edad, cronología -Holoceno tardío inicial (ca. 2500-1500 años AP. y final (ca.1500-400 años AP-, así como sub-regiones geográficas - Sierras Chicas, Noreste, Noroeste, Llanura extraserrana, Sur y Traslasierra-. Posteriormente, se evaluó si las diferencias observadas eran significativas o no, mediante la aplicación del test de Chi-cuadrado (X2. Los resultados indican que las poblaciones asentadas en la región hacia momentos finales del Holoceno tardío habrían sufrido un deterioro en las condiciones generales de salud, principalmente los individuos adultos jóvenes y medios de toda el área, siendo mayor la intensidad en las sub regiones Noreste y Traslasierra.   Palabras clave: bioindicadores dentales, salud, región austral de las Sierras Pampeanas, Bioarqueología   Estimating Late Holocene health from Cordoba´s Central Highlands end Eastern Lowland populations (Argentina. A dental anthropology approach   Abstract The aim of this work is to study, from a bioarchaeological perspective, the health conditions of the populations that inhabited the southern portion of the Sierras Pampeanas region (Córdoba province by the Late Holocene (ca. 2500-400 years BP, through the analysis of three non-specific indicators of stress and infectious diseases: hypoplasia of dental enamel, abscesses, and antemortem teeth loss. The sample is composed by 80 adult individuals from 48 archaeological sites. We

  10. SALT EFFECTS ON EGGS AND NAUPLII OF ARTEMIA SALINA L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Eleanor; Baas-Becking, L. G. M.

    1931-01-01

    Eggs of Artemia salina L., the brine shrimp, are easily obtainable in large quantities. Ecdysis takes place in two stages: (a) extrusion of the inner membrane, and (b) ecdysis of the nauplius from that membrane. The conditions which allow for the former are much more varied than those for the latter. Nauplii form in only solutions of a few sodium salts; and, in Mg, Ca, and Sr salts, potassium is very toxic. The possible environment for the nauplii (1 M total molarity) has been ascertained for chlorides of Na, K, Mg, and Ca. The facts observed account for the peculiar distribution of the organism. PMID:19872620

  11. Metabolic engineering of Dunaliella salina for production of ketocarotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anila, N; Simon, Daris P; Chandrashekar, Arun; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2016-03-01

    Dunaliella is a commercially important marine alga producing high amount of β-carotene. The use of Dunaliella as a potential transgenic system for the production of recombinant proteins has been recently recognized. The present study reports for the first time the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in Dunaliella salina for ketocarotenoid production. The pathway modification included the introduction of a bkt gene from H. pluvialis encoding β-carotene ketolase (4,4'β-oxygenase) along with chloroplast targeting for the production of ketocarotenoids. The bkt under the control of Dunaliella Rubisco smaller subunit promoter along with its transit peptide sequence was introduced into the alga through standardized Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. The selected transformants were confirmed using GFP and GUS expression, PCR and southern blot analysis. A notable upregulation of the endogenous hydroxylase level of transformants was observed where the BKT expression was higher in nutrient-limiting conditions. Carotenoid analysis of the transformants through HPLC and MS analysis showed the presence of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin with maximum content of 3.5 and 1.9 µg/g DW, respectively. The present study reports the feasibility of using D. salina for the production of ketocarotenoids including astaxanthin.

  12. Contrasting magmatic structures between small plutons and batholiths emplaced at shallow crustal level (Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Lucio P.; D'Eramo, Fernando J.; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Demartis, Manuel; Tubía, José María; Coniglio, Jorge E.; Radice, Stefania; Maffini, M. Natalia; Aragón, Eugenio

    2016-11-01

    Processes like injection, magma flow and differentiation and influence of the regional strain field are here described and contrasted to shed light on their role in the formation of small plutons and large batholiths their magmatic structures. The final geometric and compositional arrangement of magma bodies are a complex record of their construction and internal flow history. Magma injection, flow and differentiation, as well as regional stresses, all control the internal nature of magma bodies. Large magma bodies emplaced at shallow crustal levels result from the intrusion of multiple magma batches that interact in a variety of ways, depending on internal and external dynamics, and where the early magmatic, growth-related structures are commonly overprinted by subsequent history. In contrast, small plutons emplaced in the brittle-ductile transition more likely preserve growth-related structures, having a relatively simple cooling history and limited internal magma flow. Outcrop-scale magmatic structures in both cases record a rich set of complementary information that can help elucidate their evolution. Large and small granitic bodies of the Sierra Pampeanas preserve excellent exposures of magmatic structures that formed as magmas stepped through different rheological states during pluton growth and solidification. These structures reveal not only the flow pattern inside magma chambers, but also the rheological evolution of magmas in response to temperature evolution.

  13. Registro de Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae del Sur de la región Pampeana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago PLISCHUK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudios prospectivos tendientes a la detección de protistas asociados a ápidos en la región Pampeana, se observó la presencia de esporos ovales bicóncavos y grupos de esporos (cúmulos en los túbulos de Malpighi de abejas de Dufaur, partido de Saavedra, sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los esporos maduros midieron 4,8 ± 0,05 x 2,4 ± 0,03 μm y la carga (intensidad promedió 5,71 ± 1,49 x 106 esporos/abeja. Las detecciones se efectuaron entre julio y octubre de 2006 y la prevalencia en las colmenas positivas osciló entre 1 y 16,7 %. Las características morfológicas de los esporos, el lugar de desarrollo y la especie huésped involucrada sugieren que el microorganismo en cuestión, pertenece al género Nephridiophaga y sería N. apis Ivanić, especie tipo cuyo conocimiento es extremadamente limitado. El hallazgo constituye el primer registro de un nefridiofágido asociado a A. mellifera fuera del continente europeo.

  14. Arqueología de cazadores recolectores del sector centro-oriental de la región pampeana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Loponte

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available El humedal asociado al rio Paraná inferior y tramo superior del Rio de la Plata, situado en el sector centro-oriental de la región pampeana, muestra un registro arqueológico de gran complejidad. Esta situación parece estar ya establecida hace 1700 anos AP. Algunas de las propiedades del mismo sugieren una importante concentración de poblaciones humanas en el área, con reducida movilidad residencial e intensificación en la explotación de los recursos de alto ranking y una especial concentración en la explotación de los recursos fluviales. La fuerte diversidad estilística que se observa en los patrones de decoración de la alfarería y en el tratamiento de la muerte, son coherentes con la existencia de una compleja y variada identidad social, cuya dinámica posiblemente estuvo influenciada por conductas densodependientes que se acrecentaron aun mas por el arribo de grupos horticultores amazónicos.

  15. [Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta) pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Miguel; Bastardo, Leandro; Cortez, Roraysi; Arredondo-Vega, Bertha; Romero, Lolymar; Gómez, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Rotifers are an important live feed for first feeding larvae of many fish species. The use of concentrated algae cells in the mass culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Brachionidae) has opened new horizons for research on this organism. Pastes of Rhodomonas salina (Pyrenomonadaceae) obtained either by centrifugation or flocculation with chitosan were preserved, with or without vitamin C, at -20 degrees C for four weeks and were evaluated biochemically (proteins, lipids, pigments and fatty acids contents) and subsequently, were used to feed the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis at a ratio of 25 mg/L/day. Four different microalgae pastes were prepared: (1) centrifuged and preserved with vitamin C (CV), (2) centrifuged and preserved without vitamin C (C), (3) flocculated and with vitamin C (FV) and (4) flocculated without vitamin C (F). All treatments showed similar contents of proteins and total lipids with respect to control culture (a fresh culture of R. salina), with mean values of 40.0 +/- 2.32% and 12.0 +/- 1.45%, respectively. The pheophytin a/chlorophyll a ratio, a general indicator of the chemical status of microalgal concentrates, was similar (0.09-0.11) between centrifuged pastes and control culture, but was found to be higher in flocculated pastes (1.28-1.48). The fatty acid profile varied with respect to the control culture, mainly in the proportion of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Total PUFAs, EPA and DHA contents were statistically similar between centrifuged pastes and control culture (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% and DHA: 4.7%), whereas values obtained for flocculated pastes were significantly lower. The rotifers grew equally well when fed with centrifuged pastes or control culture (maximum density: 320 rotifers/mL; instantaneous growth rate: 0.23 rotifers/day, fecundity: 1.49 eggs/female and productivity: 43 x 10(3) rotifers/L/day. No significant effect of vitamin C was

  16. Isotopic strontium, carbon and oxygen study on neoproterozoic marbles from Sierra de Umango, Andean Foreland, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, R; Valencio, S.; Ramos, A; Sato, K; Gonzalez, P; Panarello, H; Roverano, D

    2001-01-01

    The Umango Hill (La Rioja Province, 29 o 00'S-68 o 40'W) is one of the mountain blocks of Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales (Caminos, 1979), bounded by thrust faults and surrounded by Upper Devonian to Tertiary marine and continental sedimentites. The exposed crystalline basement is composed of basic igneous rocks and a siliciclastic-limestone sequence, both affected by amphibolite facies metamorphic peak. In the southern area (Juchi creek), the metamorphic complex carries relics of granitic orthogneisses, with Rb/Sr and U/Pb dates of ∼1000 Ma (Varela et al., 1996). These ancient inliers were asigned to a Mesoproterozoic Grenville Orogenic Cycle. Granitic bodies, intrusives at different ages in the Metamorphic Complex, have also been distinguished. The most ancient is El Penon Granite, with 469±9 Ma Rb/Sr age (Varela et al., 2000) and 523±26 Ma U/Pb zircon age (unpublished data). In this way it is possible to point out broadly that the siliciclastic-limestone sequence belongs to the Neoproterozoic-Early Palaeozoic times. It was a platform cover over grenvillian cratonic basement. The metamorphism and deformation, we understand, took place in the Early Palaeozoic, related to the Pampean-Famatinian Orogenic Cycle. In this work, compositional and isotopic data of Strontium ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr), Carbon (δ 13 Cv PDB ) and Oxygen (δ 18 Ov PDB ) of the marbles derived from the siliciclastic-limestone sequence are presented. The results are interpreted and correlated with the temporal variation curves of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and δ 13 C from Neoproterozoic marine carbonates (Jacobsen and Kaufman, 1999) (au)

  17. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  18. La organización del trabajo en la agricultura familiar : los hogares con trabajadores familiares renmunerados en la región pampeana : el caso del Partido de Junín

    OpenAIRE

    Neiman, Melina

    2008-01-01

    El tema general de investigación de esta Tesis se refiere al proceso de expansión de la condición de remuneración entre los “trabajadores familiares” en las unidades familiares de producción agropecuaria de la región pampeana, de la Argentina. Su estudio es de particular interés para el análisis de los cambios sucedidos en los últimos años en la agricultura familiar pampeana que llevaron al incremento de situaciones de remuneración de los trabajadores familiares como también pa...

  19. Acclimation and tolerance of Artemia salina to copper salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba, L.J.; Krzyz, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia salina L. was acclimated in sea water with cupric chloride, acetate, carbonate, and sulfate, each at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 ppM Cu/sup + +/, together with sea water controls. Growth inhibition was observed in all four compounds, generally in direct relationship to the concentration. It was least in sulfate, and increased progressively in chloride, acetate and carbonate in that order. In toxicity tests, 2-week old larvae from each solution were exposed to concentrations of 10, 7.5, 5, 2.5 and 1 ppM Cu/sup + +/ of the same compounds, together with unacclimated larvae of the same age. Similar tests were held with 6-week old adults. Toxicity to unacclimated larvae and adults differed with the compounds, carbonate being the least toxic, followed by sulfate, chloride and acetate in increasing order. Larvae acclimated in chloride and sulfate showed an increased tolerance to 1 and 2.5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ compared to untreated controls. Tolerance was not enhanced from 5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ upwards. In both compounds, adults acclimated in 0.1 ppM Cu/sup + +/ showed an increased tolerance to concentrations between 1 and 7.5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ compared to controls. Considerable precipitation occurred with the high levels of this compound, thus effecting the ''final'' concentrations. No acclimation effect was observed in acetate for either larvae or adults. It is suggested that in A. salina, copper toxicity depends on the particular form of the metal, and that this difference is also evident in growth inhibition and in the potential acquisition of increased tolerance through exposure to low concentrations.

  20. Distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in the Salt Lake Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaş Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in 10 different stations of the Salt Lake basin were investigated. In addition, its relationship to pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity and water levels were analyzed. Field studies were carried out from July to August of 2010. Artemia salina was observed in five of these stations. Artemia salina was not seen in some stations that have high electrical conductivity. It is determined that, in the station named Tersakan Lake where electrical conductivity was 154 mS/cm, Artemia salina is more abundant when compared to the other stations. But as underground water pumps that are built for the irrigation of agricultural lands decrease water levels, Artemia salina’s life is under threat.

  1. Phototoxicity activity of Psoralea drupacea L. using Atremia salina bioassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction have phototoxicity in A. salina bioassay system and their toxic effect is related to phototoxic constituents such as psoralen.

  2. Ecology of a heterotrichous ciliate Fabrea salina from salterns of Bombay Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, P.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.

    The abundance and population size structure of a heterotrichous ciliate @iFabrea salina@@, was studied in relation to hydrochemical and hydrobiological variables in three hypersaline ponds of Bombay, west coast of India There was a clear seasonal...

  3. Sierra/SM theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, Nathan Karl

    2013-07-01

    Presented in this document are the theoretical aspects of capabilities contained in the Sierra/SM code. This manuscript serves as an ideal starting point for understanding the theoretical foundations of the code. For a comprehensive study of these capabilities, the reader is encouraged to explore the many references to scientific articles and textbooks contained in this manual. It is important to point out that some capabilities are still in development and may not be presented in this document. Further updates to this manuscript will be made as these capabilites come closer to production level.

  4. Quaternary environments in Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Marc; Gómez Ortiz, Antonio; Palacios Estremera, David; Salvador Franch, Ferran; Salvà Catarineu, Monserrat

    2016-01-01

    El conocimiento relativo a la evolución ambiental cuaternaria en las montañas de la Península Ibérica ha avanzado sustancialmente en las últimas décadas. Particularmente significativos son los progresos realizados en el macizo de Sierra Nevada, en el sur peninsular. En este caso, los investigadores se han servido de registros naturales y fuentes documentales para reconstruir la dinámica ambiental desde la Última Glaciación y posterior deglaciación del macizo hasta su evolución reciente. Los c...

  5. La fauna de porte menor en sitios arqueológicos de la región pampeana, Argentina. Agente disturbador vs. recurso económico

    OpenAIRE

    Salemme, Mónica; Escosteguy, Paula; Frontini, Romina

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se discute la presencia de animales de porte mediano y pequeño, particularmente roedores, armadillos, aves y peces, en los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos de sitios ubicados en distintas áreas de la región pampeana (Argentina) y con cronologías que van desde el Holoceno temprano al Holoceno tardío. Se analiza su potencial como recurso económico explotado por los cazadores recolectores, así como su incidencia en los procesos de formación de sitios. El objetivo es plantear...

  6. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Duc

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the

  7. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David R.; Lee, Robert W.; Cushman, John C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Tran, Duc; Polle, Juergen E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  8. Contribution of Co2+ in increasing chlorophyll a concentration of Nannochloropsis salina in controlled Conwy medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, Y.; Taba, P.; Suryati, E.; Kasih, P.; Firman, N. F.

    2018-03-01

    A research in determining the contribution of Co2+ on the increase of chlorophyll a concentration of Nannochloropsis salina has been caried out. The cultivation of N. salina was conducted in the Conwy medium with a salinity of 5%o and 25%o and various Co2+ concentration (2, 4, and 8 ppm). In this research, Co2+ was exposed early in the cultivation of N. salina. The growth of N. salina was observed daily by counting the number of populations using a haemocytometer while the chlorophyll a concentration was determined by a Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that the growth of N. salina in the control was higher than that in the medium containing Co2+. The optimum growth time was achieved on 15th days (5%) and 8th days (25%). In the cultivation medium with a salinity of 5%, Co2+ with a concentration of 2 ppm increased the chlorophyll a level while Co2+ with concentrations of 4 and 8 ppm decreased it. In the medium of cultivation with a salinity of 25%, the increase in chlorophyll a level was observed at Co2+ concentrations of 2 and 4 ppm whereas the decrease in chlorophyl a level was given at a concentration of 8 ppm. It can be concluded that at low concentrations, Co2+ increased the concentration of chlorophyll a in N. salina.

  9. Increasing β-carotene content of phytoplankton Dunaliella salina using different salinity media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, J.; Masithah, E. D.; Tjahjaningsih, W.; Abdillah, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Dunaliella salina have got great attention in the nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies because contain β-carotene. β-carotene functions as antioxidants and precursors of vitamin A and can treat tumors and cancer in humans. The content of β-carotene in D. salina can be increased by increasing salinity levels in the culture medium. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing salinity may increas β-carotene content of phytoplankton D. salina. The research use data collection method with direct observation and then analyzed the result with descriptive method. The results showed that different salinity of media can influenced β-carotene content of D. salina. The highest β-carotene content of D. salina was at treatment B (30 ppt) which equal to 2.312 mg/L on 10th day. The production of β-carotene in D. salina can be increased was other environmental stress treatments in the form of stress-temperature, light and nutrients using.

  10. Interspecific competition and allelopathic interaction between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Liu, Jiao; Hao, Qiang; Ran, Lihua; Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Algal allelopathy is a manifold ecological/physiological phenomenon that is focused on chemical interactions and autotoxicity. We investigated the allelopathic interactions between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory cultures based on diff erent temperature (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) and lighting (40, 80, and 160 μmol/(m2·s)) conditions. The growth of D. salina in bi-algae culture (1:1 size/density) was significantly restrained. The results of cell-free filtrate culture indicate that direct cell-tocell contact was not necessary in interspecific competition. Further experimental results demonstrated that allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi were markedly influenced by both temperature ( P =0.013) and irradiance ( P =0.003), resulting in diff erent growth characteristics of D. salina in filtrate mediums. Compared with the plateau period, K. mikimotoi exudates in the exponential phase had a stronger short-term inhibition effect on D. salina in normal conditions. A clear concentration-dependent relationship was observed in the effect of allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi with low-promoting and high-repressing effects on D. Salina in a short time-scale. In addition, allelopathic substances remain stable and effective under high temperature and pressure stress. Many flocculent sediments adhering with D. salina cells were observed in all filtrate mediums, while the quantity and color depended on the original culture conditions.

  11. Nitrate Contamination of Deep Aquifers in the Salinas Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Holtz, M.; Roberts, S. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Salinas Valley, known as 'the salad bowl of the world', has been an agricultural center for more than 100 years. Irrigated row crops such as lettuce and strawberries dominate both land use and water use. Groundwater is the exclusive supply for both irrigation and drinking water. Some irrigation wells and most public water supply wells in the Salinas Valley are constructed to draw water from deep portions of the aquifer system, where contamination by nitrate is less likely than in the shallow portions of the aquifer system. However, a number of wells with top perforations greater than 75 m deep, screened below confining or semi-confining units, have nitrate concentrations greater than the Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) of 45 mg/L as NO3-. This study uses nitrate concentrations from several hundred irrigation, drinking water, and monitoring wells (Monterey County Water Resources Agency, 1997), along with tritium-helium groundwater ages acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through the State of California Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program (reported in Kulongoski et al., 2007 and in Moran et al., in press), to identify nitrate 'hot spots' in the deep aquifer and to examine possible modes of nitrate transport to the deep aquifer. In addition, observed apparent groundwater ages are compared with the results of transport simulations that use particle tracking and a stochastic-geostatistical framework to incorporate aquifer heterogeneity to determine the distribution of travel times from the water table to each well (Fogg et al., 1999). The combined evidence from nitrate, tritium, tritiogenic 3He, and radiogenic 4He concentrations, reveals complex recharge and flow to the capture zone of the deep drinking water wells. Widespread groundwater pumping for irrigation accelerates vertical groundwater flow such that high nitrate groundwater reaches some deep drinking water wells. Deeper portions of the wells often draw in water that recharged

  12. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  13. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  14. Site fidelity of the declining amphibian Rana sierrae (Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews; Haiganoush Preisler

    2010-01-01

    From 1997 to 2006, we used mark–recapture models to estimate the site fidelity of 1250 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs (Rana sierrae) in Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA, during their three main activity periods of overwintering, breeding, and feeding. To quantify site fidelity, the tendency to return to and reuse previously occupied...

  15. Potential of New Isolates of Dunaliella Salina for Natural β-Carotene Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The halotolerant microalga Dunaliella salina has been widely studied for natural β-carotene production. This work shows biochemical characterization of three newly isolated Dunaliella salina strains, DF15, DF17, and DF40, compared with D. salina CCAP 19/30 and D. salina UTEX 2538 (also known as D. bardawil. Although all three new strains have been genetically characterized as Dunaliella salina strains, their ability to accumulate carotenoids and their capacity for photoprotection against high light stress are different. DF15 and UTEX 2538 reveal great potential for producing a large amount of β-carotene and maintained a high rate of photosynthesis under light of high intensity; however, DF17, DF40, and CCAP 19/30 showed increasing photoinhibition with increasing light intensity, and reduced contents of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene, suggesting that the capacity of photoprotection is dependent on the cellular content of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene. Strong positive correlations were found between the cellular content of all-trans β-carotene, 9-cis β-carotene, all-trans α-carotene and zeaxanthin but not lutein in the D. salina strains. Lutein was strongly correlated with respiration in photosynthetic cells and strongly related to photosynthesis, chlorophyll and respiration, suggesting an important and not hitherto identified role for lutein in coordinated control of the cellular functions of photosynthesis and respiration in response to changes in light conditions, which is broadly conserved in Dunaliella strains. Statistical analysis based on biochemical data revealed a different grouping strategy from the genetic classification of the strains. The significance of these data for strain selection for commercial carotenoid production is discussed.

  16. Heterologous gene expression driven by carbonic anhydrase gene promoter in Dunaliella salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurong, Chai; Yumin, Lu; Tianyun, Wang; Weihong, Hou; Lexun, Xue

    2006-12-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halotolerant unicellular green alga without a rigid cell wall, can live in salinities ranging from 0.05 to 5 mol/L NaCl. These features of D. salina make it an ideal host for the production of antibodies, oral vaccine, and commercially valuable polypeptides. To produce high level of heterologous proteins from D. salina, highly efficient promoters are required to drive expression of target genes under controlled condition. In the present study, we cloned a 5' franking region of 1.4 kb from the carbonic anhydrase ( CAH) gene of D. salina by genomic walking and PCR. The fragment was ligated to the pMD18-T vector and characterized. Sequence analysis indicated that this region contained conserved motifs, including a TATA- like box and CAAT-box. Tandem (GT)n repeats that had a potential role of transcriptional control, were also found in this region. The transcription start site (TSS) of the CAH gene was determined by 5' RACE and nested PCR method. Transformation assays showed that the 1.4 kb fragment was able to drive expression of the selectable bar (bialaphos resistance) gene when the fusion was transformed into D. salina by biolistics. Northern blotting hybridizations showed that the bar transcript was most abundant in cells grown in 2 mol/L NaCl, and less abundant in 0.5 mol/L NaCl, indicating that expression of the bar gene was induced at high salinity. These results suggest the potential use of the CAH gene promoter to induce the expression of heterologous genes in D. salina under varied salt condition.

  17. Neutral lipid production in Dunaliella salina during osmotic stress and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Lu, Jingquan; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    The salt-tolerant green microalga Dunaliella salina can survive both hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock. Upon osmotic shock, the cells transiently and rapidly decreased or increased in size within minutes and slowly over hours acquired their original cell size and volume. Cell size distribution differs...... significantly in the cultures grown in the salinity range from 1.5 to 15 % NaCl. By using Nile Red fluorescence to detect neutral lipids, it became clear that only hyper-osmotic shock on cells induced transient neutral lipid appearance in D. salina, while those transferred from 9 to 15 % NaCl stimulated...

  18. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.46 Example Problems Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Presented in this document are tests that exist in the Sierra/SolidMechanics example problem suite, which is a subset of the Sierra/SM regression and performance test suite. These examples showcase common and advanced code capabilities. A wide variety of other regression and verification tests exist in the Sierra/SM test suite that are not included in this manual.

  19. Toxicity and trophic transfer of P25 TiO2 NPs from Dunaliella salina to Artemia salina: Effect of dietary and waterborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Thiagarajan, Vignesh; Nemade, Prateek; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    The recent increase in nanoparticle (P25 TiO 2 NPs) usage has led to concerns regarding their potential implications on environment and human health. The food chain is the central pathway for nanoparticle transfer from lower to high trophic level organisms. The current study relies on the investigation of toxicity and trophic transfer potential of TiO 2 NPs from marine algae Dunaliella salina to marine crustacean Artemia salina. Toxicity was measured in two different modes of exposure such as waterborne (exposure of TiO 2 NPs to Artemia) and dietary exposure (NP-accumulated algal cells are used to feed the Artemia). The toxicity and accumulation of TiO 2 NPs in marine algae D. salina were also studied. Artemia was found to be more sensitive to TiO 2 NPs (48h LC 50 of 4.21mgL -1 ) as compared to marine algae, D. salina (48h LC 50 of 11.35mgL -1 ). The toxicity, uptake, and accumulation of TiO 2 NPs were observed to be more in waterborne exposure as compared to dietary exposure. Waterborne exposure seemed to cause higher ROS production and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity as compared to dietary exposure of TiO 2 NPs in Artemia. There were no observed biomagnification (BMF) and trophic transfer from algae to Artemia through dietary exposure. Histopathological studies confirmed the morphological and internal damages in Artemia. This study reiterates the possible effects of the different modes of exposure on trophic transfer potential of TiO 2 NPs and eventually the consequences on aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sierra toolkit computational mesh conceptual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.

  1. Pseudomonas salina sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Hou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Wang, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium, strain XCD-X85(T), was isolated from Xiaochaidan Lake, a salt lake (salinity 9.9%, w/v) in Qaidam basin, Qinghai province, China. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain XCD-X85(T) were non-endospore-forming rods, 0.4-0.6 μm wide and 1.0-1.6 μm long, and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain XCD-X85(T) was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed in the presence of 0-12.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-2.0%) and at 4-35 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C) and pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.0-8.5). Strain XCD-X85(T) contained (>10%) summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C12 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) as the predominant fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 57.4 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XCD-X85(T) was associated with the genus Pseudomonas, and showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6(T) (99.0%) and Pseudomonas bauzanensis BZ93(T) (96.8%). DNA-DNA relatedness of strain XCD-X85T to P. pelagia JCM 15562(T) was 19 ± 1%. On the basis of the data presented above, it is concluded that strain XCD-X85(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas salina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XCD-X85(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12482(T) = JCM 19469(T)).

  2. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  3. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  4. Salinas de interior en el territorio de la Región de Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gil Guirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La sal es un elemento necesario en la actividad de los grupos humanos. Para su captación y recolección se ha ordenado el territorio, con unos paisajes propios: las salinas. Podemos distinguir dos tipos: las salinas costeras y las salinas de interior. En estas últimas, su localización y explotación está ligada a la presencia de algún material salino que atraviesa el agua. En ellas se pueden distinguir tres áreas, la de captación del agua (generalmente pozos horizontales del tipo minado o galería; la de almacenaje (con balsas y recocederos dónde acumular y calentar; y finalmente la de cristalización (con parcelas más o menos aterrazadas conocidas como eras. A través del estudio combinado del trabajo de campo y la documentación de archivos, hemos podido localizar una veintena de salinas en el interior de la Región de Murcia; huella de una actividad económica y de una cultura del agua entre la variedad de paisajes surestinos.

  5. Dichotomosiphon salina sp. nov. - a new marine algal form from Goa estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Jagtap, T.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    A new species Dichotomosiphon salina sp. of family Vaucheriaceae has been reported from brackish water areas of Goa. The high salinity tolerance of 40 ppt and the variation in size as well as shape of the reproductive organs are the main...

  6. Evaluation of the photodynamic activity of Xanthene Dyes on Artemia salina described by chemometric approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo S. Pellosi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of drugs for photodynamic therapy (PDT is an important area of research due to their growing use in medical applications. Therefore, it is important to develop new bioassay methods for PDT photosensitizers that are inexpensive, easy to handle and highly sensitive to environmental conditions. Xanthene dyes (fluorescein, rose bengal B, erythrosine B and eosin Y with LED light sources were investigated using Artemia salina as a bioindicator of photodynamic activity. In this study, three factors were investigated: (i photosensitizers concentration, (ii the LED irradiation time and (iii the waiting time between the addition of the photosensitizers and the beginning of the irradiation. To analyze the photo-killing of A. salina, it was employed a 23 full factorial design. The death of A. salina was related to dye structure and the interaction between the irradiation time and the photosensitizers concentration. About 60% of crustaceans death was obtained using rose bengal B, which presentes the highest quantum yield of singlet oxygen due to the number of iodide substituents in the xanthenes ring. The proposed bioassay using A. salina, xanthene dyes and LED irradiation was found suitable for quantitative PDT drug evaluation.

  7. Not yet? Ya basta: Healing and the horizons of an otherwise in Salinas, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raschig, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Among a persistently criminalized population of Mexican-Americans in the farmtown-gangland of Salinas, California, healing from the wounds of history has emerged as a critical register of political action, a tacit and uncertain activism recalibrating the pace and tense of personal recoveries and

  8. Antioxidant activity of three microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana clone Tahiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowati, Ita; Zainuri, Muhammad; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermien; Susilowati, Ragil; Hardivillier, Yann; Leignel, Vincent; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Mouget, Jean-Luc

    2017-02-01

    Natural alternatives antioxidant source has become a trending topic in the past decades to replace synthetic antioxidant. Microalgae have been mentioned to show interesting bioactive properties and one of them is its antioxidant activity. This study aims to evaluate the potential of three microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbanaas new source of natural antioxidant. Proximate analysis and total phenolic content of D. salina, T. chuii and I. galbanas were determined. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of these three species prepared in different concentration (50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm) was performed through DPPH assay. I. galbana clone Tahiti demonstrated a highest antioxidant potential with 61.64 of inhibition at 50 ppm followed by D. salina with 58.45 % of inhibition and T. chuii with 52.58 % of inhibition. I. galbana clone Tahiti was the best antioxidant with total phenol content of 17.798 mg GAE g-1 extract at 50 ppm; followed by T. chuii 16.868 mg GAE g-1 extract and the lowest was D. salina with 4.672 mg GAE g-1 extract. Results suggest that these microalgae posses antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements, cosmetics or food industries.

  9. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  10. Rebellion and Agrarian Tensions in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.; Richards, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which customary governance in Sierra Leone can be held responsible for an increasingly unstable two-class agrarian society. A case is made for regarding the civil war (1991–2002) as being an eruption of long-term, entrenched agrarian tensions exacerbated by chiefly

  11. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research (SLJBR) publishes papers in all ... An original article should give sufficient detail of experimental procedures for .... For references cited in a paper which has been accepted for publication but not ...

  12. Rice genetic resources in postwar Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakanda, R.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the

  13. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biotechnology in relation to Medicine, ...

  14. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  15. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 Verification Tests Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2018-03-01

    Presented in this document is a small portion of the tests that exist in the Sierra / SolidMechanics (Sierra / SM) verification test suite. Most of these tests are run nightly with the Sierra / SM code suite, and the results of the test are checked versus the correct analytical result. For each of the tests presented in this document, the test setup, a description of the analytic solution, and comparison of the Sierra / SM code results to the analytic solution is provided. Mesh convergence is also checked on a nightly basis for several of these tests. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems. Additional example problems are provided in the Sierra / SM Example Problems Manual. Note, many other verification tests exist in the Sierra / SM test suite, but have not yet been included in this manual.

  16. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kyu Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  17. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract.

  18. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folgar, S.; Torres, E.; Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l -1 ) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l -1 at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l -1 at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  19. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S.; Calligaro, T.F.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Los Rios, M. de

    2009-01-01

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  20. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina using anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Ting; Park, Stephen Y.; Racharaks, Ratanachat; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina with effluent of anaerobic digestion (AD). • The highest biomass yield was obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. • Lipid content and productivity decreased with increased effluent loading from 3% to 18%. • Biomass productivity increased by up to 49% as harvest ratio increased from 25% to 50%. - Abstract: The biomass and lipid productivities and the nutrient removal capacity of microalgae Nannochloropsis salina grown using anaerobically digested municipal wastewater effluent as a nutrient source were evaluated in this study. Results from bench-scale batch reactors showed that N. salina grew well under 3%, 6%, 12%, and 18% (v/v) anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent loading with the highest growth rate being 0.645 d −1 obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. The growth of N. salina decreased when the effluent loading was increased to 24%. The highest biomass productivity of 92 mg l −1 d −1 was obtained with 6% effluent loading. Three harvesting frequencies (1, 2, and 3 d intervals) and two harvesting ratios (25% and 50%, v/v) were tested in semi-continuous bench-scale reactors with 6% effluent loading. The highest lipid productivity of 38.7 mg l −1 d −1 was achieved with a 2-d harvesting interval and 50% harvesting ratio, where nitrogen and phosphorus were removed at rates of 35.3 mg l −1 d −1 and 3.8 mg l −1 d −1 , respectively. The fatty acid (FA) profile showed that palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) were the major components, accounting for 32.1%, 26%, and 15.7% of the total FAs, respectively

  1. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S

    2003-08-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  2. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  3. Morphological changes about Artemia Salina by the effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Kunova, V; Kratochvil, B.; Salplachta, J.; Benova, K.

    2004-01-01

    Direction Council of Europe require restriction of laboratory vertebrae in biological experiments. Once by possibilities is using biological test II. generation among which belongs to and test for Artemia salina. Still this time published test however value only lethality in dependence on dose, exposition and time survival. This work document possibility watch of expressive morphological changes, which consist in retardation development brine shrimps stage in dependence on dose gamma radiation 60 Co. (authors)

  4. Sierra Madre Oriental in Coahuila, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This desolate landscape is part of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range, on the border between the Coahuila and Nuevo Leon provinces of Mexico. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on November 28, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  5. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.; Puebla-Olivares, F

    2014-01-01

    Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the...

  6. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Phototactic orientation mechanism in the ciliate Fabrea salina, as inferred from numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, R; Preosti, G; Colombetti, G

    2000-02-01

    The marine ciliate Fabrea salina shows a clear positive phototaxis, but the mechanism by which a single cell is able to detect the direction of light and orient its swimming accordingly is still unknown. A simple model of phototaxis is that of a biased random walk, where the bias due to light can affect one or more of the parameters that characterize a random walk, i.e., the mean speed, the frequency distribution of the angles of directional changes and the frequency of directional changes. Since experimental evidence has shown no effect of light on the mean speed of Fabrea salina, we have excluded models depending on this parameter. We have, therefore, investigated the phototactic orientation of Fabrea salina by computer simulation of two simple models, the first where light affects the frequency distribution of the angles of directional changes (model M1) and the second where the light bias modifies the frequency of directional changes (model M2). Simulated M1 cells directly orient their swimming towards the direction of light, regardless of their current swimming orientation; simulated M2 cells, on the contrary, are unable to actively orient their motion, but remain locked along the light direction once they find it by chance. The simulations show that these two orientation models lead to different macroscopic behaviours of the simulated cell populations. By comparing the results of the simulations with the experimental ones, we have found that the phototactic behaviour of real cells is more similar to that of the M2 model.

  8. Almanaques sí, relojes no. La prolongación de la jornada laboral en la agricultura pampeana, de la última dictadura al “boom” sojero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Villulla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los mecanismos económicos y dispositivos discursivos utilizados por las patronales para imponer la prolongación e intensificación de la jornada laboral en la agricultura pampeana, y sus consecuencias sobre las condiciones de trabajo de los obreros rurales luego de la década de 1970. La metodología incluyó la consulta de material bibliográfico especializado; fuentes documentales patronales (archivos de FACMA; sindicales (archivos de la CGT y UATRE; legislación laboral; libros de actas de negociaciones obrero-patronales (CNTA y CAR; material periodístico; y fundamentalmente un acervo testimonial recabado sobre una muestra de 50 obreros rurales y 20 empleadores en una serie de partidos arquetípicos del “boom” sojero de los últimos años en las provincias de Buenos Aires, Santa Fe y Córdoba. El resultado de nuestro análisis invita a incorporar como una de las condiciones de posibilidad para la expansión agrícola reciente al aumento de la explotación del trabajo asalariado

  9. EFECTOS DE EVENTOS EL NIÑO Y LA NIÑA SOBRE LAS LAGUNAS DEL SUR DE LA REGIÓN PAMPEANA (ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Ferrelli

    2017-03-01

    Neste trabalho foram estudados os efeitos do El Niño e da La Niña sobre a distribuição espaço-temporal das precipitações e da água de superfície no sul da Região Pampeana da Argentina. Para tanto, analisaram-se as séries mensais de precipitação com base no método de Quintiles, a tendência central ou normal e o Índice Padronizado de Precipitação. Identificou-se uma relação entre a variabilidade da precipitação com a ocorrência dos eventos El Niño e La Niña. Posteriormente, analisaram-se os impactos dos mesmos sobre a água superficial. Durante um ano seco, o número de corpos d’água maiores do que 2 km2 foi 6 vezes menor que durante um ano úmido. As informações obtidas neste trabalho constituem uma ferramenta que pode contribuir na realização de estudos ambientais e fornecer informações para orientar as políticas de ordenamento sustentável do território. Palavras-chave: Variabilidade Pluviométrica; El Niño; La Niña; Variação das Águas Superficiais.

  10. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Dunaliella (Chlorophyta) from Indian salinas and their diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Dunaliella (Class – Chlorophyceae) is widely studied for its tolerance to extreme habitat conditions, physiological aspects and many biotechnological applications, such as a source of carotenoids and many other bioactive compounds. Biochemical and molecular characterization is very much essential to fully explore the properties and possibilities of the new isolates of Dunaliella. In India, hyper saline lakes and salt pans were reported to bloom with Dunaliella spp. However, except for the economically important D. salina, other species are rarely characterized taxonomically from India. Present study was conducted to describe Dunaliella strains from Indian salinas using a combined morphological, physiological and molecular approach with an aim to have a better understanding on the taxonomy and diversity of this genus from India. Results Comparative phenotypic and genetic studies revealed high level of diversity within the Indian Dunaliella isolates. Species level identification using morphological characteristics clearly delineated two strains of D. salina with considerable β-carotene content (>20 pg/cell). The variation in 18S rRNA gene size, amplified with MA1-MA2 primers, ranged between ~1800 and ~2650 base pairs, and together with the phylogeny based on ITS gene sequence provided a pattern, forming five different groups within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Superficial congruency was observed between ITS and rbcL gene phylogenetic trees with consistent formation of major clades separating Indian isolates into two distinct clusters, one with D. salina and allied strains, and another one with D. viridis and allied strains. Further in both the trees, few isolates showed high level of genetic divergence than reported previously for Dunaliella spp. This indicates the scope of more numbers of clearly defined/unidentified species/sub-species within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Conclusion Present work illustrates Indian Dunaliella strains

  11. Formación de megacristales de feldespato potásico en el sector sur del batolito Cerro Aspero-Alpa Corral (32°40'S y 64°50'W, Sierras Pampeanas, Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L. P.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The surrounding rocks of studied area are composed by a metamorphic sequence which includes gneisses, schists, amphibolites, marbles and heterogeneous migmatites in non-conformity intruded by a granitic pluton. All this sequence is dated as having late-Precambric to mid-Paleozoic age.Three facies, mostly of monzogranitic composition, were identified. This study focuses on the porphiric facies; detailed petroestructural studies being performed, the orientation of large microcline crystal and associated microgranular enclaves being measured.Different primary flow directions were determined with track variation of microcline megacrystal and enclaves from subvertical to nearly horizontal positions.These changes have been interpreted as a convective system within the pluton.The presence of a marked planar fabric in microcline megacrystals along with phenomena such a size-variation of crystal, synneusis, crystal trending at the enclave's border and crystal accumulation, proves their early magmatic origin. The enclaves show a cinematic of deformation produced by simple shear.El entorno encajante de la zona estudiada está integrado por una secuencia metamórfica que incluye gneises, esquistos, anfibolitas, calizas cristalinas y migmatitas heterogéneas, intruidas discordantemente por el plutón granítico. A este conjunto puede asignársele una edad precámbrica superior-paleozoica media.Se identificaron tres facies, en su mayoría de composición monzogranítica, diques micrograníticos a aplíticos y enclaves. En este trabajo se pone énfasis en la facies porfiroide efectuándose estudios petroestructurales de detalle, tomando como indicadores la orientación de los grandes cristales de microclina y enclaves microgranulares asociados.Se determinaron distintas direcciones de flujo primario con variaciones en la trayectoria de los megacristales de microclina y enclaves desde posiciones subverticales hasta aproximadamente horizontales. Estos cambios han sido interpretados como un sistema convectivo dentro del plutón.La presencia de una marcada fábrica planar en los megacristales de microclina, conjuntamente con fenómenos de gradaciones en el tamaño de cristales, sineusis, alineaciones en los bordes de enclaves y aglomeraciones de cristales evidencian su origen temprano magmático. Los enclaves muestran una cinemática de deformación producida por cizalla simple.

  12. Invasive exotic plant species in Sierra Nevada ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla M. D' Antonio; Eric L. Berlow; Karen L. Haubensak

    2004-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada is a topographically and floristically diverse region of the western United States. While it comprises only a fifth of the total land area of California, half of the native plant species in the state occur within the range. In addition, more than 400 plant species are endemic to the Sierra Nevada and many of these are listed as threatened or have...

  13. Biosphere and atmosphere interactions in Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen H. Goldstein

    2004-01-01

    In the Sierra Nevada, studies are being conducted to assess the impacts of both anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbon emissions on regional tropospheric ozone and fine aerosol production. Impacts of ozone deposition and management practices on ecosystem health are also being studied. Human-induced changes in regional air quality have consequences for Sierra Nevada...

  14. Micrometeorological Observations in a Sierra Nevada Meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, D. A.; Oliphant, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mountain meadows play important roles on watershed and ecosystem services, including improving water quality, moderating runoff and providing biodiversity hotspots. In the Sierra Nevada, mountain meadows are an integral part of the mountain ecosystem and watersheds that impact more than 20 million people. Grazing, logging and other forms of anthropogenic land use in the Sierra Nevada have degraded the functioning of meadows, by altering the morphology, hydrology and vegetation. Existing meandering stream networks become incised and straightened by increased runoff, which effectively lowers the water table and completely alters the ecosystem from moist meadow sedges, grasses, and herbs to dryland grass and shrubs. Given the large growth cycle in healthy meadows, it is also expected that they sequester a significant amount of carbon and enhance atmospheric humidity through evapotranspiration, but relatively little work has been done on the bio-micrometeorology of meadows. The purpose of this study is to assess the growing season carbon, water and energy budgets of a partly degraded meadow in the northern Sierra Nevada. Loney Meadow, located at nearly 2,000 m in the Tahoe National Forest, has been identified as a degraded meadow and is scheduled to undergo restoration work to raise the water table in 2017. A micrometeorological tower with eddy covariance instruments was deployed at the site for most of the snow-free period from May to October 2016. The measurements include: fluxes of CO2, water vapor, surface radiation and energy budget components; ancillary meteorological and soil data; and an automated camera capturing daily images of the meadow surface. The poster will present diurnal and seasonal CO2 on a daily basis with a very rapid increase at the onset of the growing season.

  15. El continuo trato con infieles: los renegados de la región pampeana centro-oriental durante el último tercio del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Villar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se considera el caso de los renegados, un conjunto poco numeroso de criollos, mestizos, negros y mulatos voluntariamente instalados entre los grupos indígenas de la región pampeana centro-oriental. Acogidos con flexibilidad por estos últimos, que los incorporaban a su vida y proyectos, los renegados representaron, en cambio, para la administración colonial la figura del traidor por antonomasia, totalmente volcados a auxiliar a los infieles para lo cual previamente debieron apartarse de dios y abandonar al rey, convirtiéndose en seres irredimibles y peligrosos. Una serie de diacríticos que revelaban su singular condición transcultural contribuyeron a aumentar el grado de exposición al riesgoimplicado por su actividad como espías y baqueanos, y al tiempo que facilitaron su identificación y castigo, les confirieron una visibilidad documental que permite reflexionar sobre el contexto de mixegenación cultural 1 en el que sus presencias cobran sentido.The subject matter is the renegadoes, a small group of criollos, mestizos, black men and mulattoes, voluntarily settled among the indigenous groups of the central-west region of the pampas. Received with flexibility by the latter, who incorporated them into their lives and projects, the renegadoes were seen as absolute traitors by the colonial administration since, after abandoning the Christian god and king, they dedicated themselves to helping the unfaithful becoming irredeemable and dangerous beings. A series of diacritics, that revealed their unique transcultural condition, contributed to increase the risk exposure implied by their activities as spies and scouts (baqueanos, facilitating their identification and punishment and also granting them a documentary visibility that allows us to think about the cultural miscegenation context in which their presence became significant.

  16. Sequías agrícolas: recurrencia, clasificación y distribución en la Región Pampeana argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Eugenia Scarpati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las sequías, fenómeno de alta frecuencia en la Región Pampeana (Argentina, se estudian a través de un índice agrometeorológico derivado del balance de agua del suelo, con lo que se presenta un aporte diferente a la bibliografía del tema. Se considera como índice de los eventos, el valor anual del déficit de agua en el suelo. Ellos tienen lugar casi todos los años, si no en la totalidad del territorio, en algún área y espacio temporal. Las consiguientes consecuencias son diversas en su gravedad, pero siempre tienen impactos socioeconómicos. La evolución y distribución de los sucesos acaecidos se analizan y se realiza la correspondiente climatología. En el estudio se han utilizado datos diarios de precipitación del Servicio Meteorológico Nacional del período 1950 – 2010; evapotranspiración potencial media diaria según la fórmula de Penman- Monteith; balance de agua en el suelo considerando las características del suelo obtenidas «in situ»; y la aplicación de los tests estadísticos no paramétricos Mann-Kendall y Sen. Las series anuales del índice agrometeorológico se emplean para clasificar de la severidad de los eventos en leves, moderados, severos y fuertes y se estudia la tendencia para cada localidad y diferentes lapsos de tiempo.

  17. Diversidad y distribución de acridios (Orthoptera: Acridoidea en pastizales del sur de la región pampeana, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Mariottini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los acridios son componentes nativos de los pastizales, dichos sistemas han sido modificados debido a la intensificación de las actividades agrícola-ganaderas y por lo tanto se considera importante estudiar las comunidades de acridios asociadas. Se estudió la diversidad y distribución de acridios en el Sur de la región pampeana a través de muestreos realizados en las comunidades vegetales más representativas del partido de Laprida, provincia de Buenos Aires, durante cinco temporadas (2005-2010. Se recolectaron 22 especies. La subfamilia Melanoplinae fue la más diversa (ocho especies. La mayor cantidad de especies se observó en los pastizales nativos (18. La diversidad en los pastizales alterados (1.75±0.096 fue superior (p<0.05 a la de los pastizales halófilos (1.34±0.12. La riqueza de plantas en los pastizales nativos y los pastizales alterados fue superior (p<0.05 a la de las demás comunidades. Se registro una relación positiva entre la riqueza de plantas y las variables riqueza y diversidad de acridios. La similitud entre las comunidades de acridios estimada por los índices cualitativos fue superior al 60%. En general, las especies que tuvieron una mayor frecuencia de aparición, mostraron una mayor abundancia y distribución. Covasacris pallidinota, Dichroplus elongatus, D. maculipennis, Borellia bruneri y B. pallida fueron las de mayor distribución, cinco especies tuvieron una distribución intermedia y la mayoría (12 una distribución restringida.

  18. A century of plant virus management in the Salinas valley of California, 'East of Eden'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisler, G C; Duffus, J E

    2000-11-01

    The mild climate of the Salinas Valley, CA lends itself well to a diverse agricultural industry. However, the diversity of weeds, crops and insect and fungal vectors also provide favorable conditions for plant virus disease development. This paper considers the incidence and management of several plant viruses that have caused serious epidemics and been significant in the agricultural development of the Salinas Valley during the 20th century. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) almost destroyed the newly established sugarbeet industry soon after its establishment in the 1870s. A combination of resistant varieties, cultural management of beet crops to provide early plant emergence and development, and a highly coordinated beet leafhopper vector scouting and spray programme have achieved adequate control of BCTV. These programmes were first developed by the USDA and still operate. Lettuce mosaic virus was first recognized as causing a serious disease of lettuce crops in the 1930s. The virus is still a threat but it is controlled by a lettuce-free period in December and a seed certification programme that allows only seed lots with less than one infected seed in 30000 to be grown. 'Virus Yellows' is a term used to describe a complex of yellows inducing viruses which affect mainly sugarbeet and lettuce. These viruses include Beet yellows virus and Beet western yellows virus. During the 1950s, the complex caused significant yield losses to susceptible crops in the Salinas Valley. A beet-free period was introduced and is still used for control. The fungus-borne rhizomania disease of sugarbeet caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was first detected in Salinas Valley in 1983. Assumed to have been introduced from Europe, this virus has now become widespread in California wherever beets are grown and crop losses can be as high as 100%. Movement of infested soil and beets accounts for its spread throughout the beet-growing regions of the United States. Control of rhizomania

  19. Setting the conditions for phycoremediation of radionuclide microalgae Dunaliella salina and Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatarova, D.; Galanda, D.; Kuruc, J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation deals with bioremediation using microalgae - by phycoremediation. Microalgae are economically low profile compared to the plants, their cultivation can be carried out in laboratory conditions. They can survive in extreme conditions, they occur in all habitats and have faster growth. Halophilous green D. salina can accumulate heavy metals such as Zn, Cu and Cd. It occurs in hypersaline environment with tolerance (0.2 to 35) % NaCl. It contains high amounts of carotenoids, which protect it against formation of free radicals from UV radiation. Chlorella vulgaris is a representative of eukaryotic green microalgae with the highest chlorophyll content with the appearance in fresh water. Its phycoremediant ability are found in N and P elements, which are used as its nutritional components as well as for Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Au. The experiments were carried out using a peristaltic pump ISMATEC Model: ISM851 (flow rate 2 cm"3 min"-"1) followed by monitoring of time dependence of decrease of activity of the microalgae solutions. For evaluation of the samples was used HPGe gamma spectrometer (measurement time of the samples: 600 sec) from ORTEC Company and measured spectra were evaluated with software GammaVision from ORTEC. The measured results showed that the most effective phycoremediation of microalgae Dunaliella salina toke place in an environment of pH 3, and even more at pH 8. The fact that the D. salina is able of phycoremediation at so acidic pH can contribute to its applications in extreme conditions or in the coastal areas in view of that it is halophilic. At freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was found the best phytoremediation potential in its natural environment at pH of 6. Because this microalgae is freshwater, it may find application in inland or in liquid radioactive waste from nuclear facilities.(authors)

  20. LIPID PRODUCTION BY DUNALIELLA SALINA IN BATCH CULTURE: EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LIMITATION AND LIGHT INTENSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldy, C.S.; Huesemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and may cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2°C to 4°C increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970s but large scale production has remained economically infeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential of the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequent biodiesel production. The lipid production rates under high light and low light as well as nitrogen suffi cient and nitrogen defi cient culture conditions were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  1. Energy-producing electro-flocculation for harvest of Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Meng; Lv, Tao; Chen, Hongjun; Chika, Anthony Okonkwo; Xiang, Changli; Guo, Minxue; Wu, Minghui; Li, Jianjun; Jia, Lishan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, an efficient electro-flocculation process for Dunaliella salina with energy production by aluminum-air battery has been successfully applied. The formed aluminum hydroxide hydrates during discharging of battery were positively charged, which have a great potential for microalgae flocculation. The precipitation of aluminum hydroxide hydrates by algae also could improve the performance of aluminum-air battery. The harvesting efficiency could reach 97% in 20mins with energy production of 0.11kWh/kg. This discharging electro-flocculation (DEF) technology provides a new energy producing process to effectively harvest microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabai; Khin Khin Win Aung; Nwe Ni Thin; Kyi Shwe; Tin Myint Htwe

    2001-01-01

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD 50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  3. Pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in sediments and organisms from Salina Cruz Port, Oaxaca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Villanueva, S.; Diaz, G.; Pica, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence and levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in [sediments and biota from the Port of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca; were evaluated by means of gas capillary chromatography using columns of high resolution. The results show a seasonal variability of the PAH's concentrations in sediments being higher in the port area and lower in oceanic sediments. The increase of the PAH's levels in Crassostrea iridiscens and Penaeus stylirostris is important and related to the bioaccumulation process. The presence of PAH's conformed by 4 y 5 benzene rings in these species must be noted specially because they have carcinogenic properties and their effects on the local fisheries should be considered. (Author)

  4. Fine structure and function of the alimentary epithelium in Artemia salina nauplii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, S R; Conte, F P

    1974-01-01

    The fine structure of the alimentary tract in the second instar nauplius of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been described. The foregut and hindgut of the larva are composed of cuboidal epithelium which is cuticularized. The epithelium of the midgut and gastric caeca is columnar and is characterized by apical microvilli, basal membrane infolds, and abundant mitochondria. The structural characteristics of the midgut cells correlate with previous physiological and biochemical evidence on both adult and larval brine shrimp which indicates that the midgut plays an important role in absorption and osmoregulation in these animals.

  5. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the reserve. We observed a richness of 261 birds species, the family Tyrannidae is the best represented. Of the species recorded, 177 are permanent residents (31 are endemic and 15 are quasi-endemics to Mexico and 73 are migratory; the remaining eleven records have other status. Also 43 species are in endangered categories. We include species that have not been recorded in the lists of the area and records of species expand their ranges at Nayarit. Due to the great diversity of birds observed, it is necesary to continue the research work about habitat use, abundance and monitoring, it will provides the basis for the conservation of birds of Sierra de Vallejo.

  6. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, Southern Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    The Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit covers approximately 7,820 square kilometers (km2) in Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo Counties in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California. The study unit was divided into four study areas—Santa Cruz, Pajaro Valley, Salinas Valley, and Highlands. More than 75 percent of the water used for drinking-water supply in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California is groundwater, and there are more than 8,000 well driller’s logs for domestic wells (California Department of Water Resources, 2013).

  7. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the groundwater basins around Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the highlands adjacent to the Salinas Valley constitute one of the study units.

  8. Feeding adult of Artemia salina (Crustacea-Branchiopoda on the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum (Gymnodiniales and the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out on feeding performance and survival rates of adult Artemia salina exposed to no axenic strains of the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum and of the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. Filtration rates on R. baltica and G. corsicum varied from 3.35 to 7.14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 and from 2.97 to 15.86 ml.artemia-1.h-1, respectively. The ingestion rates observed for A. salina did not indicate any digestive dysfunction or physiological impairment for organisms fed on G. corsicum and their functional response were similar to those observed for other organisms like copepod fed on different food concentrations. Mortality rates oscillated from 2.5% to 100% when A. salina was fed on R. baltica or G. corsicum, respectively. Highest mortality rates observed for organisms fed on G. corsicum indicated that this dinoflagellate presented a hazard effect on A. salina that was not possible to confirm if it was related to toxin production or to nutritive inadequacy of this dinoflagellate as food for organisms of this species.Experimentos foram desenvolvidos para estudar as taxas de alimentação e de sobrevivência de Artemia salina alimentada com cepas não tóxicas do dinoflagelado Gyrodinium corsicum e da Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. As taxas de filtração sobre R. baltica e G. corsicum variaram entre 3,35 e 7,14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 e 2,97 e 15,86 ml.artemia-1.h-, respectivamente. As taxas de ingestão observadas para A. salina não indicaram disfunção digestiva ou prejuízo fisiológico nos organismos alimentados com G. corsicum, sendo a resposta funcional destes organismos similar a observada em copépodos alimentados com diferentes concentrações de alimento. As taxas de mortalidade de A. salina oscilaram entre 2,5 e 100% quando alimentada com R. baltica e G. corsicum, respectivamente. As maiores taxas de mortalidade observadas para os organismos alimentados com G. corsicum indicam que este dinoflagelado apresenta algum efeito

  9. Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahgal Geethaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT] to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC 50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO, 6.4% (methanol, 3.4% (ethanol and 2.5% (Tween 20. The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT.

  10. Cytotoxicity evaluation of gold nanoparticles on microalga Dunaliella salina in microplate test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakov, Daniil; Prilepskii, Artur; Dykman, Lev; Khlebtsov, Boris; Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Bogatyrev, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles are intensively studied in biomedicine. Assessment of their biocompatibility is highly important. Currently there is lack of evidence, concerning nanotoxicity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles < 5 nm. Existing data are rather contradictory. The aim of that study was to evaluate the toxicity of 2 nm colloidal gold, using microalga Dunaliella salina. Cellular barriers of that microalga are very similar to animal cells so it might be considered as a valuable model for nanotoxicity testing. Chlorophyll content as a test-function was used. Spectrophotometric method for chlorophyll determination in vivo in suspensions of D.salina cultures was applied. Calculated EC50 48h value of ionic gold was 25.8 +/- 0.3 mg Au/L. EC50 value of phosphine-stabilized gold nanoclusters was 32.2 +/-1.1 mg Au/L. It was not possible to calculate EC50 for 15 nm citrate gold nanoparticles, as they were non-toxic at all concentrations tested. These results are confirmed by fluorescent -microscopic monitoring of the same probes. It was shown that 10-fold growth of phosphine-stabilized gold nanoparticles (from 2.3 +/- 0.9 nm to 21.1 +/- 7.5 nm) led to 7-fold decrease of their toxicity.

  11. Projected treatment capacity needs in sierra leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard A; MacDonald, Emily; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-30

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa requires immediate and sustained input from the international community in order to curb transmission. The CDC has produced a model that indicates that to end the outbreak by pushing the reproductive number below one, 25% of the patients must be placed in an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETC) and 45% must be isolated in community settings in which risk of disease transmission is reduced and safe burials are provided. In order to provide firmer targets for the international response in Sierra Leone, we estimated the national and international personnel and treatment capacity that may be required to reach these percentages. We developed a compartmental SEIR model that was fitted to WHO data and local data allowing the reproductive number to change every 8 weeks to forecast the progression of the EVD epidemic in Sierra Leone. We used the previously estimated 2.5x correction factor estimated by the CDC to correct for underreporting. Number of personnel required to provide treatment for the predicted number of cases was estimated using UNMEER and UN OCHA requests for resources required to meet the CDC target of 70% isolation. As of today (2014-12-04), we estimate that there are 810 (95% CI=646 to 973) EVD active cases in treatment, with an additional 3751 (95% CI=2778 to 4723) EVD cases unreported and untreated. To reach the CDC targets today, we need 1140 (95% CI=894 to 1387) cases in ETCs and 2052 (95% CI=1608 to 2496) at home or in a community setting with a reduced risk for disease transmission. In 28 days (2015-01-01), we will need 1309 (95% CI=804 to 1814) EVD cases in ETCs and 2356 (95% CI=1447 to 3266) EVD cases at reduced risk of transmission. If the current transmission rate is not reduced, up to 3183 personnel in total will be required in 56 days (2015-01-29) to operate ETCs according to our model. The current outbreak will require massive input from the international community in order to curb the

  12. Evaluation of hydrologic conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 2002-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    A ground-water quality study to define the potential sources and concentration of nitrate in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer was conducted between January 2002 and March 2003. The study area covers about 3,600 hectares of the coastal plain within the municipality of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico, extending from the foothills to the Caribbean Sea. Agriculture is the principal land use and includes cultivation of diverse crops, turf grass, bioengineered crops for seed production, and commercial poultry farms. Ground-water withdrawal in the alluvial fan was estimated to be about 43,500 cubic meters per day, of which 49 percent was withdrawn for agriculture, 42 percent for public supply, and 9 percent for industrial use. Ground-water flow in the study area was primarily to the south and toward a cone of depression within the south-central part of the alluvial fan. The presence of that cone of depression and a smaller one located in the northeastern quadrant of the study area may contribute to the increase in nitrate concentration within a total area of about 545 hectares by 'recycling' ground water used for irrigation of cultivated lands. In an area that covers about 405 hectares near the center of the Salinas alluvial fan, nitrate concentrations increased from 0.9 to 6.7 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 1986 to 8 to 12 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 2002. Principal sources of nitrate in the study area are fertilizers (used in the cultivated farmlands) and poultry farm wastes. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found at poultry farms in the foothills area. In the area of disposed poultry farm wastes, nitrate concentrations in ground water ranged from 25 to 77 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Analyses for the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate were used to distinguish the source of nitrate in the coastal plain alluvial fan aquifer. Potential nitrate loads from areas under cultivation were estimated for the

  13. Interaction of an Introduced Predator with Future Effects of Climate Change in the Recruitment Dynamics of the Imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog (Rana sierrae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Lacan; Kathleen R. Matthews; K.V. Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Between-year variation in snowpack (from 20 to 200% of average) and summer rainfall cause large fluctuations in volume of small lakes in the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada, which are important habitat for the imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog, Rana sierrae. Climate change (global warming) is predicted to increase these...

  14. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  15. Geomagnetic Polarity Epochs: Sierra Nevada II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A; Doell, R R; Dalrymple, G B

    1963-10-18

    Ten new determinations on volcanic extrusions in the Sierra Nevada with potassium-argon ages of 3.1 million years or less indicate that the remanent magnetizations fall into two groups, a normal group in which the remanent magnetization is directed downward and to the north, and a reversed group magnetized up and to the south. Thermomagnetic experiments and mineralogic studies fail to provide an explanation of the opposing polarities in terms of mineralogic control, but rather suggest that the remanent magnetization reflects reversals of the main dipole field of the earth. All available radiometric ages are consistent with this field-reversal hypothesis and indicate that the present normal polarity epoch (N1) as well as the previous reversed epoch (R1) are 0.9 to 1.0 million years long, whereas the previous normal epoch (N2) was at least 25 percent longer.

  16. Sierra Toolkit Manual Version 4.48.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Toolkit Team

    2018-03-01

    This report provides documentation for the SIERRA Toolkit (STK) modules. STK modules are intended to provide infrastructure that assists the development of computational engineering soft- ware such as finite-element analysis applications. STK includes modules for unstructured-mesh data structures, reading/writing mesh files, geometric proximity search, and various utilities. This document contains a chapter for each module, and each chapter contains overview descriptions and usage examples. Usage examples are primarily code listings which are generated from working test programs that are included in the STK code-base. A goal of this approach is to ensure that the usage examples will not fall out of date. This page intentionally left blank.

  17. Assessing unmet anaesthesia need in Sierra Leone: a secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, Connaught Hospital Freetown, Sierra Leone. 3. Department of .... need, is a key part of planning for increasing surgical capacity. Limitations. As noted by Groen et al24 this data .... Emergency and surgery services of ...

  18. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    university hospital in southern Sierra Leone, a total of 66 (4.71±2.52) victims reported having been bitten by snakes in 11 ... social, economic, psychological and health impacts of snakebite ..... Epidemiological profile of snakebite cases from.

  19. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone ... disability associated with venomous snakebites result in lasting .... 1Mean ± Standard Error. 95% Confidence Limit. Community. Self. Reported.

  20. British Military Intervention into Sierra Leone: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberson, Walter G

    2007-01-01

    .... The successful British intervention led to the defeat of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and final peace accords, restored order to a failed state, and allowed the democratic restoration of the government of Sierra Leone...

  1. Population size, survival, growth, and movements of Rana sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Halstead, Brian J.; Link, William

    2013-01-01

    Based on 2431 captures of 757 individual frogs over a 9-yr period, we found that the population of R. sierrae in one meadow–stream complex in Yosemite National Park ranged from an estimated 45 to 115 adult frogs. Rana sierrae at our relatively low elevation site (2200 m) grew at a fast rate (K = 0.73–0.78), had high overwintering survival rates (44.6–95%), lived a long time (up to 16 yr), and tended to be fairly sedentary during the summer (100% minimum convex polygon annual home ranges of 139 m2) but had low year-to-year site fidelity. Even though the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) has been present in the population for at least 13 yr, there was no clear downward trend as might be expected from reports of R. sierrae population declines associated with Bd or from reports of widespread population decline of R. sierrae throughout its range.

  2. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zackary Suleiman

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone ... Case Study ... Peri-operative management of patients with significant cardio-respiratory disease ... contribute to patient safety by preventing any.

  3. Sierra Structural Dynamics User's Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  4. Sierra/SD User's Notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munday, Lynn Brendon; Day, David M.; Bunting, Gregory; Miller, Scott T; Crane, Nathan K

    2018-03-01

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  5. Preliminary flora of the Sierra Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; George M. Ferguson; George Yatskievych; Beatriz E. Loyola-Reina; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; John L. Anderson; Stephen F. Hale; Sky Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra Bacadéhuachi in east-central Sonora is the westernmost mountain range in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), located east of Bacadéhuachi, Municipio de Bacadéhuachi, 34 km east of the Chihuahua border, and 165 km south of the Arizona border. The vegetation ranges from lowland foothills thornscrub up through desert grassland to oak woodland and pine-oak forest...

  6. Effect of mixing rate on Beta-carotene production and extraction by dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Andrysiewicz, E.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    beta-Carotene has many applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries; Dunaliella salina is currently the main source for natural beta-carotene. We have investigated the effect of mixing rate and whether it leads to the facilitated release of beta-carotene from the cells of

  7. Tafonomía sobre asociaciones de vertebrados registradas en trampas fluviales de la Región Pampeana (Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomi, L. H.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new taphonomic mode from a fluvial system developed in channel terraces located at the Pampean Region (Quequén Grande River, Buenos Aires, Argentina associated with natural vertical cavities («marmits». We analyzed a recent (mainly aquatic vertebrate assemblage accumulated in these cavities, which operate as bone traps. Our observations suggest that these traps have accumulated isolated specimens and live or dead complete individuals during high hydric regime (torrential rains. Skeletal part representation indicates that exists a bone selection. We compare the element differential survey with different variables (structural bone density, original representation in a skeleton, size, form and volume, concluding that selection was associated with floating capabilities of missing bones (e.g. vertebrae.Se da a conocer un nuevo modo tafonómico reconocido en un sistema fluvial ubicado en la Región Pampeana (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Éste se encuentra asociado a cavidades verticales (marmitas desarrolladas en terrazas del canal principal del río Quequén Grande. Se estudió una asociación de vertebrados actuales (en su mayoría de hábitos acuáticos acumulados en estas cavidades, las cuales actuaron como trampas para los especímenes. El estudio de la muestra y observaciones realizadas in situ, sugieren que dicha trampa acumuló individuos completos (vivos o muertos y especímenes aislados durante eventos de alto régimen hídrico (lluvias torrenciales. La representación de partes anatómicas indica una selección de elementos. Se comparó la supervivencia diferencial de cada elemento con diferentes variables (densidad ósea estructural, representación original en el esqueleto, tamaño, forma y volumen, concluyendo que la selección observada se produjo por la capacidad de flotación de los elementos ausentes (p. ej., vértebras.

  8. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  9. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  10. INFLUENCIA DE LA SALINIDAD Y LA IRRADIANCIA SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y COMPOSICIÓN BIOQUÍMICA DE UNA NUEVA CEPA DE Dunaliella salina, PROVENIENTE DE LAS SALINAS DE ARAYA, VENEZUELA | INFLUENCE OF SALINITY AND IRRADIANCE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A NEW STRAIN of Dunaliella salina FROM THE ARAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dunaliella salina is a microalga used for the production of metabolites of high industrial and pharmaceutical value. The combined effect of irradiance and salinity on growth, pigment production and biochemical composition of this strain were evaluated in order to contribute to the knowledge of the physiological responses of this new isolate of D. salina from Araya saltworks, to changes in the conditions of its environment. It was aslo intendend to increase the variety of native microalgae species which can serve as sources of bioproduction for bioactive compounds, biomass and metabolites of application in pharmaceuticals and biomedical industries. Batch cultures of the strain of D. salina were conducted for 22 d at f/2 medium Guillard (0.88 mmol.L-1 of nitrogen at 27 ± 2°C, pH 7.8; photoperiod 12 h light: 12 h darkness, continuous aeration (150 mL.L-1 in two salinities (40 and 250 UPS and irradiances (195 and 295 µmolphotons.m-2.s-1. Population growth was evaluated daily and at the end of the trial the contents of biomass, pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and cell size were determined. The growth rate of the new strain of D. salina decreased with increasing salinity and irradiance. However, cell size, biomass, content of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, total carotenoids and β-carotene increased with increasing irradiance and salinity. In addition, the potential of this strain for the production of β-carotene was shown.

  11. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK SPONS Ianthella basta TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sri Sukmarianti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to determine the toxicity of extracts sponge Ianthella basta against Artemia salina larvae and to identify the chemical compounds contained in those toxic isolates. The preliminary test of the anticancer activity has conducted by Brine Shrimp Letalithy (BST test. The results showed that the chloroform extract was the most toxic with LC50 value of 22,39 ppm. Futher, the cloroform extract was separated and purified by coloumn chromatography using eluent of solvent mixture of chloroform : ethyl acetate : n-hexane by 7 : 2 : 1 and 4 fractions were obtained. The most toxic fraction was the fraction C with LC50 value of 35,36 ppm. Based on the GC-MS results, the toxic isolate is allegedly containing chemicals compound of hexadecanoic methyl ester and hexadecanoic acid.

  12. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Beacham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed.

  13. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vivian Bruna Machado; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Batista, Leonia Maria; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica Prof. Delby Fernandes de Medeiros; Silva, Davi Antas e [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides {beta}-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-{beta}-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  14. Storage conditions affect oxidative stability and nutritional composition of freeze-dried Nannochloropsis salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Langvad, Sten; Møller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0–56 days), storage temperature (5, 20,and 40...... °C and packaging conditions (under vacuum and ambient pressure)used as main factors. During the 56 days of storage, both time and temperature strongly influenced the oxidation reactions which result in deterioration of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and EPA. Lipid deterioration......, or cosmetics requires the knowledge of the optimum storage conditions to prevent the value-added compounds from deterioration. Results of this study improve our understanding of the chemical deterioration under different storage conditions and can help the producers/customers to extend the shelf life...

  15. Preliminary results of the Artemia salina experiments in biostack on LDEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graul, E.H.; Ruether, W.; Hiendl, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    The mosaic egg of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, resting in blastula or gastrula state represents a system that during further development, proceeds without any further development to the larval stage, the free swimming nauplius. Therefore, injury to a single cell of the egg will be manifest in the larvae. In several experiments, it was shown that the passage of a single heavy ion through the shrimp egg damaged a cellular area large enough to disturb either embryogenesis or further development of the larvae, or the integrity of the adult individual. Emergence from the egg shell was heavily disturbed by the heavy ions as was hatching. Additional late effects, due to a hit by a heavy ion, are delayed of growth and of sexual maturity, and reduced fertility. Anomalies in the body and the extremities could be observed more frequently for the nauplii which had developed from eggs hit by heavy ions

  16. Metabolic studies with NMR spectroscopy of the alga Dunaliella salina trapped within agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bental, M; Pick, U; Avron, M; Degani, H

    1990-02-22

    A technique for the entrapment of the unicellular algae Dunaliella salina in agarose beads and their perfusion during NMR measurements is presented. The trapped cells maintained their ability to proliferate under normal growth conditions, and remained viable and stable under steady-state conditions for long periods during NMR measurements. Following osmotic shock in the dark, prominent changes were observed in the intracellular level of ATP and polyphosphates, but little to no changes in the intracellular pH or orthoposphate content. When cells were subjected to hyperosmotic shock, the ATP level decreased. The content of NMR-visible polyphosphates decreased as well, presumably due to the production of longer, NMR-invisible structures. Following hypoosmotic shock, the ATP content increased and longer polyphosphates were broken down to shorter, more mobile polymers.

  17. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vivian Bruna Machado; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Batista, Leonia Maria; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Silva, Davi Antas e

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides β-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, 1 H and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  18. Spatial scale and the diversity of benthic cyanobacteria and diatoms in a salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, U.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Kühl, Michael

    1999-01-01

    We characterized the richness of benthic cyanobacteria and diatoms in a salina system using traditional and molecular biological methods. After determining the different morphotypes and 16S rRNA genes present in various localities within this hypersaline system, an analysis of the increase......, and for the estimation of the average degree of dissemination of community members within the system. We found interesting differences between analyses based on morphotypes or 16S rRNA genes. The cumulative number of rRNA gene sequences exceeded that of morphotypes by more than two-fold. This indicates that many...... organisms possessing distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences could not be distinguished on the basis of morphology. Thus, some of the apparently widely distributed morphotypes may in fact conceal several ecologically independent genotypes....

  19. Contaminant studies in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Several species of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are experiencing severe population declines in even seemingly pristine areas of the Sierra Mountains of California. Among the most severely depressed species are the redlegged frog, the foothill and mountain yellow-legged frogs, the Yosemite toad, and the Cascades frog. Several factors, such as habitat fragmentation, introduced predators (especially fish), and disease, have been linked to these declines. But recent evidence from a USGS-led study shows that contaminants are a primary factor. During the past three years, researchers from the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, the Western Ecology Research Center, the USDA Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, and the Texas A&M University have teamed up to conduct an extensive study on airborne pesticides and their effects on amphibian populations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Previous work on environmental chemistry demonstrated that pesticides from the intensely agricultural Central Valley of California are being blown into the more pristine Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially around Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks. Several pesticides, including diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion and endosulfan, can be measured in snow, rainfall, and pond waters in these national parks. With the exception of endosulfan, these pesticides affect and even kill both invertebrates and vertebrate species by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme essential to proper nervous system functioning. In the summer of 2001, we published a paper showing that these same pesticides are now found in adults and the tadpoles of Pacific treefrogs. The results of this landmark study showed that more than 50 percent of the tadpoles and adults sampled in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks had detectable levels of diazinon or chlorpyrifos and that 86 percent of the Pacific treefrogs sampled in the Lake Tahoe region had detectable levels of endosulfan. In contrast, frogs that were

  20. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.

  1. Depositional environment, sand provenance, and diagenesis of the Basal Salina Formation (lower Eocene), northwestern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Carozzi, A. V.

    The Basal Salina Formation is a lower Eocene transgressive sequence consisting of interbedded shales, siltstones, and conglomeratic sandstones. This formation occurs in the Talara basin of northwestern Peru and is one of a series of complexly faulted hydrocarbon-producing formations within this extensional forearc basin. These sediments were probably deposited in a fan-delta complex that developed along the ancestral Amotape Mountains during the early Eocene. Most of the sediment was derived from the low-grade metamorphic and plutonic rocks that comprise the Amotape Mountains, and their sedimentary cover. Detrital modes of these sandstones reflect the complex tectonic history of the area, rather than the overall forearc setting. Unlike most forearc sediments, these are highly quartzose, with only minor percentages of volcanic detritus. This sand is variably indurated and cemented by chlorite, quartz, calcite, and kaolinite. Clay-mineral matrix assemblages show gradational changes with depth, from primarily detrital kaolinite to diagenetic chlorite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Basal Salina sandstones exhibit a paragenetic sequence that may be tied to early meteoric influx or late-stage influx of thermally driven brines associated with hydrocarbon migration. Much of the porosity is secondary, resulting from a first-stage dissolution of silicic constituents (volcanic lithic fragments, feldspar, and fibrous quartz) and a later dissolution of surrounding carbonate cement. Types of pores include skeletal grains, grain molds, elongate pores, and fracture porosity. Measured porosity values range up to 24% and coarser samples tend to be more porous. Permeability is enhanced by fractures and deterred by clay-mineral cements and alteration residues.

  2. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera. Rotifers are an important live feed for first feeding larvae of many fish species. The use of concentrated algae cells in the mass culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Brachionidae has opened new horizons for research on this organism. Pastes of Rhodomonas salina (Pyrenomonadaceae obtained either by centrifugation or flocculation with chitosan were preserved, with or without vitamin C, at -20°C for four weeks and were evaluated

  3. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  4. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  5. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Hass, Michael Z.; Møller, Per

    2016-01-01

    salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality...... of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scaleusing a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large...... after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark.The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good...

  6. Analysis of impact of temperature and saltwater on Nannochloropsis salina bio-oil production by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguineti, Michael Mario; Hourani, Nadim; Witt, Matthí as; Sarathy, Mani; Thomsen, Laurenz A.; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated Nannochloropsis salina paste was reconstituted in distilled water and synthetic saltwater and processed at 250°C and 300°C via hydrothermal liquefaction. The resulting bio-oils yielded a diverse distribution of product classes

  7. Variabilidad morfométrica dental en muestras arqueológicas tardías del sudeste de la región pampeana y noreste de Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal, Valeria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, se ha postulado la ocurrencia de un proceso de expansión demográfico y geográfico de las poblaciones del norte de Patagonia durante el Holoceno tardío, con posterioridad a la denominada Anomalía Climática Medieval (ca. 800 - 1350 AD. En el marco del proyecto "La Dinámica Evolutiva de Poblaciones y Metapoblaciones Humanas en las Regiones Pampeana y Patagónica (33°- 52° Lat. Sur durante el Holoceno Tardío" (Subsidio de Inicio de Carrera Fundación Antorchas Nº 14116-111 se están desarrollando estudios orientados a analizar la variación morfológica craneal y postcraneal de las poblaciones humanas de ambas regiones, con el fin de discutir la dinámica poblacional durante el Holoceno tardío. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la variabilidad morfométrica dental de muestras diacrónicas procedentes del SE de la Región Pampeana y NE de Patagonia (v.g. valles de los ríos Chubut y Negro, litoral atlántico sudbonaerense. Las variables consideradas incluyen diámetros mesiodistales y bucolinguales sobre la corona dental y el margen cervical, medidos sobre piezas dentales permanentes. Los resultados obtenidos mediante el empleo de test estadísticos uni y multivariados, serán discutidos con relación al resto de la evidencia morfológica actualmente disponible para ambas regiones.

  8. Prospecção fitoquímica de Sonchus oleraceus e sua toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina Phytochemical prospecting of Sonchus oleraceus and its toxicity to Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Lima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Sonchus oleraceus é uma planta daninha presente em diversas culturas no Brasil e de utilização na medicina popular. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a prospecção fitoquímica dessa espécie com extratos em etanol, água e diclorometano, bem como testes de toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina. O extrato aquoso apresentou em sua composição açúcares redutores, compostos fenólicos, taninos, flavonóides e cumarinas. No extrato etanólico, observaram-se os mesmos compostos qualificados no extrato aquoso, com exceção de cumarinas. Em diclorometano, verificou se a presença de saponinas, derivados triterpênicos e esteróides. No teste de toxicidade sobre Artemia salina, os dados convergiram para frações de extrato aquoso de 5.117,2 ppm, indicando ser um extrato de baixa toxicidade.Sonchus oleraceus is a common weed in Brazil, also used as a medicinal plant. Phytochemical prospecting of this species was carried out in this work using extracts obtained in ethanol, water and dichloromethane. A toxicity study of the aqueous extract was also conducted, using the micro crustaceous Artemia salina. The aqueous extract presented sugar reducers, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and coumarins in its composition. The compounds found in the aqueous extract were also detected in the ethanol extract, except for the coumarins. Saponin, triterpenes and steroids were identified in the dichloromethane extract. The toxicity test on Artemia salina pointed to aqueous extract fractions of 5,117.2 ppm, indicative of low toxicity.

  9. Evolución paleoambiental de la transición glacial-postglacial en la Formación Agua Colorada (Grupo Paganzo, Carbonífero, Sierra de Narváez, NO argentino Palaeoenvironmental evolution of the glacial-postglacial transition in the Agua Colorada Formation (Paganzo Group, Carboniferous, Sierra de Narváez, NW Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O Limarino

    2010-01-01

    ón postglacial, entre el Sistema del Famatina, la Precordillera y las Sierras Pampeanas.The Carboniferous sequences (lower section of the Paganzo Group outcroping in the central part of the Sierra de Narváez (Las Angosturas area, northwestern Argentina are described in this paper. From the regional point of view, two major Carboniferous sequences have been identified. Firstly, diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones, carbonaceous mudstones and thin coal beds that were included in the Agua Colorada Formation. A second group comprises monotonous sequences of shales and interstratified mudstones and sandstones which were excluded from the Agua Colorada Formation and identified with the informal ñame of 'Marine Late Paleozoic rocks'. Sedimentological characteristics of the Agua Colorada Formation allow recognizing seven facies associations in the Angosturas area: 1. monomictic diamictites; 2. polymictic diamictites and conglomerates; 3. shale-sandstone cycles; 4. dark shales; 5. greenish monomictic conglomerates; 6. channelised polymictic conglomerates and 7. coarse-grained sandstones, shales and thin coal beds. Facies associations 1 and 2, including both massive and rese-dimented diamictites, are interpreted as related to the well known Namurian gondwanic glacial event in western basins of Argentina. Facies associations 3,4 and 5 record the evolution of a fjord environment formed as a consequence of the postglacial transgression (the so-called Namurian postglacial transgression that flooded glacial valleys in the major part of the Paganzo Basin. A regional relative sea level fall marked by a regional incisión surface occurred at the base of facies association 6, and the fjord environment was sharply replaced by fluvial sedimentation (facies associations 6 and 7. A regional correlation model, based on the postglacial transgression key level, among the Sistema del Famatina, Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas is proposed.

  10. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully

  11. SIERRA - A 3-D device simulator for reliability modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jue-Hsien; Arledge, Lawrence A., Jr.; Yang, Ping; Maeda, John T.

    1989-05-01

    SIERRA is a three-dimensional general-purpose semiconductor-device simulation program which serves as a foundation for investigating integrated-circuit (IC) device and reliability issues. This program solves the Poisson and continuity equations in silicon under dc, transient, and small-signal conditions. Executing on a vector/parallel minisupercomputer, SIERRA utilizes a matrix solver which uses an incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioned conjugate gradient square (CGS, BCG) method. The ILU-CGS method provides a good compromise between memory size and convergence rate. The authors have observed a 5x to 7x speedup over standard direct methods in simulations of transient problems containing highly coupled Poisson and continuity equations such as those found in reliability-oriented simulations. The application of SIERRA to parasitic CMOS latchup and dynamic random-access memory single-event-upset studies is described.

  12. Different strategies of osmoadaptation in the closely related marine myxobacteria Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Moghaddam, Jamshid; Boehringer, Nils; Burdziak, Amal; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Galinski, Erwin A; Schäberle, Till F

    2016-02-03

    Only a few myxobacteria are known to date which are classified as marine due to their salt-dependency. In this study, the salt tolerance mechanism of these bacteria was investigated. Therefore, a growth medium was designed, in which the mutated Escherichia coli strain BKA13 served as sole food source for the predatory, heterotrophic myxobacteria. This enabled measurement of the osmolytes without any background and revealed that the closely related strains Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1 developed different strategies to handle salt stress. P. pacifica SIR-1, which was grown between 1-4 % NaCl, relies solely on the accumulation of amino acids, while E. salina SWB007, which was grown between 0.5-3 % NaCl, employs, beside betaine, hydroxyectoine as the major compatible solute. In accordance with this analysis, only in the latter strain a gene locus was identified which codes for genes corresponding to the biosynthesis of betaine, ectoine, and hydroxyectoine.

  13. Biotechnological potential of Synechocystis salina co-cultures with selected microalgae and cyanobacteria: Nutrients removal, biomass and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana L; Pires, José C M; Simões, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria has been the focus of several research studies worldwide, due to the huge biotechnological potential of these photosynthetic microorganisms. However, production of these microorganisms is still not economically viable. One possible alternative to improve the economic feasibility of the process is the use of consortia between microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Microcystis aeruginosa were co-cultivated with Synechocystis salina to evaluate how dual-species cultures can influence biomass and lipid production and nutrients removal. Results have shown that the three studied consortia achieved higher biomass productivities than the individual cultures. Additionally, nitrogen and phosphorus consumption rates by the consortia provided final concentrations below the values established by European Union legislation for these nutrients. In the case of lipid productivities, higher values were determined when S. salina was co-cultivated with P. subcapitata and M. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Approaches about prescriptions and corporal practices in schools in Pirapora, Januária and Salinas (1906-1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISÂNGELA CHAVES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the proposal of the corporal education in schools in the north of Minas Gerais during 1906 and 1927, especially in Pirapora, januária and Salinas. As main source, the research made use of oral reports and other documents directly related to school memory to understand how physical activities were realized as habit and attitude-forming, in a historic moment in which Brazil used to cherish the modernizing speech.

  15. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga,Pablo; Pérez,Karen R.; Cruz,Sully M.; Cáceres,Armando

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  16. 97 Etude éco-biologique d'Artémia salina des zones humides de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grenelle

    l'aviculture de poissons marins [1]. En Algérie, les travaux effectués sur ce crustacé sont relativement rares. Dans le présent ..... dépassent pour certains les normes établies par l'OMS, ce qui peut provoquer le comportement et la dynamique de la reproduction de l'Artémia salina, sans oublier aussi l'action anthropique qui ...

  17. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  18. Sierra/Aria 4.48 Verification Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal Fluid Development Team

    2018-04-01

    Presented in this document is a portion of the tests that exist in the Sierra Thermal/Fluids verification test suite. Each of these tests is run nightly with the Sierra/TF code suite and the results of the test checked under mesh refinement against the correct analytic result. For each of the tests presented in this document the test setup, derivation of the analytic solution, and comparison of the code results to the analytic solution is provided. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems.

  19. Desenvolvimento de mudas de pinhão-manso irrigadas com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Santos Matos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na irrigação torna-se importante alternativa diante daescassez de água de boa qualidade em todo o mundo. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L. possui baixa exigência hídrica, sobrevive e apresenta produção satisfatória em solos de baixa fertilidade. No entanto, a sua produção é maior em cultivos irrigados, o que reforça a necessidade de desenvolvimento de pesquisas para uso de água salina. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação nas características morfofisiológicas de mudas de pinhão-manso. Para isso, foi conduzido experimento em casa de vegetação com interceptação de 50 % da radiação solar, localizada na Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Ipameri, Goiás. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos com capacidade de 4 L de solo, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. As plantas foram irrigadas diariamente com 150 mL de água não salina, durante os 30 primeiros dias após a germinação das sementes. Do 31º ao 50º dia, as plantas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos: plantas diariamente irrigadas com água de condutividade elétrica igual a 0,5; 8; 16 e 24 dS m-1. Aos 50 dias após a germinação, analisaram-se as seguintes características nas mudas de pinhão-manso: número de folhas; altura de planta; diâmetro de ramo; teor relativo de água; área foliar; clorofila total; razões de massa radicular, massa caulinar, massa foliar e parte aérea/sistema radicular; e biomassa total. Os resultados evidenciaram que as mudas de pinhão-manso irrigadas com água de condutividade elétrica 8 dS m-1 não apresentaram redução do crescimento vegetativo. Todavia, a água de irrigação com condutividade elétrica 16 dS m-1 causou redução no crescimento vegetativo e elevou a senescência e abscisão foliar. Água com condutividade elétrica elétrica de pinhão-manso na fase de mudas.

  20. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Phillips, B.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River

  1. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, B.M. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hunt, J.W. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Connor, V. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Richard, N. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Tjeerdema, R.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River.

  2. Primary Screening of the Bioactivity of Brackishwater Cyanobacteria: Toxicity of Crude Extracts to Artemia salina Larvae and Paracentrotus lividus Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana R. Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microalgae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of benthic and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria isolated from estuarine environments, towards the nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The A. salina lethality test was used as a frontline screen and then complemented by the more specific sea urchin embryo-larval assay. Eighteen cyanobacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Nodularia, Nostoc and Synechocystis, were tested. Aqueous extracts of cyanobacteria strains showed potent toxicity against A. salina, whereas in P. lividus, methanolic and aqueous extracts showed embryo toxicity, with clear effects on development during early stages. The results suggest that the brackishwater cyanobacteria are producers of bioactive compounds with toxicological effects that may interfere with the dynamics of invertebrate populations.

  3. Metabolic responses and β-carotene production by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina exposed to leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Einali

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus and elderberry ( Sambucus ebulus leaves on β-carotene productivity in Dunaliella salina, a green microalga. Leaf extracts from eucalyptus have greater amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as greater ferric reducing antioxidant potential than elderberry. The extracts of both species greatly inhibited growth of algal suspensions. However, chlorophyll and β-carotene concentration increased in cells treated with leaf extracts, and the highest values were detected in 1 % eucalyptus and 2 % elderberry extracts. Fresh weight, total sugar, and protein content significantly increased following exposure of cells to different doses of leaf extracts. However, in doses containing more than 2 % eucalyptus, the upward trend for total sugar and protein ceased and remained statistically unchanged. These results suggest that metabolic modifications enable D. salina cells to tolerate the stress induced by the leaf extracts through allocating carbon flux to the synthesis of osmolytes and putative antioxidant molecules (e.g. sugars and β-carotene. Therefore, the use of leaf extracts holds potential to be a promising and effective way to improve D. salina cultivation for β-carotene production and other biotechnological and industrial applications.

  4. [Immunocytochemical studies on the phase of differentiation of hatching gland cells in brine shrimp, Artemia salina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Fan, Ting Jun; Wang, Xiao Feng; Cong, Ri Shan; Yu, Qiu Tao; Zhong, Qi Wang

    2004-04-01

    Hatching enzyme (HE), synthesized in hatching gland cells (HGCs), plays vital roles in animal hatching. Immunocytochemical techniques employing anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum, prepared from Xenopus HE and with specificity to brine shrimp HE, were first used to investigate the differentiation and variability of hatching gland cells (HGCs) in the hatching process of embryos of brine shrimp, Artemia salina, in this study. HGCs with immunoreactivity to anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum were identified, for the first time, in brine shrimp embryos during hatching process. Immunocytochemical staining results showed that, (1) HE-positive immunoreactivity is really specific to Artemia HE, and its appearance and disappearance are closely correlated with the hatching process of Artemia salina. (2) Artemia HGCs, first appeared in embryos 5 hours before hatching and disappeared 4 hours after hatching, were also a transient type of cells, with an existence period of 9 hours. (3) The head portion of Artemia embryo is probably the initial position of HE secretion, and likely to be the main position of HE secretion as well. The detailed process and mechanism need to be studied. (4) The appearance of HGCs is in a synchronous mode from places all over the embryos, and their disappearance is also in a synchronous mode. (5) The number of HGCs increased gradually along with embryo development process and reached a maximum number at hatching. Contrarily, the number of HGCs decreased gradually after hatching, and HGCs disappeared 5 hours after hatching. However, the intensity of HE-positive reaction was almost at the same level at the period of HGCs'presence. (6) Artemia HGCs were distributed throughout the body of embryos at all time during their presence. Therefore, it can concluded that Artemia HGCs, as a transient type of cells, first appeared in embryos 4 hours before hatching and disappeared in embryos 5 hours after hatching, and with distinguished patterns of appearance, disappearance and

  5. Effect of salinity on metal mobility in Sečovlje salina sediment (northern Adriatic, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, N.; Ramšak, T.; Glavaš, N.; Dolenec, M.; Rogan Šmuc, N.

    2016-12-01

    Saline sediment (saline healing mud or "fango") from the Sečovlje Salina (northern Adriatic, Slovenia) is traditionally used in the coastal health resorts as a virgin material for medical treatment, wellness and relax purposes. Therapeutic qualities of the healing mud depend on its mineralogical composition and physical, mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties. Their microbial and potentially toxic elements contamination are the most important features affecting user safety. However, the degree of metal toxicity (and its regulation) for natural healing mud is still under discussion. Therefore, the influence of the overlying water salinity on the mobility of heavy metals (and some other geochemical characteristic) was studied for saline sediments of the Sečovlje Salina. Experiments takes place in tanks under defined conditions i.e. at day (21 °C): night (16 °C) cycle for three months. Sediment was covered with water of different salinities (36, 155, 323 g NaCl L-1 and distillate water) and mixed/stirred every week during the experimental period. At the same time, the evaporated water was replaced with distilled water. The mud samples were analyzed, at the beginning and at the end of experiment, for mineral (XRD), elemental composition (ICP-MS) and organic content (% TOC, % TN). Geochemical analysis of the aqueous phase (content of cations and anions) have also been carried out in an accredited Canadian laboratory Actlabs (Activation Laboratories, Canada). Salinity and maturation of sediment does not significantly affect its mineral composition. The samples taken at the end of the experiment have higher percent of water but lower organic carbon concentration. Concentrations of investigated elements are comparable to that in surface sediments from Central Adriatic Sea. In the water phase, concentrations of most elements (As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ni, Sr, Sb) rise from the beginning to the end of the experiment, whereas the metal (potentially toxic elements

  6. Comparison of preliminary herpetofaunas of the Sierras la Madera (Oposura) and Bacadehuachi with the mainland Sierra Madre Occidental in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Erik F. Enderson; Dale S. Turner; Roberto A. Villa; Stephen F. Hale; George M. Ferguson; Charles. Hedgcock

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles were observed in the Sierra La Madera (59 species), an isolated Sky Island mountain range, and the Sierra Bacadéhuachi (30 species), the westernmost mountain range in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) range in east-central Sonora. These preliminary herpetofaunas were compared with the herpetofauna of the Yécora area in eastern Sonora in the main...

  7. Petrología y análisis geométrico y tectónico de las milonitas de la Sierra de Copacabaña, provincia de Catamarca, República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, J. P.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A petrographic and structural study of units from Copacabana Range in the Northwestern Pampean Ranges is presented. Two facies of deformed granitoids were recognized. Rocks of both facies are classificated as mylonite schists, mylonite gneisses and protomylonites. First would have formed at temperature of 3500 C and 15 km of deep. Protomylonite would have formed at lower temperatures and deeps. Undeformed granitoids and ortogneis are also descript.Structural data and the analysis of some kinematic indicators suggest that a main shear plane strikes NNW, inclined to the east, with vergence to the west. Geometric analysis, realized in base to petrographic diagrams of c-axis of quartz and mica cleavage suggest an orthorhombic fabric.Se realiza un estudio petrológico estructural de las unidades que componen el extremo septentrional de la Sierra de Copacabana, que se localiza en el ámbito de las Sierras Pampeanas Noroccidentales. Entre éstas se reconocen dos épocas de deformación de los granitoides; de acuerdo a la clasificación de Higgins (1971 corresponden a esquistos miloníticos, gneises miloníticos y protomilonitas. Los primeros se habrían formado a temperaturas superiores a los 3500 C y a profundidades de unos 15 km, bajo un régimen cuasi plástico de deformación, mientras que las condiciones de formación de las protomilonitas corresponden a una zona de transición elástico-friccional a cuasiplástico, a temperaturas y profundidades algo menores.Además se describe también la facies granítica no deformada, que se halla en contacto neto con las anteriores y un ortogneis que representa la roca de caja en la que se instruyeron los granitoides.Los datos estructurales y observaciones de indicadores cinemáticos sugieren un plano de cizalla principal de rumbo NNW e inclinación al este, cuyo movimiento relativo es de carácter inverso, produciendo un cabalgamiento con vergencia al W. El análisis geométrico de diagramas petrof

  8. Comparison of the tropical floras of the Sierra la Madera and the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; Melissa Valenzuela-Yanez; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; Hugo Silva-Kurumiya

    2013-01-01

    The floras of the tropical vegetation in the Sky Island Sierra la Madera (SMA) near Moctezuma in northeastern Sonora (30°00’N 109°18’W) and the Yécora (YEC) area in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) in eastern Sonora (28°25’N 109°15”W) were compared. The areas are 175 km apart. Tropical vegetation includes foothills thornscrub (FTS) in both areas and tropical deciduous...

  9. Sierra/Solid Mechanics 4.48 User's Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merewether, Mark Thomas; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Gampert, Scott; Xavier, Patrick G.; Plews, Julia A.

    2018-03-01

    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for finite element analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic, implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models with extensive contact subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and a large library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments enabling scalable solutions of extremely large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which facilitates coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input syntax for Sierra/SM.

  10. Sierra/solid mechanics 4.22 user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jesse David

    2011-10-01

    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for the analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic and implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and an extensive library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments, and it allows for scalable solutions of very large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which allows for coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input structure for Sierra/SM.

  11. Un carnaval para el yo lésbico: Los cuentos de Gilda Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Madrigal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilda Salinas rompe las unidades cuentísticas tradicionales al hacer de cada texto de Del destete al desempance. Cuentos lésbicos y un colado un episodio en la vida de una lesbiana que, con “voz propia”, narra sus peripecias nocturnas por la ciudad de México, de los años setenta a la actualidad. Al ubicar las acciones en sitios de diversión lésbica que no existen más, la voz, cual cronista, rescata un ámbito de la vida homosexual a la vez que fija bromas y códigos lingüísticos que por su origen oral hubieran corrido el riesgo de perderse con las generaciones que los animaron. Sus estrategias carnavalizan el tema lésbico a la vez que legitiman la validez de las búsquedas expresivas y de comportamiento del ser lesbiana en un tiempo y en un lugar. Su aportación en los planos del género literario y de la formación de constantes en la narrativa homosexual mexicana indudablemente enriquece los medios expresivos, la visibilidad, la diversidad, las vidas y las historias de la y las lesbianas.

  12. Geology of the Delta, Escalante, Price, Richfield, and Salina 10 x 20 quadrangles, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, P.A.

    1981-11-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was established to evaluate domestic uranium resources in the continental United States and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. The Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy is responsible for administering the program. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is responsible for hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) of 3.9 million km 2 (1,500,000 mi 2 ) in 37 eastern and western states. This document provides geologic and mineral resources reports for the Delta, Escalante, Price, Richfield, and Salina 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series quadrangles, Utah. The purpose of these reports is to provide background geologic and mineral resources information to aid in the interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance data. Except for the Escalante Quadrangle, each report is accompanied by a geologic map and a mineral locality map (Plates 1-8, in pocket). The US Geological Survey previously published a 1 0 x 2 0 geologic map of the Escalante Quadrangle and described the uranium deposits in the area (Hackman and Wyant, 1973). NURE hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data for these quadrangles have been issued previously in some of the reports included in the references

  13. Bicarbonate-based cultivation of Dunaliella salina for enhancing carbon utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Heo, Jina; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, bicarbonate was proposed as an alternative carbon source to overcome exceedingly low CO 2 fixation efficiency of conventional microalgae cultivation system. 5gL -1 of sodium bicarbonate was found to well support the growth of Dunaliella salina, showing 2.84-fold higher specific growth rate than a bicarbonate-free control. This bicarbonate-fed cultivation also could yield biomass productivity similar to that of CO 2 -based system as long as pH was controlled. While the supplied CO 2 , because of its being a gas, was mostly lost and only 3.59% of it was used for biomass synthesis, bicarbonate was effectively incorporated into the biomass with 91.40% of carbon utilization efficiency. This study showed that the bicarbonate-based microalgae cultivation is indeed possible, and can even become a truly environment-friendly and workable approach, provided that a CO 2 mineralization technology is concomitantly established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  15. Variabilidade sazonal dos constituintes da própolis vermelha e bioatividade em Artermia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio César Cunha Nunes

    Full Text Available A própolis é uma substância resinosa coletada pelas abelhas de diversas partes das plantas. Sua composição depende da época, vegetação e local de coleta. Apresenta diversas atividades biológicas como antimicrobiana, antioxidante, antitumoral, dentre outras. Foi realizado estudo da variabilidade sazonal, nos meses de fevereiro, junho e outubro de 2006, dos constituintes voláteis da própolis vermelha de Pernambuco através da extração por headspace dinâmico e identificação por cromatografia gasosa acoplada com espectrometria de massas (CG-EM. Foram identificados 34 constituintes voláteis, sendo monoterpenos e monoterpenóides, sesquiterpenos e sesquiterpenóides, fenilpropanóides, aldeídos, cetonas e η-alcanos. Os constituintes majoritários foram o trans-anetol, α-copaeno e o metil cis-isoeugenol. Também foi realizado o perfil fitoquímico por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD, através da qual os constituintes fenólicos foram identificados como majoritários. Com o extrato bruto metanólico da própolis, realizou-se o ensaio de letalidade em Artemia salina, que demonstrou DL50 de 18,9 µg/mL, sugerindo uma possível atividade antitumoral.

  16. Obtención de glicerol a partir de la Microalga Dunaliella Salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisethy Hernández Nazario

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available En el campo de la tecnología farmacéutica, el glicerol es un disolvente ampliamente utilizado en virtud de sus propiedades físico-químicas en la formulación de diferentes formas farmacéuticas. Se investigaron las posibilidades de obtención de glicerol como un subproducto del proceso de extracción de ß-carotenos a partir de cultivos de Dunaliella salina, desarrollados bajo régimen autotrófico en el Centro de Investigaciones de Energía Solar. El flujo tecnológico propuesto comprende el tratamiento de la biomasa con hidróxido de calcio, la filtración del producto resultante, la extracción del ß-carotenos con un solvente insoluble en agua y, por último, la separación del glicerol neutralizando convenientemente del filtrado con ácido. El rendimiento de glicerol fue del 4-5 %, valor susceptible de ser incrementado mediante la inducción metabólica de los cultivos.

  17. Rainfall leaching is critical for long-term use of recycled water in the Salinas Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda E. Platts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, Monterey County Water Recycling Projects began delivering water to 12,000 acres in the northern Salinas Valley. Two years later, an ongoing study began assessing the effects of the recycled water on soil salinity. Eight sites are receiving recycled water and a control site is receiving only well water. In data collected from 2000 to 2012, soil salinity of the 36-inch-deep profile was on average approximately double that of the applied water, suggesting significant leaching from applied water (irrigation or rainfall. In this study, we investigated some of the soil water hydrology factors possibly controlling the soil salinity results. Using soil water balance modeling, we found that rainfall had more effect on soil salinity than did leaching from irrigation. Increasing applied water usually only correlated significantly with soil salinity parameters in the shallow soil profile (1 to 12 inches depth and at 24 to 36 inches at sites receiving fairly undiluted recycled water. Winter rains, though, had a critical effect. Increasing rainfall depths were significantly correlated with decreasing soil salinity of the shallow soil at all test sites, though this effect also diminished with increased soil depth. When applied water had high salinity levels, winter rainfall in this area was inadequate to prevent soil salinity from increasing.

  18. Isolasi Senyawa Aktif Ekstrak Etanol Biji Alpukat (Persea americana dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Artemia Salina Leach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nur Fitriani Abubakar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Avocado seed (Persea americana is recognized as one of medicinal plants. It contains several secondary metabolites, which have toxic activity. However, efforts to identify active compounds from avocado seeds (Persea americana are still relatively rare. Therefore, isolation and toxicity assay have been conducted foward the active compound of avocado seed. Maceration one kilogram of seed dried powder by ethanol obtained 49,7464 gram extract. Separation of etanol extract by column chromatography generated 0,0698 grams of pure white needle crytal, which is positively triterpenoid based on Lieberman-Buchard test. In addition, infrared spectrum showed the existence of OH, C=C, C-C, C=O, -C-H, -CH3,-CH2 and C-O stretch, which support the presumed compound. The result of toxicity test on Artemia salina Leach showed that the extract, fraction and pure isolates of the etanol extract are toxic with LC50 values 13,274 g/mL; 9,528 g/mL and 8,128 g/mL, respectively.

  19. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  20. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  1. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...

  2. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra ... TESTING (VCT) FOR HIV AMONG NURSING STUDENTS IN ZAMBIA ... All students were aware of where to go for VCT, and 80% .... attitudes that assure patients that they will be .... them better practitioners, but their awareness of.

  3. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...

  4. Geology of Sierra de San Miguel area Rocha department (Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzio, R.; Veroslavsky, G.; Morales, E. . E mail: rossana@fcien.edu.uy

    2004-01-01

    This paper is part of a regional study about Mesozoic magmatism, tectonics and sedimentation in Uruguay. As a result of the geological studies carried out in Sierra de San Miguel area (Rocha department), lithological descriptions, their stratigraphic relationships and their petrographic characterization are presented [es

  5. Ecosystems and diversity of the Sierra Madre Occidental

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. S. Gonzalez-Elizondo; M. Gonzalez-Elizondo; L. Ruacho Gonzalez; I. L. Lopez Enriquez; F. I . Retana Renteria; J. A. Tena Flores

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is the largest continuous ignimbrite plate on Earth. Despite its high biological and cultural diversity and enormous environmental and economical importance, it is yet not well known. We describe the vegetation and present a preliminary regionalization based on physiographic, climatic, and floristic criteria. A confluence of three main...

  6. Diets of California spotted owls in the Sierra National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Munton; Kenneth D. Johnson; George N. Steger; Gary P. Eberlein

    2002-01-01

    From May 1987 through October 1992 and from July through August 1998, we studied diets of California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). Regurgitated pellets were collected at roost and nest sites between 1,000 and 7,600 ft elevation in the Sierra National Forest and were examined for remnant bones, feathers, and insect exoskeletons....

  7. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    recommendations to the health sector of Sierra Leone for it prevention. This retrospective .... pressure. 27% of the population is exposed to 3 to. 5 of these risk factors. According to .... Many studies have identified foot ulcer as the most common ...

  8. Military Interventions in Sierra Leone: Lessons from a Failed State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Larry J; Reese, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    This study by Larry J. Woods and Colonel Timothy R. Reese analyzes the massive turmoil afflicting the nation of Sierra Leone, 1993-2002, and the efforts by a variety of outside forces to bring lasting stability to that small country...

  9. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  10. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  11. Efeito do meio Erd Schreiber no cultivo das microalgas Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii e Isochrysis galbana = Erd Schreiber medium effect in culture of microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Mota Klein

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available As microalgas são utilizadas como fonte de alimento em aqüicultura. Neste trabalho cultivaram-se D. salina, T. chuii e I. galbana. O objetivo do trabalho consistiu em determinar o efeito do meio Erd Schreiber sobre o seu crescimento. Iniciou-se o cultivo com a mistura de 200 mg de Na2HPO4,7H2O, 100 mg de NaNO3 e 50 mL de extrato de solo. No monitoramento, manteve-se a temperatura entre 24 - 28 oC, a salinidade a 34 ppt, à iluminação constante, a densidade celular com uma câmara de Neubauer e um microscópio binocular modelo ZEISS. Como resultado, I. galbana, D. salina e T. chuii atingiram 969 104 cel/mL, 457 x 104 cel/mL e 258,66 x 104 cel/mL, respectivamente, e oscoeficientes angulares b foram 3,76 x 104 cel./mL/dia, 6,84 x 104 cel./mL/dia e 2,08 x 104 cel./mL/dia respectivamente, indicando bom desempenho de todas as microalgas no meio Erd Shreiber.The microalgae is used as food source in aqüicultura. In this work they had cultivated D. salina , T. chuii and I. galbana . The objective of the work is to determine the effect of Erd Schreiber´s culture medium on the microalgae growth. The culture initiated mixting 200mg of Na2HPO4,7H2O, 100 mg of NaNO3 and 50 mL of soil extract. During the culture the temperature had varied between 24 and 28oC, the salinity was fixed on 34 %o, and the illumination was maintained constant. The assessment of the culture was made by a chamber of Neubauer and a binocular microscope ZEISS model. As result I. galbana D. salina and T.chuii reached 969 104 cel/mL, 457 x 104cel/mL and 258,66 x 104 cel/mL respectively and as angular coefficient 3,76 x 104 cel/mL/dia, 6,84 x 104 cel/mL/dia and 2,08 104 x cel/mL/dia respectively, showing good answer of the microalgae to the effect of Erd Schreiber´ s medium.

  12. Prospecção fitoquímica de Sonchus oleraceus e sua toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina Phytochemical prospecting of Sonchus oleraceus and its toxicity to Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Lima; C.A. Silva; M.B. Rosa; J.B. Santos; T.G. Oliveira; M.B. Silva

    2009-01-01

    A espécie vegetal Sonchus oleraceus é uma planta daninha presente em diversas culturas no Brasil e de utilização na medicina popular. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a prospecção fitoquímica dessa espécie com extratos em etanol, água e diclorometano, bem como testes de toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina. O extrato aquoso apresentou em sua composição açúcares redutores, compostos fenólicos, taninos, flavonóides e cumarinas. No extrato etanólico, observaram-se os mesmos compostos qual...

  13. Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L. model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Меntor R. Hamidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products could serve as the starting point in the development of modern medicines because of their numerous biological and pharmacological activities. However, some of them are known to carry toxicological properties as well. In order to achieve a safe treatment with plant products, numerous research studies have recently been focused on both pharmacology and toxicity of medicinal plants. Moreover, these studies employed efforts for alternative biological assays. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is the most convenient system for monitoring biological activities of various plant species. This method is very useful for preliminary assessment of toxicity of the plant extracts. Rapidness, simplicity and low requirements are several advantages of this assay. However, several conditions need to be completed, especially in the means of standardized experimental conditions (temperature, pH of the medium, salinity, aeration and light. The toxicity of herbal extracts using this assay has been determined in a concentration range of 10, 100 and 1000 µg/ml of the examined herbal extract. Most toxicity studies which use the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay determine the toxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the tested sample. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of the test samples is obtained by a plot of percentage of the dead shrimps against the logarithm of the sample concentration. LC50 values are estimated using a probit regression analysis and compared with either Meyer’s or Clarkson’s toxicity criteria. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Meyer’s toxicity scale for Artemia salina and Gosselin, Smith and Hodge’s toxicity scale for higher animal models confirmed that the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is an excellent predictive tool for the toxic potential of plant extracts in humans.

  14. Evaluation of Alpha and Gamma Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Accumulation, Toxicity and Depuration in Artemia Salina Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.; Bogatu, Corneliu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Artemia salina (crustacean filter feeders) larvae were used as a test model to investigate the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) on marine microorganisms. The uptake, toxicity and elimination of α-Al2O3 (50 nm and 3.5 μm) and γ-Al2O3 (5 nm and 0.4 μm) NPs were studied. Twenty-four and ninety-six hour exposures of different concentrations of Al2O3 NPs to Artemia larvae were conducted in a seawater medium. When suspended in water, Al2O3 NPs aggregated substantially with the sizes ranging from 6.3 nm to > 0.3 μm for spherical NPs, and from 250 to 756 nm for rod-shaped NPs. The phase contrast microscope images revealed that NPs deposited inside the guts as aggregates. ICP-MS analysis showed that large particles (3.5 μm α-Al2O3) were not taken up by Artemia, while fine NPs (0.4 μm γ-Al2O3) and ultra-fine NPs (5 nm γ-Al2O3 and 50 nm α-Al2O3) accumulated substantially. Differences in toxicity were detected as changing with NP size and morphology. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated that smaller γ-Al2O3 (5 nm) NPs were more toxic than larger γ-Al2O3 (0.4 μm) particulates in 96 h. The highest mortality was measured as 34% in 96 h for γ-Al2O3 NPs (5 nm) at 100 mg/L (LC50 > 100 mg/L). γ-Al2O3 NPs were more toxic than α-Al2O3 NPs at in all conditions. PMID:24753078

  15. Executive summary of a draft report on the geology and salt deposits of the Salina Salt Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The study discussed is the first phase of a program for the geologic evaluation of the Silurian-age bedded salt of the Salina Group. The Salina Salt Basin, as used in this study, includes those portions of the Appalachian and Michigan basins that are underlain by the Salina Group. The full draft report consists of a regional reconnaissance, identification of study areas in New York and Ohio which are deserving of a more thorough evaluation, and a program plan to accomplish that evaluation. The entire draft report is in two volumes, contains 1068 pages and 204 figures, and has a bibliography that consists of over 1100 separate entries. This summary has been prepared for the benefit of those who wish to review the results of this phase of the evaluation but who do not want to go through the exhaustive detail that is present in the full report. The regional reconnaissance was accomplished by a very thorough and extensive literature review, addressing the following topics: depth of salt, thickness, stratigraphy, tectonics, structure, seismicity, hydrology, erosion and denudation, and mineral resources. Before further technical evaluation proceeds, the draft report and the proposed program are being subjected to a thorough evaluation by a number of groups, including appropriate state agencies. This rather extensive review process is being conducted to ensure that the program is performed entirely in the open and subject to continuous public surveillance. This report does not represent the first work that has been done in this region with regard to evaluating the salt deposits for waste disposal. Previous efforts have been limited, however, and have been done by individual consultants. At the present time, the U.S. Geological Survey is also participating in the technical evaluation; their results will be issued separately. In addition to the technical evaluations, environmental surveys will also be conducted as an integral part of this thorough evaluation program

  16. IL MUSEO SALINAS, PARADOSSO DEL WEB MARKETING CULTURALE La comunicazione archeologica ai tempi dei social media, a museo chiuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bonacini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to offer the case study of the archaeological museum Antonino Salinas in Palermo, that - closed for many years for the restoration of the architectural complex that houses it, the seventeenth-century Olivella’ s House of the Philippine Fathers - has invented new strategies of the archaeological communication on the social media. After two years, waiting for its reopening, the museum has been able to create a real brand and to renovate the museum’s reputation. The solutions adopted by the Museum could “inspire” other institutions to adopt those web marketing cultural strategies.

  17. La sedimentación salina actual en las lagunas de La Mancha: una síntesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Zarzuelo, Antonio de la; Marfil, R.

    1986-01-01

    [ES] La Mancha es una región natural de más de 30.000 Km2, caracterizada por una topografía extraordinariamente plana y un clima de tipo semiárido (Cuadro 1, Fig. 2), en la que existen numerosas lagunas salinas (Fig. 1), la mayoría de las cuales, por su régimen anual, pueden ser consideradas como «playa-lakes» (Fig. 3). Desde el punto de vista hidroquimico sus salmueras están integradas por: a) aniones: SO4 y Cl, con CO3 y CO 3H subordinados, y b) cationes: Mg 2+ y ...

  18. Nivel de conocimiento sobre tuberculosis pulmonar y actitud de los pacientes, centro salud San Juan de Salinas, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Atuncar Mendoza, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del estudios de investigación fue determinar la relación que existe entre el nivel de conocimiento sobretuberculosis pulmonar y la actitud hacia el tratamiento detuberculosis pulmonar de los pacientes dela Estrategia Sanitaria Nacional de Prevención y Control de la Tuberculosis, Centro de Salud San Juan de Salinas, San Martinde Porres, año 2017. En cuanto a lametodología fue de tipo de investigación aplicada, nivel descriptivo correccional,la población estuvo conformada por 50 p...

  19. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Safafar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids, tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry.

  20. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Background The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. Findings The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV ...

  1. Level-2 Milestone 6007: Sierra Early Delivery System Deployed to Secret Restricted Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This report documents the delivery and installation of Shark, a CORAL Sierra early delivery system deployed on the LLNL SRD network. Early ASC program users have run codes on the machine in support of application porting for the final Sierra system which will be deployed at LLNL in CY2018. In addition to the SRD resource, Shark, unclassified resources, Rzmanta and Ray, have been deployed on the LLNL Restricted Zone and Collaboration Zone networks in support of application readiness for the Sierra platform.

  2. Eficiencia agronómica del azufre elemental relativa a una fuente azufrada soluble en trigo en la Región Pampeana Agronomic efficiency of elemental sulphur in wheat relative to a soluble sulphur source in the Pampas Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Torres Duggan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia agronómica del azufre elemental (AE en relación a fuentes azufradas solubles y sulfatadas, depende de su reactividad (e.g. tamaño de partícula y de las condiciones edafo-climáticas. Para las condiciones de la Región Pampeana algunas publicaciones sugieren que el AE puede ser una fuente de S tan efectiva como las fuentes solubles, aunque la información no concluyente. Se hipotetiza que en las condiciones de la Región Pampeana, ambas fuentes poseen similar eficiencia agronómica en la mayoría de los años. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: i. Evaluar la respuesta al agregado de S con una fuente reactiva de AE en relación a un fertilizante azufrado sulfatado, aplicado en trigo en diferentes dosis y en distintas condiciones edafo-climáticas; ii. Comparar, para el conjunto de experimentos, la eficiencia agronómica del S aplicado con las distintas fuentes. iii. Relacionar las respuestas a la fertilización azufrada con variables de suelo y clima. Se realizaron ocho ensayos de campo durante dos años consecutivos en lotes de producción ubicados en la Región Pampeana. Se aplicó un diseño en bloques completos aleatorizados con cuatro o seis repeticiones en un arreglo factorial de tratamientos (factor 1: fuente azufrada, factor 2: dosis de S. Los tratamientos fueron: un testigo absoluto; fertilización con AE micronizado (95% de S en dos niveles de dosis y fertilización con sulfato de amonio granulado (SA, 24% S, también en dos niveles de dosis. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 10 y 30 kg ha-1 de S (año 1 y 15 y 30 kg ha¹ (año 2. La fertilización azufrada afectó significativamente (p0,05 en la mayoría de los sitios. La dosis más baja (10 o 15 kg ha-1 fue suficiente para cubrir el requerimiento de S del cultivo. Se observó una asociación positiva entre las respuestas y el contenido de MO del suelo y las precipitaciones (macollaje y total del ciclo y una relación inversa con el contenido de S-SO4(2- disponibles a la

  3. Comparación de índices de estrés hídrico, a partir de información captada por el sensor MODIS, en la región pampeana argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vazquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La Región Pampeana Argentina manifiesta una tenencia a la expansión agrícola que aumenta los riesgos económicos por su elevada dependencia de las condiciones meteorológicas. A fin de mejorar las predicciones sobre el comportamiento de los cultivos, en este trabajo se estudia la sensibilidad de diferentes índices de estrés hídrico a la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo (DAS, mediante el uso de imágenes satelitales en la mencionada región. Se analizaron tres índices a partir de datos de campañas de terreno en diferentes cultivos, conjuntamente con información satelital. Dos de ellos, Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI y Water Deficit Index (WDI, combinan información de satélite con datos de estaciones meteorológicas. El tercero, Temperature–Vegeta- tion Dryness Index (TDVI, utiliza solamente información de satélite. Se observó que el TDVI es el que mejor resultados arroja (r2 = 0,92. Se concluye que este índice es el que permite generar diagnósticos adecuados por ser el más sensible a cambios en la DAS.

  4. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  5. Transient fuel rod behavior prediction with RODEX-3/SIERRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billaux, M R; Shann, S H; Swam, L.F. Van [Siemens Power Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses some aspects of the fuel performance code SIERRA (SIEmens Rod Response Analysis). SIERRA, the latest version of the code RODEX-3, has been developed to improve the fuel performance prediction capabilities of the code, both at high burnup and during transient reactor conditions. The paper emphasizes the importance of the mechanical models of the cracked pellet and of the cladding, in the prediction of the transient response of the fuel rod to power changes. These models are discussed in detail. Other aspects of the modelling of high burnup effects are also presented, in particular the modelling of the rim effect and the way it affects the fuel temperature. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs.

  6. Diagnosis of Knowledge Management in the Brisas Sierra Mar hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón Sosa-Piedra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was made in order to evaluate the Knowledge in the Management at Brisas Sierra Mar Hotel, Santiago de Cuba. Due to this, it is being value the actual approaches that was utilized in the existent methodologies for the measurement conduct of the knowledge in the Enterprise Organizations. To fulfill these results we utilized different methods, technical, abilities and scientific investigation tools, such as: analysis-method, synthesis, historical logical, and inducement; technical as a team work, expert judgments, interviews and first and second class information review, as well as the informatics decision programs for the selection and validations of the experts, the Statistic Program for Social Sciences for Windows (SPSS version 15.0 in indicting of the information. The investigation propitiated an evaluation of the actual situation of Brisas Sierra Mar Hotel, Santiago de Cuba and permitted to identify the stage of their main intellectual, placing them in an intermediate level.

  7. Transient fuel rod behavior prediction with RODEX-3/SIERRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, M.R.; Shann, S.H.; Swam, L.F. Van

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some aspects of the fuel performance code SIERRA (SIEmens Rod Response Analysis). SIERRA, the latest version of the code RODEX-3, has been developed to improve the fuel performance prediction capabilities of the code, both at high burnup and during transient reactor conditions. The paper emphasizes the importance of the mechanical models of the cracked pellet and of the cladding, in the prediction of the transient response of the fuel rod to power changes. These models are discussed in detail. Other aspects of the modelling of high burnup effects are also presented, in particular the modelling of the rim effect and the way it affects the fuel temperature. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  8. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  9. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  10. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  11. Failure of Sierra White granite under general states of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.; Lee, M.; Holdman, O.; Cheung, C.; Haimson, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the intermediate principal stress on the failure of Sierra White granite was investigated by performing tests under true triaxial states of stress. Tests were performed under constant Lode angle conditions with Lode angles ranging from 0 to 30°, pure shear to axisymmetric compression. Results show that the failure of Sierra White granite is heavily dependent on the intermediate principal stress which became more dramatic as the mean stress increased. An analysis of the shear bands formed at failure was performed using an associated flow rule and the Rudnicki and Rice (1975) localization criteria. The localization analysis showed excellent agreement with experimental results. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  12. Construcción macrotextual y cancionero amoroso (Un acercamiento analítico a "La voz a ti debida" de Pedro Salinas)

    OpenAIRE

    Corencia Cruz, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    La tesis Construcción macrotextual y cancionero amoroso. Unacercamiento analítico a La voz a ti debida de Pedro Salinas. Fue leídapor Joaquín Corencia Cruz en la Sala de Juntas de la Facultad deFilología de la Universidad de Valencia (España) el 7 de noviembre de2008.El trabajo investigador se desarrolla a lo largo de nuevecapítulos. En el primero se produce una introducción a la tesisrevisando desde la trayectoria vital y profesional de Pedro Salinas acómo el macrotexto poético de La voz se ...

  13. Courtright intrusive zone: Sierra National Forest, Fresno County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, P.C.; Kistler, R.W.; DeGraff, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    This is a field guide to a well-exposed area of plutonic and metamorphic rocks in the Sierra National Forest, Fresno County, California. The plutonic rocks, of which three major bodies are recognized, besides aplite and pegmatite dykes, range 103 to approx 90 m.y. in age. Points emphasized include cataclastic features within the plutonic rocks, schlieren and mafic inclusions. (M.A. 83M/0035).-A.P.

  14. Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Weiler, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary are reported, a West-African river in the tropics. Because of the typical change between rainy season in the sommer months and dry season in winter time the research work has been adapted to these semi-annual changes. The collected data and results are given and discussed under this aspect of the seasonal fluctuations. (orig.) [de

  15. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  16. Global solar radiation in Sierra Leone (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaquoi, J.G.M.

    1987-09-01

    A correlation equation of the Angstrom type has been developed to predict the monthly average daily global solar irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Measurements of the global insolation have been compared with those predicted using the equation. A good agreement (greater than 95% in most cases) was observed between the measured values and the predicted ones. (author). 15 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tehachapi-Cummings Valley and Kern River Valley basins and surrounding watersheds in the Southern Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  18. Groundwater quality in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Two small watersheds of the Fresno and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  19. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  20. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  1. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Castilla Casadiego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3 and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6 from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6 and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9 were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids.

  2. Salinity-Induced Palmella Formation Mechanism in Halotolerant Algae Dunaliella salina Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Wei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmella stage is critical for some unicellular algae to survive in extreme environments. The halotolerant algae Dunaliella salina is a good single-cell model for studying plant adaptation to high salinity. To investigate the molecular adaptation mechanism in salinity shock-induced palmella formation, we performed a comprehensive physiological, proteomics and phosphoproteomics study upon palmella formation of D. salina using dimethyl labeling and Ti4+-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC proteomic approaches. We found that 151 salinity-responsive proteins and 35 salinity-responsive phosphoproteins were involved in multiple signaling and metabolic pathways upon palmella formation. Taken together with photosynthetic parameters and enzyme activity analyses, the patterns of protein accumulation and phosphorylation level exhibited the mechanisms upon palmella formation, including dynamics of cytoskeleton and cell membrane curvature, accumulation and transport of exopolysaccharides, photosynthesis and energy supplying (i.e., photosystem II stability and activity, cyclic electron transport, and C4 pathway, nuclear/chloroplastic gene expression regulation and protein processing, reactive oxygen species homeostasis, and salt signaling transduction. The salinity-responsive protein–protein interaction (PPI networks implied that signaling and protein synthesis and fate are crucial for modulation of these processes. Importantly, the 3D structure of phosphoprotein clearly indicated that the phosphorylation sites of eight proteins were localized in the region of function domain.

  3. Influencia del medio ambiente en los materiales de construcción III. Dinámica salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Paris, José Manuel

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Las sales y la humedad son los dos factores que condicionan las alteraciones de los materiales de construcción. Los citados materiales, bien de por sí —piedras y ladrillos—, bien una vez endurecidos —morteros y hormigones—, están estructurados por partículas sólidas granulares, separadas por un sistema poroso, que constituye el medio -dinámico para el transporte de las disoluciones salinas procedentes del medio ambiente. La motilidad de las sales a través de la red de poros es función de tres variables físicoclimáticas: temperatura, humedad y condiciones de aireación. La dinámica salina se efectúa mediante procesos de difusión, unas veces de naturaleza química: difusión iónica, otras de naturaleza física: difusión capilar.

  4. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.

  5. Ethanol fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus from Jerusalem artichoke grown in salina and irrigated with a mixture of seawater and freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W J; Zhao, X Q; Ge, X M; Bai, F W

    2008-12-01

    To study fuel ethanol fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC8554 from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) grown in salina and irrigated with a mixture of seawater and freshwater. The growth and ethanol fermentation of K. marxianus ATCC8554 were studied using inulin as substrate. The activity of inulinase, which attributes to the hydrolysis of inulin, the main carbohydrate in Jerusalem artichoke, was monitored. The optimum temperatures were 38 degrees C for growth and inulinase production, and 35 degrees C for ethanol fermentation. Aeration was not necessary for ethanol fermentation with the K. marxianus from inulin. Then, the fresh Jerusalem artichoke tubers grown in salina and irrigated with 25% and 50% seawater were further examined for ethanol fermentation with the K. marxianus, and a higher ethanol yield was achieved for the Jerusalem artichoke tuber irrigated with 25% seawater. Furthermore, the dry meal of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers irrigated with 25% seawater was examined for ethanol fermentation at three solid concentrations of 200, 225 and 250 g l(-1), and the highest ethanol yield of 0.467, or 91.5% of the theoretical value of 0.511, was achieved for the slurry with a solid concentration of 200 g l(-1). Halophilic Jerusalem artichoke can be used for fuel ethanol production. Halophilic Jerusalem artichoke, not competing with grain crops for arable land, is a sustainable feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

  6. Processing recommendations for using low-solids digestate as nutrient solution for poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate production with Synechocystis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, K; Fritz, I; Daffert, C; Markl, K; Fuchs, W; Drosg, B

    2016-12-20

    Within the last decades, environmental pollution with persistent plastics steadily increased; therefore the production of biodegradable materials like poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is essential. Currently, PHB is produced with heterotrophic bacteria from crops. This leads to competition with food and feed production, which can be avoided by using photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, as Synechocystis salina, synthesizing PHB from CO 2 at nutrient limitation. This study aims to increase the economic efficiency of PHB production with cyanobacteria by using nutrients from anaerobic digestate. First, growth and PHB production of S. salina in digestate fractions (supernatant and permeate, with/without precipitating agents) and dilutions thereof and then the scale-up (photobioreactor, 200 L working volume) were evaluated. With precipitated and centrifuged digestate diluted 1/3 the highest biomass (1.55gL -1 ) and PHB concentrations (95.4mgL -1 ), being 78% of those in mineral media, were achieved. In the photobioreactor-experiments biomass (1.63gL -1 ) and PHB concentrations (88.7mgL -1 ), being 79% and 72% of those in mineral medium, were reached, but in a cultivation time 10days longer than in mineral medium. The possibility to use digestate as sustainable and low cost nutrient solution for microalgae cultivation and photoautotrophic PHB production, instead of applying it on fields or processing it to achieve discharge limits, makes this application a highly valid option. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifikasi Metabolit Sekunder Ekstrak Etil Asetat Biji Alpukat (Persea americana Mill. dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Larva Udang Artemia salina Leach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdia Asdar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of metabolite compound in acetone Extract from Fruits Avocado seed (Percea americana Mill and toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach. Aim of this research is to identify the secondary metabolite compound in aceton extract from fruits Avocado seed (Percea americana Mill and to determine the potential of secondary metabolites from an avocado extract as anticancer. The compound was obtained from Identification process in several stages, namely extraction, fractination, purification and identification. The identification process was color test, TLC, spectroscopy IR. The toxicity test by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT to Artemia salina Leach. The compound obtained from this research was yellow-white crystalline needle-shaped, the purity test with TLC analysis showed a stain in three eluen system on the stain test on three eluent systems with Rf proportions as follows; 0,15 from chloroform:ethyl acetat (6:4, 0,33 from methanol:chloroform (1:9, 0,75 for acetone:ethyl acetat, and positively to the reagent Wagner and gave brown precipitate for indicate as alcaloid group. This result is supported by spectroscopy from compound.While toxicity tests showed condensed acetone extracts  and pure compounds are toxic with LC50 value of each is 20.61 mg/mL and 39,81 mg/mL.

  8. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change

  9. 78 FR 37790 - In the Matter of: Mario Salinas-Lucio, Inmate Number #61687-279, FCI La Tuna, Federal Corrections...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Mario Salinas-Lucio... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45....S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or...

  10. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesarič, Tina, E-mail: tina.mesaric84@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gambardella, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.gambardella@ge.ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Milivojević, Tamara, E-mail: milivojevictamara@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faimali, Marco, E-mail: marco.faimali@ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Drobne, Damjana, E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CO Nanocentre), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Falugi, Carla, E-mail: carlafalugi@hotmail.it [Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Makovec, Darko, E-mail: darko.makovec@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sepčić, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.sepcic@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change.

  11. 77 FR 49789 - Record of Decision for Issuing a Presidential Permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission, LLC, for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project...: Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: DOE announces its decision to issue a Presidential permit to Energia... analyzed in the Environmental Impact Statement for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project...

  12. Curriculum Diversification Re-examined--A Case Study of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cream A. H.

    This paper deals with a case study of secondary curriculum diversification as a vocationalization strategy in Sierra Leone. It explores diversification issues from four crucial standpoints that are distinct but highly interrelated. First, diversification is dealt with as a policy that was adopted and actively pursued by Sierra Leone for over a…

  13. Increasing elevation of fire in the Sierra Nevada and implications for forest change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Schwartz; Nathalie Butt; Christopher R. Dolanc; Andrew Holguin; Max A. Moritz; Malcolm P. North; Hugh D. Safford; Nathan L. Stephenson; James H. Thorne; Phillip J. van Mantgem

    2015-01-01

    Fire in high-elevation forest ecosystems can have severe impacts on forest structure, function and biodiversity. Using a 105-year data set, we found increasing elevation extent of fires in the Sierra Nevada, and pose five hypotheses to explain this pattern. Beyond the recognized pattern of increasing fire frequency in the Sierra Nevada since the late 20th century, we...

  14. Nitrogen dynamics of spring-fed wetland ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada foothills oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall D. Jackson; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    2002-01-01

    Spring-fed wetlands are small, highly productive, patchy ecosystems nested within the oak woodland/annual grassland matrix of the Sierra Nevada foothills. In an effort to place these wetlands in a landscape context, we described seasonal variation (1999-2000 growing season) in nitrogen cycling parameters at 6 spring-fed wetland sites of the Sierra Nevada foothill oak...

  15. A preliminary floristic inventory in the Sierra de Mazatan, Municipios of Ures and Mazatan, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Jesus Sanchez-Escalante; Manuel Espericueta-Betancourt; Reyna Amanda Castillo-Gamez

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the flora of the Sierra de Mazatán contains 357 species of vascular plants distributed in 248 genera and 80 families. The families with the most species are Asteraceae (48), Fabaceae (45), Poaceae (28), Euphorbiaceae (18), and Acanthaceae, Cactaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Solanaceae (11 each). The results show that the flora of the Sierra de Mazat...

  16. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  17. High Sierra Ecosystems: The Role of Fish Stocking in Amphibian Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews

    2003-01-01

    With a rich diversity of aquatic habitats, including deep lakes, shallow ponds, and rushing streams, Dusy Basinin Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks typifies the high Sierra ecosystem where mountain yellow-legged frogs usually thrive. Yet throughout the Sierra, aquatic ecologist Kathleen Matthews found entire water basins empty of these amphibians. Comprehensive...

  18. Comparative study on toxicity of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles on Artemia salina: effect of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Sagar, Bhawana; Doshi, Siddharth; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity potential of ZnO and TiO 2 nanoparticles under pre-UV-A irradiation and visible light condition on Artemia salina. The nanoparticle suspension was prepared in seawater medium and exposed under pre-UV-A (0.23 mW/cm 2 ) and visible light (0.18 mW/cm 2 ) conditions. The aggregation profiles of both nanoparticles (NPs) and dissolution of ZnO NPs under both irradiation conditions at various kinetic intervals (1, 24, 48 h) were studied. The 48-h LC 50 values were found to be 27.62 and 71.63 mg/L for ZnO NPs and 117 and 120.9 mg/L for TiO 2 NPs under pre-UV-A and visible light conditions. ZnO NPs were found to be more toxic to A. salina as compared to TiO 2 NPs. The enhanced toxicity was observed under pre-UV-A-irradiated ZnO NPs, signifying its phototoxicity. Accumulation of ZnO and TiO 2 NPs into A. salina depends on the concentration of particles and type irradiations. Elimination of accumulated nanoparticles was also evident under both irradiation conditions. Other than ZnO NPs, the dissolved Zn 2+ also had a significant effect on toxicity and accumulation in A. salina. Increased catalase (CAT) activity in A. salina indicates the generation of oxidative stress due to NP interaction. Thus, this study provides an understanding of the toxicity of photoreactive ZnO and TiO 2 NPs as related to the effects of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

  19. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide: Addendum for Shock Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2018-03-01

    This is an addendum to the Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide that documents additional capabilities available only in alternate versions of the Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) code. These alternate versions are enhanced to provide capabilities that are regulated under the U.S. Department of State's International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) export-control rules. The ITAR regulated codes are only distributed to entities that comply with the ITAR export-control requirements. The ITAR enhancements to Sierra/SM in- clude material models with an energy-dependent pressure response (appropriate for very large deformations and strain rates) and capabilities for blast modeling. Since this is an addendum to the standard Sierra/SM user's guide, please refer to that document first for general descriptions of code capability and use.

  20. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Hajar; Moradshahi, Ali; Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs) are toxic to D. salina. • Gum-Arabic coating alters the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Cell-NPs agglomerates and lipid peroxidation could explain the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Shading effect and dissolution do not seem to contribute to the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Particle–particle interaction was reduced by coating; therefore, PbS NPs were stabilized in the culture media. - Abstract: The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb 2+ in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb 2+ to the culture media had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P > 0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle–particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about 440 nm

  1. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hajar [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradshahi, Ali, E-mail: moradshahi@susc.ac.ir [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein [Nanotechnology Research Institute, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs) are toxic to D. salina. • Gum-Arabic coating alters the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Cell-NPs agglomerates and lipid peroxidation could explain the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Shading effect and dissolution do not seem to contribute to the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Particle–particle interaction was reduced by coating; therefore, PbS NPs were stabilized in the culture media. - Abstract: The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb{sup 2+} in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb{sup 2+} to the culture media had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P > 0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle–particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about

  2. Relación de la inestabilidad estructural con el manejo y propiedades de los suelos de la región pampeana Relation of structural instability with management and properties of soils in the Pampean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Rosa Álvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad estructural (IEST permite caracterizar la resistencia a la degradación de los suelos. Se determinó la IEST (De Leenheer& De Boodt en 67 sitios de muestreo bajo distintos manejos en la Región Pampeana norte, con el objetivo de comparar los manejos y analizar su relación con: a la densidad aparente (DAP; b el contenido de carbono orgánico total y sus fracciones particulada (> 53 mm y resistente (Soil structural instability (IEST characterizes the resistance to degradation of soils. Soil IEST (De Leenheer and De Boodt was determined in 67 sites under different soil managements in the Northern Pampean Region, in order to establish its relation with: a core bulk density (DAP; b total organic carbon and its particulate (> 53 mm and resistant (<53 mm fractions; c granulometric fractions; and d relative compaction (ratio bulk density to maximum bulk density by Proctor Test. Soil IEST allowed distinguishing among quasi-pristine and agriculture under tillage (P<0.05. Meanwhile integrated crop-livestock systems under no tillage and agriculture under no tillage presented intermediate values. DAP was highest in the integrated crop-livestock systems under no tillage. A multiple regression model (R2 = 0.37 was fitted between IEST and total organic carbon and silt content and a Dummy variable related to management. DAP was negatively related with total organic carbon and clay content and positive with a Dummy variable (value= 1 for integrated crop-livestock systems and 0 for the others (R2= 0.62. Results suggest other stabilizing agents like the action of plant roots could be responsible for the variation in SI in these soils. It can be concluded that higher carbon contents are required to stabilize silty soils.

  3. Implementation of Safeguards and Non-Proliferation in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Leone under the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements (CSAs) has enacted the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (NSRP) Act 2012 and has given numerous powers to the Authority to implement the above mentioned act fully. The NSRP Act 2012 established the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Authority which among other things to regulate, control and supervise the acquisition, importation, exportation, use, transportation and disposal of radioactive sources and devices emitting Ionizing Radiation. The Authority is bounded by law to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the application of Safeguards Agreement and any protocol thereto between Sierra Leone and the International Atomic Energy Agency including conducting inspections and providing any assistance or information required by designated IAEA inspectors in the fulfillment of their responsibilities pursuant to Section 5, Subsection 2, Article xvi of the NSRP Act 2012. The Authority is also granted powers to adopt all necessary measures including a system of licensing to control the export, re-export, transit and transhipment of any nuclear material, equipment or technology in order to protect the safety and security of Sierra Leone. The Regulatory Authority has established departments for the control of nuclear materials: One of which is The Regulatory Control Department; responsible for Inspections, Authorization and Enforcement actions for all radiation sources and nuclear materials. The Authority has been conducting inspections regularly on various facilities ranging from medical radiation generating equipment to industrial radiography sources. The methodology to be used is the issuance of the standard IAEA checklist which is consistent with the Regulatory Authority’s documents for inspection of sources and is in line with the General Safety Requirements(GSR)Part III. The expected outcomes would be increasing training of regulatory authority’s staff, the procurement of

  4. Novel Retinal Lesion in Ebola Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Paul J; Scott, Janet T; Baxter, Julia M; Parkes, Craig K; Dwivedi, Rahul; Czanner, Gabriela; Vandy, Matthew J; Momorie, Fayiah; Fornah, Alimamy D; Komba, Patrick; Richards, Jade; Sahr, Foday; Beare, Nicholas A V; Semple, Malcolm G

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a case-control study in Freetown, Sierra Leone, to investigate ocular signs in Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors. A total of 82 EVD survivors with ocular symptoms and 105 controls from asymptomatic civilian and military personnel and symptomatic eye clinic attendees underwent ophthalmic examination, including widefield retinal imaging. Snellen visual acuity was Ebola virus, permitting cataract surgery. A novel retinal lesion following the anatomic distribution of the optic nerve axons occurred in 14.6% (97.5% CI 7.1%-25.6%) of EVD survivors and no controls, suggesting neuronal transmission as a route of ocular entry.

  5. Environmental exposures to agrochemicals in the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeNoir, J.; Aston, L.; Data, S.; Fellers, G.; McConnell, L.; Sieber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The release of pesticides into the environment may impact human and environmental health. Despite the need for environmental exposure data, few studies quantify exposures in urban areas and even fewer determine exposures to wildlife in remote areas. Although it is expected that concentrations in remote regions will be low, recent studies suggest that even low concentrations may have deleterious effects on wildlife. Many pesticides are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife, adversely affecting growth, development, and behavior. This chapter reviews the fate and transport of pesticides applied in the Central Valley of California and quantifies their subsequent deposition into the relatively pristine Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.

  6. Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 in milk on the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Duraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 were studied using the brine shrimp Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator in the temperature range from 20 °C to 40 °C. Increase in the incubation temperature resulted in sensitivity increase by the brine shrimp to AFM1. Optimum sensitivity occured at 30 °C. Positive results were obtained at 0.18 μg AFM1 x L-1 of whole pasteurized milk with a mortality of over 15%. Greater than 90 % mortality occurred at dose levels of 0.9 μg AFM1 x L-1 and above. The test can be conducted during 30-60 hours.

  7. Regulatory Project Manager for Salina and Permian Basins for the NWTS [National Waste Terminal Storage] Program: Final techical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The identification of candidate sites for nuclear waste repositories involves geological and environmental studies to characterize potential sites. These investigations include the collection and analysis of detailed geological and environmental data and comparison of the data against predetermined site performance criteria, i.e., geologic characteristics, environmental protection, and socioeconomic impacts. The work summarized in this final technical report encompasses mainly ''environmental characterization'' studies in the Permian Basin in the Texas Panhandle during the period of 1977-86; in the earlier phase of the contract, regional environmental work was also done in the Salina Basin (1977-79) and certain licensing support activities and safety analyses were conducted (1977-82). Considerable regulatory support work was also performed during 1986. 9 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Growth of mussels Mytilus edulis at algal (Rhodomonas salina) concentrations below and above saturation level for reduced filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Pleissner, Daniel; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2013-01-01

    Average filtration and growth rates of groups of juvenile Mytilus edulis (n =2545 of 22-35 mm shell length) were measured at different concentrations of an algal cell monoculture in 9 laboratory experiments of duration 14-30 days, 4 experiments below and 5 above the limit of incipient saturation...... concentration (Csat ≈ 6000-7000 Rhodomonas salina cells ml-1). From a nearly constant filtration rate (F ≈ 30 ml min-1 for a 30 mm shell length) at measured algal concentrations below Csat the steady-state filtration rate decreased approximately as 1/C for increasing algal concentrations (C) above Csat...... is exceeded and then as partial valve closure and reduced filtration and growth rates along with production of pseudofaeces. A survey of naturally occurring phytoplankton biomass in the sea shows that this is generally below Csat except for the short spring bloom periods; hence mussels generally feed...

  9. Changes in the Structure of the Microbial Community Associated with Nannochloropsis salina following Treatments with Antibiotics and Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Haifeng; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary B.; Lane, Todd W.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Yu, Eizadora T.

    2016-01-01

    Open microalgae cultures host a myriad of bacteria, creating a complex system of interacting species that influence algal growth and health. Many algal microbiota studies have been conducted to determine the relative importance of bacterial taxa to algal culture health and physiological states, but these studies have not characterized the interspecies relationships in the microbial communities. We subjected Nanochroloropsis salina cultures to multiple chemical treatments (antibiotics and quorum sensing compounds) and obtained dense time-series data on changes to the microbial community using 16S gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing (21,029,577 reads for 23 samples) to measure microbial taxa-taxa abundance correlations. Short-term treatment with antibiotics resulted in substantially larger shifts in the microbiota structure compared to changes observed following treatment with signaling compounds and glucose. We also calculated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) associations and generated OTU correlation networks to provide an overview of possible bacterial OTU interactions. This analysis identified five major cohesive modules of microbiota with similar co-abundance profiles across different chemical treatments. The Eigengenes of OTU modules were examined for correlation with different external treatment factors. This correlation-based analysis revealed that culture age (time) and treatment types have primary effects on forming network modules and shaping the community structure. Additional network analysis detected Alteromonadeles and Alphaproteobacteria as having the highest centrality, suggesting these species are “keystone” OTUs in the microbial community. Furthermore, we illustrated that the chemical tropodithietic acid, which is secreted by several species in the Alphaproteobacteria taxon, is able to drastically change the structure of the microbiota within 3 h. Taken together, these results provide valuable insights into the structure of the microbiota

  10. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CYTOTOXICITYTY ACTIVITY IN Artemia salina LEACH, AERIAL PARTS OF Petiveria alliacea L. PHYTOLACCACEAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darllen Suzanny Barbosa de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to phytochemical study of the aerial parts of Petiveria alliacea L. (young branches and leaves, cytotoxicity evaluation (LC50 of leaves in relation to Artemia salina L. and antimicrobial activity, which were used strains of gram-positive bacterium: Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, these submitted to the methanol crude extract (MCE of leaves, at the following concentrations: 25.50 and 100mg/mL. It was possible to identify in the young branches of P. alliacea L. the presence of organic acids, phenols and tannins in the alkaloids leaves, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenols and tannins, where the activities of these metabolites match with some information alleged by the population. The leaves’ Methanol Crude Extract showed LC50=1709.77μg/mL, being nontoxic at the tested concentrations, whereas for plant extract in relation to A.salina are considered nontoxic when LC50>1000μg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the Methanol Crude Extract of the leaves showed inhibition only for the bacteria Escherichia coli at 100mg/mL concentration, and this activity may be related to the presence of phenols and tannins in the extract. The obtained results turn the species promising in search of secondary metabolites, but there is the need of further studies to identify its main active ingredients. Palavras-chave: Mucuracaa, Phytochemical Screening, Class of Compounds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p76-82

  11. PROBLEMS IN THE ADMISSION TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE LOWER SIERRA DE SONORA, CASE: UNIVERSITY OF SIERRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ángel Vásquez-Navarro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the issues and find solutions to align somewhat academic models of institutions of higher average level and above found in the central highlands of the state of Sonora, as are the University of Sierra, and the CBTA 53 and confront the culture of the people of the importance of young people studying a degree in that region.The above educational institutions are located in the geographical catchment area and education, in fact, in the same population, in the northeastern state of Sonora. The mountains of Sonora had always intended to have a school of higher education. To justify the town of Montezuma as a geographically strategic point, and thanks to the efforts made by the governor in turn was as the University of Sierra opens its doors to students on the mountain in August 2002.For the analysis of the functioning of an educational institution in the rural sector, should take into account a wide range of factors, however, this work will be key to analyze the dislocation and inconsistency of educational models from an institution of higher average level in relationship to another level, which serve as a unique educational opportunities for the people of Sonora and surrounding Montezuma. In addition, the cultural aspect, which reflects a regional behavior of the inhabitants of the region. La Sierra University is located in the mountainous region of the state of Sonora, in the town of Montezuma, with a catchment area of more than 30 municipalities in this area, which lacked a college until recently time.

  12. The Sierra de Cabral range: a restraining bend related to the Sierra Ballena shear zone in Dom Feliciano belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, H.

    2010-01-01

    Restraining and releasing bends occurring in all crustal environments are common but enigmatic features of strike-slip fault systems. They can be reported in all scales of observation. Regional-scale restraining bends are sites of mountain building, transpressional deformation and basement exhumation. Releasing bends are sites of subsidence, transtensional deformation and pull-apart basins. The Dom Feliciano Belt of Southern Uruguay has two main structures observed from the outer space: (i) the Sierra Ballena Shear Zone and (ii) the Sierra de Cabral flexure located to the SW of the former. Although a transpressional regime is commonly accepted for the Dom Feliciano Belt, the available tectonic models do not provide satisfactory explanations for its building mechanism. A restraining bend is proposed at the SW termination of Sierra Ballena strike-slip ductile shear zone. In a key-area (Alvariza Range) the relationship between the Zanja del Tigre volcanic-detritic and the calcareous succession shows three en-échelon upright bends of the same quartzite hanging-wall between two sub-vertical strike-slip faults, suggesting the existence of a shortened strike-slip duplex operating in viscous-elastic rheology. The deformation partitioning includes strike-slip and dip-slip simple-shear components as well as one contractional pure-shear component. Because restraining bends were scarcely described in Neoproterozoic low-grade regional exhumation conditions, this structural framework would be a natural laboratory to study fault kinematics, fault dynamics, their associated deformation and the tectonic and erosion constraints related to the exhumation of many crystalline terrains

  13. WASH activities at two Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Mallow

    Full Text Available The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention control (IPC protocols.We conducted a retrospective cohort study by analyzing WASH/IPC activity data routinely recorded on paper forms or white boards at ETUs during the outbreak and later merged into a database from two IMC-run ETUs in Sierra Leone between December 2014 and December 2015.The IMC WASH/IPC database contains data from over 369 days. Our results highlight parameters key to designing and maintaining an ETU. High concentration chlorine solution usage was highly correlated with both daily patient occupancy and high-risk zone staff entries; low concentration chlorine usage was less well explained by these measures. There is high demand for laundering and disinfecting of personal protective equipment (PPE on a daily basis and approximately 1 (0-4 piece of PPE is damaged each day.Lack of standardization in the type and format of data collected at ETUs made constructing the WASH/IPC database difficult. However, the data presented here may help inform humanitarian response operations in future epidemics.

  14. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. A Method for Snow Reanalysis: The Sierra Nevada (USA) Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Manuela; Margulis, Steven; Cortes, Gonzalo; Durand, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a state-of-the art methodology for constructing snow water equivalent (SWE) reanalysis. The method is comprised of two main components: (1) a coupled land surface model and snow depletion curve model, which is used to generate an ensemble of predictions of SWE and snow cover area for a given set of (uncertain) inputs, and (2) a reanalysis step, which updates estimation variables to be consistent with the satellite observed depletion of the fractional snow cover time series. This method was applied over the Sierra Nevada (USA) based on the assimilation of remotely sensed fractional snow covered area data from the Landsat 5-8 record (1985-2016). The verified dataset (based on a comparison with over 9000 station years of in situ data) exhibited mean and root-mean-square errors less than 3 and 13 cm, respectively, and correlation greater than 0.95 compared with in situ SWE observations. The method (fully Bayesian), resolution (daily, 90-meter), temporal extent (31 years), and accuracy provide a unique dataset for investigating snow processes. This presentation illustrates how the reanalysis dataset was used to provide a basic accounting of the stored snowpack water in the Sierra Nevada over the last 31 years and ultimately improve real-time streamflow predictions.

  16. The efficiency of a new hydrodynamic cavitation pilot system on Artemia salina cysts and natural population of copepods and bacteria under controlled mesocosm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Martina; Grego, Mateja; Turk, Valentina

    2016-04-15

    A study of the efficiency of hydrodynamic cavitation and separation was carried out to evaluate an innovative, environmentally safe and acceptable system for ballast water treatment for reducing the risk of introducing non-native species worldwide. Mesocosm experiments were performed to assess the morphological changes and viability of zooplankton (copepods), Artemia salina cysts, and the growth potential of marine bacteria after the hydrodynamic cavitation treatment with a different number of cycles. Our preliminary results confirmed the significant efficiency of the treatment since more than 98% of the copepods and A. salina cysts were damaged, in comparison with the initial population. The efficiency increased with the number of the hydrodynamic cavitation cycles, or in combination with a separation technique for cysts. There was also a significant decrease in bacterial abundance and growth rate, compared to the initial number and growth potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of salinity, commercial salts, and water type on cultivation of the cryptophyte microalgae Rhodomonas salina and the calanoid Copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Thoisen, Christina V.; Carron-Cabaret, Thibaut

    2018-01-01

    Marine aquaculture facilities positioned far from the sea need access to seawater (SW); hence, commercial salts are often the chosen solution. In marine hatcheries, most fish larvae require live feed (zooplankton) that are in turn fed with microalgae. The objective of this research was to investi......Marine aquaculture facilities positioned far from the sea need access to seawater (SW); hence, commercial salts are often the chosen solution. In marine hatcheries, most fish larvae require live feed (zooplankton) that are in turn fed with microalgae. The objective of this research...... was to investigate the applicability of commercial salts and clarify the potential effects on the cultivation of the microalga Rhodomonas salina and the copepod Acartia tonsa. Three commercial salts were tested, Red Sea Salt (RS), Red Sea – Coral Pro Salt (CP), and Blue Treasure Salt. R. salina was cultured...

  18. Uso da solução salina para manutenção de acessos venosos em adultos: uma revisão

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Francimar Tinoco de; Silva,Lolita Dopico da

    2006-01-01

    Trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a prática da salinização em cateteres venosos periféricos. O estudo objetivou analisar os artigos científicos sobre o uso de solução salina na manutenção da permeabilidade de cateteres venosos periféricos em adultos, indexados no MedLine e LILACS no período de 1995 a 2005. A amostra consistiu de 5 artigos os quais foram analisados quanto à procedência e periódico de publicação, ao delineamento do estudo, a amostragem, e ao efeito da solução salina. ...

  19. Cytotoxic activity of carotenoid rich fractions from Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina microalgae and the identification of the phytoconstituents using LC-DAD/ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Farouk K; Hussein, Rehab A; Mahmoud, Khaled; Abdo, Sayeda M

    2018-02-01

    Microalgae represent a rich source that satisfies the growing need for novel ingredients of nutriceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and food supplements. Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina microalgae are isolated from the Egyptian hydro-flora and are reported for their potent antioxidant activities. The cytotoxic activity of different fractions of both microalgae was investigated on 4 cell lines HePG2, MCF7, HCT116, and A549. The carotenoid rich fraction of H. pluvialis showed potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell line and moderate activity against both liver and breast cancer cell lines. On the other hand, the carotenoid rich fraction of D. salina showed mild cytotoxic activity on breast and liver cancer cell lines. The carotenoid rich fraction of H. pluvialis was analysed using LC-DAD/ESI-MS and the major carotenoids were identified either free as well as bounded to fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 advanced oxidation on unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina: implications for removal of invasive species from ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Donghai; You, Hong; Du, Jiaxuan; Chen, Chuan; Jin, Darui

    2011-01-01

    The UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 process was investigated for ballast water treatment using Dunaliella salina as an indicator. Inactivation curves were obtained, and the toxicity of effluent was determined. Compared with individual unit processes using ozone or UV/Ag-TiO2, the inactivation efficiency of D. salina by the combined UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 process was enhanced. The presence of ozone caused an immediate decrease in chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentration. Inactivation efficiency and ch1-a removal efficiency were positively correlated with ozone dose and ultraviolet intensity. The initial total residual oxidant (TRO) concentration of effluent increased with increasing ozone dose, and persistence of TRO resulted in an extended period of toxicity. The results suggest that UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 has potential for ballast water treatment.

  1. DNA sequences of troglobitic nicoletiid insects support Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala as a single biogeographical area: Implications for Astyanax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blind Mexican tetra fish, Astyanax mexicanus, has become the most influential model for research of cave adapted organisms. Many authors assume that the Sierra de Guatemala populations and the Sierra de El Abra populations are derived from two independent colonizations. This assumption arises in part from biogeography. The 100 m high, 100 m wide Servilleta Canyon of the Boquillas River separates both mountain ranges and is an apparent barrier for troglobite dispersion. Anelpistina quinterensis (Nicoletiidae, Zygentoma, Insecta is one of the most troglomorphic nicoletiid silverfish insects ever described. 16S rRNA sequences support that this species migrated underground to reach both mountain ranges within less than 12,000 years. Furthermore, literature shows a plethora of aquatic and terrestrial cave restricted species that inhabit both mountain ranges. Thus, the Servilleta canyon has not been an effective biological barrier that prevented underground migration of troglobites between the Sierra de Guatemala and the Sierra de El Abra. The Boquillas River has changed its course throughout time. Caves that in the past connected the two Sierras were only recently geologically truncated by the erosion of the new river course. It is likely that, with the geological changes of the area and throughout the 2-8 million years of evolutionary history of cave Astyanax, there have been opportunities to migrate across the Servilleta canyon.

  2. Efeito alelopático e toxicidade frente à Artemia salina Leach dos extatos do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius Allelopathic effects and toxicity against Artemia salina Leach of extracts of the fruit of Euterpe edulis Martius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é um processo envolvendo metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas que infl uenciam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas. Devido à toxicidade dos herbicidas sintéticos para o meio ambiente e para a saúde humana tem-se aumentado o interesse na exploração da alelopatia como uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho avaliou efeito dos extratos dos frutos de Euterpe edulis Martius sobre o desenvolvimento de cipselas e plântulas de Lactuca sativa Linné, foram determinados o índice de velocidade de germinação, o crescimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. Para a avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi realizado o ensaio de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach determinando-se a CL50 e percentual de mortalidade. A fração remanescente demonstrou efeito alelopático, pois todas as concentrações alteraram os valores do índice de velocidade de germinação e as concentrações de 0,2 e 0,4 mg inibiram tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto o crescimento do hipocótilo. No ensaio de toxicidade todos os extratos apresentaram CL50 superior a 1000 ppm e 0% de mortalidade das artemias, indicando a não toxicidade dos extratos.Allelopathy is a process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants that influence growth and development of agricultural systems. Because of the toxicity of synthetic herbicides to the environment and human health, there has been increased interest in exploiting allelopathy as an alternative for weed control. This study evaluated the eff ect of extracts of Euterpe edulis Martius fruits on the development of cypselae and seedlings of Lactuca sativa Linné; the germination speed index, radicle and hypocotyl growth were determined. To evaluate the toxicity of the extracts the toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach was used, where the LC50 and mortality rate were determined. Th e remaining fraction showed allelopathic effect

  3. Aplicación del bioensayo de Artemia salina en el análisis general de plantas medicinales brasileñas

    OpenAIRE

    Montanher, Ana Beatriz Pimentel; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa

    2002-01-01

    Extractos de once especies de la flora brasileña fueron estudiados para evaluar la actividad citotóxica por el test de Artemia salina. Las plantas seleccionadas fueron: Baccharis pseudotenuifolia, Baccharis ligustrina, Baccharis platypoda, Baccharis coridifolia, Polygala paniculata, Polygala sabulosa, Croton celtidifolius, Cyathea phalerata, Trichilia catigua, Eugenia uniflora y Schinus molle. Los resultados obtenidos para los extractos crudos de B. pseudotenuifolia, B. ligustrina, B. c...

  4. Effect of salinity on the quantity and quality of carotenoids accumulated by Dunaliella salina (strain CONC-007 and Dunaliella bardawil (strain ATCC 30861 Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA I GÓMEZ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dunaliella salina and D. bardawil are well-known microalgae accumulating high levels of b-carotene under growth-limiting conditions. In both taxa, this pigment is primarily composed of the isomers 9-cis and all-trans. The 9-cis b-carotene occurs only in natural sources and is the most attractive from a commercial point of view. The conditions that enhance the preferred accumulation of 9-cis b-carotene in D. salina are controversial and they have not been well established yet. This study examined the effect of salinity on the quantity and quality of total carotenoids and b-carotene isomers accumulated by D. salina (strain CONC-007 and D. bardawil (strain ATCC 30861 grown in two media with different nutritional compositions (PES and ART and at salt concentrations of 1M, 2M and 3M NaCl. Total carotenoids were determined by spectrophotometry and b-carotene isomers, by HPLC. The highest carotenoid contents per cell were obtained at 2M NaCl in both taxa. In both media, an increase of the 9-cis/all-trans b-carotene ratio was observed in D. bardawil when the salt concentration increased, with a maximum value of 2.6 (in ART medium at 3M NaCl. In D. salina this ratio did not exhibit the same pattern, and the salt concentrations for maximal ratios were different in both media. The highest ratio obtained for this strain was 4.3 (in ART medium at 2M NaCl.

  5. Developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Artemia salina cysts and larvae: Uptake, accumulation, excretion and toxic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Song; Luo, Fei; Tu, Xiao; Chen, Wei-Chao; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2017-10-01

    Using Artemia salina (A. salina) cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae [instar I (0-24 h), II (24-48 h) and III (48-72 h)] as experimental models, developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) was evaluated. Results revealed that hatchability of capsulated and decapsulated cysts was significantly decreased (p larvae in 600 mg/L. The EC 50 values for swimming inhibition of instar I, II and III were 535, 385 and 472 mg/L, respectively. Instar II showed the greatest sensitivity to O-MWCNTs, and followed by instar III, instar I, decapsulated cysts and capsulated cysts. Effects on hatchability, mortality and swimming were accounted for O-MWCNTs rather than metal catalyst impurities. Body length was decreased with the concentrations increased from 0 to 600 mg/L. O-MWCNTs attached onto the cysts, gill and body surface, resulting in irreversible damages. Reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities were increased following exposure, indicating that the effects were related to oxidative stress. O-MWCNTs were ingested and distributed in phagocyte, lipid vesicle and intestine. Most of the accumulated O-MWCNTs were excreted by A. salina at 72 h, but some still remained in the organism. Data of uptake kinetics showed that O-MWCNTs contents in A. salina were gradually increased from 1 to 48 h and followed by rapidly decreased from 48 to 72 h with a range from 5.5 to 28.1 mg/g. These results so far indicate that O-MWCNTs have the potential to affect aquatic organisms when released into the marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Avances en el pronóstico climático de las anomalías de lluvia en la Región Pampeana Advances in the climatic forecast of rainfall anomalies in the Pampa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Labraga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos globales de la circulación general de la atmósfera (MCGA son capaces de simular anomalías climáticas estadísticamente significativas de escala estacional o mayor, asociadas con anomalías en la temperatura de la superficie del mar. Los MCGA pueden estimar efectivamente el signo y la probabilidad de tales anomalías climáticas cuando su extensión es varias veces mayor que la resolución espacial del modelo. En este trabajo se presentan algunos avances en la estimación de las anomalías de la lluvia en 22 localidades de la Región Pampeana Argentina mediante downscaling estadístico de la información producida por un ensamble de veinte simulaciones con el MCGA CSIRO-9, prescribiendo la temperatura de la superficie del mar de acuerdo con los valores diarios observados en el período 1987-1998. El downscaling estadístico de la lluvia produjo una mayor correlación con las observaciones locales que los datos de lluvia del MCGA interpolados sobre cada sitio. Los resultados de un Análisis de las Componentes Principales aplicado a los datos observados y estimados indican que este método de downscaling permite discernir áreas con diferente comportamiento de la lluvia dentro de la región de estudio.Atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM are able to simulate statistically significant climate anomalies of seasonal or larger time-scales, associated with anomalies in the sea surface temperature. AGCMs can effectively estimate the sign and probability of such climate anomalies whenever their extent is several times greater than the spatial resolution of the model. Some progress attained in the estimation of rainfall anomalies in 22 sites of the Pampa Region, Argentina, by means of statistical downscaling of the output from an AGCM are presented in this work. Downscaling models were based in the multiple lineal regression method. Climatic anomalies of the atmospheric independent variables required in the rainfall downscaling

  7. Impacto del ENOS sobre los rendimientos de maíz en la región pampeana argentina Impact of the ENSO on corn yields in the Argentinean pampas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Fernández Long

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de “El Niño - Oscilación del Sur” (ENOS es uno de los principales responsables de la variabilidad climática interanual, con influencia sobre la región pampeana argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el impacto del ENOS sobre las variaciones anuales de la producción de maíz. La región fue dividida en 10 zonas en las cuales los rendimientos tienen una variabilidad interanual homogénea. Se utilizaron diferentes índices del ENOS. Los resultados indicaron que, en la mayor parte de la región, los desvíos de los rendimientos son, en general, positivos durante eventos “El Niño” y negativos durante “La Niña”. Sin embargo, el impacto es muy fuerte al norte y centro de la región analizada, y se debilita hacia el sur. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires el comportamiento es diferente que en el resto. Los índices promediados de mayo a julio son, en general, un buen indicador de la influencia del ENOS sobre la productividad de los cultivos, y brindan una adecuada información para la toma de decisiones de la empresa agropecuaria, con suficiente anticipación respecto del comienzo de la campaña.The “El Niño Southern Oscillation” (ENSO phenomenon is one of the main responsible factor for interannual climate variability in the “pampas” region. This work aims to analyze the impact of ENSO on the annual variations of corn production. The region was divided into 10 areas in which yields have a homogeneous interannual variability. Five ENSO indexes were used The results indicated that, in most parts of the region, the deviations of trend line yields are, in general, positive during “El Niño” events and negative during “La Niña”. However, the impact is very strong in the North and Centre of the analyzed region and weakens southward. In the southeast of the province of Buenos Aires, the behavior is different than the rest. Averaging indexes from May to July we obtained a good indicator

  8. Registro de Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae del Sur de la región Pampeana Record of Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae of the southern Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Plischuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudios prospectivos tendientes a la detección de protistas asociados a ápidos en la región Pampeana, se observó la presencia de esporos ovales bicóncavos y grupos de esporos (cúmulos en los túbulos de Malpighi de abejas de Dufaur, partido de Saavedra, sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los esporos maduros midieron 4,8 ± 0,05 x 2,4 ± 0,03 μm y la carga (intensidad promedió 5,71 ± 1,49 x 10(6 esporos/abeja. Las detecciones se efectuaron entre julio y octubre de 2006 y la prevalencia en las colmenas positivas osciló entre 1 y 16,7 %. Las características morfológicas de los esporos, el lugar de desarrollo y la especie huésped involucrada sugieren que el microorganismo en cuestión, pertenece al género Nephridiophaga y sería N. apis Ivani, especie tipo cuyo conocimiento es extremadamente limitado. El hallazgo constituye el primer registro de un nefridiofágido asociado a A mellifera fuera del continente europeo.During surveys for the detection of protists associated to Apidae in the Pampas region, biconcave oval spores, and spore clumps were observed in the Malpighian tubules of honeybees from Dufaur, Saavedra county, southwestern Buenos Aires province. Mature spores measured 4.8 ± 0.05 x 2.4 ± 0.03 μm, and mean spore load was 5.71 ± 1.49 x 10(6 per honeybee. Detections were from July to October 2006, and prevalence in positive colonies ranged from 1 to 16.7%. Morphology of the spores, the site of development, and the identity of the host species suggest that the isolated microorganism belongs to the genus Nephridiophaga and would be N apis Ivani, the type species, knowledge on which is extremely limited. The finding constitutes the first record of a nephridiophagid in honeybees outside of Europe.

  9. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  10. Uranium mining in Sierra Pintada: knowledge, epistemic communities and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Demarco, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the conflict triggered by the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) proposing to re-open the Mining Complex of Sierra Pintada, in San Rafael, Province of Mendoza. Since 2004 when the Commission submitted the first report to the Ministry of Public Works and Environment of Mendoza to obtain the necessary permission to restart the works in the mine, several protests have taken place and many legal measures were taken in order to stop any resuming attempts. This study argues that, although CNEA has been an epistemic community capable of applying their policy proposals in the nuclear field, their technical knowledge is currently not sufficient to design a policy, and moreover, to hold that they are working for local and sustainable development. Only 'puzzling' 'with actors' paradigms and knowledge is possible to fit together their demands and achieve a public policy, or solution, for this problem. (author) [es

  11. Development of a Pediatric Ebola Predictive Score, Sierra Leone1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Kevin; Naveed, Asad; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohamed Boie; Baion, David E.; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia; Williamson, Elizabeth; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2018-01-01

    We compared children who were positive for Ebola virus disease (EVD) with those who were negative to derive a pediatric EVD predictor (PEP) score. We collected data on all children <13 years of age admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in Sierra Leone during August 2014–March 2015 and performed multivariable logistic regression. Among 1,054 children, 309 (29%) were EVD positive and 697 (66%) EVD negative, with 48 (5%) missing. Contact history, conjunctivitis, and age were the strongest positive predictors for EVD. The PEP score had an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.80. A PEP score of 7/10 was 92% specific and 44% sensitive; 3/10 was 30% specific, 94% sensitive. The PEP score could correctly classify 79%–90% of children and could be used to facilitate triage into risk categories, depending on the sensitivity or specificity required. PMID:29350145

  12. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  13. Element Verification and Comparison in Sierra/Solid Mechanics Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Roth, William

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project was to study the effects of element selection on the Sierra/SM solutions to five common solid mechanics problems. A total of nine element formulations were used for each problem. The models were run multiple times with varying spatial and temporal discretization in order to ensure convergence. The first four problems have been compared to analytical solutions, and all numerical results were found to be sufficiently accurate. The penetration problem was found to have a high mesh dependence in terms of element type, mesh discretization, and meshing scheme. Also, the time to solution is shown for each problem in order to facilitate element selection when computer resources are limited.

  14. Cultural heritage and food identity: The pre-Hispanic salt of Zapotitlán Salinas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard, Marie-Christine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt production in Zapotitlán de las Salinas (Puebla, Mexico dates back to pre-Hispanic times when the Popolocas inhabiting the Tehuacán Valley paid it as tribute to the Aztecs. The technique to obtain salt has changed little over the past 500 years and know-how continues to be transmitted from generation to generation of salters (salineros. It is a resource that is deeply anchored in the identity of the inhabitants of Zapotitlán and regional cuisine. Salt has endured over the centuries as a perennial resource and constitutes a source of income for its owners. However, despite these historical and cultural factors of territorial anchorage, salters have not attained the level of organization necessary to obtain a fair value in the market. Failure to appreciate this product has led to the abandonment of a large percentage of the saltworks that once existed. This essay will analyze the socio-economic and cultural constraints that have prevented this community from attaining the level of territorial governance necessary to enhance the market value of Zapotitlán salt on the market but how, with the depletion of other economic options, its people are returning to the salt, with new strategies. Lastly, the paper will conclude with a consideration of its future potential.La producción de sal de Zapotitlán de las Salinas (Puebla, México se remonta a épocas prehispánicas cuando los popolocas, moradores del valle de Tehuacán, lo tributaban a los aztecas. La técnica para la obtención de la sal ha cambiado poco desde hace 500 años y el saber-hacer se sigue transmitiendo entre las generaciones de salineros. Es un recurso profundamente anclado en la identidad de los habitantes de Zapotitlán y en la gastronomía regional. Su existencia ha perdurado en el transcurso de los siglos por ser un recurso perenne y constituir una renta para sus dueños. Sin embargo, a pesar de los factores históricos y culturales de anclaje territorial, los salineros no

  15. Assembly of the Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Tizian draft genome sequence reveals differences within major resistance complex 1 as compared to the cv. Salinas reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Nelkner, Johanna; Gordin, Miriam; Rupp, Oliver; Winkler, Anika; Bremges, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2018-02-10

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) is an important annual plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The commercial lettuce cultivar Tizian has been used in various scientific studies investigating the interaction of the plant with phytopathogens or biological control agents. Here, we present the de novo draft genome sequencing and gene prediction for this specific cultivar derived from transcriptome sequence data. The assembled scaffolds amount to a size of 2.22 Gb. Based on RNAseq data, 31,112 transcript isoforms were identified. Functional predictions for these transcripts were determined within the GenDBE annotation platform. Comparison with the cv. Salinas reference genome revealed a high degree of sequence similarity on genome and transcriptome levels, with an average amino acid identity of 99%. Furthermore, it was observed that two large regions are either missing or are highly divergent within the cv. Tizian genome compared to cv. Salinas. One of these regions covers the major resistance complex 1 region of cv. Salinas. The cv. Tizian draft genome sequence provides a valuable resource for future functional and transcriptome analyses focused on this lettuce cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tolerance induction to stress caused by lavender (Lavandula angustifolia extracts in the microalga Dunaliella salina through metabolic modifications and β-carotene production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mazang-Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory or stimulatory effect of one plant on other plant species through the released chemical compounds into the environment, known as allelochemicals, is called allelopathy. In the present study, effect of aqueous extracts of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia leaves on growth pattern and ability of β-carotene production in unicellular green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated. Based on these results, phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts was relatively low. Treated cultures with extract concentrations of 1, 2, 3 and 4 % showed that the process of cell division was ceased because of extracts phytotoxicity. However, the chlorophyll and β-carotene concentration pronouncedly increased in phytotoxin-treated cells, so that the highest of these values were detected in 3 % extracts-exposed cells. Percentage change of all three fresh weight, total sugar and protein between 0 and 48 h of phytotoxins treatment was significantly increased concurrently with increasing dose of extracts. These results suggest that D. salina tolerate allelochemicals-induced stress by metabolic modifications. Therefore, phytotoxins-tolerance mechanisms in D. salina are associated with physiological and metabolic adjustments by allocating the carbon flux to the synthesis of the sugars, chlorophyll and β-carotene, which induce phytotoxins stress tolerance in this alga.

  17. Rock-Ice Feature Inventory for the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sierra Nevada is a tectonic uplift mountain range with a gradual gain in elevation on the west side and a steep escarpment on the east. Most of the mapped...

  18. California; Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District; Approval of Air Plan Revisions; Wood Burning Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of particulate matter (PM) from wood burning devices.

  19. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  20. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  1. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  2. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  3. Discovery of the Sierra Pintada uranium district, Mendoza Province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, F.; Belluco, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1956, uranium-bearing minerals have been known to exist in Sierra Pintada, Mendoza Province, Argentina. Based on paragenetic considerations, a first radiometric prospection was carried out, leading to the discovery of two groups of anomalies (Puesto Agua del Toro and Cuesta de los Terneros), such as vein-type deposits, with uraninite and 'yellow minerals' and one sandstone-type deposit (Puesto La Josefa), related to sediments with carbon trash. Some recent geological research and surveys in the area, and a reduced drilling programme carried out on selected anomalies, led to reinterpretation of the potential of the area. Furthermore, and as a result of an airborne radiometric prospection performed in mid-1968, numerous anomalies have been discovered. The main constellation of anomalies, along the flanks of the El Tigre Brachyanticline, occurs in sandstones of Permian age. Explored by 80 000 m of drilling, they have shown the existence of several peneconcordant lens-shaped ore bodies of economic size, with uranophane on the surface and prevailing uraninite and some brannerite, coffinite and davidite below the water table. Reserves exceed 20 000 tonnes of U 3 O 8 . A new regional programme with a 4-km drill-grid initiated in 1978 led to the discovery of new ore bodies which are at present being evaluated. The alternatives and discontinuities during the development of the district, the prospecting and exploration techniques employed, and the results achieved in the different stages of the operation are discussed in detail. This case history attempts to illustrate the developing philosophy which was successfully applied in Sierra Pintada, with emphasis on the following points: (a) the need for adequate geological knowledge of the area; (b) the advantage of a massive survey (in this case, air survey); (c) the necessity for exploration (drilling) in order to define the anomalies and make their evaluation possible; and (d) the convenience of extending exploration

  4. Los recursos humanos en un espacio natural protegido: Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Enriqueta Cózar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Nevada, como todas las áreas de montaña españolas y gran parte del territorio interior andaluz, ha experimentado durante el siglo XX un considerable retroceso demográfico. La población con la que llega al umbral del siglo XXI es una cuarta parte más pequeña que la registrada en 1900 y un tercio inferior a la de 1950. Diversos y complejos factores, tanto internos como externos al área de montaña, de carácter más económico que demográfico, fueron los desencadenantes de una fuerte emigración. La gran pérdida de población ha originado cambios trascendentales en la demografía y en la actividad económica de Sierra Nevada. En la actualidad, la población de este espacio protegido se caracteriza por una desequilibrada distribución en el territorio, un escaso crecimiento natural, un acelerado envejecimiento y una actividad mayoritariamente terciaria. La declaración, en Julio de 1989, como espacio natural protegido bajo la figura de Parque Natural, y la más reciente de Parque Nacional, apenas ha modificado la inercia demográfica regresiva de la mayor parte de sus municipios; tan sólo se ha podido apreciar una cierta tendencia a la estabilización demográfica de la población total del macizo

  5. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  6. Knowledge of breast cancer in women in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHEE Shepherd

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has been described as one of the life-threatening diseases affecting women and is a major problem in women’s health issues. The unrecorded number of cases of breast lumps and breast cancer observed in women in Sierra Leone prompted the researcher to organize a “Breast Week” during which 1 200 women were educated on breast cancer and the importance of breast health. This research is a follow up of the “Breast Week” which was organized in Freetown, Sierra Leone The specific objective of this study was to assess whether the knowledge and teachings given to the women who participated in this project was fully understood. A sample size of 120 women (10% who participated in the “Breast Week” was obtained through systematic sampling. A quantitative approach was adopted and a structured interview schedule guided the data collection process. The data were processed through use of SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Texts from open ended questions were categorized and frequency counts were applied to the data. It was found that the majority (96.6% of the women had some knowledge of breast cancer. They linked breast cancer to the signs and symptoms associated with it and were able to describe the disease as one that kills women if not promptly detected and/or treated appropriately. Findings indicate that the majority of the women are aware of the dangers of the disease and had knowledge of someone who had died of breast cancer (59.2%. An assessment of the effectiveness of knowledge on breast cancer showed that these women could identify breast cancer as a disease that affects women and may cause death if not detected on time.

  7. Anfibios y reptiles de la sierra de Cuatro Venados, Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Regalado, N.; Lavariega, M. C.; Gómez-Ugalde, R. M.; Rodríguez-Pérez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles of the Sierra de Cuatro Venados, Oaxaca, Mexico We surveyed amphibian and reptile communities in temperate forest in the Sierra de Cuatro Venados to increase knowledge of the Oaxacan herpetofauna. We obtained 193 visual and 106 voucher records during 38 days of fieldwork. During the study, we recorded 36 of the 40 species predicted to occur in this mountain range: nine amphibians and 27 reptiles, five of which represent new records at the regional scale. Pine-o...

  8. Topographic Evolution of the Sierra Nevada Resolved by Inversion of Low-Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, D. F.; Brandon, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    At present, there are two competing ideas for the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada Range. One idea is that the Sierra Nevada was formed as a monocline in the Cretaceous, marking the transition from the Great Valley forearc basin to the west, and a high Nevadaplano plateau to the east, similar to the west flank of the modern Altiplano of the Andes. Both the thermochronologic signature of local relief and the stable isotopic evidence of a topographic rain shadow support this hypothesis. However, a suite of geomorphic observations suggests that the Sierra gained a large fraction of its present elevation as recently as the Pliocene. This recent surface uplift could have been driven by convective removal of in the lower part of the lithosphere and/or by changes in dynamic topography associated with deep subduction of the Farallon plate. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of low-temperature thermochronology in the Sierra Nevada, which provides a definitive solution, which indicates that both ideas are likely correct. Our analysis is distinguished by three new factors: The first is that we allow for separate evolutions for the local relief and the long-wavelength topography. Second, we use Al-in-Hb paleobarometry to constrain the initial depth of emplacement for the Sierra Nevada plutons. Third, our analysis is tied to a sea-level reference by using the paleo-bathymetric record of the Great Valley basin, where it on-laps the Sierra Nevada batholith. According to our analysis, westward tilting of the Sierra accounts for 2 km of uplift since 20 Ma. Topographic relief increased by a factor of 2. These findings suggest that the Sierra Nevada lost elevation through most of the Tertiary but regained much of its initial elevation following the onset of surface uplift in the Miocene.

  9. Rebuilding after emergency: Revamping agricultural research in Sierra Leone after civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo; Workneh, Sindu; Rhodes, Edward; Sutherland, John

    2009-01-01

    "The civil war in Sierra Leone, caused by a mix of political, social, and economic factors, had a huge impact on the overall economy in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector in particular. The agricultural research system of Sierra Leone was severely affected by the civil war. Research infrastructure was destroyed, laboratories were damaged and abandoned, and well-trained researchers and scientists fled from the country. With the cessation of hostilities in 2002, the gover...

  10. SierraDNA – Demonstrating the Usefulness of Direct ILS Database Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Padgett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovative Interface’s Sierra(™ Integrated Library System (ILS brings with it a Database Navigator Application (SierraDNA - in layman's terms SierraDNA gives Sierra sites read access to their ILS database. Unlike the closed use cases produced by vendor supplied APIs, which restrict Libraries to limited development opportunities, SierraDNA enables sites to publish their own APIs and scripts based upon custom SQL code to meet their own needs and those of their users and processes. In this article we give examples showing how SierraDNA can be utilized to improve Library services. We highlight three example use cases which have benefited our users, enhanced online security and improved our back office processes. In the first use case we employ user access data from our electronic resources proxy server (WAM to detect hacked user accounts. Three scripts are used in conjunction to flag user accounts which are being hijacked to systematically steal content from our electronic resource provider’s websites. In the second we utilize the reading histories of our users to augment our search experience with an Amazon style “People who borrowed this book also borrowed…these books” feature. Two scripts are used together to determine which other items were borrowed by borrowers of the item currently of interest. And lastly, we use item holds data to improve our acquisitions workflow through an automated demand based ordering process. Our explanation and SQL code should be of direct use for adoption or as examples for other Sierra customers willing to exploit their ILS data in similar ways, but the principles may also be useful to non-Sierra sites that also wish to enhancement security, user services or improve back office processes.

  11. The laboratory environmental algae pond simulator (LEAPS) photobioreactor: Validation using outdoor pond cultures of Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Williams, P.; Edmundson, S.; Chen, P.; Kruk, R.; Cullinan, V.; Crowe, B.; Lundquist, T.

    2017-09-01

    A bench-scale photobioreactor system, termed Laboratory Environmental Algae Pond Simulator (LEAPS), was designed and constructed to simulate outdoor pond cultivation for a wide range of geographical locations and seasons. The LEAPS consists of six well-mixed glass column photobioreactors sparged with CO2-enriched air to maintain a set-point pH, illuminated from above by a programmable multicolor LED lighting (0 to 2,500 µmol/m2-sec), and submerged in a temperature controlled water-bath (-2 °C to >60 °C). Measured incident light intensities and water temperatures deviated from the respective light and temperature set-points on average only 2.3% and 0.9%, demonstrating accurate simulation of light and temperature conditions measured in outdoor ponds. In order to determine whether microalgae strains cultured in the LEAPS exhibit the same linear phase biomass productivity as in outdoor ponds, Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina were cultured in the LEAPS bioreactors using light and temperature scripts measured previously in the respective outdoor pond studies. For Chlorella sorokiniana, the summer season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was 6.6% and 11.3% lower than in the respective outdoor ponds in Rimrock, Arizona, and Delhi, California; however, these differences were not statistically significant. For Nannochloropsis salina, the winter season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was statistically significantly higher (15.2%) during the 27 day experimental period than in the respective outdoor ponds in Tucson, Arizona. However, when considering only the first 14 days, the LEAPS biomass productivity was only 9.2% higher than in the outdoor ponds, a difference shown to be not statistically significant. Potential reasons for the positive or negative divergence in LEAPS performance, relative to outdoor ponds, are discussed. To demonstrate the utility of the LEAPS in predicting productivity, two other strains – Scenedesmus obliquus and Stichococcus minor

  12. La ingeniería y el descarte artefactual de la desalación solar de agua : las industrias de Las Salinas, Sierra Gorda y Oficina Domeyko (1872-1907)

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano-Escudero, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, at the Atacama Desert, a phenomenon of competition occurred between different industrial water desalination techniques, one of which had excellent results and a long life using solar energy. It is a significant fact that this technology was distributed and used in several places in the same desert, when its existence and / or results were diffused in London, New York, Madrid and Santiago de Chile. Nevertheless it seems no to be known in other parts of world befor...

  13. Ecología de la fauna silvestre de la sierra nevada y la Sierra del Ajusco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Granados Sánchez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre la fauna silvestre de la Sierra del Ajusco y la Sierra Nevada, localizadas dentro de la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana (FVT, en la porción oriental del límite meridional de la Cuenca de México. La enorme riqueza biológica de esta zona que rodea la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México, uno de los mayores complejos urbanos del mundo, ha sobrevivido durante décadas al impacto de la urbanización de las áreas forestales, explotación de recursos naturales, contaminación, cacería, incendios y pastoreo. A pesar de esto, se desconocen muchos de los factores que regulan la dinámica de los ecosistemas en esta región. Con relación a la fauna silvestre la carencia de información es mucho más evidente, aspectos elementales como la diversidad de especies, las interacciones ecológicas, la función de los organismos en el ecosistema, las condiciones de estrés a que están sometidos, han sido poco explorados. En esta investigación se recurrió a observaciones de campo y a la consulta de diferentes fuentes bibliográficas para estimar la riqueza de especies de mamíferos, aves, reptiles y anfibios; las relaciones ecológicas entre los mismos y las consecuencias de la modificación de su hábitat producto de las actividades humanas.

  14. Noteworthy records of two species of mammals in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Mexico Registros notables de dos especies de mamíferos de la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Briones-Salas; María D. Luna-Krauletz; Ariadna Marín-Sánchez; Jorge Servín

    2006-01-01

    We conducted mammal surveys in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte) in Oaxaca, Mexico, and recorded the occurrence of two conspicuous mammal species: the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus) and the coyote (Canis latrans cagottis). Spider monkeys has not been previously recorded in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, and coyotes have not been previously observed in Mexico at elevations as high as the present one (3 200 mas1) in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca.Se efectuaron colectas de mamífero...

  15. Corrosividade Causada por Soluções Salinas Empregadas na Estabilização Dimensional da Madeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se avaliar a corrosividade de soluções salinas antes e depois de sua impregnação na madeira. Soluções com 5% de concentração de cloreto de lítio, carbonato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de zinco e sulfato de cobre II foram mantidas durante 6 horas, a 25 °C, 45 °C e 100 °C em contato com amostras de 1,25 cm × 0,1 cm × 7,5 cm (largura × espessura × comprimento produzidas com chapas de aço carbono antes e depois de seu contato com amostras de madeira de Corymbia torelliana e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Não se observou efeito da temperatura na corrosão das soluções puras. Depois do contato com a madeira houve incremento da corrosividade para as soluções de sulfato de zinco e de cobre II. O sulfato de cobre II ocasionou a maior perda de massa nas chapas, não sendo recomendado seu contato com superfícies metálicas, como usinas de tratamento e câmaras de secagem de madeira.

  16. Growth of mono- and mixed cultures of Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum on struvite as a nutrient source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Siccardi, Anthony J. [Texas AgriLife Research Mariculture Lab., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Huysman, Nathan D. [Texas AgriLife Research Mariculture Lab., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Wyatt, Nicholas B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hewson, John C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lane, Todd W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-26

    In this paper, the suitability of crude and purified struvite (MgNH4PO4), a major precipitate in wastewater streams, was investigated for renewable replacement of conventional nitrogen and phosphate resources for cultivation of microalgae. Bovine effluent wastewater stone, the source of crude struvite, was characterized for soluble N/P, trace metals, and biochemical components and compared to the purified mineral. Cultivation trials using struvite as a major nutrient source were conducted using two microalgae production strains, Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, in both lab and outdoor pilot-scale raceways in a variety of seasonal conditions. Both crude and purified struvite-based media were found to result in biomass productivities at least as high as established media formulations (maximum outdoor co-culture yield ~20 ± 4 g AFDW/m2/day). Finally, analysis of nutrient uptake by the alga suggest that struvite provides increased nutrient utilization efficiency, and that crude struvite satisfies the trace metals requirement and results in increased pigment productivity for both microalgae strains.

  17. Las expediciones a salinas: caravanas en la pampa colonial. El abastecimiento de sal a Buenos Aires (Siglos XVII y XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Darío Taruselli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El abastecimiento de sal en cantidades sufi cientes fue una de las principales preocupaciones del Cabildo de Buenos Aires. Fue este un producto de importancia vital no sólo por su aplicación en las comidas cotidianas, sino también por su aplicación en la conservación de las carnes y los cueros. Las características de su uso y su obtención, aumentaron su valor, no sólo comercial sino también estratégico. El hallazgo de yacimientos locales permitió a los habitantes de Buenos Aires abastecerse mediante la práctica de expediciones periódicas que fueron promovidas por las autoridades capitulares, lo que les permitió ejercer un mayor control sobre dicha producción. Como la actividad requería una importante capacidad de transporte y de mano de obra, era una práctica aprovechada por muchos para emplearse en ella y para obtener benefi cios con el comercio que se generaba en la oportunidad. Esto convertía a las expediciones a salinas, organizadas por las autoridades de la ciudad, en grandes caravanas que se internaban en pleno territorio indí-gena, involucrando un amplio conjunto de actores sociales tanto de la ciudad como de la campaña y el mundo indígena

  18. Laboratory scale photobioreactor for high production of microalgae Rhodomonas salina used as food for intensive copepod cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuy, Minh Vu Thi; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Hansen, Benni Winding

    Introduction Microalgae are essential feeds for many cultured molluscs, larvae of marine fishes, crustaceans as well as other important live feeds including rotifers, Artemia and copepods (Muller-Feuga, 2000). Microalgae are grown either in open culture systems (ponds) or closed systems (photobio......Introduction Microalgae are essential feeds for many cultured molluscs, larvae of marine fishes, crustaceans as well as other important live feeds including rotifers, Artemia and copepods (Muller-Feuga, 2000). Microalgae are grown either in open culture systems (ponds) or closed systems...... for copepods (Støttrup and Jensen, 1990; Zhang et al., 2013). Despite the benefit of using R. salina in cultivation of copepods, to our knowledge, there is no report on the production of this microalga at industrial scale to supply sufficient food for mass production of copepods. We intend to conduct the basic...... was cultivated continuously at temperature of 20ºC and salinity of 30ppt in two tubular PBRs with addition of CO2. The experiment was run two times and each PBR in 18 - 30 days. Periodically, the algae were sampled for analyzing the growth, biochemical composition and production. An exponential light model...

  19. Effects of selected metal oxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina larvae: evaluation of mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Mesarič, Tina; Milivojević, Tamara; Sepčić, Kristina; Gallus, Lorenzo; Carbone, Serena; Ferrando, Sara; Faimali, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the toxicity of selected metal oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs) on the brine shrimp Artemia salina, by evaluating mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses. Larvae were exposed to tin(IV) oxide (stannic oxide (SnO2)), cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2) and iron(II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) NPs for 48 h in seawater, with MO-NP suspensions from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/mL. Mortality and behavioural responses (swimming speed alteration) and enzymatic activities of cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase were evaluated. Although the MO-NPs did not induce any mortality of the larvae, they caused changes in behavioural and biochemical responses. Swimming speed significantly decreased in larvae exposed to CeO2 NPs. Cholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were significantly inhibited in larvae exposed to SnO2 NPs, whereas cholinesterase activity significantly increased after CeO2 NP and Fe3O4 NP exposure. Catalase activity significantly increased in larvae exposed to Fe3O4 NPs. In conclusion, swimming alteration and cholinesterase activity represent valid endpoints for MO-NP exposure, while glutathione-S-transferase and catalase activities appear to be NP-specific.

  20. Topography and stoichiometry of acidic proteins in large ribosomal subunits from Artemia salina as determined by crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiumi, T.; Wahba, A.J.; Traut, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 60S subunits isolated from Artemia salina ribosomes were treated with the crosslinking reagent 2-iminothiolane under mild conditions. Proteins were extracted and fractions containing crosslinked acidic proteins were obtained by stepwise elution from CM-cellulose. Each fraction was analyzed by diagonal (two-dimensional nonreducing-reducing) NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Crosslinked proteins below the diagonal were radioiodinated and identified by two-dimensional acidic urea-NaDodSO 4 gel electrophoresis. Each of the acidic proteins P1 and P2 was crosslinked individually to the same third protein, PO. The fractions containing acidic proteins were also analyzed by two-dimensional nonequilibrium isoelectric focusing-NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two crosslinked complexes were observed that coincide in isoelectric positions with monomeric P1 and P2, respectively. Both P1 and P2 appear to form crosslinked homodimers. These results suggest the presence in the 60S subunit of (P1) 2 and (P2) 2 dimers, each of which is anchored to PO. Protein PO appears to play the same role as L10 in Escherichia coli ribosomes and may form a pentameric complex with the two dimers in the 60S subunits

  1. EL PAN VS. SALINAS O EL DILEMA DEL PRISIONERO: REFORMA INSTITUCIONAL Y COOPERACIÓN COMO ESTRATEGIA POLÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gómez López

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza, desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos, la estrategia que el Partido Acción Nacional desarrolló frente al gobierno de Carlos Salinas de Gortari luego de la turbulenta elección presidencial de 1988. El objetivo es demostrar que entre estos adversarios se estableció un tipo de juego cuyo modelo a menudo se utiliza para analizar procesos de transición: el Dilema del prisionero, con un desenlace, al menos en este caso, cooperativo. Como en todo dilema, en este juego la posibilidad de la cooperación implica la existencia de un escenario aceptable para ambos adversarios, pese a que en primer lugar se busquen resultados opuestos. En este caso, dicho escenario se relaciona con el hecho de que el objetivo central en la estrategia panista era lograr reformas institucionales que hicieran avanzar la transición mexicana, de manera que le fuera posible llegar al poder; un objetivo cuya materia —las reformas institucionales— resultaba perfectamente negociable para su adversario presidencial.

  2. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality in the 3,016-square-mile Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project. The GAMA Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow-aquifer systems in parts of Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The shallow-aquifer system in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was defined as those parts of the aquifer system shallower than the perforated depth intervals of public-supply wells, which generally corresponds to the part of the aquifer system used by domestic wells. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers can differ from the quality in the deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater can be more vulnerable to surficial contamination.Samples were collected from 170 sites that were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method. The study unit was divided into 4 study areas, each study area was divided into grid cells, and 1 well was sampled in each of the 100 grid cells (grid wells). The grid wells were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells. A greater spatial density of data was achieved in 2 of the study areas by dividing grid cells in those study areas into subcells, and in 70 subcells, samples were collected from exterior faucets at sites where there were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells (shallow-well tap sites).Field water-quality indicators (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were measured, and samples for analysis of inorganic

  3. Sierra Elvira limestone: petrophysical characteristics of an Andalusian heritage stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde, I.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “Sierra Elvira stone” is one of the ornamental building stones most widely used in the historical monuments of eastern Andalusia. A Liassic age limestone, it appears in the central section of the Baetic Mountains and more specifically in the Middle Subbaetic domain. While the most common variety is a crinoid limestone, a micritic limestone of the same age has also been quarried, albeit in much smaller quantities. These stones form very thick beds, up to nearly 5 m deep, that run in consistently parallel lines and have a dip angle that facilitates quarrying.With petrographic, physical and mechanical properties that ensure stone strength and durability, it is a high quality building material suitable for both structural and ornamental purposes. These properties can be attributed to the minimal open porosity and concomitant excellent water resistance that characterize the stone, as well as to its high mechanical strength and low textural anisotropy, both elastic and mechanical. With such attributes, the stone can be successfully used for any number of purposes, including decorative stonework (portals, fountains, plinths, structural members (column shafts and bases or urban curbing and paving. Intervention on Sierra de Elvira limestone structures should be limited to cleaning or repair, for consolidating or protective materials are scantly effective.La “Piedra de Sierra Elvira” constituye una de las piedras ornamentales más significativas del Patrimonio Arquitectónico de Andalucía Oriental. Es una roca caliza del Lias que aflora en el Subbético Medio del sector central de las Cordilleras Béticas. El litotipo más explotado es una caliza con crinoides, en bastante menor importancia se ha extraído también otra caliza micrítica de la misma edad. Los bancos son muy potentes, en algunos casos de más de 5 m, con un paralelismo constante y un buzamiento que favorece su explotación en los frentes de cantera.Sus caracter

  4. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz T Paweska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD cases.The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14% tested positive for Ebola virus RNA.The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  5. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-06-01

    In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  6. A biomass energy flow chart for Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoo-Gottfried, K.; Hall, D.O.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial above-ground biomass production and utilisation in Sierra Leone was analysed for the years 1984/5 to 1990/1. The total production of biomass energy was estimated at an annual average of 131 PJ (39% from agriculture, 51% from forestry and 10% from livestock). Of the 117 PJ produced from agricultural and forestry operations, 37 PJ was harvested as firewood and burnt (10.9 GJ or 0.72 t wood per capita per year, supplying 80% of the country's energy), 12 PJ was harvested for food, 66 PJ was unutilised crop and forestry residues, 3 PJ was harvested crop residues for use directly as fuel, and 2 PJ was harvested and used for industrial purposes and not for fuel. Livestock produced wastes with an energy content of 13 PJ of which only 0.1 PJ was collected and used for fuel. Thus 54 PJ (41%) of the 131 PJ of biomass energy produced annually was actually utilised while 49 PJ remained as unused agricultural residues and dung, and a further 27 PJ was unused forestry residues. The total amount of biomass (fuelwood, residues and dung) used directly to provide energy, mostly in households, was estimated at 40 PJ (11.8 GJ per capita per year of 0.79 t fuelwood equivalent). Direct biomass energy utilisation in agroindustry (0.4 PJ) was negligible in comparison. Two assessments of Sierra Leone's biomass standing stock and MAI (mean annual increment) were examined in order to assess the sustainability of various biomass use scenarios. Large differences were found between the MAI of the two assessments, making it difficult to predict sustainability of biomass production and use. The estimation of total standing stock varied between 227 and 366 Mt and the estimation of MAI varied between 15 and 70 Mt. Analysis of the availability and use of the biomass resource is crucial if biomass energy is to be used on a sustainable basis. A software package has been developed and is available to draft biomass flow charts but further work is needed to incorporate social and economic

  7. Monitoring lichens diversity and climatic change in Sierra Nevada (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Calzado, M.ª R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are common organisms in high mountain zones, where they play an important role in ecosystem balance. In recent years, the increasing interest in understanding more about their interactions with abiotic factors has prompted several investigations, some of which have proved their value as bioindicators of climatic conditions. In this context, focusing on climatic change effects on high mountain vascular plants and supported by the Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments project (GLORIA, we have monitored for the first time the lichens biodiversity in Sierra Nevada with the intention of studying the alterations caused by the process of climatic change. The aim of this paper is to explain the monitoring experience developed on the massif and contribute to the first results from the biodiversity and statistical analysis of the sampling data.Los líquenes son organismos comunes en las zonas de alta montaña donde juegan un importante papel en el equilibrio de los ecosistemas. En los últimos años, el creciente interés por entender más acerca de sus interacciones con los factores abióticos ha motivado diversas investigaciones, algunas de las cuales han demostrado su valor como bioindicadores de las condiciones climáticas. En este contexto, centrándonos en los efectos del cambio climático en plantas vasculares de alta montaña y respaldados por el proyecto “Iniciativa para la investigación y el seguimiento global de los ambientes alpinos (GLORIA”, se ha monitorizado por primera vez la diversidad de líquenes en Sierra Nevada con la intención de estudiar las posibles alteraciones que esta pueda sufrir causadas por el proceso de cambio climático. El objetivo de este artículo es el de dar a conocer la experiencia de seguimiento en el macizo y aportar los primeros resultados procedentes del análisis, tanto de la biodiversidad como estadístico, de los datos de muestreo.

  8. Diversidad y distribución de acridios (Orthoptera: Acridoidea en pastizales del sur de la región pampeana, Argentina Diversity and distribution of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Mariottini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los acridios son componentes nativos de los pastizales, dichos sistemas han sido modificados debido a la intensificación de las actividades agrícola-ganaderas y por lo tanto se considera importante estudiar las comunidades de acridios asociadas. Se estudió la diversidad y distribución de acridios en el Sur de la región pampeana a través de muestreos realizados en las comunidades vegetales más representativas del partido de Laprida, provincia de Buenos Aires, durante cinco temporadas (2005-2010. Se recolectaron 22 especies. La subfamilia Melanoplinae fue la más diversa (ocho especies. La mayor cantidad de especies se observó en los pastizales nativos (18. La diversidad en los pastizales alterados (1.75±0.096 fue superior (pIn Argentina, the grasslands of Pampas region comprise approximately 15% of the country. As in other grasslands of the world, grasshoppers are among the most important native herbivores. Their economic importance has been recognized in Argentina since the mid to late nineteenth century, since outbreaks of different species have become recurrent phenomena. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study their diversity and distribution in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region (Laprida county, Buenos Aires province, as one of the most affected areas. The study was conducted during five seasons (2005-10. Sampling sites were represented by the most common plant communities in this area, classified in four categories: native grasslands, disturbed grasslands, implanted pastures and halophilous grasslands. The samplings were conducted from mid-spring to early autumn, with five or six samples per season. We estimated the following population descriptors: species richness (S, eveness (E, dominance (J, and diversity index (H´. In order to evaluate the similitude of the grasshopper communities present in the different plant communities, we used qualitative and quantitative coefficients of similitude. A total of 22

  9. Cambio agrario y nueva ruralidad: Caleidoscopio de la expansión sojera en la región pampeana Agrarian change and new rurality: Kaleidoscope of soya expansion in the Pampa region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas, y en el marco de las tesis sobre la configuración de nuevas ruralidades, los pueblos y pequeñas localidades han vuelto a concitar la atención de las ciencias sociales. Lo rural se define como un espacio crecientemente polisémico, donde se redefinen los antes coincidentes contornos entre lo rural y lo agrícola. Nuestro interés en los pueblos rurales de la región pampeana parte de esa constatación y pretende, al mismo tiempo indagar en las implicancias de las transformaciones que se derivan de las profundas mutaciones operadas en el modelo de producción agropecuaria, las cuales involucraron, entre otros aspectos, una dinámica de "ganadores y "perdedores". La existencia de población que vive en pueblos y localidades rurales pero que no tiene relación laboral con el sector agropecuario, y de un mundo agrario profundamente transformado son los dos elementos cuyos reflejos, en los modos de configurar estos territorios nos interesa comprender. Nos interesa explorar cómo esta suerte de diferenciación entre "ganadores" y "perdedores" se expresó en las posiciones detentadas por los productores en las comunidades locales, tanto en lo que refiere a su lugar en la población y en la economía. Exploramos las diferenciaciones socioculturales que se generan y las tensiones y complejidades que adquiere la integración social en un mismo territorio, lejos de aquella idea de la comunidad que la define por la similitud u homogeneidad relativa de sus componentes, y por su estabilidad.In the last decades, and in the framework of the thesis on the configuration of a new rurality, villages and small towns have drawn the attention of the social sciences. Rurality is defined as increasingly polysemic, where the previous boundaries between rurality and agriculture have redefined. Our interest in the rural villages of the Pampa region stands on this understanding, and introduces another key process related to the deep changes

  10. The saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Diggles, Michael F.; Evans, William C.; Klemic, Karin

    2017-07-20

    The five saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada in California are found between 38.5° and 38.8° N. latitude, on the South Fork American River; on Caples Creek, a tributary of the Silver Fork American River; and on the North Fork Mokelumne River. The springs issue from Cretaceous granitic rocks in the bottoms of these major canyons, between 1,200- and 2,200-m elevation. All of these springs were well known to Native Americans, who excavated meter-sized basins in the granitic rock, within which they produced salt by evaporation near at least four of the five spring sites. The spring waters are dominated by Cl, Na, and Ca; are enriched relative to seawater in Ca, Li, and As; and are depleted in SO4, Mg, and K. Tritium analyses indicate that the spring waters have had little interaction with rainfall since about 1954. The waters are apparently an old groundwater of meteoric origin that resided at depth before moving up along fractures to the surface of the exhumed granitic rocks. However, along the way these waters incorporated salts from depth, the origin of which could have been either from marine sedimentary rocks intruded by the granitic magmas or from fluid inclusions in the granitic rocks. Prolonged storage at depth fostered water-rock interactions that undoubtedly modified the fluid compositions.

  11. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.42.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2016-10-01

    Aria is a Galerkin finite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process flows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number (Re %3C 1) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h-adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  12. Sierra Stars Observatory Network: An Accessible Global Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Beshore, Edward

    2011-03-01

    The Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON) is a unique partnership among professional observatories that provides its users with affordable high-quality calibrated image data. SSON comprises observatories in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere and is in the process of expanding to a truly global network capable of covering the entire sky 24 hours a day in the near future. The goal of SSON is to serve the needs of science-based projects and programs. Colleges, universities, institutions, and individuals use SSON for their education and research projects. The mission of SSON is to promote and expand the use of its facilities among the thousands of colleges and schools worldwide that do not have access to professional-quality automated observatory systems to use for astronomy education and research. With appropriate leadership and guidance educators can use SSON to help teach astronomy and do meaningful scientific projects. The relatively small cost of using SSON for this type of work makes it affordable and accessible for educators to start using immediately. Remote observatory services like SSON need to evolve to better support education and research initiatives of colleges, institutions and individual investigators. To meet these needs, SSON is developing a sophisticated interactive scheduling system to integrate among the nodes of the observatory network. This will enable more dynamic observations, including immediate priority interrupts, acquiring moving objects using ephemeris data, and more.

  13. Geological and geophysical investigations at Sierra del Medio massif - Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucca, J.C.; Llambias, E.; Puigdomenech, H.H.; Cebrelli, E.; Castro, C.E.; Grassi, I.; Salinas, L.I.

    1987-01-01

    Geological investigations were performed at Sierra del Medio (Chubut Province), a mountainous massif of about 25 km by 8 km of migmatic origin, which emerges from a depressed tectonic trench or graben called Pampa de Gastre. The most ancient rocks belong to biotitic and anphibolic schist that passed almost entirely to tonalitoid migmatites with a second process producing granitic rocks. Boreholes were drilled on the basis of conclusions from Landsat satellites imagery and aerial photographic sets, folowed by field work on geological, petrographic, geophysical and hydrogeological features at surface, structural interpretation supported by geostatistical computations. Two sets of boreholes were drilled to investigate subsurface rock behaviour al 300 m depth and 800 m depth respectively, beginning at peripheral places and ending at the central part or selected site. Basic purposes of boreholes were to define structural and petrographic features of the rock massif by a good comprehension of master joints and faulting distribution with its belts of alteration mylonitization or brecciation, mechanical properties of samples, chemical composition and varitions, petrographic facies and mineralogy. Boreholes provided data to investigate joints, faults and dikes as general discontinuities for hydraulic research like permeability or effective hydraulic conductivity, and their geostatistical modelling. Boreholes are also being prepared for geophysical logging from which logthermal ones have already been completed. (Author) [es

  14. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    Aria is a Galerkin fnite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process fows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number ( %3C 1 ) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h -adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  15. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    Aria is a Galerkin fnite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process fows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number ( %3C 1 ) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h -adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  16. específico en la sierra norte de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garzón García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La primera parte del artículo ofrece una visión panorámica de la política de fomento del uso público en la Red de Espacios Naturales Protegidos de Andalucía desde su origen hasta nuestros días, con especial incidencia en cuestiones tales como el papel preponderante asumido por la figura de Parque Natural, el desequilibrio territorial de las intervenciones planteadas, o la necesaria ordenación y planificación de la actividad. Ello conforma el contexto idóneo para abordar, en segunda instancia, un análisis particularizado de la gestión del uso público en el Parque Natural Sierra Norte de Sevilla. La elección de este ámbito territorial se fundamenta tanto en sus especiales condicionantes para el fomento de esta línea de acción (privilegiada situación, existencia de una demanda tradicional asociada a determinados enclaves, propiedad de la tierra… como en la singular gestión desarrollada desde la declaración del parque, destacando las nuevas perspectivas e incertidumbres que parecen despertarse a partir del impulso y aprobación de una planificación específica

  17. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  18. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  19. Photo series for quantifying forest fuels in Mexico: montane subtropical forests of the Sierra Madre del Sur and temperate forests and montane shrubland of the northern Sierra Madre Oriental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge E. Morfin-Rios; Ernesto Alvarado-Celestino; Enrique J. Jardel-Pelaez; Robert E. Vihnanek; David K. Wright; Jose M. Michel-Fuentes; Clinton S. Wright; Roger D. Ottmar; David V. Sandberg; Andres Najera-Diaz

    2008-01-01

    Single wide-angle and stereo photographs display a range of forest ecosystems conditions and fuel loadings in montane subtropical forests of the Sierra Madre del Sur and temperate forests and montane shrubland of the northern Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Each group of photographs includes inventory information summarizing overstory vegetation composition and...

  20. IRRIGAÇÃO COM ÁGUA SALINA NA CULTURA DO AMENDOIM EM SOLO COM BIOFERTILIZANTE BOVINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geocleber Gomes de Sousa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Estação Agrometereológica, UFC, em Fortaleza/Ceará, no período de setembro a novembro de 2012, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da salinidade da água de irrigação nas características agronômicas do amendoinzeiro, cultivar BRS 1 em solo com e sem biofertilizante bovino. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com cinco repetições, referente aos valores de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação:0,8; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1, em solo sem e com biofertilizante bovino, aplicado de uma única vez, ao nível de 10% do volume do substrato, três dias antes da semeadura. As variáveis analisadas foram: número de folhas, altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, comprimento de raiz, matéria seca da parte aérea, da raiz e total. O aumento da concentração salina da água de irrigação reduziu a área foliar, matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria seca total e comprimento da raiz do amendoinzeiro, porém com menor intensidade no solo com o biofertilizante bovino. A elevação da salinidade do solo decorrente da irrigação com água salina provoca redução na altura da planta, diâmetro do caule e matéria seca da raiz. Palavra-chave: estresse salino, índices fisiológicos, insumo orgânico. PEANUT CULTURE IRRIGATED WITH SALINE WATER IN SOIL WITH BOVINE BIOFERTILIZER ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted at the agrometeorological experimental station, at the UFC, Fortaleza-CE (BR, in the period from September 2012 to November 2012, aiming to evaluate the effects of irrigation water salinity on the agronomic characteristics of BRS 1 peanut plant, in bio fertilized and non-bio fertilized soil. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with five repetitions. Five different saline solutions (or irrigation water, identified by their respective electrical

  1. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological assessment of Laguna de las Salinas, Ponce, Puerto Rico, January 2003-September 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The Laguna de Las Salinas is a shallow, 35-hectare, hypersaline lagoon (depth less than 1 meter) in the municipio of Ponce, located on the southern coastal plain of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in the lagoon were collected between January 2003 and September 2004 to establish baseline conditions. During the study period, rainfall was about 1,130 millimeters, with much of the rain recorded during three distinct intense events. The lagoon is connected to the sea by a shallow, narrow channel. Subtle tidal changes, combined with low rainfall and high evaporation rates, kept the lagoon at salinities above that of the sea throughout most of the study. Water-quality properties measured on-site (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Secchi disk transparency) exhibited temporal rather than spatial variations and distribution. Although all physical parameters were in compliance with current regulatory standards for Puerto Rico, hyperthermic and hypoxic conditions were recorded during isolated occasions. Nutrient concentrations were relatively low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 1.9 milligrams per liter and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.4 milligram per liter. Total organic carbon concentrations ranged from 12.0 to 19.0 milligrams per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll a concentration was 13.4 micrograms per liter. Chlorophyll b was detected (detection limits 0.10 microgram per liter) only twice during the study. About 90 percent of the primary productivity in the Laguna de Las Salinas was generated by periphyton such as algal mats and macrophytes such as seagrasses. Of the average net productivity of 13.6 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day derived from the diel

  2. Southern Sierra Nevada Continental Dynamics Project: 1993 field observations of the NPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.R. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Malin, P.E. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Ruppert, S.D. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Southern Sierra Nevada Continental Dynamics Project is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional investigation of the cause of the uplift of the Sierra Nevada and its relationship to extension in the adjacent Basin and Range. A broad range of geologic and geophysical data have been collected as part of this project. These data include both passive and active seismic measurements, as well as gravity and magnetotelluric observations. Three seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles were recorded: (1) a 325-km-long, north-south profile extending from just east of Mono Lake south across the Garlock fault, (2) a 400-km-long, east-west profile extending from Death Valley west across the Sierra Nevada to near the San Andreas fault, and (3) a 480-km-long, east-west profile deployed for the NPE. This profile extended from Beatty, Nevada, west across the Sierra Nevada along the previously recorded east-west profile and continued nearly to the Pacific Ocean. Up to 675 seismic recorders were deployed for each profile. These data are allowing us to develop refined models of the crustal and upper mantle structure of the southern Sierra Nevada and to evaluate alternative hypotheses for its uplift and for Basin and Range extension. They also provide insight into the propagation of regional phases across complex structures.

  3. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Mayorga; Karen R. Pérez; Sully M. Cruz; Armando Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  4. Proteomic Analyses Reveal the Mechanism of Dunaliella salina Ds-26-16 Gene Enhancing Salt Tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Wang

    Full Text Available We previously screened the novel gene Ds-26-16 from a 4 M salt-stressed Dunaliella salina cDNA library and discovered that this gene conferred salt tolerance to broad-spectrum organisms, including E. coli (Escherichia coli, Haematococcus pluvialis and tobacco. To determine the mechanism of this gene conferring salt tolerance, we studied the proteome of E. coli overexpressing the full-length cDNA of Ds-26-16 using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification approach. A total of 1,610 proteins were identified, which comprised 39.4% of the whole proteome. Of the 559 differential proteins, 259 were up-regulated and 300 were down-regulated. GO (gene ontology and KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analyses identified 202 major proteins, including those involved in amino acid and organic acid metabolism, energy metabolism, carbon metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging, membrane proteins and ABC (ATP binding cassette transporters, and peptidoglycan synthesis, as well as 5 up-regulated transcription factors. Our iTRAQ data suggest that Ds-26-16 up-regulates the transcription factors in E. coli to enhance salt resistance through osmotic balance, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress protection. Changes in the proteome were also observed in E. coli overexpressing the ORF (open reading frame of Ds-26-16. Furthermore, pH, nitric oxide and glycerol content analyses indicated that Ds-26-16 overexpression increases nitric oxide content but has no effect on glycerol content, thus confirming that enhanced nitric oxide synthesis via lower intercellular pH was one of the mechanisms by which Ds-26-16 confers salt tolerance to E. coli.

  5. Clorofila e carotenoides em maracujazeiro-amarelo irrigado com águas salinas no solo com biofertilizante bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos deletérios provocados pelo estresse salino resultam em modificações nos mecanismos bioquímicos e fisiológicos das plantas, alterando, dentre outros, os teores foliares de clorofila e carotenoides, comprometendo a atividade fotossintética e, consequentemente, o crescimento, o desenvolvimento, a produção e a adaptabilidade aos ambientes adversos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes condutividades elétricas da água de irrigação (CEai, associadas às épocas de aplicação de biofertilizante, sobre os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos para a determinação dos pigmentos cloroplastídicos (clorofila a, b, total e carotenoides do maracujazeiro-amarelo. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 5 x 4, referentes aos valores de CEai: 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 dS m-1, em quatro épocas de aplicação do biofertilizante: sem biofertilizante (SB; aplicação uma semana antes do transplantio (1SAT; a cada 90 dias, a partir do transplantio (90DAT; uma semana antes e a cada 90 dias, após o transplantio (1SAT+90DAT. O aumento da concentração salina da água de irrigação reduziu a eficiência fotossintética nas folhas do maracujazeiro-amarelo, sendo mais drástico na condutividade superior a 2,5 dS m-1. As frequências de aplicação do biofertilizante não influenciaram nas concentrações dos pigmentos fotossintéticos.

  6. Coculture induced improved production of biosurfactant by Staphylococcus lentus SZ2: Role in protecting Artemia salina against Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Faseela; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2018-07-01

    Coculturing microorganisms can lead to enhanced production of bioactive compounds as a result of cross-species or cross-genera interactions. In this study, we demonstrate improved production of the biosurfactant (BS-SLSZ2 with antibiofilm properties) by the marine epibiotic bacterium Staphylococcus lentus SZ2 after cross-genera interactions with an aquaculture pathogen Vibrio harveyi. In cocultures, growth of V. harveyi was completely inhibited and resultant biofilms were exclusively composed of S. lentus. The cell free supernatant (CFS) derived from cocultures displayed improved antibiofilm activity with enhanced contents of BS-SLSZ2 compared to monocultured S. lentus. During coculture experiments, after short periods of incubation (6 and 12 h), 2.3 fold increased production of BS-SLSZ2 was observed. Planktonic growth of V. harveyi was also inhibited after coculturing with S. lentus as evidenced from plate culture-based studies and microscopic observations. The CFS derived from monocultures and cocultures did not display bactericidal activity and the observed inhibition of V. harveyi could be of competitive nature. During in vivo challenge experiments, S. lentus protected the model aquaculture system Artemia salina from V. harveyi infections. Seven days post infection, survival of the group of larvae infected with V. harveyi was 5 ± 4.47%. Better survival rates (73.33 ± 5.16%, comparable with the unexposed group) were observed in the group of larvae incubated with S. lentus and V. harveyi. This study highlights increased biosurfactant production by cocultured S. lentus and the application of this bacterium as a protective probiotic strain for inclusion in aquaculture practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioatividade de três espécies vegetais nativas da Floresta Atlântica brasileira frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M Pompilho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo a investigação fitoquímica e propriedades antioxidantes de extratos das folhas de Trigynaea oblongifolia Schltdl (Annonaceae, Ottonia frutescens Trel (Piperaceae, e Bathysa australis (St Hill Hooz (Rubiaceae, bem como avaliar, in vitro, a letalidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach. Os extratos foram preparados por maceração em metanol 10% (p/v por sete dias, à temperatura ambiente. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos foi determinada pela metodologia que utiliza o radical estável DPPH. A toxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada frente ao microcrustáceo A. salina. Os extratos de O. frutescens e B. australis apresentaram as seguintes classes de metabólitos secundários: Alcalóides, Antraquinonas, Cumarinas, Polifenóis (Taninos, Saponinas. Nos extratos de T. oblongifolia, além dos metabólitos citados anteriormente, foi detectada a presença de Flavonóides. A atividade antioxidante, observada em 30 minutos na concentração de 24 µg/mL de extrato, foi de: O. frutescens - 38,3%, T. oblongifolia - 32,3%, e B. australis - 32,1%. A Concentração Letal, CL50, dos extratos em A. salina foi de: O. frutescens - 149,75 ± 1,02 µg/mL, T. oblongifolia - 148,8 ± 1,74 µg/mL, e B. australis - 684 ± 9,04 µg/mL. Neste contexto, destacamos as espécies, nativas da Floresta Atlântica, O. frutescens e T. oblongifolia de grande potencial na bioprospecção de moléculas biologicamente ativas.

  8. 77 FR 23476 - Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1470-000] Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  9. 75 FR 26786 - Notice of Public Meeting: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... 261A; 10-08807; MO 4500012081; TAS: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meeting: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC... discussion will include, but are not limited to: District Manager's reports on current program of work, Draft...

  10. Airborne Pesticides as an Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured...

  11. Evaluation of toxic effects with transition metal ions, EDTA, SBTI and acrylic polymers on Aedes aegypti (L., 1762 (Culicidae and Artemia salina (Artemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José de Arruda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the toxicity of some insecticides compounds on Aedes aegypti and Artemia salina larvae. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the toxic effect after of 24 and 72 h using the compounds or associations. The LC10, LC50 and LC90 values were obtained and utilized for toxicity comparations. For Ae. aegypti, LC50 were 32.65 mg L-1 in 24 h for Na2[EDTA-Cu(II] and total mortality in 72 h for SAP-Na2[EDTA-Cu(II].

  12. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyse Tine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea. A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas. Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2. This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt. Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide

  13. Crescimento, consumo hídrico e composição mineral de alface cultivada em hidroponia com águas salinas

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus,Dalva; Paulus,Eloi; Nava,Gilmar Antônio; Moura,Cláudia Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento, o consumo hídrico e a extração de nutrientes, por alface (Lactuca sativa L.) em sistema hidropônico NFT (fluxo laminar de nutrientes), com a utilização de águas salinas no preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição da lâmina diária evapotranspirada. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água, utilizando-se Na...

  14. El turismo de naturaleza en espacios naturales. El caso del parque regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros Pelegrín, Gustavo Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Los espacios naturales atraen a turistas que buscan el contacto con la naturaleza, surgiendo nuevos productos turísticos. Surgen, de este modo, nuevos productos turísticos. En la oferta de turismo de naturaleza del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar destaca: deportes en la naturaleza, aventura y ecoturismo. Este último se divide en: turismo ornitológico y fotográfico, que junto al tradicional de sol y playa y de salud, se ve favorecido por su situación geográfi...

  15. Atributos biológicos de dos suelos de Quibor con aplicación de abono orgánico y soluciones salinas

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Betty; Florentino, Adriana; Hernández-Hernández, Rosa Mary; Aciego, Juan; Torres, Duilio; Vera, Elena

    2013-01-01

    La evaluación del efecto de la aplicación de abono orgánico y soluciones salinas sobre los atributos biológicos de suelos de Quibor estado Lara, Venezuela, uno bajo manejo convencional (CV) y otro bajo manejo conservacionista (CS), se realizó mediante un ensayo de invernadero. Se utilizaron tres dosis de materia orgánica (MO): 0, 15 y 30 Mg ha-1 y cuatro soluciones de riego (SR): testigo con agua (T), sulfato de calcio (SC), cloruro de sodio (CN) y la mezcla de sulfato de calcio con cloruro d...

  16. Salt-stimulation of caesium accumulation in the euryhaline green microalga Chlorella salina: potential relevance to the development of a biological Cs-removal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, S. V.; Codd, G. A.; Gadd, G. M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    1993-07-01

    Accumulation of Cs{sup +} by Chlorella salina was 28-fold greater in cells incubated in the presence than in the absence of 0.5 M-NaCl. An approximate 70% removal of external Cs{sup +} resulted after 15 h incubation of cells with 50 μ;M-CsCl and 0.5 M-NaCl. LiCl also had a stimulatory effect on Cs{sup +} uptake, although mannitol did not. Cs{sup +} influx increased with increasing external NaCl concentration and was maximal between 25-500 mM-NaCl at approximately 4 nmol Cs{sup +} h−1 (10{sup 6} cells){sup −1}. Little effect on Cs{sup +} uptake resulted from the presence of Mg{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} or from varying the external pH, and Cs{sup +} was relatively non-toxic towards C. salina. At increasing cell densities (from 4 × 10{sup 5} to 1 × 10{sup 7} cells ml{sup +1}), decreasing amounts of Cs{sup +} were accumulated per cell although the rate of Cs{sup +} removal from the external medium was still greatest at the higher cell densities examined. Freely suspended C. salina and cell-loaded alginate microbeads accumulated similar levels of Cs{sup +}, however, 46% of total Cs{sup +} uptake was attributable to the calcium-alginate matrix in the latter case. When Cs{sup +}-loaded cells were subjected to hypoosmotic shock, loss of cellular Cs{sup +} occurred allowing easy Cs{sup +} recovery. This loss exceeded 90% of cellular Cs{sup +} when cells were washed with solutions containing ≤ 50 mM-NaCl between consecutive Cs{sup +} uptake periods; these cells subsequently lost their ability to accumulate large amounts of Cs{sup +}. Maximal Cs{sup +} uptake (approximately 85.1% removal after three 15 h incubations) occurred when cells were washed with a solution containing 500 mM-NaCl and 200 mM-KCl between incubations. The relevance of these results to the possible use of C. salina in a salt-dependent biological Cs-removal process is discussed. (author)

  17. Estudo fitoquímico preliminar e bioensaio toxicológico frente a larvas de Artemia salina Leach. de extrato obtido de frutos de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hill (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gonzaga de Freitas Araújo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste trabalho avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico e a toxicidade preliminar frente a larvas de Artemia salina do extrato etanólico de frutos de Solanum lycocarpum. O extrato foi submetido à analise fitoquímica preliminar para identificação das principais classes de metabolitos secundários presentes e testado frente a larvas de A. salina para obtenção das concentrações letais médias (CL50%. Os testes fitoquímicos demonstraram a presença de fenóis, taninos, saponinas, alcalóides e esteróides e triterpenos livres. O extrato foi fracionado em diferentes solventes para a avaliação da toxicidade frente à A. salina, apresentando considerável citotoxicidade encontrada na fração hidroalcoólica (CL50% = 285,546 µg/mL. Palavras-chave: Solanum lycocarpum, Artemia salina, triagem fitoquímica preliminar. ABSTRACT The phytochemical profile of ethanolic extract of Solanum lycocarpum fruits was analyzed and preliminary toxicity tests were performed against brine shrimp larvae. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis to identify the main classes of secondary metabolites and tested against the larvae of A. salina to obtain the median lethal concentrations (LC50%. The phytochemical tests showed the presence of phenols, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and free steroids. The extract was fractionated with various solvents for toxicity testing against the larvae and the hydroalcoholic fraction showed considerable cytotoxicity (CL50% = 285.546 g/mL. Keywords: Solanum lycocarpum, Artemia salina, phytochemical screening

  18. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  19. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  20. Magmatism and mineralization ages from northeast area of La Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulacco, Jose H

    2001-01-01

    Three igneous rock groups, characterized as pre, sin and post-kinematics, have intruded the crystalline basement of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina. The ore deposits are associated with Devonian to Carboniferous epizonal granite stocks and batholiths in an area underlain by metamorphic rocks. This granitoids are characterized as post-kinematics magmatism. Model lead ages on the ore deposits (338,8 - 292,1 Ma) are strongly supported by K-Ar ages of the intrusives. The bulk of the north Sierra de San Luis ore deposits are genetically related to late Carboniferous granite plutons. The ore bodies are tungsten veins with greisen envelopes, lead veins, epithermal fluorite veins and REE and Th deposit. A generalized scheme of ore bodies related to granites is proposed. The ore deposits and their lithotectonic setting are characteristic of Gondwana metallogenetic Epoch in the Sierra de San Luis (au)

  1. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  2. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  3. Vulnerability of birds to climate change in California's Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney B. Siegel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing climate, effective bird conservation requires not only reliable information about the current vulnerability of species of conservation concern, but also credible projections of their future vulnerability. Such projections may enable managers to preempt or reduce emerging climate-related threats through appropriate habitat management. We used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI to predict vulnerability to climate change of 168 bird species that breed in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. The CCVI assesses species-specific exposure and sensitivity to climate change within a defined geographic area, through the integration of (a species' range maps, (b information about species' natural history traits and ecological relationships, (c historic and current climate data, and (d spatially explicit climate change projections. We conducted the assessment under two different downscaled climate models with divergent projections about future precipitation through the middle of the 21st century. Assessments differed relatively little under the two climate models. Of five CCVI vulnerability ranking categories, only one species, White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura, received the most vulnerable rank, Extremely Vulnerable. No species received the second-highest vulnerability ranking, Highly Vulnerable. Sixteen species scored as Moderately Vulnerable using one or both climate models: Common Merganser (Mergus merganser, Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus, Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus, Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius, Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa, Black Swift (Cypseloides niger, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana, American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, American Pipit (Anthus rubescens, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis, Pine Grosbeak

  4. Semiarid ethnoagroforestry management: Tajos in the Sierra Gorda, Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, Vincent M; Casas, Alejandro; Moreno-Calles, Ana Isabel

    2017-06-12

    The semi-arid environments harbor nearly 40% of biodiversity, and half of indigenous cultures of Mexico. Thousands of communities settled in these areas depend on agriculture and using wild biodiversity for their subsistence. Water, soil, and biodiversity management strategies are therefore crucial for people's life. The tajos, from Sierra Gorda, are important, poorly studied, biocultural systems established in narrow, arid alluvial valleys. The systems are constructed with stone-walls for capturing sediments, gradually creating fertile soils in terraces suitable for agriculture in places where it would not be possible. We analyzed biocultural, ecological, economic and technological relevance of the artificial oasis-like tajos, hypothesizing their high capacity for maintaining agricultural and wild biodiversity while providing resources to people. We conducted our research in three sections of the Mezquital-Xichú River, in three communities of Guanajuato, Mexico. Agroforestry management practices were documented through semi-structured and in-depth qualitative interviews. Vegetation composition of local forests and that maintained in tajos was sampled and compared. Tajos harbor high agrobiodiversity, including native varieties of maize and beans, seven secondary crops, 47 native and 25 introduced perennial plant species. Perennial plants cover on average 26.8% of the total surface of plots. Tajos provide nearly 70% of the products required by households' subsistence and are part of their cultural identity. Tajos are heritage of TEK and land management forms of pre-Columbian Mexican and Mediterranean agricultural techniques, adapting and integrating modern agricultural practices. Tajos are valuable biocultural systems adapted to local semiarid conditions and sources of technology for similar areas of the World.

  5. Origen y decadencia del gamonalismo en la sierra ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra Crespo, Hernán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical path of gamonalismo in Ecuadorian highlands. Although it could be alike to Mexican caciquismo and Brazilian coronelismo, gamonalismo had its specific forms. In Ecuador it is possible to reconstruct its meaning in political terms, as a form of traditional domination. The use of this particular term is analyzed in different historical moments between the 18th and 20th century; focusing on the origin and decline of this local power. The aim is to build an interpretative frame in order to understand agrarian sources of Ecuadorian state development and ethnic domination.

    Este artículo analiza la trayectoria histórica del gamonalismo en la sierra ecuatoriana. Aunque homologado con el caciquismo mexicano y el coronelismo brasileño, tiene rasgos específicos. En el Ecuador es posible reconstruir el significado del gamonalismo en el lenguaje político y como modalidad de dominación tradicional. Por una parte, se realiza un rastreo y análisis del uso del término en distintos momentos históricos entre los siglos XVIII y XX. Por otra parte, se efectúa un abordaje del origen y declinación de esta forma de poder. Se aspira a construir un marco interpretativo que aporte a la comprensión de los fundamentos agrarios de la constitución del Estado ecuatoriano y las formas de dominación étnica.

  6. Gravity data from the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of very small changes of Earth’s gravitational field (time-lapse gravity) provide a direct, non-invasive method for measuring changes in aquifer storage change. An existing network of gravity stations in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed was revised in 2014 to better understand the spatial distribution of changes in aquifer storage, especially with relation to ephemeral channel recharge and a groundwater cone of depression associated with pumping in the greater Sierra Vista area. In addition, the network was extended to provide baseline data for possible future enhanced-recharge projects.

  7. SIERRA Code Coupling Module: Arpeggio User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SNL Sierra Mechanics code suite is designed to enable simulation of complex multiphysics scenarios. The code suite is composed of several specialized applications which can operate either in standalone mode or coupled with each other. Arpeggio is a supported utility that enables loose coupling of the various Sierra Mechanics applications by providing access to Framework services that facilitate the coupling. More importantly Arpeggio orchestrates the execution of applications that participate in the coupling. This document describes the various components of Arpeggio and their operability. The intent of the document is to provide a fast path for analysts interested in coupled applications via simple examples of its usage.

  8. Soil fauna in forest and coffee plantations from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camero R, Edgar

    2002-01-01

    Two research stations (M inca, 700 m altitude and Maria Ter esa, 790 m altitude) were established in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta in places to study the soil fauna associated with forest and coffee plantations. Soil fauna was collected using pitfall and Bailer's traps. Samples were taken from litter as well as from horizons 0, A and B. individuals collected were identified to family level. Diversity, abundance and frequency indexes were used to compare fauna composition at both sites. Significant differences were found between the two research sites as well as with data from other high altitude forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta

  9. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  10. Pomada orgânica natural ou solução salina isotônica no tratamento de feridas limpas induzidas em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahal Sheila Canevese

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 40 ratos Wistar, machos, com peso inicial médio de 225 gramas, separados em dois grupos. Após serem anestesiados com éter, foi induzida uma ferida limpa na região torácica dorsal cranial, mediante a utilização de molde metálico de 2,0 x 1,5cm. No grupo I, foi utilizada pomada contendo óleo de fígado de bacalhau, extrato de confrei, extrato cítrico, óxido de zinco e veículo (Creamex®; no grupo II, a ferida foi apenas limpa com solução salina isotônica. Para a avaliação histológica, foram submetidos à eutanásia cinco animais de cada grupo no 3º, 7º, 14º e 21º dia de pós-operatório. O grupo tratado com a pomada orgânica apresentou padrão cicatricial de qualidade superior em relação ao grupo tratado com salina isotônica, representado por formação de fibras colágenas, neoformação de vasos e reepitelização completa da epiderme.

  11. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration-dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5mg/mL carbon black and 0.1mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Avaliação da bioatividade dos extratos de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. M. da Silva Filho

    Full Text Available A cúrcuma é o rizoma limpo, em boas condições, seco e moído da Curcuma longa L., uma planta herbácea da família Zingiberaceae. Visando novas alternativas para o controle da esquistossomose, os extratos de Curcuma longa L. foram testados para a avaliação da atividade moluscicida contra caramujos adultos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. A oleoresina e o óleo essencial de cúrcuma foram ativos contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 80,43 e CL50 = 319,82 μg/mL, respectivamente e também ativos contra os indivíduos adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 58,3 e CL50 = 46,73 μg/mL, respectivamente. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde ser concluído que ambos os extratos podem constituir uma alternativa no controle da população desses caramujos e na redução da esquistossomose.

  13. Noteworthy records of two species of mammals in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Mexico Registros notables de dos especies de mamíferos de la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Briones-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted mammal surveys in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte in Oaxaca, Mexico, and recorded the occurrence of two conspicuous mammal species: the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus and the coyote (Canis latrans cagottis. Spider monkeys has not been previously recorded in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, and coyotes have not been previously observed in Mexico at elevations as high as the present one (3 200 mas1 in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca.Se efectuaron colectas de mamíferos en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte en Oaxaca, México, y se registró la notoria presencia de dos mamíferos: el mono araña (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus y el coyote (Canis latrans cagottis. El mono araña no se había registrado previamente en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, en tanto que el coyote, no había sido registrado en México a tan gran altitud (3 200 m como la de la localidad de captura.

  14. Holocene glaciation of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Nicole D.; Clark, Douglas H.

    2011-05-01

    Sediment cores from two bedrock-dammed lakes in North Fork Big Pine Creek, Sierra Nevada, California, preserve the most detailed and complete record of Holocene glaciation yet recovered in the region. The lakes are fed by outwash from the Palisade Glacier, the largest (˜1.3 km 2) and presumably longest-lived glacier in the range, and capture essentially all of the rock flour it produces. Distinct late-Holocene (Matthes) and late-Pleistocene (Recess Peak) moraines lie between the modern glacier and the lakes. The lakes have therefore received continuous sedimentation from the basin since the retreat of the Tioga glacier (Last Glacial Maximum) and capture rock flour related to all post-LGM advances. A total of eight long cores (up to 5.5 m sediment depth) and one short surface sediment short core preserve a coherent record of fluctuating rock flour flux to the lakes through the Holocene. Age constraints on rock flour spikes in First and Second lakes based on 31 14C-dated macrofossils indicate Holocene glaciation began ˜3200 cal yr B P, followed by a possible glacier maximum at ˜2800 cal yr B P and four distinct glacier maxima at ˜2200, ˜1600, ˜700 and ˜250-170 cal yr. B.P., the most recent maximum being the largest. Reconstruction of the equilibrium-line altitudes (ELA) associated with each distinct advance recorded in the moraines (Recess Peak, Matthes, and modern) indicates ELA depressions (relative to modern) of ˜250 m and 90 m for Recess Peak and Matthes advances, respectively. These differences represent decreases in summer temperatures of 1.7-2.8 °C (Recess Peak) and 0.2-2° (Matthes), and increases in winter precipitation of 22-34 cm snow water equivalent (s.w.e.) (Recess Peak) and 3-26 cm s.w.e. (Matthes) compared to modern conditions. Although small, these changes are significant and similar to those noted in the Cascade Range to the north, and represent a significant departure from historical climate trends in the region.

  15. Paleozoic and Mesozoic deformations in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Kistler, Ronald Wayne

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of structural and stratigraphic data indicates that several periods of regional deformation, consisting of combined folding, faulting, cataclasis, and regional metamorphism, occurred throughout the central Sierra Nevada during Paleozoic and Mesozoic time. The oldest regional deformation occurred alono northward trends during the Devonian and Mississippian periods in most roof pendants containing lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks at the center and along the crest of the range. This deformation is expressed in some roof pendants by an angular unconformity separating older thrice-deformed from younger twice-deformed Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The first Mesozoic deformation, which consisted of uplift and erosion and was accompanied by the onset of Andean-type volcanism during the Permian and Triassic, is expressed by an angular unconformity in several roof pendants from the Saddlebag Lake to the Mount Morrison areas. This unconformity is defined by Permian and Triassic andesitic to rhyolitic metavolcanic rocks unconformably overlying more intensely deformed Pennsylvanian, Permian(?), and older metasedimentary rocks. A later regional deformation occurred during the Triassic along N. 20?_30? W. trends in Permian and Triassic metavolcanic rocks of the Saddlebag Lake and Mount Dana roof pendants, in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Pine Creek roof pendant, and in the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt; the roof pendants are crosscut by Upper Triassic granitic rocks of the Lee Vining intrusive epoch. A still later period of Early and Middle Jurassic regional deformation occurred along N. 30?-60? E. trends in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt. A further period of deformation was the Late Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, which occurred along N. 20?_40? W. trends in Upper Jurassic rocks of the western metamorphic belt that are crosscut by Upper Jurassic granitic rocks of the Yosemite intrusive epoch

  16. Indicadores de calidad física en suelos de la Región Pampeana Norte de Argentina bajo siembra directa Physical quality indicators in soils from the northern Pampa region of Argentina under no till management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferreras

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso sustentable de las tierras requiere conservar propiedades edáficas que son importantes desde el punto de vista de la fertilidad y el laboreo del suelo. La alteración de las condiciones del suelo por el manejo puede afectar la producción de los cultivos debido a que influye en la distribución de la materia orgánica y dinámica de nutrientes; como así también sobre la agregación y porosidad del suelo. Una de las regiones del mundo donde los suelos han sido sujetos a un intenso uso agrícola durante las últimas décadas es la Región Pampeana Norte. En los últimos años los productores han adoptado la siembra directa en forma creciente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar, en suelos representativos de esta región, parámetros de calidad física del suelo en sistemas agrícolas bajo siembra directa en comparación con el mismo tipo de suelo en su condición quasi-prístina. Se realizó la caracterización física de suelos cultivados de once establecimientos correspondientes a ensayos de la Red de Nutrición de la Región CREA Sur de Santa Fe ubicados en las provincias de Santa Fe, Córdoba y Buenos Aires. Se realizó además un muestreo en un sector adyacente sobre el mismo tipo de suelo en su condición quasi-prístina. Se extrajeron muestras compuestas de suelo a dos profundidades: 0-0,08 m y 0,08 m al límite inferior del horizonte Ap y se evaluó el porcentaje de agregados estables al agua (Ea y al etanol (Ee, el carbono orgánico total (COT, la densidad aparente (DA y la densidad del suelo máxima (DMAX. La resistencia mecánica (RM se midió a intervalos de 0,05 m desde superficie hasta 0,35 m de profundidad. Se constituyeron dos grupos de suelos en función de la textura: el Grupo I (con un contenido de arcilla en superficie que oscila entre 215 y 265 g kg-1 y el Grupo II (suelos que poseen entre 98 y 170 g kg-1 de arcilla en superficie. Los valores de Ea, Ee y COT fueron mayores (p Sustainable land use implies the

  17. Efecto del encalado sobre propiedades físicas de un suelo de la pradera Pampeana: Asociación con propiedades químicas Effect of lime on the physical properties of a soil of the Pampean prairie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Vázquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La acidificación edáfica puede disminuir la disponibilidad de nutrientes, así como afectar cualidades físicas. Su tratamiento mediante el agregado de enmiendas cálcicas/ cálcico-magnésicas, podría mejorar propiedades físicas tanto estacionarias como dinámicas, en consecuencia a cambios de naturaleza química. El objetivo del trabajo es evaluar la incidencia del agregado de diferentes tipos/dosis de correctores, sobre resistencia a la penetración, densidad aparente, cantidad y distribución de tamaño de poros, dimensión fractal, infiltración y escurrimiento de un Argiudol Típico de la Pradera Pampeana argentina, así como su asociación con variables químicas. Se realizó un ensayo mediante diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial (3 r con parcelas de 50 m². Tratamientos: 0, 1.000, 1.500 y 2.000 kg ha-1 de conchilla y dolomita. Estos se aplicaron al voleo e incorporaron en 2002 y en 2005. El agregado de enmiendas modificó la resistencia a la penetración en forma variable según dosis/profundidad de evaluación. La dosis de 1.000 kg ha-1 redujo dicha resistencia respecto del testigo y dosis superiores (1.500 y 2.000 kg ha-1 hasta los 30 cm. Dosis medias de ambos correctores aumentaron la estabilidad de los agregados al agua. La dosis de 2.000 kg ha-1 de dolomita incrementó respecto del testigo la frecuencia de poros de mayor tamaño, con geometrías comparables, de 10-20 cm de profundidad. La dolomita (1.000 kg ha-1 aumentó la infiltración y redujo el escurrimiento respecto del testigo, reduciendo las posibilidades de erosión. Los cambios en las propiedades evaluadas estarían asociados al aumento de la capacidad de intercambio catiónico y el contenido de Ca y Mg intercambiables, a causa del incremento de pH y su incidencia en las cargas variables. El agregado de dolomita no modificó la densidad aparente ni la dimensión fractal.The edaphic acidification can diminish nutrients availability, as well as affect

  18. Influence of anuran prey on the condition and distribution of Rana muscosa in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Pope; K.R. Matthews

    2002-01-01

    Mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) at high elevations of the Sierra Nevada must obtain enough food during summer to survive 7–9 winter months when their aquatic habitats are frozen and food is presumably unavailable. Adults of R. muscosa prey on a variety of organisms, including aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and...

  19. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 5, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Two Artemisinin-Based Combinations in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria among Children Under ... The Use of Mobile Electronic Devices for Public Health Data Collection and Syndromic Surveillance at the Republic Of Sierra Leone Armed Forces · EMAIL FREE ...

  20. Child mental health in Sierra Leone : A survey and exploratory qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoder, H.N.C.; Tol, W.A.; Reis, R.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study complements the growing amount of research on the psychosocial impact of war on children in Sierra Leone by examining local perceptions of child mental health, formal and informal care systems, help-seeking behaviour and stigma. Methods The study combined: (1) a nationwide

  1. Climate change and fire regimes in the Sierra de Manantlan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke A. Cassell; Ernesto Alvarado; Emily Heyerdahl; Diego Perez-Salicrup; Enrique Jardel-Pelaez

    2010-01-01

    Fire has been attributed as one of the most influential factors in vegetation community and succession in the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve in Jalisco and Colima, México. A mosaic of low, mixed and high severity fire regimes characterizes the landscape with ecosystems ranging from mesophyllous mountain forest to higher elevation pine and oak forest. Research...

  2. 75 FR 42601 - Establishment of the Sierra Pelona Valley Viticultural Area (2010R-004P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision establishes the 9.7-square mile ``Sierra Pelona Valley... purchase. DATES: Effective Date: August 23, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christina McMahon... origin of their wines to consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment...

  3. Aspen in the Sierra Nevada: Regional conservation of a continental species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Rogers; Wayne D. Shepperd; Dale L. Bartos

    2007-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) a common species in North America, is a minor species in the Sierra Nevada of California. However, the limited coverage of aspen in this area appears to carry a disproportionate biodiversity load: numerous species are dependent on the unique components of aspen forests habitat. Land managers in the region...

  4. Petrography of the Paleogene Volcanic Rocks of the Sierra Maestra, Southeastern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, V. L.

    2006-12-01

    This study is a petrographic analysis of over 200 specimens of the Paleogene volcanic rocks of the Sierra Maestra (Southerneastern Cuba), a key structure in the framework of the northern Caribbean plate boundary evolution. The purpose of this study is to understand the eruptive processes and the depositional environments. The volcanic sequence in the lower part of the Sierra Maestra begins with highly porphyritic pillow lavas, topped by massive tuffs and autoclastic flows. The presence of broken phenocrystals, palagonitic glass and hyaloclastites in this section of the sequence suggests that the prevalent mode of eruption was explosive. The absence of welding in the tuffs suggests that the rocks were emplaced in a deep submarine environment. Coherent flows, much less common than the massive tuffs, show evidence of autoclastic fracturing, also indicating low temperature-submarine environments. These observations support the hypothesis that the Sierra Maestra sequence may be neither part of the Great Antilles Arc of the Mesozoic nor any other fully developed volcanic arc, rather a 250 km long, submarine eruptive system of dikes, flows and sills, most likely a back-arc structure. The volcanic rocks of the upper sequence are all very fine grained, reworked volcaniclastic materials, often with the structures of distal turbidities, in mode and texture similar to those drilled on the Cayman Rise. This study suggests that the Sierra Maestra most likely records volcanism of diverse sources: a local older submarine source, and one or more distal younger sources, identifiable with the pan-Caribbean volcanic events of the Tertiary.

  5. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  6. Fire weather and large fire potential in the northern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon M. Collins

    2014-01-01

    Fuels, weather, and topography all contribute to observed fire behavior. Of these, weather is not only the most dynamic factor, it is the most likely to be directly influenced by climate change. In this study 40 years of daily fire weather observations from five weather stations across the northern Sierra Nevada were analyzed to investigate potential changes or trends...

  7. Role of oaks in fisher habitat quality in the Sierra Nevada mountains at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Thompson; Kathryn Purcell; Rebecca Green; Richard. Sweitzer

    2015-01-01

    Fishers (Pekania pennanti) occur in ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, and mixed hardwood conifer habitats in the southern Sierra Nevada at elevations from approximately 1400 to 2300 m. They are a candidate species for listing under both the Federal and California Endangered Species Acts. Since 2007, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (...

  8. Survival of fishers in the southern Sierra Nevada region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sweitzer; Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca E. Green; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Fishers in the western United States were recently proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of concerns for loss of suitable habitat and evidence of a diversity of mortality risks that reduce survival. One of 2 remnant populations of fishers in California is in the southern Sierra Nevada region, where we studied them at 2 research sites in the...

  9. Hacia una Estrategia de Desarrollo para la Sierra Rural en el Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobal, J.A.; Valdivia, L.

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es elaborar un documento que establezca los lineamientos de una política de desarrollo para la Sierra rural en el Perú e identificar los requerimientos institucionales y de investigación complementaria que se requerirían para la construcción de programas específicos que

  10. Ethnobotany of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Mireia Alcántara; Angueyra, Andrea; Cleef, Antoine M.; Andel, van Tinde

    2018-01-01

    Background: The Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán in the Colombian Andes is protected as a National Natural Park since 1977 because of its fragile páramo ecosystems, extraordinary biodiversity, high plant endemism, and function as water reservoir. The vegetation on this mountain is threatened by

  11. The Role of Religion During and After the Civil War in Sierra Leone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil wars in Africa are renowned for their strong religious elements, with religion being used for different purposes and in different capacities. Sierra Leone's civil war (1991-2002), known also as the “rebel war,” had significant religious dimensions. The warring factions used religion for their gain. Beyond that, Muslim and ...

  12. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  13. Snowmelt runoff and water yield along elevation and temperature gradients in California's southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Thomas W. Whitaker; Roger C. Bales

    2012-01-01

    Differences in hydrologic response across the rain-snow transition in the southern Sierra Nevada were studied in eight headwater catchments – the Kings River Experimental Watersheds – using continuous precipitation, snowpack, and streamflow measurements. The annual runoff ratio (discharge divided by precipitation) increased about 0.1 per 300 m of mean catchment...

  14. Roadless area-intensive management tradeoffs on the Sierra National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Hrubes; Kent P. Connaughton; Robert W. Sassaman

    1979-01-01

    This hypothesis was tested by a linear programing model: Roadless areas on the Sierra National Forest precluded from planned future development would be candidates for wilderness designation, and the associated loss in present and future timber harvests could be offset by investing in more intensive management. The results of this simulation test suggest that levels of...

  15. Evaluating avian-habitat relationships models in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Sallie J. Hejl; Terry A. Larson

    1992-01-01

    Using data from two studies in the southern and central Sierra Nevada, we compared the presence and abundance of bird species breeding in mixedconifer forests during 1978-79 and 1983-85 to predictions &om the California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (WHR) System. Twelve percent of the species observed in either study were not predicted by the WHR database to occur...

  16. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  17. A national survey of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) grain quality in Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Sierra Leone approaches self-sufficiency in rice, against a backdrop of agricultural commercialization, the dynamics of the rice grain production and consumption will increasingly be driven by the quality of grains demanded by consumers to be produced by farmers and marketed by traders in the open market.

  18. Silviculture-ecology of forest-zone hardwoods in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; John C. Tappeiner

    1996-01-01

    Although the principal hardwood species in the forest zone of the Sierra Nevada (California black oak, tanoak, Pacific madrone, and canyon live oak) are key components of many ecosystems, they have received comparatively little study. Currently they are underutilized and unmanaged. This paper brings together what is known on the silviculture-ecology of these species...

  19. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  20. Carbon and nutrient contents in soils from the Kings River Experimental Watersheds, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Johnson; C.T. Hunsaker; D.W. Glass; B.M. Rau; B.A. Roath

    2011-01-01

    Soil C and nutrient contents were estimated for eight watersheds in two sites (one high elevation, Bull, and one low elevation, Providence) in the Kings River Experimental Watersheds in the western Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Eighty-seven quantitative pits were dug to measure soil bulk density and total rock content, while three replicate surface samples...

  1. Genotypic anomaly in ebola virus strains circulating in magazine wharf Area, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); P. Pertile; C. Cancedda; K. Dierberg; I. Wurie; A. Kamara; D. Kargbo; S.L. Caddy; A. Arias; L. Thorne; J. Lu; U. Jah; I. Goodfellow; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone was a focus of ongoing Ebola virus transmission from late June 2015. Viral genomes linked to this area contain a series of 13 T to C substitutions in a 150 base pair intergenic region downstream of viral protein 40 open reading frame,

  2. commercial drinking water quality and safety in bo city, sierra leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research ... These include 6 water sources and the production facilities for 10 brands of machine-filled factory-produced water sachets as well as the 10 sources and finished samples for ... Workers at all of these facilities were also interviewed about their knowledge and practices.

  3. Sierra Nevada grasslands: interactions between livestock grazing and ecosystem structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara H. Allen-Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Livestock grazing plays an integral role in the grass-dominated ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada. Grazing has been asserted to influence such key ecological characteristics as water quality, net primary productivity, nutrient cycling, plant and animal diversity, wildlife habitat availability, and oak regeneration (Belsky and others 1999, Kauffmann and Krueger 1984)....

  4. Culture and environment in the Sierra de Misantla, Veracruz, Mexico: the case of Oecopetalum mexicanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maite Lascurain; Citlalli Lopez-Binnquist; Marla R. Emery

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the cultural and environmental dimensions of foraging the wild edible fruit cachichín (Oecopetalum mexicanum) in the Sierra de Misantla in central Veracruz, Mexico, including gathering practices, social organization, subsistence, commerce, and consumption. Gathering cachichín brings...

  5. Using epiphytic macrolichen communities for biomonitoring ammonia in forests of the greater Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce. Mccune

    2006-01-01

    Chronic, excessive nitrogen deposition is potentially an important ecological threat to forests of the greater Sierra Nevada in California. We developed a model for ammonia bioindication, a major nitrogen pollutant in the region, using epiphytic macrolichens. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to extract gradients in lichen community composition from surveys...

  6. Verification Tests for Sierra/SM's Reproducing Kernal Particle Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report seeks to verify the proper implemention of RKPM within Sierra by comparing the results from several basic example problems excecuted with RKPM against the analytical and FEM solutions for these same problems. This report was compiled as a summer student intern project.

  7. PARTITIONING OF WATER FLUX IN A SIERRA NEVADA PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus pond...

  8. The Violence of Peace and the Role of Education: Insights from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario; Higgins, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Research on peacebuilding has mushroomed over the last decade and there is a growing interest in the role of education in supporting peacebuilding processes. This paper engages with these debates, UN peacebuilding activities and the location of education initiatives therein, through a case study of Sierra Leone. In the first part, we explore the…

  9. Black bear abundance, habitat use, and food habits in the Sierra San Luis, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Sierra Corona; Ivan A. Sayago Vazquez; M. del Carmen Silva Hurtado; Carlos A. Lopez Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    We studied black bears to determine habitat use, food habits, and abundance between April 2002 and November 2003 in the Sierra San Luis, Sonora. We utilized transects to determine spoor presence, camera traps for abundance, and scat analysis. During 2002, bears fed principally on plant material, and for 2003 on animal matter, namely livestock. Habitat use differed...

  10. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  11. West nile virus anti-body surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; L.A. Tell; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has caused high levels of mortality in North American hawks and owls. To investigate the extent of infection among raptors of conservation concern in the Sierra Nevada, we tested 62 Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), 209 Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis), and 22 Great Gray Owls (...

  12. Learning Curve Characteristics for Caesarean Section Among Associate Clinicians : A Prospective Study from Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalewijn, B.P.; van Duinen, A.; Koroma, A. P.; Rijken, M. J.; Elhassein, M.; Bolkan, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In response to the high maternal mortality ratio, Sierra Leone has adopted an associate clinician postgraduate surgical task-sharing training programme. Little is known about learning curve characteristics for caesarean sections among associate clinicians. The aim of this study is to

  13. Converts to human rights? Popular debate about war and justice in rural central Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, S.; Richards, P.

    2002-01-01

    Internationally, war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) is regarded as an instance of violent conflict driven by economic factors (attempts to control the mining of alluvial diamonds). Fieldwork (2000-01) in rural areas recovering from war suggests a very different picture. War victims and combatants from

  14. Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa.

  15. Burn Severity and Its Impact on Soil Properties: 2016 Erskine Fire in the Southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, S.; Guo, J.; Krugh, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire frequency in the southern Sierra Nevada has increased over the past decades. The effects of wildfires on soils can increase the frequency of slope failure and debris flow events, which pose a greater risk to people, as human populations expand into foothill and mountainous communities of the Sierra Nevada. Alterations in the physical properties of burned soils are one such effect that can catalyze slope failure and debris flow events. Moreover, the degree of a soil's physical alteration resulting from wildfire is linked to fire intensity. The 2016 Erskine fire occurred in the southern Sierra Nevada, burning 48,019 acres, resulting in soils of unburned, low, moderate, and high burn severities. In this study, the physical properties of soils with varying degrees of burn severity are explored within the 2016 Erskine fire perimeter. The results constrain the effects of burn severity on soil's physical properties. Unburned, low, moderate, and high burn severity soil samples were collected within the Erskine fire perimeter. Alterations in soils' physical properties resulting from burn severity are explored using X-ray diffractometry analysis, liquid limit, plastic limit, and shear strength tests. Preliminary results from this study will be used to assess debris flow and slope failure hazard models within burned areas of the Kern River watershed in the southern Sierra Nevada.

  16. From Typology to Topography in Clarence King's "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Loren

    The book "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada" by Clarence King, a late-ninteenth-century American geologist, writer, art critic, and romantic, is discussed in this paper. In the writing and revision of this book, King was attempting a metamorphosis of landscape description into popular reading as he moved from being a symbolic writer to…

  17. Developing and managing sustainable forest ecosystems for spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Verner; K.S. McKelvey

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the California spotted owl have revealed significant selection for habitats with large, old trees; relatively high basal areas of snags; and relatively high biomass in large, downed logs. Based on planning documents for national forests in the Sierra Nevada, we projected declining amounts of older-forest attributes. Region 5 has adopted measures to retain...

  18. La campagne pour un quota de femmes en politique en Sierra ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 nov. 2011 ... Aisha Ibrahim est directrice du Gender Research and Documentation ... Comme elles travaillaient toutes à faire avancer des causes différentes, ... et qu'il n'existe pas de discrimination à l'endroit des femmes en Sierra Leone.

  19. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  20. Stratigraphy and Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Sierra Los Ajos and adjacent areas, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Iriondo, Alexander; Miggins, Daniel P.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Maldonado, Florian; Miller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the northern Sierra Los Ajos reveals new stratigraphic and structural data relevant to deciphering the Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the range. The northern Sierra Los Ajos is cored by Proterozoic, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian strata, equivalent respectively to the Pinal Schist, Bolsa Quartzite and Abrigo Limestone, Martin Formation, Escabrosa Limestone, and Horquilla Limestone. The Proterozoic–Paleozoic sequence is mantled by Upper Cretaceous rocks partly equivalent to the Fort Crittenden and Salero Formations in Arizona, and the Cabullona Group in Sonora, Mexico.Absence of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Bisbee Group below the Upper Cretaceous rocks and above the Proterozoic–Paleozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos was part of the Cananea high, a topographic highland during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Deposition of Upper Cretaceous rocks directly on Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos area had subsided as part of the Laramide Cabullona basin during Late Cretaceous time. Basal beds of the Upper Cretaceous sequence are clast-supported conglomerate composed locally of basement (Paleozoic) clasts. The conglomerate represents erosion of Paleozoic basement in the Sierra Los Ajos area coincident with development of the Cabullona basin.The present-day Sierra Los Ajos reaches elevations of greater than 2600 m, and was uplifted during Tertiary basin-and-range extension. Upper Cretaceous rocks are exposed at higher elevations in the northern Sierra Los Ajos and represent an uplifted part of the inverted Cabullona basin. Tertiary uplift of the Sierra Los Ajos was largely accommodated by vertical movement along the north-to-northwest-striking Sierra Los Ajos fault zone flanking the west side of the range. This fault zone structurally controls the configuration of the headwaters of the San Pedro River basin, an important bi-national water resource in the US

  1. The Salinas formation in the type-area, Northeastern Minas Gerais: a proposal to review the stratigraphy of the Aracuai belt on sedimentary, metamorphic and U-Pb SHRIMP evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Sirlene A. de Abreu; Pedrosa Soares, Antonio C.; Cordani, Umberto G.; Nutman, Allen

    2002-01-01

    The Salinas Formation has been considered to be a stratigraphic unit of the Macaubas Group. This group comprises the rift to passive margin sequences of the precursor basin of the Neo proterozoic Aracuai Orogeny, eastern Brazil. However, new road cuts show extensive and spectacular outcrops with very well-preserved sedimentary structures, allowing detailed studies in the type-locality of this formation, located in the Salinas town and surroundings, northeast Minas Gerais State. In its type-locality, the Salinas Formation consists of graywacke, pelite and clast-supported conglomerate, metamorphosed in the green schist facies. The sedimentary lithofacies are grouped into three facies association (shelf, slope and deep-sea), indicating sedimentation from shelf deposits to deep-water turbidites. The shelf sedimentation was influenced by storm-wave during deposition. The slump and deep-sea deposits were generated by gravitational flows and high- to low-concentration turbidity currents. Shelf sandstone, clast-supported conglomerate and proximal to distal turbidites outline a submarine fan system. U-Pb SHRIMP data from detrital zircons of graywacke samples indicate a maximum sedimentation age of ca. 568 Ma. Thus, the Salinas Formation is much younger than the Macaubas Group, and represents late orogenic deposits (ca. 568- 500 Ma). The distal, passive margin unit of the Macaubas Group is now called Ribeirao da Folha Formation (ca. 800 Ma). (author)

  2. Scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone: A prospective cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Sarah; Begum, Hashina; Friedman, Howard S; James, Chris D

    2017-12-01

    Family planning is commonly regarded as a highly cost-effective health intervention with wider social and economic benefits. Yet use of family planning services in Sierra Leone is currently low and 25.0% of married women have an unmet need for contraception. This study aims to estimate the costs and benefits of scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone. Using the OneHealth Tool, two scenarios of scaling up family planning coverage to currently married women in Sierra Leone over 2013-2035 were assessed and compared to a 'no-change' counterfactual. Our costing included direct costs of drugs, supplies and personnel time, programme costs and a share of health facility overhead costs. To monetise the benefits, we projected the cost savings of the government providing five essential social services - primary education, child immunisation, malaria prevention, maternal health services and improved drinking water - in the scale-up scenarios compared to the counterfactual. The total population, estimated at 6.1 million in 2013, is projected to reach 8.3 million by 2035 in the high scenario compared to a counterfactual of 9.6 million. We estimate that by 2035, there will be 1400 fewer maternal deaths and 700 fewer infant deaths in the high scenario compared to the counterfactual. Our modelling suggests that total costs of the family planning programme in Sierra Leone will increase from US$4.2 million in 2013 to US$10.6 million a year by 2035 in the high scenario. For every dollar spent on family planning, Sierra Leone is estimated to save US$2.10 in expenditure on the five selected social sector services over the period. There is a strong investment case for scaling up family planning services in Sierra Leone. The ambitious scale-up scenarios have historical precedent in other sub-Saharan African countries, but the extent to which they will be achieved depends on a commitment from both the government and donors to strengthening Sierra Leone's health system post-Ebola.

  3. Fumarole/plume and diffuse CO2 emission from Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padron, E.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Theofilos, T.; Melian, G.; Barrancos, J.; Virgil, G.; Sumino, H.; Notsu, K.

    2009-12-01

    The active shield-volcano Sierra Negra is part of the Galapagos hotspot. Sierra Negra is the largest shield volcano of Isabela Island, hosting a 10 km diameter caldera. Ten historic eruptions have occurred and some involved a frequently visited east caldera rim fissure zone called Volcan Chico. The last volcanic event occurred in October 2005 and lasted for about a week, covering approximately twenty percent of the eastern caldera floor. Sierra Negra volcano has experienced some significant changes in the chemical composition of its volcanic gas discharges after the 2005 eruption. This volcanic event produced an important SO2 degassing that depleted the magmatic content of this gas. Not significant changes in the MORB and plume-type helium contribution were observed after the 2005 eruption, with a 65.5 % of MORB and 35.5 % of plume contribution. In 2006 a visible and diffuse gas emission study was performed at the summit of Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos, to evaluate degassing rate from this volcanic system. Diffuse degassing at Sierra Negra was mainly confined in three different DDS: Volcan Chico, the southern inner margin of the caldera, and Mina Azufral. These areas showed also visible degassing, which indicates highly fractured areas where volcano-hydrothermal fluids migrate towards surface. A total fumarole/plume SO2 emission of 11 ± 2 td-1 was calculated by mini-DOAS ground-based measurements at Mina Azufral fumarolic area. Molar ratios of major volcanic gas components were also measured in-situ at Mina Azufral with a portable multisensor. The results showed H2S/SO2, CO2/SO2 and H2O/SO2 molar ratios of 0.41, 52.2 and 867.9, respectively. Multiplying the observed SO2 emission rate times the observed (gas)i/SO2 mass ratio we have estimated other volatiles emission rates. The results showed that H2O, CO2 and H2S emission rates from Sierra Negra are 562, 394, and 2.4 t d-1, respectively. The estimated total output of diffuse CO2 emission from the summit of

  4. Population dynamics of spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakesley, J.A.; Seamans, M.E.; Conner, M.M.; Franklin, A.B.; White, Gary C.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Munton, T.E.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; Steger, G.N.; McDonald, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1990 to 2005 to assist a listing evaluation by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study areas (from N to S) were on the Lassen National Forest (LAS), Eldorado National Forest (ELD), Sierra National Forest (SIE), and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SKC). These study areas represented a broad spectrum of habitat and management conditions in these mountain ranges. We estimated apparent survival probability, reproductive output, and rate of population change for spotted owls on individual study areas and for all study areas combined (meta-analysis) using model selection or model-averaging based on maximum-likelihood estimation. We followed a formal protocol to conduct this analysis that was similar to other spotted owl meta-analyses. Consistency of field and analytical methods among our studies reduced confounding methodological effects when evaluating results. We used 991 marked spotted owls in the analysis of apparent survival. Apparent survival probability was higher for adult than for subadult owls. There was little difference in apparent survival between male and female owls. Model-averaged mean estimates of apparent survival probability of adult owls varied from 0.811 ?? 0.021 for females at LAS to 0.890 ?? 0.016 for males at SKC. Apparent survival increased over time for owls of all age classes at LAS and SIE, for adults at ELD, and for second-year subadults and adults at SKC. The meta-analysis of apparent survival, which included only adult owls, confirmed an increasing trend in survival over time. Survival rates were higher for owls on SKC than on the other study areas. We analyzed data

  5. Macroeconomic costs of the unmet burden of surgical disease in Sierra Leone: a retrospective economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Caris E; Quaife, Matthew; Kamara, Thaim B; Lavy, Christopher B D; Leather, Andy J M; Bolkan, Håkon A

    2018-03-14

    The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that low/middle-income countries will lose an estimated cumulative loss of US$12.3 trillion from gross domestic product (GDP) due to the unmet burden of surgical disease. However, no country-specific data currently exist. We aimed to estimate the costs to the Sierra Leone economy from death and disability which may have been averted by surgical care. We used estimates of total, met and unmet need from two main sources-a cluster randomised, cross-sectional, countrywide survey and a retrospective, nationwide study on surgery in Sierra Leone. We calculated estimated disability-adjusted life years from morbidity and mortality for the estimated unmet burden and modelled the likely economic impact using three different methods-gross national income per capita, lifetime earnings foregone and value of a statistical life. In 2012, estimated, discounted lifetime losses to the Sierra Leone economy from the unmet burden of surgical disease was between US$1.1 and US$3.8 billion, depending on the economic method used. These lifetime losses equate to between 23% and 100% of the annual GDP for Sierra Leone. 80% of economic losses were due to mortality. The incremental losses averted by scale up of surgical provision to the Lancet Commission target of 80% were calculated to be between US$360 million and US$2.9 billion. There is a large economic loss from the unmet need for surgical care in Sierra Leone. There is an immediate need for massive investment to counteract ongoing economic losses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Reposição de volume na sepse com solução salina hipertônica Sepsis volume reposition with hypertonic saline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Friedman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão discute os efeitos hemodinâmicos e imunomoduladores da solução hipertônica em choque experimental e em pacientes com sepse. Comentamos sobre os mecanismos de ação da solução hipertônica, recorrendo a dados sobre choque hemorrágico e séptico. Atuações específicas da solução salina hipertônica aplicáveis a sepse grave e choque séptico são enfatizadas. Os dados disponíveis corroboram os benefícios em potencial da infusão de solução salina hipertônica em vários aspetos da fisiopatologia da sepse, inclusive hipoperfusão dos tecidos, consumo reduzido de oxigênio, disfunção endotelial, depressão miocárdica e presença de um amplo elenco de citocinas próinflamatórias e várias espécies de oxidantes. Uma terapia que, ao mesmo tempo, bloqueie os componentes prejudiciais da sepse terá um impacto no seu tratamento. Estudos prospectivos adequadamente desenhados poderão no futuro comprovar o papel benéfico da solução salina hipertônica.The present review discusses the hemodynamic and immune-modulatory effects of hypertonic saline in experimental shock and in patients with sepsis. We comment on the mechanisms of action of hypertonic saline, calling upon data in hemorrhagic and septic shock. Specific actions of hypertonic saline applicable to severe sepsis and septic shock are highlighted. Data available support potential benefits of hypertonic saline infusion in various aspects of the pathophysiology of sepsis, including tissue hypoperfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac depression, and the presence of a broad array of pro-inflammatory cytokines and various oxidant species. A therapy that simultaneously blocks the damaging components of sepsis will have an impact on the management of sepsis. Proper designed prospective studies may prove a beneficial role for hypertonic saline solution in the future.

  7. Quality improvement in emergency service delivery: Assessment of knowledge and skills amongst emergency nurses at Connaught Hospital, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedda Bøe Nyhus

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified key aspects of emergency nursing speciality training to be developed through theoretical and skill-based education provided by the nursing schools and hospital clinical facilities in Sierra Leone.

  8. Order of 13 December 1985 on the transfer to ENRESA of the Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Sierra Albarrana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Order provides for the transfer of the Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Sierra Albarrana from the Junta de Energia Nuclear to ENRESA, the National Enterprise for Radioactive Waste; it also organises all stages of the transfer. (NEA) [fr

  9. Estudio de caracterización de emprendedores de la Parroquia Salinas de la Provincia de Bolívar - Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Goyes Noboa

    2016-09-01

    Salinas de Guaranda. Se han identificado variables y factores sociales, económicos, de financiamiento, organizacionales, estructuras administrativas, económicas, cultura organizacional, formas asociativas, motivación para crear negocios, estructuras de negocios predominantes que impulsan la economía social y solidaria presente en la zona. El mayor número de emprendimientos está ligado directa e indirectamente (66% de negocios a las organizaciones sociales y fundaciones salineras, son negocios relativamente jóvenes (menos de 10 años de existencia que han surgido por la necesidad de generar actividades económicas que apoyen al ingreso familiar y comunitario, con lo que afianza el modelo de desarrollo social vigente.

  10. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira Diversity of flowers visiting bees of Citrus in salinas, state of minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.The presence of bees on cultures with commercial value during flowering is important to ensure the cross-pollination, when necessary, but also to increase the production of fruits and seeds. This work aimed to identify flowers' visiting bees on orange and tangerine orchards in Salinas - MG. The work was leaded on Santa Isabel experimental farm of the Federal Agro-technical School of Salinas - MG, on orange orchards (Citrus sinensis with pear, bahia and baianinha varieties in the spacing of 5,0 x 6,0, and on tangerine orchards (C. reticulate using poncã variety in the spacing of 5,0 x 5,0. The sampling of visiting bees from orange and tangerine

  11. Encapsulación de moléculas pequeñas mediante la precipitación salina de poliuretanos catioméricos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández d’Arlas, Borja; Corcuera, María Ángeles; Eceiza, Arantxa

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia un copolímero de poliuretano catiomérico (PU) con alta proporción de uretano como agente encapsulante de fármacos modelos (FM) mediante la encapsulación inducida por precipitación salina del PU y FM a pH < pI del PU. Mediante espectroscopia UV-Vis se ha estimado el porcentaje de encapsulación de varios FMs proponiéndose un modelo semi-empírico para determinar la distribución observada en las eficiencias de encapsulación, E, en función de su volumen molar...

  12. Effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming velocity of the copepod Acartia tonsa, brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Madsen, C.V.; Riisgard, H.U.

    2008-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles for swimming in many zooplanktonic aquatic organisms, including many invertebrate larvae, rotifers and ciliates, but other planktonic organisms, such as copepods and brine shrimps, use muscle-powered swimming appendages. In recent studies we found...... of swimming velocity for a 10 degrees C temperature reduction) that is found to be largest for the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplius (37 %) and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (26%), but negligible for the copepod Acartia tonsa (4%). We suggest that experimental data on change in swimming velocity (V......) due to change in kinematic viscosity (v) be correlated in terms of a power law, V proportional to v(-m). The present data on swimming velocity of copepods, brine shrimps and rotifers show values of exponent m approximate to 1.5 to 3, with a trend of decreasing values for increasing size of species...

  13. The Cytotoxicity Study of Carboxymethyl Starch (CMS) of Sago Starch (Metro xylon sago) by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (Artemia salina nauplii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Ijang; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Zainon Othman

    2014-01-01

    CMS can be produced by substitution of the hydroxyl groups with sodium monochloroacetate in the presence of strong alkali. Carboxy methylation can be performed in water as a solvent or in a water-miscible organic solvent containing a small amount of water such as ethanol, isopropanol, methanol or toluene. The use of organic solvent will preserve the final product in the granular form and the side product can be washed out easily but some of them may be having potential toxicity and carcinogenic effect. In this study, CMS was investigated the level of toxicity by using brine shrimp lethality (BSLT). Brine shrimp test method was used to screen CMS for their biological activity. The screening results showed that the LC50, of CMS is more than 100 mg/ ml dose concentration. In conclusion, CMS is not cytotoxicity to Artemia salina nauplii and BSLT method is simple, inexpensive and convenient assay for the detection of cytotoxic compound. (author)

  14. El turismo de naturaleza en espacios naturales. El caso del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Ballesteros Pelegrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espacios naturales atraen a turistas que buscan el contacto con la naturaleza, surgiendo nuevos productos turísticos. Surgen, de este modo, nuevos productos turísticos. En la oferta de turismo de naturaleza del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar destaca: deportes en la naturaleza, aventura y ecoturismo. Este último se divide en: turismo ornitológico y fotográfico, que junto al tradicional de sol y playa y de salud, se ve favorecido por su situación geográfica, condiciones naturales y amplia oferta hotelera. Sin embargo, el turismo cultural basado en la tradición salinera y pesquera no ha sido desarrollado.

  15. Demography of the California spotted owl in the Sierra National Forest and Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    George N. Steger; Thomas E. Munton; Kenneth D. Johnson; Gary P. Eberlein

    2002-01-01

    Nine years (1990–1998) of demographic data on California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) in two study areas on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada—one in the Sierra National Forest (SNF), the other in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks (SNP)—are summarized. Numbers of territorial owls fluctuated from 85 to 50 in SNF and 80 to 58...

  16. Preliminary assessment of the moth (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) fauna of Rincon de Guadalupe, Sierra de Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Palting

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra de Bacadéhuachi is a poorly sampled extension of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) located in east-central Sonora near the town of Bacadéhuachi. Sampling of moths using mercury vapor and ultraviolet lights occurred in summer and fall 2011, and spring 2012 at Rincón de Guadalupe, located in pine-oak forest at 1680 m elevation. Approximately 400 taxa of moths...

  17. Crescimento, consumo hídrico e composição mineral de alface cultivada em hidroponia com águas salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento, o consumo hídrico e a extração de nutrientes, por alface (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT (fluxo laminar de nutrientes, com a utilização de águas salinas no preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição da lâmina diária evapotranspirada. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água, utilizando-se NaCl. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu, de forma linear, o crescimento e o consumo hídrico da alface. A salinidade reduziu a concentração de macronutrientes na parte aérea, mas não se observaram sintomas de deficiência nutricional. O rendimento (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea foi reduzido entre 6 e 6,5% por dS m-1, no primeiro e segundo cultivo, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo NFT podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças, para produtores que têm disponibilidade restrita de água doce, porém, com redução de produtividade.

  18. Trocas gasosas e conteúdo de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados em pinhão-manso irrigado com águas residuária e salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Evami Cavalcante Sousa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alterações nas trocas gasosas e nos conteúdos de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados, em pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas irrigado com águas residuária e salina. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições: irrigação plena com água de abastecimento a 0,6 dS m-1 (controle; irrigação plena com água salinizada a 2,4 dS m-1 (SAL; e irrigação com água residuária de esgoto, plena (R100 e a 50% da capacidade de campo (R50. O tratamento R50 reduziu fortemente as trocas gasosas e a área foliar, comparado ao controle, seguido pelos tratamentos SAL e R100. A redução na fotossíntese diminuiu o nível de sacarose nas folhas, nos quatro tratamentos. Os teores de açúcares solúveis aumentaram nos tratamentos R50, SAL e R100, enquanto o conteúdo de amido permaneceu praticamente inalterado. Os conteúdos de prolina e glicina betaína aumentaram nos três tratamentos, mas a última foi mais importante, em termos quantitativos, como protetor celular e osmótico. A irrigação plena com água residuária induz efeitos similares aos causados pela irrigação com água salina. A irrigação limitada com água residuária causa estresse agudo às plantas, provavelmente pela combinação de deficiência hídrica e acúmulo de solutos no solo.

  19. Emergência e crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia submetidas à irrigação com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayky F. P. de Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de sais na água de irrigação sob a emergência e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia (Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth.. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação do departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido, Mossoró, RN, usando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, com 24 sementes em cada parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos das concentrações salinas 0,68 (água de abastecimento; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0 e 7,5 dS m-1, obtidas através da adição de NaCl em água. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, número de folíolos, condutividade elétrica acumulada do substrato, índice de conteúdo de clorofila, massa seca da raiz, do caule, das folhas e total. O aumento da salinidade na água de irrigação interfere negativamente na emergência e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia, sendo recomendado água com concentração salina até 1,5 dS m-1, caracterizando esta espécie como glicófita, sensível à salinidade.

  20. Crescimento e fitomassa da beterraba sob irrigação suplementar com água de diferentes concentrações salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Pereira dos Santos

    Full Text Available RESUMO O uso da água salina na agricultura é uma alternativa viável, tendo-se em vista o aumento da demanda de água doce. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento e a produção de fitomassa da beterraba, sob irrigação com água de diferentes concentrações salinas, em experimento em condição de campo, no Campus da Universidade Federal de Alagoas, em Arapiraca. Os tratamentos foram cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica (1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 dS m-1. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O máximo rendimento da beterraba aos 27 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos salinos foi obtido com uma salinidade de 3,0 dS m-1, para as variáveis altura de planta (AP, diâmetro do caule (DC, comprimento da raiz (CR, fitomassa seca da parte aérea (FSPA e fitomassa seca total (FST. Aos 42 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos salinos, as variáveis fitomassa fresca da parte aérea (FFPA, fitomassa fresca da raiz (FFR, fitomassa fresca total (FFT, fitomassa seca da parte aérea (FSPA e fitomassa seca total (FST aumentaram com o aumento da salinidade da água. A chuva pode ter influenciado os resultados obtidos para as avaliações, realizadas aos 42 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos salinos.

  1. Landsat-Derived Estimates of Mangrove Extents in the Sierra Leone Coastal Landscape Complex during 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinki; Trzaska, Sylwia; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2017-12-21

    This study provides the first assessment of decadal changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone. While significant advances have been made in mangrove mapping using remote sensing, no study has documented long-term changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone-one of the most vulnerable countries in West Africa. Such understanding is critical for devising regional management strategies that can support local livelihoods. We utilize multi-date Landsat data and cloud computational techniques to quantify spatiotemporal changes in land cover, with focus on mangrove ecosystems, for 1990-2016 along the coast of Sierra Leone. We specifically focus on four estuaries-Scarcies, Sierra Leone, Yawri Bay, and Sherbro. We relied on the k-means approach for an unsupervised classification, and validated the classified map from 2016 using ground truth data collected from Sentinel-2 and high-resolution images and during field research (accuracy: 95%). Our findings indicate that the Scarcies river estuary witnessed the greatest mangrove loss since 1990 (45%), while the Sierra Leone river estuary experienced mangrove gain over the last 26 years (22%). Overall, the Sierra Leone coast lost 25% of its mangroves between 1990 and 2016, with the lowest coverage in 2000, during the period of civil war (1991-2002). However, natural mangrove dynamics, as supported by field observations, indicate the potential for regeneration and sustainability under carefully constructed management strategies.

  2. Evaluating potential overlap between pack stock and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Robert C.; Few, Alexandra P.; Knox, Kathleen A.; Hatfield, Brian E.; Clark, Jonathan; German, David W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pack stock (horses, mules, burros, llamas, and goats) are frequently assumed to have negative effects on public lands, but there is a general lack of data to be able to quantify the degree to which this is actually the case. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks have received complaints that pack stock may affect Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae; SNBS), a federally endangered subspecies that occurs in largely disjunct herds in the Sierra Nevada Range of California. The potential effects are thought to be displacement of SNBS from meadows on their summer range (altered habitat use) or, more indirectly, through changes in SNBS habitat or forage quality. Our goals were to conduct an association analysis to quantify the degree of potential spatial overlap in meadow use between SNBS and pack stock and to compare differences in vegetation community composition, structure, and diversity among meadows with different levels of use by bighorn sheep and pack stock. For the association analysis, we used two approaches: (1) we quantified the proportion of meadows that were within the herd home ranges of bighorn sheep and were potentially open to pack stock, and, (2) we used Monte Carlo simulations and use-availability analyses to compare the proportion of meadows used by bighorn sheep relative to the proportional occurrence or area of meadows available to bighorn sheep that were used by pack stock. To evaluate potential effects of pack stock on meadow plant communities and SNBS forage, we sampled vegetation in 2011 and 2012 at 100 plots to generate data that allowed us to compare:

  3. Diversidad de mamíferos de la Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla, México Diversity of mammals in the Natural Reserve Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla (RNSN, por su extensión, es la segunda área natural protegida del Estado de México; sin embargo, se desconoce gran parte de su biodiversidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar su diversidad mastofaunística. Se utilizó el trampeo directo para la colecta de mamíferos pequeños y trampas-cámara para el estudio de los mamíferos medianos y grandes. Se calculó la diversidad a partir del índice de Margalef, y se evaluaron la dominancia y la equidad mediante los índices de Simpson y Shannon-Wiener, respectivamente. Se registraron 53 especies de mamíferos; 3 de ellas son el primer registro estatal, 10 son endémicas de México y 4 las considera en alguna categoría de vulnerabilidad el gobierno mexicano. En la zona habitan 5 de las 6 especies de felinos de México. La composición mastofaunística de la RNSN fue comparada con la de la sierra Purépecha, Michoacán, con la que comparte el 38% de las especies. De acuerdo con el índice de Jaccard, la similitud entre ambas es baja. Considerando los resultados, la importancia de la RNSN con respecto a su diversidad mastofaunística es evidente, así como la necesidad de delinear estrategias para su conservación.The Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve (SNNR is the second largest natural protected area in the State of Mexico, however its biodiversity is largely unknown. The aim of this research was to estimate its mammalian diversity. Direct trapping was used to capture small mammals and camera-trapping for the study of medium and large mammals. Diversity was calculated from Margalef's index, dominance and equity were evaluated through Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indexes, respectively. Fifty three species were registered, 3 of them are the first record for the State of Mexico, 10 are endemic to Mexico and 4 are considered in some category of vulnerability by the Mexican government. The area is inhabited by 5 of the 6 Mexican felid species. The

  4. DATACIONES ARQUEOMAGNÉTICAS EN LA CIUDADELA DE TEOTIHUACAN, SIERRA DE LAS NAVAJAS Y XALASCO (Archaeomagnetic Datings in the Citadel of Teotihuacan, Sierra de las Navajas, and Xalasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Gabriel Terán Guerrero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El control cronoestratigráfico es fundamental para el desarrollo del trabajo arqueológico, por ello el arqueomagnetismo se ha constituido como una gran herramienta para las dataciones. En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de dataciones arqueomagnéticas mediante la determinación de la dirección de magnetización de pisos de estuco de tres sitios de la cultura teotihuacana: Ciudadela de Teotihuacan, Sierra de las Navajas y Xalasco, Tlaxcala. Esta cultura se desarrolló en el centro de México a partir del año 1 d. C., teniendo su mayor esplendor durante los siglos IV al VI d. C. Tres etapas constructivas fueron muestreadas en la ciudadela de Teotihuacan: la preciudadela, la pirámide de Quetzalcóatl y la pirámide adosada. La Sierra de las Navajas en Hidalgo, a 50 km de Teotihuacan, era su principal proveedor de obsidiana, por lo que es de interés conocer sus periodos de ocupación. El motivo del análisis de los pisos de Xalasco, Tlaxcala, sitio de la cultura teotihuacana, es por encontrarse en la ruta de comunicación con la zona del Golfo de México. Utilizando la metodología y el programa de Pavón-Carrasco et al. (2014 se infieren intervalos de tiempo que nos permiten comprender la dinámica ocupacional de estos sitios. ENGLISH: The chronostratigraphic control is fundamental during any archaeological survey. Recent studies over the Americas showed that archaeomagnetism emerges as a great tool for absolute dating purposes. In this paper, we report new archaeomagnetic datings obtained from stucco floors belonging to three sites of Teotihuacan: the Citadel of Teotihuacan, Sierra de las Navajas and Xalasco, Tlaxcala. This culture developed in central Mexico from AD 1, having its greatest splendor during the 4th to 6th centuries AD. Three construction phases were sampled in the citadel of Teotihuacan: the pre-Citadel, the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl and the terraced pyramid. The Sierra de la Navajas in Hidalgo, located 50 km from

  5. Climate controls on forest productivity along the climate gradient of the western Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. E.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The broad climate gradient of the slopes of the western Sierra Nevada mountains supports ecosystems spanning extremes of productivity, biomass, and function. We are using this natural environmental gradient to understand how climate controls NPP, aboveground biomass, species' range limits, and phenology. Our experimental approach combines eddy covariance, sap flow, dendrometer, and litterfall measurements in combination with soil and hydrological data from the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). We have found that above about 2500 m, forest productivity is limited by winter cold, while below 1200 m, productivity is likely limited by summer drought. The sweet spot between these elevations has a nearly year-long growing season despite a snowpack that persists for as long as six months. Our results show that small differences in temperature can markedly alter the water balance and productivity of mixed conifer forests.

  6. Structure of Sierra Blanca (Alpujarride Complex, west of the Betic Cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreo, B.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Blanca, situated in the SW of Málaga, forms part of the Blanca unit, belonging to the Alpujarride Complex of the Betic Cordillera. Its lithologic sequences are made up of a group of migmatites, gneisses and schists and an upper formation of marbles (white dolomitic and the bottom and blue calcareous towards the top, linked with a transitional contact. The structure of Sierra Blanca is comprised of folds, generally isoclinal, with reversed limbs and with important tectonic transpositions, the direction of which is approximately E-W in the eastern area and N-S and E-W in the West. In both areas the folds present opposing vergences, consistently towards the interior of the sierra. The origin of these structures is explained with a model of westerly movements of the Blanca unit, in relation to the Los Reales unit, with the formation of frontal and lateral folds. In its advancement, the western part of Sierra Blanca underwent an important anti-clockwise rotation responsible for the co-existence of folds in N-S and E-W directions. These structures occurred under ductile conditions, owing to the presence of important overthrusting peridotitic masses of the Los Reales unit. This model of westerly displacement is inserted in the process undergone by the Betic-Rif Internal Zones (with Blanca and Los Reales units included which occurred at the end of the Oligocene-Early Miocene when the Gibraltar arch began to be formed.Sierra Blanca, situada al SW de Málaga, forma parte de la unidad de Blanca que pertenece al complejo Alpujárride de la Cordillera Bética. Su secuencia litológica está compuesta por un conjunto inferior de migmatitas, gneises y esquistos, y por una formación superior de mármoles, blancos dolomíticos en la base y mármoles calizos azules hacia la parte superior, entre los que existe un tránsito gradual. La estructura de Sierra Blanca está formada por pliegues, generalmente isoclinales, con flancos invertidos que muestran

  7. Innovation diffusion and development in a Third World setting: the cooperative movement in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus); Schneider, R.; Harvey, M.E.; Riddell, J.B.

    1979-09-01

    The interface between innovation diffusion and economic development and social change in Third World settings is investigated. The paper first presents a conceptual framework linking diffusion processes and development and then exemplifies a portion of that framework by examining the diffusion of agricultural cooperatives in Sierra Leone from 1948 through 1967. Attention is then turned to elements of the historical development of a cooperative movement in Sierra Leone which are important for understanding the processes underlying that diffusion. The temporal and spatial patterns of diffusion are discussed and the statistical analyses that assess (1) which variables provide a basis for distinguishing political units with cooperatives from those without, and (2) which variables account for the differences in the time at which cooperatives were established are examined. The findings are integrated with the theory presented. 41 references.

  8. Thymus × pseudogranatensis (Labiatae, nuevo híbrido para Sierra Nevada (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorite, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, a new spontaneous hybrid of Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis and Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, collected in the dolomitic areas of Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, is described. Morphological characters of the new nothospecies are analysed and its distribution and ecology are discussed.Se describe Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, un nuevo híbrido entre Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis y Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, colectado en la orla dolomítica de Sierra Nevada (SE de España. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos de la nueva notoespecie y se aportan detalles sobre su hábitat y distribución.

  9. Late Quaternary offset of alluvial fan surfaces along the Central Sierra Madre Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgette, Reed J.; Hanson, Austin; Scharer, Katherine M.; Midttun, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    The Sierra Madre Fault is a reverse fault system along the southern flank of the San Gabriel Mountains near Los Angeles, California. This study focuses on the Central Sierra Madre Fault (CSMF) in an effort to provide numeric dating on surfaces with ages previously estimated from soil development alone. We have refined previous geomorphic mapping conducted in the western portion of the CSMF near Pasadena, CA, with the aid of new lidar data. This progress report focuses on our geochronology strategy employed in collecting samples and interpreting data to determine a robust suite of terrace surface ages. Sample sites for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence dating techniques were selected to be redundant and to be validated through relative geomorphic relationships between inset terrace levels. Additional sample sites were selected to evaluate the post-abandonment histories of terrace surfaces. We will combine lidar-derived displacement data with surface ages to estimate slip rates for the CSMF.

  10. Geology and petrography of the Socoscora Sierra . Province of San Luis. Republica Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carugno Duran, A.

    1998-01-01

    The following paper include an study geological and petrographic of the Sierra de Socoscora. San Luis, Argentina. This mountainas is a block with less elevation that the Sierra de San Luis, and it located in the west center of it. It' s formed by an crystalline basement composed by metamorphic haigh grade rocks, with a penetrative foliation of strike N-S. in this context is possible to define petrographicly the following units, migmatitic that fill a big part of the mountain, amphibolites, marbles, skarns, milonites and pegmatites. This units have amphibolitic facies assemblanges mineral and in some them, we can observe retrograde metamorphism of the greesnschist facies. The metamorphic structure is complex and evidence at least three deformation event

  11. Crop-Specific EU Aid and Smallholder Food Security in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Saravia-Matus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the viability of promoting crop-specific programs as a mean to improve smallholder net farm income and food security. The case study explores the relevance of European Union Stabilisation of Export Earnings (STABEX funds in supporting Sierra Leone’s agricultural development agenda. By analysing the drivers of food security for a number of targeted smallholders in the two most important agricultural zones of Sierra Leone, it is possible to compare the suitability of crop-specific support (in rice, cocoa and coffee versus general aid programs (public infrastructure, on and off farm diversification opportunities, sustainable practices, access to productive assets, etc.. The results indicate that crop diversification strategies are widespread and closely related to risk minimisation and enhanced food security among smallholders. Similarly, crop-specific programs mainly focusing on commercialisation tend to overlook important constraints associated to self-consumption and productivity.

  12. GPS Imaging of vertical land motion in California and Nevada: Implications for Sierra Nevada uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We introduce Global Positioning System (GPS) Imaging, a new technique for robust estimation of the vertical velocity field of the Earth's surface, and apply it to the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in the western United States. Starting with vertical position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, we first estimate vertical velocities using the MIDAS robust trend estimator, which is insensitive to undocumented steps, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity. Using the Delaunay triangulation of station locations, we then apply a weighted median spatial filter to remove velocity outliers and enhance signals common to multiple stations. Finally, we interpolate the data using weighted median estimation on a grid. The resulting velocity field is temporally and spatially robust and edges in the field remain sharp. Results from data spanning 5–20 years show that the Sierra Nevada is the most rapid and extensive uplift feature in the western United States, rising up to 2 mm/yr along most of the range. The uplift is juxtaposed against domains of subsidence attributable to groundwater withdrawal in California's Central Valley. The uplift boundary is consistently stationary, although uplift is faster over the 2011–2016 period of drought. Uplift patterns are consistent with groundwater extraction and concomitant elastic bedrock uplift, plus slower background tectonic uplift. A discontinuity in the velocity field across the southeastern edge of the Sierra Nevada reveals a contrast in lithospheric strength, suggesting a relationship between late Cenozoic uplift of the southern Sierra Nevada and evolution of the southern Walker Lane. PMID:27917328

  13. Measuring work engagement among community health workers in Sierra Leone: Validating the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vallières, Frédérique; McAuliffe, Eilish; Hyland, Philip; Galligan, Marie; Ghee, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the concept of volunteer work engagement in a sample of 334 community health workers in Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Structural equation modelling was used to validate both the 9-item and the 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and UWES-17, respectively). Results assessing the UWES-17 invalidated the three-factor structure within this cohort of community health workers, as high correlations were found between latent factors. Findings for the validity of the UWE...

  14. Evaluating the PV potential of Miraflores de la Sierra (Madrid) via geographic information technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Ávila, A.M.; Domínguez Bravo, J.; Amador Guerra, J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of the PV potential in Miraflores de la Sierra forms part of the development of strategies to promote renewables-based distributed generation. The importance of residents and their urban environment in the change of energy model is taking on a new role, as both consumer and energy producer. Facilitating this transition towards a new model, demonstrating the huge possibilities of this new agent, is one of the basic objectives of this article. (Author)

  15. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Null

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  16. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque; Cristina Patricia Sánchez-Rojas; Regino Zamora; Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Francisco Javier Bonet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems...

  17. Correlations and Areal Distribution of the Table Mountain Formation, Stanislaus Group; Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrez, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Putirka, K. D.; Pluhar, C. J.; Sharma, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Late Cenozoic evolution of the western Cordillera is a matter of ongoing debate in geologic studies. Volcanic deposits within, and adjacent to the Sierra Nevada have played a significant role in many of these debates. With local faulting coincident with eruption of members of the Stanislaus Group at ca. 38°N, the composition and correlation of these volcanics can greatly aid our understanding of Sierra Nevada tectonics. At the crest of the central Sierra Nevada, 23 trachyandesite lava flows of the Table Mountain Formation, dated at ~10 Ma, cap Sonora Peak. These 23 flows compose the thickest and most complete known stratigraphic section of the Table Mountain Formation in the region. Located ~12 km east of Sonora Peak are 16 flows of trachyandesite at Grouse Meadow. We have collected a detailed set of geochemical and paleomagnetic data for flows of these two sections at Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadows in an attempt to correlate volcanic, paleomagnetic and structural events related to uplift and extension in the Sierra Nevada and the Walker Lane. Correlation of individual flows is possible based on: stratigraphic order, temporal gaps in deposition as determined by paleomagnetic remanence direction and nonconformities, and flow geochemistry. These correlations allow us to infer source localities, flow directions, and temporal changes in flow routes. The large number of flows present at Grouse Meadow provides an additional data set from which to correlate various localities in the region to those units not represented at Sonora Peak. Several flows which occur in the upper portions of the Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadow stratigraphic sections do not correlate between these localities. The causes of stratigraphic discontinuity potentially represent: tectonic isolation across the Sierran Crest, topographic isolation by the emplacement of younger flows, or the combination of the two. Additional to the correlation of individual flows at these localities, this study shows a

  18. Inversion for Eigenvalues and Modes Using Sierra-SD and ROL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report we formulate eigenvalue-based methods for model calibration using a PDE-constrained optimization framework. We derive the abstract optimization operators from first principles and implement these methods using Sierra-SD and the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL). To demon- strate this approach, we use experimental measurements and an inverse solution to compute the joint and elastic foam properties of a low-fidelity unit (LFU) model.

  19. Distance, accessibility and costs. Decision-making during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Treacy

    Full Text Available Sierra Leone has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality have included initiatives to encourage more women to deliver at health facilities. Despite the introduction of the free health care initiative for pregnant women, many women still continue to deliver at home, with few having access to a skilled birth attendant. In addition, inequalities between rural and urban areas in accessing and utilising health facilities persist. Further insight into how and why women make decisions around childbirth will help guide future plans and initiatives in improving maternal health in Sierra Leone. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions and decision-making processes of women and their communities during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone.Data were collected through seven focus group discussions and 22 in-depth interviews with recently pregnant women and their community members in two rural villages. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. Findings revealed that decision-making processes during childbirth are dynamic, intricate and need to be understood within the broader social context that they take place. Factors such as distance and lack of transport, perceived negative behaviour of hospital staff, direct and indirect financial obstacles, as well as the position of women in society all interact and influence how and what decisions are made.Pregnant women face multiple interacting vulnerabilities that influence their healthcare-seeking decisions during pregnancy and childbirth. Future initiatives to improve access and utilisation of safe healthcare services for pregnant women need to be based on adequate knowledge of structural constraints and health inequities that affect women in rural Sierra Leone.

  20. Medium and large mammals in the Sierra La Madera, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erick Oswaldo Bermudez-Enriquez; Rosa Elena Jimenez-Maldonado; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; Hugo Silva-Kurumiya

    2013-01-01

    Sierra La Madera is a Sky Island mountain range in the Madrean Archipelago. It is in Fracción V of the Ajos-Bavispe CONANP Reserve in the Municipios (= Counties) of Cumpas, Granados, Huásabas, Moctezuma, and Villa Hidalgo. Medium and large mammals were inventoried using camera traps. Eighteen Wild View 2® camera traps were deployed during four sampling periods: August...

  1. Ten Years of Forest Cover Change in the Sierra Nevada Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed geographic record of recent vegetation regrowth and disturbance patterns in forests of the Sierra Nevada remains a gap that can be filled with remote sensing data. Landsat (TM) imagery was analyzed to detect 10 years of recent changes (between 2000 and 2009) in forest vegetation cover for areas burned by wildfires between years of 1995 to 1999 in the region. Results confirmed the prevalence of regrowing forest vegetation during the period 2000 and 2009 over 17% of the combined burned areas.

  2. Potential increase in floods in California's Sierra Nevada under future climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Hidalgo, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    California's mountainous topography, exposure to occasional heavily moisture-laden storm systems, and varied communities and infrastructures in low lying areas make it highly vulnerable to floods. An important question facing the state-in terms of protecting the public and formulating water management responses to climate change-is "how might future climate changes affect flood characteristics in California?" To help address this, we simulate floods on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the state's primary catchment, based on downscaled daily precipitation and temperature projections from three General Circulation Models (GCMs). These climate projections are fed into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, and the VIC-simulated streamflows and hydrologic conditions, from historical and from projected climate change runs, allow us to evaluate possible changes in annual maximum 3-day flood magnitudes and frequencies of floods. By the end of the 21st Century, all projections yield larger-than-historical floods, for both the Northern Sierra Nevada (NSN) and for the Southern Sierra Nevada (SSN). The increases in flood magnitude are statistically significant (at p models, while under the third scenario, GFDL CM2. 1, frequencies remain constant or decline slightly, owing to an overall drying trend. These increases appear to derive jointly from increases in heavy precipitation amount, storm frequencies, and days with more precipitation falling as rain and less as snow. Increases in antecedent winter soil moisture also play a role in some areas. Thus, a complex, as-yet unpredictable interplay of several different climatic influences threatens to cause increased flood hazards in California's complex western Sierra landscapes. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Improving access to surgery in a developing country: experience from a surgical collaboration in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Adam L; Kamara, Thaim B; Groen, Reinou S; Fadlu-Deen, Betsy D; Doah, Kisito S; Kingham, T Peter

    2010-01-01

    Although surgery is increasingly recognized as an essential component of primary health care, there has been little documentation of surgical programs in low- and middle-income countries. Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) is a New York-based organization with a mission to save lives in developing countries by improving surgical care. This article highlights the surgical program in Sierra Leone as a possible model to improve access to surgery. An SOS team conducted a needs assessment of surgical capacity in Sierra Leone in February 2008. Interventions were then developed and programs were implemented. A follow-up assessment was conducted in December 2009, which included interviews of key Sierra Leone hospital personnel and a review of operating room log books. Based on an initial needs assessment, a program was developed that included training, salary support, and the provision of surgical supplies and equipment. Two 3-day workshops were conducted for a total of 44 health workers, salary support given to over 100 staff, and 2 containers of supplies and equipment were donated. Access to surgery, as measured by the number of major operations at Connaught Hospital, increased from 460 cases in 2007 to 768 cases in 2009. The SOS program in Sierra Leone highlights a method for improving access to surgery that incorporates an initial needs assessment with minimal external support and local staff collaboration. The program functions as a catalyst by providing training, salary support, and supplies. The beneficial results of the program can then be used to advocate for additional resources for surgery from policy makers. This model could be beneficial in other resource-poor countries in which improved access to surgery is desired. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Family involvement in the reintegration of former child soldiers in Sierra Leone:A critical examination

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1980s Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes have been an integral part of post-conflict reconstruction. This was especially true of Sierra Leone’s post-conflict reconstruction which has frequently been hailed a ‘multilateral success story’ by the international community. Nevertheless, within Western-authored DDR literature there is a widespread but little interrogated assertion that, in post-conflict contexts, resettling former child soldiers with their...

  5. Groundwater quality in the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-03-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  6. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  7. Resilience Through Disturbance: Effects of Wildfire on Vegetation and Water Balance in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisrame, G. F. S.; Thompson, S. E.; Stephens, S.; Collins, B.; Tague, N.

    2015-12-01

    A century of fire suppression in the Western United States has drastically altered the historically fire-adapated ecology in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains. Fire suppression is understood to have increased the forest cover, as well as the stem density, canopy cover and water demand of montane forests, reducing resilience of the forests to drought, and increasing the risk of catastrophic fire by drying the landscape and increasing fuel loads. The potential to reverse these trends by re-introducing fire into the Sierra Nevada is highly promising, but the likely effects on vegetation structure and water balance are poorly quantified. The Illilouette Creek Basin in Yosemite National Park represents a unique experiment in the Sierra Nevada, in which managers have moved from fire suppression to allowing a near-natural fire regime to prevail since 1972. Changes in vegetation structure in the Illilouette since the restoration of natural burning provides a unique opportunity to examine how frequent, mixed severity fires can reshape the Sierra Nevada landscape. We characterize these changes from 1969 to the present using a combination of Landsat products and high-resolution aerial imagery. We describe how the landscape structure has changed in terms of vegetation composition and its spatial organization, and explore the drivers of different post-fire vegetation type transitions (e.g. forest to shrubland vs. forest to meadow). By upscaling field data using vegetation maps and Landsat wetness indices, we explore how these vegetation transitions have impacted the water balance of the Illilouette Creek Basin, potentially increasing its resilience in the face of drought, climate change, and catastrophic fire. In a region that is adapted to frequent disturbance from fire, this work helps us understand how allowing such natural disturbances to take place can increase the sustainability of diverse landscapes in the long term.

  8. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard; Kamara, Idrissa; Wei, Qiang; Liang, Mi-Fang; Wu, Gui-Zhen; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-06-23

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV detection since 11 March 2015. Complete management and program documents were created for the SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab, and it was divided into four zones (the green, yellow, brown, and red zones) based on the risk assessment. Different types of safe and appropriate personnel protection equipment (PPE) are used in different zones of the laboratory, and it fully meets the Biosafety Level 3 laboratory standards of the World Health Organization. Good preparedness, comprehensive risk assessment and operation documents, appropriate PPE, effective monitoring and intensive training, together with well-designed and reasonable laboratory sectioning are essential for guaranteeing biosafety.

  9. Magma mixing in granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, John B.; Evans, Owen C.; Fates, Dailey G.

    1983-12-01

    The El Capitan alaskite exposed in the North American Wall, Yosemite National Park, was intruded by two sets of mafic dikes that interacted thermally and chemically with the host alaskite. Comparisons of petrographic and compositional data for these dikes and alaskite with published data for Sierra Nevada plutons lead us to suggest that mafic magmas were important in the generation of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Specifically, we conclude that: (1) intrusion of mafic magmas in the lower crust caused partial melting and generation of alaskite (rhyolitic) magmas; (2) interaction between the mafic and felsic magmas lead to the observed linear variation diagrams for major elements; (3) most mafic inclusions in Sierra Nevada plutons represent chilled pillows of mafic magmas, related by fractional crystallization and granitoid assimilation, that dissolve into their felsic host and contaminate it to intermediate (granodioritic) compositions; (4) vesiculation of hydrous mafic magma upon chilling may allow buoyant mafic inclusions and their disaggregation products to collect beneath a pluton's domed ceiling causing the zoning (mafic margins-to-felsic core) that these plutons exhibit.

  10. Experiences of providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone--the local staff's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Lina; Ahlström, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, West Africa, there are many people with disabilities in need of rehabilitation services after a long civil war. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of prosthetic and orthotic service delivery in Sierra Leone from the local staff's perspective. Fifteen prosthetic and orthotic technicians working at all the rehabilitation centres providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to latent content analysis. One main theme emerged: sense of inability to deliver high-quality prosthetic and orthotic services. This main theme was generated from eight sub-themes: Desire for professional development; appraisals of work satisfaction and norms; patients neglected by family; limited access to the prosthetic and orthotic services available; problems with materials and machines; low public awareness concerning disabilities; marginalisation in society and low priority on the part of government. The findings illustrated traditional beliefs about the causes of disability and that the public's attitude needs to change to include and value people with disabilities. Support from international organisations was considered necessary as well as educating more prosthetic and orthotic staff to a higher level.

  11. Espacio urbano, espacio del consumo en las crónicas norteamericanas de Justo Sierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Beatriz Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las crónicas de viaje de Justo Sierra, escritas en ocasión de su visita a los Estados Unidos a finales del siglo XIX, con énfasis en las dedicadas a la ciudad de Nueva York. En ellas, centramos nuestra atención en el registro textual de fenómenos relacionados con la forma en que Sierra percibe la modernidad norteamericana, especialmente significativa en lo que hace a la relación entre economía y sociedad. Por ello, atendemos particularmente la configuración del espacio urbano como un escenario del consumo, y procuramos demostrar cómo la constitución física y simbólica de las ciudades muestra rasgos de parentesco con esos eventos típicos de la época que fueron las ferias y exposiciones, las cuales también son objeto de la prosa de Sierra.

  12. Using machine learning to predict snow water equivalent in the Sierra Nevada USA and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, N.; Rittger, K.; Dozier, J.

    2017-12-01

    In many mountain regions, snowmelt provides most of the runoff. Ranges such as the Sierra Nevada USA benefit from hundreds of manual and automated snow measurement stations as well as basin-wide snow water equavalent (SWE) estimates from new platforms like the Airborne Snow Observatory. Thus, we have been able to use the Sierra Nevada as a testbed to validate an approach called SWE reconstruction, where the snowpack is built-up in reverse using downscaled energy balance forcings. Our past work has shown that SWE reconstruction produces some of the most accurate basin-wide SWE estimates, comparable in accuracy to a snow pillow/course interpolation, but requires no in situ measurements, which is its main advantage. The disadvantages are that reconstruction cannot be used for a forecast and is only valid during the ablation period. To address these shortcomings, we have used machine learning trained on reconstructed SWE in the Sierra Nevada and Afghanistan, where there are no accessible snowpack measurements. Predictors are physiographic and remotely-sensed variables, including brightness temperatures from a new enhanced resolution passive microwave dataset. Two machine learning techniques—bagged regression trees and feed-forward neural networks—were used. Results show little bias on average and training period, i.e. the ablation period.

  13. Mental health care during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Stania; Walder, Anna; Duncan, Jennifer; Kabbedijk, Antoinet; Hughes, Peter; Muana, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Reported levels of mental health and psychosocial problems rose during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone. As part of the emergency response, existing plans to create mental health units within the existing hospital framework were brought forward. A nurse-led mental health and psychosocial support service, with an inpatient liaison service and an outpatient clinic, was set up at the largest government hospital in the country. One mental health nurse trained general nurses in psychological first aid, case identification and referral pathways. Health-care staff attended mental well-being workshops on coping with stigma and stress. Mental health service provision in Sierra Leone is poor, with one specialist psychiatric hospital to serve the population of 7 million. From March 2015 to February 2016, 143 patients were seen at the clinic; 20 had survived or had relatives affected by Ebola virus disease. Half the patients (71) had mild distress or depression, anxiety disorders and grief or social problems, while 30 patients presented with psychosis requiring medication. Fourteen non-specialist nurses received mental health awareness training. Over 100 physicians, nurses and auxiliary staff participated in well-being workshops. A nurse-led approach within a non-specialist setting was a successful model for delivering mental health and psychosocial support services during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone. Strong leadership and partnerships were essential for establishing a successful service. Lack of affordable psychotropic medications, limited human resources and weak social welfare structures remain challenges.

  14. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  15. Estudo de processos de produção de etanol anidro através da destilação extrativa salina com recuperação do agente de separação

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Luci Ligero

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: : Uma técnica amplamente utilizada na produção de etanol é a destilação azeotrópica benzeno, cuja propriedade cancerígena é bastante conhecida. Um processo alternativo, ecologicamente viável, é a destilação extrativa salina. O emprego de um sal solúvel na desidratação do etanol possibilita uma redução no consumo energético, além de produzir um etanol livre do agente de separação. Uma etapa importante na produção de etanol anidro através da destilação extrativa salina é a recuperação d...

  16. Composição química e toxicidade frente Aedes aegypti L. e Artemia salina Leach do óleo essencial das folhas de Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. ROSA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A dengue está entre as doenças virais de propagação vetorial mais importante no mundo, causando sérios impactos de morbidade e mortalidade. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a composição química e a toxicidade do óleo essencial de Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey D.C. frente Aedes aegypti e Artemia salina. Folhas de M. sylvatica foram coletadas no Parque Nacional da Chapada das Mesas, no município de Carolina (MA no mês de fevereiro de 2012. O óleo foi obtido por hidrodestilação e sua composição química foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa (CG/EM. O bioensaio frente Artemia salina e às larvas de 3° estádio de Aedes aegypti foram realizados em diferentes concentrações. Os dados de mortalidade foram avaliados por regressão linear para determinar os valores de CL50. Obteve-se 0,5% de rendimento, sendo o (E-cariofileno o constituinte majoritário. O óleo essencial apresentou uma CL50 = 79,44 µg/mL frente A. salina, sendo considerado altamente tóxico. No entanto, este óleo não demonstrou efeito sobre as larvas de A. aegypti. Considerando que o teste de Artemia salina tem correlação com atividades biológicas de grande interesse terapêutico como antitumoral, o óleo essencial das folhas de M. sylvatica demonstrou potencial para desenvolvimento de produtos farmacêuticos.

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of fault slip rates across the Central Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Dylan H.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Finkel, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns in fault slip rates through time and space are examined across the transition from the Sierra Nevada to the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. At each of four sites along the eastern Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone between 38 and 39° N latitude, geomorphic markers, such as glacial moraines and outwash terraces, are displaced by a suite of range-front normal faults. Using geomorphic mapping, surveying, and 10Be surface exposure dating, mean fault slip rates are defined, and by utilizing markers of different ages (generally, ~ 20 ka and ~ 150 ka), rates through time and interactions among multiple faults are examined over 10 4-10 5 year timescales. At each site for which data are available for the last ~ 150 ky, mean slip rates across the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone have probably not varied by more than a factor of two over time spans equal to half of the total time interval (~ 20 ky and ~ 150 ky timescales): 0.3 ± 0.1 mm year - 1 (mode and 95% CI) at both Buckeye Creek in the Bridgeport basin and Sonora Junction; and 0.4 + 0.3/-0.1 mm year - 1 along the West Fork of the Carson River at Woodfords. Data permit rates that are relatively constant over the time scales examined. In contrast, slip rates are highly variable in space over the last ~ 20 ky. Slip rates decrease by a factor of 3-5 northward over a distance of ~ 20 km between the northern Mono Basin (1.3 + 0.6/-0.3 mm year - 1 at Lundy Canyon site) to the Bridgeport Basin (0.3 ± 0.1 mm year - 1 ). The 3-fold decrease in the slip rate on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone northward from Mono Basin is indicative of a change in the character of faulting north of the Mina Deflection as extension is transferred eastward onto normal faults between the Sierra Nevada and Walker Lane belt. A compilation of regional deformation rates reveals that the spatial pattern of extension rates changes along strike of the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. South of the Mina Deflection

  18. High Compressive Stresses Near the Surface of the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.; Logan, J. M.; Stock, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Observations and stress measurements in granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada, California reveal strong compressive stresses parallel to the surface of the range at shallow depths. New overcoring measurements show high compressive stresses at three locations along an east-west transect through Yosemite National Park. At the westernmost site (west end of Tenaya Lake), the mean compressive stress is 1.9. At the middle site (north shore of Tenaya Lake) the mean compressive stress is 6.8 MPa. At the easternmost site (south side of Lembert Dome) the mean compressive stress is 3.0 MPa. The trend of the most compressive stress at these sites is within ~30° of the strike of the local topographic surface. Previously published hydraulic fracturing measurements by others elsewhere in the Sierra Nevada indicate surface-parallel compressive stresses of several MPa within several tens of meters of the surface, with the stress magnitudes generally diminishing to the west. Both the new and the previously published compressive stress magnitudes are consistent with the presence of sheeting joints (i.e., "exfoliation joints") in the Sierra Nevada, which require lateral compressive stresses of several MPa to form. These fractures are widespread: they are distributed in granitic rocks from the north end of the range to its southern tip and across the width of the range. Uplift along the normal faults of the eastern escarpment, recently measured by others at ~1-2 mm/yr, probably contributes to these stresses substantially. Geodetic surveys reveal that normal faulting flexes a range concave upwards in response to fault slip, and this flexure is predicted by elastic dislocation models. The topographic relief of the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada is 2-4 km, and since alluvial fill generally buries the bedrock east of the faults, the offset of granitic rocks is at least that much. Compressive stresses of several MPa are predicted by elastic dislocation models of the range front

  19. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  20. Tratamiento del prolapso rectal en la infancia con infiltración de solución salina al 16,5 %

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    Carlos Ramírez Pérez

    Full Text Available Introducción: cuando falla el tratamiento médico conservador en los pacientes pediátricos con prolapso rectal se impone la infiltración perirrectal con sustancias irritantes. En la década de los 90 esas infiltraciones en nuestro centro se hacían con glicerina, pero escaseó en el mercado, y ante tal problema, se buscó otro agente infiltrante alternativo. En el presente trabajo se describe la experiencia con la utilización de solución salina al 16,5 %. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de intervención, longitudinal, prospectivo, experimental, del tipo ensayo clínico no controlado. Consta de una segunda parte en la que se utilizó la aleatorización con un grupo control para la validación. El universo estuvo constituido por 27 pacientes y la muestra, por 16 pacientes con prolapso rectal, que fueron atendidos en el servicio de gastroenterología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Holguín en el quinquenio 2003-2007. Las variables desarrolladas fueron: concentración idónea para el tratamiento, cantidad de sustancia a infiltrar, complicaciones, recurrencia, número de infiltraciones y curación al año o más. Los resultados se exponen en forma de tablas porcentuales. Resultados: la eficacia con la utilización de solución salina al 16,5 % fue del 100 %, todos los pacientes curaron, y ninguno presentó recurrencia, por lo que no fueron necesarias 2 o más sesiones de tratamiento. Se comentó de un niño que, luego de fallar la infiltración con leche materna en primera opción y fallido también el cerclaje, finalmente resolvió con este método. Las complicaciones fueron relativamente pocas (18,9 %: un absceso, una celulitis y una retención urinaria con necesidad de sondaje durante 2 semanas, sin secuelas posteriores. Se realizó aleatorización con igual número de pacientes en quienes se usó la glicerina, los resultados del uso de ambas sustancias fueron muy parecidos, y el número de complicaciones fue ligeramente mayor en el