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Sample records for salinas sierras pampeanas

  1. Anfibios de las Sierras Pampeanas Centrales de Argentina: diversidad y distribución altitudinal

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    Julián N. Lescano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians from Sierras Pampeanas Centrales of Argentina: diversity and altitudinal distribution. Sierras Pampeanas Centrales (SPC mountains are located in Córdoba and San Luis provinces (Argentina and represent an area of unique biogeographic importance. In this paper we provide a synthesis about the knowledge of diversity and altitudinal distribution of anurans that inhabit SPC mountains. We compiled a species list through different information sources (field data, biological collections and bibliography. Using this information we characterize altitudinal distribution range of each species and analyze associations between species richness and composition and altitude gradient. We recorded 24 amphibians species belonging to five families. These species are heterogeneously distributed over the altitude gradient of SPC. We detect a linear negative relationship between altitude and species richness and defined assemblages associated with different altitude sectors. The results obtained in the paper represent basic information that will be useful to evaluate anthropogenic impact on this particular and fragile mountain system.

  2. Late Paleozoic deformation and exhumation in the Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina): 40Ar/39Ar-feldspar dating constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbens, Stefan; Oriolo, Sebastián; Benowitz, Jeff; Wemmer, Klaus; Layer, Paul; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2017-09-01

    Systematic 40Ar/39Ar feldspar data obtained from the Sierras Pampeanas are presented, filling the gap between available high- (> 300 °C) and low-temperature (< 150 °C) thermochronological data. Results show Silurian-Devonian exhumation related to the late stages of the Famatinian/Ocloyic Orogeny for the Sierra de Pocho and the Sierra de Pie de Palo regions, whereas the Sierras de San Luis and the Sierra de Comechingones regions record exhumation during the Carboniferous. Comparison between new and available data points to a Carboniferous tectonic event in the Sierras Pampeanas, which represents a key period to constrain the early evolution of the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana. This event was probably transtensional and played a major role during the evolution of the Paganzo Basin as well as during the emplacement of alkaline magmatism in the retroarc.

  3. Ordovician klippen structures of the Sierra de Umango: New insights on Tectonic evolution of the Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

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    Meira, Vinícius Tieppo; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; González, Pablo Diego; Stipp Basei, Miguel Ângelo; Varela, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    The basement rock of the Pampean flat-slab (Sierras Pampeanas) in the Central Andes was uplifted and rotated in the Cenozoic era. The Western Sierras Pampeanas are characterised by meta-igneous rocks of Grenvillian Mesoproterozoic age and metasedimentary units metamorphosed in the Ordovician period. These rocks, known as the northern Cuyania composite terrane, were derived from Laurentia and accreted toward Western Gondwana during the Early Paleozoic. The Sierra de Umango is the westernmost range of the Western Sierras Pampeanas. This range is bounded by the Devonian sedimentary rocks of the Precordillera on the western side and Tertiary rocks from the Sierra de Maz and Sierra del Espinal on the eastern side and contains igneous and sedimentary rocks outcroppings from the Famatina System on the far eastern side. The Sierra de Umango evolved during a period of polyphase tectonic activity, including an Ordovician collisional event, a Devonian compressional deformation, Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic extensional faulting and sedimentation (Paganzo and Ischigualasto basins) and compressional deformation of the Andean foreland during the Cenozoic. A Nappe System and an important shear zone, La Puntilla-La Falda Shear Zone (PFSZ), characterise the Ordovician collisional event, which was related to the accretion of Cuyania Terrane to the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana. Three continuous deformational phases are recognised for this event: the D1 phase is distinguished by relics of S1 preserved as internal foliation within interkinematic staurolite porphyroblasts and likely represents the progressive metamorphic stage; the D2 phase exhibits P-T conditions close to the metamorphic peak that were recorded in an S2 transposition or a mylonitic foliation and determine the main structure of Umango; and the D3 phase is described as a set of tight to recumbent folds with S3 axial plane foliation, often related to thrust faults, indicating the retrogressive metamorphic stage. The

  4. Tectonic and Climatic Control of Landscape Evolution in the Northern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, E. R.; Strecker, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    Rock uplift, surface uplift and exhumation can be constrained if thermochronologic data can be converted to exhumation and if geological relations provide a datum. In the northern Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina, the Cenozoic Santa María basin, which overlay resistant crystalline basement prior to rapid exhumation, provides an ideal setting to examine the effect of contrasting thermal and erosional regimes. There, tectonically active reverse-fault bounded blocks partly preserve a basement peneplain at elevations >4500 m. Prior to exhumation, the study area was covered by 1 to 1.6 km of ca. 12-6 Ma sediments; this sequence begins with shallow marine deposits immediately overlying the regional erosion surface which are superseded by sandstones and conglomerates. These rapidly deposited sediments have low thermal conductivity and are readily eroded, in contrast to underlying resistant basement. Apatite fission-track data were obtained from two vertical transects in the Calchaquíes and Aconquija ranges bounding the basin. At Cumbres Calchaquíes, erosion leading to the development of the peneplain commenced in the Cretaceous; limited late Neogene cooling is documented by track-length modeling. In contrast, Sierra Aconquija cooled rapidly between 5.5 and 4.5 My. At the onset of this rapid exhumation, sediment was quickly removed, causing fast cooling, but relatively slow rates of surface uplift. Syntectonic conglomerates could only be produced when faulting exposed resistant bedrock; this change in rock erodability lead to enhanced surface uplift rates but decreased exhumation rates. The creation of an orographic barrier after the range had attained sufficient elevation further decreased exhumation rates on the leeward side and increased surface uplift rates. This imbalance cannot be sustained for extended periods of time; either crustal strength or bedrock fluvial incision will ultimately limit the magnitude of relief which can be created before tectonism, and hence

  5. Geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina) based on geochemical, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and SHRIMP data

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    Drobe, Malte; de Luchi, Mónica López; Steenken, André; Wemmer, Klaus; Naumann, Rudolf; Frei, Robert; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2011-04-01

    Whole-rock geochemical analyses using major and trace elements in combination with the Sm-Nd and Pb-Pb isotope systems, together with SHRIMP age dating on metasedimentary rocks from the Sierras de Chepes, the Sierras de Córdoba, the Sierra Norte and the San Luis Formation in the Sierra de San Luis, have been carried out to unravel the provenance and the geodynamic history of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Central Argentina. The geochemical and the Sm-Nd data point to a slightly stronger mafic and less-fractionated material in the provenance area of the Sierras de Córdoba when compared to the other units. The TDM model ages from the Sierras de Chepes (~1.82 Ga) and the Sierra Norte (~1.79 Ga) are significantly older than the data from the Sierras de Córdoba (1.67 Ga). The Pb data are homogeneous for the different units. Only the 208Pb/204Pb ratios of some samples from the Sierras de Córdoba are higher. A late Pampean detrital zircon peak around 520 Ma from the Sierras de Chepes is in accordance with the new data from the San Luis Formation. This is similar to the literature data from the Famatina Belt located to the northwest of the Sierras de Chepes and also fits the detrital zircon peaks in the Mesón group. These maximum depositional ages were also reported from some locations in the Puncoviscana Formation but are absent in the Sierras de Córdoba. An improved model for the development of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas in the area between the Sierras de Córdoba and the Puncoviscana Formation is provided. This gives new insights into the late Pampean development of the Sierra de San Luis and the complex development of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas. This new model explains the younger detrital ages in the Puncoviscana Formation compared with the older ages of the Sierras de Córdoba. Another model of the Sierra de San Luis explains the younger depositional ages of the Pringles Metamorphic Complex and the San Luis Formation when compared to the Nogol

  6. Current channelling and three-dimensional effects detected from magnetotelluric data from a sedimentary basin in Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

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    Pomposiello, C.; Osella, A.; Favetto, A.; Sainato, C.; Martinelli, P.; Aprea, C.

    1998-11-01

    Aquifer-bearing intermontane sedimentary basins of the Sierras Pampeanas in the northwest of Argentina are in general very deep and narrow and contain economically important deposits of Tertiary sediments. This paper presents the results of a study to characterize the sedimentary basin bounded to the west by Sierra de Famatina and to the east by Sierra de Velasco, where an electromagnetic sensing technique, the magnetotelluric (MT) method, was applied. 12 MT sites were deployed along a 30 km E-W transect. Some of the data collected were used to derive a 2-D resistivity model of the basin. The model shows a subsurface trough with a thick (approximately 8 km) sedimentary sequence above it. Anomalous behaviour of the E-W electric-field component (Ey) was detected in the period range 1-100 s, where the amplitude of this component was below the instrumental noise level. The cause of this anomaly is not known, but it might be due to the presence of an embedded conducting body between 8 and 10 km, which would give rise to N-S current channelling.

  7. Electrical imaging of an alluvial aquifer at the Antinaco-Los Colorados tectonic valley in the Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

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    Osella, A.; Favetto, A.; Martinelli, P.; Cernadas, D.

    1999-06-01

    The Antinaco-Los Colorados valley is a wide N-S tectonic depression, located between the Sa. de Velazco and the Sa. de Famatina, both ranges belonging to the Sierras Pampeanas thick-skinned deformation province in Argentina. From previously reported magnetotelluric (MT) data, it is known that the thickness of the sedimentary sequences may reach up to 8 km in the central zone of this basin. In particular, the Quaternary-to-recent alluvial filling contains an aquifer complex of great importance for this semiarid zone providing water for irrigation and also for human consumption. To obtain information about the electrical structure of the alluvial cover, 17 vertical electric soundings were carried out along an E-W traverse profile extending from one side of the valley to the other. A geoelectrical model is proposed taking into account complementary hydrogeological and geophysical information. In this model, the various layers which could contain fresh water are identified and the level of the water table inferred from the model is almost coincident with that observed from existing wells in the surveyed zone.

  8. Time constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegesmund, Siegfried; Steenken, A; Martino, R D

    2010-01-01

    cycle in the neighbouring Sierra de San Luis and has not affected the titanite ages. The PTt evolution can be correlated with the plate tectonic processes responsible for the formation of the Pampean orogene, i.e., the accretion of the Pampean basement to the Río de La Plata craton (M2) and the later...

  9. Along-Strike Variations in Focal Mechanisms of Central Andean Crustal Earthquakes: Northern Peru through the Argentina Sierras Pampeanas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, S.; Isacks, B. L.

    2003-12-01

    120 shallow focal mechanisms in the crust above the subducted Nazca plate were assembled from the Harvard CMT catalog and published studies covering over 40 years of seismicity. The study area included the Andes crust above three major segments of the subducted plate, the Peruvian and Argentinean flat-slab segments and the intervening segment where the subducted Nazca plate dips more steeply. The most seismically active regions continue to be the thick-skinned foreland thrust belts in the eastern Andes of Peru and the Sierras Pampeanas. The earthquakes there are clearly associated with youthful tectonic structures with strong topographic signatures as revealed by the new 90 m SRTM digital elevation models. The mechanisms are dominantly of the thrust type but include a minority of strike-slip orientations. However the P axes remain consistent. The thin-skinned thrust belts east of the central Andean Plateau show significant activity only near Santa Cruz, Bolivia and northern Argentina; most of the Sub-Andean thrust belt of Bolivia and southern Peru remains aseismic. The central Andean plateau itself also remains aseismic except for the region of southern Peru and two earthquakes in the Puna. The crustal seismicity in southern Peru is largely concentrated on the western side of the plateau. The focal mechanisms show a strong grouping of T axes in a horizontal, north-south orientation. Both normal and strike-slip mechanisms occur in this region, with no obvious correlation with elevation or surface structures. Remarkably, with the exception of one normal fault type mechanism near the Cusco basin, the earthquakes occur in regions of the western parts of the Altiplano that do not exhibit topographic evidence of substantial crustal deformation. These results are consistent with a model in which the Altiplano of southern Peru, with a trend most oblique to the overall direction of convergence, manifests a left-lateral shearing component across the orogen.

  10. Links between crustal melting, plate boundary forces, and syn-convergent exhumation in the Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, S. R.; Roeske, S.; McClelland, W.; Jourdan, F.; Renne, P. R.; Vervoort, J. D.; Vujovich, G. I.

    2011-12-01

    Transitions from convergence to extension during an orogenic cycle result from the dynamic interaction between plate bounding forces, the thermal and rheologic evolution of the lithosphere, and contrasts in gravitational potential energy within an orogen. The presence of melt in the middle and lower crust, in particular, exerts a profound effect on the rheology of orogenic belts and in facilitating a change from convergence to extension and orogenic collapse. Determining whether or not melting was as an effective driving mechanism of extension within a given orogen requires accurately constraining the timing and duration of melting in the crust with respect to plate convergence, crustal thickening, and lithospheric extension. The Sierras Pampeanas of northwest Argentina record the transition from a Cambrian convergent margin to an Ordovician collisional orogen with the accretion of the allochthonous Precordillera terrane. Regional convergence associated with Famatina arc magmatism initiated as a result of east dipping subduction by ˜515-495 Ma and the majority of arc magmatism occurred from ˜485 to 465 Ma. Initial collision of the Precordillera terrane with the Famatina arc margin began by ~470 Ma and the terrane had fully collided by the Late Ordovician (˜458-449 Ma). Syn-convergent extension within the Sierra de Pie de Palo initiated at middle to lower crustal depths at ~436 Ma and continued through ~417 Ma. We present new U-Pb zircon and sphene, Lu-Hf garnet, and 40Ar/39Ar amphibole and mica ages and thermobarometry from lower crustal granulite facies migmatites of the Loma de Las Charcas. These data, coupled with existing regional isotopic ages and one-dimensional thermal modeling, suggest that: 1) regional peak granulite facies metamorphism occurred at ~465 Ma with near isothermal temperatures of ~850° C from ~5-12 kb within the Famatina arc; 2) Ordovician melts remained at temperatures above their solidus for 20-30 million years following peak granulite

  11. Los granitos peraluminosos de las Sierras de Vinquis, Cerro Negro y Zapata (Sierras Pampeanas, provincia de Catamarca, Argentina

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    Medina, M. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The studied plutons are close to several batholiths of this region, as Sierra de Mazán and other, but with some mineralogical peculiarities. The magmatic cordierite, common in proximate places, is scarce, as sillimanite, while the andalusite is very rare, with few tourmaline. Fluorite and allanite are also typical accasories only in the granites of the Sierra de Zapata. All plutons are peraluminous of potassic tendency, with cortical affinity.The interpretation of the geochemical values distinguishes between granites of different maturity, emplaced under a predominant influence of active margin for Cerro Negro and Vinquis, while the batholith of Zapata has, below these concepts, a marked feature of within plate.The mineralogical associations suggest that the granites of Cerro Negro and Vinquis were emplaced to pressures of 2 kb or less and temperature of 650º C, while the granites of Zapata had done under conditions of lesser pressure, between 1.5 and 2.0 kb and lower temperature, 600-650º C.A grandes rasgos, los plutones estudiados tienen semejanzas con otros del entorno regional, tal como los de la Sierra de Mazán, pero con peculiaridades mineralógicas. La cordierita magmática, que en lugares próximos es muy abundante, es aquí escasa, al igual que la sillimanita, mientras que la andalucita es muy rara y la turmalina poco frecuente. La fluorita y allanita son accesorios comunes y de cierta abundancia sólo en los granitos de la Sierra de Zapata.Todos los plutones son peralumínicos y de tendencia potásica, con neta afinidad cortical. El estudio estadístico de datos geoquímicos seleccionados, permite diferenciar agrupaciones que tienen un reflejo satisfactorio en los plutones caracterizados, por encima de las variaciones de facies. La interpretación de los valores geoquímicos distingue granitos de desigual madurez, emplazados bajo una influencia predominante de margen activo o intraplaca de características continentales, en

  12. Relaciones isotópicas Sm/Nd en rocas graníticas y miloníticas de Sierras Pampeanas del noroeste Argentino

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    Kawashita, K.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The Velasco, Copacabana and Paimán Ranges in Sierras Pampeanas, are constituted mainly by paleozoic plutonic bodies of the Famatinian cycle (Huaco, Antinaco and Paimán and for mylonitic rocks (TIPA Shear Zone, originated as a consequence of dynamic events happening during the Upper Ordovician-Devonian. The last magmatic event of the area would probably have of devonian age (Granite San Blas. Model-ages of two stages were calculated based on 147Sm/144Nd relationships; the obtained values are closely grouped at around 1594 Ma. and the more plausible interpretation seems to be a reworking of an Early Proterozoic protolith.Las sierras de Velasco, Copacabana y Paimán, en el ambiente de Sierras Pampeanas, están constituidas principalmente por cuerpos plutónicos del Paleozoico inferior, relacionados con el ciclo Famatiniano (Granitos Huaco, Antinaco y Paimán y por rocas miloníticas (Faja Milonítica TiPA, originadas a partir de estos protolitos como consecuencia de eventos dinámicos acaecidos durante el Ordovícico superior-Devónico. El último evento magmático del área es de edad probablemente devónica (Granito San Blas. Se calcularon edades modelos de «dos estadios» en base a relaciones 147Sm/144Nd; los valores obtenidos se presentan estrechamente agrupadas en torno a 1594 Ma. y se interpretan a este basamento como un protolito del Proterozoico medio retrabajado.

  13. Depósitos polimetálicos en el orógeno famatiniano de las Sierras Pampeanas de San Luis y Córdoba: fluidos, fuentes y modelos de emplazamiento Polymetallic deposits in the Famatinian orogen of the Sierras Pampeanas of San Luis and Córdoba: fluids, sources and emplacement model

    OpenAIRE

    D. Mutti; A. Di Marco; S. Geuna

    2007-01-01

    El ciclo orogénico famatinano originó en las Sierras Pampeanas de San Luis y Córdoba un episodio mineralizante relacionado con cizallas de rumbo norte de primer orden y granitoides entre los ~ 385 y ~ 292 Ma. Este episodio definió dominios lineales polimetálicos de W, Ag, Pb, Zn, Au y metales asociados, en metamorfitas y minoritariamente en granitoides. En depósitos representativos de San Luis y Córdoba, los valores de d18Ofluido(H2O) y dDfluido(H2O) en silicatos, señalan para los fluidos min...

  14. The geodynamic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas based on geochemical, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and SHRIMP data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M; Lopez de Luchi, M; Steenken, A

    2011-01-01

    Whole-rock geochemical analyses using major and trace elements in combination with the Sm–Nd and Pb–Pb isotope systems, together with SHRIMP age dating on metasedimentary rocks from the Sierras de Chepes, the Sierras de Co´rdoba, the Sierra Norte and the San Luis Formation in the Sierra de San Lu...

  15. Cambrian initiation of the Las Pirquitas thrust of the western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the proto-Andean margin of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Sean R.; Roeske, Sarah M.; McClelland, William C.; Nomade, Sébastien; Renne, Paul R.

    2007-05-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar hornblende crystallization ages from the Las Pirquitas thrust of the Sierra de Pie de Palo, Argentina, indicate that imbrication of the proto-Andean margin had initiated by ca. 515 Ma. The ages do not permit the Pie de Palo block to represent basement of the adjacent Argentine Precordillera terrane, but rather require it to be a separate fragment not juxtaposed with the Precordillera prior to the Ordovician. The Pie de Palo block was likely autochthonous to the Famatina arc of the proto-Andean margin in the Early Cambrian. When combined with existing regional ages of magmatism, metamorphism, and deformation, the ages suggest that east-dipping subduction beneath the Famatina arc initiated by the Early to Middle Cambrian. The newly established convergent margin resulted from a westward shift of the plate boundary at the end of the Pampean orogeny in the eastern Sierras Pampeanas. The Famatina arc persisted as an Andeantype active margin until the collision and accretion of the Precordillera terrane in the Middle Ordovician.

  16. F-rich strongly peraluminous A-type magmatism in the pre-Andean foreland Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: Geochemical, geochronological, isotopic constraints and petrogenesis

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    Morales Cámera, Matías M.; Dahlquist, Juan A.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Galindo, Carmen; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario; Facetti, Nicolás

    2017-04-01

    The petrogenetic nature of A-type granites is a controversial problem. The Vinquis batholith in the Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina contains unusual F-rich and strongly peraluminous A-type monzogranites. A new LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon crystallization age of 355 ± 7 Ma indicates emplacement in latest Devonian or earliest Carboniferous time, overlapping with extensive metaluminous A-type magmatism in the area. The monzogranites have a restricted range of SiO2 content (71.5-74.8 %), they are poor in Ca (0.54-1.4% CaO) and rich in FeOt, with relatively high FeOt/(FeOt+MgO) values ranging from 0.77 to 0.86 (average = 0.80) Both [FeOt/ (FeOt+MgO)] vs. SiO2 and [(Na2O+K2O)-CaO] vs. SiO2 plots indicate ferroan and alkali-calcic signatures typical of A-type granitoids. The samples have MgO/TiO2 > 1.2 and are moderately enriched in total alkalis (average 8.18%), with high K2O/Na2O values of 1.40-2.24. The granites are strongly peraluminous, with ASI (molar Al2O3/[CaO + Na2O + K2O]) values of 1.2 to 1.3. The high P2O5 content (0.23-0.37%) is distinctive and close to values reported for other Paleozoic F-rich peraluminous A-type granites in the Sierras Pampeanas. They have moderate contents of high field strength elements (e.g., Zr, Nb, Th, Y, etc.) and moderately fractionated to flat REE patterns [(La/Yb)N in the range 4.8-19.6] showing significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.41). Biotite has a distinctive composition, with relatively high Fe2 +/(Fe2 + + Mg) ratios (0.61-0.74) and high F (0.55-1.42 wt.%) content. Together with the whole-rock chemistry this may be useful in identifying strongly peraluminous A-type granites. In addition, the Rb/Sr vs. Th + Zr + Ce diagram may be an appropriate discriminant between metaluminous and peralkaline A-type granites, strongly peraluminous A-type granites and strongly peraluminous orogenic granites. The geochemical evidence indicates that differentiation of the granitic rocks occurred by mineral fractionation from a F

  17. Depósitos polimetálicos en el orógeno famatiniano de las Sierras Pampeanas de San Luis y Córdoba: fluidos, fuentes y modelos de emplazamiento

    OpenAIRE

    D. Mutti; A. Di Marco; S. Geuna

    2007-01-01

    El ciclo orogénico famatinano originó en las Sierras Pampeanas de San Luis y Córdoba un episodio mineralizante relacionado con cizallas de rumbo norte de primer orden y granitoides entre los ~ 385 y ~ 292 Ma. Este episodio definió dominios lineales polimetálicos de W, Ag, Pb, Zn, Au y metales asociados, en metamorfitas y minoritariamente en granitoides. En depósitos representativos de San Luis y Córdoba, los valores de d18Ofluido(H2O) y dDfluido(H2O) en silicatos, señalan para los fluidos min...

  18. Provencance of the late Proterozoic to early Cambrian metaclastic sediments ot the Sierra de San Luis (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas) and Cordillera Oriental, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M.; López de Luchi, M.; Steenken, A.

    2009-01-01

    Provenance studies have been performed utilising major and trace elements, Nd systematics, whole rock Pb-Pb isotopes and zircon U/Pb SHRIMP data on metasedimentary rocks of the Sierra de San Luis (Nogolí Metamorphic Complex, Pringles Metamorphic Complex, Conlara Metamorphic Complex and San Luis F...

  19. Origin and Evolution of the Salinas Grandes and Salina De Ambargasta, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Adolfo Antonio; Mon, R.; Sàbat, F.; Iaffa, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    The Salinas Grandes and Salina de Ambargasta, on the eastern side of the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina, constitute an 18,000 km2 tectonic depression. The eastward advance of the tectonic deformation is evident in the topographic elevations that intercept the Llanura Chaqueña. The interpretation of the tectonic processes that create the Salinas Grandes and Salina de Ambargasta are primarily due to the observation of morphotectonic macro indicators and structural field data. These geoforms allow us to interpret the horizontal deformation that has produced the right side displacement of parallel shears within a dextral releasing bend and restraining bend setting. This process occurred within a transtensional-transpressional setting, which produced a depression closure where lakes formed, the formation of Alto de Mancilla, deviation of rivers, the rotation and displacement of ranges and the transformation of lakes into salt flats. These processes are active and are shown by the hydro transference area where the Dulce River discharges into the Salado River, resulting in a considerable decrease of water flow into the Laguna Mar Chiquita.

  20. Manifestaciones geomorfológicas y geofísicas de una estructura geológica profunda al sur de la Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas Geomorphological and geophysical features of the deep structure of southern Pie de Palo, Sierra Pampeanas

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    M. Patricia Martínez; Laura P. Perucca; Mario E. Giménez; Francisco Ruíz

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se vinculan las evidencias geomorfológicas y geofísicas con la existencia de una estructura emplazada en la corteza superior, ubicada al sur de la sierra de Pie de Palo y con similares dimensiones que ésta. A partir de valores de gravedad, se calculó una carta de anomalías de Bouguer, correspondiente a la sierra de Pie de Palo y zonas aledañas. Se aplicó el método de deconvolución de Euler, variando adecuadamente el ancho de ventana entre 20 y 35 km y con dos índices es...

  1. La prolongación austral de las Sierras Pampeanas en la provincia de La Pampa: Evidencias geológicas y geofísicas

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    S. Delpino; G. Ferracutti; J. Kostadinoff; E. Bjerg

    2005-01-01

    En las márgenes de la salina Valle Daza se reconocieron granoblastitas derivadas de gabros y granitos leucocráticos con diferenciados aplíticos y pegmatíticos, que evidencian dos eventos metamórficos caracterizados por: a) deformación dúctil en facies de anfibolitas alta o superior que generó la foliación dominante NNE y transformó a las granoblastitas en anfibolitas y a las rocas granítico-pegmatíticas en protomilonitas y milonitas y, b) deformación frágil-dúctil de baja temperatura, con ret...

  2. Rasgos estructurales en la sierra pampeana de Velasco y alrededores a partir de los campos gravimétricos y magnetométricos

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    Sanchez, Marcos Ariel; Spagnotto, Silvana Liz; Martinez, Myriam Patricia

    2016-01-01

    La región que comprende la sierra de Velasco y el Sistema de Famatina, en el centro-oeste de la Provincia de La Rioja - Argentina, es un área clave para el estudio de la amalgamación de terrenos y tectónica vinculada con el levantamiento andino. En éste trabajo, se definen algunos rasgos de la estructura cortical de ésta región. Para ello, mediante la aplicación de métodos potenciales(gravedad y magnetismo), adecuadamente procesados e interpretados a través de técnicas semiautomáticas y de re...

  3. Manifestaciones geomorfológicas y geofísicas de una estructura geológica profunda al sur de la Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas

    OpenAIRE

    M. Patricia Martínez; Laura P. Perucca; Mario E. Giménez; Francisco Ruíz

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se vinculan las evidencias geomorfológicas y geofísicas con la existencia de una estructura emplazada en la corteza superior, ubicada al sur de la sierra de Pie de Palo y con similares dimensiones que ésta. A partir de valores de gravedad, se calculó una carta de anomalías de Bouguer, correspondiente a la sierra de Pie de Palo y zonas aledañas. Se aplicó el método de deconvolución de Euler, variando adecuadamente el ancho de ventana entre 20 y 35 km y con dos índices es...

  4. Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mioara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Artemia salina (L. is a primitive aquatic arthropod (salt lakes of the Artemiidae family (figure 1 with an age of about 100 million years. Linný (1758 described it as Cýncer salinus but 61 years later, Leach (1819 transferred it to Artemia salina.It was reported for the first time in Urmia Lake in 982 by a Iranian geographer (Asem, 2008.

  5. Patrimonio arqueológico, preservación y turismo. El caso de las Sierras de Curicó (Sistema de Tandilia, Región Pampeana, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Madrid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es discutir los efectos positivos y negativos del uso de la localidad arqueológica Sierras de Curicó (partido de Olavarría, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina en el marco de potenciales emprendimientos turísticos. El atractivo natural de este paisaje arqueológico conformado por pinturas rupestres, estructuras de piedra, un montículo rocoso y un alero, en las serranías bajas de Tandilia, ha concitado desde hace algunos años un uso recreativo espontáneo en un área no planificada para su uso turístico. En efecto, al impacto natural creciente se suma la acción antrópica cada vez más frecuente, poniendo a la localidad arqueológica en situación de vulnerabilidad y riesgo de conservación. Esto se acentúa particularmente en el caso de las representaciones rupestres, que constituyen sectores de visibilidad regular y altamente sensibles a la atención del visitante. En este contexto, es primordial evaluar la preservación del paisaje arqueológico como un todo antes de considerar su inclusión en proyectos de desarrollo sustentable que incluyan actividades turísticas. Previo diagnóstico, se analizan las estrategias mas adecuadas para poner en valor las Sierras de Curicó como alternativas a un uso turístico convencional en el contexto de escasas o nulas posibilidades de regular medidas efectivas de protección del patrimonio local. Por último, se recomienda un plan de manejo y la no apertura del sitio al público.

  6. de Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Dolores París

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A diferencia de otros pueblos indígenas de Oaxaca como los mixtecos o los zapotecos que tienen una larga tradición migratoria en Estados Unidos, la migración de los triquis puede considerarse como un nuevo grupo migratorio. Por ejemplo, la mayoría de las familias asentadas en el Valle de Salinas, situado en la costa central de California, llegaron hace menos de cinco años. En otros lugares, como en los valles centrales o en las ciudades del sur (San Diego y Los Ángeles vivían unos pocos hombres triquis hacia los años ochenta. Algunos de esos contados pioneros lograron regularizar su situación migratoria a fines de esa misma década; muchos hombres y la enorme mayoría de las mujeres triquis que viven en California son indocumentados.

  7. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programer-notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  8. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  9. Los diques comendíticos de Papachacra (Catamarca): magmatismo peralcalino en sierras Pampeanas orientales The comenditic dikes from Papachacra (Catamarca): peralkaline magmatism in Eastern Sierras Pampeanas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Colombo; Raúl Lirai; María Sol O´Leary; Colombo C. G Tassinari

    2010-01-01

    En Papachacra (Provincia de Catamarca, NO de Argentina) hay un plutón compuesto por varios tipos diferentes de granitoides de tipo A con afinidad alcalina. Las rocas más tardías son riolitas peralcalinas (comenditas), que forman diques de hasta 50 cm atravesando el granito biotítico El Portezuelo, el cual está genéticamente desvinculado. Tienen textura porfírica y están compuestas por fenocristales de feldespato potásico (Or97-98 Ab2-3) y egirina (Ac94-98) en una mesostasis afanítica de cuarz...

  10. Stock monzogranítico El Chorro (Sierra de Ancasti, Catamarca): un ejemplo de magmatismo tipo S con granate ígneo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Dahlquist; Rapela, Carlos W.; Edgardo G. Baldo; Juan A. Murra; Pablo H. Alasino; Fernando Colombo

    2011-01-01

    Las rocas graníticas ordovícicas de la sierra de Ancasti representan uno de los afloramientos más orientales del cinturón orogénico famatiniano de Sierras Pampeanas. Se describe un pequeño stock granítico (denominado El Chorro) cuyo rasgo distintivo es la presencia de granate. Aunque el granate es un mineral accesorio poco común en rocas ígneas, su presencia es petrológicamente significativa. El Chorro es un monzogranito tipo S que contiene una inusual cantidad de granate magmático (2,8 % mod...

  11. Carotenoid fluorescence in Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Es, van M.A.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dunaliella salina is a halotolerant green alga that is well known for its carotenoid producing capacity. The produced carotenoids are mainly stored in lipid globules. For various research purposes, such as production and extraction kinetics, we would like to determine and/or localise the carotenoid

  12. Stock monzogranítico El Chorro (Sierra de Ancasti, Catamarca): un ejemplo de magmatismo tipo S con granate ígneo The El Chorro monzogranitic stock (Sierra de Ancasti, Catamarca): An example of S-type magmatism with igneous garnet

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Dahlquist; Rapela, Carlos W.; Edgardo G. Baldo; Juan A. Murra; Pablo H. Alasino; Fernando Colombo

    2011-01-01

    Las rocas graníticas ordovícicas de la sierra de Ancasti representan uno de los afloramientos más orientales del cinturón orogénico famatiniano de Sierras Pampeanas. Se describe un pequeño stock granítico (denominado El Chorro) cuyo rasgo distintivo es la presencia de granate. Aunque el granate es un mineral accesorio poco común en rocas ígneas, su presencia es petrológicamente significativa. El Chorro es un monzogranito tipo S que contiene una inusual cantidad de granate magmático (2,8 % mod...

  13. Salinas. Theory Manual Version 2.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bhardwaj, Manoj K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, Users Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  14. Greisen deposits associated to carboniferous post-orogenic granites with mineralization potential, Sierra de Fiambala, Catamarca, Argentina; Depositos de greisen asociados a granitos carboniferos post-orogenicos con potencial mineralizador, Sierra de Fiambala, Catamarca, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliata, A. S.; Rubinstein, N. R.; Avila, J. C.; Baez, M.

    2008-07-01

    The Fiambala range is located in the central south part of the province of Catamarca, Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina. It is largely conformed by Precambrian metamorphic rocks, a Cambrian granitic intrusive, Ordovician basic and ultra basic rocks and epi zonal Carboniferous granites (Los Ratones, El Salto and Ayacucho Granites). The Carboniferous granites are sub alkaline, weakly peraluminous, high silica (except for the porphyritic facies of Los Ratones granite) and moderately enriched in K. Contents of trace elements and REE indicate that El S alto and Ayacucho granites and the granular facies of Los Ratones granite have characteristics of evolved and differentiated granite associated with hydrothermal systems. The variations of trace elements, particularly Sn, W, U, Rb, Ba, Zr and Sr suggest that they correspond to granites with mineralization potential. Genetically linked to these granites there are Sn, W, U and minor base metals greisen deposits. The hydrothermal process that yield to these deposits involved two main alteration stages, beginning with alkali metasomatism follow by greissenization. According to the isotopic ages the hydrothermal processes postdate about 1 Ma the magmatic activity. The analyses of the granites and the associated greisen deposits confirm that the post orogenic carboniferous magmatism is the major metallogenetic control of the ore deposits from the studied area. This metallogenetic control could be a useful tool in prospecting similar deposits in the rest of the Western Sierras Pampeanas. (Author)

  15. La biblioteca de Pedro Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González García, Juana María

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Salinas’ personal library prior to the Spanish Civil War has so far remained almost unknown for both researchers and specialists dealing with his literary works. Preserved by the Cervantes Institute of Secondary School in Madrid, this group of books has however arose great interest. A catalogue of his personal books is contained in this work; this is the result of very slow and accurate classification work and further study of the texts as well as the appropriate thoughts on its history and characteristics.

    La biblioteca personal del poeta Pedro Salinas previa a la Guerra Civil española, ha permanecido prácticamente desconocida hasta el momento para los investigadores y estudiosos de su obra creativa. Conservada entre el fondo documental del Instituto madrileño de Secundaria Cervantes, este conjunto de libros tiene, sin embargo, un gran interés. En este trabajo se publican tanto el catálogo de libros del poeta, resultado de una lenta tarea de clasificación y estudio de los textos así como las convenientes reflexiones en torno a su historia y características.

  16. The Selectivity of Milking of Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The process of the simultaneous production and extraction of carotenoids, milking, of Dunaliella salina was studied. We would like to know the selectivity of this process. Could all the carotenoids produced be extracted? And would it be possible to vary the profile of the produced carotenoids and,

  17. Historical Notes on Artemia salina (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, D.J.

    1938-01-01

    Although an abundant literature exists on Artemia salina, there are still interesting facts in the first history of the discovery of this remarkable animal and in the first study of its habits, which seem to be now forgotten. It is generally considered that Rackett (1812) was the first to give a

  18. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Joel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  19. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip; Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Miller, Joel D.

    2017-04-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  20. Transcriptome sequencing and annotation of the halophytic microalga Dunaliella salina * #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ling; Liu, Jun-li; Midoun, Samira Z.; Miller, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina is well adapted to salt stress and contains compounds (including β-carotene and vitamins) with potential commercial value. A large transcriptome database of D. salina during the adjustment, exponential and stationary growth phases was generated using a high throughput sequencing platform. We characterized the metabolic processes in D. salina with a focus on valuable metabolites, with the aim of manipulating D. salina to achieve greater economic value in large-scale production through a bioengineering strategy. Gene expression profiles under salt stress verified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) implied that salt can regulate the expression of key genes. This study generated a substantial fraction of D. salina transcriptional sequences for the entire growth cycle, providing a basis for the discovery of novel genes. This first full-scale transcriptome study of D. salina establishes a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. PMID:28990374

  1. Primer registro fehaciente de Nopachtus coagmentatus (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae en la región Pampeana, Argentina. Contexto estratigráfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamorano, M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The species Nopachtus coagmentatus was recognized by Amegino in 1888, on the basis of sections of the caudal tube and the dorsal carapace. These remains comes from Valles de las Sierras de Córdoba near Villa Cura Brochero, and stratigraphically from the Brochero Formation (Montehermosan-Chapadmalalan [early Pliocene - late Pliocene]. Ameghino also mentioned N. coagmentatus for the Monte Hermoso Formation (Montehermosan, but the determination Ameghino is highly questionable. The exploitation of Precambrian rocks from the center of the Sierras Bayas in Olavarría (Buenos Aires province allowed the identification from the bottom to the top, of La Alcancía Formation (Miocene, El Polvorín Formation (Pliocene, La Esperanza Formation and El Búho Formation (both late Pleistocene. In this contribution present osteoderms of the latero-dorsal portion of the posterior region of the dorsal carapace of N. coagmentatus. The specimen was extracted from brownish sandy-silt sediments of La Alcancía Quarry (36°58′40′′.06 S; 60°12′23′′.92 W corresponding to El Polvorín Formation (Upper Chapadmalalan and correspond to the first reliable record of N. coagmentatus for the Pampean region. Finally, we offer a detailed description of the specimen, and its geographic and stratigraphic provenance.La especie Nopachtus coagmentatus fue reconocida por Ameghino en 1888, basándose en porciones del tubo caudal y la coraza dorsal; estos restos proceden de los Valles de las Sierras de Córdoba, en las cercanías de Villa Cura Brochero; y, estratigráficamente, de la Formación Brochero (Montehermosense - Chapadmalalense [Plioceno temprano - Plioceno tardío]. Ameghino también la menciona para la Formación Monte Hermoso (Montehermosense, pero la determinación es altamente dudosa. La explotación de rocas precámbricas en el núcleo central de las Sierras Bayas de Olavarría (provincia Buenos Aires posibilitó el reconocimiento de la Formación El Polvor

  2. Pedro Salinas: la letra y la persona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín Gual, Montserrat

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a Pedro Salinas's homage in the fifty anniversary of his death. Here, we analise his attitude in front of life and his securities through his poems, personal letters and essais. The poet criticizes the materialistic american stil of life, where he should live during his exile until his death (1936-1951. Against the hurry, the profitable things, the technology, the money..., Salinas believes in his language, slowness, friendship, contemplation of countryside, art, spiritualism, optimism, etc. Son of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza's ideas, his personal ethics looked for the biggest perfection trought the will.Este artículo es un homenaje a Pedro Salinas al cumplirse el cincuentenario de su muerte. En él, se analiza su actitud ante la vida y sus valores a través de sus poesías, cartas personales y ensayos. El poeta critica el materialismo del modelo americano en el que se vio obligado a vivir desde que se exilió hasta su muerte (1936-1951. Frente a la prisa, lo rentable, la tecnología, el dinero...; Salinas cree en su idioma, la lentitud, la amistad, la contemplación del paisaje, el arte, lo espiritual, el optimismo, etc. Hijo de las ideas de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, su ética personal buscó la mayor perfección a través de la voluntad.

  3. Pedro Salinas y el teatro desde dentro (Pedro Salinas and Theatre from Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Benítez Vega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Pedro Salinas y el teatro, desde dentro” es el título de este artículo cuya finalidad consiste en realizar un recorrido por la vocación teatral de Pedro Salinas desde sus primeros años hasta el final de sus días: su asistencia a representaciones teatrales, sus contactos con el teatro y sus proyectos como autor dramático tanto los que se realizaron como los que no llegaron a materializarse. El propósito es adentrarnos en el alma teatral del poeta: cómo, cuándo, por qué surge su vocación por el arte escénico, insistiendo en la necesidad de rescatar la faceta de dramaturgo de Pedro Salinas como una constante más en la labor del poeta, profesor y crítico.Abstract: "Pedro Salinas and the theatre, from inside " it is the title of this article which purpose consists of realizing a tour for Pedro Salinas's theatrical vocation from his first years until the end of his days: his assistance to theatrical representations, his contacts with the theatre and his projects like dramatic author so much those who were realized as those who did not manage to materialize. The intention is to enter the theatrical soul of the poet: how, when, why his vocation arises for the scenic art, insisting on the need to rescue the playwright's facet of Pedro Salinas as one more constant in the labor of the poet, teacher and critic.

  4. Infiltración de agua en suelos de la Región Pampeana

    OpenAIRE

    Barrio, Ricardo Alfredo del

    1984-01-01

    p.183-191 Se determinó la capacidad de infiltración de agua en los principales grandes grupos de suelos de la Región Pampeana. Los valores de infiltración acumulada observados se ajustaron muy bien a la ecuación de KostiakovLewis (L: K. tn), adoptándose el criterio de Fernández et al. (1971) para el cálculo de la infiltración básica de los suelos. Se comprobó que el factor de mayor influencia sobre las tasas de infiltración alcanzadas fue el uso y manejo cultural del suelo.

  5. Nuevos aportes a la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín M. Abba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Desmarest, 1804 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de cuatro establecimientos agropecuarios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante tres años se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y liberación. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 71 capturas. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue material vegetal, seguido por hormigas e insectos coleópteros; no se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios. La actividad de las mulitas se concentra durante el día, existió una baja en la frecuencia de observación durante las estaciones frías (otoño e invierno. La mulita pampeana prefiere suelos húmicos, terrenos altos y pastizales densos y altos; asimismo seleccionan los montes para refugiarse. Son individuos asociales. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan parcialmente con lo observado para otras especies del género, destacando las tendencias observadas en los hábitos alimentarios y en la estrategia termorregulatoria. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos de una especie poco estudiada en una zona bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat.

  6. Returnees in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudena Skran

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Over ten years of brutal civil war displaced approximately4.5 million people, about half Sierra Leone’s population.After the conflict ended in 2001, UNHCR facilitated theparticipation of both returnee refugees and returnee IDPsin community-level reconstruction projects.

  7. Sierra University in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, Francisco Manuel Orozco

    2003-01-01

    Sierra University was designed to promote the development of the mountain communities in the State of Sonora, Mexico. The university offers high school graduates an opportunity to pursue their studies in their home region, in order to stimulate economic development and contribute to social cohesion in the highlands area. The university is equipped…

  8. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...

  9. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  10. Groundwater recharge on east side soils of the Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    After four years of drought, groundwater levels in the Salinas Valley are at historically low levels which threaten to adversely affect farming in the Salinas Valley. Given the prospect of a strong El Niño this coming winter, it seems prudent to plan to capture as much of the rainfall as possible to...

  11. Harvesting of Dunaliella salina by membrane filtration at pilot scale

    KAUST Repository

    Monte, Joana

    2017-09-02

    The microalgae Dunaliella salina is industrially produced due to its high content in carotenoids induced by low nitrogen and high salinity conditions. D. salina with low carotenoids content also produces other added value compounds, however its recovery have hardly been studied. This work aims to examine the potential of pre-concentrating D. salina by membrane processing prior to a final harvesting step by low-shear centrifugation. The aim is to minimize the overall energy expenditure and reduce capital costs, while assuring a minimal loss of cell integrity. This task is challenging, considering the sensitivity of D. salina to shear. Harvesting of D. salina by ultrafiltration allowed reaching a final concentration factor of 5.9, with an average permeate flux of 31 L/(m2 h). The Total Cost of Ownership and energy consumption for harvesting are respectively 52% and 45% lower when applying a two-step approach with pre-concentration (ultrafiltration) compared to only harvesting by centrifugation.

  12. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  13. African Journals Online: Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical ...

  14. The swimming mechanics of Artemia Salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Ramos-Musalem, A. K.; Zenit, R.

    2013-11-01

    An experimental study to analyze the swimming strategy of a small crustacean (Artemia Salina) was conducted. This animal has a series of eleven pairs of paddle-like appendices in its thorax. These legs move in metachronal-wave fashion to achieve locomotion. To quantify the swimming performance, both high speed video recordings of the legs motion and time-resolved PIV measurements of the induced propulsive jet were conducted. Experiments were conducted for both tethered and freely swimming specimens. We found that despite their small size, the propulsion is achieved by an inertial mechanism. An analysis of the efficiency of the leg wave-like motion is presented and discussed. A brief discussion on the mixing capability of the induced flow is also presented.

  15. The role of tectonic deformation on rock avalanche occurrence in the Pampeanas Ranges, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna M.; Abellán, Antonio; Humair, Florian; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Daicz, Sergio; Fauqué, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Both tectonic and long-term gravitational slope deformation in several mountain settings have been shown to be key drivers of large-scale slope instability. The roles of both mechanisms are investigated in this study of the Potrero de Leyes rock avalanche, one of the largest and better preserved slope failures in the Pampeanas ranges in Argentina. This rock avalanche involved 0.25 km3 of highly fractured granitic rocks cropping out on an uplifted planation surface. The rock avalanche left a lobate deposit up to 4 km run out into the piedmont. A field survey, 3D terrestrial LIDAR, photogrammetry, and gigapixel panoramic photos allowed us to map the structures on the headscarp and on the planation surface. We observed a dense network of fractures with joints sets striking NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, and NW-SE, respectively representing foliation, Riedel, and anti-Riedel structures that developed during the Paleozoic, as suggested by previous studies. The decrease of rock mass strength caused by tectonic fracturing, the exposure of those highly fractured rocks along a tectonically active mountain front, and potential deep-seated gravitational deformation occurring along NNE-SSW foliation planes along the mountain front suggest that tectonic and gravitational processes were key causal factors leading to the occurrence of the Potrero de Leyes rock avalanche.

  16. Smart SfM: Salinas Archaeological Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzerillo, L.

    2017-08-01

    In these last years, there has been an increasing use of the Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques applied to Cultural Heritage. The accessibility of SfM software can be especially advantageous to users in non-technical fields or to those with limited resources. Thanks to SfM using, everyone can make with a digital camera a 3D model applied to an object of both Cultural Heritage, and physically Environment, and work arts, etc. One very interesting and useful application can be envisioned into museum collection digitalization. In the last years, a social experiment has been conducted involving young generation to live a social museum using their own camera to take pictures and videos. Students of university of Catania and Palermo were involved into a national event #digitalinvasion (2015-2016 editions) offering their personal contribution: they realized 3D models of the museums collection through the SfM techniques. In particular at the National Archaeological Museum Salinas in Palermo, it has been conducted an organized survey to recognize the most important part of the archaeological collection. It was a success: in both #digitalinvasion National Event 2015 and 2016 the young students of Engineering classes carried out, with Photoscan Agisoft, more than one hundred 3D models some of which realized by phone camera and some other by reflex camera and some other with compact camera too. The director of the museum has been very impressed from these results and now we are going to collaborate at a National project to use the young generation crowdsourcing to realize a semi-automated monitoring system at Salinas Archaeological Museum.

  17. SMART SfM: SALINAS ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Inzerillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In these last years, there has been an increasing use of the Structure from Motion (SfM techniques applied to Cultural Heritage. The accessibility of SfM software can be especially advantageous to users in non-technical fields or to those with limited resources. Thanks to SfM using, everyone can make with a digital camera a 3D model applied to an object of both Cultural Heritage, and physically Environment, and work arts, etc. One very interesting and useful application can be envisioned into museum collection digitalization. In the last years, a social experiment has been conducted involving young generation to live a social museum using their own camera to take pictures and videos. Students of university of Catania and Palermo were involved into a national event #digitalinvasion (2015-2016 editions offering their personal contribution: they realized 3D models of the museums collection through the SfM techniques. In particular at the National Archaeological Museum Salinas in Palermo, it has been conducted an organized survey to recognize the most important part of the archaeological collection. It was a success: in both #digitalinvasion National Event 2015 and 2016 the young students of Engineering classes carried out, with Photoscan Agisoft, more than one hundred 3D models some of which realized by phone camera and some other by reflex camera and some other with compact camera too. The director of the museum has been very impressed from these results and now we are going to collaborate at a National project to use the young generation crowdsourcing to realize a semi-automated monitoring system at Salinas Archaeological Museum.

  18. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  19. Anaerobic biodegradation of lipids of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Grossi, V.; Blokker, P.

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine the susceptibility to anaerobic biodegradation of the different lipid biomarkers present in a marine microalga containing algaenan, portions of one large batch of cultured Nannochloropsis salina (Eustigmatophyceae) were incubated in anoxic sediment slurries for various times.

  20. Anatomía y etnobotánica de las especies medicinales de la Provincia Pampeana: Asclepiadaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Bayón, Néstor D.; Arambarri, Ana M.

    1999-01-01

    Se presenta el tratamiento de Araujia hortorum E. Fourn., Asclepias curassavica L., A. mellodora J. St.-Hil., Morrenia brachystephana Griseb., M. odorata (Hook. et Arn.) Lindl. y Oxypelalum solanoides Hook. et Arn., presentes en la provincia pampeana (este de la Argentina, Uruguay y la mitad austral de Rio Grande do Sul, de Brasil). Para cada una de las especies se brinda: principales sinónimos, nombres vulgares, descripción morfológica, las características anatómicas de la raíz, tallo y hoja...

  1. Sierra Nevada Subregional Boundary - Sierra Nevada Conservancy [ds542

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Sierra Nevada Conservancy (SNC) boundary. The boundary was mapped to correspond with statute AB 2600 (2004) and as re-defined in AB 1201 (2005). Work on the boundary...

  2. Ruralidad del empleo agropecuario en la región pampeana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Pellegrini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En esta tesis se ofrece una explicación económica para la proporción de población ocupada en el sector agropecuario que es rural y su distribución espacial, en la región pampeana al comenzar el siglo XXI. Por rural se entiende que reside en campo abierto, de acuerdo a los criterios censales utilizados en la Argentina para definir a la población rural dispersa. Se sostiene que la ruralidad del empleo agropecuario en cada área y sus alrededores depende de la importancia relativa de la agricultura y otras producciones agropecuarias, pero también de variables menos evidentes que a la postre resultan empíricamente más relevantes: los grados de urbanización del área y riqueza de la población agraria. Se obtienen esas conclusiones mediante un análisis conceptual de los costos comparativos de organizar la transacción de trabajo agropecuario con población rural o población urbana, en tanto el lugar de residencia afecta las actividades productivas y domésticas de los trabajadores. El problema se define como de organización económica en el nivel mesoeconómico, que tiene detrás uno más elemental: el de organización de la transacción de trabajo. Metodológicamente, en el aspecto conceptual se procede de manera abstracto-deductiva a partir de una representación estilizada del problema en cuestión, y en el empírico se realiza un estudio de corte transversal con datos censales, que culmina en un análisis econométrico espacial que no rechaza las principales hipótesis específicas deducidas.

  3. Isolation and characterization of peroxiredoxin 1 gene of Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fanghua; Wang, Jing; Li, Jie

    2017-11-30

    Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein in eukaryotic cells, and plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and redox signaling. Although Prdx1 has been better studied in yeasts and humans, only few Prdx1 genes have been cloned in green algae. The microalga Dunaliella salina (D. salina) is a model for the study of a variety of human cilia-related diseases. In this study, a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library of D. salina was constructed, and 6 flagellum-associated genes including D. salina Prdx1 (DsPrdx1) were isolated and identified. A 956bp full-length cDNA of DsPrdx1 was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The open reading frame (ORF) of this DNA sequence encodes a polypeptide of 201 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 22kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.27. Sequence comparison showed that Prdx1 is highly evolutionarily conserved from the unicellular green alga D. salina to human. To our knowledge, this is the first reported full-length sequence of Prdx1 in D. salina. Interestingly, the protein expression of DsPrdx1 was obviously increased during flagellar disassembly in D. salina. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay showed interaction between Prdx1 and RNA, and suggested that DsPrdx1 can protect RNA from degradation by RNase. Taken together, DsPrdx1 not only participates in flagellar disassembly, but also protects RNA from degradation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sierra Meadows Project [ds4

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Recognizing Montane Meadows and Quaking Aspen communities are a rare and valuable resource to plant and animal species in the Sierra Nevada, this project represents...

  5. Sierra Leone - Public Expenditure Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    When Sierra Leone emerged from its long civil war at the beginning of 2002, it had many pressing needs for recovery and reconstruction. As a consequence, Sierra Leone was one of the largest beneficiaries of foreign aid as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and aid per capita. Since then, as peace has been consolidated, the level of external assistance has gradually declined from 15.5 ...

  6. Growth effects on mixed culture of Dunaliella salina and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dunaliella salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum are two important marine microalgae rich in bioactive substances and other high-value constituents. In this study, growth effects on mixed culture of these two microalgae were studied under different inoculation proportions (10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 0:10) and low, medium and high ...

  7. Effect of concentrations of Artemia salina on zootechnical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of concentrations of living food Artemia salina on survival and growth performances of marine shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Pérez Farfante, 1967) from the Zoe 3 to Post larvae 1 stages, was carried out at AquaSol (Aquaculture Solidarité) structure in IRAD (Institute of Agricultural research for Development) of Kribi ...

  8. Laboratory sulfurisation of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Kok, M.D.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1998-01-01

    To understand more fully the mode of preservation of organic matter in marine sediments, laboratory sulfurisation of intact cells of the cultured microalga Nannochloropsis salina was performed using inorganic polysulfides in seawater at 50°C. Solvent extractable and non-extractable materials were

  9. New SHRIMP U-Pb data from the Famatina Complex : constraining Early-Mid Ordovician Famatinian magmatism in the Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Dahlquist; Pankhurst, Robert; Rapela, C.W.; Galindo, C.; Alasino, P.; FANNING, C.M.; Saavedra, J.; Baldo, E.

    2008-01-01

    New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages are reported for igneous and sedimentary rocks of the Famatina Complex, constraining the age of the magmatism and the ensialic basins. Together with whole-rock and isotope geochemistry for the igneous rocks from the complex, these ages indicate that the voluminous parental magmas of metaluminous composition were derived by partial melting of an older lithosphere without significant asthenospheric contribution. This magmatism was initiated in the Early Ordovician (4...

  10. Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.

  11. Biomass Nutrient Profiles of Marine Microalgae Dunaliella Salina

    OpenAIRE

    Moh. Muhaemin, Moh. Muhaemin; Kaswadji, Richardus F

    2010-01-01

    The unconventional micro algal sources for the production of feed, food, food additive, pharmaceutical, and fine chemical is growing in important. Researches in the field are expanding worldwide. Nutritional composition of marine micro algae Dunaliella salina data included proximate composition, nitrate, RNA, and pigments were analyzed under various conditions in semi cultured medium. On average, nutritional composition of biomass was highly influenced by external irradiance and residence tim...

  12. Toxicity assessment of zero valent iron nanoparticles on Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Roy, Rajdeep; Parashar, Abhinav; Raichur, Ashok M; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Anita; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-05-01

    The present study deals with the toxicity assessment of two differently synthesized zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI, chemical and biological) as well as Fe2+ ions on Artemia salina at three different initial concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of these particles. The assessment was done till 96 h at time intervals of 24 h. EC50 value was calculated to evaluate the 50% mortality of Artemia salina at all exposure time durations. Between chemically and biologically synthesized nZVI nanoparticles, insignificant differences in the level of mortality were demonstrated. At even 24 h, Fe2+ ion imparted complete lethality at the highest exposure concentration (100 mg/L). To understand intracellular oxidative stress because of zero valent iron nanoparticles, ROS estimation, SOD activity, GSH activity, and catalase activity was performed which demonstrated that ionic form of iron is quite lethal at high concentrations as compared with the same concentration of nZVI exposure. Lower concentrations of nZVI were more toxic as compared with the ionic form and was in order of CS-nZVI > BS-nZVI > Fe2+ . Cell membrane damage and bio-uptake of nanoparticles were also evaluated for all three concentrations of BS-nZVI, CS-nZVI, and Fe2+ using adult Artemia salina in marine water; both of which supported the observations made in toxicity assessment. This study can be further explored to exploit Artemia salina as a model organism and a biomarker in an nZVI prone aquatic system to detect toxic levels of these nanoparticles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1617-1627, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Understanding Environmental Factors that Affect Violence in Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    abuse prevention, and early childhood socialization.50 Crime rates and the level of fear in the community decreased, and safety in downtown Salinas...neighborhood watch program. Communities with structured and involved neighborhoods typically are more organized and have less crime .191 In San Jose...Clarke, Tracy L. Onufer 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000

  14. Phosphorus and Ammonium Ions Removal by Using the Microalgae Dunaliella Salina

    OpenAIRE

    Eka Putri, Wike Ayu; Moh. Muhaemin, Moh. Muhaemin

    2010-01-01

    Biological treatment for industrial effluent was performed in laboratory scale experiment by using marine microalgae Dunaliella salina. The dark colored wastewater, containing high level of organic matter and low pH which may prevent microalgae growth. The research showed that within 5 days of incubation in the wastewater, D. salina grew from 3×106 to 1.5×107 cell/mL. D. salina reduced approximately phosphorus (29%), and ammonium ionic (68%). The research demonstrated the possibility of using...

  15. Aspen Characteristics - Sierra State Parks [ds379

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands on lands administrated by the Sierra District, California...

  16. Historical Ground-Water Development in the Salinas Alluvial Fan Area, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 1900-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The Salinas alluvial fan area has historically been one of the most intensively used agricultural areas in the South Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. Changes in agricultural practices and land use in the Salinas alluvial fan have also caused changes in the geographic distribution of ground-water withdrawals from the alluvial aquifer. As a result, the ground-water balance and ground-water flow pattern have changed throughout the years and may explain the presence of saline ground water along parts of the coast at present. By providing a reconstruction of historical ground-water development in the Salinas alluvial fan area, from the initial years of aquifer development at about 1900 to the most recent conditions existing in 2005, water resources managers and planners can use the results of the analysis for a more complete understanding of aquifer conditions especially pertaining to water quality. This study effort was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources as a contribution in the management of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The study area encompasses about 20 mi2 (square miles) of the extensive South Coastal Plain alluvial aquifer system (fig. 1). The study area is bounded to the north by foothills of the Cordillera Central mountain chain, to the south by the Caribbean Sea, and to the east and west by the Rio Nigua de Salinas and the Quebrada Aguas Verdes, respectively. Fan-delta and alluvial deposits contain the principal aquifers in the study area.

  17. Arqueología de cazadores recolectores del sector centro-oriental de la región pampeana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Loponte

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available El humedal asociado al rio Paraná inferior y tramo superior del Rio de la Plata, situado en el sector centro-oriental de la región pampeana, muestra un registro arqueológico de gran complejidad. Esta situación parece estar ya establecida hace 1700 anos AP. Algunas de las propiedades del mismo sugieren una importante concentración de poblaciones humanas en el área, con reducida movilidad residencial e intensificación en la explotación de los recursos de alto ranking y una especial concentración en la explotación de los recursos fluviales. La fuerte diversidad estilística que se observa en los patrones de decoración de la alfarería y en el tratamiento de la muerte, son coherentes con la existencia de una compleja y variada identidad social, cuya dinámica posiblemente estuvo influenciada por conductas densodependientes que se acrecentaron aun mas por el arribo de grupos horticultores amazónicos.

  18. Registro de Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae del Sur de la región Pampeana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago PLISCHUK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudios prospectivos tendientes a la detección de protistas asociados a ápidos en la región Pampeana, se observó la presencia de esporos ovales bicóncavos y grupos de esporos (cúmulos en los túbulos de Malpighi de abejas de Dufaur, partido de Saavedra, sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los esporos maduros midieron 4,8 ± 0,05 x 2,4 ± 0,03 μm y la carga (intensidad promedió 5,71 ± 1,49 x 106 esporos/abeja. Las detecciones se efectuaron entre julio y octubre de 2006 y la prevalencia en las colmenas positivas osciló entre 1 y 16,7 %. Las características morfológicas de los esporos, el lugar de desarrollo y la especie huésped involucrada sugieren que el microorganismo en cuestión, pertenece al género Nephridiophaga y sería N. apis Ivanić, especie tipo cuyo conocimiento es extremadamente limitado. El hallazgo constituye el primer registro de un nefridiofágido asociado a A. mellifera fuera del continente europeo.

  19. Eficiencia agronómica del azufre elemental relativa a una fuente azufrada soluble en trigo en la Región Pampeana Agronomic efficiency of elemental sulphur in wheat relative to a soluble sulphur source in the Pampas Region

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Torres Duggan; Mónica B Rodriguez; Raúl S Lavado; Ricardo Melgar

    2010-01-01

    La eficiencia agronómica del azufre elemental (AE) en relación a fuentes azufradas solubles y sulfatadas, depende de su reactividad (e.g. tamaño de partícula) y de las condiciones edafo-climáticas. Para las condiciones de la Región Pampeana algunas publicaciones sugieren que el AE puede ser una fuente de S tan efectiva como las fuentes solubles, aunque la información no concluyente. Se hipotetiza que en las condiciones de la Región Pampeana, ambas fuentes poseen similar eficiencia agronómica ...

  20. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  1. Optimization of photosynthesis, growth, and biochemical composition of the microalga Rhodomonas salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuy, Minh Vu Thi; Douëtte, Claire; Rayner, Thomas Allan

    2016-01-01

    The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina is widely used as feed for copepod cultures. However, culturing conditions to obtain high-quality algae have not yet been efficiently optimized. Therefore, we aimed to develop a cultivation protocol for R. salina to optimize its nutritional value and provide tech...

  2. Sierra/SM theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, Nathan Karl

    2013-07-01

    Presented in this document are the theoretical aspects of capabilities contained in the Sierra/SM code. This manuscript serves as an ideal starting point for understanding the theoretical foundations of the code. For a comprehensive study of these capabilities, the reader is encouraged to explore the many references to scientific articles and textbooks contained in this manual. It is important to point out that some capabilities are still in development and may not be presented in this document. Further updates to this manuscript will be made as these capabilites come closer to production level.

  3. Cretin Memory Flow on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scott, H. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-05

    The Cretin iCOE project has a goal of enabling the efficient generation of Non-LTE opacities for use in radiation-hydrodynamic simulation codes using the Nvidia boards on LLNL’s upcoming Sierra system. Achieving the desired level of accuracy for some simulations require the use of a vary large number of atomic configurations (a configuration includes the atomic level for all electrons and how they are coupled together). The NLTE rate matrix needs to be solved separately in each zone. Calculating NLTE opacities can consume more time than all other physics packages used in a simulation.

  4. Crime Trend Prediction Using Regression Models for Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Mafia (La Eme) and Nuestra Familia (NF)” (Sureños, 2005). The original members of the gang were associated with the urban Hispanic population...Morales et al., 2008, p. 8). The Norteños are associated with the Nuestra Familia gang. The Norteños, Spanish for “Our Family,” are rumored to have... Familia in Salinas. Monterey Herald. 55 San Francisco Citizen. (2010, 22 April). Jerry Brown Takes Down: “Operation Knockout” Arrests 94 Norteños

  5. Dynamic studies on flagellar regeneration in Dunaliella salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Bourne, W. F.

    1999-09-01

    Flagella, the basic locomotive organ in algae, as well as bacteria and some cells of animals or high plants, would be damaged in the well stirred mass culture due to the strong forces caused by the fast mixing impellers. The dynamic regeneration of the flagella in deflagellated Dunaliella salina was studied microscopically by using a bench-top flat-bottom photobioreactor. The results showed that 90 minutes was necessary for the repair of flagella, after which half of the cells became motile as their flagella generated within 120 minutes and nearly all of the cells could swim freely within 180 minutes.

  6. Anatomía y etnobotánica de las especies medicinales de monocotiledóneas de la Estepa Pampeana de Argentina: Orchidaceae y Pontederiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa, María Cecilia; Vizcaíno, Claudia E.; Colares, Marta N.

    1998-01-01

    En la estepa pampeana de Argentina se encuentran 34 especies medicinales de Monocotiledóneas, de las cuales 5 son tratadas en el presente estudio: Cyclopogon elatus (Sw.) Schlecht. y Oncidiurn bifolium Sims (Orchiúaceae), Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach y Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae). De ellas se brindan: basónimos, principales sinónimos, nombres vulgares, descripción, análisis histológico de las partes utilizadas, mapa de distribución en la...

  7. Indicadores de calidad física en suelos de la Región Pampeana Norte de Argentina bajo siembra directa Physical quality indicators in soils from the northern Pampa region of Argentina under no till management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Ferreras; Gustavo Magra; Pablo Besson; Esteban Kovalevski; Fernando García

    2007-01-01

    ... agregación y porosidad del suelo. Una de las regiones del mundo donde los suelos han sido sujetos a un intenso uso agrícola durante las últimas décadas es la Región Pampeana Norte. En los últimos...

  8. Biosorpsi Ni2+ oleh Nannochloropsis Salina pada Medium Terpapar Ca2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusafir Hala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on biosorption of Ni2+ by N. salina in Ca2+ exposed medium has been done.  This study aimed to determine the growth and efficiency of N. salina towards Ni2+ in Conwy Medium with addition of Ca2+.  Exposure of mixed ions of Ni2+ 5 ppm and Ca2+ with variation of concentrations 10, 30, 50 ppm was conducted at the beginning of the growth of N. salina.  The growth of N. salina was observed every day by counting the number of N. salina population using a microscope and haemocytometer.  The concentration of metal ions after the exposure was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.  The growth of N. salina in medium with exposed metal ions is lower than the control.  The maximum sorption efficiency of Ni2+ as a single ion is 55.2%. After exposure of mixed ions of Ni2+ and Ca2+ with variation of concentrations 10, 30, 50 ppm, the sorption efficiency of Ni2+ in sequents are 17.6%; 17.8%; and 19.6%; while the maximum sorption efficiency of N. salina towards Ca2+ are 5.1%; 7.1%; and 4.0% respectively.DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3153   

  9. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  10. 27 CFR 9.120 - Sierra Foothills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Sierra Foothills viticultural area is located in portions of the counties of Yuba, Nevada... and Yuba counties to the point south of Ruef Hill where the western border of the Tahoe National...

  11. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis Salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, H.; Deng, S.

    2013-01-01

    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220-375 °C, 20-255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid...... on Nannochloropsis salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for Nannochloropsis salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae...

  13. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina in municipal wastewater or digester centrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bingfeng; Ho, Nam; Ogden, Kimberly L; Arnold, Robert G

    2014-05-01

    Meaningful use of biofuels for transportation depends on utilization of water from non-traditional, non-potable resources. Here it is hypothesized that (i) reclaimed wastewater or nutrient-rich side streams derived from municipal wastewater treatment are suitable for that purpose and (ii) use of those waters for algal growth can promote water quality through nutrient management. Experiments showed that metals levels in municipal wastewaters are unlikely to inhibit algal growth and lipid production, at least by metals tolerant microalgae like Nannochloropsis salina. Cells grew without inhibition in treated municipal wastewater or centrate derived from wastewater treatment at additions up to 75 percent v/v in their normal growth medium minus nitrogen and phosphorus. Although wastewater provides a suitable nutrient source for algal growth, not enough municipal wastewater is available to support a meaningful biofuels industry without efficient water recycling and nutrient recovery/reuse from spent algae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous flocculation-sedimentation for harvesting Nannochloropsis salina biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatsungnoen, Tawan; Chisti, Yusuf

    2016-03-20

    A continuous flow process is developed for recovery of the biomass of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina. Flocculation-sedimentation is used to recover the biomass from an algal suspension with an initial dry biomass concentration of 0.5 g L(-1), as would be typical of a raceway-based biomass production system. More than 85% of the biomass initially in suspension could be settled by gravity in a flocculation-sedimentation device with a total residence time of ∼148 min. Aluminum sulfate was used as an inexpensive, readily available and safe flocculant. The optimal flocculant dosage (as Al2(SO4)3) was 229 mg L(-1). Relative to a highly effective 62-min batch flocculation-sedimentation process for the same alga and flocculant, the continuous flow operation took longer and required nearly double the flocculant dose. The design of the flocculation-sedimentation system is explained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Site fidelity of the declining amphibian Rana sierrae (Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews; Haiganoush Preisler

    2010-01-01

    From 1997 to 2006, we used mark–recapture models to estimate the site fidelity of 1250 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs (Rana sierrae) in Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA, during their three main activity periods of overwintering, breeding, and feeding. To quantify site fidelity, the tendency to return to and reuse previously occupied...

  16. Iron metallodrugs: stability, redox activity and toxicity against Artemia salina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Aguilar Vitorino

    Full Text Available Iron metallodrugs comprise mineral supplements, anti-hypertensive agents and, more recently, magnetic nanomaterials, with both therapeutic and diagnostic roles. As biologically-active metal compounds, concern has been raised regarding the impact of these compounds when emitted to the environment and associated ecotoxicological effects for the fauna. In this work we assessed the relative stability of several iron compounds (supplements based on glucoheptonate, dextran or glycinate, as well as 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl (TMH derivatives of ferrocene against high affinity models of biological binding, calcein and aprotransferrin, via a fluorimetric method. Also, the redox-activity of each compound was determined in a physiologically relevant medium. Toxicity toward Artemia salina at different developmental stages was measured, as well as the amount of lipid peroxidation. Our results show that polymer-coated iron metallodrugs are stable, non-redox-active and non-toxic at the concentrations studied (up to 300 µM. However, TMH derivatives of ferrocene were less stable and more redox-active than the parent compound, and TMH-ferrocene displayed toxicity and lipid peroxidation to A. salina, unlike the other compounds. Our results indicate that iron metallodrugs based on polymer coating do not present direct toxicity at low levels of emission; however other iron species (eg. metallocenes, may be deleterious for aquatic organisms. We suggest that ecotoxicity depends more on metal speciation than on the total amount of metal present in the metallodrugs. Future studies with discarded metallodrugs should consider the chemical speciation of the metal present in the composition of the drug.

  17. Iron metallodrugs: stability, redox activity and toxicity against Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Hector Aguilar; Mantovanelli, Luca; Zanotto, Flavia Pinheiro; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2015-01-01

    Iron metallodrugs comprise mineral supplements, anti-hypertensive agents and, more recently, magnetic nanomaterials, with both therapeutic and diagnostic roles. As biologically-active metal compounds, concern has been raised regarding the impact of these compounds when emitted to the environment and associated ecotoxicological effects for the fauna. In this work we assessed the relative stability of several iron compounds (supplements based on glucoheptonate, dextran or glycinate, as well as 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl (TMH) derivatives of ferrocene) against high affinity models of biological binding, calcein and aprotransferrin, via a fluorimetric method. Also, the redox-activity of each compound was determined in a physiologically relevant medium. Toxicity toward Artemia salina at different developmental stages was measured, as well as the amount of lipid peroxidation. Our results show that polymer-coated iron metallodrugs are stable, non-redox-active and non-toxic at the concentrations studied (up to 300 µM). However, TMH derivatives of ferrocene were less stable and more redox-active than the parent compound, and TMH-ferrocene displayed toxicity and lipid peroxidation to A. salina, unlike the other compounds. Our results indicate that iron metallodrugs based on polymer coating do not present direct toxicity at low levels of emission; however other iron species (eg. metallocenes), may be deleterious for aquatic organisms. We suggest that ecotoxicity depends more on metal speciation than on the total amount of metal present in the metallodrugs. Future studies with discarded metallodrugs should consider the chemical speciation of the metal present in the composition of the drug.

  18. Iron Metallodrugs: Stability, Redox Activity and Toxicity against Artemia salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Iron metallodrugs comprise mineral supplements, anti-hypertensive agents and, more recently, magnetic nanomaterials, with both therapeutic and diagnostic roles. As biologically-active metal compounds, concern has been raised regarding the impact of these compounds when emitted to the environment and associated ecotoxicological effects for the fauna. In this work we assessed the relative stability of several iron compounds (supplements based on glucoheptonate, dextran or glycinate, as well as 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl (TMH) derivatives of ferrocene) against high affinity models of biological binding, calcein and aprotransferrin, via a fluorimetric method. Also, the redox-activity of each compound was determined in a physiologically relevant medium. Toxicity toward Artemia salina at different developmental stages was measured, as well as the amount of lipid peroxidation. Our results show that polymer-coated iron metallodrugs are stable, non-redox-active and non-toxic at the concentrations studied (up to 300 µM). However, TMH derivatives of ferrocene were less stable and more redox-active than the parent compound, and TMH-ferrocene displayed toxicity and lipid peroxidation to A. salina, unlike the other compounds. Our results indicate that iron metallodrugs based on polymer coating do not present direct toxicity at low levels of emission; however other iron species (eg. metallocenes), may be deleterious for aquatic organisms. We suggest that ecotoxicity depends more on metal speciation than on the total amount of metal present in the metallodrugs. Future studies with discarded metallodrugs should consider the chemical speciation of the metal present in the composition of the drug. PMID:25849743

  19. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  20. Phototoxicity activity of Psoralea drupacea L. using Atremia salina bioassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction have phototoxicity in A. salina bioassay system and their toxic effect is related to phototoxic constituents such as psoralen.

  1. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David R.; Lee, Robert W.; Cushman, John C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Tran, Duc; Polle, Juergen E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  2. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Roy; Lee, Robert W; Cushman, John C; Magnuson, Jon K; Tran, Duc; Polle, Jürgen E W

    2010-05-07

    Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of beta-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with approximately 60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: approximately 1.5 and approximately 0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  3. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Duc

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the

  4. Interspecific competition and allelopathic interaction between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Liu, Jiao; Hao, Qiang; Ran, Lihua; Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Algal allelopathy is a manifold ecological/physiological phenomenon that is focused on chemical interactions and autotoxicity. We investigated the allelopathic interactions between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory cultures based on diff erent temperature (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) and lighting (40, 80, and 160 μmol/(m2·s)) conditions. The growth of D. salina in bi-algae culture (1:1 size/density) was significantly restrained. The results of cell-free filtrate culture indicate that direct cell-tocell contact was not necessary in interspecific competition. Further experimental results demonstrated that allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi were markedly influenced by both temperature ( P =0.013) and irradiance ( P =0.003), resulting in diff erent growth characteristics of D. salina in filtrate mediums. Compared with the plateau period, K. mikimotoi exudates in the exponential phase had a stronger short-term inhibition effect on D. salina in normal conditions. A clear concentration-dependent relationship was observed in the effect of allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi with low-promoting and high-repressing effects on D. Salina in a short time-scale. In addition, allelopathic substances remain stable and effective under high temperature and pressure stress. Many flocculent sediments adhering with D. salina cells were observed in all filtrate mediums, while the quantity and color depended on the original culture conditions.

  5. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Bjälkander O; Bangura L; Leigh B; Berggren V; Bergström S; Almroth L

    2012-01-01

    Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the world, and yet little i...

  6. Nitrate Contamination of Deep Aquifers in the Salinas Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Holtz, M.; Roberts, S. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Salinas Valley, known as 'the salad bowl of the world', has been an agricultural center for more than 100 years. Irrigated row crops such as lettuce and strawberries dominate both land use and water use. Groundwater is the exclusive supply for both irrigation and drinking water. Some irrigation wells and most public water supply wells in the Salinas Valley are constructed to draw water from deep portions of the aquifer system, where contamination by nitrate is less likely than in the shallow portions of the aquifer system. However, a number of wells with top perforations greater than 75 m deep, screened below confining or semi-confining units, have nitrate concentrations greater than the Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) of 45 mg/L as NO3-. This study uses nitrate concentrations from several hundred irrigation, drinking water, and monitoring wells (Monterey County Water Resources Agency, 1997), along with tritium-helium groundwater ages acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through the State of California Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program (reported in Kulongoski et al., 2007 and in Moran et al., in press), to identify nitrate 'hot spots' in the deep aquifer and to examine possible modes of nitrate transport to the deep aquifer. In addition, observed apparent groundwater ages are compared with the results of transport simulations that use particle tracking and a stochastic-geostatistical framework to incorporate aquifer heterogeneity to determine the distribution of travel times from the water table to each well (Fogg et al., 1999). The combined evidence from nitrate, tritium, tritiogenic 3He, and radiogenic 4He concentrations, reveals complex recharge and flow to the capture zone of the deep drinking water wells. Widespread groundwater pumping for irrigation accelerates vertical groundwater flow such that high nitrate groundwater reaches some deep drinking water wells. Deeper portions of the wells often draw in water that recharged

  7. Economic concentration in the Pampeana region: The case of the financial trustfunds Concentración económica en la región pampeana: El caso de los fideicomisos financieros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ariel Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade of the twentieth century, the trend of economic concentration of the agrarian production of the pampas region was strengthen, expressed in a mayor reduction of the sectorïs firms. Even when there is no census data to quantify it after the 2001-2002 crisis, there are several signs that imply that this process continues in the present. Big lessee capitals appear on the leading roll, managing to obtain economies of scale by taking a large tract of land, which allows them to displace their smaller rivals thanks to their capacity to propose the owners a bigger rent or better conditions to pay it. This paper offers the results of an investigation about one of the juridical forms that this process adopts: the setting up of Financial Trust Funds (FTF. The growth of this kind of financial tool since 2004 has been impressive, and it was partially used in the agrarian sector. After systematize the information of the FTFs placed in the market in the 2004-2008 period, this paper focus its attention on the ones that finance agrarian activities. It estimates the weight they have in the capitalization of the sector, analyzing the productive strategies and characteristics of those that have per purpose the sowing in leased lands, allowing us to offer concrete figures about the microeconomic base of the sector's concentration.Durante la última década del siglo XX, la producción agropecuaria de la región pampeana ve reforzada su tendencia a la concentración económica, reduciéndose de forma muy significativa el número de EAPs. Si bien no existen relevamientos censales que den cuenta de lo ocurrido tras la crisis de 2001-2002, numerosos indicios señalan que este proceso continúa en la actualidad. Aparecen como protagonistas del mismo grandes capitales arrendatarios que logran, al tomar superficies lo suficientemente amplias, obtener economías de escala que les permiten desplazar a rivales menores merced a su posibilidad de ofrecer

  8. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  9. Petrología, Geoquímica y Geología estructural de la Sierra de Copacabana (provincia de Catamarca, República Argentina y su significado geotectónico en el contexto del margen occidental del Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, J. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Copacabana Range is an orographic unit of the Sistema de Famatina at the W of Sierras. Both the pampean metamorphic basament and the granitoids emplaced in a continental margin during the Famatinian Cycle were affected during the upper Ordovicic-Siluric by a deformative regime that could has produced typical rocks deformed by dynamic metamorphism (cataclasites, protomylonites, ortomylonites and ultramylonites. The structural study allowed us to interpret that the deformative regime could has occasioned a compressive tectonic toward the west, associated with a continental collision during the Ocloyic orogenic.La Sierra de Copacabana es una unidad orográfica emplazada en el ambiente de Sierras Pampeanas Noroccidentales, al E del Sistema de Famatina. Tanto su basamento, compuesto por rocas metamórficas de grado medio formadas durante el ciclo Pampeano, como los granitoides de carácter calcoalcalino y peralumínico que intruyen en un margen continental activo durante el Ciclo Famatiniano (Paleozoico inferior, fueron afectados por procesos deformativos que habrían producido las rocas típicas del metamorfismo dinámico (cataclasitas, protomilonitas, ortomilonitas y ultramilonitas reconocidas en amplios sectores de la Sierra de Copacabana y en las serranías vecinas, durante el Ordovícico- Silúrico superior. El estudio estructural permitió definir este proceso deformativo que habría ocasionado una tectónica compresiva de carácter inverso hacia el oeste, relacionado con la colisión continente-continente durante la Orogenia Oclóyica (Ordovícico superior-Silúrico.

  10. GPS Imaging of Sierra Nevada Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent improvements in the scope and precision of GPS networks across California and Nevada have allowed for uplift of the Sierra Nevada to be observed directly. Much of the signal, in the range of 1 to 2 mm/yr, has been attributed to lithospheric scale rebound following massive groundwater withdrawal in the San Joaquin Valley in southern California, exacerbated by drought since 2011. However, natural tectonic deformation associated with long term uplift of the range may also contribute to the observed signal. We have developed new algorithms that enhance the signal of Sierra Nevada uplift and improve our ability to interpret and separate natural tectonic signals from anthropogenic contributions. We apply our new Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) algorithm to the vertical times series and a inverse distance-weighted median spatial filtering and Delaunay-based interpolation to despeckle the rate map. The resulting spatially continuous vertical rate field is insensitive to outliers and steps in the GPS time series, and omits isolated features attributable to unstable stations or unrepresentative rates. The resulting vertical rate field for California and Nevada exhibits regionally coherent signals from the earthquake cycle including interseismic strain accumulation in Cascadia, postseismic relaxation of the mantle from recent large earthquakes in central Nevada and southern California, groundwater loading changes, and tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges. Uplift of the Sierra Nevada extends from the Garlock Fault in the south to an indefinite boundary in the north near the latitude of Mt. Lassen to the eastern Sierra Nevada range front in Owen's Valley. The rates transition to near zero in the southern Walker Lane. The eastern boundary of uplift coincides with the highest strain rates in the western Great Basin, suggesting higher normal fault slip rates and a component of tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada.

  11. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Raquel A. F.; Fernandes, Tainá; dos Santos, Luciano Neves; Nascimento, Silvia M.

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments) and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs. PMID:28388672

  12. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A F Neves

    Full Text Available Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs.

  13. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  14. Acumulaciones de restos óseos en reparos rocosos de las sierras de Tandilia oriental, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Quintana, C.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is an approach to the processes that influence in the formation of the paleontological record in the hills of Eastern Tandilia Range (Pampean Region of Argentina. The associations of fossil remains and the bony assemblage of the current surface, both of rocky shelters, are compared. The agents of incorporation of bones to the shelters, the causes of natural and human alterations, and the indicators of stability of the fossil record are described. The diversity and specific richness, the quantity of deposited bony remains, and the quality of the record is analyzed. Its concludes that: in the rocky repairs of Eastern Tandilia the causes that generate bony accumulations presently are not analogous to those of the last 11,000 years. The only exception is the deposit of bones coming from pellets of rapacious birds. This lack of agreement is due to: the strong human influences in the formation of the fossil record that caused deposits with more quantity of bones and diversity of species in the present-day record. This last one, it is only conditioned by natural factors.A modo de una primera aproximación a los procesos que condicionan la formación del registro paleontológico en las sierras de Tandilia Oriental (Región Pampeana de Argentina se comparan las asociaciones de restos fósiles de reparos rocosos con los conjuntos óseos de la superficie actual relevados en los mismos ámbitos. Se describen los agentes de ingreso de huesos a los reparos, las causas de alteraciones naturales y antrópicas, y los indicadores de estabilidad del registro fósil. Se analiza la diversidad y riqueza específica, la cantidad de restos óseos depositados, y la calidad del registro. Se concluye que en los reparos rocosos de Tandilia Oriental las causas que generan acumu-laciones óseas en el presente no son análogas a las de los últimos 11.000 años. La única excepción es el depósito de huesos provenientes de egagrópilas de aves rapaces. Esta

  15. Transformaciones agrícolas y despoblamiento en las comunidades rurales de la Región Pampeana Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratta Fernández, Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to characterise the historical process of agricultural development in the Pampas and to examine —at the same time— the main features of the rural depopulation process. This characterization is accomplished by defining four historical stages, according to four criteria that point out particular aspects in them: 1 external economic conditions; 2 domestic economic policy framework.; 3 the behaviour of the factors of production and innovation; 4 the urban-rural demographic changes. It is proved that one of the most important changes of this historical process has been the loss of rural population. The historical characterization reveals the agricultural change and analyses the effects of rural depopulation and urban concentration. The reflection on these effects will be useful to understand the region better and to raise appropriate local developing policies that will enable the rural communities sustainability.

    El objetivo de este trabajo, es realizar una caracterización del proceso histórico del desarrollo agrícola en la Región Pampeana, examinando al mismo tiempo, los rasgos principales del proceso de despoblamiento rural. La caracterización se realiza definiendo cuatro etapas históricas, de acuerdo a cuatro criterios que marcan las particularidades de cada una de ellas: 1 las condiciones económicas externas; 2 el marco político y económico interno; 3 el comportamiento de los factores de la producción e innovación y 4 las variaciones demográficas urbano-rurales. Se demuestra que una de las alteraciones más importantes de este proceso histórico, ha sido la pérdida de población rural. Desde esta caracterización histórica se ponen de manifiesto las transformaciones agrícolas ocurridas y se analizan los efectos del despoblamiento y la concentración urbana. La reflexión sobre los cambios y efectos ocurridos servirán para entender mejor la región y plantear políticas de desarrollo local

  16. Reestructuración y contratos de mediería en la región pampeana argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benencia

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Restructuring and sharecropping contracts of the Argentinean pampas regionThis work deals with the characteristics adopted  by, and the role taken on in connection to, sharecropping in agricultural and livestock production  with a high level of technological development  and firmly integrated into the marketplace, using  cases of horticulture and dairy production from  the Argentinean pampas region. In both production processes we can see flexible ways of organization and methods of payment for work, which  permit these undertakings to adapt themselves to  the new demands of the market and production.  At present, within the context of modern production processes, we can observe that forms of contracts used in sharecropping can go from a work  relationship whose remunation is a percentage to  land tenure relationships exclusively; between  both extremes one encounters different situations  of funding associations and labour in order to effectuate production. Sharecropping is thus presented as a contractual relationship that may include labour contracts as well as contracts with  associations. The objective of this work is to  compare different cases in order to increase our knowledge about sharecropping in highly  modernized contexts.Resumen:Este artículo estudia las características que  asumen y el papel que cumplen las relaciones de  mediería en producciones agropecuarias con un  alto nivel de incorporación tecnológica y fuertemente integradas a los mercados a partir de los  casos de la producción hortícola y lechera de la  región pampeana argentina. En ambas producciones estamos frente a formas de organización y  remuneración flexible del trabajo que permite a  estas actividades adaptarse a las nuevas exigencias del mercado y la producción. En la actualidad, en el marco de producciones modernizadas,  observamos que las formas contractuales incluidas en la mediería pueden desplazarse desde una  relación de

  17. Biophysical characterization of Artemia salina (L.) extracellular haemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E J; Barker, C; Moens, L; Jacob, W; Heip, J; Kondo, M

    1981-01-01

    Sedimentation coefficients (s0 20,w) of 11.57 +/- 0.10 S and 11.52 +/- 0.09 S were assigned for Artemia salina (L.) extracellular haemoglobins II and III respectively. These values are not significantly different. The molecular weights, M0w and M0z, of the native haemoglobins as determined by the high-speed sedimentation-equilibrium method were for haemoglobin II 239 400 +/- 7200 and 240 400 +/- 2600 respectively, and for haemoglobin III 216 300 +/- 6500 and 219 300 +/- 4500 respectively. The observed increase of Mapp. with concentration suggested that association was occurring over the concentration range investigated. Exposure of haemoglobin II to either 6 M-guanidinium chloride or to low pH (pH 4) resulted in dissociation to units of approximately half the size of the native protein, with molecular weights approx. 115 000. Electron-microscopic observations indicated a molecular structure composed of two stacked lobed discs. These results strongly support the dimeric model for Artemia haemoglobins proposed by Moens & Kondo [(1978) Eur. J. Biochem. 82, 65-72].

  18. Characterization of vitamin B12 in Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of nature's complex metabolite which is industrially produced using certain bacteria. Algae could be an alternative source of vitamin B12 and in this study, vitamin B12 from a halotolerant green alga, Dunaliella salina V-101 was purified and characterized. The extract of Dunaliella was purified by passing through Amberlite XAD-2 and EASI-extract vitamin B12 immunoaffinity column. The total vitamin B12 content in purified sample fractions was 42 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as determined by the chemiluminescence method which was almost close to 49 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as estimated by microbiological method. Further quantification of total vitamin B12 using gold nanoparticle (AUNPs) based aptamer showed 40 ± 0.8/100 g dry weight. There was a good correlation among all the methods of quantification. Adenosylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 which is a cofactor for methylmalonyl CoA mutase was identified by HPLC. Upon quantification, Dunaliella was found to contain 34 ± 4 μg of adenosylcobalamin for 100 g dry biomass. Authenticity of adenosylcobalmin was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) studies.

  19. NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE SIERRA OF SONORA UNDER THE SCHEME UMAFOR. CASE STUDY: SIERRA ALTA AND SIERRA LA MADERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Silva-Kurumiya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the use and value of natural resources from a social, sustainable and legal perspective, under the scheme of Sustainable Forest Management Units (UMAFOR by its Spanish acronym. Two participatory workshops were carried out in March 2010, one in UMAFOR Sierra La Madera and another in UMAFOR Sierra Alta, belonging to the Sierra de Sonora. An adaptation of “Problems, Causes and Consequences” of Ramírez-García (2004 methodology was used to discuss issues such as conservation, productive activities, society, laws, research and support programs. The objective was to analyze challenges and opportunities in the Sierra de Sonora under this management scheme. The ratting of natural resource for inhabitant and producers was documented based in ecosystems type and its value for use. Economic value was the most important for productive and non productive use; however, there are opportunities to transit from traditional to sustainable activities. Local producers are interested in linking whit research centers and consultants to get support for diversification of productive activities. It is possible to have changes according to sustainable development; UMAFOR is an alternative to achieve those changes.

  20. Anatomía de la raíz de las especies de Polygala L. (Polygalaceae) de la provincia pampeana (Argentina) usadas en la medicina popular y su comparación con P. senega y sus adulterantes

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa, María Cecilia; Monti, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    En la provincia pampeana se encuentran tres especies de Polygala L. (Polygalaceae) utilizadas en la medicina popular: Polygala linoides Poiret, P. pulchella Saint Hilaire y P. stenophylla A. Gray, con los mismos principios activos que Polygala senega L. especie de uso medicinal más conocida, originaria de Estados Unidos y Canadá. Esta última ha sido adulterada con varias especies de la familia Asteraceae: Arctium minus (Hill.) Bernh., Cichorium intybus L. y Taraxacum officinale Weber. De toda...

  1. Characterization of novel nitrate reductase-deficient mutants for transgenic Dunaliella salina systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L J; Jia, Y L; Li, S K; Qiu, L L

    2015-10-27

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize novel nitrate reductase (NR)-deficient mutants, which may be useful for the transgenic manipulation of Dunaliella salina. Three NR-deficient mutants of D. salina, J-1, J-2, and J-3, were successfully isolated by screening for chlorate resistance after chemical mutagenesis with ethylnitrosourea. NR activity was not detected in the mutants and the expression of NR mRNA was significantly decreased. Growth analysis of D. salina strains grown in media containing different nitrogen sources revealed that these mutants were capable of utilizing nitrite and urea, but not nitrate as a nitrogen source, indicating that these mutants are indeed NR-deficient. Mutation analysis of NR cDNA sequences revealed that there were 11 point mutations shared by the J-1, J-2, and J-3 mutants. Furthermore, the results of the functional complementation experiment showed that NR activity of transformant T-1 derived from J-1 was recovered to 48.1 % of that of the wild-type D. salina. The findings of the present study indicate that nitrate may be used as a selective agent rather than antibiotics or herbicides for the isolated NR-deficient mutants in future transgenic D. salina systems.

  2. TÓXICIDAD DE LA APITOXINA EN UN MODELO DE Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Pérez Agudelo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Determinar la toxicidad del extracto acuoso de Apitoxina mediante bioprospección en el modelo de Artemia salina. Materiales y métodos: Previo montaje de Biorreactor, un grupo fue expuesto al extracto acuoso de Apitoxina (n=20 y el grupo control fue expuesto a agua destilada (n=20 la toxicidad se definió por la muerte de la Artemia salina a las 24 horas de administración del extracto. Se realizó análisis estadístico no paramétrico mediante la prueba de Chi cuadrado de homogeneidad (Pearson para determinar la diferencia en mortalidad de los grupos.Resultados:El Grupo Control no presentó mortalidad, en tanto el Grupo Apitoxina presentó una mortalidad del 95%. Se demostró una asociación estadísticamente significativa con un p<0,05(IC: 95% entre la mortalidad de la Artemia salina y la administración de apitoxina.Conclusión:El extracto acuoso de apitoxina presenta toxicidad a una concentración de 0.35 en el modelo de Artemia salina. Palabras Clave: Apitoxina, Artemia salina, Toxicidad

  3. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  4. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MHRL

    Water factory workers used a variety of water treatment methods to purify their products; hand-tied sachets generally used only cloth filters to purify the water, and often stored water in open containers. Conclusions: Improved quality of commercial water products would improve health in Sierra Leone. Keywords: Geographic ...

  5. Comparative study of lipid composition of two halotolerant alga, Dunaliella bardawil and Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitha, A; Narayan, M S; Murthy, K N C; Ravishankar, G A

    2007-08-01

    The composition of polar, neutral and glycolipid fractions of two halotolerant algae, Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil, which are exclusively used for the production of beta-carotene was determined in modified medium. In D. salina the glycolipid fraction accounted to 28%, in comparison with 40% of D. bardawil. However, in D. salina the polar lipid was 42% compared with D. bardawil at 24%. The glycolipid fraction of D. bardawil was rich in linolenic acid (81%). In both the species we could find elongation in the fatty acids from C(16) to C(20) to C(22) and the percentage was higher than the earlier reports (>3%). The polar lipid fraction was composed of (in descending order) phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidic ethanolamine, phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl glycerol and the neutral lipid fraction, which was rich in monoglycerides and diglycerides and diacylglycero-trimethylhomoserine.

  6. Analysis of an essential carotenogenic enzyme: ζ-carotene desaturase from unicellular Alga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi-Wei; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2010-11-10

    The green alga Dunaliella has become a valuable model organism for understanding the interesting mechanism of massive carotenoid accumulation. Previously, DNA sequences of several carotenogenic enzymes were obtained from Dunaliella. In this study, the cDNA of zds was isolated from Dunaliella salina using a polymerase chain reaction approach. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2178 base pairs (bp) containing a 1731 bp putative open reading frame which coded a 576 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose molecular weight was 63.9 kDa computationally. A complete homologous search displayed that the nucleotide and putative protein sequence have sequence identities of 69% and 66% with those of green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. It was predicted that this ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) may be located in the chloroplast of D. salina. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the D. salina Zds had a closer relationship with the Zds of algae and higher plants than with those of other species.

  7. La Poesía desconocida de Salinas, editada por Trevor Dadson

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Poeta del amor triste y desdichado, autor de magníficos sonetos que expresan, «a veces de forma paradójica, lo íntimo, lo indecible, lo inefable de una situación amorosa», esta era la visión que teníamos hasta ahora de Diego de Silva y Mendoza, conde de Salinas y marqués de Alenquer (1564-1630), a partir de la antología que preparó en 1985 Trevor Dadson, sin duda el mejor conocedor actual de la vida y la obra de Salinas. La Poesía desconocida del conde de Salinas que edita ahora el mismo cate...

  8. Posibles adiciones al corpus poético del Conde de Salinas

    OpenAIRE

    Dadson, T.J. (Trevor J.)

    1988-01-01

    Se agregan poemas del Conde de Salinas, Diego de Silva y Mendoza, que no se incluyeron en la Antología Poética, publicada por el autor del artículo en 1985. Se trata de la edición de tres sonetos, dos letrillas y unas redondillas incluídas como posibles (no hay seguridad de autoría al cien por cien) o probables adiciones al corpus poético del Conde de Salinas. Some poems by Diego de Silva y Mendoza, Count of Salinas, that were not included in the Antología Poética published by the author of t...

  9. Potential of New Isolates of Dunaliella Salina for Natural β-Carotene Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The halotolerant microalga Dunaliella salina has been widely studied for natural β-carotene production. This work shows biochemical characterization of three newly isolated Dunaliella salina strains, DF15, DF17, and DF40, compared with D. salina CCAP 19/30 and D. salina UTEX 2538 (also known as D. bardawil. Although all three new strains have been genetically characterized as Dunaliella salina strains, their ability to accumulate carotenoids and their capacity for photoprotection against high light stress are different. DF15 and UTEX 2538 reveal great potential for producing a large amount of β-carotene and maintained a high rate of photosynthesis under light of high intensity; however, DF17, DF40, and CCAP 19/30 showed increasing photoinhibition with increasing light intensity, and reduced contents of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene, suggesting that the capacity of photoprotection is dependent on the cellular content of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene. Strong positive correlations were found between the cellular content of all-trans β-carotene, 9-cis β-carotene, all-trans α-carotene and zeaxanthin but not lutein in the D. salina strains. Lutein was strongly correlated with respiration in photosynthetic cells and strongly related to photosynthesis, chlorophyll and respiration, suggesting an important and not hitherto identified role for lutein in coordinated control of the cellular functions of photosynthesis and respiration in response to changes in light conditions, which is broadly conserved in Dunaliella strains. Statistical analysis based on biochemical data revealed a different grouping strategy from the genetic classification of the strains. The significance of these data for strain selection for commercial carotenoid production is discussed.

  10. Effects of abiotic stressors on lutein production in the green microalga Dunaliella salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent years have witnessed a rising trend in exploring microalgae for valuable carotenoid products as the demand for lutein and many other carotenoids in global markets has increased significantly. In green microalgae lutein is a major carotenoid protecting cellular components from damage incurred by reactive oxygen species under stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of abiotic stressors on lutein accumulation in a strain of the marine microalga D. salina which had been selected for growth under stress conditions of combined blue and red lights by adaptive laboratory evolution. Results Nitrate concentration, salinity and light quality were selected as three representative influencing factors and their impact on lutein production in batch cultures of D. salina was evaluated using response surface analysis. D. salina was found to be more tolerant to hyper-osmotic stress than to hypo-osmotic stress which caused serious cell damage and death in a high proportion of cells while hyper-osmotic stress increased the average cell size of D. salina only slightly. Two models were developed to explain how lutein productivity depends on the stress factors and for predicting the optimal conditions for lutein productivity. Among the three stress variables for lutein production, stronger interactions were found between nitrate concentration and salinity than between light quality and the other two. The predicted optimal conditions for lutein production were close to the original conditions used for adaptive evolution of D. salina. This suggests that the conditions imposed during adaptive evolution may have selected for the growth optima arrived at. Conclusions This study shows that systematic evaluation of the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis can help to decipher the key parameters in obtaining high levels of lutein productivity in D. salina. This study may benefit future stress-driven adaptive

  11. Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Filho, Cláudio A A; Albuquerque, Lidiane P; Silva, Luanna R S; Silva, Patrícia C B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Albuquerque, Monica C P A; Melo, Ana Maria M A; Napoleão, Thiago H; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the effect of an aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. flowers on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults and on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The extract contains tannins, saponins, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The toxicity of the extract on Artemia salina larvae was also investigated to determine the safety of its use for schistosomiasis control. After incubation for 24h, the flower extract significantly (poleifera flower extract had deleterious effects on B. glabrata adults and embryos. However, unrestricted use to control schistosomiasis should be avoided due to the toxicity of this extract on A. salina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Salina: o ator etnógrafo na cena contemporânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Stelzer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto busca realizar uma análise crítica da peça Salina (2015 do Amok Teatro integrando a sua importância no contexto do teatro negro no Brasil. O Amok, desde sua inauguração, vem buscando trabalhar com as subjetividades de forma a valorizar um estudo etnográfico realizado e incorporado pelos atores ao vivenciar um encontro com outra cultura. No caso de Salina, trata-se de um encontro com a África e da valorização dos corpos dos atores negros em busca de sua identidade no teatro brasileiro.

  13. TÓXICIDAD DE LA APITOXINA EN UN MODELO DE Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Pérez Agudelo; Juan Felipe Salazar Espinosa; Jorge Hernán Hernández Guevara

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo:Determinar la toxicidad del extracto acuoso de Apitoxina mediante bioprospección en el modelo de Artemia salina. Materiales y métodos: Previo montaje de Biorreactor, un grupo fue expuesto al extracto acuoso de Apitoxina (n=20) y el grupo control fue expuesto a agua destilada (n=20) la toxicidad se definió por la muerte de la Artemia salina a las 24 horas de administración del extracto. Se realizó análisis estadístico no paramétrico mediante la prueba de Chi cuadrado de homogeneidad (...

  14. Comportamiento geoquimico de las formaciones salinas bajo el efecto de la temperatura y la irradiacion

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Müller, Carles de las; Miralles, L. (Luis).; Teixidor, P.; García Veigas, Francisco Javier; Pueyo Mur, Juan José

    1993-01-01

    La generación de defectos cristalinos y la migración de las fases fluidas (salmueras y gases), son los efectos más relevantes de la irradiación y la temperatura sobre una formación salina, susceptible de albergar un almacenamiento de residuos radiactivos. Para determinar dichos efectos se ha puesto a punto la metodología necesaria y se ha verificado sobre muestras salinas de la mina de Sallent (Barcelona). El contenido en agua oscila entre 0,04 y 1 %. Sin embargo, la cantidad de salmuera susc...

  15. Neutral lipid production in Dunaliella salina during osmotic stress and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Lu, Jingquan; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    The salt-tolerant green microalga Dunaliella salina can survive both hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock. Upon osmotic shock, the cells transiently and rapidly decreased or increased in size within minutes and slowly over hours acquired their original cell size and volume. Cell size distribution differs...... in salt concentration did not significantly influence the overall fatty acid composition in D. salina cells. Although there shows both increased amounts of total lipids and neutral lipids in the cells grown in salinity higher than 9 % NaCl, lipid productivity is however compromised by the slower cell...

  16. ROTURA INTENCIONAL DE ARTEFACTOS LÍTICOS FORMATIZADOS EN LA REGIÓN PAMPEANA BONAERENSE / Intentional Breakage of Stone Tools in the Pampean Region, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Weitzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo abordamos la rotura intencional de ciertos objetos y específicamente de los artefactos líticos formatizados por talla. En primer lugar, presentamos una breve caracterización de los distintos tipos de fractura intencional y de los atributos que permiten identificarlas, basada en la síntesis de diversas descripciones otorgadas por otros investigadores y de resultados experimentales propios. En segundo lugar, se reseñan algunas de las explicaciones dadas a la presencia de objetos con roturas intencionales en contextos arqueológicos. La presencia de objetos con rotura intencional fue interpretada como una práctica asociada a diferentes estrategias tecnológicas y también como evidencia de prácticas rituales, según los objetos sobre los que se realiza o el contexto de depositación. Finalmente, se presentan como ejemplo dos casos de estudio de la Región Pampeana bonaerense en los que se reconocieron artefactos líticos formatizados con roturas intencionales y se proponen interpretaciones para la presencia de esta práctica en estos sitios.   Palabras clave: Rotura intencional; Artefactos líticos formatizados; Decisiones tecnológicas; Prácticas rituales; Región Pampeana.   Abstract In this paper we deal with the intentional breakage of objects, more precisely with intentional breakage of flaked stone tools. In the first place we present a brief characterization of different types of intentional fractures on lithics and of those traits that allows their recognition. This characterization is based on a synthesis of the descriptions given by other researchers and our own experimental results. The deliberate breakage of objects has been given different explanations according to the specific contexts in which it was recognized and to the objects on which it was performed. It has been linked to different technological strategies and it has been also considered as evidence of ritual practices. Finally, we present two case

  17. Toxicity and trophic transfer of P25 TiO2 NPs from Dunaliella salina to Artemia salina: Effect of dietary and waterborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Thiagarajan, Vignesh; Nemade, Prateek; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    The recent increase in nanoparticle (P25 TiO2 NPs) usage has led to concerns regarding their potential implications on environment and human health. The food chain is the central pathway for nanoparticle transfer from lower to high trophic level organisms. The current study relies on the investigation of toxicity and trophic transfer potential of TiO2 NPs from marine algae Dunaliella salina to marine crustacean Artemia salina. Toxicity was measured in two different modes of exposure such as waterborne (exposure of TiO2 NPs to Artemia) and dietary exposure (NP-accumulated algal cells are used to feed the Artemia). The toxicity and accumulation of TiO2 NPs in marine algae D. salina were also studied. Artemia was found to be more sensitive to TiO2 NPs (48h LC50 of 4.21mgL-1) as compared to marine algae, D. salina (48h LC50 of 11.35mgL-1). The toxicity, uptake, and accumulation of TiO2 NPs were observed to be more in waterborne exposure as compared to dietary exposure. Waterborne exposure seemed to cause higher ROS production and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity as compared to dietary exposure of TiO2 NPs in Artemia. There were no observed biomagnification (BMF) and trophic transfer from algae to Artemia through dietary exposure. Histopathological studies confirmed the morphological and internal damages in Artemia. This study reiterates the possible effects of the different modes of exposure on trophic transfer potential of TiO2 NPs and eventually the consequences on aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  19. Establishing an enteric bacteria reference laboratory in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Kamara, Abdul; Rhodes, Fay; Kaffeta, Konneh; Jambai, Amara; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Islam, Mohammed Sirajul; Freeman, Molly M; Welfare, William; Harding, Doris; Samba, Ahmed F; Abu, Musu; Kamanda, Sylvester; Grant, Kathie; Jenkins, Claire; Nair, Satheesh; Connell, Steve; Siorvanes, Lisa; Desai, Sarika; Allen, Collette; Frost, Margaret; Hughes, Daniel; Jeffrey, Zonya; Gill, Noel; Salter, Mark

    2014-06-09

    In 2012, Sierra Leone experienced its worst cholera outbreak in over 15 years affecting 12 of the country's 13 districts. With limited diagnostic capability, particularly in bacterial culture, the cholera outbreak was initially confirmed by microbiological testing of clinical specimens outside of Sierra Leone. During 2012 - 2013, in direct response to the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities, and to assist in investigating and monitoring the cholera outbreak, diagnostic and reference services were established in Sierra Leone at the Central Public Health Reference Laboratory focusing specifically on isolating and identifying Vibrio cholerae and other enteric bacterial pathogens. Sierra Leone is now capable of confirming cholera cases by reference laboratory testing.

  20. Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Neogene sediments of the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo Basin, southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cabrera, Pedro Tomas

    2003-10-01

    Southeastern Mexico has been affected by regional and local tectonic events. Regional tectonic events are the Gulf of Mexico opening and the lateral movement of micro-plates on the Pacific margin. The local tectonic events are related to salt tectonics. Autochthonous Jurassic salt serves as the detachment level for the main compressional event in the late Miocene. Jurassic salt was allochthonously emplaced in the late Miocene, then partially displaced by a huge quantity of terrigenous sediments during the Plio-Pleistocene. This research is a study of the main geological processes that have influenced the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Neogene sediments in the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo basin known as the Marbella area. Owing to data availability, the project was divided into regional and local studies. The regional study is based on 2D multi-channel seismic reflection data, and the local study is based on a 3D seismic streamer survey. Structural analysis in the regional study permits the recognition of four buried fold belts (Agua Dulce, Catemaco, Marbella, and Marbella Norte) trending roughly NE. These fold belts are the result of tectonic convergence in the pacific margin during late Miocene. The Agua Dulce and Marbella Norte fold belts are separated by an enormous salt withdrawal basin called the Pescadores basin. The Pescadores basin is bounded on the north by a spectacular stepped, counter-regional structure. Beyond the Pescadores basin, a salt mini-basin area is recognized in the upper continental slope. Another important structural element is the Sal Somera canopy in the southern part of the study area. Sedimentation-rate analysis, based on isochore mapping in the local study area, indicates that from SB-2.4 to SB-2.6 Ma, deposition rate peaked with a maximum of 7.5 mm/yr. Regional and local structural restorations show that, in general, the maximum allochthonous salt mobilization was during the Plio-Pleistocene because of the

  1. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  2. Evaluation of the photodynamic activity of Xanthene Dyes on Artemia salina described by chemometric approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo S. Pellosi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of drugs for photodynamic therapy (PDT is an important area of research due to their growing use in medical applications. Therefore, it is important to develop new bioassay methods for PDT photosensitizers that are inexpensive, easy to handle and highly sensitive to environmental conditions. Xanthene dyes (fluorescein, rose bengal B, erythrosine B and eosin Y with LED light sources were investigated using Artemia salina as a bioindicator of photodynamic activity. In this study, three factors were investigated: (i photosensitizers concentration, (ii the LED irradiation time and (iii the waiting time between the addition of the photosensitizers and the beginning of the irradiation. To analyze the photo-killing of A. salina, it was employed a 23 full factorial design. The death of A. salina was related to dye structure and the interaction between the irradiation time and the photosensitizers concentration. About 60% of crustaceans death was obtained using rose bengal B, which presentes the highest quantum yield of singlet oxygen due to the number of iodide substituents in the xanthenes ring. The proposed bioassay using A. salina, xanthene dyes and LED irradiation was found suitable for quantitative PDT drug evaluation.

  3. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  4. Spatial scale and the diversity of benthic cyanobacteria and diatoms in a salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, U.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Kühl, Michael

    1999-01-01

    We characterized the richness of benthic cyanobacteria and diatoms in a salina system using traditional and molecular biological methods. After determining the different morphotypes and 16S rRNA genes present in various localities within this hypersaline system, an analysis of the increase...

  5. Selective extraction of carotenoids from microalga Dunadiella salina with retention of viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.A.; Lamarliere, de C.; Rocha, J.M.S.; Vermuë, M.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous production and selective extraction of -carotene from living cells of Dunaliella salina in a two-phase system of aqueous and organic phases has been investigated. Solvents with values of log Poctanol, which denotes hydrophobicity of a compound, ranging from 3 to 9 were used as organic

  6. Hemato-immunological responses of Heros severus fed diets supplemented with different levels of Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahi, M; Karamifar, M; Mesbah, M; Zarei, M

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the effects of oral administration of different levels of Dunaliella salina (a natural β-carotene source) on growth parameters, immunological and hematological indices, as well as skin carotenoids, of Heros severus were investigated. One hundred and eighty H. severus weighing 27 ± 0.5 g were divided randomly into four groups in triplicate (15 fish in each replicate). Groups 1-4 received food supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg kg⁻¹ D. salina powder, respectively. After 6 weeks, the growth parameters were compared among the groups. Blood samples were taken from each group, and hematological parameters including red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) and immunological indices (serum and mucus lysozyme and bactericidal activity, resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection) as well as carotenoid content of skin were evaluated. Results showed that some growth indices increased significantly in fish fed with 100 and 200 mg kg⁻¹ D. salina-supplemented food (P 0.05). Most of the hematological parameters such as WBC, RBC, PCV and Hb significantly increased in D. salina-treated fish compared with controls (P H. severus.

  7. Carotenoid and fatty acid metabolism in nitrogen-starved Dunaliella salina, a unicellular green microalga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, P.P.; Janssen, M.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Bino, R.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and light intensity affect ß-carotene overproduction in the green alga Dunaliella salina. Following a previous study on high-light stress, we here report on the effect of nitrogen depletion on the growth characteristics and ß-carotene as well as fatty acid metabolism of D.

  8. ANALYSIS OF EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS FROM THE GREEN ALGA DUNALIELLA SALINA (CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Cao, Yu; Xu, Hui; Lv, Linfeng; Qiao, Dairong; Cao, Yi

    2011-12-01

    The unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodor. is a novel model photosynthetic eukaryote for studying photosystems, high salinity acclimation, and carotenoid accumulation. In spite of such significance, there have been limited studies on the Dunaliella genome transcriptome and proteome. To further investigate D. salina, a cDNA library was constructed and sequenced. Here, we present the analysis of the 2,282 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated together with 3,990 ESTs from dbEST. A total of 4,148 unique sequences (UniSeqs) were identified, of which 56.1% had sequence similarity with Uniprot entries, suggesting that a large number of unique genes may be harbored by Dunaliella. Additionally, protein family domains were identified to further characterize these sequences. Then, we also compared EST sequences with different complete eukaryotic genomes from several animals, plants, and fungi. We observed notable differences between D. salina and other organisms. This EST collection and its annotation provided a significant resource for basic and applied research on D. salina and laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the transcriptome basis of green algae development and diversification. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Toxicity of carbon tetrachloride to Dunaliella salina, an environmentally tolerant alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2008-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), a water disinfection by-product, at low environmentally relevant concentrations exerts adverse effects on mammals. The unicellular microalga Dunaliella salina possessing a remarkable degree of environmental adaptation was selected as test organism to investigate low-level exposure to CCl(4). With incubation with less than 0.13% CCl(4), algae responses were similar to control as evidenced by cell growth and levels of beta-carotene, a marker of adaptation. The maximal concentration of CCl(4) that D. salina could tolerate was 0.2%. Algae incubated with more than 0.32% CCl(4) showed decreased growth and reduced beta-carotene levels, which were nondetected after a few days. However, after 98 d, D. salina seemed to revive as evidenced by growth and returned to the biomass similar to control in another 25 d. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to compare the genomic DNA difference between control and recovered cells. Polymorphic and repeatable RAPD bands indicated that chronic effects of CCl(4) to D. salina led generation of altered genomic DNA, which may enable the microalga to adapt to survival in an apparently toxic substance environment.

  10. Dichotomosiphon salina sp. nov. - a new marine algal form from Goa estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Jagtap, T.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    A new species Dichotomosiphon salina sp. of family Vaucheriaceae has been reported from brackish water areas of Goa. The high salinity tolerance of 40 ppt and the variation in size as well as shape of the reproductive organs are the main...

  11. Ecology of a heterotrichous ciliate Fabrea salina from salterns of Bombay Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, P.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.

    pattern in abundance of @iF salina@@, which appeared only during late post-monsoon and pre-monsoon and disappeared during the monsoon season Annual average density varied from 2.6 to 13.6 ml@u-1@@ Body size varied considerably from 100 to 780 ~km Maximum...

  12. Milking microalga Dunaliella salina for Beta-carotene production in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Holwerda, E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    A new method was developed for production of beta-carotene from Dunaliella salina. Cells were grown in low light intensity and then transferred to a production bioreactor illuminated at a higher light intensity. It was a two-phase bioreactor consisting of an aqueous and a biocompatible organic

  13. First report of plant-parasitic nematode Meloidoderita salina in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashrafi, S.; Helder, J.; Elsen, van den S.J.J.; Jansen, M.; Karssen, G.

    2014-01-01

    After the description of the root-parasitic nematode Meloidoderita salina from a tidal salt marsh in France (1), an additional sampling was carried out to search for the presence of this unusual nematode in a tidal salt marsh area close to Sint-Annaland, province Zeeland in the Netherlands. In

  14. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette M. Karchesy; Rick G. Kelsey; George Constantine; Joseph J. Karchesy

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 μg/ml) was found for 17 extracts from 13 species, with highest activity observed for Angelica arguta...

  15. Reconstruction of the microalga Nannochloropsis salina genome-scale metabolic model with applications to lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loira, Nicolás; Mendoza, Sebastian; Paz Cortés, María; Rojas, Natalia; Travisany, Dante; Genova, Alex Di; Gajardo, Natalia; Ehrenfeld, Nicole; Maass, Alejandro

    2017-07-04

    Nannochloropsis salina (= Eustigmatophyceae) is a marine microalga which has become a biotechnological target because of its high capacity to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids and triacylglycerols. It has been used as a source of biofuel, pigments and food supplements, like Omega 3. Only some Nannochloropsis species have been sequenced, but none of them benefit from a genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM), able to predict its metabolic capabilities. We present iNS934, the first GSMM for N. salina, including 2345 reactions, 934 genes and an exhaustive description of lipid and nitrogen metabolism. iNS934 has a 90% of accuracy when making simple growth/no-growth predictions and has a 15% error rate in predicting growth rates in different experimental conditions. Moreover, iNS934 allowed us to propose 82 different knockout strategies for strain optimization of triacylglycerols. iNS934 provides a powerful tool for metabolic improvement, allowing predictions and simulations of N. salina metabolism under different media and genetic conditions. It also provides a systemic view of N. salina metabolism, potentially guiding research and providing context to -omics data.

  16. Antioxidant activity of three microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana clone Tahiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowati, Ita; Zainuri, Muhammad; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermien; Susilowati, Ragil; Hardivillier, Yann; Leignel, Vincent; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Mouget, Jean-Luc

    2017-02-01

    Natural alternatives antioxidant source has become a trending topic in the past decades to replace synthetic antioxidant. Microalgae have been mentioned to show interesting bioactive properties and one of them is its antioxidant activity. This study aims to evaluate the potential of three microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbanaas new source of natural antioxidant. Proximate analysis and total phenolic content of D. salina, T. chuii and I. galbanas were determined. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of these three species prepared in different concentration (50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm) was performed through DPPH assay. I. galbana clone Tahiti demonstrated a highest antioxidant potential with 61.64 of inhibition at 50 ppm followed by D. salina with 58.45 % of inhibition and T. chuii with 52.58 % of inhibition. I. galbana clone Tahiti was the best antioxidant with total phenol content of 17.798 mg GAE g-1 extract at 50 ppm; followed by T. chuii 16.868 mg GAE g-1 extract and the lowest was D. salina with 4.672 mg GAE g-1 extract. Results suggest that these microalgae posses antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements, cosmetics or food industries.

  17. Salinas de interior en el territorio de la Región de Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gil Guirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La sal es un elemento necesario en la actividad de los grupos humanos. Para su captación y recolección se ha ordenado el territorio, con unos paisajes propios: las salinas. Podemos distinguir dos tipos: las salinas costeras y las salinas de interior. En estas últimas, su localización y explotación está ligada a la presencia de algún material salino que atraviesa el agua. En ellas se pueden distinguir tres áreas, la de captación del agua (generalmente pozos horizontales del tipo minado o galería; la de almacenaje (con balsas y recocederos dónde acumular y calentar; y finalmente la de cristalización (con parcelas más o menos aterrazadas conocidas como eras. A través del estudio combinado del trabajo de campo y la documentación de archivos, hemos podido localizar una veintena de salinas en el interior de la Región de Murcia; huella de una actividad económica y de una cultura del agua entre la variedad de paisajes surestinos.

  18. Alambradas en la sierra : un sistema agrario en Mexico : la sierra de Coalcoman

    OpenAIRE

    Cochet, Hubert

    1991-01-01

    Los relieves escarpados de la Sierra Madre del Sur, el clima tropical seco, la escasez de vías de comunicación y la ausencia casi total de tierras cultivables convierten al suroeste del estado de Michoacán en una tierra desprovista de ventajas notables y todavía poco poblada. Instalados en el corazón de la sierra desde tiempos muy remotos, estos campesinos indígenas habían sufrido la usurpación progresiva de sus tierras por los ganaderos venidos del norte, gente de piel más clara. Así, la inv...

  19. La unidad corporativa de la burguesía agropecuaria pampeana frente a los conflictos laborales: del clamor represivo al golpe de Estado. Argentina, 1964-1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Sanz Cerbino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el posicionamiento de las entidades corporativas de la burguesía agropecuaria pampeana en Argentina frente a los conflictos laborales desarrollados entre 1964 y 1966. Intenta poner en discusión las interpretaciones dominantes que resaltaron los enfrentamientos entre los pequeños productores y los grandes terratenientes, dejando de lado los momentos en los que ambos sectores confluyen. La investigación -que se asienta en el análisis de documentos producidos por las corporaciones estudiadas y prensa periódica de la época- demuestra que existe una unidad de intereses en la burguesía agropecuaria a la hora de enfrentar los reclamos de los peones rurales, observase una confluencia que culmina con el pedido de una intervención represiva del Estado en los conflictos. En tanto ese pedido no es asumido por el gobierno democrático en funciones, la burguesía agropecuaria termina apoyando el golpe de Estado consumado en 1966, que despliega una ofensiva represiva destinada a disciplinar al movimiento obrero y disuade, por primera vez en varios años, los conflictos laborales en el campo argentino.

  20. Sobre la homogeinización de la presión fiscal en la agricultura pampeana tras la devaluación.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ariel Fernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La década del ’90 marcó una fuerte aceleración del proceso de concentración económica de la producción agrícola pampeana, evolución que continuaría tras la devaluación de 2002. En la determinación del mismo convergen distintos factores: las economías de escala, el manejo cambiario, la evolución tecnológica (entre otros. En este trabajo se estudia uno de estos condicionantes: la política impositiva del Estado Nacional. Se analizan los tributos que gravan al agro y sus alícuotas, diferenciando según la escala y perfil tecnológico del productor, calculando un indicador de la presión fiscal (peso de los tributos sobre el ingreso bruto de la explotación. Se concluye que en el nuevo siglo se produjo una nivelación importante en cuanto a los montos impositivos requeridos por el Estado a los distintos tipos de agentes, lo que minimizó la posibilidad que tiene éste a partir de aquella herramienta de modelar una trama social más desconcentrada.

  1. Almanaques sí, relojes no. La prolongación de la jornada laboral en la agricultura pampeana, de la última dictadura al “boom” sojero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Villulla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los mecanismos económicos y dispositivos discursivos utilizados por las patronales para imponer la prolongación e intensificación de la jornada laboral en la agricultura pampeana, y sus consecuencias sobre las condiciones de trabajo de los obreros rurales luego de la década de 1970. La metodología incluyó la consulta de material bibliográfico especializado; fuentes documentales patronales (archivos de FACMA; sindicales (archivos de la CGT y UATRE; legislación laboral; libros de actas de negociaciones obrero-patronales (CNTA y CAR; material periodístico; y fundamentalmente un acervo testimonial recabado sobre una muestra de 50 obreros rurales y 20 empleadores en una serie de partidos arquetípicos del “boom” sojero de los últimos años en las provincias de Buenos Aires, Santa Fe y Córdoba. El resultado de nuestro análisis invita a incorporar como una de las condiciones de posibilidad para la expansión agrícola reciente al aumento de la explotación del trabajo asalariado

  2. [Accumulation and transformation of different arsenic species in nonaxenic Dunaliella salina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Wang, Shu; Shen, Lian-Yu; Ge, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Algae and bacteria are usually symbiotic in the environment. The algae-bacteria consortia have a good prospect in the remediation of polluted environment. In this study, we isolated a bacterium from nonaxenic Dunaliella salina and identified it as Bacillus solisalsi using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The uptake, adsorption and transformation of As by the nonaxenic D. salina and the concentration and speciation of As in the culture solution were determined after 13 days exposure to various concentrations of As(III) and As( V). The results showed that D. salina had a high As tolerance. When the algae was exposed to 250 micromol x L(-1) and 500 micromol x L(-1) arsenite, As accumulations were 3.78 g x kg(-1) and 4.56 g x kg(-1), respectively, but the As removal from the solution was 7.9% - 8.3%. B. solisalsi did not show a strong ability to clean up As either (6.1%-19.9% removal rate). The consortia of D. salina and B. solisalsi showed a higher As removal ability. Moreover, 0.99-2.79 g x kg(-1) and 1.22-3.46 g x kg(-1) As were absorbed when exposed to 25-100 micromol x L(-1) and 25-500 micromol x L(-1) As(III) and As(V), respectively. More than 54.3% of As were taken away by the consortia from the solution under the exposure of 25-100 micromol x L(-1) As(III) and As(V). Various pathways of As detoxification were identified for the nonaxenic D. salina: As(III) oxidation, As(V) reduction, As(III) methylation, and efflux of As from cells.

  3. Garcilaso de la Vega y Pedro Salinas: la voz a ti debida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escarpín Gual, Montserrat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the relationship between two Spanish writers: Garcilaso de la Vega and Pedro Salinas; or better, the influence of the former over the latter. This influence may be noticed in different levels: the use of literary genres (eclogues, elegies or collections of verse, the conception of love, the use of myths and topics, the music of verse, etc. Some characteristics of Salinas’s style come clearly from Garcilaso (the intimacy, simplicity, orality, the dialogue, the use of the present tense and the first person, etc.. Our essay studies the influence of Garcilaso on the book Largo lamento, 1937?, written by Salinas at the same time as an essay about the renaissance poet —in addition of other unpublished works and his personal correspondence—, in order to show the presence of Garcilaso in his mind and all of his production.El artículo muestra la relación entre dos escritores españoles: Garcilaso de la Vega y Pedro Salinas; o mejor, la influencia del primero sobre el segundo. Esta puede observarse en diferentes niveles: el uso de géneros literarios (églogas, elegías o cancioneros, la concepción del amor, el uso de mitos y tópicos, la música del verso, etc. Algunas características del estilo de Salinas proceden claramente de Garcilaso (el intimismo, la sencillez, la oralidad, el empleo del diálogo, el presente verbal, la primera persona, etc.. Nuestro ensayo estudia la incidencia de Garcilaso en el libro Largo lamento, 1937?, que Salinas escribió en paralelo a un ensayo sobre el poeta renacentista —además de otros trabajos inéditos y su correspondencia personal—, para mostrar la presencia de Garcilaso en su pensamiento y en su producción.

  4. RELATIONS, GENDER AND SEXUALITY AMONG RURAL YOUTH OF SALINAS DE HIDALGO, SAN LUIS POTOSÍ, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Tania Hernández-Guerrero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to reflect on the influence of traditional socio-cultural beliefs about sexuality and reproduction of rural youth in Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, and present the perceptions and practices of gender relations regarding sexuality and reproduction among rural adolescents Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí. The theoretical foundation is based on the Gender Perspective and Feminism. Qualitative methodology in-depth interviews and participatory observation. Fieldwork was conducted in Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosi in 2012 with young population, family, prosecutors and social worker.

  5. La columna, el circulo y sus variantes en la poesia primera de Pedro Salinas (The Vertical Line, the Circle, and other Geometric Varieties in the Early Poetry of Pedro Salinas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Armas, Jose R.

    1970-01-01

    Interprets Salinas' use of geometric figures for depicting concepts of time and infinity, and for portraying idealism and realism (the vertical line is idealism, perfection; the circle stands for reality and imperfection). (DS)

  6. Sexual violence in post-conflict Sierra Leone: Obstacles to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the high prevalence of sexual violence during the decade-long armed conflict in Sierra Leone has been investigated and reported on extensively, very little is known about the nature and extent of sexual violence during Sierra Leone's post-conflict transition. The purpose of this paper was to explore narratives ...

  7. Exchange rates, petroleum prices and price determination in Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the effects of monetary environment, exchange rate movement and petroleum prices on domestic prices in Sierra Leone by estimating a hybrid model of inflation. The empirical results showed that petroleum product prices, exchange rate as well as monetary factors determined inflation in Sierra Leone ...

  8. Sickle cell disease in Sierra Leone: a neglected problem | Roberts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... complicated by severe anemia and another with an adverse blood transfusion event. Conclusion: The clinical outcomes in this series highlight the need for a more comprehensive provision of care for SCD patients in Sierra Leone. Keywords: Sickle cell disease, Sierra Leone, survival, anaemia, haemoglobinopathy ...

  9. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: who are the decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to identify decision makers for FGM and determine whether medicalization takes place in Sierra Leone. Structured interviews were conducted with 310 randomly selected girls between 10 and 20 years in Bombali and Port Loko Districts in Northern Sierra Leone. The average age of the girls ...

  10. Assessing unmet anaesthesia need in Sierra Leone: a secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Anesthesiology (Rm 3C444), University of Utah Medical Center Salt Lake City, USA. 2. Department of Surgery, Connaught Hospital Freetown, Sierra Leone. 3. Department of Anæsthesiology Connaught Hospital Freetown, Sierra Leone. Abstract. Objectives: To determine the unmet anaesthesia need in a low ...

  11. Military Interventions in Sierra Leone: Lessons from a Failed State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    18 Child Soldiers ...................................................................... 20 Summary...a de­ cade of brutal civil wars, the use of child soldiers , and widespread atroci­ ties. Sierra Leone was labeled one of the classic examples of the...bizarre RUF ideology, then used as child soldiers to commit further atrocities. Life in Sierra Le­ one, already primitive, descended into an

  12. Reconstruction, Peacebuilding and Elections in Post-war Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article interrogates reconstruction, peacebuilding and elections in postwar Sierra Leone. It observes that while significant progress has been made, Sierra Leone's long-term stability remains questionable due to a number of issues, including poor socioeconomic growth, the increasing political exclusion of women, ...

  13. Research Brief: Impacts of Extreme Fires in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Long

    2014-01-01

    Scientists from PSW considered the effects of severe wildfire in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range in a recent synthesis that focused on promoting resiliency of forests and the societies connected to them. Fire is indispensable to maintaining the health and productivity of most forests in the Sierra Nevada, and fires can also rejuvenate aquatic systems by...

  14. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research (SLJBR) is a peer review Journal published by the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown. The Journal is conceived to allow healthcare professionals and researchers express their views and also communicate ...

  15. Reseña geomorfológica de las sierras pampeanas de Tucumán y Catamarca: sector comprendido entre los paralelos 26° y 28°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce travail sont traités quelques aspects géomorphologiques d'un secteur du Nord-Ouest argentin en tant que contribution à la géographie régionale des milieux naturels. Les principales formes du relief sont étudiées en centrant l'attention sur la morphogénèse actuelle d'une vaste région semi-aride mais d'une grande importance pour le futur développement de la République Argentine. En este trabajo se estudian algunos aspectos geomorfológicos de un sector del noroeste argentino como una contribución a la geografía regional de los ambientes naturales. Se hace referencia a las principales formas del relieve, enfocando más hacia la morfogénesis actual de una amplia región semiárida, pero de gran importancia para el desarrollo futuro de la República Argentina.

  16. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castilla Casadiego, D A; Albis Arrieta, A R; Angulo Mercado, E R; Cervera Cahuana, S J; Baquero Noriega, K S; Suárez Escobar, A F; Morales Avendaño, E D

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media...

  17. en la sierra de la Culebra (Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ramos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La Sierra de la Culebra se presenta como un espacio de profundas transformaciones en su fi sonomía vegetal a lo largo de una prolongada evolución temporal. El agente causante de estos cambios ha sido el ser humano, que, de manera directa o indirecta, ha eliminado las especies forestales, o facilitado la sustitución de unas especies forestales por otras, creando así un medio de alta estabilidad de la vegetación. Se estudia aquí el resultado de esta dinámica de la vegetación en dos momentos signifi cativos de la evolución, el siglo XVIII y el siglo XX. En la primera fecha nos encontramos con un paisaje vegetal ya ampliamente modelado por el hombre, con un predominio de los matorrales de brezo, a través de la implantación de una determinada estructura económica. Mientras que en la segunda mitad del siglo XX serán agentes externos al espacio serrano los que fuerzan una nueva dinámica, a partir de la introducción de nuevas especies forestales, las coníferas, hasta ese momento ajenas al devenir histórico de la Sierra. Esta nueva orientación que se da al espacio de la Sierra está en relación con una estructura económica distinta a la que tradicionalmente se había puesto en práctica en la zona.

  18. The influence of photoperiod and light intensity on the growth and photosynthesis of Dunaliella salina (chlorophyta) CCAP 19/30

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yanan; Ibrahim, Iskander M.; Harvey, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    The green microalga Dunaliella salina survives in a wide range of salinities via mechanisms involving glycerol synthesis and degradation and is exploited for large amounts of nutraceutical carotenoids produced under stressed conditions. In this study, D. salina CCAP 19/30 was cultured in varying photoperiods and light intensities to study the relationship of light with different growth measurement parameters, with cellular contents of glycerol, starch and carotenoids, and with photosynthesis ...

  19. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  20. Mapping of depositional and non-depositional areas in Salinas, California streams with concurrent pyrethroid and benthic macroinvertebrate assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D

    2013-01-01

    This study used sediment mapping to determine the spatial extent of depositional and non-depositional areas in the wetted stream bed of four urban streams in Salinas, California. After the stream mapping was completed, 8 pyrethroids were analytically measured from randomly selected sites in 12 depositional and 12 non-depositional areas in the four Salinas streams. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected and identified from depositional and non-depositional areas where pyrethroids were measured. In addition, physical habitat was also evaluated at each site where benthic communities were collected. Based on a random sampling design, 24 % of the 96 sediment sampling sites in the Salinas streams were classified as predominately depositional areas. Mean total pyrethroid concentrations were approximately 2× to 61× times higher in depositional areas of the Salinas streams when compared to non-depositional areas. Physical habitat scores from the 12 depositional and 12 non-depositional areas in the Salinas stream sites were extremely low compared with other California streams thus demonstrating that impaired physical habitat is a critical stressor in these streams. Approximately 6,300 individual macroinvertebrates were picked and identified from 70 taxa from the 24 Salinas stream sites. The most dominant taxa collected were all considered tolerant of environmental stressors and dominant taxa from both depositional and non-deposition areas were similar. Ten different benthic metrics for the Salinas streams were similar for the depositional areas, where pyrethroid concentrations consistently exceeded laboratory based toxicity thresholds, and non-depositional areas where pyrethroid concentrations were much lower. These results suggest that factors other than pyrethroids are responsible for impacting resident benthic communities in these urban Salinas streams.

  1. Diversidad y distribución de acridios (Orthoptera: Acridoidea en pastizales del sur de la región pampeana, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Mariottini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los acridios son componentes nativos de los pastizales, dichos sistemas han sido modificados debido a la intensificación de las actividades agrícola-ganaderas y por lo tanto se considera importante estudiar las comunidades de acridios asociadas. Se estudió la diversidad y distribución de acridios en el Sur de la región pampeana a través de muestreos realizados en las comunidades vegetales más representativas del partido de Laprida, provincia de Buenos Aires, durante cinco temporadas (2005-2010. Se recolectaron 22 especies. La subfamilia Melanoplinae fue la más diversa (ocho especies. La mayor cantidad de especies se observó en los pastizales nativos (18. La diversidad en los pastizales alterados (1.75±0.096 fue superior (p<0.05 a la de los pastizales halófilos (1.34±0.12. La riqueza de plantas en los pastizales nativos y los pastizales alterados fue superior (p<0.05 a la de las demás comunidades. Se registro una relación positiva entre la riqueza de plantas y las variables riqueza y diversidad de acridios. La similitud entre las comunidades de acridios estimada por los índices cualitativos fue superior al 60%. En general, las especies que tuvieron una mayor frecuencia de aparición, mostraron una mayor abundancia y distribución. Covasacris pallidinota, Dichroplus elongatus, D. maculipennis, Borellia bruneri y B. pallida fueron las de mayor distribución, cinco especies tuvieron una distribución intermedia y la mayoría (12 una distribución restringida.

  2. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract.

  3. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kyu Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  4. High-pH-induced flocculation-flotation of the hypersaline microalga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Alexandre; Guiraud, Pascal

    2013-11-01

    Natural autoflocculation was not observed in a Dunaliella salina hypersaline culture and the microalgae did not float without destabilization of the algal suspension. High-pH-induced flocculation by sodium hydroxide addition was chosen to induce flotation. Recovery efficiencies greater than 90% and concentration factors of around 20 were reached. An autoflocculation mechanism, with precipitation of magnesium hydroxide, is proposed to explain a sweeping flotation of D. salina cells. The influence of the flow rate of sodium hydroxide addition was also studied to anticipate the constraints related to the industrialization of this process. The flow rate of sodium hydroxide addition had no effect on the recovery efficiency and reduced the concentration factor only for abrupt injections. Natural increase of culture pH by photosynthetic activity could reduce the amount of base consumed. Non-harvested cells remained viable during pH increase and could be used as inoculum for a new culture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folgar, S. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Torres, E., E-mail: torres@udc.es [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l{sup -1}) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  6. Use of conditioned medium for efficient transformation and cost-effective cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Shin, Sung-Eun; Jeon, Seungjib; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-04-01

    The oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis sp. has been spotlighted as a promising candidate in genetic engineering research for biodiesel production. However, one of the major bottlenecks in the genetic manipulation against Nannochloropsis sp. is low transformation efficiency. Based on the idea that they grow rapidly in broth culture, the effect of conditioned medium on colonization and transformation efficiency of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. Cells grown on agar plates with 20-40% conditioned medium produced colonies that were approximately 2.3-fold larger than cells grown without conditioned medium. More importantly, the transformation efficiency was about 2-fold greater on plates with 30% conditioned medium relative to those without conditioned medium. In addition, FAME productivity in liquid cultures with 100% conditioned medium increased up to 20% compared with cultures of control medium. These results suggest that conditioned medium can be applied for efficient transformation and cost-effective cultivation of N. salina for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Choi, Gang-Guk; Kim, Eun Kyung; Shin, Sung-Eun; Jeon, Seungjib; Park, Min S; Jeong, Ki Jun; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool; Chang, Yong Keun; Yang, Ji-Won; Lee, Bongsoo

    2015-12-01

    Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA) PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  8. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the reserve. We observed a richness of 261 birds species, the family Tyrannidae is the best represented. Of the species recorded, 177 are permanent residents (31 are endemic and 15 are quasi-endemics to Mexico and 73 are migratory; the remaining eleven records have other status. Also 43 species are in endangered categories. We include species that have not been recorded in the lists of the area and records of species expand their ranges at Nayarit. Due to the great diversity of birds observed, it is necesary to continue the research work about habitat use, abundance and monitoring, it will provides the basis for the conservation of birds of Sierra de Vallejo.

  9. A Novel Aeration Method for the Preparation of Algae (Dunaliella Salina) Biomass for Biofuel Production.

    OpenAIRE

    U.O. Enwereuzoh; G. N. Onyeagoro

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of algae (Dunaliela Salina) biomass in ammonia (NH4 + ) and nitrate (NO3 - ) growth media for biofuel production was investigated, with special attention on the elimination of inhibitory oxygen that adversely affects algae growth. A novel aeration method based on high and efficient transfer of carbon dioxide (CO2) required to stabilize the CO2 of the algae growth medium in a short time was adopted for the elimination of the inhibitory oxygen. The novel aeration method was found...

  10. Toxicity, uptake, and accumulation of nano and bulk cerium oxide particles in Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugantharaj David, Einstein Mariya David; Madurantakam Royam, Madhav; Rajamani Sekar, Suresh Kumar; Manivannan, Bhuvaneshwari; Jalaja Soman, Swathy; Mukherjee, Amitava; Natarajan, Chandrasekaran

    2017-11-01

    Although the toxicological impact of metal oxide nanoparticles has been studied for the last few decades on aquatic organisms, the exact mechanism of action is still unclear. The fate, behavior, and biological activity of nanoparticles are dependent on physicochemical factors like size, shape, surface area, and stability in the medium. This study deals with the effect of nano and bulk CeO 2 particles on marine microcrustacean, Artemia salina. The primary size was found to be 15 ± 3.5 and 582 ± 50 nm for nano and bulk CeO 2 (TEM), respectively. The colloidal stability and sedimentation assays showed rapid aggregation of bulk particles in seawater. Both the sizes of CeO 2 particles inhibited the hatching rate of brine shrimp cyst. Nano CeO 2 was found to be more toxic to A. salina (48 h LC 50 38.0 mg/L) when compared to bulk CeO 2 (48 h LC 50 92.2 mg/L). Nano CeO 2 -treated A. salina showed higher oxidative stress (ROS) than those treated with the bulk form. The reduction in the antioxidant activity indicated an increase in oxidative stress in the cells. Higher acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) was observed upon exposure to nano and bulk CeO 2 particles. The uptake and accumulation of CeO 2 particles were increased with respect to the concentration and particle size. Thus, the above results revealed that nano CeO 2 was more lethal to A. salina as compared to bulk particles.

  11. Market allocation of agricultural water resources in the Salinas River Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Neagley, John P.; O'Brien, Robert T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The current drought conditions that the Central California coast has been facing and the increasing threat of saltwater intrusion have forced the Salinas Valley to consider alternatives that provide for conserving and allocating limited groundwater resources. Currently, groundwater resources are treated as a common pool resource where there are no clearly defined property rights for groundwater and there is no regulation of use. This ...

  12. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S

    2003-08-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  13. Chemical constituents and lethality of Paullinia weinmanniaefolia (Sapindaceae against Artemia salina Leach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella. P. Claudino

    Full Text Available The extracts obtained from leaves and steam of Paullinia weinmmaniaefolia were tested against Artemia salina larvae and showed significant lethality. The extracts in dichloromethane of the leaves, in methanol and methanol-water (8:2 of the steam showed activity with LC50 values of 366.87, 375.38 and 620.30 ppm, respectively. Seven triterpenes, two steroids and one cyclitol were characterized by spectrometric methods with majoritary constituents of these extracts.

  14. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Saqib S; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang; Hoffmann, Jessica; Spangsmark, Dorte; Madsen, Linda B; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rosendahl, Lasse A

    2013-03-01

    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220–375 °C, 20–255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC–MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained on N. salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For S. platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for N. salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heterotrophic cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina for enhancing biomass and lipid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapandi Marudhupandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used to enhance the biomass and lipid content in Nannochloropsis salina due to its economic importance. Preliminary screening results revealed that the heterotrophically cultivated N. salina with various carbon and nitrogen sources yielded higher biomass (0.91 ± 0.0035 g/L and lipid content (37.1 ± 0.49 mg/L than that of the photoautotrophical cultivation (0.21 ± 0.009 g/L and 22.16 ± 0.27 mg/L. Significant sources that greatly influenced on biomass and lipid content of the alga were optimized through RSM. The medium consisting of glucose (7.959 g/L, sodium acetate (1.46 g/L, peptone (7.6 g/L and sodium thiosulphate (1.05 g/L was found to be the optimal concentration for heterotrophic cultivation by response optimizer. Confirmation experiment results for the RSM optimized concentration yielded the biomass of 1.85 g/L and total lipid content of 48.6 mg/L. In this study, we provide with a strategy for enhancing the biomass and lipid content in N. salina.

  16. Heterotrophic cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina for enhancing biomass and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marudhupandi, Thangapandi; Sathishkumar, Ramamoorthy; Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith

    2016-06-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to enhance the biomass and lipid content in Nannochloropsis salina due to its economic importance. Preliminary screening results revealed that the heterotrophically cultivated N. salina with various carbon and nitrogen sources yielded higher biomass (0.91 ± 0.0035 g/L) and lipid content (37.1 ± 0.49 mg/L) than that of the photoautotrophical cultivation (0.21 ± 0.009 g/L and 22.16 ± 0.27 mg/L). Significant sources that greatly influenced on biomass and lipid content of the alga were optimized through RSM. The medium consisting of glucose (7.959 g/L), sodium acetate (1.46 g/L), peptone (7.6 g/L) and sodium thiosulphate (1.05 g/L) was found to be the optimal concentration for heterotrophic cultivation by response optimizer. Confirmation experiment results for the RSM optimized concentration yielded the biomass of 1.85 g/L and total lipid content of 48.6 mg/L. In this study, we provide with a strategy for enhancing the biomass and lipid content in N. salina.

  17. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Dunaliella (Chlorophyta) from Indian salinas and their diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Dunaliella (Class – Chlorophyceae) is widely studied for its tolerance to extreme habitat conditions, physiological aspects and many biotechnological applications, such as a source of carotenoids and many other bioactive compounds. Biochemical and molecular characterization is very much essential to fully explore the properties and possibilities of the new isolates of Dunaliella. In India, hyper saline lakes and salt pans were reported to bloom with Dunaliella spp. However, except for the economically important D. salina, other species are rarely characterized taxonomically from India. Present study was conducted to describe Dunaliella strains from Indian salinas using a combined morphological, physiological and molecular approach with an aim to have a better understanding on the taxonomy and diversity of this genus from India. Results Comparative phenotypic and genetic studies revealed high level of diversity within the Indian Dunaliella isolates. Species level identification using morphological characteristics clearly delineated two strains of D. salina with considerable β-carotene content (>20 pg/cell). The variation in 18S rRNA gene size, amplified with MA1-MA2 primers, ranged between ~1800 and ~2650 base pairs, and together with the phylogeny based on ITS gene sequence provided a pattern, forming five different groups within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Superficial congruency was observed between ITS and rbcL gene phylogenetic trees with consistent formation of major clades separating Indian isolates into two distinct clusters, one with D. salina and allied strains, and another one with D. viridis and allied strains. Further in both the trees, few isolates showed high level of genetic divergence than reported previously for Dunaliella spp. This indicates the scope of more numbers of clearly defined/unidentified species/sub-species within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Conclusion Present work illustrates Indian Dunaliella strains

  18. Interaction of an Introduced Predator with Future Effects of Climate Change in the Recruitment Dynamics of the Imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog (Rana sierrae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Lacan; Kathleen R. Matthews; K.V. Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Between-year variation in snowpack (from 20 to 200% of average) and summer rainfall cause large fluctuations in volume of small lakes in the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada, which are important habitat for the imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog, Rana sierrae. Climate change (global warming) is predicted to increase these...

  19. Population size, survival, growth, and movements of Rana sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Halstead, Brian J.; Link, William

    2013-01-01

    Based on 2431 captures of 757 individual frogs over a 9-yr period, we found that the population of R. sierrae in one meadow–stream complex in Yosemite National Park ranged from an estimated 45 to 115 adult frogs. Rana sierrae at our relatively low elevation site (2200 m) grew at a fast rate (K = 0.73–0.78), had high overwintering survival rates (44.6–95%), lived a long time (up to 16 yr), and tended to be fairly sedentary during the summer (100% minimum convex polygon annual home ranges of 139 m2) but had low year-to-year site fidelity. Even though the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) has been present in the population for at least 13 yr, there was no clear downward trend as might be expected from reports of R. sierrae population declines associated with Bd or from reports of widespread population decline of R. sierrae throughout its range.

  20. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. M. Lamin

    Human Rights Watch. 2003). Serious countrywide interventions against HIV commenced ..... August 2008, Mexico City, Mexico. NAS/MOHS. 2002. “HIV/AIDS. SEROPREVALENCE AND BEHAVIORAL RISK. FACTOR SURVEY IN SIERRA LEONE, ...

  1. Adhesive joint and composites modeling in SIERRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Brown, Arthur A.; Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Chambers, Robert S.; Foulk, James W., III (.,; )

    2005-11-01

    Polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites play an important role in many Defense Program applications. Recently an advanced nonlinear viscoelastic model for polymers has been developed and incorporated into ADAGIO, Sandia's SIERRA-based quasi-static analysis code. Standard linear elastic shell and continuum models for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites have also been added to ADAGIO. This report details the use of these models for advanced adhesive joint and composites simulations carried out as part of an Advanced Simulation and Computing Advanced Deployment (ASC AD) project. More specifically, the thermo-mechanical response of an adhesive joint when loaded during repeated thermal cycling is simulated, the response of some composite rings under internal pressurization is calculated, and the performance of a composite container subjected to internal pressurization, thermal loading, and distributed mechanical loading is determined. Finally, general comparisons between the continuum and shell element approaches for modeling composites using ADAGIO are given.

  2. Functional Requirements for SIERRA Version 1.0 Beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDWARDS, HAROLD C.; STEWART, JAMES R.; TAYLOR, LEE M.

    1999-10-01

    The objective of the SIERRA framework is to provide a common software infrastructure for massively parallel computational mechanics applications. The SIERRA framework consolidates the mechanics-independent computational services required by a diverse set of mechanics applications into a shared framework. Consolidation of these computational services eliminates their redundant development and maintenance efforts and streamlines the coupling of independently developed computational mechanics capabilities into integrated multi-mechanics applications.

  3. Sierra Structural Dynamics User's Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  4. Preliminary flora of the Sierra Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; George M. Ferguson; George Yatskievych; Beatriz E. Loyola-Reina; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; John L. Anderson; Stephen F. Hale; Sky Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra Bacadéhuachi in east-central Sonora is the westernmost mountain range in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), located east of Bacadéhuachi, Municipio de Bacadéhuachi, 34 km east of the Chihuahua border, and 165 km south of the Arizona border. The vegetation ranges from lowland foothills thornscrub up through desert grassland to oak woodland and pine-oak forest...

  5. Changes in ultrastructure and responses of antioxidant systems of algae (Dunaliella salina) during acclimation to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiyuan; Yu, Juan

    2009-12-02

    Because of depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, levels of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm), which penetrates the water column to an ecologically-significant depth, are increasing. In order to assess changes in ultrastructure and responses of antioxidant systems of algae during acclimation to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation, Dunaliella salina was treated with higher dose of UV-B radiation (13.2 kJm(-2) d(-1) dose) in this study. As compared to the control panel (8.8 kJm(-2) d(-1)), the treatment D. salina had many changes in ultrastructures: (1) thylakoids became swelled, and some of them penetrated into the pyrenoid; (2) lipid globules accumulated; (3) the amounts of starch grains increased; (4) cristae of mitochondria disintegrated; (5) inclusions in vacuoles reduced; and (6) cisternae of Golgi dictyosomes became loose and swollen. Enhanced UV-B irradiation also induced different responses of the antioxidant systems in D. salina: (1) contents of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reacting substance) and H(2)O(2) increased significantly (p0.05). In addition, growth curve displayed that enhanced UV-B radiation prominently inhibited increase of cell concentration when compared with control panel (p<0.05). Our results indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation caused ultrastructural changes of D. salina and induced different responses of antioxidant systems in D. salina.

  6. Cloning and genomic nucleotide sequence of the matrix attachment region binding protein from the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Ju; Wang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Yang, Rui; Li, Zhao-Xi

    2013-07-01

    In our previous study, the sequence of a matrix attachment region binding protein (MBP) cDNA was cloned from the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina. However, the nucleotide sequence of this gene has not been reported so far. In this paper, the nucleotide sequence of MBP was cloned and characterized, and its gene copy number was determined. The MBP nucleotide sequence is 5641 bp long, and interrupted by 12 introns ranging from 132 to 562 bp. All the introns in the D. salina MBP gene have orthodox splice sites, exhibiting GT at the 5' end and AG at the 3' end. Southern blot analysis showed that MBP only has one copy in the D. salina genome. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. DsHsp90 is involved in the early response of Dunaliella salina to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Jia; Wu, Ming-Jie; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Jiang, Yan; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein homeostasis of the eukaryotic cells. By interacting with various client proteins, Hsp90 is involved in diverse physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell mobility, heat shock response and osmotic stress response. In this research, we cloned the dshsp90 gene encoding a polypeptide composed of 696 amino acids from the halotolerant unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. Sequence alignment indicated that DsHsp90 belonged to the cytosolic Hsp90A family. Further biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant protein revealed that DsHsp90 possessed ATPase activity and existed as a dimer with similar percentages of secondary structures to those well-studied Hsp90As. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned genomic DNA fragment indicated that dshsp90 contained 21 exons interrupted by 20 introns, which is much more complicated than the other plant hsp90 genes. The promoter region of dshsp90 contained putative cis-acting stress responsive elements and binding sites of transcriptional factors that respond to heat shock and salt stress. Further experimental research confirmed that dshsp90 was upregulated quickly by heat and salt shock in the D. salina cells. These findings suggested that dshsp90 might serve as a component of the early response system of the D. salina cells against environmental stresses.

  8. DsHsp90 Is Involved in the Early Response of Dunaliella salina to Environmental Stress†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Jia; Wu, Ming-Jie; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Jiang, Yan; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein homeostasis of the eukaryotic cells. By interacting with various client proteins, Hsp90 is involved in diverse physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell mobility, heat shock response and osmotic stress response. In this research, we cloned the dshsp90 gene encoding a polypeptide composed of 696 amino acids from the halotolerant unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. Sequence alignment indicated that DsHsp90 belonged to the cytosolic Hsp90A family. Further biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant protein revealed that DsHsp90 possessed ATPase activity and existed as a dimer with similar percentages of secondary structures to those well-studied Hsp90As. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned genomic DNA fragment indicated that dshsp90 contained 21 exons interrupted by 20 introns, which is much more complicated than the other plant hsp90 genes. The promoter region of dshsp90 contained putative cis-acting stress responsive elements and binding sites of transcriptional factors that respond to heat shock and salt stress. Further experimental research confirmed that dshsp90 was upregulated quickly by heat and salt shock in the D. salina cells. These findings suggested that dshsp90 might serve as a component of the early response system of the D. salina cells against environmental stresses. PMID:22942684

  9. LIPID PRODUCTION BY DUNALIELLA SALINA IN BATCH CULTURE: EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LIMITATION AND LIGHT INTENSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldy, C.S.; Huesemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and may cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2°C to 4°C increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970s but large scale production has remained economically infeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential of the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequent biodiesel production. The lipid production rates under high light and low light as well as nitrogen suffi cient and nitrogen defi cient culture conditions were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  10. Contaminant studies in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Several species of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are experiencing severe population declines in even seemingly pristine areas of the Sierra Mountains of California. Among the most severely depressed species are the redlegged frog, the foothill and mountain yellow-legged frogs, the Yosemite toad, and the Cascades frog. Several factors, such as habitat fragmentation, introduced predators (especially fish), and disease, have been linked to these declines. But recent evidence from a USGS-led study shows that contaminants are a primary factor. During the past three years, researchers from the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, the Western Ecology Research Center, the USDA Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, and the Texas A&M University have teamed up to conduct an extensive study on airborne pesticides and their effects on amphibian populations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Previous work on environmental chemistry demonstrated that pesticides from the intensely agricultural Central Valley of California are being blown into the more pristine Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially around Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks. Several pesticides, including diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion and endosulfan, can be measured in snow, rainfall, and pond waters in these national parks. With the exception of endosulfan, these pesticides affect and even kill both invertebrates and vertebrate species by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme essential to proper nervous system functioning. In the summer of 2001, we published a paper showing that these same pesticides are now found in adults and the tadpoles of Pacific treefrogs. The results of this landmark study showed that more than 50 percent of the tadpoles and adults sampled in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks had detectable levels of diazinon or chlorpyrifos and that 86 percent of the Pacific treefrogs sampled in the Lake Tahoe region had detectable levels of endosulfan. In contrast, frogs that were

  11. Energy-producing electro-flocculation for harvest of Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Meng; Lv, Tao; Chen, Hongjun; Chika, Anthony Okonkwo; Xiang, Changli; Guo, Minxue; Wu, Minghui; Li, Jianjun; Jia, Lishan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, an efficient electro-flocculation process for Dunaliella salina with energy production by aluminum-air battery has been successfully applied. The formed aluminum hydroxide hydrates during discharging of battery were positively charged, which have a great potential for microalgae flocculation. The precipitation of aluminum hydroxide hydrates by algae also could improve the performance of aluminum-air battery. The harvesting efficiency could reach 97% in 20mins with energy production of 0.11kWh/kg. This discharging electro-flocculation (DEF) technology provides a new energy producing process to effectively harvest microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilidad del NDVI para la discriminación de fases salinas en parcelas con cebada

    OpenAIRE

    Casterad Seral, María Auxiliadora; Portero Callejero, Clara Isabel; Berkane, Yacine; Urdánoz Melado, Vicente; Albizua, L; Amézketa Lizárraga, Esperanza; Barinagarrementeria, I.

    2011-01-01

    En los suelos de la cuenca media del Ebro con problemas de salinidad edáfica predominan los cereales de invierno, principalmente la cebada, cultivo tolerante a sequía y salinidad. En este trabajo se estudia la utilidad del NDVI derivado de imágenes Landsat para discriminar fases salinas del suelo en parcelas de cebada, como posible herramienta para identificación y vigilancia de la salinidad edáfica. En nueve parcelas de cebada de Huesca y Navarra con diferente grado de afección p...

  13. Monitoramento dos extratos brutos de espécies de Polygala (Polygalaceae utilizando Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.P. Montanher

    Full Text Available Extratos de duas espécies de Polygala foram submetidos a um biomonitoramento utilizando o teste de toxicidade frente a Artemia salina, com a finalidade de detectar atividade citotóxica. Os resultados obtidos para o extrato bruto, frações hexânica e diclorometano de Polygala sabulosa Aw. Benn. mostraram-se promissores. No entanto, bioensaios mais específicos devem ser encorajados nos extratos vegetais que apresentam atividade diante deste bioensaio, a fim de confirmar estas conclusões.

  14. Etude éco-biologique d' Artémia salina des zones humides de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'Artémie (Artémia salina) est une espèce de crustacé vivant dans les lacs salés, les chotts et les marais salants .Elle est en abondance dans les salines de l'ouest Algérien. Ce genre de crustacé est très demandé dans le domaine d'exploitation des ressources hydriques et en aquaculture. Dans le présent travail on a ...

  15. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI TOKSISITAS EKSTRAK ETANOL SPONS Hyrtios erecta TERHADAP LARVA UDANG Artemia salina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr. Anisa Hernindya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Spons merupakan biota laut paling dominan dalam filum Porifera yang memiliki potensi biologis sebagai antikanker. Telah dilakukan identifikasi dan uji toksisitas pada ekstrak etanol Spons H. erecta menggunakan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT dengan bioindikator larva udang Artemia salina Leach. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat toksisitas ekstrak etanol Spons H. erecta sebagai antikanker. Partisi dari 10,8 gram ekstrak etanol menggunakan n-heksan, kloroform, dan air kemudian diuapkan menghasilkan ekstrak n-heksan sebanyak 3,13 gram, ekstrak kloroform sebanyak 1,63 gram, dan ekstrak air sebanyak 9,25 gram. Hasil uji toksisitas menunjukkan ekstrak n-heksan memiliki toksisitas paling tinggi dengan nilai LC50 316,22 ppm. Selanjutnya  dilakukan pemisahan dan pemurnian dengan kromatografi  kolom menggunakan eluen n-heksan: kloroform (2:8 sehingga menghasilkan empat fraksi yaitu FA, FB, FC, dan FD. Uji toksisitas pada semua fraksi menunjukkan bahwa fraksi C (FC adalah yang paling toksik dengan LC50 50,11 ppm dan berdasarkan uji fitokimia diduga merupakan gabungan senyawa alkaloid, steroid dan polifeniol.   Kata  kunci:  Spons Hyrtios erecta, uji toksisitas, Artemia  salina  Leach.             ABSTRACT: Sponges are the most dominant marine life in the phylum Porifera which have biological activities as anticancer. Identification and the toxicity test of ethanol extract of H. erecta sponges using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test ( BSLT with bio-indicators of Artemia salina Leach has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of toxicity of the ethanol extract of H. erecta sponges as anticancer. Partition of 10,8 grams of ethanol extract using n-hexane, chloroform, and water followed by evaporation leaved n-hexane extracts, chloroform extract, and water extract of 3,13 grams, 1,63 grams, and 9,25 grams, respectively. The results of toxicity tests showed that n-hexane extract has

  16. Effects of elevated pCO2 on physiological performance of marine microalgae Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shunxin; Wang, You; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Yongsheng; Jiang, Ming; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of elevated pCO2 on growth, photosynthesis, dark respiration and inorganic carbon acquisition in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina. To accomplish this, D. salina was incubated in semi-continuous cultures under present-day CO2 levels (390 μatm, pHNBS: 8.10), predicted year 2100 CO2 levels (1 000 μatm, pHNBS: 7.78) and predicted year 2300 CO2 levels (2 000 μatm, pHNBS: 7.49). Elevated pCO2 significantly enhanced photosynthesis (in terms of gross photosynthetic O2 evolution, effective quantum yield (ΔF/F' m ), photosynthetic efficiency (α), maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity) and dark respiration of D. salina, but had insignificant effects on growth. The photosynthetic O2 evolution of D. salina was significantly inhibited by the inhibitors acetazolamide (AZ), ethoxyzolamide (EZ) and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS), indicating that D. salina is capable of acquiring HCO3 - via extracellular carbonic anhydrase and anion-exchange proteins. Furthermore, the lower inhibition of the photosynthetic O2 evolution at high pCO2 levels by AZ, EZ and DIDS and the decreased carbonic anhydrase showed that carbon concentrating mechanisms were down-regulated at high pCO2. In conclusion, our results show that photosynthesis, dark respiration and CCMs will be affected by the increased pCO2/low pH conditions predicted for the future, but that the responses of D. salina to high pCO2/low pH might be modulated by other environmental factors such as light, nutrients and temperature. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the interactive effects of pCO2, temperature, light and nutrients on marine microalgae.

  17. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Vol. 2 (1) pp. 28-31 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -31, June ... University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Division of. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Lagos, ..... Antiretroviral Therapy and. HIV/hepatitis B Virus Co-infection. Clin Infect Dis.

  18. Ammonia at Blodgett Forest, Sierra Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Littlejohn, David

    2007-11-06

    Ammonia is a reactive trace gas that is emitted in large quantities by animal agriculture and other sources in California, which subsequently forms aerosol particulate matter, potentially affecting visibility, climate, and human health. We performed initial measurements of NH{sub 3} at the Blodgett Forest Research Station (BFRS) during a two week study in June, 2006. The site is used for ongoing air quality research and is a relatively low-background site in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratios were quite low (< 1 to {approx} 2 ppb), contrasting with typical conditions in many parts of the Central Valley. Eddy covariance measurements showed NH{sub 3} fluxes that scaled with measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratio and calculated aerodynamic deposition velocity, suggesting dry deposition is a significant loss mechanism for atmospheric NH{sub 3} at BFRS. A simple model of NH{sub 3} transport to the site supports the hypothesis that NH{sub 3} is transported from the Valley to BFRS, but deposits on vegetation during the summer. Further work is necessary to determine whether the results obtained in this study can be generalized to other seasons.

  19. Evolución paleoambiental de la transición glacial-postglacial en la Formación Agua Colorada (Grupo Paganzo, Carbonífero, Sierra de Narváez, NO argentino Palaeoenvironmental evolution of the glacial-postglacial transition in the Agua Colorada Formation (Paganzo Group, Carboniferous, Sierra de Narváez, NW Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O Limarino

    2010-01-01

    ón postglacial, entre el Sistema del Famatina, la Precordillera y las Sierras Pampeanas.The Carboniferous sequences (lower section of the Paganzo Group outcroping in the central part of the Sierra de Narváez (Las Angosturas area, northwestern Argentina are described in this paper. From the regional point of view, two major Carboniferous sequences have been identified. Firstly, diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones, carbonaceous mudstones and thin coal beds that were included in the Agua Colorada Formation. A second group comprises monotonous sequences of shales and interstratified mudstones and sandstones which were excluded from the Agua Colorada Formation and identified with the informal ñame of 'Marine Late Paleozoic rocks'. Sedimentological characteristics of the Agua Colorada Formation allow recognizing seven facies associations in the Angosturas area: 1. monomictic diamictites; 2. polymictic diamictites and conglomerates; 3. shale-sandstone cycles; 4. dark shales; 5. greenish monomictic conglomerates; 6. channelised polymictic conglomerates and 7. coarse-grained sandstones, shales and thin coal beds. Facies associations 1 and 2, including both massive and rese-dimented diamictites, are interpreted as related to the well known Namurian gondwanic glacial event in western basins of Argentina. Facies associations 3,4 and 5 record the evolution of a fjord environment formed as a consequence of the postglacial transgression (the so-called Namurian postglacial transgression that flooded glacial valleys in the major part of the Paganzo Basin. A regional relative sea level fall marked by a regional incisión surface occurred at the base of facies association 6, and the fjord environment was sharply replaced by fluvial sedimentation (facies associations 6 and 7. A regional correlation model, based on the postglacial transgression key level, among the Sistema del Famatina, Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas is proposed.

  20. Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahgal Geethaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT] to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC 50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO, 6.4% (methanol, 3.4% (ethanol and 2.5% (Tween 20. The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT.

  1. F. Salinas y la teoría musical de finales del Renacimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldáraz Gaínza, J. Javier

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Si F. Salinas (1513-1590 es justamente famoso en el mundo literario debido a Fray Luis de León, en este artículo se intenta contextualizar y así mostrar su contribución a la teoría armónica occidental. Tal contribución estriba nada menos que en ser el primer expositor del llamado temperamento igual, es decir, la división de la octava en doce partes, doce semitonos iguales. Hacerlo de forma matemática, dentro del contexto musical de finales del Renacimiento, no era tarea fácil. Se trata de dividir la razón 2/1 en doce partes igualmente proporcionales, lo que con medios puramente aritméticos es imposible. Salinas está al final de una cadena de teóricos renacentistas enredados en este objetivo que únicamente pudo llevarse a cabo dentro de la corriente humanista.

  2. Toxicity of clove essential oil and its ester eugenyl acetate against Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansian, R L; Vanin, A B; Orlando, T; Piazza, S P; Puton, B M S; Cardoso, R I; Gonçalves, I L; Honaiser, T C; Paroul, N; Oliveira, D

    2017-03-01

    The production of compounds via enzymatic esterification has great scientific and technological interest due to the several inconveniences related to acid catalysis, mainly by these systems do not fit to the concept of "green chemistry". Besides, natural products as clove oil present compounds with excellent biological potential. Bioactives compounds are often toxic at high doses. The evaluation of lethality in a less complex animal organism can be used to a monitoring simple and rapid, helping the identification of compounds with potential insecticide activity against larvae of insect vector of diseases. In this sense, the toxicity against Artemia salina of clove essential oil and its derivative eugenyl acetate obtained by enzymatic esterification using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst was evaluated. The conversion of eugenyl acetate synthesis was 95.6%. The results about the evaluation of toxicity against the microcrustacean Artemia salina demonstrated that both oil (LC50= 0.5993 µg.mL-1) and ester (LC50= 0.1178 µg.mL-1) presented high toxic potential, being the eugenyl acetate almost 5 times more toxic than clove essential oil. The results reported here shows the potential of employing clove oil and eugenyl acetate in insecticide formulations.

  3. Physiological responses of the eustigmatophycean Nannochloropsis salina to aqueous diesel fuel pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Farag Mohammad

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine eustigmatophycean microalga Nannochloropsis(Monallantus salina Hibberd was cultivated in a batchculture in the presence of various concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%of an aqueous extract of diesel fuel oil in order to assess the influenceof the pollutant on the growth and certain physiological responses of themicroalga. The growth data revealed a significant negative effect of thevarious pollutant concentrations on the algal cell number(p ≤ 0.05. However, at the mid-logarithmic growth phase (day 8,the algal cells were analysed for chlorophyll a, β-glucan,amino acid pool, C/N ratio and elemental composition. According to ourresults, N. salina was significantly affected by the pollution withregard to the different physiological parameters examined, and thissignificance may be negative, positive or variable. The effect of thepollutant on cellular β-glucan and the total amount of amino acidswas negative; however, the composition of the cellular amino acid poolremained unaffected. A positive effect of the pollutant on cellular chl aand the C/N ratio was observed. In addition, the pollutant showed variableeffects on the composition of different elements, as shown byenergy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Also, an existencecorrelation between different elements was statistically reported.

  4. Transcriptional Regulation of Cellulose Biosynthesis during the Early Phase of Nitrogen Deprivation in Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Won; Nam, Seung Won; HwangBo, Kwon; Jeong, Won Joong; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool; Chang, Yong Keun; Park, Youn-Il

    2017-07-13

    Microalgal photosynthesis provides energy and carbon-containing precursors for the biosynthesis of storage carbohydrates such as starch, chrysolaminarin, lipids, and cell wall components. Under mild nitrogen deficiency (N-), some Nannochloropsis species accumulate lipid by augmenting cytosolic fatty acid biosynthesis with a temporary increase in laminarin. Accordingly, biosynthesis of the cellulose-rich cell wall should change in response to N- stress because this biosynthetic pathway begins with utilisation of the hexose phosphate pool supplied from photosynthesis. However, few studies have characterised microalgal cell wall metabolism, including oleaginous Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae subjected to nitrogen deficiency. Here, we investigated N-induced changes in cellulose biosynthesis in N. salina. We observed that N- induced cell wall thickening, concurrently increased the transcript levels of genes coding for UDPG pyrophosphorylase and cellulose synthases, and increased cellulose content. Nannochloropsis salina cells with thickened cell wall were more susceptible to mechanical stress such as bead-beating and sonication, implicating cellulose metabolism as a potential target for cost-effective microalgal cell disruption.

  5. Selenium nanoparticle-enriched biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica enhances growth and survival of Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Faseela; Vaidya, Amogh; Apte, Mugdha; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2017-11-01

    Controlling disease outbreaks is a major challenge in aquaculture farms and conventional methods are often ineffective. Nutritional supplementation and probiotic preparations help in reducing severity of such infections. The generally regarded as safe yeast (Yarrowia lipolytica) was used in the current study. A marine strain of Y. lipolytica exhibited tolerance towards sodium selenite and formed cell associated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) observations. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the role of carboxylic and amine groups in the synthesis of nanoparticles. This SeNP-enriched biomass was used as feed for the model aquaculture system, Artemia salina and compared with normal feed, baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A. salina fed with SeNP-enriched biomass, showed increased survival rates (96.66%) as compared to those fed with S. cerevisiae (60.0%). The size of the larvae fed with SeNP-enriched biomass of Y. lipolytica was also found to be larger. Additionally, larval groups fed with SeNP-enriched biomass were better protected (70.0% survival) against V. harveyi infection when compared with groups fed with S. cerevisiae (24.44%). This combination of selenium in the nanoparticle form associated with the biomass of Y. lipolytica has potential application in improving health of aquaculture species in farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serologic evidence of human orthopoxvirus infections in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macneil, Adam; Abel, Jason; Reynolds, Mary G; Lash, Rr; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana D; Robert, Willie; Lungay, Victor K; Goba, Augustine; Moses, Lina M; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin; Bausch, Daniel G

    2011-10-28

    Orthopoxviruses, including variola virus, vaccinia virus, and monkeypox virus, have previously been documented in humans in West Africa, however, no cases of human orthopoxvirus infection have been reported in the region since 1986. We conducted a serosurvey to determine whether human exposure to orthopoxviruses continues to occur in eastern Sierra Leone. To examine evidence of exposure to orthopoxviruses in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, we collected and tested sera from 1596 persons by IgG ELISA and a subset of 313 by IgM capture ELISA. Eleven persons born after the cessation of smallpox vaccination had high orthopoxvirus-specific IgG values, and an additional 6 persons had positive IgM responses. No geographic clustering was noted. These data suggest that orthopoxviruses continue to circulate in Sierra Leone. Studies aimed at obtaining orthopoxvirus isolates and/or genetic sequences from rodents and symptomatic humans in the area are indicated.

  7. Serologic evidence of human orthopoxvirus infections in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goba Augustine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthopoxviruses, including variola virus, vaccinia virus, and monkeypox virus, have previously been documented in humans in West Africa, however, no cases of human orthopoxvirus infection have been reported in the region since 1986. We conducted a serosurvey to determine whether human exposure to orthopoxviruses continues to occur in eastern Sierra Leone. Findings To examine evidence of exposure to orthopoxviruses in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, we collected and tested sera from 1596 persons by IgG ELISA and a subset of 313 by IgM capture ELISA. Eleven persons born after the cessation of smallpox vaccination had high orthopoxvirus-specific IgG values, and an additional 6 persons had positive IgM responses. No geographic clustering was noted. Conclusions These data suggest that orthopoxviruses continue to circulate in Sierra Leone. Studies aimed at obtaining orthopoxvirus isolates and/or genetic sequences from rodents and symptomatic humans in the area are indicated.

  8. Structure of the Sierra de Lujar (Alpujarride Complex, Betic Cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra de Lujar constitutes one of the best examples of fold superposition of the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (S Spain. In this paper, the members of its Triassic carbonate series have been used for the first time to obtain the cartography of the Sierra de Lujar, providing knowledge of the two folding systems, the older trending E-W and the younger (far better represented, NNE-SSW. The most important fold is a large reverse syncline with a convex axis towards the SE, forming part of the S and E edges of this sierra; contrarily, the vergence is towards the N in the southern sector and towards the W in the eastern sector. The interior of the Sierra de Lujar bears a succession of NNE-SSO anticlinal and synclinal folds, some with reverse limbs. The vergences fluctuate, even within the same fold. Folds of an E-W system crop out only in the SW sector of the Sierra de Lujar and verge to the S. The unit of the Sierra de Lujar (Lujar-Gádor unit is overthrust by the Escalate unit (which is a duplication of the Lujar unit and by other upper units, formed here by schists. The W edge of the Sierra de Lujar is affected by a large normal fault that sinks the Escalate unit there. The E-W folds were coetaneous with the thrusting of the units, while those in the NNE-SSW direction formed at the onset of the westward shift of the Internal Betic-Rif Zone.La Sierra de Lújar constituye uno de los mejores ejemplos de superposición de pliegues de la Zona Interna Bética. Su estructura se ha determinado a partir del primer mapa en el que se han distinguido los diferentes tramos de su serie triásica carbonatada. Los pliegues NNE-SSO son los más abundantes y se superponen a otros de dirección E-O. Los bordes S y E de esta sierra corresponden en parte a un gran sinclinal invertido vergente hacia su interior y que continúa en la Sierra de La Joya pero con distinta vergencia. En el interior de la sierra hay numerosos anticlinales y sinclinales de direcci

  9. Kinematics of the Sierra Nevada and Oregon Crustal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollick, J. J.; McCaffrey, R.; Sella, G.

    2004-12-01

    Northern California contains the intersection of the NW moving Sierra Nevada block and the clockwise rotating Oregon block. Adding to the tectonic complexity of the region are the interactions of the Pacific plate, Basin and Range, California Coast Ranges, Mendocino fracture zone, San Andreas fault and the Juan de Fuca plate. Our research focuses on how the interactions of these features influence the motions of the Oregon and Sierra Nevada blocks. We processed Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected during the 1998 and 1999 National Geodetic Survey High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) surveys and by us in 2003. Our preliminary analysis of the velocity field indicates that the Oregon crustal block is rotating clockwise relative to the Sierra Nevada block around a pole approximately west of the Mendocino Triple Junction. Our future work involves finding a more exact location of the relative pole rotation between the blocks, the degree of rotation, and how this motion is being taken up.

  10. Calidad biológica y bioquímica de la población de Artemia (Anostraca: Artemiidae localizada en las salinas de Real de Salinas, Calkiní, Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia G Rodríguez-Canché

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron quistes de Artemia recolectados en períodos de febrero de 1997 a febrero del 2000 en las salinas de Real de Salinas, Campeche, México y como especie de comparación Artemia franciscana (lote No. 8131 Microfeast Artemia Cysts, Texas, EEUU.. Se determinó el número de quistes por gramo, porcentaje de eclosión (%H, eficiencia, tasa, sincronía y biomasa de eclosión, así como diámetro de quistes y longitud de los nauplios (instar I de ambas poblaciones. Para la población de Real de Salinas, el diámetro de quistes capsulados y descapsulados en promedio fue de 230.5±4.14 y 221.8±3.39 μm, respectivamente. El grosor del corion de 4.35±0.68 μm y la longitud del nauplio de 388.11±4.39 μm, siendo este ϊltimo de los mαs pequeρos que se hayan publicado en la literatura. Para la poblaciσn de A. franciscana comercial, el diámetro del quiste capsulado y descapsulado presentó valores promedio de 230.21±12.49 y 216.96±13.71 μm, respectivamente. Respecto al grosor del corion y longitud del nauplio, los valores fueron de 6.62±2.72 y 424.70±30.08 μm, respectivamente. El valor proteico de los quistes (47.91 % y nauplios (50.5 % de Artemia de la población de Real de Salinas, se considera adecuado para uso como alimento en acuicultura. La población de Real de Salinas presenta bondades para su aprovechamiento en la acuicultura regionalBiological and biochemical quality of the Artemia (Anostraca: Artemiidae population from Real de Salinas saltworks, Calkiní, Campeche, Mexico. Cysts of Artemia spp. collected from February 1997 to February 2000 in the Real de Salinas solar saltworks, Campeche, Mexico, were compared with Artemia franciscana (batch number 8 131 Microfeast Artemia Cysts, Texas, USA. The variables determined in these two populations were: number of cysts per gram, hatching percentage, hatching efficiency, hatching rate, hatching synchrony and hatching biomass, as well as diameter of the cysts and length of the

  11. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  12. 77 FR 49856 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Salinas to San Luis Obispo Portion of the Coast Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... improvements to the Salinas to San Luis Obispo portion of the Coast Corridor. The objective of the EIS/EIR is... of service upgrades and rail improvements to be provided in the corridor, including variations in..., August 29, 2012, 3:30 p.m.-6:00 p.m., San Luis Obispo County Library Community Room, 995 Palm Street, San...

  13. 97 Etude éco-biologique d'Artémia salina des zones humides de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grenelle

    The Artemia (Artemia salina) is a species of crustacean living in salt lakes, chotts and salt marshes. It is in abundance in the salt mines of western Algeria. This kind of crustacean is highly demanded in the fields of water exploitation and aquaculture. In this study, the observation is drawn on the biological and ecological.

  14. Enhancement of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green microalga Dunaliella salina with light-emitting diodes and adaptive laboratory evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weiqi; Guðmundsson, Olafur; Paglia, Giuseppe; Herjólfsson, Gísli; Andrésson, Olafur S; Palsson, Bernhard O; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður

    2013-03-01

    There is a particularly high interest to derive carotenoids such as β-carotene and lutein from higher plants and algae for the global market. It is well known that β-carotene can be overproduced in the green microalga Dunaliella salina in response to stressful light conditions. However, little is known about the effects of light quality on carotenoid metabolism, e.g., narrow spectrum red light. In this study, we present UPLC-UV-MS data from D. salina consistent with the pathway proposed for carotenoid metabolism in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We have studied the effect of red light-emitting diode (LED) lighting on growth rate and biomass yield and identified the optimal photon flux for D. salina growth. We found that the major carotenoids changed in parallel to the chlorophyll b content and that red light photon stress alone at high level was not capable of upregulating carotenoid accumulation presumably due to serious photodamage. We have found that combining red LED (75 %) with blue LED (25 %) allowed growth at a higher total photon flux. Additional blue light instead of red light led to increased β-carotene and lutein accumulation, and the application of long-term iterative stress (adaptive laboratory evolution) yielded strains of D. salina with increased accumulation of carotenoids under combined blue and red light.

  15. FRAKSINASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK KULIT BATANG Rhizopora mucronata SERTA UJI TOKSISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA UDANG (Artemia salina Leach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiwi Diastuti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigation the anticancer potency of R. mucronata has not been carried yet. This research were aimed to extract the bioactive compound of R. mucronata with various organic solvents, examine their toxicity againts A. salina Leach larv. and identify the toxic compounds from R. mucronata steam bark. The extraction of R. mucronata steam bark were peformed by maseration with n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol, repectively. The extracts were examined their toxicity againsts A. salina Leach larv. The highest activity extracts was fractionated performed by coloumn chromatography. The fractions respectively was examined their toxicity againts A. salina Leach larv. Identification of toxic compound was carry out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The chloroform extracts of R. mucronata had toxic character. Toxicity test to A. salina Leach larv. The Result showed that the chloroform fraction 1 (C1 of R. mucronata steam bark had LC50 equal to 301.50 ppm. Phytochemical study showed that the active fractions contained terpenoid. Bioactive compound from R. mucronata steam bark were dioctyl phthalate and cyclopropyle azulene decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene.

  16. Petrología y análisis geométrico y tectónico de las milonitas de la Sierra de Copacabaña, provincia de Catamarca, República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, J. P.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A petrographic and structural study of units from Copacabana Range in the Northwestern Pampean Ranges is presented. Two facies of deformed granitoids were recognized. Rocks of both facies are classificated as mylonite schists, mylonite gneisses and protomylonites. First would have formed at temperature of 3500 C and 15 km of deep. Protomylonite would have formed at lower temperatures and deeps. Undeformed granitoids and ortogneis are also descript.Structural data and the analysis of some kinematic indicators suggest that a main shear plane strikes NNW, inclined to the east, with vergence to the west. Geometric analysis, realized in base to petrographic diagrams of c-axis of quartz and mica cleavage suggest an orthorhombic fabric.Se realiza un estudio petrológico estructural de las unidades que componen el extremo septentrional de la Sierra de Copacabana, que se localiza en el ámbito de las Sierras Pampeanas Noroccidentales. Entre éstas se reconocen dos épocas de deformación de los granitoides; de acuerdo a la clasificación de Higgins (1971 corresponden a esquistos miloníticos, gneises miloníticos y protomilonitas. Los primeros se habrían formado a temperaturas superiores a los 3500 C y a profundidades de unos 15 km, bajo un régimen cuasi plástico de deformación, mientras que las condiciones de formación de las protomilonitas corresponden a una zona de transición elástico-friccional a cuasiplástico, a temperaturas y profundidades algo menores.Además se describe también la facies granítica no deformada, que se halla en contacto neto con las anteriores y un ortogneis que representa la roca de caja en la que se instruyeron los granitoides.Los datos estructurales y observaciones de indicadores cinemáticos sugieren un plano de cizalla principal de rumbo NNW e inclinación al este, cuyo movimiento relativo es de carácter inverso, produciendo un cabalgamiento con vergencia al W. El análisis geométrico de diagramas petrof

  17. The ability of the branchiopod, Artemia salina, to graze upon harmful algal blooms caused by Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoval, M. Alejandra; Pan, Jerónimo; Tang, Yingzhong; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    We present experiments that examined the grazing and survivorship of zooplankton native (Acartia tonsa) and non-native (Artemia salina) to NY (USA) estuaries when exposed to blooms and cultures of the three harmful algae native to NY, Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens (strains CCMP 1850 and CCMP 1984) and Cochlodinium polykrikoides. During experiments with cultures of A. anophagefferens, clearance rates (CR) of A. salina were significantly greater than those of A. tonsa for both algal strains examined. A. salina fed on cultures of C. polykrikoides at higher rates than all phytoplankton species examined, including the control diet (Rhodomonas salina), and faster than rates of A. tonsa fed C. polykrikoides. During experiments with A. fundyense, A. salina actively grazed all cell concentrations (250-1500 cells ml-1) while A. tonsa did not feed at any concentration. Percent mortality of A. salina and A. tonsa fed A. fundyense for 48 h were 43 ± 7.7% and 72 ± 7.8%, respectively, percentages significantly higher than those of individuals fed all other algal diets. During 25 field experiments using natural blooms of the three HAB species performed across six NY estuaries, A. salina significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cell densities of A. anophagefferens, C. polykrikoides, and A. fundyense relative to the control treatments in all but one experiment. The sum of these findings demonstrates that a failure to graze these HABs by the indigenous copepod, A. tonsa, may permit blooms to occur. In addition, the ability of A. salina to graze these HABs at densities that were inhibitory to A. tonsa suggests that A. salina could, in some circumstances, be considered as a part of mitigation strategy for these events.

  18. Comparison of preliminary herpetofaunas of the Sierras la Madera (Oposura) and Bacadehuachi with the mainland Sierra Madre Occidental in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Erik F. Enderson; Dale S. Turner; Roberto A. Villa; Stephen F. Hale; George M. Ferguson; Charles. Hedgcock

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles were observed in the Sierra La Madera (59 species), an isolated Sky Island mountain range, and the Sierra Bacadéhuachi (30 species), the westernmost mountain range in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) range in east-central Sonora. These preliminary herpetofaunas were compared with the herpetofauna of the Yécora area in eastern Sonora in the main...

  19. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  20. El registro sedimentario Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno de la Salina de Ambargasta (Argentina central): una aproximación paleolimnológica

    OpenAIRE

    Zanor, Gabriela Ana; Piovano, Eduardo Luis; ARIZTEGUI, Daniel; Pasquini, Andrea Ines; Chiesa, Jorge Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Salina de Ambargasta is a playa system located at the middle latitude of Argentina (29°S; 64°W). Two sedimentary cores retrieved at the eastern border (AB-1) and the central area of the salina (AB-2) were studied using a multi-proxy approach, an actualistic sedimentary model and radiocarbon dates allowed reconstructing the paleohydrological history of the Salina de Ambargasta since the late Pleistocene. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction for the last ca. 45,000 years to the present suggest...

  1. Sierra/solid mechanics 4.22 user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jesse David

    2011-10-01

    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for the analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic and implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and an extensive library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments, and it allows for scalable solutions of very large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which allows for coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input structure for Sierra/SM.

  2. Increased lipid production by heterologous expression of AtWRI1 transcription factor in Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Young Uk; Lee, Bongsoo; Jeong, Won-Joong; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool; Chang, Yong Keun

    2017-01-01

    Genetic engineering of microalgae is necessary to produce economically feasible strains for biofuel production. Current efforts are focused on the manipulation of individual metabolic genes, but the outcomes are not sufficiently stable and/or efficient for large-scale production of biofuels and other materials. Transcription factors (TFs) are emerging as good alternatives for engineering of microalgae, not only to increase production of biomaterials but to enhance stress tolerance. Here, we investigated an AP2 type TF Wrinkled1 in Arabidopsis (AtWRI1) known as a key regulator of lipid biosynthesis in plants, and applied it to industrial microalgae, Nannochloropsis salina. We expressed AtWRI1 TF heterologously in N. salina, named NsAtWRI1, in an effort to re-enact its key regulatory function of lipid accumulation. Stable integration AtWRI1 was confirmed by RESDA PCR, and its expression was confirmed by Western blotting using the FLAG tag. Characterizations of transformants revealed that the neutral and total lipid contents were greater in NsAtWRI1 transformants than in WT under both normal and stress conditions from day 8. Especially, total lipid contents were 36.5 and 44.7% higher in NsAtWRI1 2-3 than in WT under normal and osmotic stress condition, respectively. FAME contents of NsAtWRI1 2-3 were also increased compared to WT. As a result, FAME yield of NsAtWRI1 2-3 was increased to 768 mg/L/day, which was 64% higher than that of WT under the normal condition. We identified candidates of AtWRI1-regulated genes by searching for the presence of the AW-box in promoter regions, among which lipid metabolic genes were further analyzed by qRT-PCR. Overall, qRT-PCR results on day 1 indicated that AtWRI1 down-regulated TAGL and DAGK, and up-regulated PPDK, LPL, LPGAT1, and PDH, resulting in enhanced lipid production in NsAtWRI1 transformants from early growth phase. AtWRI1 TF regulated several genes involved in lipid synthesis in N. salina, resulting in enhancement of

  3. Mineral resources potential map of the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area, Inyo and Tulare counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    There are five areas with mineral resource potential and one area with geothermal energy potential in the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area. The area south of Summit Meadows and the area south of Hogback Creek have moderate resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum in small skarn deposits. The area between Summit meadow and Hogback Creek and the area from south of Jackass Meadows to northwest of Granite Knob have low mineral resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum. The area south of and including Walker Creek has low mineral resource potential for lead and zinc. The area including and surrounding Monache Mountain has high geothermal energy resource potential.

  4. Comparison of the tropical floras of the Sierra la Madera and the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; Melissa Valenzuela-Yanez; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; Hugo Silva-Kurumiya

    2013-01-01

    The floras of the tropical vegetation in the Sky Island Sierra la Madera (SMA) near Moctezuma in northeastern Sonora (30°00’N 109°18’W) and the Yécora (YEC) area in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) in eastern Sonora (28°25’N 109°15”W) were compared. The areas are 175 km apart. Tropical vegetation includes foothills thornscrub (FTS) in both areas and tropical deciduous...

  5. Artemia salina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    West Africa Journal of Applied Ecology (WAJAE) –ISSN: 0855-4307. Volume .... of the standard stock was carried out with brine shrimp media to give final concentrations of 40, 20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25 μg ml–1 ... Cyanobacterial extract (100 μl) was added to test wells while brine shrimp media (100 μl) was added to control wells.

  6. Crystallization conditions in the Upper Pollara magma chamber, Salina Island, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, P.; Behrens, H.; de Rosa, R.; Holtz, F.; Parat, F.

    2006-01-01

    Pyroclastites erupted from the Upper Pollara magma chamber (13 ka, Salina Island, Aeolian Archipelago) resulted from mingling and mixing of rhyolitic and andesitic magmas. An experimental study has been conducted on the rhyolitic end-member to constrain the pre-eruptive conditions of the magma. In order to check for the role of mixing on the equilibrium phase assemblage, three different starting compositions, corresponding to three different mixing degrees, have been used. The crystallization experiments were conducted at two different oxygen fugacities and at variable temperature and fluid contents. The results indicate that the natural mineralogical assemblage can only be reproduced from a composition showing a certain degree of mixing. Assuming a pressure of 200 MPa (generally accepted for the Aeolian Islands), the pre-eruptive temperature of the magmas is estimated between 755 and 800 °C and the water content of the melt was higher than 4 4.5 wt.%.

  7. La explotación industrial de las salinas de San Pedro del Pinatar (Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Ballesteros Pelegrín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La explotación de las Salinas de San Pedro del Pinatar ha experimentado un profundo cambio a lo largo de la historia en sus métodos de producción, procesado y comercialización de la sal, así como en su estructura empresarial. La información obtenida mediante entrevistas a los trabajadores, datos y documentos suministrados por Salinera Española además de una recopilación bibliográfica, permite describir el proceso de obtención de sal, clasificar la sal según sus usos y caracterizar la estabilidad alcanzada en la producción, la comercialización y los principales mercados. Así como, identificar las debilidades y fortalezas que determinan el presente y sus perspectivas de futuro.

  8. Preliminary results of the Artemia salina experiments in biostack on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, E. H.; Ruether, W.; Hiendl, C. O.

    1992-01-01

    The mosaic egg of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, resting in blastula or gastrula state represents a system that during further development, proceeds without any further development to the larval stage, the free swimming nauplius. Therefore, injury to a single cell of the egg will be manifest in the larvae. In several experiments, it was shown that the passage of a single heavy ion through the shrimp egg damaged a cellular area large enough to disturb either embryogenesis or further development of the larvae, or the integrity of the adult individual. Emergence from the egg shell was heavily disturbed by the heavy ions as was hatching. Additional late effects, due to a hit by a heavy ion, are delayed of growth and of sexual maturity, and reduced fertility. Anomalies in the body and the extremities could be observed more frequently for the nauplii which had developed from eggs hit by heavy ions.

  9. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vivian Bruna Machado; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Batista, Leonia Maria; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica Prof. Delby Fernandes de Medeiros; Silva, Davi Antas e [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides {beta}-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-{beta}-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  10. Storage conditions affect oxidative stability and nutritional composition of freeze-dried Nannochloropsis salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Langvad, Sten; Møller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0–56 days), storage temperature (5, 20,and 40......Microalgae biomass is known as a promising sustainable source of bioactive compounds. Application of microalgae biomass in food and feed products requires information regarding storage stability and optimized storage conditions to minimize unwanted deterioration which downgrades the bioactive...... oxidation compounds. Storage of microalgae at low temperature is more effective than vacuum packaging. Practical Applications:   Microalgae are known as a sustainable source of bioactive compounds, and their industrial scale application is growing very fast. Application of microalgae biomass in food, feed...

  11. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Beacham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed.

  12. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, T A; Macia, V Mora; Rooks, P; White, D A; Ali, S T

    2015-09-01

    Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed.

  13. Development of direct conversion method for microalgal biodiesel production using wet biomass of Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Suh, William I; Yoo, Gursong; Mishra, Sanjiv K; Farooq, Wasif; Moon, Myounghoon; Shrivastav, Anupama; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the effects of several factors, such as temperature, reaction time, and solvent and acid quantity on in situ transesterification yield of wet Nannochloropsis salina were investigated. Under equivalent total solvent volume to biomass ratio, pure alcohol showed higher yield compared to alcohol-chloroform solvent. For esterifying 200 mg of wet cells, 2 ml of methanol and 1 ml of ethanol was sufficient to complete in situ transesterification. Under temperatures of 105 °C or higher, 2.5% and 5% concentrations of sulfuric acid was able to successfully convert more than 90% of lipid within 30 min when methanol and ethanol was used as solvents respectively. Also, it was verified that the optimal condition found in small-scale experiments is applicable to larger scale using 2 L scale reactor as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK SPONS Ianthella basta TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sri Sukmarianti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to determine the toxicity of extracts sponge Ianthella basta against Artemia salina larvae and to identify the chemical compounds contained in those toxic isolates. The preliminary test of the anticancer activity has conducted by Brine Shrimp Letalithy (BST test. The results showed that the chloroform extract was the most toxic with LC50 value of 22,39 ppm. Futher, the cloroform extract was separated and purified by coloumn chromatography using eluent of solvent mixture of chloroform : ethyl acetate : n-hexane by 7 : 2 : 1 and 4 fractions were obtained. The most toxic fraction was the fraction C with LC50 value of 35,36 ppm. Based on the GC-MS results, the toxic isolate is allegedly containing chemicals compound of hexadecanoic methyl ester and hexadecanoic acid.

  15. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1 Joint Medical Unit, 34 Military Hospital, Wilberforce Barracks, Freetown, Sierra Leone. 2.Connaught ... to implement these measures. Key words: .... Optimizing quality of care remains a persistent challenge. Total health expenditure is approximately $95 per capita of which 24.4% comes from donors, 6.8% from government ...

  16. Addressing gender-based violence in the Sierra Leone conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone's transition has witnessed a number of landmark procedural and legal innovations which have had widespread implications for international gender justice. The 11-year conflict had shattered the country, leaving more than a million people displaced and thousands of women coping with the aftermath of sexual ...

  17. Sierra Leone: resettlement doesn’t always end displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia McGoldrick

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Almost one quarter of a million displaced SierraLeoneans were resettled in their areas of origin by theend of 2002, officially ending the internal displacementcrisis in the country and further consolidating recoveryafter more than a decade of devastating civil war.

  18. Establishing services in post-conflict Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie-Tejan Kellah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During Sierra Leone’s 11-year civil war – which ended in 2001 – there was a high incidence of sexual assault against women and young girls.1 Return of peace has not meant that women and girls are safe from sexual assault.

  19. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... political parties, civil society and kin-based social organizations can be influenced to advance women's choices and entitlements as citizens, including through increased representation. The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements.

  20. An accidental sect: how war made belief in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2006-01-01

    Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an

  1. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...

  2. Integration of learning technology in Sierra Leone's higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examined the scope and relevance of integrating technology in Sierra Leone's higher education systems. It discussed the general scope of technology provision in HEIs across the country, and the effectiveness of the National ICT Policy in enabling effective delivery of targets like the Vision 2025 Plan to be ...

  3. Chapter 15: A desired future condition for Sierra Nevada Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. North

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected outcome of U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR 220, "An Ecosystem Management Strategy for Sierran Mixed-Conifer Forests" (North et al. 2009), was how it generated discussion about a desired future condition for Sierra Nevada forests. The paper did not convey leading-edge research results or provide an exhaustive literature...

  4. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. M. Lamin

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health .... The Post-conflict environment, population movement, prostitution, high illiteracy rate, low level of condom use ... of particular interest from participants that illustrate key points are included in the results. The study was ...

  5. Youth, Culture and Rebellion: Understanding Sierra Leone's Wasted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth, Culture and Rebellion: Understanding Sierra Leone's Wasted Decade. Ibrahim Abdullah. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... Journal Quality · for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access ...

  6. Addressing gender-based violence in the Sierra Leone conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atrocities ever recorded (Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission. 2004:3,3,200). While women suffered in the same ways as men, for example through being victims of killing, torture and looting, they were also targeted for their gender for example through rape, sexual slavery or forced marriage, and many non-.

  7. The Introduction of Western Education in Sierra Leone and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1) ...

  8. 75 FR 76975 - 2015 Resource Pool-Sierra Nevada Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... (Western), a Federal power marketing administration of DOE, announces the Final 2015 Resource Pool allocations pursuant to its 2004 Power Marketing Plan (Marketing Plan) for the Sierra Nevada Customer Service... effective on January 10, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Sonja Anderson, Power Marketing Manager...

  9. Addressing gender-based violence in the Sierra Leone conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    death penalty. However, although Sierra Leone still allows capital punishment domestically, the fact that the Court cannot order such punishments is not contentious among female victims, as they say they don't want the accused persons to be executed because there has been enough suffering (Focus Group. Discussion ...

  10. Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities.

  11. Lipid accumulation in response to nitrogen limitation and variation of temperature in Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Eman M; El Maghraby, Dahlia M

    2015-12-01

    This batch study deals with the relation between lipid as well as triglyceride contents in Nannochloropsis salina and variation in culture conditions such as nitrogen concentration and temperature. The tested parameters caused reduction in growth expressed as cell count, optical density and dry weight, as well strongly involved in lipids and triglycerides accumulation and significantly affected the lipid productivity. At the beginning of the work, the concentration of nitrogen in the medium was reduced to three quarter, half and quarter of the original f2 medium while the temperature kept constant. After that, the optimal nitrogen concentration (quarter of the original media) giving high lipid yield was tested with different temperature degrees from 15 to 35°C with five degree intervals. Although the growth was insignificantly influenced, a considerable increase in lipid and triglyceride (56.1 and 15.1% of dry weight respectively) was observed when the concentration of nitrogen in the medium was reduced to the quarter. Moreover, 59.3% lipid and 17.1% triglyceride on the basis of dry weight were obtained by the combination of 25% nitrogen concentration and 30°C. Simple regressions recommended that the interaction effect of nitrogen limitation and temperature on lipid and triglyceride accumulation was not as fundamental as for nitrogen limitation stress. The degree of nitrogen availability in the combination of temperature effect has been identified as the critical determinant for the maximal production of lipid in N. salina. Nevertheless, major advances in this field can be considered by studying more stresses techniques and genetic strategies.

  12. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.

  13. Analysis of the Physiological and Molecular Responses of Dunaliella salina to Macronutrient Deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexin Lv

    Full Text Available The halotolerant chlorophyte Dunaliella salina can accumulate up to 10% of its dry weight as β-carotene in chloroplasts when subjected to adverse conditions, including nutrient deprivation. However, the mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis are poorly understood. Here, the physiological and molecular responses to the deprivation of nitrogen (-N, sulfur (-S, phosphorus (-P and different combinations of those nutrients (-N-P, -N-S, -P-S and -N-P-S were compared to gain insights into the underlying regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis. The results showed that both the growth and photosynthetic rates of cells were decreased during nutrient deprivation, accompanied by lipid globule accumulation and reduced chlorophyll levels. The SOD and CAT activities of the cells were altered during nutrient deprivation, but their responses were different. The total carotenoid contents of cells subjected to multiple nutrient deprivation were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation and non-stressed cells. The β-carotene contents of cells subjected to -N-P, -N-S and -N-P-S were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation. Cells subjected to sulfur deprivation accumulated more lutein than cells subjected to nitrogen and phosphorous deprivation. In contrast, no cumulative effects of nutrient deprivation on the transcription of genes in the carotenogenic pathway were observed because MEP and carotenogenic pathway genes were up-regulated during single nutrient deprivation but were downregulated during multiple nutrient deprivation. Therefore, we proposed that the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of D. salina is regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels and that a complex crosstalk occurs at the physiological and molecular levels in response to the deprivation of different nutrients.

  14. Eflorescência salina na igreja de Santo Alexandre, Belém - PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Máximo Silva Loureiro

    Full Text Available Os monumentos históricos de Belém, PA, têm alvenarias estruturais constituídas de pedras e tijolos maciços assentados com argamassa de cal e podem apresentar diversas patologias, entre as quais se destacam a eflorescência salina e a ação da umidade. Alguns autores explicam que esses dois agentes ocasionam destacamento de camadas, pulverização de argamassa, surgimento de fissuras e aparência esbranquiçada. A pesquisa teve como principal objetivo identificar o processo de degradação atuante na alvenaria do transepto direito da Igreja de Santo Alexandre por meio da aplicação de técnicas instrumentais analíticas. Foram realizadas análises laboratoriais com o intuito de entender as condicionantes favoráveis ao processo de eflorescência salina, os danos provocados aos materiais e os tipos de sais mais atuantes. Primeiramente foi realizado o mapeamento da alvenaria e o mapeamento de danos, verificando a situação atual e as áreas mais degradadas. Posteriormente, foi realizada a caracterização física por meio de análise granulométrica, análise de traço e análise do teor de umidade da alvenaria, a caracterização química - teste qualitativo e quantitativo de sais - e a caracterização mineralógica por difração de raios X. Verificou-se que as técnicas aplicadas se mostraram eficientes e auxiliaram no diagnóstico correto, norteando quais intervenções devem ser utilizadas para amenizar a problemática.

  15. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  16. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera. Rotifers are an important live feed for first feeding larvae of many fish species. The use of concentrated algae cells in the mass culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Brachionidae has opened new horizons for research on this organism. Pastes of Rhodomonas salina (Pyrenomonadaceae obtained either by centrifugation or flocculation with chitosan were preserved, with or without vitamin C, at -20°C for four weeks and were evaluated

  17. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  18. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Grant, Donald S; Schieffelin, John S; Boisen, Matt L; Goba, Augustine; Hartnett, Jessica N; Levy, Danielle C; Yenni, Rachael E; Moses, Lina M; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambo; Fonnie, Mbalu; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J; Kargbo, Kandeh; Ottomassathien, Darin; Muncy, Ivana J; Jones, Abigail B; Illick, Megan M; Kulakosky, Peter C; Haislip, Allyson M; Bishop, Christopher M; Elliot, Deborah H; Brown, Bethany L; Zhu, Hu; Hastie, Kathryn M; Andersen, Kristian G; Gire, Stephen K; Tabrizi, Shervin; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Matschiner, Alex; Sampey, Darryl B; Spence, Jennifer S; Cross, Robert W; Geisbert, Joan B; Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Christian T; Pitts, Kelly R; Geske, F Jon; Geisbert, Thomas W; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Robinson, James E; Wilson, Russell B; Sabeti, Pardis C; Henderson, Lee A; Khan, S Humarr; Bausch, Daniel G; Branco, Luis M; Garry, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease. Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs) in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects. Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for LF.

  19. Necrophilous beetles diversity (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae and Trogidae) in a semiarid area of Zapotitlán de las Salinas Valley, Puebla, México

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Esteban; Quezada-García, Roberto; Padilla-Ramírez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    ... in the Zapotitlán de las Salinas Valley in Puebla, Mexico. Over a one-year period, monthly samples were collected from five different vegetation systems that included the scrublands, a columnar cactus landscape, and altered vegetation...

  20. Evaluation of colour temperatures in the cultivation of Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata in the production of lipids and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-Suriano, Salim Gabriel; Ortega-Clemente, Luis Alfredo; Curiel-Ramírez, Sergio; Jiménez-García, María Isabel; Pérez-Legaspi, Ignacio Alejandro; Robledo-Narváez, Paula Natalia

    2017-07-25

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is a promising and sustainable alternative. Its production is determined by the content of lipids and carbohydrates, which is different for each microalgae species and is affected by environmental factors, being lighting one of the principal determining their biochemical composition. The colour temperature (electromagnetic radiation and light spectrum) is a determining factor for the production of lipids and carbohydrates in microalgae. The aim of this assay was to evaluate the effect of three colour temperatures (6500, 10,000 and 20,000 °K) on the biomass (cel mL-1), biomass production and productivity (g L-1 and g L-1 day-1), lipid and carbohydrate content (%), lipid and carbohydrate production and productivity (mg L-1 and mg L-1 day-1), composition and content of fatty acids (%) in two microalgae species: Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata. The highest cell density was observed for N. oculata in stationary phase in the control (83.93 × 106 cel mL-1). However, higher lipid content was obtained in D. salina in stationary phase at 10,000 °K (80%), while N. oculata showed 67% at 6500 °K. The highest carbohydrate content was 25% in stationary phase for D. salina at 20,000 °K. Regarding the production of lipids, D. salina reached a maximum of 523 mg L-1 in exponential phase at 6500 and 10,000 °K. The highest carbohydrate production was 38 mg L-1 for D. salina in exponential phase at 20,000 °K. In both microalgae, 15 different fatty acids were identified; the most abundant was palmitic acid with 35.8% for N. oculata in stationary phase at 10,000 °K, while D. salina showed 67% of polyunsaturated fatty acids in exponential phase at 6500 °K. In conclusion, the ideal colour temperature for microalgae culture to obtain biofuels should be based on the biomolecule of interest, being necessary to individually evaluate for each species.

  1. The Carotenogenesis Pathway via the Isoprenoid-β-carotene Interference Approach in a New Strain of Dunaliella salina Isolated from Baja California Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Gutierrez-Millan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available D. salina is one of the recognized natural sources to produce β-carotene, and an useful model for studying the role of inhibitors and enhancers of carotenogenesis. However there is little information in D. salina regarding whether the isoprenoid substrate can be influenced by stress factors (carotenogenic or selective inhibitors which in turn may further contribute to elucidate the early steps of carotenogenesis and biosynthesis of β-carotene. In this study,Dunaliella salina (BC02 isolated from La Salina BC Mexico, was subjected to the method of isoprenoids-β-carotene interference in order to promote the interruption or accumulation of the programmed biosynthesis of carotenoids. When Carotenogenic and non-carotenogenic cells of D. salina BC02 were grown under photoautotrophicgrowth conditions in the presence of 200 µM fosmidomycin, carotenogenesis and the synthesis of β-carotene were interrupted after two days in cultured D. salina cells. This result is an indirect consequence of the inhibition of the synthesis of isoprenoids and activity of the recombinant DXR enzyme thereby preventing the conversionof 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP to 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (MEP and consequently interrupts the early steps of carotenogenesis in D. salina. The effect at the level of proteins and RNA was not evident. Mevinolin treated D. salina cells exhibited carotenogenesis and β-carotene levels very similar to those of control cell cultures indicating that mevinolin not pursued any indirect action in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and had no effect at the level of the HMG-CoA reductase, the key enzyme of the Ac/MVA pathway.

  2. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the sierra mixed conifer type and the sierra true fir type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance: of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the photos in the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Sierra Mixed Conifer Type, Sierra True Fir Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1979. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-095. Portland, OR: U.S....

  3. Sierra Nevada Science Review. Report of the Science Review Team charged to synthesize new information of rangewide urgency to the national forests of the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance Millar; Amy Lind; Rowan Rowntree; Carl Skinner; Jared Verner; William J. Zielinski; Robert R. Ziemer

    1998-01-01

    In January, 1998, the Pacific Southwest Region and Pacific Southwest Research Station of the Forest Service initiated a collaborative effort to incorporate new information into planning future management of Sierra Nevada national forests. The project, known as the Sierra Nevada Framework for Conservation and Collaboration, will incorporate the latest scientific...

  4. Prospecção fitoquímica de Sonchus oleraceus e sua toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina Phytochemical prospecting of Sonchus oleraceus and its toxicity to Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Lima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Sonchus oleraceus é uma planta daninha presente em diversas culturas no Brasil e de utilização na medicina popular. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a prospecção fitoquímica dessa espécie com extratos em etanol, água e diclorometano, bem como testes de toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina. O extrato aquoso apresentou em sua composição açúcares redutores, compostos fenólicos, taninos, flavonóides e cumarinas. No extrato etanólico, observaram-se os mesmos compostos qualificados no extrato aquoso, com exceção de cumarinas. Em diclorometano, verificou se a presença de saponinas, derivados triterpênicos e esteróides. No teste de toxicidade sobre Artemia salina, os dados convergiram para frações de extrato aquoso de 5.117,2 ppm, indicando ser um extrato de baixa toxicidade.Sonchus oleraceus is a common weed in Brazil, also used as a medicinal plant. Phytochemical prospecting of this species was carried out in this work using extracts obtained in ethanol, water and dichloromethane. A toxicity study of the aqueous extract was also conducted, using the micro crustaceous Artemia salina. The aqueous extract presented sugar reducers, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and coumarins in its composition. The compounds found in the aqueous extract were also detected in the ethanol extract, except for the coumarins. Saponin, triterpenes and steroids were identified in the dichloromethane extract. The toxicity test on Artemia salina pointed to aqueous extract fractions of 5,117.2 ppm, indicative of low toxicity.

  5. Rangewide glaciation in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Moring, Barry C.

    2013-01-01

    The 600-km-long Sierra Nevada underwent extensive Pleistocene glaciation except for its southernmost 100 km. Presently, ∼1700 small glaciers and ice masses near the crest of the range occur above 3250 m in elevation; these covered an area of ∼50 km2 in 1972. Fourteen of the largest glaciers decreased by about one half in area during the period from 1900 to 2004.Rock glaciers, generally glacial ice covered by 1–10 m of rockfall debris, occur in about the same span of the range as ice and permanent snowfields. They are, on average, lower by 200–300 m, apparently because of the insulating layer of rocky rubble that protects their internal ice from the sun’s heat and from wind.The principal Pleistocene glacial stages are the Sherwin (ca. 820 ka), Tahoe (170–130 and ca. 70 ka), Tioga (14–28 ka), and Recess Peak (13 ka). Some 7040 glacial lakes, produced primarily by quarrying from bedrock, were mostly exposed after recession of the Tioga glacial stage. The lakes largely mark the area of primary snow accumulation. Below the lower limit of the lakes, ice flowed downward into river-cut canyons, forming major trunk glaciers within the zone of ablation.The range is in general a westward-tilted block upfaulted on its east side. Therefore, the main late Pleistocene trunk glaciers (Tahoe/Tioga) west of the crest extend 25–60 km, whereas those east of the crest extend only 5–20 km. Because of higher precipitation northward, glacial features such as the toes of existing glaciers and rock glaciers, as well as the late season present-day snowline, all decrease in elevation northward. Likewise, the elevation of the lower limit of glacial lakes, an indication of the zone of snow accumulation during the late Pleistocene, decreases about the same degree. This similarity suggests that the overall climate patterns of the late Pleistocene, though cooler, were similar to those of today. The east slope glaciers show a similar northward depression, but they are ∼500

  6. Centrifugal partition extraction of β-carotene from Dunaliella salina for efficient and biocompatible recovery of metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Luc; Mojaat-Guemir, Mariem; Foucault, Alain; Pruvost, Jérémy

    2013-04-01

    A biocompatible extraction method for β-carotene recovery from the microalga Dunaliella salina was studied. The centrifugal partition extraction was used for liquid-liquid mass transfer intensification during continuous extraction. Different solvents and process parameters were compared. Ethyl oleate extraction with 5% dichloromethane achieved a 65% β-carotene recovery with the least amount of cell damage as more than 65% of the cells remained viable as demonstrated by photosynthesis activity measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A eukaryotic genome of 660 kb: electrophoretic karyotype of nucleomorph and cell nucleus of the cryptomonad alga, Pyrenomonas salina.

    OpenAIRE

    Eschbach, S.; Hofmann, C J; Maier, U. G.; Sitte, P; Hansmann, P.

    1991-01-01

    Cryptomonads are unicellular algae with chloroplasts surrounded by four membranes. Between the inner and the outer pairs of membranes is a narrow plasmatic compartment which contains a nucleus-like organelle called the nucleomorph. Using pulsed field gel electrophoresis it is shown that the nucleomorph of the cryptomonad Pyrenomonas salina contains three linear chromosomes of 195 kb, 225 kb and 240 kb all of which encode rRNAs. Thus, this vestigial nucleus has a haploid genome size of 660 kb,...

  8. Influence of daily collection and culture medium recycling on the growth and beta-carotene yield of Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Qian

    2008-06-11

    The halophilic green alga Dunaliella salina has the potential to be cultivated for beta-carotene-rich biomass, however, open-air systems need to be further improved in order to become more competitive and more economical, rather than leave the major beta-carotene consuming market derived from artificially synthesis. A set of daily collection ratios was designed and scaled up with the aim to harvest cell biomass and beta-carotene from D. salina at logarithmic phase; the yields were comparable to the normal culture without daily removal of culture. Daily collection of 1/7.5 volume of algal culture was found to be appropriate to keep the balance between the cell biomass and beta-carotene accumulation. Light intensity as one of the important factors would affect both cell growth and beta-carotene content synchronously. Further, the method of recycling 1/7.5 volume of culture after removal of algae cells was developed in order to decrease input cost for the effective production of beta-carotene, and both the resulting yields of the cell biomass and beta-carotene gained an advantage over those from the normal D. salina culture.

  9. Multicriteria analysis as a tool to investigate compatibility between conservation and development on Salina Island, Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Antonio; Giavelli, Giovanni

    1992-09-01

    Several multicriteria evaluation techniques have been developed since the 1970s. The need to compare different territorial policies has justified their introduction into environmental research. These methods are based on the numerical manipulation of heterogeneous information, which varies in terms of reference scale and type of measure (continuous, ordinal, qualitative, binary, etc.). During recent years, diverse investigations have focused on general conditions on Salina, the “green island” of the Aeolian archipelago. Such studies, within an interdisciplinary project, aimed to explore the possibility of implementing conservation strategies that are compatible with human needs, landscape preservation, and sustainable economic development. Three different evaluation techniques are applied, namely multicriteria weighted concordance and discordance analysis and a qualitative procedure. They are used to compare four alternative plans for the socioeconomic development of Salina Island. These plans lie between extreme alternatives: total protection of natural resources and maximizing economic development based on tourism. The plans are compared to each other on the basis of 14 criteria that reflect the socioenvironmental perception of Salina's inhabitants. The approach used in this research seems particularly fruitful because of its flexibility: it offers decision makers the chance to manage heterogeneous data and information that is not easily quantifiable. Such “soft” information helps to evaluate environmental conditions more precisely, and to make a less damaging choice among alternative development plans.

  10. Primary Screening of the Bioactivity of Brackishwater Cyanobacteria: Toxicity of Crude Extracts to Artemia salina Larvae and Paracentrotus lividus Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana R. Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microalgae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of benthic and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria isolated from estuarine environments, towards the nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The A. salina lethality test was used as a frontline screen and then complemented by the more specific sea urchin embryo-larval assay. Eighteen cyanobacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Nodularia, Nostoc and Synechocystis, were tested. Aqueous extracts of cyanobacteria strains showed potent toxicity against A. salina, whereas in P. lividus, methanolic and aqueous extracts showed embryo toxicity, with clear effects on development during early stages. The results suggest that the brackishwater cyanobacteria are producers of bioactive compounds with toxicological effects that may interfere with the dynamics of invertebrate populations.

  11. Biochemical and physiological responses of halophilic nanophytoplankton (Dunaliella salina) from exposure to xeno-estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Athmouni, Khaled; Frikha, Doniez; Kallel, Monem; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Maalej, Sami; Zhou, John L; Ayadi, Habib

    2017-03-01

    The environmental impacts of various pollutants on the entire levels of organisms are under investigation. Among these pollutants, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) present a serious hazard, even though the environmental significance of these compounds remains basically unknown. To drop some light on this field, we assessed the effects of a 11-day exposure of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on the growth, metabolic content, antioxidant response, oxidative stress, and genetic damage of Dunaliella salina, isolated from Tunisian biotopes. The results showed that at 10 ng L(-1), EE2 could stimulate the growth of D. salina and increase its cellular content of photosynthetic pigments and metabolites; however, it did not significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) or the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In contrast, exposure to high levels of EE2 concentrations significantly inhibited the growth of D. salina (P algae to EE2. The results of this study suggest that EE2 toxicity could result in environmental impacts with consequences on the whole aquatic community. Graphical abstract.

  12. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, B.M. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hunt, J.W. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Connor, V. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Richard, N. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Tjeerdema, R.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River.

  13. Toxicity and accumulation of Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in different life stages of Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhav, M R; David, S Einstein Mariya; Kumar, R S Suresh; Swathy, J S; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N

    2017-06-01

    Metal nanoparticles production rate and its applications have raised concerns about their release and toxicity to the aquatic and terrestrial organisms. The primary size of Copper Oxide nanoparticles (CuO NP's) was found to be 114±36nm using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a significant increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of CuO NP was seen within 1h of interaction. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values obtained from the acute toxicity studies on different life stages of Artemia salina was found to be 61.4, 35, 12.2 and 175.2mg/L for 1d, 2d, 7d old and adult, respectively. The toxicity associated changes in biochemical markers such as Catalase, Reduced glutathione and Glutathione-S-Transferase were evident. The accumulation of Cu nanoparticles into the gut of Artemia salina was the major reason for toxicity. This study demonstrate the toxicity of CuO NPs to Artemia salina, and the obtained results necessitate the detailed investigation on the possible eco-toxicological implication of these nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Level-2 Milestone 6007: Sierra Early Delivery System Deployed to Secret Restricted Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This report documents the delivery and installation of Shark, a CORAL Sierra early delivery system deployed on the LLNL SRD network. Early ASC program users have run codes on the machine in support of application porting for the final Sierra system which will be deployed at LLNL in CY2018. In addition to the SRD resource, Shark, unclassified resources, Rzmanta and Ray, have been deployed on the LLNL Restricted Zone and Collaboration Zone networks in support of application readiness for the Sierra platform.

  15. Desenvolvimento de mudas de pinhão-manso irrigadas com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Santos Matos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na irrigação torna-se importante alternativa diante daescassez de água de boa qualidade em todo o mundo. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L. possui baixa exigência hídrica, sobrevive e apresenta produção satisfatória em solos de baixa fertilidade. No entanto, a sua produção é maior em cultivos irrigados, o que reforça a necessidade de desenvolvimento de pesquisas para uso de água salina. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação nas características morfofisiológicas de mudas de pinhão-manso. Para isso, foi conduzido experimento em casa de vegetação com interceptação de 50 % da radiação solar, localizada na Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Ipameri, Goiás. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos com capacidade de 4 L de solo, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. As plantas foram irrigadas diariamente com 150 mL de água não salina, durante os 30 primeiros dias após a germinação das sementes. Do 31º ao 50º dia, as plantas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos: plantas diariamente irrigadas com água de condutividade elétrica igual a 0,5; 8; 16 e 24 dS m-1. Aos 50 dias após a germinação, analisaram-se as seguintes características nas mudas de pinhão-manso: número de folhas; altura de planta; diâmetro de ramo; teor relativo de água; área foliar; clorofila total; razões de massa radicular, massa caulinar, massa foliar e parte aérea/sistema radicular; e biomassa total. Os resultados evidenciaram que as mudas de pinhão-manso irrigadas com água de condutividade elétrica 8 dS m-1 não apresentaram redução do crescimento vegetativo. Todavia, a água de irrigação com condutividade elétrica 16 dS m-1 causou redução no crescimento vegetativo e elevou a senescência e abscisão foliar. Água com condutividade elétrica elétrica de pinhão-manso na fase de mudas.

  16. CAPACITY OF RURAL WOMEN IN THE SIERRA NEVADA OF PUEBLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Ramírez-Castel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The types of skills developed by rural women in the Sierra Nevada of Puebla since their participation in the Development Partnership Link for Sierra Nevada, AC. and the effects it had on personal, family and community levels are analyzed. The research methodology used was quantitative-qualitative: questionnaire, depth interviews and participant observation. The results indicate that they acquired skills from a gender perspective, technical-productive, eco-environmental and organizational-political, in the psychomotor, cognitive and affective dimensions; they managed to transform gender relations, contribute to the food security of their families, health care basics and promote environmental stewardship. The integral development of the capacities of rural women, contributes to their formation as social actors and political life of their communities, actively focusing on local development, integrating social networking and participating in the local economy.

  17. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  18. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  19. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  20. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  1. Sequence variability and geographic distribution of Lassa virus, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz A; Stockelman, Michael G; Moses, Lina M; Park, Matthew; Stenger, David A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bausch, Daniel G; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-04-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone.

  2. Pre- eruptive conditions of Upper Pollara rhyolites (Salina island, Italy): an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, H.; de Rosa, R.; Donato, P.; Holtz, F.; Parat, F.; Ventura, G.

    2003-04-01

    Rhyolitic volcanism in the Aeolian Islands is concentrated only in the southern-central sector of the Archipelago and is always younger than 50 ka; moreover, almost all the Aeolian rhyolites are associated with more mafic magmas. Apart from these common features rhyolitic products show great differences in the modality of emplacement, in the petrography, geochemistry and volatile contents. These differences lead to think that their pre-eruptive conditions (P, T, fO2, water content) are different. To constrain the pre- eruptive conditions of the Salina rhyolites, crystallization experiments have been performed using a sample from the Upper Pollara sequence. The sample shows a low degree of contamination with the mafic magma, it falls in the field of High Potassium Calcalkaline rocks; the mineralogical paragenesis is: plagioclase, amphibole, biotite and subordinate clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides. Part of the sample has been “cleaned” by picking off the small enclaves of andesitic magma. Experiments have been performed at 200 MPa (estimated pressure of the magma chamber; De Rosa et al., in press) at different conditions of temperature (750 and 800°C), oxygen fugacity (close to Ni-NiO buffer and log fO2 = Ni-NiO + 2.3) and water activity (fluid phase composed of H2O and CO2 with initial xH2O = 1 to 0.6). Dry glass was sealed together with the fluid phase in Au capsules. The experiments have been performed in cold seal pressure vessels. The products have been analysed by microprobe. The natural mineralogical assemblage could be reproduced at 800 °C, log fO2 = Ni-NiO + 2.3, xH2O = 1). At lower xH2O, hydrous phases are not observed. The Mg# of the natural mafic phases is also best reproduced at oxidizing conditions. Our preliminary results indicate that the rhyolitic magma erupted during Upper Pollara cycle was water-rich and saturated with respect to fluid. Petrologic differences between the rhyolites of Aeolian Islands may be explained in part by different oxygen

  3. La poesía del 'logos' de Vicente Cervera Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bianchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vicente Cervera Salinas es poeta, pero también crítico y teórico de la literatura. Como ocurre en muchos escritores que son además profesores, la lectura de sus ensayos ayuda a entender a fondo sus versos, debido a que las dos modalidades comparten la misma postura estética frente al género lírico. Por esta razón, intentaremos interpretar aquí su escritura creativa desde sus disertaciones recogidas en la monografía «La poesía y la idea. Fragmentos de una vieja querella», que estudia desde una perspectiva diacrónica las alternas etapas de la relación entre poesía y filosofía. Tras aclarar las definiciones de 'logos' y 'mythos' y los aspectos del primero que tienen relevancia para la hermenéutica de sus creaciones, nos centraremos en la simbología de la poesía filosófica de Vicente, para explicarla desde las mismas teorías del autor de «De aurigas inmortales» (1993, «La Partitura» (2001, «El alma oblicua» (2003 y «Escalada y otros poemas» (2011, cuyos versos se han traducido a distintas lenguas y se han presentado en muchos países de Europa y Latinoamérica. Vicente Cervera Salinas is a poet, a critic and a literary theorist. Like many writers who are also professors, his essays help develop a thorough understanding of his poems, since both professions share the same aesthetic stance towards poetry. For this reason, we will try to interpret his creative writings form the monograph «La poesía y la idea. Fragmentos de una vieja querella», where he studies different stages of the relationship between poetry and philosophy from a diachronic perspective. After clarifying the definitions of 'logos' and 'mythos' and certain aspects of the former that are important for the hermeneutics of his creations, we will focus on explaining the symbolism of his philosophical poetry through the analysis of different theories developed by Vicente. His books «De aurigas inmortales» (1993, «La Partitura» (2001, «El alma oblicua

  4. Effect of salinity on metal mobility in Sečovlje salina sediment (northern Adriatic, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, N.; Ramšak, T.; Glavaš, N.; Dolenec, M.; Rogan Šmuc, N.

    2016-12-01

    Saline sediment (saline healing mud or "fango") from the Sečovlje Salina (northern Adriatic, Slovenia) is traditionally used in the coastal health resorts as a virgin material for medical treatment, wellness and relax purposes. Therapeutic qualities of the healing mud depend on its mineralogical composition and physical, mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties. Their microbial and potentially toxic elements contamination are the most important features affecting user safety. However, the degree of metal toxicity (and its regulation) for natural healing mud is still under discussion. Therefore, the influence of the overlying water salinity on the mobility of heavy metals (and some other geochemical characteristic) was studied for saline sediments of the Sečovlje Salina. Experiments takes place in tanks under defined conditions i.e. at day (21 °C): night (16 °C) cycle for three months. Sediment was covered with water of different salinities (36, 155, 323 g NaCl L-1 and distillate water) and mixed/stirred every week during the experimental period. At the same time, the evaporated water was replaced with distilled water. The mud samples were analyzed, at the beginning and at the end of experiment, for mineral (XRD), elemental composition (ICP-MS) and organic content (% TOC, % TN). Geochemical analysis of the aqueous phase (content of cations and anions) have also been carried out in an accredited Canadian laboratory Actlabs (Activation Laboratories, Canada). Salinity and maturation of sediment does not significantly affect its mineral composition. The samples taken at the end of the experiment have higher percent of water but lower organic carbon concentration. Concentrations of investigated elements are comparable to that in surface sediments from Central Adriatic Sea. In the water phase, concentrations of most elements (As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ni, Sr, Sb) rise from the beginning to the end of the experiment, whereas the metal (potentially toxic elements

  5. In vivo antioxidant activity of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina--a green microalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambara Murthy, K N; Vanitha, A; Rajesha, J; Mahadeva Swamy, M; Sowmya, P R; Ravishankar, Gokare A

    2005-02-04

    Dunaliella salina a green marine alga is known for its carotenoid accumulation, having various applications in the health and nutritional products. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the ability of D. salina algal powder extract to protect against oxidative stress In vivo using animal models. Treatment of albino Wistar strain rats with 125 microg/kg and 250 microg/kg b.w. showed significant protection when compared to toxin treated (CCl4) group. Since beta-carotene is major constituent of Dunaliella the results were also compared with group treated with 250 microg/kg b.w (p.o.) synthetic all trans beta-carotene. Treatment of CCl4 at dose of 2.0 g/kg b.w. decreased the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase by 45.9%, 56% and 54% respectively compared to control group and lipid peroxidation value increased nearly 2 folds. Pretreatment of rats with 125 microg carotenoid followed by CCl4 treatment caused restoration of catalase, SOD and peroxidase by 25.24%, 23.75 and 61.15% respectively as compared to control. The group treated with 250 microg/kg has shown the restoration of 53.5%, 57.7 and 90.64% of catalase, SOD and peroxidase, respectively. This group has shown 75.0% restoration of peroxidation compared to control group of animals. The above enzyme activities were not significantly restored in group treated with synthetic all trans beta-carotene, which showed 7.5%, 23.8% restore in catalase and peroxidase content. The level of superoxide dismutase remained same and lipid peroxidation value decreased only by 23% in synthetic all trans beta-carotene treated group in comparison with control group. These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of algal carotenoid compared to synthetic carotene as antioxidant. Owing to this property, the algae Dunaliella can be further extended to exploit, its possible application for various health benefits as nutraceuticals and food additive.

  6. Farming Families' Access to Water in the Pampa Region: A multidimensional analysis El acceso al agua de los agricultores familiares de la región pampeana: Un análisis multidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moreyra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the conceptual and methodological perspective of participatory action research with an interdisciplinary approach. Specifically, this research examines different dimensions that condition the access to water for farming families in the Pampa region. Together with famers and extension workers, we defined the problems, considering that water as mediator of social relations among different actors involved - resource appropriation for irrigation and agricultural production and other sectors' productions, family consumption and sewage-. In the last sections of the document, the research team presents observations, analysis and reflections on the progress of field work we have done so farEste artículo presenta, en su primera parte, el enfoque conceptual y metodológico de un proyecto de investigación-acción participativa abordado de forma interdisciplinaria. La investigación refiere a las diferentes dimensiones que condicionan el acceso al agua de los agricultores familiares en distintos sitios de la región pampeana. La problemática se define en la dinámica con los actores involucrados, considerando que el agua mediatiza las relaciones sociales -de apropiación para el riego y la producción agrícola y de otros sectores, el consumo y la eliminación de residuos- entre diferentes actores. En las últimas secciones se presentan algunas de las observaciones y reflexiones del equipo de investigación en base a los primeros avances del trabajo de campo

  7. Comparación de índices de estrés hídrico, a partir de información captada por el sensor MODIS, en la región pampeana argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vazquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La Región Pampeana Argentina manifiesta una tenencia a la expansión agrícola que aumenta los riesgos económicos por su elevada dependencia de las condiciones meteorológicas. A fin de mejorar las predicciones sobre el comportamiento de los cultivos, en este trabajo se estudia la sensibilidad de diferentes índices de estrés hídrico a la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo (DAS, mediante el uso de imágenes satelitales en la mencionada región. Se analizaron tres índices a partir de datos de campañas de terreno en diferentes cultivos, conjuntamente con información satelital. Dos de ellos, Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI y Water Deficit Index (WDI, combinan información de satélite con datos de estaciones meteorológicas. El tercero, Temperature–Vegeta- tion Dryness Index (TDVI, utiliza solamente información de satélite. Se observó que el TDVI es el que mejor resultados arroja (r2 = 0,92. Se concluye que este índice es el que permite generar diagnósticos adecuados por ser el más sensible a cambios en la DAS.

  8. Economías “extra-pampeanas” en una provincia pampeana: las cadenas algodonera y arrocera en Santa Fe // Extra-pampas economy in a pampas province: the cotton and rice chains in Santa Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Pujadas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La Provinciade Santa Fe se caracteriza por la preeminencia de complejos agroindustriales como el oleaginoso, lácteo, cárnico, madera, muebles, cueros. También las cadenas siderúrgica, química, petroquímica, el sector automotriz y la industria del software. Ellos presentan sus eslabones concentrados económica y físicamente. Sin embargo, la heterogeneidad del territorio provincial ha permitido el desarrollo de actividades cuyas características se asimilan con economías extra-pampeanas, con niveles de producción marginales en términos relativos a otras producciones, pero de importancia para ciertas regiones y de un impacto social vital. De ellas, en el artículo se estudiarán las cadenas algodonera en el Norte y la arrocera en el Este provincial. Sus eslabonamientos, la importancia de su industrialización, su aporte a la región y los obstáculos que enfrentan. Busca evaluar los desafíos de las economías regionales en Santa Fe y promover el debate sobre la necesidad de políticas para su desarrollo y solución de problemáticas.

  9. Eficiencia agronómica del azufre elemental relativa a una fuente azufrada soluble en trigo en la Región Pampeana Agronomic efficiency of elemental sulphur in wheat relative to a soluble sulphur source in the Pampas Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Torres Duggan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia agronómica del azufre elemental (AE en relación a fuentes azufradas solubles y sulfatadas, depende de su reactividad (e.g. tamaño de partícula y de las condiciones edafo-climáticas. Para las condiciones de la Región Pampeana algunas publicaciones sugieren que el AE puede ser una fuente de S tan efectiva como las fuentes solubles, aunque la información no concluyente. Se hipotetiza que en las condiciones de la Región Pampeana, ambas fuentes poseen similar eficiencia agronómica en la mayoría de los años. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: i. Evaluar la respuesta al agregado de S con una fuente reactiva de AE en relación a un fertilizante azufrado sulfatado, aplicado en trigo en diferentes dosis y en distintas condiciones edafo-climáticas; ii. Comparar, para el conjunto de experimentos, la eficiencia agronómica del S aplicado con las distintas fuentes. iii. Relacionar las respuestas a la fertilización azufrada con variables de suelo y clima. Se realizaron ocho ensayos de campo durante dos años consecutivos en lotes de producción ubicados en la Región Pampeana. Se aplicó un diseño en bloques completos aleatorizados con cuatro o seis repeticiones en un arreglo factorial de tratamientos (factor 1: fuente azufrada, factor 2: dosis de S. Los tratamientos fueron: un testigo absoluto; fertilización con AE micronizado (95% de S en dos niveles de dosis y fertilización con sulfato de amonio granulado (SA, 24% S, también en dos niveles de dosis. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 10 y 30 kg ha-1 de S (año 1 y 15 y 30 kg ha¹ (año 2. La fertilización azufrada afectó significativamente (p0,05 en la mayoría de los sitios. La dosis más baja (10 o 15 kg ha-1 fue suficiente para cubrir el requerimiento de S del cultivo. Se observó una asociación positiva entre las respuestas y el contenido de MO del suelo y las precipitaciones (macollaje y total del ciclo y una relación inversa con el contenido de S-SO4(2- disponibles a la

  10. Modelos de asentamiento en la sierra norte de Soria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel CORRAL CAÑÓN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En esta comunicación intentaremos una aproximación a las estructuras económicas y los modelos de asentamiento de los poblados de la Edad del Hierro en la Sierra norte de Soria. Nuestra intención es reconocer las diferencias entre los asentamientos del Hierro I y II, tanto en lo que refiere a las posibilidades del entorno, como a los esquemas de organización de los habitats.

  11. Celebrity, Violence, and the Mystic Arts in Postwar Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Samuel Mark

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation tracks the operations of Hassan Jalloh, once a commander in Sierra Leone's devastating civil war, now self-proclaimed "King of West Africa Mystical Power and Culture." Jalloh served in the Civil Defense Forces, a pro-government militia that mobilized the imagery and practices of village hunter traditions in pursuit of local legitimacy and esoteric defense maneuvers including disappearance, metamorphosis, and bullet-proofing. Faced with disarmament and doubtful reintegration ...

  12. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

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    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  13. Burns in Sierra Leone: a population-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Evan G; Groen, Reinou S; Kamara, Thaim B; Stewart, Kerry-Ann; Cassidy, Laura D; Samai, Mohamed; Kushner, Adam L; Wren, Sherry M

    2014-12-01

    Burns remain disproportionately prevalent in developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of burns in Sierra Leone to serve as a baseline for future programs. A cluster randomized, cross-sectional, countrywide survey was conducted in 2012 in Sierra Leone. With a standardized questionnaire demographics and deaths during the previous 12 months of household members were assessed with the household representative. Thereafter, 2 randomly selected household members were interviewed, elucidating whether participants had ever had a burn in six body regions and determining burn mechanisms and patterns of health care seeking behavior. This study included 1843 households and 3645 individuals. 3.98% (145/3645) of individuals reported at least one burn-injury. The highest proportions of burns were reported in the age groups 0-4 years old (23/426, 5.4%) and 5-14 years old (37/887, 4.17%). The majority of burns (129/145, 89.0%) were caused by a hot liquid/object and the upper, extremities were the most commonly burned body regions, with 36% (53/145) of cases. 21% (30/145) of individuals with burns sought care from a traditional healer. Burns are highly prevalent in Sierra Leone. Further research and resources should be allocated to the care and prevention of thermal injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Global Change Impacts in Sierra Nevada: Challenges for Conservation

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    Fernando Valladares

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: La Huella del Cambio Global en Sierra Nevada: Retos para la Conservación Edited by R.J. Zamora Rodríguez, A.J. Pérez Luque, F.J. Bonet García, J.M. Barea Azcón, and R. Aspizua Cantón. Sevilla, Spain: Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio, Junta de Andalucía, 2015. 207 pp. Free download at http://www.mapama.gob.es/imagenes/es/dossierelcambio globalsierranevada_tcm7-401051.pdf; hardcopy available upon request from pn.snevada.cmaot@juntadeandalucia.es. ISBN 978-84-338-5814-6. Global Change Impacts in Sierra Nevada: Challenges for Conservation Edited by R.J. Zamora Rodríguez, A.J. Pérez Luque, F.J. Bonet García, J.M. Barea Azcón, and R. Aspizua Cantón. Sevilla, Spain: Department of the Environment and Urban Planning, Junta de Andalucía, 2016. 207 pp. Free download at http://www.reginozamora.es/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Global-Change-Impacts-Sierra-Nevada.pdf; hardcopy available upon request from pn.snevada.cmaot@juntadeandalucia.es. ISBN 978-84-338-5960-0.

  15. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  16. TOXIC ACTIVITIES OF HEXANE EXTRACT AND COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY FRACTIONS OF RODENT TUBER PLANT (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. ON Artemia salina

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    Nesti F. Sianipar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. is a medicinal plant  particularly found in Java. The plant is used as an ingredient for  conventional cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic activities of crude extracts and column chromatography fractions of  rodent tuber on Artemia salina larvae. Rodent tuber plant was obtained  from the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute in  Bogor, West Java. The experiment was conducted in the Biology  Laboratory of Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, Banten. Leaves and petioles of the plant were macerated with acetone and the filtrates were evaporated (40°C to obtain crude extracts. The crude extracts were partitioned with ethyl acetate, followed with hexane, chloroform and  butanol. Toxicity test of the extracts was performed using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT method on A. salina larvae. Extract showing the most toxic was fractioned using column chromatography and then tested on the larvae. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized  factorial, four replicates for crude extracts and two replicates for the fractions. Treatments were different types of extracts (hexane, chloroform and butanol at various concentrations (500, 1,000 and 1,500 μg ml-1 of 5% Tween solution. Fractions of the column chromatography used were taken from the column number 1, 3 and 10, and tested their toxicities at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 μg ml-1 of 5% Tween solution. Parameters observed were the death of A. salina expressed as LC50. The study  showed that hexane extract of the petioles had the most toxic to A. salina (LC50 = 762.08 μg ml-1. Fraction number 10 showed the highest toxic (LC50 = 381.07 μg ml-1, whereas the lowest was fraction number 3 (LC50 = 653.13 μg ml-1. The study indicates that rodent tuber plant from Bogor is toxic to A. salina and further test for its cytotoxic activity is justified.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a xanthophyll-rich fraction from the thylakoid membrane of Dunaliella salina(green algae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokthongwattana, Kittisak; Savchenko, Tatyana; Polle, Juergen E W; Melis, Anastasios

    2005-12-01

    Long-term acclimation to irradiance stress (HL) of the green alga Dunaliella salina Teod. (UTEX 1644) entails substantial accumulation of zeaxanthin along with a lowering in the relative amount of other pigments, including chlorophylls and several carotenoids. This phenomenon was investigated with wild type and the zea1 mutant of D. salina, grown under conditions of low irradiance (LL), or upon acclimation to irradiance stress (HL). In the wild type, the zeaxanthin to chlorophyll (Zea/Chl)(mol : mol) ratio was as low as 0.009 : 1 under LL and as high as 0.8 : 1 under HL conditions. In the zea1 mutant, which constitutively accumulates zeaxanthin and lacks antheraxanthin, violaxanthin and neoxanthin, the Zea/Chl ratio was 0.15 : 1 in LL and 0.57 : 1 in HL. The divergent Zea/Chl ratios were reflected in the coloration of the cells, which were green under LL and yellow under HL. In LL-grown cells, all carotenoids occurred in structural association with the Chl-protein complexes. This was clearly not the case in the HL-acclimated cells. A beta-carotene-rich fraction occurred as loosely bound to the thylakoid membrane and was readily isolated by flotation following mechanical disruption of D. salina. A zeaxanthin-rich fraction was specifically isolated, upon mild surfactant treatment and differential centrifugation, from the thylakoid membrane of either HL wild type or HL-zea1 mutant. Such differential extraction of beta-carotene and Zea, and their separation from the Chl-proteins, could not be obtained from the LL-grown wild type, although small amounts of Zea could still be differentially extracted from the LL-grown zea1 strain. It is concluded that, in LL-grown D. salina, xanthophylls (including most of Zea in the zea1 strain) are structurally associated with and stabilized by the Chl-proteins in the thylakoid membrane. Under HL-growth conditions, however, zeaxanthin appears to be embedded in the lipid bilayer, or in a domain of the chloroplast thylakoids that can

  18. Bicarbonate-based cultivation of Dunaliella salina for enhancing carbon utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Heo, Jina; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, bicarbonate was proposed as an alternative carbon source to overcome exceedingly low CO2 fixation efficiency of conventional microalgae cultivation system. 5gL(-1) of sodium bicarbonate was found to well support the growth of Dunaliella salina, showing 2.84-fold higher specific growth rate than a bicarbonate-free control. This bicarbonate-fed cultivation also could yield biomass productivity similar to that of CO2-based system as long as pH was controlled. While the supplied CO2, because of its being a gas, was mostly lost and only 3.59% of it was used for biomass synthesis, bicarbonate was effectively incorporated into the biomass with 91.40% of carbon utilization efficiency. This study showed that the bicarbonate-based microalgae cultivation is indeed possible, and can even become a truly environment-friendly and workable approach, provided that a CO2 mineralization technology is concomitantly established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Obtención de glicerol a partir de la Microalga Dunaliella Salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisethy Hernández Nazario

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available En el campo de la tecnología farmacéutica, el glicerol es un disolvente ampliamente utilizado en virtud de sus propiedades físico-químicas en la formulación de diferentes formas farmacéuticas. Se investigaron las posibilidades de obtención de glicerol como un subproducto del proceso de extracción de ß-carotenos a partir de cultivos de Dunaliella salina, desarrollados bajo régimen autotrófico en el Centro de Investigaciones de Energía Solar. El flujo tecnológico propuesto comprende el tratamiento de la biomasa con hidróxido de calcio, la filtración del producto resultante, la extracción del ß-carotenos con un solvente insoluble en agua y, por último, la separación del glicerol neutralizando convenientemente del filtrado con ácido. El rendimiento de glicerol fue del 4-5 %, valor susceptible de ser incrementado mediante la inducción metabólica de los cultivos.

  20. Analyzing the movement of the Nauplius 'Artemia salina' by optical tracking of plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Silke R; Fedoruk, Michael; Lohmüller, Theobald; Feldmann, Jochen

    2014-07-15

    We demonstrate how optical tweezers may provide a sensitive tool to analyze the fluidic vibrations generated by the movement of small aquatic organisms. A single gold nanoparticle held by an optical tweezer is used as a sensor to quantify the rhythmic motion of a Nauplius larva (Artemia salina) in a water sample. This is achieved by monitoring the time dependent displacement of the trapped nanoparticle as a consequence of the Nauplius activity. A Fourier analysis of the nanoparticle's position then yields a frequency spectrum that is characteristic to the motion of the observed species. This experiment demonstrates the capability of this method to measure and characterize the activity of small aquatic larvae without the requirement to observe them directly and to gain information about the position of the larvae with respect to the trapped particle. Overall, this approach could give an insight on the vitality of certain species found in an aquatic ecosystem and could expand the range of conventional methods for analyzing water samples.

  1. Un carnaval para el yo lésbico: Los cuentos de Gilda Salinas

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    Elena Madrigal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilda Salinas rompe las unidades cuentísticas tradicionales al hacer de cada texto de Del destete al desempance. Cuentos lésbicos y un colado un episodio en la vida de una lesbiana que, con “voz propia”, narra sus peripecias nocturnas por la ciudad de México, de los años setenta a la actualidad. Al ubicar las acciones en sitios de diversión lésbica que no existen más, la voz, cual cronista, rescata un ámbito de la vida homosexual a la vez que fija bromas y códigos lingüísticos que por su origen oral hubieran corrido el riesgo de perderse con las generaciones que los animaron. Sus estrategias carnavalizan el tema lésbico a la vez que legitiman la validez de las búsquedas expresivas y de comportamiento del ser lesbiana en un tiempo y en un lugar. Su aportación en los planos del género literario y de la formación de constantes en la narrativa homosexual mexicana indudablemente enriquece los medios expresivos, la visibilidad, la diversidad, las vidas y las historias de la y las lesbianas.

  2. Chlorination-induced cellular damage and recovery in marine microalga, Chlorella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, Vinitha; Nancharaiah, Y Venkata; Venugopalan, V P

    2012-11-01

    Power plants employ chlorination for controlling biofouling in the cooling water system. Phytoplankton drawn into the cooling water system could be impacted by chemical stress induced by the oxidizing biocide. It is likely that microalgae, being sensitive to chlorine, could suffer damage to their cellular structure and function. In this study, we present data on the effect of in-use concentrations of chlorine on the unicellular microalga, Chlorella salina. Chlorophyll autofluorescence was measured in terms of mean fluorescence intensity per cell for rapid assessment of toxicity. Viability of the cells exposed to chlorine was determined by fluorescein diacetate staining. Functionality of the photosynthetic machinery was assessed by gross primary productivity. Results from the study, which combined confocal laser scanning microscopy with image analysis, showed a significant dose-dependant reduction in chlorophyll autofluorescence, esterase activity and gross primary productivity in chlorine-treated cells. Interestingly, the cells injured by chlorination could not recover in terms of autofluorescence, esterase activity or productivity even after 18 h incubation in healthy media. Among the test points evaluated, esterase activity appeared to be sensitive for determining the chlorination-induced impact. Our results demonstrate that low-dose chlorination causes significant decrease in chlorophyll autofluorescence, intracellular esterase activity and primary productivity in Chlorella cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braden Crowe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the environment, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5–850 μmol m−2 s−1 and temperature (13–40 °C and its exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day−1 at 23 °C and 250 μmol m−2 s−1. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0 and palmitoleic acid (C16:1 during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoic acids (C20:5ω3. As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1ω9. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. These data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  4. Isolasi Senyawa Aktif Ekstrak Etanol Biji Alpukat (Persea americana dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Artemia Salina Leach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nur Fitriani Abubakar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Avocado seed (Persea americana is recognized as one of medicinal plants. It contains several secondary metabolites, which have toxic activity. However, efforts to identify active compounds from avocado seeds (Persea americana are still relatively rare. Therefore, isolation and toxicity assay have been conducted foward the active compound of avocado seed. Maceration one kilogram of seed dried powder by ethanol obtained 49,7464 gram extract. Separation of etanol extract by column chromatography generated 0,0698 grams of pure white needle crytal, which is positively triterpenoid based on Lieberman-Buchard test. In addition, infrared spectrum showed the existence of OH, C=C, C-C, C=O, -C-H, -CH3,-CH2 and C-O stretch, which support the presumed compound. The result of toxicity test on Artemia salina Leach showed that the extract, fraction and pure isolates of the etanol extract are toxic with LC50 values 13,274 g/mL; 9,528 g/mL and 8,128 g/mL, respectively.

  5. PCR-identification of Dunaliella salina (Volvocales, Chlorophyta) and its growth characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rathinam; Hema Iswarya, Shanmugam; Balasubramanyam, Dakshanamoorthy; Rengasamy, Ramasamy

    2007-01-01

    The saline pond microalga, Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teod. maintained in De Walne's (basal) medium under laboratory conditions was confirmed by amplifying the chromosomal DNA of the microalga by PCR with specific primers MA1 and MA2. Seaweed extracts obtained from Sargassum wightii and Ulva lactuca were amended separately at 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% levels to the basal medium in order to assess their potential on the growth and concentration of pigments, viz. Chl a, Chl b and beta-carotene of the alga. beta-Carotene was isolated and visible absorption spectrum was taken at 443 and 475 nm confirmed the presence of 9-cis-beta-carotene and all-trans-beta-carotene isomers. Maximum yield, highest division rate (mu) and highest pigment concentrations were observed in the cells grown in 1.5% S. wightii and 2.0% U. lactuca amended medium and these cells were subjected to DAPI staining. The results of epifluorescence microscopy and image analysis revealed a significant enhancement of the cell and nuclear area of the microalgae.

  6. Child bed net use before, during, and after a bed net distribution campaign in Bo, Sierra Leone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ranasinghe, Shamika; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Stenger, David A; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    ...) distribution campaign in Sierra Leone in November-December 2010. A citywide cross-sectional study in 2010-2011 interviewed the caregivers of more than 3000 under-five children from across urban Bo, Sierra Leone...

  7. Updated paleomagnetic pole from Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Sierra Nevada, California: Tectonic displacement of the Sierra Nevada block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.; Gromme, Sherman

    2011-01-01

    We report remanent magnetization measurements from 13 sites in Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the northern Sierra Nevada (38°N–39.5°N). By increasing the number of available paleomagnetic sites, the new data tighten constraints on the displacement history of the Sierra Nevada block and its pre-extensional position relative to interior North America. We collected samples in freshly exposed outcrops along four highway transects. The rocks include diorite, granodiorite, and tonalite with potassium-argon ages (hornblende) ranging from 100 Ma to 83 Ma. By combining our results with previous paleomagnetic determinations from the central and southern Sierra Nevada (excluding sites from the rotated southern tip east of the White Wolf–Kern Canyon fault system), we find a mean paleomagnetic pole of 70.5°N, 188.2°E, A95 = 2.6° (N = 26, Fisher concentration parameter, K = 118). Thermal demagnetization indicates that the characteristic remanence is generally unblocked in a narrow range within 35 °C of the Curie temperature of pure magnetite. Small apparent polar wander during the Cretaceous normal-polarity superchron, plus prolonged acquisition of remanence at the site level, may account for the low dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles and relatively large K value. Tilt estimates based on overlapping sediments, stream gradients, and thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada plutons vary from 0° to 3° down to the southwest. Without tilt correction, the mean paleomagnetic pole for the Sierra Nevada is essentially coincident with the North American reference pole during the Cretaceous stillstand (125 Ma to 80 Ma). At 95% confidence, the apparent latitude shift is 1.1° ± 3.0° (positive northward), and the apparent rotation is negligible, 0.0° ± 4.7°. Correcting for each degree of tilt, which is limited to 3° on geologic evidence, increases the rotation anomaly 2.2° counterclockwise, while the apparent latitude shift remains unchanged.

  8. 77 FR 49789 - Record of Decision for Issuing a Presidential Permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... of Decision for Issuing a Presidential Permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission, LLC, for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... announces its decision to issue a Presidential permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission, LLC (ESJ...

  9. Producción científica sobre Sierra Nevada en ISI-Web of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pino-Díaz, José

    2004-01-01

    Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) was declared a National Park in 1999. How the University of Granada has favored the study of Sierra Nevada is presented in this work. We have studied the scientific literature that appears on Sierra Nevada in the three databases of ISI-Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index and Arts & Humanities Citation Index.

  10. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  11. Alcohol and drugs in post-war Sierra Leone | Bøås | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kind of social stress that a civil war expose the population to makes it easy to assume that an increased level of alcohol and drug abuse should be observable in post-war Sierra Leone. This is, however, not the case. As this study reveals, the pattern of alcohol and drug consumption in Sierra Leone. This is, however, not ...

  12. Building effective international, multicultural alliances for restoration of ejido forests in the Sierra Madre Occidental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall Gingrich

    2005-01-01

    Effective NGO-government-community alliances are the key to overcoming the complex socio-political obstacles to conservation in the Sierra Madre Occidental. Over 80 percent of the territory in the Sierra Madre Occidental is communally owned. Agrarian and other socio-economic conditions present both opportunities and obstacles to conservation. Conservation,...

  13. Geology of the eastern zone of the Sierra del Brezo (Palencia-Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, J.

    1956-01-01

    In het noordwestelijk deel van de provincie Palencia vormt de Sierra del Brezo een onderdeel van de Cordillera Cantábrica. Het resultaat van een geologische kaartering van het oostelijk gedeelte der Sierra del Brezo met zijn aangrenzend gebied is weergegeven in de hier bijgevoegde geologische kaart

  14. Introducing the Sierra Leone Local - Location Event Dataset (SLL-LED)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijne, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This data-note introduces the Sierra Leone Local – Location Event Dataset (SLL-LED) – an event dataset of the armed conflict in Sierra Leone. These data includes an unrivalled number of events, actors and allies. The set is based entirely on local sources, and each event is geo-coded. This note

  15. A preliminary floristic inventory in the Sierra de Mazatan, Municipios of Ures and Mazatan, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Jesus Sanchez-Escalante; Manuel Espericueta-Betancourt; Reyna Amanda Castillo-Gamez

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the flora of the Sierra de Mazatán contains 357 species of vascular plants distributed in 248 genera and 80 families. The families with the most species are Asteraceae (48), Fabaceae (45), Poaceae (28), Euphorbiaceae (18), and Acanthaceae, Cactaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Solanaceae (11 each). The results show that the flora of the Sierra de Mazat...

  16. 76 FR 9595 - Notice of Public Meetings: Sierra Front Northwestern Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meetings: Sierra Front Northwestern Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada... (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Carson City, Nevada and Gerlach, Nevada. The...

  17. A View from the Sierra : the Highland Puebla Area in Nahua Dialectology

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Mitsuya

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Norte de Puebla (Puebla, Mexico) is a dense area where three dialectologically distant Nahua variants are spoken in contact with one another. This paper outlines the distribution and the characteristics of each dialect and discusses the status of Western Sierra Nahuatl, one of the three dialectal groups of Nahua which has a few marginal features, within the dialectological study of the language.

  18. Flora útil de los cafetales en la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México Useful plants of the Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miguel Ángel Martínez; Virginia Evangelista; Francisco Basurto; Myrna Mendoza; Antonio Cruz-Rivas

    2007-01-01

    Los cafetales de la Sierra Norte de Puebla son agroecosistemas variados en composición y estructura, donde se pueden encontrar especies vegetales cultivadas y silvestres, nativas e introducidas, y cuya diversidad florística está...

  19. Efeito do meio Erd Schreiber no cultivo das microalgas Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii e Isochrysis galbana = Erd Schreiber medium effect in culture of microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Mota Klein

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available As microalgas são utilizadas como fonte de alimento em aqüicultura. Neste trabalho cultivaram-se D. salina, T. chuii e I. galbana. O objetivo do trabalho consistiu em determinar o efeito do meio Erd Schreiber sobre o seu crescimento. Iniciou-se o cultivo com a mistura de 200 mg de Na2HPO4,7H2O, 100 mg de NaNO3 e 50 mL de extrato de solo. No monitoramento, manteve-se a temperatura entre 24 - 28 oC, a salinidade a 34 ppt, à iluminação constante, a densidade celular com uma câmara de Neubauer e um microscópio binocular modelo ZEISS. Como resultado, I. galbana, D. salina e T. chuii atingiram 969 104 cel/mL, 457 x 104 cel/mL e 258,66 x 104 cel/mL, respectivamente, e oscoeficientes angulares b foram 3,76 x 104 cel./mL/dia, 6,84 x 104 cel./mL/dia e 2,08 x 104 cel./mL/dia respectivamente, indicando bom desempenho de todas as microalgas no meio Erd Shreiber.The microalgae is used as food source in aqüicultura. In this work they had cultivated D. salina , T. chuii and I. galbana . The objective of the work is to determine the effect of Erd Schreiber´s culture medium on the microalgae growth. The culture initiated mixting 200mg of Na2HPO4,7H2O, 100 mg of NaNO3 and 50 mL of soil extract. During the culture the temperature had varied between 24 and 28oC, the salinity was fixed on 34 %o, and the illumination was maintained constant. The assessment of the culture was made by a chamber of Neubauer and a binocular microscope ZEISS model. As result I. galbana D. salina and T.chuii reached 969 104 cel/mL, 457 x 104cel/mL and 258,66 x 104 cel/mL respectively and as angular coefficient 3,76 x 104 cel/mL/dia, 6,84 x 104 cel/mL/dia and 2,08 104 x cel/mL/dia respectively, showing good answer of the microalgae to the effect of Erd Schreiber´ s medium.

  20. Oxidative stress is a mediator for increased lipid accumulation in a newly isolated Dunaliella salina strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Yilancioglu

    Full Text Available Green algae offer sustainable, clean and eco-friendly energy resource. However, production efficiency needs to be improved. Increasing cellular lipid levels by nitrogen depletion is one of the most studied strategies. Despite this, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms of this response have not been well defined. Algae species adapted to hypersaline conditions can be cultivated in salty waters which are not useful for agriculture or consumption. Due to their inherent extreme cultivation conditions, use of hypersaline algae species is better suited for avoiding culture contamination issues. In this study, we identified a new halophilic Dunaliella salina strain by using 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that growth and biomass productivities of this strain were directly related to nitrogen levels, as the highest biomass concentration under 0.05 mM or 5 mM nitrogen regimes were 495 mg/l and 1409 mg/l, respectively. We also confirmed that nitrogen limitation increased cellular lipid content up to 35% under 0.05 mM nitrogen concentration. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we applied fluorometric, flow cytometric and spectrophotometric methods to measure oxidative stress and enzymatic defence mechanisms. Under nitrogen depleted cultivation conditions, we observed increased lipid peroxidation by measuring an important oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde and enhanced activation of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes. These observations indicated that oxidative stress is accompanied by increased lipid content in the green alga. In addition, we also showed that at optimum cultivation conditions, inducing oxidative stress by application of exogenous H2O2 leads to increased cellular lipid content up to 44% when compared with non-treated control groups. Our results support that oxidative stress and lipid overproduction are linked. Importantly, these

  1. Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L. model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Меntor R. Hamidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products could serve as the starting point in the development of modern medicines because of their numerous biological and pharmacological activities. However, some of them are known to carry toxicological properties as well. In order to achieve a safe treatment with plant products, numerous research studies have recently been focused on both pharmacology and toxicity of medicinal plants. Moreover, these studies employed efforts for alternative biological assays. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is the most convenient system for monitoring biological activities of various plant species. This method is very useful for preliminary assessment of toxicity of the plant extracts. Rapidness, simplicity and low requirements are several advantages of this assay. However, several conditions need to be completed, especially in the means of standardized experimental conditions (temperature, pH of the medium, salinity, aeration and light. The toxicity of herbal extracts using this assay has been determined in a concentration range of 10, 100 and 1000 µg/ml of the examined herbal extract. Most toxicity studies which use the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay determine the toxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the tested sample. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of the test samples is obtained by a plot of percentage of the dead shrimps against the logarithm of the sample concentration. LC50 values are estimated using a probit regression analysis and compared with either Meyer’s or Clarkson’s toxicity criteria. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Meyer’s toxicity scale for Artemia salina and Gosselin, Smith and Hodge’s toxicity scale for higher animal models confirmed that the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is an excellent predictive tool for the toxic potential of plant extracts in humans.

  2. Map showing drainage basins and historic cloudburst floods in the Salina quadrangle, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Robert J.; Williams, Paul L.

    1972-01-01

    In the Salina quadrangle, as in most of the arid West, summer precipitation commonly occurs as thunderstorms. Suring these storms, rain falls as a torrential downpour, or cloudburst, in a local area. An inch of rain or more may fall in half an hour; U.S. Weather Bureau records show that o.4 inch of rain has fallen in a period of 5 minutes (Woolley, 1946). Such a fall of water far exceeds the absorptive capacity of the ground surface, and in areas of steep sparsely vegetated terrain the runoff forms a cloudburst flood in which loose rock, soil, and alluvium combine with water to form a debris-laden mudflow. The mudflow then moves rapidly down gullies and canyons with power great enough to erode and to transport debris, and to destroy the works of man lying in its path. When the mudflow pours from the canyon mount into an open valley, solid debris separates from the water and is added to the alluvial fan built by numerous previous floods. Because many towns in Utah are built on fans at the mouths of canyons, there has been loss of life and considerable damage to buildings, streets, and crops since 1847, when white men first settled in Utah.This map shows historical cloudburst floods for which records exist; data were taken from the sources listed below. Most of the flooded areas shown are in or near populated places, and so the floods were observed and recorded. Actually, no part of the quadrangle is exempt from cloudburst floods; every canyon, dry wash, and swale is visited sooner or later by a cloudburst and becomes, briefly, the site of a destructive mudflow. The traveler is advised to exercise caution in all drainageways, especially during July and August, when 80 percent of the cloudbursts occur.

  3. Produção de mudas de mamoeiro irrigadas com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. da S. Sá

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diante da relevância socioeconômica e alimentar do mamoeiro para a região nordeste, onde naturalmente ocorrem águas com teores elevados de sais, notadamente no Semiárido, objetivou-se avaliar a emergência de plantas e o crescimento de duas cultivares de mamoeiro irrigadas com águas salinas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar, da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCTA-UFCG, Campus Pombal, PB, no período de maio a julho de 2011, usando-se um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, constituídos de quatro níveis de salinidade da água (1,2; 2,4; 3,6 e 4,8 dS m-1 além de duas cultivares de mamoeiro (Sunrise Solo e Tainung-1 com três repetições, totalizando vinte e quatro parcelas experimentais. Avaliaram-se a emergência, o crescimento e o acúmulo de matéria seca das mudas. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação, mesmo se aplicando uma fração de lixiviação de 20%, elevou o teor de sais no substrato o qual foi superior à salinidade limiar da cultura ocasionando reduções na emergência, no crescimento e no acúmulo de matéria seca, sendo a cultivar Tainung-1 a mais sensível.

  4. Oxidative stress is a mediator for increased lipid accumulation in a newly isolated Dunaliella salina strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cokol, Murat; Pastirmaci, Inanc; Erman, Batu; Cetiner, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Green algae offer sustainable, clean and eco-friendly energy resource. However, production efficiency needs to be improved. Increasing cellular lipid levels by nitrogen depletion is one of the most studied strategies. Despite this, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms of this response have not been well defined. Algae species adapted to hypersaline conditions can be cultivated in salty waters which are not useful for agriculture or consumption. Due to their inherent extreme cultivation conditions, use of hypersaline algae species is better suited for avoiding culture contamination issues. In this study, we identified a new halophilic Dunaliella salina strain by using 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that growth and biomass productivities of this strain were directly related to nitrogen levels, as the highest biomass concentration under 0.05 mM or 5 mM nitrogen regimes were 495 mg/l and 1409 mg/l, respectively. We also confirmed that nitrogen limitation increased cellular lipid content up to 35% under 0.05 mM nitrogen concentration. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we applied fluorometric, flow cytometric and spectrophotometric methods to measure oxidative stress and enzymatic defence mechanisms. Under nitrogen depleted cultivation conditions, we observed increased lipid peroxidation by measuring an important oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde and enhanced activation of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes. These observations indicated that oxidative stress is accompanied by increased lipid content in the green alga. In addition, we also showed that at optimum cultivation conditions, inducing oxidative stress by application of exogenous H2O2 leads to increased cellular lipid content up to 44% when compared with non-treated control groups. Our results support that oxidative stress and lipid overproduction are linked. Importantly, these results also suggest that

  5. Halovenus salina sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from a saltern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante-Domínguez, Carmen; Corral, Paulina; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    An extremely halophilic archaeon was isolated from a water sample of Isla Bacuta saltern in Huelva, Spain. Strain ASP54(T) is a novel red-pigmented, motile, rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative and strictly aerobic haloarchaeon. Strain ASP54(T) grew in media containing 15-30% (w/v) salts and optimally with 25% (w/v) salts. It grew between pH 5.0 and 9.0 (optimally at pH 7.5) and at 20-40 °C (optimally at 37 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) and the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain ASP54(T) is most closely related to the genus Halovenus. The closest relatives were Halovenus aranensis EB27(T) (92.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Halorientalis regularis TNN28(T) (92.1%), and Halorientalis persicus D108(T) (92.0%). The polar lipid pattern of strain ASP54(T) consisted of biphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and a minor-phospholipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-8 (MK-8) (83%), and a minor amount of MK-8(VIII-H2) (17%) was also detected. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of this strain was 63.1 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data presented in this study, strain ASP54(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halovenus, for which the name Halovenus salina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ASP54(T) ( = CEC(T) 8749(T) = IBRC-M 10946(T) = JCM 30072(T)).

  6. Evaluation of alpha and gamma aluminum oxide nanoparticle accumulation, toxicity, and depuration in Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O; Bogatu, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Artemia salina (crustacean filter feeders) larvae were used as a test model to investigate the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) on marine microorganisms. The uptake, toxicity, and elimination of α-Al2O3 (50 nm and 3.5 μm) and γ-Al2O3 (5 nm and 0.4 μm) NPs were studied. Twenty-four and ninety-six hour exposures of different concentrations of Al2O3 NPs to Artemia larvae were conducted in a seawater medium. When suspended in water, Al2O3 NPs aggregated substantially with the sizes ranging from 6.3 nm to >0.3 µm for spherical NPs and from 250 to 756 nm for rod-shaped NPs. The phase contrast microscope images showed that NPs deposited inside the guts as aggregates. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis showed that large particles (3.5 μm α-Al2O3) were not taken up by Artemia, whereas fine NPs (0.4 μm γ-Al2O3) and ultra-fine NPs (5 nm γ-Al2O3 and 50 nm α-Al2O3) accumulated substantially. Differences in toxicity were detected as changing with NP size and morphology. The malondialdehyde levels indicated that smaller γ-Al2O3 (5 nm) NPs were more toxic than larger γ-Al2O3 (0.4 µm) particulates in 96 h. The highest mortality was measured as 34% in 96 h for γ-Al2O3 NPs (5 nm) at 100 mg/L (LC50 > 100 mg/L). γ-Al2O3 NPs were more toxic than α-Al2O3 NPs at all conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Messenger RNA during early embryogenesis in Artemia salina: altered translatability and sequence complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T C; Tata, J R

    1980-02-01

    RNA from developing embryos of Artemia salina (5, 10, and 20 h after re-initiation of development) was translated 3-10 times more efficiently in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate cell-free protein synthesizing system than RNA from dormant gastrulae. The latter did not appear to contain any significant amount of translation inhibitor activity. Ninety percent of the translatable activity in dormant gastrulae was recovered as poly(A)--RNA, whereas 80% of that in post-gastrular developing embryos was present as poly(A)+-RNA. The size of most polypeptides coded for by dormant gastrular RNA was less than 130,000 daltons whereas the size of those coded for by developing embryonic RNA was up to 200,000 daltons, which correlated with a corresponding shift to poly A-containing RNA of higher molecular weight. Two major polypeptides of about 37,000 daltons coded for by dormant gastrular RNA disappeared at 20 h after resumption of development. Hybridization of complementary DNA (cDNA) to a 1000-fold excess of the homologous poly(A)+-RNA revealed the presence of three complexity classes of mRNA. Forty-five percent, 30%, and 25% of RNA in dormant gastrulae were present as high, middle, and low abundance classes comprising about 10, 80, and 9700 species, respectively whereas in the nauplii there were 10, 150, and 7900 species of high, middle, and low abundancy sequences, respectively. Heterologous hybridizations using cDNA complementary to highly abundant messenger population of nauplii (isolated by chromatography on hydroxyapatite) to poly(A)+-RNA from dormant cysts showed considerably divergence in this class of messengers from the two developmental stages. Re-initiation of development of dormant Artemia gastrulae is thus characterized by a "re-programming" seen as a simultaneous and rapid increase in the polyadenylation and translatability of poly(A)+-RNA accompanied by a qualitative change in its sequence complexity.

  8. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Hass, Michael Z.; Møller, Per

    2016-01-01

    -scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight...... salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality......Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis...

  9. Avisos de nuevos ejemplares incorporados a la biblioteca con Sierra

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar-Lafont, D. (David)

    2015-01-01

    En la Biblioteca de la Universidad de Navarra los usuarios tienen un parte muy activa en el desarrollo de la colección. Ello implica que la Biblioteca esté muy interesada en avisarles cuando se incorporan los ejemplares que han pedido. Cuando se genera una nueva order (tanto en Sierra como en Millenniun) en el campo ‘SOLICITANTE” se puede cumplimentar los datos de la persona que ha pedido la compra del ejemplar. La notificación al usuario cuando se ha catalogado el ejemplar y se incor...

  10. Relación de la inestabilidad estructural con el manejo y propiedades de los suelos de la región pampeana Relation of structural instability with management and properties of soils in the Pampean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Rosa Álvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad estructural (IEST permite caracterizar la resistencia a la degradación de los suelos. Se determinó la IEST (De Leenheer& De Boodt en 67 sitios de muestreo bajo distintos manejos en la Región Pampeana norte, con el objetivo de comparar los manejos y analizar su relación con: a la densidad aparente (DAP; b el contenido de carbono orgánico total y sus fracciones particulada (> 53 mm y resistente (Soil structural instability (IEST characterizes the resistance to degradation of soils. Soil IEST (De Leenheer and De Boodt was determined in 67 sites under different soil managements in the Northern Pampean Region, in order to establish its relation with: a core bulk density (DAP; b total organic carbon and its particulate (> 53 mm and resistant (<53 mm fractions; c granulometric fractions; and d relative compaction (ratio bulk density to maximum bulk density by Proctor Test. Soil IEST allowed distinguishing among quasi-pristine and agriculture under tillage (P<0.05. Meanwhile integrated crop-livestock systems under no tillage and agriculture under no tillage presented intermediate values. DAP was highest in the integrated crop-livestock systems under no tillage. A multiple regression model (R2 = 0.37 was fitted between IEST and total organic carbon and silt content and a Dummy variable related to management. DAP was negatively related with total organic carbon and clay content and positive with a Dummy variable (value= 1 for integrated crop-livestock systems and 0 for the others (R2= 0.62. Results suggest other stabilizing agents like the action of plant roots could be responsible for the variation in SI in these soils. It can be concluded that higher carbon contents are required to stabilize silty soils.

  11. La sedimentación salina actual en las lagunas de La Mancha: una síntesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Zarzuelo, Antonio de la; Marfil, R.

    1986-01-01

    [ES] La Mancha es una región natural de más de 30.000 Km2, caracterizada por una topografía extraordinariamente plana y un clima de tipo semiárido (Cuadro 1, Fig. 2), en la que existen numerosas lagunas salinas (Fig. 1), la mayoría de las cuales, por su régimen anual, pueden ser consideradas como «playa-lakes» (Fig. 3). Desde el punto de vista hidroquimico sus salmueras están integradas por: a) aniones: SO4 y Cl, con CO3 y CO 3H subordinados, y b) cationes: Mg 2+ y ...

  12. Cultural heritage and food identity: The pre-Hispanic salt of Zapotitlán Salinas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Renard, Marie-Christine; Thomé Ortiz, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Salt production in Zapotitlán de las Salinas (Puebla, Mexico) dates back to pre-Hispanic times when the Popolocas inhabiting the Tehuacán Valley paid it as tribute to the Aztecs. The technique to obtain salt has changed little over the past 500 years and know-how continues to be transmitted from generation to generation of salters (salineros). It is a resource that is deeply anchored in the identity of the inhabitants of Zapotitlán and regional cuisine. Salt has endured over the centuries as ...

  13. IL MUSEO SALINAS, PARADOSSO DEL WEB MARKETING CULTURALE La comunicazione archeologica ai tempi dei social media, a museo chiuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bonacini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to offer the case study of the archaeological museum Antonino Salinas in Palermo, that - closed for many years for the restoration of the architectural complex that houses it, the seventeenth-century Olivella’ s House of the Philippine Fathers - has invented new strategies of the archaeological communication on the social media. After two years, waiting for its reopening, the museum has been able to create a real brand and to renovate the museum’s reputation. The solutions adopted by the Museum could “inspire” other institutions to adopt those web marketing cultural strategies.

  14. Crecimiento y distribución iónica en nueve accesiones de aguacate regadas con agua salina.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Rojas, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    El presente estudio se realizó para conocer la respuesta en crecimiento y distribución iónica de nueve accesiones de aguacate, al estrés provocado por el riego con agua salina. Plantas originadas de semilla de las accesiones: Tochimilco S2, Criollo 38, Tepetl, Aquila S1, 257 PTB todas ellas de la raza Mexicana (var. drymifolia), Navideño y un Segregante de Hunucma de la raza Antillana (var. americana), Fuerte negro (Guatemalteco x Mexicano) y Persea nubigena 1/7 (Persea nubigena Will.), fuer...

  15. Seleção de habitat e conservação de aves nidificantes nas salinas do Samouco

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Daniela Margarida Lima Alves

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia, apresentada ao Departamento Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra Os habitats costeiros têm sido muito alterados, isto leva a que as aves costeiras utilizem habitats artificiais para nidificar. As salinas constituem um habitat alternativo para a reprodução de aves costeiras, nomeadamente o borrelho-de-coleira-interrompida (Charadrius alexandrinus), o perna-longa (Himantopus himantopus) e a chilreta (S...

  16. Actividad de la falla la salina a partir de instrumentación sismológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Ernesto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The "La Salina" Fault, located in a region of high seismicity was studied in an area of 294 km2 in the Santander Department, it's defined as an inverse fault. In general it doesn't present clear morphological or actual activity evidences. In the area of the Hydroelectrical Project of the Sogamoso River by ISAGEN SA., a six stations seismic network was installed in an area near to the fault. During 124 days, 2.367 seismic events were evaluated; from these, 339 acceptable quality events were chosen for doing maps and profiles. Most of the seismicity is related to the "Bucaramanga Nest", other 131 seismic events ware related to the mapped faults. Only two events were related to the "La Salina" Fault, defining a indicating low activity.

    La falla La Salina se ubica en el departamento de Santander, en una región de alta sismicidad y es definida como de tipo inversa. En general, no presenta claras evidencias morfológicas ni de actividad reciente, por lo cual en el presente trabajo se investiga un área de 294 km2 de la misma.

    Dentro del Proyecto hidroeléctrico del rio Sogamoso, desarrollado por ISAGEN S.A, se estableció una red sismológica de seis estaciones en un área cercana a la falla. Durante 124 días se evaluaron 2.367 sismos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 339 de calidad aceptable para la elaboración de mapas y perfiles. De estos sismos, la mayor parte están asociados al "Nido de Bucaramanga" y 131 eventos están relacionados a fallas cartografiadas en la región; y de ellos

  17. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Safafar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids, tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry.

  18. Characterization of cDNA of lycopene beta-cyclase responsible for a high level of beta-carotene accumulation in Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Qian

    2008-06-01

    Lycopene beta-cyclase (Lyc-B) is the key enzyme in the catalysis of linear lycopene to form cyclic beta-carotene, an indispensable part of the photosynthetic apparatus and an important source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. Studies showing that the microalga Dunaliella salina can accumulate a high level of beta-carotene are lacking. We hypothesize that D. salina is closely involved with the catalytic mechanism of Lyc-B and the molecular regulation of its gene. In this study, we used RT-PCR and RACE-PCR to isolate a 2475 bp cDNA with a 1824 bp open reading frame, encoding a putative Lyc-B, from D. salina. Homology studies showed that the deduced amino acid sequence had a significant overall similarity with sequences of other green algae and higher plants, and that it shared the highest sequence identity, up to 64%, with Lyc-B of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Codon analysis showed that synonymous codon usage in the enzyme has a strong bias towards codons ending with adenosine. Two motifs were found in the Lyc-B sequence, one at the N terminus, for binding the hypothetical cofactor FAD, and the other was a substrate carrier motif in oxygenic organisms shared by an earlier carotenogenesis enzyme, phytoene desaturase, and Lyc-B. A tertiary structure prediction suggested that the catalytic or binding site structure within LycB from D. salina is superior to that of both H. pluvialis and C. reinhardtii. The LycB protein from D. salina was quite removed from that of H. pluvialis and C. reinhardtii in the phylogenetic tree. Taken as a whole, this information provides insight into the regulatatory mechanism of Lyc-B at the molecular level and the high level of beta-carotene accumulation in the microalga D. salina.

  19. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safafar, Hamed; Hass, Michael Z; Møller, Per; Holdt, Susan L; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-07-29

    Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids), tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry.

  20. Effects of Salinity, Commercial Salts, and Water Type on Cultivation of the Cryptophyte Microalgae Rhodomonas salina and the Calanoid Copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Thoisen, Christina V.; Carron-Cabaret, Thibaut

    2018-01-01

    was to investigate the applicability of commercial salts and clarify the potential effects on the cultivation of the microalga Rhodomonas salina and the copepod Acartia tonsa. Three commercial salts were tested, Red Sea Salt (RS), Red Sea – Coral Pro Salt (CP), and Blue Treasure Salt. R. salina was cultured......Marine aquaculture facilities positioned far from the sea need access to seawater (SW); hence, commercial salts are often the chosen solution. In marine hatcheries, most fish larvae require live feed (zooplankton) that are in turn fed with microalgae. The objective of this research...

  1. Thermal implications of the cessation of subduction in the Sierra Nevada and Baja- California arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, K.; Blackwell, D. D.

    2006-12-01

    The thermal regime in the extinct Sierra Nevada arc has undergone substantial transformation as a result of the cessation of subduction in the last 30 My. The dynamic mechanism of cooling in the arc has been replaced by re-equilibration of the lithosphere toward continental averages. Preliminary 1D thermal models reveal that the effect of asthenospheric heating at the bottom do not lead to credible changes in the lithospheric temperatures for a 30 My years period in terms of surface manifestations. In the Great Valley, neither the topography nor the surface heat flow show considerable variations before and after the cessation of subduction. On the other hand, Sierra Nevada has experienced substantial uplift in the post subduction California. In the Sierra Nevada, the surface heat flow lags deep temperature response but the topography responds directly to temperatures at depth. As the end of subduction migrated north with the Mendocino triple junction, the dynamic equilibrium between the cold Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range has been upset and the high temperatures of Basin and Range started to invade the Sierra Nevada lithosphere. Our 2D thermal model reveals that conductive heating of the Sierran lithosphere by the hot Basin and Range lithosphere could be the dominant source for the tilted uplift in the Sierra Nevada. The heating from the bottom is likely not very effective in Sierra Nevada as no uplift is observed in the neighboring Great Valley region. The thermal uplift due to Basin and Range heating is substantial at the east edge of the Sierra Nevada and decreases rapidly toward the west. The uplift as far as 100 km toward west could be accommodated by flexural bending of the cold Sierra Nevada lithosphere as the eastern edge thermally expanded. A similar thermo-tectonic scenario could explain the westward tilted Baja-California peninsular ranges which were part of the same tectonic setting of the Sierra Nevada during subduction. We also investigated the

  2. TAX ELASTICITY IN SIERRA LEONE: A TIME SERIES APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brima Ibrahim Baimba Kargbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal authorities in Sierra Leone introduced series of reforms in the tax system ranging from continual revisions in tax rate to harmonization and instituting new taxes that are relatively easy to collect. Despite these measures, the output of the tax system as measured by the tax/GDP ratio remains very low averaging 11 per cent contributing to higher fiscal deficits. This study examined the base elasticity of the tax system in Sierra Leone and its major handles using annual data covering the period between 1977and 2009.The Singer method of dummy variables was employed in order to make adjustment for the effect of discretionary tax measures and then compare buoyancy and elasticity measures. The empirical results indicated that buoyancy estimates were higher than elasticity estimates; and that short-run elasticities were lower than the static long-run elasticities. Estimation results further showed that discretionary tax measures were effective in mobilizing additional tax revenues and that the tax system was inelastic during the period.

  3. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone.

  4. Non-photochemical quenching in cryptophyte alga Rhodomonas salina is located in chlorophyll a/c antennae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Kaňa

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis uses light as a source of energy but its excess can result in production of harmful oxygen radicals. To avoid any resulting damage, phototrophic organisms can employ a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, where excess light energy is safely dissipated as heat. The mechanism(s of NPQ vary among different phototrophs. Here, we describe a new type of NPQ in the organism Rhodomonas salina, an alga belonging to the cryptophytes, part of the chromalveolate supergroup. Cryptophytes are exceptional among photosynthetic chromalveolates as they use both chlorophyll a/c proteins and phycobiliproteins for light harvesting. All our data demonstrates that NPQ in cryptophytes differs significantly from other chromalveolates - e.g. diatoms and it is also unique in comparison to NPQ in green algae and in higher plants: (1 there is no light induced xanthophyll cycle; (2 NPQ resembles the fast and flexible energetic quenching (qE of higher plants, including its fast recovery; (3 a direct antennae protonation is involved in NPQ, similar to that found in higher plants. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical characterization of isolated photosynthetic complexes suggest that NPQ in R. salina occurs in the chlorophyll a/c antennae but not in phycobiliproteins. All these results demonstrate that NPQ in cryptophytes represents a novel class of effective and flexible non-photochemical quenching.

  5. Influencia del medio ambiente en los materiales de construcción III. Dinámica salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Paris, José Manuel

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Las sales y la humedad son los dos factores que condicionan las alteraciones de los materiales de construcción. Los citados materiales, bien de por sí —piedras y ladrillos—, bien una vez endurecidos —morteros y hormigones—, están estructurados por partículas sólidas granulares, separadas por un sistema poroso, que constituye el medio -dinámico para el transporte de las disoluciones salinas procedentes del medio ambiente. La motilidad de las sales a través de la red de poros es función de tres variables físicoclimáticas: temperatura, humedad y condiciones de aireación. La dinámica salina se efectúa mediante procesos de difusión, unas veces de naturaleza química: difusión iónica, otras de naturaleza física: difusión capilar.

  6. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.

  7. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Castilla Casadiego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3 and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6 from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6 and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9 were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids.

  8. Algunas notas sobre la proyección literaria en el epistolario de Pedro Salinas a Katherine Whitmore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peragón López, Clara Eugenia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Salinas' lover with no name that appears in his trilogy in loving poetry (La voz a ti debida. Razón de amor, Largo lament is presented with her own name in the group of letters sent by the poet to Katherine Whitmore. Through the analysis of these fascinating texts we will be able to establish tight relationship between his real world and his poetic world. Their content will reveal us a double documental and literary aspect of one of the best poems of love of the XX century.La amada innombrada en la trilogía de poesía amorosa de Pedro Salinas (La voz a ti debida. Razón de amor, Largo lamento se presenta con nombre propio en el conjunto de cartas enviadas por el poeta a Katherine Whitmore. A través del análisis de este fascinante epistolario podremos establecer una estrecha relación entre el mundo real y el mundo poético saliniano. Su contenido nos revelará un doble aspecto documental y literario y nos acercará a uno de los mejores poemarios de temática amorosa del siglo XX.

  9. Salinity-Induced Palmella Formation Mechanism in Halotolerant Algae Dunaliella salina Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sijia; Bian, Yangyang; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Sixue; Mao, Jiawei; Song, Chunxia; Cheng, Kai; Xiao, Zhen; Zhang, Chuanfang; Ma, Weimin; Zou, Hanfa; Ye, Mingliang; Dai, Shaojun

    2017-01-01

    Palmella stage is critical for some unicellular algae to survive in extreme environments. The halotolerant algae Dunaliella salina is a good single-cell model for studying plant adaptation to high salinity. To investigate the molecular adaptation mechanism in salinity shock-induced palmella formation, we performed a comprehensive physiological, proteomics and phosphoproteomics study upon palmella formation of D. salina using dimethyl labeling and Ti(4+)-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) proteomic approaches. We found that 151 salinity-responsive proteins and 35 salinity-responsive phosphoproteins were involved in multiple signaling and metabolic pathways upon palmella formation. Taken together with photosynthetic parameters and enzyme activity analyses, the patterns of protein accumulation and phosphorylation level exhibited the mechanisms upon palmella formation, including dynamics of cytoskeleton and cell membrane curvature, accumulation and transport of exopolysaccharides, photosynthesis and energy supplying (i.e., photosystem II stability and activity, cyclic electron transport, and C4 pathway), nuclear/chloroplastic gene expression regulation and protein processing, reactive oxygen species homeostasis, and salt signaling transduction. The salinity-responsive protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks implied that signaling and protein synthesis and fate are crucial for modulation of these processes. Importantly, the 3D structure of phosphoprotein clearly indicated that the phosphorylation sites of eight proteins were localized in the region of function domain.

  10. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Casadiego, D A; Albis Arrieta, A R; Angulo Mercado, E R; Cervera Cahuana, S J; Baquero Noriega, K S; Suárez Escobar, A F; Morales Avendaño, E D

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained "Nutrifoliar," a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using "Nutrifoliar" as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3) and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6) from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9) were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids.

  11. Non-Photochemical Quenching in Cryptophyte Alga Rhodomonas salina Is Located in Chlorophyll a/c Antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňa, Radek; Kotabová, Eva; Sobotka, Roman; Prášil, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis uses light as a source of energy but its excess can result in production of harmful oxygen radicals. To avoid any resulting damage, phototrophic organisms can employ a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), where excess light energy is safely dissipated as heat. The mechanism(s) of NPQ vary among different phototrophs. Here, we describe a new type of NPQ in the organism Rhodomonas salina, an alga belonging to the cryptophytes, part of the chromalveolate supergroup. Cryptophytes are exceptional among photosynthetic chromalveolates as they use both chlorophyll a/c proteins and phycobiliproteins for light harvesting. All our data demonstrates that NPQ in cryptophytes differs significantly from other chromalveolates – e.g. diatoms and it is also unique in comparison to NPQ in green algae and in higher plants: (1) there is no light induced xanthophyll cycle; (2) NPQ resembles the fast and flexible energetic quenching (qE) of higher plants, including its fast recovery; (3) a direct antennae protonation is involved in NPQ, similar to that found in higher plants. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical characterization of isolated photosynthetic complexes suggest that NPQ in R. salina occurs in the chlorophyll a/c antennae but not in phycobiliproteins. All these results demonstrate that NPQ in cryptophytes represents a novel class of effective and flexible non-photochemical quenching. PMID:22235327

  12. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Casadiego, D. A.; Albis Arrieta, A. R.; Angulo Mercado, E. R.; Cervera Cahuana, S. J.; Baquero Noriega, K. S.; Suárez Escobar, A. F.; Morales Avendaño, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3) and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6) from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9) were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids. PMID:27376085

  13. TFA and EPA Productivities of Nannochloropsis salina Influenced by Temperature and Nitrate Stimuli in Turbidostatic Controlled Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Heinrich Vanselow

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different nitrate concentrations in combination with three cultivation temperatures on the total fatty acids (TFA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. This was done by virtue of turbidostatic controlled cultures. This control mode enables the cultivation of microalgae under defined conditions and, therefore, the influence of single parameters on the fatty acid synthesis of Nannochloropsis salina can be investigated. Generally, growth rates decreased under low nitrate concentrations. This effect was reinforced when cells were exposed to lower temperatures (from 26 °C down to 17 °C. Considering the cellular TFA concentration, nitrate provoked an increase of TFA under nitrate limitation up to 70% of the biological dry mass (BDM. In contrast to this finding, the EPA content decreased under low nitrate concentrations. Nevertheless, both TFA and EPA contents increased under a low culture temperature (17 °C compared to moderate temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C. In terms of biotechnological production, the growth rate has to be taken into account. Therefore, for both TFA and EPA production, a temperature of 17 °C and a nitrate concentration of 1800 µmol L-1 afforded the highest productivities. Temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C in combination with 1800 µmol L-1 nitrate showed slightly lower TFA and EPA productivities.

  14. TFA and EPA Productivities of Nannochloropsis salina Influenced by Temperature and Nitrate Stimuli in Turbidostatic Controlled Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Maren; Marxen, Kai; Schulz, Rüdiger; Vanselow, Klaus Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    The influence of different nitrate concentrations in combination with three cultivation temperatures on the total fatty acids (TFA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. This was done by virtue of turbidostatic controlled cultures. This control mode enables the cultivation of microalgae under defined conditions and, therefore, the influence of single parameters on the fatty acid synthesis of Nannochloropsis salina can be investigated. Generally, growth rates decreased under low nitrate concentrations. This effect was reinforced when cells were exposed to lower temperatures (from 26 °C down to 17 °C). Considering the cellular TFA concentration, nitrate provoked an increase of TFA under nitrate limitation up to 70% of the biological dry mass (BDM). In contrast to this finding, the EPA content decreased under low nitrate concentrations. Nevertheless, both TFA and EPA contents increased under a low culture temperature (17 °C) compared to moderate temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C. In terms of biotechnological production, the growth rate has to be taken into account. Therefore, for both TFA and EPA production, a temperature of 17 °C and a nitrate concentration of 1800 μmol L−1 afforded the highest productivities. Temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C in combination with 1800 μmol L−1 nitrate showed slightly lower TFA and EPA productivities. PMID:20948904

  15. Salinity-Induced Palmella Formation Mechanism in Halotolerant Algae Dunaliella salina Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Wei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmella stage is critical for some unicellular algae to survive in extreme environments. The halotolerant algae Dunaliella salina is a good single-cell model for studying plant adaptation to high salinity. To investigate the molecular adaptation mechanism in salinity shock-induced palmella formation, we performed a comprehensive physiological, proteomics and phosphoproteomics study upon palmella formation of D. salina using dimethyl labeling and Ti4+-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC proteomic approaches. We found that 151 salinity-responsive proteins and 35 salinity-responsive phosphoproteins were involved in multiple signaling and metabolic pathways upon palmella formation. Taken together with photosynthetic parameters and enzyme activity analyses, the patterns of protein accumulation and phosphorylation level exhibited the mechanisms upon palmella formation, including dynamics of cytoskeleton and cell membrane curvature, accumulation and transport of exopolysaccharides, photosynthesis and energy supplying (i.e., photosystem II stability and activity, cyclic electron transport, and C4 pathway, nuclear/chloroplastic gene expression regulation and protein processing, reactive oxygen species homeostasis, and salt signaling transduction. The salinity-responsive protein–protein interaction (PPI networks implied that signaling and protein synthesis and fate are crucial for modulation of these processes. Importantly, the 3D structure of phosphoprotein clearly indicated that the phosphorylation sites of eight proteins were localized in the region of function domain.

  16. Identifikasi Metabolit Sekunder Ekstrak Etil Asetat Biji Alpukat (Persea americana Mill. dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Larva Udang Artemia salina Leach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdia Asdar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of metabolite compound in acetone Extract from Fruits Avocado seed (Percea americana Mill and toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach. Aim of this research is to identify the secondary metabolite compound in aceton extract from fruits Avocado seed (Percea americana Mill and to determine the potential of secondary metabolites from an avocado extract as anticancer. The compound was obtained from Identification process in several stages, namely extraction, fractination, purification and identification. The identification process was color test, TLC, spectroscopy IR. The toxicity test by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT to Artemia salina Leach. The compound obtained from this research was yellow-white crystalline needle-shaped, the purity test with TLC analysis showed a stain in three eluen system on the stain test on three eluent systems with Rf proportions as follows; 0,15 from chloroform:ethyl acetat (6:4, 0,33 from methanol:chloroform (1:9, 0,75 for acetone:ethyl acetat, and positively to the reagent Wagner and gave brown precipitate for indicate as alcaloid group. This result is supported by spectroscopy from compound.While toxicity tests showed condensed acetone extracts  and pure compounds are toxic with LC50 value of each is 20.61 mg/mL and 39,81 mg/mL.

  17. Ethanol fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus from Jerusalem artichoke grown in salina and irrigated with a mixture of seawater and freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W J; Zhao, X Q; Ge, X M; Bai, F W

    2008-12-01

    To study fuel ethanol fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC8554 from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) grown in salina and irrigated with a mixture of seawater and freshwater. The growth and ethanol fermentation of K. marxianus ATCC8554 were studied using inulin as substrate. The activity of inulinase, which attributes to the hydrolysis of inulin, the main carbohydrate in Jerusalem artichoke, was monitored. The optimum temperatures were 38 degrees C for growth and inulinase production, and 35 degrees C for ethanol fermentation. Aeration was not necessary for ethanol fermentation with the K. marxianus from inulin. Then, the fresh Jerusalem artichoke tubers grown in salina and irrigated with 25% and 50% seawater were further examined for ethanol fermentation with the K. marxianus, and a higher ethanol yield was achieved for the Jerusalem artichoke tuber irrigated with 25% seawater. Furthermore, the dry meal of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers irrigated with 25% seawater was examined for ethanol fermentation at three solid concentrations of 200, 225 and 250 g l(-1), and the highest ethanol yield of 0.467, or 91.5% of the theoretical value of 0.511, was achieved for the slurry with a solid concentration of 200 g l(-1). Halophilic Jerusalem artichoke can be used for fuel ethanol production. Halophilic Jerusalem artichoke, not competing with grain crops for arable land, is a sustainable feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

  18. Effects of phosphorus on the growth and chlorophyll fluorescence of a Dunaliella salina strain isolated from saline soil under nitrate limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassnapa Wongsnansilp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An isolated Dunaliella salina (D. salina KU XI from saline soils in northeastern Thailand was cultured in f/2 medium in column photobioreactor. The variations of the growth, chlorophyll and beta-carotene content and the maximum quantum yield of PS II photochemistry (Fv/Fm under different NaH2PO4 concentrations were studied. Based on the results, the growth kinetics of D. salina KU XI was established, which could simulate the algae growth rate under different phosphate concentrations and temperatures. The phosphorus could significantly affect the growth and pigments accumulations of this isolated strain. Increasing NaH2PO4 concentration improved the biomass, the total chlorophyll and beta-carotene content, retarded the decrease of Fv/Fm value. The optimal phosphate concentration for the growth of D. salina KU XI was above 72.6 μM. The maximum biomass and beta-carotene were 0.24 g L-1 and 17.4 mg L-1 respectively when NaH2PO4 was 290.4 μM. The algae growth was restrained by phosphate or nitrate when NaH2PO4 below 12.1 μM or above 72.6 μM. It indicated that properly supplementing nitrate in the late growth stage with high phosphate concentration was favored for enhancing the growth and biomass production.

  19. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine) : The use of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Van der Have, TM; Van der Winden, J; Chernichko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris

  20. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine): the use of brine shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.; Have, van der T.M.; Winden, van der J.; Chernichko, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris

  1. El teatro de Pedro Salinas en el exilio: identidad y pacifismo en Caín o una gloria científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Barrantes Martín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La vertiente política de Pedro Salinas comenzó al término de la Guerra Civil Española cuando, junto a varios miles de otros españoles en su misma situación, tiene que buscar nuevos horizontes vitales y literarios. Salinas recalaría en Estados Unidos, acogido por diferentes universidades, que le ofrecieron trabajo como docente. Con este viaje, Salinas comienza una búsqueda de la identidad perdida, tanto nacional como colectiva, que llevará involucrada unas determinadas inquietudes políticas, éticas y sociales. El mundo de Salinas ya no es el que era y siente la necesidad de comprometerse con su realidad: su nueva identidad es una identidad política que defiende tanto la reivindicación individual como un nuevo orden mundial en el que se incluye la defensa de la ética y el pacifismo.

  2. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesarič, Tina, E-mail: tina.mesaric84@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gambardella, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.gambardella@ge.ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Milivojević, Tamara, E-mail: milivojevictamara@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faimali, Marco, E-mail: marco.faimali@ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Drobne, Damjana, E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CO Nanocentre), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Falugi, Carla, E-mail: carlafalugi@hotmail.it [Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Makovec, Darko, E-mail: darko.makovec@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sepčić, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.sepcic@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change.

  3. [The indigenous population of Sierra Norte de Puebla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez Gonzalez, G

    1991-06-01

    The northern sierra region of Pueblo, Mexico, contains 1496 communities in 65 municipios and covers 1/4 of the area of the state of Puebla. The topography is steep and mountainous, and the area is inaccessible. The region contains the 3 principal zones of Mesoamerica, hot lands from sea level to 700 meters above sea level, temperate zones from 700-1500 meters, and cold country from 1500-2000 meters above sea level. Most of the population resides in the temperate and cold lands, but the hot zones are economically important. Little is known of the prehistory of the area. The Totonac were believed to have been the earliest settlers. In the mid-15th century numerous Nahua groups came to the area. In the late 15th century the region fell to the Aztecs, but their dominion was cut short by the arrival of the Spanish. Spanish penetration was relatively slow because of the difficult terrain and the lack of precious metals desired by the Spanish. The introduction of coffee cultivation in the late 19th century accelerated the adoption of urban-mestizo sociocultural and commercial elements by the indigenous population. The population of the northern sierra increased from 752,656 in 1980 to 965,976 in 1990. The 1980 census reported that 259,140 persons spoke indigenous languages, including 179,677 who spoke Nahuatl, 66,020 Totonaco, and 4921 Otomi. The most important cities are located on paved roads: Teziutland, Zacatlan, Hauachinango, and Zacapoaxtla. The municipios with predominantly monolingual indigenous populations are concentrated in the most difficult to reach areas of the central sierra massif. The region is characterized by temporary and permanent emigration of the indigenous population. The main reasons for emigration are lack of land and of alternative sources of employment, and desire for education. During the months August-December, known as the time of hunger, there is seasonal migration of household heads in search of work as laborers in cane cutting, tobacco

  4. DNA sequences of troglobitic nicoletiid insects support Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala as a single biogeographical area: Implications for Astyanax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blind Mexican tetra fish, Astyanax mexicanus, has become the most influential model for research of cave adapted organisms. Many authors assume that the Sierra de Guatemala populations and the Sierra de El Abra populations are derived from two independent colonizations. This assumption arises in part from biogeography. The 100 m high, 100 m wide Servilleta Canyon of the Boquillas River separates both mountain ranges and is an apparent barrier for troglobite dispersion. Anelpistina quinterensis (Nicoletiidae, Zygentoma, Insecta is one of the most troglomorphic nicoletiid silverfish insects ever described. 16S rRNA sequences support that this species migrated underground to reach both mountain ranges within less than 12,000 years. Furthermore, literature shows a plethora of aquatic and terrestrial cave restricted species that inhabit both mountain ranges. Thus, the Servilleta canyon has not been an effective biological barrier that prevented underground migration of troglobites between the Sierra de Guatemala and the Sierra de El Abra. The Boquillas River has changed its course throughout time. Caves that in the past connected the two Sierras were only recently geologically truncated by the erosion of the new river course. It is likely that, with the geological changes of the area and throughout the 2-8 million years of evolutionary history of cave Astyanax, there have been opportunities to migrate across the Servilleta canyon.

  5. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  6. State of California; Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District; Wood Burning Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) concerning emissions of particulate matter (PM) from wood burning devices.

  7. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  8. Papilionoidea de la Sierra de Huautla, Morelos y Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercedes Luna-Reyes; Jorge Llorente-Bousquets; Armando Luis-Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Papilionoidea from Sierra de Huautla, Morelos and Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera). The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants...

  9. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Vol. 2 (2) pp. 115-121 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    course (DOTS) coverage on notification of infectious tuberculosis (TB) and treatment cure rate in the post conflict period of 2002 to 2005 in Sierra Leone. The study was a population based retrospective study on implementation of DOTS expansion ...

  10. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  11. Rock-Ice Feature Inventory for the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sierra Nevada is a tectonic uplift mountain range with a gradual gain in elevation on the west side and a steep escarpment on the east. Most of the mapped...

  12. PLANTAS MEDICINALES USADAS POR LOS COGUI EN EL RIO PALOMINO, SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA (COLOMBIA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eduino Carbonó-Delahoz; Juan Carlos Dib-Diazgranados

    2013-01-01

      To document indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants among the Cogui or Kggaba in the Palomino river basin, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, the use of the ora was assessed via application...

  13. Soil acidity, temperature, and water relationships of four clovers in Sierra Nevada meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Ethelynda E. Harding

    1993-01-01

    Sites in meadows of the Sierra Nevada near Fresno, California, were studied to learn whether Bolander's (Trifolium holanderi Gray.), longstalked (T. longipes Nutt.), carpet (T. monanthum Gray.), and mountain (T. wormskioldii Lehm.) clovers occurred under the same soil acidity, temperature...

  14. Critical Habitat for the Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas designated as critical habitat for the Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep. Critical habitat for the species occurs in twelve units: Mount...

  15. Water vapour flux patterns and precipitation at Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range (Spain)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durán, L; Rodríguez‐Fonseca, B; Yagüe, C; Sánchez, E

    2015-01-01

    .... Sierra de Guadarrama is a part of the Iberian Peninsula Central System (Spain), a mountain range located in the center of an extensive plateau, dominated by a continental Mediterranean climate but under a strong Atlantic influence...

  16. Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima,  Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa. Abstract

  17. 75 FR 48927 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Fish Camp Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark Lemon, Interdisciplinary Team Leader, at Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger... sustain a fire) wildland urban intermix area, (3) increase the vigor and health of mixed conifer stands...

  18. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  19. Comparative study on toxicity of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles on Artemia salina: effect of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Sagar, Bhawana; Doshi, Siddharth; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity potential of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles under pre-UV-A irradiation and visible light condition on Artemia salina. The nanoparticle suspension was prepared in seawater medium and exposed under pre-UV-A (0.23 mW/cm2) and visible light (0.18 mW/cm2) conditions. The aggregation profiles of both nanoparticles (NPs) and dissolution of ZnO NPs under both irradiation conditions at various kinetic intervals (1, 24, 48 h) were studied. The 48-h LC50 values were found to be 27.62 and 71.63 mg/L for ZnO NPs and 117 and 120.9 mg/L for TiO2 NPs under pre-UV-A and visible light conditions. ZnO NPs were found to be more toxic to A. salina as compared to TiO2 NPs. The enhanced toxicity was observed under pre-UV-A-irradiated ZnO NPs, signifying its phototoxicity. Accumulation of ZnO and TiO2 NPs into A. salina depends on the concentration of particles and type irradiations. Elimination of accumulated nanoparticles was also evident under both irradiation conditions. Other than ZnO NPs, the dissolved Zn2+ also had a significant effect on toxicity and accumulation in A. salina. Increased catalase (CAT) activity in A. salina indicates the generation of oxidative stress due to NP interaction. Thus, this study provides an understanding of the toxicity of photoreactive ZnO and TiO2 NPs as related to the effects of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

  20. Comparing cestode infections and their consequences for host fitness in two sexual branchiopods: alien Artemia franciscana and native A. salina from syntopic-populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Redón

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain, in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles. The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides and colour change (for six cestode species were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially.

  1. Mercury in Stream Sediments in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, R. D.; Tuffly, M. F.

    2001-12-01

    Mercury lost during California's gold rush is still found in Sierra Nevada rivers and streams. Mercury droplets and gold-mercury amalgam are found in stream bedrock fissures and along stream bedrock in watersheds that were subjected to intense hydraulic gold mining. Recreational gold miners report finding mercury puddles, sometimes containing mercury by the pound, on stream bedrock. The poster depicts where and how mercury was found and its spatial relationship to major hydraulic mines and dredge fields. Additional sampling is planned. Other studies are investigating the biological consequences of legacy mercury on the aquatic food chain. The positions of all confirmed locations were recorded and corrected using Trimble or CMT Global Positioning Systems (GPS). In the few instances were GPS positions could not be recorded, positions were determined by hand plotting from UGSG 7.5 minute topographic map.

  2. Element Verification and Comparison in Sierra/Solid Mechanics Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Roth, William

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project was to study the effects of element selection on the Sierra/SM solutions to five common solid mechanics problems. A total of nine element formulations were used for each problem. The models were run multiple times with varying spatial and temporal discretization in order to ensure convergence. The first four problems have been compared to analytical solutions, and all numerical results were found to be sufficiently accurate. The penetration problem was found to have a high mesh dependence in terms of element type, mesh discretization, and meshing scheme. Also, the time to solution is shown for each problem in order to facilitate element selection when computer resources are limited.

  3. Analysis of obsidian sources in the southern Sierra Madre occidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, J.A.; Hayashida, F.M.

    1994-12-31

    From 1991 to 1993, field surveys and geologic sampling were conducted in the region of the southern Sierra Madre Occidental in the states of Durango, Zacatecas, and Jalisco, Mexico, to investigate three previously unreported sources of obsidian or volcanic glass. The source areas are Huitzila-La Lobera, Llano Grande, and Nochistlan. Obsidian`s importance as a raw material in premodern societies for the production of tools and articles of adornment is well documented, particularly for Mesoamerica. Investigation of northern mesoamerican obsidian offers new data on these little known sources located to the north of the more thoroughly studied sources of the Mexican Neovolcanic chain. Neutron activation analysis was used to characterize the materials.

  4. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  5. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  6. Enfermedad y pobreza en la Sierra de Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Bayona Escat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo indaga en la desigualdad y exclusión social que padece la población de la región Sierra, Chiapas, en el ámbito de la salud, desde los testimonios de mujeres rurales que ofrecen su visión de la salud, la enfermedad y la atención sanitaria, y desarrollan estrategias para afrontar las dificultades. Se pretende demostrar cómo en un medio adverso, caracterizado por la pobreza y olvido institucional, los trastornos físicos son reiterativos, se convierten en incurables y contribuyen a la reproducción de la marginalidad. Así, se genera la enfermedad de la pobreza, que somatiza males físicos para expresar las carencias sociales.

  7. La invención de la Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Serje.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es ilustrar la experiencia del grupo de investigación que trabajó en Ciudad Perdida (Magdalena, Colombia entre 1979 y 1983, y para analizar la producción del conocimiento antropológico como una práctica espacial. El itinerario del grupo comienza en un sitio arqueológico y termina con la creación de una ONG y la invención de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta como una región de planificación. A través de la reconstrucción del viaje, el artículo explora las diferentes realidades espaciales producidos por el crédito, el estudio y gestión del sitio. Por último, se yuxtapone con el significado que este lugar tiene para sus habitantes aborígenes.

  8. Avances en el pronóstico climático de las anomalías de lluvia en la Región Pampeana Advances in the climatic forecast of rainfall anomalies in the Pampa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Labraga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos globales de la circulación general de la atmósfera (MCGA son capaces de simular anomalías climáticas estadísticamente significativas de escala estacional o mayor, asociadas con anomalías en la temperatura de la superficie del mar. Los MCGA pueden estimar efectivamente el signo y la probabilidad de tales anomalías climáticas cuando su extensión es varias veces mayor que la resolución espacial del modelo. En este trabajo se presentan algunos avances en la estimación de las anomalías de la lluvia en 22 localidades de la Región Pampeana Argentina mediante downscaling estadístico de la información producida por un ensamble de veinte simulaciones con el MCGA CSIRO-9, prescribiendo la temperatura de la superficie del mar de acuerdo con los valores diarios observados en el período 1987-1998. El downscaling estadístico de la lluvia produjo una mayor correlación con las observaciones locales que los datos de lluvia del MCGA interpolados sobre cada sitio. Los resultados de un Análisis de las Componentes Principales aplicado a los datos observados y estimados indican que este método de downscaling permite discernir áreas con diferente comportamiento de la lluvia dentro de la región de estudio.Atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM are able to simulate statistically significant climate anomalies of seasonal or larger time-scales, associated with anomalies in the sea surface temperature. AGCMs can effectively estimate the sign and probability of such climate anomalies whenever their extent is several times greater than the spatial resolution of the model. Some progress attained in the estimation of rainfall anomalies in 22 sites of the Pampa Region, Argentina, by means of statistical downscaling of the output from an AGCM are presented in this work. Downscaling models were based in the multiple lineal regression method. Climatic anomalies of the atmospheric independent variables required in the rainfall downscaling

  9. Registro de Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae del Sur de la región Pampeana Record of Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae of the southern Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Plischuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudios prospectivos tendientes a la detección de protistas asociados a ápidos en la región Pampeana, se observó la presencia de esporos ovales bicóncavos y grupos de esporos (cúmulos en los túbulos de Malpighi de abejas de Dufaur, partido de Saavedra, sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los esporos maduros midieron 4,8 ± 0,05 x 2,4 ± 0,03 μm y la carga (intensidad promedió 5,71 ± 1,49 x 10(6 esporos/abeja. Las detecciones se efectuaron entre julio y octubre de 2006 y la prevalencia en las colmenas positivas osciló entre 1 y 16,7 %. Las características morfológicas de los esporos, el lugar de desarrollo y la especie huésped involucrada sugieren que el microorganismo en cuestión, pertenece al género Nephridiophaga y sería N. apis Ivani, especie tipo cuyo conocimiento es extremadamente limitado. El hallazgo constituye el primer registro de un nefridiofágido asociado a A mellifera fuera del continente europeo.During surveys for the detection of protists associated to Apidae in the Pampas region, biconcave oval spores, and spore clumps were observed in the Malpighian tubules of honeybees from Dufaur, Saavedra county, southwestern Buenos Aires province. Mature spores measured 4.8 ± 0.05 x 2.4 ± 0.03 μm, and mean spore load was 5.71 ± 1.49 x 10(6 per honeybee. Detections were from July to October 2006, and prevalence in positive colonies ranged from 1 to 16.7%. Morphology of the spores, the site of development, and the identity of the host species suggest that the isolated microorganism belongs to the genus Nephridiophaga and would be N apis Ivani, the type species, knowledge on which is extremely limited. The finding constitutes the first record of a nephridiophagid in honeybees outside of Europe.

  10. Knowledge of breast cancer in women in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHEE Shepherd

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has been described as one of the life-threatening diseases affecting women and is a major problem in women’s health issues. The unrecorded number of cases of breast lumps and breast cancer observed in women in Sierra Leone prompted the researcher to organize a “Breast Week” during which 1 200 women were educated on breast cancer and the importance of breast health. This research is a follow up of the “Breast Week” which was organized in Freetown, Sierra Leone The specific objective of this study was to assess whether the knowledge and teachings given to the women who participated in this project was fully understood. A sample size of 120 women (10% who participated in the “Breast Week” was obtained through systematic sampling. A quantitative approach was adopted and a structured interview schedule guided the data collection process. The data were processed through use of SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Texts from open ended questions were categorized and frequency counts were applied to the data. It was found that the majority (96.6% of the women had some knowledge of breast cancer. They linked breast cancer to the signs and symptoms associated with it and were able to describe the disease as one that kills women if not promptly detected and/or treated appropriately. Findings indicate that the majority of the women are aware of the dangers of the disease and had knowledge of someone who had died of breast cancer (59.2%. An assessment of the effectiveness of knowledge on breast cancer showed that these women could identify breast cancer as a disease that affects women and may cause death if not detected on time.

  11. Los recursos humanos en un espacio natural protegido: Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Enriqueta Cózar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Nevada, como todas las áreas de montaña españolas y gran parte del territorio interior andaluz, ha experimentado durante el siglo XX un considerable retroceso demográfico. La población con la que llega al umbral del siglo XXI es una cuarta parte más pequeña que la registrada en 1900 y un tercio inferior a la de 1950. Diversos y complejos factores, tanto internos como externos al área de montaña, de carácter más económico que demográfico, fueron los desencadenantes de una fuerte emigración. La gran pérdida de población ha originado cambios trascendentales en la demografía y en la actividad económica de Sierra Nevada. En la actualidad, la población de este espacio protegido se caracteriza por una desequilibrada distribución en el territorio, un escaso crecimiento natural, un acelerado envejecimiento y una actividad mayoritariamente terciaria. La declaración, en Julio de 1989, como espacio natural protegido bajo la figura de Parque Natural, y la más reciente de Parque Nacional, apenas ha modificado la inercia demográfica regresiva de la mayor parte de sus municipios; tan sólo se ha podido apreciar una cierta tendencia a la estabilización demográfica de la población total del macizo

  12. The paleoenvironment of the "Sierra de la Primavera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, R.; Peña, L.; Rosas, J.

    2009-04-01

    The paleoenvironment of the "Sierra de la Primavera" (SP) Jalisco Mexico, was studied with paleontology, tephrachronology, strato-tectonic, geochronology and climatology techniques. It was created between 126,000 and 27,000 years ago (late Pleistocene) by more than 22 domes and a caldera (110 +- 15 thousand years). There are fault and fractures with a NNE and NNW trends, with up of four reactivation periods. Historically, seismic events have been registered around the caldera. Volcanic and tectonic activities have contributed to the modification of the morphology. The evidence of an intermittent paleolake formed into the caldera, are 24 strata are built on tephras, fluvial and vulcano-lacustres deposits, (> 51 m thick), present 2o to 35o leanings. The central part of the paleolake has raised more than 149 m which was caused by the reappearance of the magmatic chamber, it and the climatic changes disappeared the paleolake. There are layers of gigantic pomez and strata with carbon whith remaining from pines (ones, aciculas and branches). The method of 14C used in fossils report an age of 38,170 to 39,000 years BP. They are classified as remainings of Pinus durangensis Martínez, Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham., Pinus montezumae Lamb., Pinus luzmariae Pérez de la Rosa, Pinus teocote Schltdl. & Cham.y Pinus douglasiana Martínez. This community of pines was moved of SP to the Sierra de Bolaños (SB), 177 km northeast and 850 m higher (25000 masl), it is climatologically more humid and colder than the SP. This implies a movement in the border of the vegetation, associated to global climatic changes. Using the community of pines like bioindicator, it is inferred that the temperature in the SP has increased from 2 to 3 C and the precipitation has decreased between 100 and 200 mm from the late Pleistocene on. The predominant pine wood of its early years is now pine - Encino.

  13. Emergency care capacity in Freetown, Sierra Leone: a service evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Rachel M; Harrison, Hooi-Ling

    2015-02-03

    There is an increasing global recognition of the role of emergency medical services in improving population health. Emergency medical services remain underdeveloped in many low income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. There have been no previous evaluations of specialist emergency and critical care services in Sierra Leone. Emergency care capacity was evaluated at a sample of seven public and private hospitals in Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone. A structured set of minimum standards necessary to deliver emergency and critical care in the low-income setting was used to evaluate capacity. The key dimensions of capacity evaluated were infrastructure, human resources, drug and equipment availability, training, systems, guidelines and diagnostics. A score for each dimension of capacity was calculated based on the availability of a list of specified indicators within each dimension. In addition, an Emergency Care Capacity Score was calculated to demonstrate a composite measure of capacity based on the various indicator scores. This method has been used by the World Health Organisation in evaluating the availability and readiness of healthcare systems in low- and middle-income countries. Substantial deficiencies in capacity were demonstrated across the range of indicators and predominantly affecting publically funded facilities. Capacity was weakest in the domain of infrastructure, with an average score of 43%, while the strongest areas of capacity overall were in drug availability, 82%, and human resources, 79%. A marked disparity was noted between public and private healthcare facilities with consistently lower capacity in the former. The overall Emergency Care Capacity Score was 66%. There are substantial deficiencies in emergency care systems in public hospitals in Freetown which are likely to compromise effective care. This represents a serious barrier to access to emergency healthcare. Emergency care systems have an important role in improving

  14. From basalt to dacite: origin and evolution of the calc-alkaline series of Salina, Aeolian Arc, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertisser, Ralf; Keller, Jörg

    2000-09-01

    The island of Salina comprises one of the most distinct calc-alkaline series of the Aeolian arc (Italy), in which calc-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline, shoshonitic and leucite-shoshonitic magma series are developed. Detailed petrological, geochemical and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb, O) data are reported for a stratigraphically well-established sequence of lavas and pyroclastic rocks from the Middle Pleistocene volcanic cycle (430-127 ka) of Salina, which is characterized by an early period of basaltic volcanism (Corvo; Capo; Rivi; Fossa delle Felci, group 1) and a sequence of basaltic andesites, and andesites and dacites in the final stages of activity (Fossa delle Felci, groups 2-8). Major and trace element compositional trends, rare earth element (REE) abundances and mineralogy reveal the importance of crystal fractionation of plagioclase + clinopyroxene + olivine/ orthopyroxene ± titanomagnetite ± amphibole ± apatite in generating the more evolved magma types from parental basaltic magmas, and plagioclase accumulation in producing the high Al2O3 contents of some of the more evolved basalts. Sr isotope ratios range from 0.70410 to 0.70463 throughout the suite and show a well-defined negative correlation with 143Nd/144Nd (0.51275-0.51279). Pb isotope compositions are distinctly radiogenic with relatively large variations in 206Pb/204Pb (19.30-19.66), fairly constant 207Pb/204Pb (15.68-15.76) and minor variations in 208Pb/204Pb ratios (39.15-39.51). Whole-rock δ18O values range from +6.4 to +8.5‰ and correlate positively with Sr isotope ratios. Overall, the isotopic variations are correlated with the degree of differentiation of the rocks, indicating that only small degrees of crustal assimilation are overprinting the dominant evolution by crystal-liquid fractionation (AFC-type processes). The radiogenic and oxygen isotope composition of the Salina basalts suggests derivation from primary magmas from a depleted mantle source contaminated by slab-derived fluids and

  15. Coupling Between the Changes in CO2 Concentration and Sediment Biogeochemistry in the Salinas De San Pedro Mudflat, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie Boroon, M.; Diaz, S.; Torres, V.; Lazzaretto, T.; Dehyn, D.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] on biogeochemistry of marsh sediment including speciation of selected heavy metals in Salinas de San Pedro mudflat in California. The Salinas de San Pedro mudflat has higher carbon (C) content than the vast majority of fully-vegetated salt marshes even with the higher tidal action in the mudflat. Sources for CO2 were identified as atmospheric CO2 as well as due to local fault degassing process. We measured carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and heavy metal concentration in various salt marsh locations. Overall, our results showed that CO2 concentration ranging from 418.7 to 436.9 [ppm], which are slightly different in various chambers but are in good agreement with some heavy metal concentrations values in mudflat at or around the same location. The selected metal concentration values (ppm) ranging from 0.003 - 0.011(As); 0.001-0.005 (Cd); 0.04-0.02 (Cr); 0.13-0.38 (Cu); 0.11-0.38 (Pb); 0.0009-0.020 (Se); and 0.188-0.321 (Zn). The low dissolved O2 [ppm] in the pore water sediment indicates suboxic environment. Additionally, CO2 [ppm] and loss on ignition (LOI) [%] correlated inversely; the higher CO2 content, the lower was the LOI; that is to say the excess CO2 may caused higher rates of decomposition and therefore it leads to lower soil organic matter (LOI) [%] on the mudflat surface. It appears that the elevated CO2 makes changes in salt marsh pore water chemistry for instance the free ionic metal (Cu2+, Pb2+, etc.) speciation is one of the most reactive form because simply assimilated by the non-decayed or alive organisms in sediment of salt marsh and/or in water. This means that CO2 not only is a sign of improvement in plant productivity, but also activates microbial decomposition through increases in dissolved organic carbon availability. CO2 also increases acidification processes such as anaerobic degradation of microorganism and oxidation of

  16. Effects of overexpression of a bHLH transcription factor on biomass and lipid production in Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Jeon, Seungjib; Kwon, Sohee; Koh, Hyun Gi; Shin, Sung-Eun; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool; Chang, Yong Keun

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are considered promising alternative energy sources because they consume CO2 and accumulate large amounts of lipids that can be used as biofuel. Nannochloropsis is a particularly promising microalga due to its high growth rate and lipid content, and the availability of genomic information. Transcription factors (TFs) are global regulators of biological pathways by up- or down-regulation of related genes. Among these, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs regulate growth, development, and stress responses in plants and animals, and have been identified in microalgae. We identified two bHLH TFs in the genome of N. salina CCMP1776, NsbHLH1, and NsbHLH2, and characterized functions of NsbHLH2 that may be involved in growth and nutrient uptake. We obtained NsbHLH2 overexpressing transformants of N. salina CCMP1776 by particle bombardment and confirmed that these were stable transformants. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting using antibodies against the FLAG tag that was attached at the end of the coding sequence confirmed the expression of the NsbHLH2 protein under various culture conditions. The qRT-PCR results also indicated that the endogenous and transgenic expression of NsbHLH2 was reduced under stressed conditions. Overexpression of NsbHLH2 led to increased growth rate in the early growth period, and concomitantly higher nutrient uptake, than wild type (WT). These enhanced growth and nutrient uptake resulted in increased productivities of biomass and FAME. For example, one of the transformants, NsbHLH2 3-6, showed increased biomass productivity by 36 % under the normal condition, and FAME productivity by 33 % under nitrogen limitation condition. Conclusively, the improved growth in the transformants can be associated with the enhanced nutrient uptake. We are currently assessing their potential for scale-up cultivation with positive outcomes. Overexpression of NsbHLH2 led to enhanced growth rate and nutrient

  17. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hajar [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradshahi, Ali, E-mail: moradshahi@susc.ac.ir [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein [Nanotechnology Research Institute, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs) are toxic to D. salina. • Gum-Arabic coating alters the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Cell-NPs agglomerates and lipid peroxidation could explain the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Shading effect and dissolution do not seem to contribute to the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Particle–particle interaction was reduced by coating; therefore, PbS NPs were stabilized in the culture media. - Abstract: The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb{sup 2+} in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb{sup 2+} to the culture media had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P > 0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle–particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about

  18. SierraDNA – Demonstrating the Usefulness of Direct ILS Database Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Padgett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovative Interface’s Sierra(™ Integrated Library System (ILS brings with it a Database Navigator Application (SierraDNA - in layman's terms SierraDNA gives Sierra sites read access to their ILS database. Unlike the closed use cases produced by vendor supplied APIs, which restrict Libraries to limited development opportunities, SierraDNA enables sites to publish their own APIs and scripts based upon custom SQL code to meet their own needs and those of their users and processes. In this article we give examples showing how SierraDNA can be utilized to improve Library services. We highlight three example use cases which have benefited our users, enhanced online security and improved our back office processes. In the first use case we employ user access data from our electronic resources proxy server (WAM to detect hacked user accounts. Three scripts are used in conjunction to flag user accounts which are being hijacked to systematically steal content from our electronic resource provider’s websites. In the second we utilize the reading histories of our users to augment our search experience with an Amazon style “People who borrowed this book also borrowed…these books” feature. Two scripts are used together to determine which other items were borrowed by borrowers of the item currently of interest. And lastly, we use item holds data to improve our acquisitions workflow through an automated demand based ordering process. Our explanation and SQL code should be of direct use for adoption or as examples for other Sierra customers willing to exploit their ILS data in similar ways, but the principles may also be useful to non-Sierra sites that also wish to enhancement security, user services or improve back office processes.

  19. The Impact of the West Africa Ebola Outbreak on Obstetric Health Care in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Kim J Brolin Ribacke; van Duinen, Alex J.; Helena Nordenstedt; Jonas Höijer; Ragnhild Molnes; Torunn Wigum Froseth; A P Koroma; Elisabeth Darj; Håkon Angel Bolkan; AnnaMia Ekström

    2016-01-01

    Background As Sierra Leone celebrates the end of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, we can begin to fully grasp its impact on already weak health systems. The EVD outbreak in West Africa forced many hospitals to close down or reduce their activity, either to prevent nosocomial transmission or because of staff shortages. The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of EVD on nationwide access to obstetric care in Sierra Leone. Methods and Findings Community health officers coll...

  20. Detecting Drought-Induced Tree Mortality in Sierra Nevada Forests with Time Series of Satellite Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Byer; Yufang Jin

    2017-01-01

    A five-year drought in California led to a significant increase in tree mortality in the Sierra Nevada forests from 2012 to 2016. Landscape level monitoring of forest health and tree dieback is critical for vegetation and disaster management strategies. We examined the capability of multispectral imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in detecting and explaining the impacts of the recent severe drought in Sierra Nevada forests. Remote sensing metrics were devel...

  1. Topographic Evolution of the Sierra Nevada Resolved by Inversion of Low-Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, D. F.; Brandon, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    At present, there are two competing ideas for the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada Range. One idea is that the Sierra Nevada was formed as a monocline in the Cretaceous, marking the transition from the Great Valley forearc basin to the west, and a high Nevadaplano plateau to the east, similar to the west flank of the modern Altiplano of the Andes. Both the thermochronologic signature of local relief and the stable isotopic evidence of a topographic rain shadow support this hypothesis. However, a suite of geomorphic observations suggests that the Sierra gained a large fraction of its present elevation as recently as the Pliocene. This recent surface uplift could have been driven by convective removal of in the lower part of the lithosphere and/or by changes in dynamic topography associated with deep subduction of the Farallon plate. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of low-temperature thermochronology in the Sierra Nevada, which provides a definitive solution, which indicates that both ideas are likely correct. Our analysis is distinguished by three new factors: The first is that we allow for separate evolutions for the local relief and the long-wavelength topography. Second, we use Al-in-Hb paleobarometry to constrain the initial depth of emplacement for the Sierra Nevada plutons. Third, our analysis is tied to a sea-level reference by using the paleo-bathymetric record of the Great Valley basin, where it on-laps the Sierra Nevada batholith. According to our analysis, westward tilting of the Sierra accounts for 2 km of uplift since 20 Ma. Topographic relief increased by a factor of 2. These findings suggest that the Sierra Nevada lost elevation through most of the Tertiary but regained much of its initial elevation following the onset of surface uplift in the Miocene.

  2. Ecología de la fauna silvestre de la sierra nevada y la Sierra del Ajusco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Granados Sánchez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre la fauna silvestre de la Sierra del Ajusco y la Sierra Nevada, localizadas dentro de la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana (FVT, en la porción oriental del límite meridional de la Cuenca de México. La enorme riqueza biológica de esta zona que rodea la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México, uno de los mayores complejos urbanos del mundo, ha sobrevivido durante décadas al impacto de la urbanización de las áreas forestales, explotación de recursos naturales, contaminación, cacería, incendios y pastoreo. A pesar de esto, se desconocen muchos de los factores que regulan la dinámica de los ecosistemas en esta región. Con relación a la fauna silvestre la carencia de información es mucho más evidente, aspectos elementales como la diversidad de especies, las interacciones ecológicas, la función de los organismos en el ecosistema, las condiciones de estrés a que están sometidos, han sido poco explorados. En esta investigación se recurrió a observaciones de campo y a la consulta de diferentes fuentes bibliográficas para estimar la riqueza de especies de mamíferos, aves, reptiles y anfibios; las relaciones ecológicas entre los mismos y las consecuencias de la modificación de su hábitat producto de las actividades humanas.

  3. Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 in milk on the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Duraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 were studied using the brine shrimp Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator in the temperature range from 20 °C to 40 °C. Increase in the incubation temperature resulted in sensitivity increase by the brine shrimp to AFM1. Optimum sensitivity occured at 30 °C. Positive results were obtained at 0.18 μg AFM1 x L-1 of whole pasteurized milk with a mortality of over 15%. Greater than 90 % mortality occurred at dose levels of 0.9 μg AFM1 x L-1 and above. The test can be conducted during 30-60 hours.

  4. Laboratory scale photobioreactor for high production of microalgae Rhodomonas salina used as food for intensive copepod cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuy, Minh Vu Thi; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Hansen, Benni Winding

    was 0.45 and 1/3 of the food ingestion in female was assimilated into egg production; this algal PBR system can sustain a copepod culture which can provide a daily total egg production of 10 - 14 × 106 copepod eggs. The achievement of high cell density in the PBRs was close to the optimal cell density......Introduction Microalgae are essential feeds for many cultured molluscs, larvae of marine fishes, crustaceans as well as other important live feeds including rotifers, Artemia and copepods (Muller-Feuga, 2000). Microalgae are grown either in open culture systems (ponds) or closed systems...... (photobioreactor - PBR). There is an increasing interest in using closed PBRs for algae cultivation since this culture system provides a better control of cultivation conditions and enables higher algae productivity. Among the marine microalgae, the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina is one of the optimal feed...

  5. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Hajar; Moradshahi, Ali; Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-09-01

    The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb(2+) in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb(2+) to the culture media had no significant (P>0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P>0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle-particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about 440 nm hydrodynamic diameter were formed within 35 min. Afterwards the aggregate size remained constant. It is concluded that PbS NPs have a negative effect on aquatic algae and their transformation by GA capping affects NPs aggregation properties and toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CYTOTOXICITYTY ACTIVITY IN Artemia salina LEACH, AERIAL PARTS OF Petiveria alliacea L. PHYTOLACCACEAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darllen Suzanny Barbosa de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to phytochemical study of the aerial parts of Petiveria alliacea L. (young branches and leaves, cytotoxicity evaluation (LC50 of leaves in relation to Artemia salina L. and antimicrobial activity, which were used strains of gram-positive bacterium: Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, these submitted to the methanol crude extract (MCE of leaves, at the following concentrations: 25.50 and 100mg/mL. It was possible to identify in the young branches of P. alliacea L. the presence of organic acids, phenols and tannins in the alkaloids leaves, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenols and tannins, where the activities of these metabolites match with some information alleged by the population. The leaves’ Methanol Crude Extract showed LC50=1709.77μg/mL, being nontoxic at the tested concentrations, whereas for plant extract in relation to A.salina are considered nontoxic when LC50>1000μg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the Methanol Crude Extract of the leaves showed inhibition only for the bacteria Escherichia coli at 100mg/mL concentration, and this activity may be related to the presence of phenols and tannins in the extract. The obtained results turn the species promising in search of secondary metabolites, but there is the need of further studies to identify its main active ingredients. Palavras-chave: Mucuracaa, Phytochemical Screening, Class of Compounds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p76-82

  7. Changes in the structure of the microbial community associated with Nannochloropsis salina following treatments with antibiotics and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Geng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Open microalgae cultures host a myriad of bacteria, creating a complex system of interacting species that influence algal growth and health. Many algal microbiota studies have been conducted to determine the relative importance of bacterial taxa to algal culture health and physiological states, but these studies have not characterized the interspecies relationships in the microbial communities. We subjected Nanochroloropsis salina cultures to multiple chemical treatments (antibiotics and quorum sensing compounds and obtained dense time-series data on changes to the microbial community using 16S gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing (21,029,577 reads for 23 samples to measure microbial taxa-taxa abundance correlations. Short-term treatment with antibiotics resulted in substantially larger shifts in the microbiota structure compared to changes observed following treatment with signaling compounds and glucose. We also calculated operational taxonomic unit (OTU associations and generated OTU correlation networks to provide an overview of possible bacterial OTU interactions. This analysis identified five major cohesive modules of microbiota with similar co-abundance profiles across different chemical treatments. The Eigengenes of OTU modules were examined for correlation with different external treatment factors. This correlation-based analysis revealed that culture age (time and treatment types have primary effects on forming network modules and shaping the community structure. Additional network analysis detected Alteromonadeles and Alphaproteobacteria as having the highest centrality, suggesting these species are keystone OTUs in the microbial community. Furthermore, we illustrated that the chemical tropodithietic acid, which is secreted by several species in the Alphaproteobacteria taxon, is able to drastically change the structure of the microbiota within 3 hours. Taken together, these results provide valuable insights into the structure of the

  8. The influence of photoperiod and light intensity on the growth and photosynthesis of Dunaliella salina (chlorophyta) CCAP 19/30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanan; Ibrahim, Iskander M; Harvey, Patricia J

    2016-09-01

    The green microalga Dunaliella salina survives in a wide range of salinities via mechanisms involving glycerol synthesis and degradation and is exploited for large amounts of nutraceutical carotenoids produced under stressed conditions. In this study, D. salina CCAP 19/30 was cultured in varying photoperiods and light intensities to study the relationship of light with different growth measurement parameters, with cellular contents of glycerol, starch and carotenoids, and with photosynthesis and respiration. Results show CCAP 19/30 regulated cell volume when growing under light/dark cycles: cell volume increased in the light and decreased in the dark, and these changes corresponded to changes in cellular glycerol content. The decrease in cell volume in the dark was independent of cell division and biological clock and was regulated by the photoperiod of the light/dark cycle. When the light intensity was increased to above 1000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), cells displayed evidence of photodamage. However, these cells also maintained the maximum level of photosynthesis efficiency and respiration possible, and the growth rate increased as light intensity increased. Significantly, the intracellular glycerol content also increased, >2-fold compared to the content in light intensity of 500 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), but there was no commensurate increase in the pool size of carotenoids. These data suggest that in CCAP 19/30 glycerol stabilized the photosynthetic apparatus for maximum performance in high light intensities, a role normally attributed to carotenoids. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  9. Sierra Elvira limestone: petrophysical characteristics of an Andalusian heritage stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde, I.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “Sierra Elvira stone” is one of the ornamental building stones most widely used in the historical monuments of eastern Andalusia. A Liassic age limestone, it appears in the central section of the Baetic Mountains and more specifically in the Middle Subbaetic domain. While the most common variety is a crinoid limestone, a micritic limestone of the same age has also been quarried, albeit in much smaller quantities. These stones form very thick beds, up to nearly 5 m deep, that run in consistently parallel lines and have a dip angle that facilitates quarrying.With petrographic, physical and mechanical properties that ensure stone strength and durability, it is a high quality building material suitable for both structural and ornamental purposes. These properties can be attributed to the minimal open porosity and concomitant excellent water resistance that characterize the stone, as well as to its high mechanical strength and low textural anisotropy, both elastic and mechanical. With such attributes, the stone can be successfully used for any number of purposes, including decorative stonework (portals, fountains, plinths, structural members (column shafts and bases or urban curbing and paving. Intervention on Sierra de Elvira limestone structures should be limited to cleaning or repair, for consolidating or protective materials are scantly effective.La “Piedra de Sierra Elvira” constituye una de las piedras ornamentales más significativas del Patrimonio Arquitectónico de Andalucía Oriental. Es una roca caliza del Lias que aflora en el Subbético Medio del sector central de las Cordilleras Béticas. El litotipo más explotado es una caliza con crinoides, en bastante menor importancia se ha extraído también otra caliza micrítica de la misma edad. Los bancos son muy potentes, en algunos casos de más de 5 m, con un paralelismo constante y un buzamiento que favorece su explotación en los frentes de cantera.Sus caracter

  10. Surface uplift and atmospheric flow deflection in the Late Cenozoic southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, H.; Caves, J. K.; Winnick, M.; Ritch, A. J.; Reilly, S.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Given the intimate links between topography, tectonics, climate and biodiversity, considerable effort has been devoted to developing robust elevation histories of orogens. In particular, quantitative geochemical reconstructions using stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes have been applied to many of the world's mountain belts. Yet after decades of study, determining the Cenozoic surface uplift history of the Sierra Nevada remains a challenge. While geological and geophysical evidence suggests the southern Sierra underwent 1-2 km of Late Cenozoic surface uplift, stable isotope paleoaltimetry studies to date have been restricted to the Basin and Range interior. Recent advances in atmospheric modeling have suggested that such stable isotope records from leeward sites can be affected by the complicating role that sufficiently elevated topography such as the southern (High) Sierra plays in diverting atmospheric circulation. In order to examine the potential role of these terrain blocking effects, we produced stable isotope records from three Late Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the Eastern Sierra and Basin and Range: 1) Authigenic clay minerals in the Mio-Pliocene Verdi Basin (VB), 2) Fluvial and lacustrine carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Coso Basin (CB), and 3) Miocene to Holocene pedogenic, fluvial and lacustrine carbonates of Fish Lake Valley (FLV). Whereas both the VB (near present-day Reno) and CB (southern Owens Valley) receive input of water directly from the Sierra crest, FLV is a region of proposed reconvergence of moisture in the Basin and Range. The oxygen isotope records in both CB and FLV increase during the Neogene by approximately 2 ‰, while the hydrogen isotope record of the VB decreases by distillation. A Neogene pulse of uplift in the southern Sierra could have driven modern flow around the High Sierra, increasing δ18O values in CB and FLV while simultaneously decreasing those of the VB. Future paleoaltimetry studies should evaluate the potential

  11. Deformation of the late Miocene to Pliocene Inyo Surface, eastern Sierra region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    A middle and late Miocene erosion surface, the Inyo Surface, underlies late Miocene mafic flows in the White Mountains and late Miocene and (or) early Pliocene flows elsewhere in the eastern Sierra region. The Inyo Surface is correlated with an erosion surface that underlies late Miocene mafic flows in the central and northern Sierra Nevada. The mafic flows had outpourings similar to flood basalts, although of smaller volume, providing paleohorizontal and paleolowland indicators. The flows filed and locally topped the existing landscape forming broad plateau-like flats. Topographic relief in the region was characterized by weathered and rounded slopesp rior to late Miocene mafic magmatism. Relicts of the older landscape lie adjacent to late Miocene and early Pliocene basalt-covered lowlands that now occur within the crests of ranges that have 2500-3000 m relief and dramatically steep escarpments. Late Miocene mafic flows that lie on the crest of the Sierra Nevada adjacent to the White Mountains predate significant activity on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone. These deposits and accompanying erosion surfaces provide excellent strain markers for reconstructing part of the Walker Lane north of the Garlock fault and west of the Amargosa drainage, here referred to as the eastern Sierra region. The Inyo Surface is a compound erosional surface that records at least four major erosion events during the Cenozoic. These four surfaces were first recognized on the Kern Plateau and named from oldest to youngest, the Summit Upland, the Subsummit Plateau, the Chagoopa Plateau, and the Canyon. The three older surfaces have also been subsequently modifi ed by Pleistocene glaciation. The compound erosion surface, which is locally overlain by late Miocene mafic flows in the northern and central Sierra Nevada, is here referred to as the Lindgren Surface. Correlatives in the eastern Sierra region are found in the White Mountains, Inyo Mountains, Darwin Plateau, Coso Range, and

  12. Monitoring lichens diversity and climatic change in Sierra Nevada (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Calzado, M.ª R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are common organisms in high mountain zones, where they play an important role in ecosystem balance. In recent years, the increasing interest in understanding more about their interactions with abiotic factors has prompted several investigations, some of which have proved their value as bioindicators of climatic conditions. In this context, focusing on climatic change effects on high mountain vascular plants and supported by the Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments project (GLORIA, we have monitored for the first time the lichens biodiversity in Sierra Nevada with the intention of studying the alterations caused by the process of climatic change. The aim of this paper is to explain the monitoring experience developed on the massif and contribute to the first results from the biodiversity and statistical analysis of the sampling data.Los líquenes son organismos comunes en las zonas de alta montaña donde juegan un importante papel en el equilibrio de los ecosistemas. En los últimos años, el creciente interés por entender más acerca de sus interacciones con los factores abióticos ha motivado diversas investigaciones, algunas de las cuales han demostrado su valor como bioindicadores de las condiciones climáticas. En este contexto, centrándonos en los efectos del cambio climático en plantas vasculares de alta montaña y respaldados por el proyecto “Iniciativa para la investigación y el seguimiento global de los ambientes alpinos (GLORIA”, se ha monitorizado por primera vez la diversidad de líquenes en Sierra Nevada con la intención de estudiar las posibles alteraciones que esta pueda sufrir causadas por el proceso de cambio climático. El objetivo de este artículo es el de dar a conocer la experiencia de seguimiento en el macizo y aportar los primeros resultados procedentes del análisis, tanto de la biodiversidad como estadístico, de los datos de muestreo.

  13. Spatial estimates of snow water equivalent in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittger, Karl Eric

    The spatial distribution of snow and its melt over large river basins cannot be directly observed, complicating decisions for competing priorities of flood protection and resource use. This work aims to advance our ability to estimate snow distribution through improvements in the satellite observation of snow-covered area (SCA) and the modeling of snow water equivalent (SWE). I analyze the accuracies of three methods to map SCA from MODIS, a binary and a fractional method (MOD10A1) based on the normalized difference snow index (NDSI), and another fractional method based on spectral mixture analyses, MODSCAG. I find that fractional SCA estimates from MODSCAG perform best over a range of snow and vegetation conditions and the model maintains its retrieval ability in the transitional periods during accumulation and melt. Forest obstructs viewable snow cover, and satellite-viewing geometry has a larger effect on the fractional NDSI-based approach than MODSCAG. Adjustments to SCA to account for forest canopies permit MODSCAG to perform very well in all but the densest canopies while MOD10A1 shows early melt out, when compared with ground sensors, in sparse to moderately dense canopy. Combining satellite observed SCA and albedo with an energy balance model, I estimate spatially distributed snow water equivalent for 12 years in the Sierra Nevada. The model shows that the relationship of SWE with elevation is significantly different for wet, mean and dry years, between drainages and at different latitudes. SWE and SCA become increasingly correlated from March 1st to July 1st, such that real time SCA observations may be sufficient for SWE prediction. I compare spatially integrated volumes of snow water equivalent from this model and two real-time models with full natural flow estimates in 18 Sierra Nevada basins covering 70% of the streamflow range in the last 80 years. Forecasting errors that are based on statistical relationships between point measurements of snow and

  14. La ingeniería y el descarte artefactual de la desalación solar de agua : las industrias de Las Salinas, Sierra Gorda y Oficina Domeyko (1872-1907)

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano-Escudero, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, at the Atacama Desert, a phenomenon of competition occurred between different industrial water desalination techniques, one of which had excellent results and a long life using solar energy. It is a significant fact that this technology was distributed and used in several places in the same desert, when its existence and / or results were diffused in London, New York, Madrid and Santiago de Chile. Nevertheless it seems no to be known in other parts of world befor...

  15. Síntese de 1,3,5-triazinas substituídas e avaliação da toxicidade frente a Artemia Salina leach Synthesis of substituted 1,3,5-triazines and toxicity evaluation against Artemia Salina leach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Ferreira Cavalcante

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of ten symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 1,3,5-triazines by Phase Transfer Catalysis (PTC method is described. Their toxicities were determined against Artemia salina Leach. The LD50 values have also been obtained for these compounds.

  16. Construction and Deconstruction: The Theme of Fleetingness in Poems by Juan Ramón Jiménez, and Pedro Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Debicki

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Both Juan Ramón Jiménez and Salinas reveal in their poems a striving to capture the essences of things, continuing in this quest a tradition coming to them from symbolist poetry. By examining several poems written by them, however, we discover a basic difference in their way of embodying this striving. Juan Ramón, concerned with the perfection of form, remains within a logocentric tradition in which the poem attempts to embody its meanings objectively; Salinas, on the other hand, writes poems the meanings of which evolve with successive readings and reflect the theme of reality's fleetingness. A close analysis of the texts exemplifies this difference and also suggests that in spite of it the poems of both authors remain subject to possible "deconstructions" on the part of the reader.

  17. Molecular and functional characterization of a cDNA encoding 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase from Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana A; Marques, Ana R; Rodrigues, Marta; Henriques, Nuno; Baumgartner, Alexandra; Castilho, Rita; Brenig, Bertram; Varela, João C

    2009-06-01

    In green algae, the final step of the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is catalyzed by 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR; EC: 1.17.1.2), an enzyme proposed to play a key role in the regulation of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of a 1959-bp Dunaliella salina HDR (DsHDR) cDNA encoding a deduced polypeptide of 474 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis implied a cyanobacterial origin for plant and algal HDR genes. Steady-state DsHDR transcript levels were higher in D. salina cells submitted to nutritional depletion, high salt and/or high light, suggesting that DsHDR may respond to the same environmental cues as genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis.

  18. Characterization and alternative splicing of the complex I 19-kD subunit in Dunaliella salina: expression and mutual correlation of splice variants under diverse stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Jin, Nan; Xu, Hui; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Wei Hua; Li, Xin Ran; Qiao, Dai Rong; Cao, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Complex I is the first enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It extracts energy from NADH, which is produced by the oxidation of sugars and fats, and traps the energy by virtue of a potential difference or voltage across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, the genomic sequence and four splice variants encoding the complex I 19-kD subunit were isolated from Dunaliella salina. There were four transcripts coding for the complex I 19-kD subunit due to alternative splicing in algae, and the four transcripts were translated to two protein isoforms with varying C-terminals. We report the splicing pattern in the 3'-region of the D. salina 19-kD subunit, in which three of the exons (5, 6, and 7) could be alternatively spliced. Moreover, we found that four alternatively spliced variants were subject to coordinated transcription in response to different stresses by real-time quantitative PCR.

  19. The efficiency of a new hydrodynamic cavitation pilot system on Artemia salina cysts and natural population of copepods and bacteria under controlled mesocosm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Martina; Grego, Mateja; Turk, Valentina

    2016-04-15

    A study of the efficiency of hydrodynamic cavitation and separation was carried out to evaluate an innovative, environmentally safe and acceptable system for ballast water treatment for reducing the risk of introducing non-native species worldwide. Mesocosm experiments were performed to assess the morphological changes and viability of zooplankton (copepods), Artemia salina cysts, and the growth potential of marine bacteria after the hydrodynamic cavitation treatment with a different number of cycles. Our preliminary results confirmed the significant efficiency of the treatment since more than 98% of the copepods and A. salina cysts were damaged, in comparison with the initial population. The efficiency increased with the number of the hydrodynamic cavitation cycles, or in combination with a separation technique for cysts. There was also a significant decrease in bacterial abundance and growth rate, compared to the initial number and growth potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Photo series for quantifying forest fuels in Mexico: montane subtropical forests of the Sierra Madre del Sur and temperate forests and montane shrubland of the northern Sierra Madre Oriental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge E. Morfin-Rios; Ernesto Alvarado-Celestino; Enrique J. Jardel-Pelaez; Robert E. Vihnanek; David K. Wright; Jose M. Michel-Fuentes; Clinton S. Wright; Roger D. Ottmar; David V. Sandberg; Andres Najera-Diaz

    2008-01-01

    Single wide-angle and stereo photographs display a range of forest ecosystems conditions and fuel loadings in montane subtropical forests of the Sierra Madre del Sur and temperate forests and montane shrubland of the northern Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Each group of photographs includes inventory information summarizing overstory vegetation composition and...

  1. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  2. accidentes y otras causas violentas en la sierra de Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Eloy Rivas Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación sociológica cuyo objeto fue explorar el papel que ha jugado el modelo hegemónico de masculinidad en la ocurrencia de muertes derivadas de accidentes y varias formas de ejercicio de la violencia en una comunidad rural de la sierra de Sonora. Estos resultados difieren de aquellos que tradicionalmente los estudios de las masculinidades han mostrado para México y América Latina. El modelo dominante de masculinidad en las comunidades estudiadas no ha condicionado significativamente la ocurrencia de las muertes por accidentes y otras causas violentas. La responsabilidad, la disciplina y el respeto hacia las personas consideradas socialmente débiles (mujeres, ancianos y niños, principalmente son características que debe poseer un hombre de verdad en las comunidades estudiadas. El apego de los hombres a estas formas de comportamiento y su temor a perder honorabilidad como hombre de verdad si se desvían de estas normas de conducta los ha llevado a evitar una serie de prácticas temerarias que pudieron poner en riesgo su vida y la de otras personas.

  3. Striving for excellence: nurturing midwives' skills in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongo, Carrie; Christie, Kate; Holden, Jude; Ford, Carolyn; Pett, Celia

    2013-10-01

    Midwives provide critical, life-saving care to women and babies. Effective midwives must be clinically competent, with the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes to provide quality care. Their success depends on an environment of supportive supervision, continuing education, enabling policies, and access to equipment and referral facilities. In Freetown, Sierra Leone, the Aberdeen Women's Centre launched a maternity unit with an emphasis on striving for excellence and providing ongoing professional development to its staff midwives. Its success was built upon fostering a sense of responsibility and teamwork, providing necessary resources, conforming to evidence-based standards, and building partnerships. An explicit philosophy of care was crucial for guiding clinical decision making. In its first two years of operation, the Aberdeen Women's Centre assisted 2076 births with two maternal deaths and 92 perinatal deaths. In-service education and supportive supervision facilitated the midwives' professional growth, leading to capable future leaders who are providing exemplary care to delivering mothers and their newborns in Freetown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    Aria is a Galerkin fnite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process fows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number ( %3C 1 ) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h -adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  5. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    Aria is a Galerkin fnite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process fows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number ( %3C 1 ) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h -adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  6. The saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Diggles, Michael F.; Evans, William C.; Klemic, Karin

    2017-07-20

    The five saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada in California are found between 38.5° and 38.8° N. latitude, on the South Fork American River; on Caples Creek, a tributary of the Silver Fork American River; and on the North Fork Mokelumne River. The springs issue from Cretaceous granitic rocks in the bottoms of these major canyons, between 1,200- and 2,200-m elevation. All of these springs were well known to Native Americans, who excavated meter-sized basins in the granitic rock, within which they produced salt by evaporation near at least four of the five spring sites. The spring waters are dominated by Cl, Na, and Ca; are enriched relative to seawater in Ca, Li, and As; and are depleted in SO4, Mg, and K. Tritium analyses indicate that the spring waters have had little interaction with rainfall since about 1954. The waters are apparently an old groundwater of meteoric origin that resided at depth before moving up along fractures to the surface of the exhumed granitic rocks. However, along the way these waters incorporated salts from depth, the origin of which could have been either from marine sedimentary rocks intruded by the granitic magmas or from fluid inclusions in the granitic rocks. Prolonged storage at depth fostered water-rock interactions that undoubtedly modified the fluid compositions.

  7. Seed germination of Sierra Nevada postfire chaparral species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; McGinnis, Thomas W.; Bollens, Kim A.

    2005-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Here we report further germination experiments that elucidate the response of several widespread shrub species whose germination response was not clear and include other species from the Sierra Nevada, which have not previously been included in germination studies. The shrubs Adenostoma fasciculatum and Eriodictyon crassifolium and the postfire annualMentzelia dispersa exhibited highly significant germination in response to smoke treatments, with some enhanced germination in response to heating as well. The shrubs Fremontodendron californicum and Malacothamnus fremontii were stimulated only by heat-shock treatments. Seeds buried in the soil for one year exhibited substantially higher germination for controls and most treatments. In the case of two postfire annuals, Mimulus bolanderi and M. gracilipes, germination of fresh seed was significantly greater with smoke or heating but after soil storage, over two-thirds of the control seeds germinated and treatment effects were not significant. These two annuals are generally restricted to postfire conditions and it is suggested that control germination of soil-stored seed may be a light-response (which was not tested here) as previously reported for another chaparral species in that genus.

  8. Reading between the lines: societal norms in Sierra Leonean readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brams, P

    1980-01-01

    A content analysis of primary school readers in Sierra Leone revealed that the particular modern and traditional normative aspirations expressed in the National Development Plan for 1974/5-1978/9 were also generally reflected in the children's readers. Compared to the 1964 readers, the 1st indigenous readers developed circa 1977 contained markedly greater emphasis on traditional norms, though modernity norms continued to dominate, and substantially less emphasis on Efficacy (a central aspect of modernity) and on Nonparochial Affiliation. This closely corresponded with the intent of the National Plan to continue on a modernizing course employing the traditional norms of Manual Labor and Social Cohesion in a grassroots effort to develop the agricultural sector, with nationalism in a less important role. Apart from lesser emphasis on Efficacy and underemphasis on the Value of Education, both discordant with national goals, the 1977 readers seem to provide children and teachers with a fairly accurate image of the national ethos. This may help to account for the generally positive relationship that has been found between schooling and economic development.

  9. Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Rut Aspizua; Lorite, Juan; Zamora, Regino

    2014-01-01

    The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (24 of these threatened) from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset underwent a quality control by botanists with broad expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic inventory was created to gather useful information for the proper management of Pinus plantations in Sierra Nevada. This is the only dataset that shows a comprehensive view of the forest flora in Sierra Nevada. This is the reason why it is being used to assess the biodiversity in the very dense pine plantations on this massif. With this dataset, managers have improved their ability to decide where to apply forest treatments in order to avoid biodiversity loss. The dataset forms part of the Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  10. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.22 user's guide : addendum for shock capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This is an addendum to the Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.22 User's Guide to document additional capabilities that are available for use in the Presto{_}ITAR code that are not available for use in the standard version of Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM). Presto{_}ITAR is an enhanced version of Sierra/SM that provides capabilities that make it regulated under the U.S. Department of State's International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) export-control rules. This code is part of the Vivace product, and is only distributed to entities that comply with ITAR regulations. The enhancements primarily focus on material models that include an energy-dependent pressure response, appropriate for very large deformations and strain rates. Since this is an addendum to the standard Sierra/SolidMechanics User's Guide, please refer to that document first for general descriptions of code capability and use. This addendum documents material models and element features that support energy-dependent material models.

  11. Efeito alelopático e toxicidade frente à Artemia salina Leach dos extatos do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius Allelopathic effects and toxicity against Artemia salina Leach of extracts of the fruit of Euterpe edulis Martius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é um processo envolvendo metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas que infl uenciam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas. Devido à toxicidade dos herbicidas sintéticos para o meio ambiente e para a saúde humana tem-se aumentado o interesse na exploração da alelopatia como uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho avaliou efeito dos extratos dos frutos de Euterpe edulis Martius sobre o desenvolvimento de cipselas e plântulas de Lactuca sativa Linné, foram determinados o índice de velocidade de germinação, o crescimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. Para a avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi realizado o ensaio de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach determinando-se a CL50 e percentual de mortalidade. A fração remanescente demonstrou efeito alelopático, pois todas as concentrações alteraram os valores do índice de velocidade de germinação e as concentrações de 0,2 e 0,4 mg inibiram tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto o crescimento do hipocótilo. No ensaio de toxicidade todos os extratos apresentaram CL50 superior a 1000 ppm e 0% de mortalidade das artemias, indicando a não toxicidade dos extratos.Allelopathy is a process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants that influence growth and development of agricultural systems. Because of the toxicity of synthetic herbicides to the environment and human health, there has been increased interest in exploiting allelopathy as an alternative for weed control. This study evaluated the eff ect of extracts of Euterpe edulis Martius fruits on the development of cypselae and seedlings of Lactuca sativa Linné; the germination speed index, radicle and hypocotyl growth were determined. To evaluate the toxicity of the extracts the toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach was used, where the LC50 and mortality rate were determined. Th e remaining fraction showed allelopathic effect

  12. Ordenamiento Territorial y Turismo en Conservación. Área Salitral de Santa Rosa y Salinas de Trapalcó. Patagonia Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    MASTROCOLA, YUSARA ISIS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] 100 kilometers southwest from Lamarque (Rio Negro-Argentina), in proximity to Bajo Santa Rosa and Salinas de Trapalcó, there are very rich fossil deposits that give the area a high potential for geopaleontological investigations. The field work carried out by different groups of scientists have allowed to increase and diversify the paleontological heritage of Rio Negro province. In the area there is a succession of Upper Cretaceous sediments including a lower unit of continental ori...

  13. Differential effects of changes in spectral irradiance on photoacclimation, primary productivity and growth in Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyceae) and Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyceae) in simulated blackwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Evelyn; Richardson, Tammi L

    2017-12-01

    The underwater light field in blackwater environments is strongly skewed toward the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum due to blue light absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Exposure of phytoplankton to full spectrum irradiance occurs only when cells are mixed up to the surface. We studied the potential effects of mixing-induced changes in spectral irradiance on photoacclimation, primary productivity and growth in cultures of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina and the diatom Skeletonema costatum. We found that these taxa have very different photoacclimation strategies. While S. costatum showed classical complementary chromatic adaption, R. salina showed inverse chromatic adaptation, a strategy previously unknown in the cryptophytes. Transfer of R. salina to periodic full spectrum light (PFSL) significantly enhanced growth rate (μ) by 1.8 times and primary productivity from 0.88 to 1.35 mg C · (mg Chl-1 ) · h-1 . Overall, R. salina was less dependent on PFSL than was S. costatum, showing higher μ and net primary productivity rates. In the high-CDOM simulation, carbon metabolism of the diatom was impaired, leading to suppression of growth rate, short-term 14 C uptake and net primary production. Upon transfer to PFSL, μ of the diatom increased by up to 3-fold and carbon fixation from 2.4 to 6.0 mg C · (mg Chl-1 ) · h-1 . Thus, a lack of PFSL differentially impairs primarily CO2 -fixation and/or carbon metabolism, which, in turn, may determine which phytoplankton dominate the community in blackwater habitats and may therefore influence the structure and function of these ecosystems. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Diversidad y distribución de acridios (Orthoptera: Acridoidea en pastizales del sur de la región pampeana, Argentina Diversity and distribution of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Mariottini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los acridios son componentes nativos de los pastizales, dichos sistemas han sido modificados debido a la intensificación de las actividades agrícola-ganaderas y por lo tanto se considera importante estudiar las comunidades de acridios asociadas. Se estudió la diversidad y distribución de acridios en el Sur de la región pampeana a través de muestreos realizados en las comunidades vegetales más representativas del partido de Laprida, provincia de Buenos Aires, durante cinco temporadas (2005-2010. Se recolectaron 22 especies. La subfamilia Melanoplinae fue la más diversa (ocho especies. La mayor cantidad de especies se observó en los pastizales nativos (18. La diversidad en los pastizales alterados (1.75±0.096 fue superior (pIn Argentina, the grasslands of Pampas region comprise approximately 15% of the country. As in other grasslands of the world, grasshoppers are among the most important native herbivores. Their economic importance has been recognized in Argentina since the mid to late nineteenth century, since outbreaks of different species have become recurrent phenomena. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study their diversity and distribution in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region (Laprida county, Buenos Aires province, as one of the most affected areas. The study was conducted during five seasons (2005-10. Sampling sites were represented by the most common plant communities in this area, classified in four categories: native grasslands, disturbed grasslands, implanted pastures and halophilous grasslands. The samplings were conducted from mid-spring to early autumn, with five or six samples per season. We estimated the following population descriptors: species richness (S, eveness (E, dominance (J, and diversity index (H´. In order to evaluate the similitude of the grasshopper communities present in the different plant communities, we used qualitative and quantitative coefficients of similitude. A total of 22

  15. Cambio agrario y nueva ruralidad: Caleidoscopio de la expansión sojera en la región pampeana Agrarian change and new rurality: Kaleidoscope of soya expansion in the Pampa region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas, y en el marco de las tesis sobre la configuración de nuevas ruralidades, los pueblos y pequeñas localidades han vuelto a concitar la atención de las ciencias sociales. Lo rural se define como un espacio crecientemente polisémico, donde se redefinen los antes coincidentes contornos entre lo rural y lo agrícola. Nuestro interés en los pueblos rurales de la región pampeana parte de esa constatación y pretende, al mismo tiempo indagar en las implicancias de las transformaciones que se derivan de las profundas mutaciones operadas en el modelo de producción agropecuaria, las cuales involucraron, entre otros aspectos, una dinámica de "ganadores y "perdedores". La existencia de población que vive en pueblos y localidades rurales pero que no tiene relación laboral con el sector agropecuario, y de un mundo agrario profundamente transformado son los dos elementos cuyos reflejos, en los modos de configurar estos territorios nos interesa comprender. Nos interesa explorar cómo esta suerte de diferenciación entre "ganadores" y "perdedores" se expresó en las posiciones detentadas por los productores en las comunidades locales, tanto en lo que refiere a su lugar en la población y en la economía. Exploramos las diferenciaciones socioculturales que se generan y las tensiones y complejidades que adquiere la integración social en un mismo territorio, lejos de aquella idea de la comunidad que la define por la similitud u homogeneidad relativa de sus componentes, y por su estabilidad.In the last decades, and in the framework of the thesis on the configuration of a new rurality, villages and small towns have drawn the attention of the social sciences. Rurality is defined as increasingly polysemic, where the previous boundaries between rurality and agriculture have redefined. Our interest in the rural villages of the Pampa region stands on this understanding, and introduces another key process related to the deep changes

  16. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine Avaliação da bioatividade frente à Artemia salina Leach de plantas medicinais utilizadas na medicina popular na Região Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DDR. Arcanjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp. against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50 were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract.O bioensaio em Artemia salina Leach oferece uma vantagem na padronização e no controle de qualidade de produtos botânicos. Esse teste é bem correlacionado com a atividade antitumoral (citotoxicidade e pode ser usado para monitorar a atividade de produtos naturais bioativos. Este trabalho relata a bioatividade de extratos etanólicos de sete plantas medicinais (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis e Equisetum sp. contra Artemia salina. A bioatividade foi avaliada em triplicata paraextratos nas concentrações de 1, 10, 100 e 1000 µg/mL, e os valores das concentrações letais para metade dos animais (CL50 foram obtidos por meio da análise de probitos. A espécie Acmella uliginosa apresentou a maior bioatividade frente à Artemia salina e o extrato etanólico de suas flores apresentou maior atividade do que o das folhas.

  17. Identification of a gene encoding the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins of photosystem I in green alga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue; Qiao, Dairong; Huang, Min; Yi, Xiuli; Bai, Linhan; Xu, Hui; Wei, Liang; Zeng, Jing; Cao, Yi

    2008-04-01

    There are four LhcII genes of Dunaliella salina have been submitted to the database of GenBank. However, little is known about Lhca genes of this green alga, although this knowledge might be available to study the composition and phylogenesis of Lhc gene family. Recently, one Lhca gene was been cloned from the green alga D. salina by PCR amplification using degenerate primers. This cDNA, designated as DsLhca1, contains an open reading frame encoded a protein of 222 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 27.8 kDa. DsLhca1 is predicted to contain three transmembrane domains and a N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide (cTP) with length of 33 amino acids. The genomic sequence of DsLhca1 is composed of five introns. The deduced polypeptide sequence of this gene showed a lower degree of identity (less than 30%) with LHCII proteins from D. salina. But its homology to Lhca proteins of other algae (Volvox carteri Lhca_AF110786) was higher with pairwise identities of up to 67.1%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DsLhcal protein cannot be assigned to any types of Lhca proteins in higher plants or in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  18. Assembly of the Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Tizian draft genome sequence reveals differences within major resistance complex 1 as compared to the cv. Salinas reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Nelkner, Johanna; Gordin, Miriam; Rupp, Oliver; Winkler, Anika; Bremges, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2018-02-10

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) is an important annual plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The commercial lettuce cultivar Tizian has been used in various scientific studies investigating the interaction of the plant with phytopathogens or biological control agents. Here, we present the de novo draft genome sequencing and gene prediction for this specific cultivar derived from transcriptome sequence data. The assembled scaffolds amount to a size of 2.22 Gb. Based on RNAseq data, 31,112 transcript isoforms were identified. Functional predictions for these transcripts were determined within the GenDBE annotation platform. Comparison with the cv. Salinas reference genome revealed a high degree of sequence similarity on genome and transcriptome levels, with an average amino acid identity of 99%. Furthermore, it was observed that two large regions are either missing or are highly divergent within the cv. Tizian genome compared to cv. Salinas. One of these regions covers the major resistance complex 1 region of cv. Salinas. The cv. Tizian draft genome sequence provides a valuable resource for future functional and transcriptome analyses focused on this lettuce cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 23476 - Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC's application for market-based...

  20. 77 FR 45 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Sierra Nevada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... with your submission (such as scientific journal articles or other publications) to allow us to verify...). Historically, Sierra Nevada red fox occupied high-elevation areas of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain..., and from the vicinity of Lassen Peak and Mt. Shasta west to the Trinity Mountains in Trinity County...

  1. 77 FR 28619 - Notice of Public Meetings: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ...: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meetings: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: In... 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Sierra Front...

  2. Airborne Pesticides as an Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured...

  3. 78 FR 13374 - Notice of Public Meetings: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meetings: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: In... 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Sierra Front...

  4. Cultural heritage and food identity: The pre-Hispanic salt of Zapotitlán Salinas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard, Marie-Christine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt production in Zapotitlán de las Salinas (Puebla, Mexico dates back to pre-Hispanic times when the Popolocas inhabiting the Tehuacán Valley paid it as tribute to the Aztecs. The technique to obtain salt has changed little over the past 500 years and know-how continues to be transmitted from generation to generation of salters (salineros. It is a resource that is deeply anchored in the identity of the inhabitants of Zapotitlán and regional cuisine. Salt has endured over the centuries as a perennial resource and constitutes a source of income for its owners. However, despite these historical and cultural factors of territorial anchorage, salters have not attained the level of organization necessary to obtain a fair value in the market. Failure to appreciate this product has led to the abandonment of a large percentage of the saltworks that once existed. This essay will analyze the socio-economic and cultural constraints that have prevented this community from attaining the level of territorial governance necessary to enhance the market value of Zapotitlán salt on the market but how, with the depletion of other economic options, its people are returning to the salt, with new strategies. Lastly, the paper will conclude with a consideration of its future potential.La producción de sal de Zapotitlán de las Salinas (Puebla, México se remonta a épocas prehispánicas cuando los popolocas, moradores del valle de Tehuacán, lo tributaban a los aztecas. La técnica para la obtención de la sal ha cambiado poco desde hace 500 años y el saber-hacer se sigue transmitiendo entre las generaciones de salineros. Es un recurso profundamente anclado en la identidad de los habitantes de Zapotitlán y en la gastronomía regional. Su existencia ha perdurado en el transcurso de los siglos por ser un recurso perenne y constituir una renta para sus dueños. Sin embargo, a pesar de los factores históricos y culturales de anclaje territorial, los salineros no

  5. The laboratory environmental algae pond simulator (LEAPS) photobioreactor: Validation using outdoor pond cultures of Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Williams, P.; Edmundson, S.; Chen, P.; Kruk, R.; Cullinan, V.; Crowe, B.; Lundquist, T.

    2017-09-01

    A bench-scale photobioreactor system, termed Laboratory Environmental Algae Pond Simulator (LEAPS), was designed and constructed to simulate outdoor pond cultivation for a wide range of geographical locations and seasons. The LEAPS consists of six well-mixed glass column photobioreactors sparged with CO2-enriched air to maintain a set-point pH, illuminated from above by a programmable multicolor LED lighting (0 to 2,500 µmol/m2-sec), and submerged in a temperature controlled water-bath (-2 °C to >60 °C). Measured incident light intensities and water temperatures deviated from the respective light and temperature set-points on average only 2.3% and 0.9%, demonstrating accurate simulation of light and temperature conditions measured in outdoor ponds. In order to determine whether microalgae strains cultured in the LEAPS exhibit the same linear phase biomass productivity as in outdoor ponds, Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina were cultured in the LEAPS bioreactors using light and temperature scripts measured previously in the respective outdoor pond studies. For Chlorella sorokiniana, the summer season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was 6.6% and 11.3% lower than in the respective outdoor ponds in Rimrock, Arizona, and Delhi, California; however, these differences were not statistically significant. For Nannochloropsis salina, the winter season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was statistically significantly higher (15.2%) during the 27 day experimental period than in the respective outdoor ponds in Tucson, Arizona. However, when considering only the first 14 days, the LEAPS biomass productivity was only 9.2% higher than in the outdoor ponds, a difference shown to be not statistically significant. Potential reasons for the positive or negative divergence in LEAPS performance, relative to outdoor ponds, are discussed. To demonstrate the utility of the LEAPS in predicting productivity, two other strains – Scenedesmus obliquus and Stichococcus minor

  6. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  7. Transcurrent tectonics and melange in the Sierra Arana area (Betic Cordillera, NE of Granada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Lopez Garrido, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    In the Sierra Arana area, dextral transcurrent faults form a set of long and narrow E-W tectonic bands, some of which are filled by Oligo-Aquitanian and Cretaceous sediments deeply squeezed among Jurassic carbonates. These bands form a “flower structure” which higher blocks, cut by the faults, fallen over Oligo-Aquitanian sediments, forming a tectonic mélange. The crest zone of Sierra Arana indicates the position of a great reversed south verging anticlinal. The elements situated directly to the south of Sierra Arana, are attributed to a very internal Subbetic or to the Dorsal, and seem to correspond to the paleogeographic passage from the Subbetic to the Malaguide Complex. (Author)

  8. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  9. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  10. The Stanislaus Group in a Beheaded Drainage: Tectonics at the Margin of the Sierra Nevada Microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, R.; Pluhar, C. J.; Carlson, C. W.; Jones-Cervantes, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    West of Bridgeport Valley near the Sierra Nevada crest, the Little Walker Caldera erupted Late Miocene Stanislaus Group lavas (Table Mountain Formation) and tuffs (Eureka Valley Tuff). Remnants of these rocks are now distributed from the western Sierra Nevada foothills across the range and into the Walker Lane. This wide distribution is attributed to the lavas flowing down paleochannels, and provides an excellent marker for post-emplacement deformation in the region. Priest (1978) documented a thick section of these lavas along Flatiron Ridge and other peaks surrounding Buckeye Canyon, including 4 members in stratigraphic order: Lower, Large Plagioclase, Two Pyroxene, and Upper Member. Lithologically similar lavas have been identified near Hetch Hetchy, and previously reported geochemical and new paleomagnetic data support this correlation. The lavas flowed down a now-beheaded late Miocene drainage, supporting a westward shift of the Sierra Nevada crest since the Late Miocene. New paleomagnetic results from from Priest's measured section reveal that the Upper Member and the Two Pyroxene Member are reversed polarity. The Large Plagioclase member has an excursional direction and the Lower member flows are excursional and normal polarities. Based on remanence and geochemistry, we correlate the Upper Member with the Hetch Hetchy lavas, indicating a 60 km long paleochannel that the lava flowed down. The Sierra Nevada crest presently divides these outcrops of Stanislaus Group lavas. Because lava can only flow downhill, the crest of the Sierra Nevada must have been east of the Table Mountain Formation outcrops in the late Miocene. Using the established paleomagnetic reference direction for the Eureka Valley Tuff members we demonstrate 15° clockwise vertical-axis rotation at sites stepping from Mono Basin towards the Sierra Crest graben. Numerous northwest trending faults in the area cutting Stanislaus Group rocks indicate that deformation through the area was

  11. Media and conflict in Sierra Leone: national and international perspectives of the civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Bau

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the media in Sierra Leone. The media and the civil conflict. The evolution of the conflict. The Western media perspective of a "barbaric" Africa. Western media coverage of the civil war in Sierra Leone: the British example. The role of NGOs in news reporting.

    The end of the twentieth century saw an adverse escalation in armed conflict. A characteristic of this was that whilst the majority of wars that took place before the 1990s were fought between state...

  12. SIERRA Code Coupling Module: Arpeggio User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SNL Sierra Mechanics code suite is designed to enable simulation of complex multiphysics scenarios. The code suite is composed of several specialized applications which can operate either in standalone mode or coupled with each other. Arpeggio is a supported utility that enables loose coupling of the various Sierra Mechanics applications by providing access to Framework services that facilitate the coupling. More importantly Arpeggio orchestrates the execution of applications that participate in the coupling. This document describes the various components of Arpeggio and their operability. The intent of the document is to provide a fast path for analysts interested in coupled applications via simple examples of its usage.

  13. Proyecto de envejecimiento artificial del arroz, para su comercialización en la sierra

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Fornell, Daniel; Tobalina Ditto, Constantino Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Uno de los principales componentes en la dieta de todos los ecuatorianos, es el consumo de arroz, ya que esta al alcance de casi todos, es rico nutricional mente, y se lo consume en todas las regiones del país; pero el consumo de este producto es diferente entre la sierra y la costa, por lo que en la costa se consumen arroces frescos y en la sierra arroces envejecidos. Mediante la realización de este proyecto se determinara la factibilidad de implementar una planta de elaboración de arroz...

  14. A descriptive study of urban rabies during the civil war in Sierra Leone: 1995-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, C; Sneddon, J; Jalloh, G

    2004-05-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effects of the breakdown in internal infrastructure on the incidence of canine-transmitted human rabies in urban areas of Sierra Leone during the course of the civil war between 1995 and 2001. Data from provincial hospitals in the Western Area and Southern Province indicated that there was a significant increase in the incidence of canine-transmitted urban human rabies chi2 = 39.63, p Sierra Leone. Interview-based questionnaires administered in three districts of Freetown indicated a relatively high degree of uniformity in dog husbandry and veterinary care habits across a wide range of socioeconomic status categories in dog owners.

  15. Del valle a la sierra. Buscando a los últimos campesinos giennenses

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Calabria, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    Premio extraordinario de Trabajo Fin de Máster curso 2013-2014. Agroecología El monocultivo industrial del olivar se extiende por casi toda la provincia de Jaén, pero aún existen en las zonas de montaña restos de la antigua multifuncionalidad del paisaje agrario. En la Sierra de Segura tenemos por un lado las tierras más bajas de olivar de montaña, que contrastan con las masas forestales y pastos de la sierra más profunda, donde además se desarrolla aún una horticultura de subsistencia car...

  16. [Serological and entomological study on yellow fever in Sierra Leone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Y; Mouchet, J

    1975-01-01

    In a serological and entomological survey on yellow fever carried out in Sierra-Leone in 1972, altogether 899 sera from children 0 to 14 years were tested with 12 antigens by haemagglutination-inhibition and complement fixation tests. Mouse neutralization test with yellow fever, West-Nile and Zika viruses were also performed on selected sera. Generally speaking, the incidence of arboviruses is low but the prevalence of antibodies for some viruses was found to vary considerably between different areas. As regards yellow fever, the virus has recently been in circulation in only two areas: Bafodia and Lalehun-Labour Camp and there is no risk for a yellow fever outbreak to occur in the near future. Due to the shortness of the survey, entomological prospections were confined to a search for Ae. aegypti larvae in and around dwellings: no breeding places are found in houses and Breteau indices are usually low, especially in forest villages. On the other hand, in urban settlements in the mining areas, breeding places around houses are numerous and are bound to increase in number. All the conditions necessary for the outbreak of an epidemic would be present within few years: such a situation would appear in Labour Camp where yellow fever virus has been circulating, where most of the population has no immunity and where Breteau indice goes as high as 34.4. As regards the other arboviruses, Zika virus is active in most areas and Chikungunya virus is particularly active in the plateau and savanna zones, in the North-East.

  17. Origen y decadencia del gamonalismo en la sierra ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra Crespo, Hernán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical path of gamonalismo in Ecuadorian highlands. Although it could be alike to Mexican caciquismo and Brazilian coronelismo, gamonalismo had its specific forms. In Ecuador it is possible to reconstruct its meaning in political terms, as a form of traditional domination. The use of this particular term is analyzed in different historical moments between the 18th and 20th century; focusing on the origin and decline of this local power. The aim is to build an interpretative frame in order to understand agrarian sources of Ecuadorian state development and ethnic domination.

    Este artículo analiza la trayectoria histórica del gamonalismo en la sierra ecuatoriana. Aunque homologado con el caciquismo mexicano y el coronelismo brasileño, tiene rasgos específicos. En el Ecuador es posible reconstruir el significado del gamonalismo en el lenguaje político y como modalidad de dominación tradicional. Por una parte, se realiza un rastreo y análisis del uso del término en distintos momentos históricos entre los siglos XVIII y XX. Por otra parte, se efectúa un abordaje del origen y declinación de esta forma de poder. Se aspira a construir un marco interpretativo que aporte a la comprensión de los fundamentos agrarios de la constitución del Estado ecuatoriano y las formas de dominación étnica.

  18. Vulnerability of birds to climate change in California's Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney B. Siegel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing climate, effective bird conservation requires not only reliable information about the current vulnerability of species of conservation concern, but also credible projections of their future vulnerability. Such projections may enable managers to preempt or reduce emerging climate-related threats through appropriate habitat management. We used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI to predict vulnerability to climate change of 168 bird species that breed in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. The CCVI assesses species-specific exposure and sensitivity to climate change within a defined geographic area, through the integration of (a species' range maps, (b information about species' natural history traits and ecological relationships, (c historic and current climate data, and (d spatially explicit climate change projections. We conducted the assessment under two different downscaled climate models with divergent projections about future precipitation through the middle of the 21st century. Assessments differed relatively little under the two climate models. Of five CCVI vulnerability ranking categories, only one species, White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura, received the most vulnerable rank, Extremely Vulnerable. No species received the second-highest vulnerability ranking, Highly Vulnerable. Sixteen species scored as Moderately Vulnerable using one or both climate models: Common Merganser (Mergus merganser, Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus, Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus, Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius, Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa, Black Swift (Cypseloides niger, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana, American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, American Pipit (Anthus rubescens, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis, Pine Grosbeak

  19. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  20. Growth, antioxidant capacity and total carotene of Dunaliella salina DCCBC15 in a low cost enriched natural seawater medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc; Doan, Nguyen; Louime, Clifford; Giordano, Mario; Portilla, Sixto

    2014-01-01

    Dunaliella is currently drawing worldwide attention as an alternative source of nutraceuticals. Commercially, β-carotene making up over 10% of Dunaliella biomass is generating the most interest. These compounds, because of their non-toxic properties, have found applications in the food, drug and cosmetic industry. The β-carotene content of Dunaliella cells, however, depends heavily on the growth conditions and especially on the availability of nutrients, salinity, irradiance and temperature in the growth medium. A chemically well defined medium is usually required, which significantly contributes to the cost of pigment production; hence a desire for low cost marine media. The present study aimed at evaluating the suitability of six different media, especially exploiting local potential resources, for the mass production of Dunaliella salina DCCBC15 as functional food and medicine. The efficacy of a new selected low-cost enriched natural seawater medium (MD4), supplemented with industrial N-P-K fertilizer, was investigated with respect to biomass production, chlorophyll, antioxidant capacity, and total carotene by Dunaliella though culture conditions were not optimized yet. This new medium (MD4) appears extremely promising, since it affords a higher production of Dunaliella biomass and pigments compared with the control, a common artificial medium (MD1), while allowing a substantial reduction in the production costs. The medium is also recommended for culturing other marine algae.

  1. Relationships between deformation and mixing processes in lava flows: a case study from Salina (Aeolian Islands, Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rosanna De; Mazzuoli, Roberto; Ventura, Guido

    1996-11-01

    The massive unit of a lava flow from Porri volcano (Salina, Aeolian Islands) displays many unusual structures related to the physical interaction between two different magmas. The magma A represents approximately 80% of the exposed lava surface; it has a crystal content of 51 vol.% and a dacitic glass composition (SiO2=63 64 wt.%). The magma B has a basaltic-andesite glass composition (SiO2=54 55 wt.%) and a crystal content of approximately 18 vol.%. It occurs as pillow-like enclaves, banding, boudin-like and rolling structures which are hosted in magma A. Structural analysis suggests that banding and boudin-like structures are the result of the deformation of enclaves at different shear strain. The linear correlation between strain and stratigraphic height of the measured elements indicates a single mode of deformation. We deduce that the component B deformed according to a simple shear model. Glass analyses of the A B boundary indicate that A and B liquids mix together at high shear strain, whereas only mingling occurs at low shear strain. This suggests that the amount of deformation (i.e. forced convection) plays an important role in the formation of hybrid magmas. High shear strain may induce stretching, shearing and rolling of fluids which promote both forced convection and dynamical diffusion processes. These processes allow mixing of magmas with large differences in their physical properties.

  2. Enhancement of Landsat images for lineament analysis in the area of the Salina Basin, New York and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1979-01-01

    Digital image processing of Landsat images of New York and Pennsylvania was undertaken to provide optimum images for lineament analysis in the area of the Salina Basin. Preliminary examination of Landsat images from photographic prints indicated sufficient differences between the spectral bands of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) to warrant digital processing of both MSS band 7 and MSS band 5. Selective contrast stretching based on analysis of the Landsat MSS histograms proved to be the most important factor affecting the appearance of the images. A three-point linear stretch using the two end points and a middle point to the Landsat frequency distribution was most successful. The flexibility of the REMAPP image processing system was helpful in creating such custom-tailored stretches. An edge enhancement was tested on the MSS band 5 image, but was not used. Stereoscopic Landsat images acquired from adjacent orbits aided recognition of topographic features; the area of stereoscopic coverage could be increased by utilizing the precession of Landsat-1?s orbit . Improvements in the digitally processed scenes did affect the analysis of lineaments for the New York area; on the enhanced MSS band 5 image, an ENE trending set of lineaments is visible, which was not recognized from other images.

  3. Growth of mono- and mixed cultures of Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum on struvite as a nutrient source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Siccardi, Anthony J. [Texas AgriLife Research Mariculture Lab., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Huysman, Nathan D. [Texas AgriLife Research Mariculture Lab., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Wyatt, Nicholas B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hewson, John C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lane, Todd W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-26

    In this paper, the suitability of crude and purified struvite (MgNH4PO4), a major precipitate in wastewater streams, was investigated for renewable replacement of conventional nitrogen and phosphate resources for cultivation of microalgae. Bovine effluent wastewater stone, the source of crude struvite, was characterized for soluble N/P, trace metals, and biochemical components and compared to the purified mineral. Cultivation trials using struvite as a major nutrient source were conducted using two microalgae production strains, Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, in both lab and outdoor pilot-scale raceways in a variety of seasonal conditions. Both crude and purified struvite-based media were found to result in biomass productivities at least as high as established media formulations (maximum outdoor co-culture yield ~20 ± 4 g AFDW/m2/day). Finally, analysis of nutrient uptake by the alga suggest that struvite provides increased nutrient utilization efficiency, and that crude struvite satisfies the trace metals requirement and results in increased pigment productivity for both microalgae strains.

  4. Characterization and heterologous expression of a new matrix attachment region binding protein from the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyun; Hou, Guiqin; Wang, Yafeng; Xue, Lexun

    2010-12-01

    Although interactions between the nuclear matrix and special regions of chromosomal DNA called matrix attachment regions (MARs) are implicated in various nuclear functions, the understanding of the regulatory mechanism of MARs is still poor. A few MAR-binding proteins (MARBP) have been isolated from some plants and animals, but not from the unicellular algae. Here, we identify a novel MAR-binding protein, namely DMBP-1, from the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina. The cDNA of DMBP-1 is 2322-bp long and contains a 1626 bp of an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 542 amino acids (59 kDa). The DMBP-1 expressed in Escherichia coli specifically binds A/T-rich MAR DNA. The DMBP-1 fused to green fluorescent protein appears only inside the nuclei of Chinese hamster ovarian cells transfected with the pEGFP-MBP, indicating that the protein is located in the nuclei. The findings mentioned above may contribute to better understanding of the nuclear matrix-MAR interactions.

  5. Outdoor cultivation of Dunaliella salina KU 11 using brine and saline lake water with raceway ponds in northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhe; Dejtisakdi, Wipawee; Kermanee, Prasart; Ma, Chunhong; Arirob, Wallop; Sathasivam, Ramaraj; Juntawong, Niran

    2016-10-03

    To evaluate the potential of algal biotechnology to replace traditional agriculture in northeastern Thailand, an open raceway cultivation system was developed to produce biomass and beta-carotene. Dunaliella salina KU 11 isolated from local saline soil was cultured in open raceway tanks using brine and saline lake water. Grown in modified Johnson's medium (with 2-3.5 M NaCl), the algae reached a maximum cell density on the fourth day (1.8 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) ). Increasing KNO3 and NaHCO3 from 0.5 and 0.043 g L(-1) to 1 and 2.1 g L(-1) , respectively, significantly improved the yields of biomass (0.33 g L(-1) ) and beta-carotene (19 mg L(-1) ). Expected profits for algal production were evaluated, and it was found that this strain was suitable for outdoor cultivation and the developing algal industry in northeastern Thailand could produce high economic benefits (at least $64,120 per year per 0.16 ha). © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Enhancement of biomass and lipid productivity by overexpression of a bZIP transcription factor in Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sohee; Kang, Nam Kyu; Koh, Hyun Gi; Shin, Sung-Eun; Lee, Bongsoo; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool; Chang, Yong Keun

    2018-02-01

    Microalgae are considered as excellent platforms for biomaterial production that can replace conventional fossil fuel-based fuels and chemicals. Genetic engineering of microalgae is prerequisite to maximize production of materials and to reduce costs for the production. Transcription factors (TFs) are emerging as key regulators of metabolic pathways to enhance production of molecules for biofuels and other materials. TFs with the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain have been known as stress regulators and are associated with lipid metabolism in plants. We overexpressed a bZIP TF, NsbZIP1, in Nannochloropsis salina, and found that transformants showed enhanced growth with concomitant increase in lipid contents. The improved phenotypes were also notable under stress conditions including N limitation and high salt. To understand the mechanism underlying improved phenotypes, we analyzed expression patterns of predicted target genes involved in lipid metabolism via quantitative RT-PCR, confirming increases transcript levels. NsbZIP1 appeared to be one of type C bZIPs in plants that has been known to regulate lipid metabolism under stress. Taken together, we demonstrated that NsbZIP1 could improve both growth and lipid production, and TF engineering can serve as an excellent genetic engineering tool for production of biofuels and biomaterials in microalgae. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Copper(II) complexes with 2-pyridineformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones: Spectral studies and toxicity against Artemia salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Karina O.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Wardell, James L.; Louro, Sonia R. W.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2009-07-01

    The copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2Am4DH)Cl 2] ( 1), [Cu(H2Am4Me)Cl 2] ( 2), [Cu(H2Am4Et)Cl 2] ( 3) and [Cu(2Am4Ph)Cl] ( 4) with 2-pyridineformamide thiosemicarbazone (H2Am4DH) and its N(4)-methyl (H2Am4Me), N(4)-ethyl (H2Am4Et) and N(4)-phenyl (H2Am4Ph) derivatives were studied by means of infrared and EPR spectral techniques. The crystal structure of 4 was determined. The studied compounds proved to be toxic to Artemia salina, suggesting that they could present cytotoxic activity against solid tumors. Among the free thiosemicarbazones H2Am4Ph presented higher toxicity than all other compounds, which showed comparable effects. In the case of complexes 2 and 3 toxicity is probably attributable to the complex as an entity or to a synergistic effect involving the thiosemicarbazone and copper. H2Am4Ph and complexes 2 and 3 revealed to be the most promising compounds as potential antineoplasic agents.

  8. Noteworthy records of two species of mammals in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Mexico Registros notables de dos especies de mamíferos de la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Briones-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted mammal surveys in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte in Oaxaca, Mexico, and recorded the occurrence of two conspicuous mammal species: the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus and the coyote (Canis latrans cagottis. Spider monkeys has not been previously recorded in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, and coyotes have not been previously observed in Mexico at elevations as high as the present one (3 200 mas1 in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca.Se efectuaron colectas de mamíferos en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte en Oaxaca, México, y se registró la notoria presencia de dos mamíferos: el mono araña (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus y el coyote (Canis latrans cagottis. El mono araña no se había registrado previamente en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, en tanto que el coyote, no había sido registrado en México a tan gran altitud (3 200 m como la de la localidad de captura.

  9. Efeito da solução salina 0,9% e tampão fosfato salina em diferentes temperaturas e tempos de incubação sobre a morfologia de folículos pré-antrais caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Rodrigues dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho investigou a eficiência da solução salina 0,9% e tampão fosfato salina (PBS na conservação de folículos pré-antrais caprinos in situ a diferentes temperaturas e tempos de incubação. O par ovariano de cada animal foi dividido em 19 fragmentos. Um fragmento foi escolhido aleatoriamente e fixado (controle. Os outros 18 fragmentos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em tubos contendo solução salina 0,9% ou PBS a 4, 20 ou 39 °C por 4, 12 ou 24 h. Um total de 5.921 folículos pré-antrais foram analisados. A qualidade dos folículos pré-antrais foi avaliada através de histologia clássica. A incubação de fragmentos ovarianos em solução salina 0,9% ou PBS a 4 ºC não reduziu significativamente a percentagem de folículos morfologicamente normais quando comparados com o controle, exceto após a conservação em solução salina 0,9% por 24 h. A incubação de fragmentos ovarianos a 20 ou 39°C reduziu a percentagem de folículos pré-antrais normais quando comparados com o controle, exceto após conservação em PBS a 20°C por 4 h. Em conclusão, este estudo mostrou pela primeira vez que folículos pré-antrais caprinos podem ser conservados in situ com sucesso a 4 ºC em solução salina 0,9% por 12 h e em PBS por 24 h, e a 20 ºC em PBS por 4 h.

  10. Comparison of surgical care deficiencies between US civil war hospitals and present-day hospitals in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Joseph; Kingham, T Peter; Kamara, T B; Brennan, Murray F; Kushner, Adam L

    2010-08-01

    Surgery is rapidly becoming a part of public health initiatives in developing countries. In collaboration with the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, a team of local surgeons and surgeons from the organization Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) used the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency Surgical Care to quantify surgical capacity in Sierra Leone. These data were then compared to data collected from the Medical and Surgical History of the Civil War, a work documenting surgical care and hospitals during the US Civil War. There are 0.2 government hospital surgeons/100,000 people in Sierra Leone compared to 300 surgeons/100,000 soldiers in the Union Army. In Sierra Leone it is rare to have running water, fuel, anesthesia, and reliable X-rays. In comparison, US Civil War hospitals had reliable running water, fuel, and anesthesia. It is rare to manage open fractures, limb dislocations, amputations, and conditions requiring chest tubes in Sierra Leone, while these procedures were commonly employed in US Civil War hospitals. Government hospitals in present day Sierra Leone lack the infrastructure, personnel, supplies, and equipment to adequately provide emergency and essential surgical care. In a comparison of present day Sierra Leonean and US Civil War hospitals, the US Civil War facilities are equivalent and in many ways superior. It is hoped that such a comparison will aid advocacy efforts so that greater resources are devoted to improving emergency and essential surgical care in low- and middle-income countries.

  11. Stratigraphy and Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Sierra Los Ajos and adjacent areas, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Iriondo, Alexander; Miggins, Daniel; Blodgett, Robert B.; Maldonado, Florian; Miller, Robert J.

    2010-04-01

    Geologic mapping in the northern Sierra Los Ajos reveals new stratigraphic and structural data relevant to deciphering the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the range. The northern Sierra Los Ajos is cored by Proterozoic, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian strata, equivalent respectively to the Pinal Schist, Bolsa Quartzite and Abrigo Limestone, Martin Formation, Escabrosa Limestone, and Horquilla Limestone. The Proterozoic-Paleozoic sequence is mantled by Upper Cretaceous rocks partly equivalent to the Fort Crittenden and Salero Formations in Arizona, and the Cabullona Group in Sonora, Mexico. Absence of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Bisbee Group below the Upper Cretaceous rocks and above the Proterozoic-Paleozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos was part of the Cananea high, a topographic highland during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Deposition of Upper Cretaceous rocks directly on Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos area had subsided as part of the Laramide Cabullona basin during Late Cretaceous time. Basal beds of the Upper Cretaceous sequence are clast-supported conglomerate composed locally of basement (Paleozoic) clasts. The conglomerate represents erosion of Paleozoic basement in the Sierra Los Ajos area coincident with development of the Cabullona basin. The present-day Sierra Los Ajos reaches elevations of greater than 2600 m, and was uplifted during Tertiary basin-and-range extension. Upper Cretaceous rocks are exposed at higher elevations in the northern Sierra Los Ajos and represent an uplifted part of the inverted Cabullona basin. Tertiary uplift of the Sierra Los Ajos was largely accommodated by vertical movement along the north-to-northwest-striking Sierra Los Ajos fault zone flanking the west side of the range. This fault zone structurally controls the configuration of the headwaters of the San Pedro River basin, an important bi-national water resource in the US

  12. Stratigraphy and Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Sierra Los Ajos and adjacent areas, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Iriondo, Alexander; Miggins, Daniel P.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Maldonado, Florian; Miller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the northern Sierra Los Ajos reveals new stratigraphic and structural data relevant to deciphering the Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the range. The northern Sierra Los Ajos is cored by Proterozoic, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian strata, equivalent respectively to the Pinal Schist, Bolsa Quartzite and Abrigo Limestone, Martin Formation, Escabrosa Limestone, and Horquilla Limestone. The Proterozoic–Paleozoic sequence is mantled by Upper Cretaceous rocks partly equivalent to the Fort Crittenden and Salero Formations in Arizona, and the Cabullona Group in Sonora, Mexico.Absence of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Bisbee Group below the Upper Cretaceous rocks and above the Proterozoic–Paleozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos was part of the Cananea high, a topographic highland during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Deposition of Upper Cretaceous rocks directly on Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos area had subsided as part of the Laramide Cabullona basin during Late Cretaceous time. Basal beds of the Upper Cretaceous sequence are clast-supported conglomerate composed locally of basement (Paleozoic) clasts. The conglomerate represents erosion of Paleozoic basement in the Sierra Los Ajos area coincident with development of the Cabullona basin.The present-day Sierra Los Ajos reaches elevations of greater than 2600 m, and was uplifted during Tertiary basin-and-range extension. Upper Cretaceous rocks are exposed at higher elevations in the northern Sierra Los Ajos and represent an uplifted part of the inverted Cabullona basin. Tertiary uplift of the Sierra Los Ajos was largely accommodated by vertical movement along the north-to-northwest-striking Sierra Los Ajos fault zone flanking the west side of the range. This fault zone structurally controls the configuration of the headwaters of the San Pedro River basin, an important bi-national water resource in the US

  13. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  14. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 1, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria with Artesunate-Amodiaquine Combination Therapy (ACT) in a Rural Fishing Community in Sierra Leone · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. F Sahr, M Gevao, A Bockarie, E Ibrahim-Sayo, S Sevalie, ...

  15. Habitat modeling and movements of the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.T. Liang

    2010-01-01

    The Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) canorus) is a high-elevation species endemic to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California and is part of the world-wide amphibian declines phenomenon. The toad is thought to have disappeared from over 50% of its historic range even in seemingly undisturbed areas, and...

  16. Verification Tests for Sierra/SM's Reproducing Kernal Particle Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report seeks to verify the proper implemention of RKPM within Sierra by comparing the results from several basic example problems excecuted with RKPM against the analytical and FEM solutions for these same problems. This report was compiled as a summer student intern project.

  17. Seeds and rights: new approaches to post-war agricultural rehabilitation in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, S.; Richards, P.

    2002-01-01

    Based on preliminary findings of ongoing 'action research' in the war zone in central Sierra Leone, this paper shows how more equitable seed distribution could contribute to fostering a culture of human rights as well as to agricultural rehabilitation. Assessment of seeds-and-toosl programmes in 19

  18. GPS Imaging of vertical land motion in California and Nevada: Implications for Sierra Nevada uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, William C.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné

    2016-10-01

    We introduce Global Positioning System (GPS) Imaging, a new technique for robust estimation of the vertical velocity field of the Earth's surface, and apply it to the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in the western United States. Starting with vertical position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, we first estimate vertical velocities using the MIDAS robust trend estimator, which is insensitive to undocumented steps, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity. Using the Delaunay triangulation of station locations, we then apply a weighted median spatial filter to remove velocity outliers and enhance signals common to multiple stations. Finally, we interpolate the data using weighted median estimation on a grid. The resulting velocity field is temporally and spatially robust and edges in the field remain sharp. Results from data spanning 5-20 years show that the Sierra Nevada is the most rapid and extensive uplift feature in the western United States, rising up to 2 mm/yr along most of the range. The uplift is juxtaposed against domains of subsidence attributable to groundwater withdrawal in California's Central Valley. The uplift boundary is consistently stationary, although uplift is faster over the 2011-2016 period of drought. Uplift patterns are consistent with groundwater extraction and concomitant elastic bedrock uplift, plus slower background tectonic uplift. A discontinuity in the velocity field across the southeastern edge of the Sierra Nevada reveals a contrast in lithospheric strength, suggesting a relationship between late Cenozoic uplift of the southern Sierra Nevada and evolution of the southern Walker Lane.

  19. West nile virus anti-body surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; L.A. Tell; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has caused high levels of mortality in North American hawks and owls. To investigate the extent of infection among raptors of conservation concern in the Sierra Nevada, we tested 62 Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), 209 Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis), and 22 Great Gray Owls (...

  20. Bodies in action. Culture and body skills in post-conflict Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet, van der A.

    2010-01-01

    This book is about human body movement and culture. The body skills of a sample of Sierra Leoneans are analyzed in terms of acquisition of the skills, the importance of learning these skills to become part of a community and the physical consequences of the activities. It focuses on skills in