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Sample records for salicylic acid

  1. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product less often. Talk to your doctor or check the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product ... in salicylic acid products. Ask your pharmacist or check the package label for a list of the ingredients.do not apply any of the following products to the skin ...

  2. 21 CFR 556.590 - Salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salicylic acid. 556.590 Section 556.590 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.590 Salicylic acid. A tolerance of zero is established for residues of salicylic acid in milk from dairy animals. ...

  3. Wet oxidation of salicylic acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2010-11-15

    Salicylic acid is a frequent pollutant in several industrial wastewaters. Uncatalyzed wet air oxidation, which is a promising technique for the treatment of phenolic effluents, has not been analyzed yet for the removal of salicylic acid. The effect of different conditions of pH (1.3-12.3), pressure (1.0-4.1 MPa), temperature (413-443 K), and initial concentrations (1.45-14.50 mM) on the wet oxidation of salicylate/salicylic acid solutions have here been investigated. The pH value of the reaction media was found to be a key parameter for the rate of the oxidation process with an optimum at pH 3.1, when the concentrations of salicylic acid and salicylate were similar. The oxidation reaction followed pseudofirst-order kinetics with respect to salicylic acid and 0.82 order with respect to dissolved oxygen. Additionally, the evolution of the color during the wet oxidation was analyzed and discussed in relation with the formation of intermediate compounds. Then, a reaction pathway for the noncatalytic wet oxidation of the salicylic acid was proposed.

  4. Glycolic Acid 15% Plus Salicylic Acid 2%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Blanco, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background: Facial flat warts are a contagious viral disease that can cause disturbing cosmetic problems. Topical glycolic acid has been reported to be effective in dermatological treatment depending on the exfoliant capacity, but has not often been reported to be effective in the treatment of facial flat warts. Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts. Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients 7 to 16 years of age with recalcitrant facial flat warts were enrolled in this study. Patients having warts by the eye and lip regions were excluded from the study. A fine layer of face gel was applied to the treatment area once daily. Most of the participants had tried different treatments with no success. Assessments for the response and the occurrence of side effects were performed every two weeks at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Results: All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin. Conclusion: Topical gel of glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2% is safe and effective when applied to facial flat warts once daily until clearance and may be considered as first-line treatment. PMID:21938272

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB, the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Li; Shi, Bao-Lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Su-Li; Gao, Bao-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  7. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA...

  8. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are

  9. Salicylic acid electrooxidation. A surface film formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baturova, M.D.; Vedenjapin, A.; Baturova, M.M. [N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Weichgrebe, D.; Danilova, E.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Univ. of Hannover, Inst. of Water Quality and Waste Management Hannover (Germany); Skundin, A. [A.N. Frumkin Inst. of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    A possibility to use electrochemical treatment for salicylic acid (SA) removal from waste water was studied. It was found that SA can be oxidized at platinum anode with formation of harmless products. Features of anodic process, in particular, formation of solid film on anode surface as well as properties of the film were investigated. (orig.)

  10. Promoting the Synthesis of Ethanol and Butanol by Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Jinxin Zou; Lei Wang; Peijun Ji

    2017-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with salicylic acid (SA). The copper-cobalt catalyst was impregnated on the SA functionalized MWCNTs (SA-MWCNTs). The catalyst copper-cobalt/SA-MWCNTs was used to catalyze the synthesis of alcohols from synthesis gas. Salicylic acid can promote the synthesis of ethanol and butanol from synthesis gas, thus reducing the synthesis of methanol. This work demonstrated that salicylic acid not only can be used to functionalize carbon nanotube...

  11. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte; Pieterse, Corné M J; van Wees, Saskia C M

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  12. Salicylic Acid Alters Antioxidant and Phenolics Metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a potential non-enzymatic antioxidant and a plant growth regulator, which plays a major role in regulating various plant physiological mechanisms. The effects of salicylic acid (SA; 0.05 mM) on physiological parameters, antioxidative capacity and phenolic metabolism, lignin, alkaloid ...

  13. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  14. Spectroscopic structural studies of salicylic acid, salicylamide and aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawy, Anwar S.

    The electronic absorption spectra of the salicylic acid and the salicylamide molecules have been studied using SCF—CL calculations. The singlet and the triplet electronic transition energies have been calculated. The state functions of eight excited states for these molecules have been calculated in addition to the oscillator strengths, charge densities, ionization potentials and electron affinities. Our calculations lead to the presence of salicylic acid and salicylamide in the β-forms in which the carboxylic hydroxyl group or the amino group is directed toward the enolic hydroxyl group. The salicylic acid and the salicylamide molecules have the Cs point group symmetry, but the aspirin molecule has the C1 point group symmetry, in which the acetyl group does not lie in the plane of the salicylic acid molecule.

  15. Salicylic acid signaling in disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhirendra

    2014-11-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant hormone that mediates host responses against microbial pathogens. Identification and characterization of SA-interacting/binding proteins is a topic which has always excited scientists studying microbial defense response in plants. It is likely that discovery of a true receptor for SA may greatly advance understanding of this important signaling pathway. SABP2 with its high affinity for SA was previously considered to be a SA receptor. Despite a great deal work we may still not have true a receptor for SA. It is also entirely possible that there may be more than one receptor for SA. This scenario is more likely given the diverse role of SA in various physiological processes in plants including, modulation of opening and closing of stomatal aperture, flowering, seedling germination, thermotolerance, photosynthesis, and drought tolerance. Recent identification of NPR3, NPR4 and NPR1 as potential SA receptors and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHE2), several glutathione S transferases (GSTF) such as SA binding proteins have generated more interest in this field. Some of these SA binding proteins may have direct/indirect role in plant processes other than pathogen defense signaling. Development and use of new techniques with higher specificity to identify SA-interacting proteins have shown great promise and have resulted in the identification of several new SA interactors. This review focuses on SA interaction/binding proteins identified so far and their likely role in mediating plant defenses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and antifungal activity of new salicylic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodnicka Alicja

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple one-step procedure for synthesis of 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl salicylates and 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl 2-[(1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yloxy]benzoates by reaction of salicylic acid with several methyl 2-bromoalkanoates was developed. The reactions were carried out in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. Conditions for regioselective synthesis of target compounds were established. The developed procedure could be easily applied in the industrial production process. The new salicylic acid derivatives were obtained with satisfactory yields and were characterized by MS and 1H NMR spectra. The fungicidal activity of the prepared compounds was tested in vitro against seven species of plant pathogenic fungi. The best results were observed for 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl salicylates which showed moderate or good activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani.

  17. Synthesis, acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of bornyl salicylate, a salicylic acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Renata Marcia Costa; Leite, Fagner Carvalho; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Rodrigues Mascarenhas, Sandra; Rodrigues, Luis Cezar; Piuvezam, Marcia Regina

    2012-12-01

    Bornyl salicylate (BS) is a salicylic derivative, obtained by sterification of salicylic acid and monoterpene (-)-borneol, and its topical use in inflammatory diseases was described in the early 20th century. It is also known that borneol presents neuroprotective, genoprotective and analgesic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BS in experimental models of acute inflammation. The toxicity of BS was analyzed by measuring water and food intake, weight, mortality and weight of main organs. To assess its anti-inflammatory effect, BS-treated mice were challenged with carrageenan, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), bradikynin (BK) or histamine (HIS)-induced paw edema, zymosan-induced peritonitis and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed in peritoneal macrophage cultures. There was no sign of acute toxicity of BS in male and female mice. Furthermore, treatment with BS was significantly (p acetic acid were also reduced in BS-treated animals. In vitro, BS (10 µg/mL) reduced NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These data suggest that BS has an anti-inflammatory effect, which is related, at least in part, with decrease of mediators as PGE2, NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, further studies should be done to explore its potential as an anti-inflammatory drug.

  18. Studies on effects of salicylic acid and thiourea on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought is a problem of water deficit in the soil. It causes restrictions of wheat plants growth and productivity. In the present approach, we explored new methods for drought managment. Wheat grains were presoaked in ~1 mmol salicylic acid (SA). Wheat was left to grow with 40% soil water holding capacity in pots until ...

  19. Effects of salicylic acid on morphological and physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the effect of different levels of salicylic acid (SA) on yield and some morphological and physiological characteristics of sweet corn hybrids under water stress, this study was conducted in 2015 using split plots in the base of randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were included ...

  20. Does foliar application of salicylic acid protects nitrate reductase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to assess whether exogenous applied salicylic acid (SA) as a foliar spray could ameliorate the adverse effects of virus infection in two maize cultivars (maize cv. sabaini and maize cv. Nab El-gamal). The plants were grown under normal field conditions for two weeks in sand clay soil, and ...

  1. Dermal morphological changes following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Motaleb, Amira A; Abu-Dief, Eman E; Hussein, Mahmoud Ra

    2017-12-01

    Microdermabrasion and chemical peeling are popular, inexpensive, and safe methods for treatment of some skin disorders and to rejuvenate skin. To study the alterations of the dermal connective tissue following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion. Twenty patients were participated in our study. All participants underwent facial salicylic acid 30% peel or microdermabrasion (10 cases in each group) weekly for 6 weeks. Punch biopsies were obtained from the clinically normal skin of the right postauricular region 1 week before treatment (control group). Other punch skin biopsies were obtained 1 week after the end of the treatments from the left postauricular area. This region was treated in a similar way to the adjacent lesional skin (treated group). We used routine histological techniques (H&E stain), special stains (Masson trichrome and orcein stains), and image analyzer to study the alterations of the dermal connective tissues. Our study demonstrates variations in the morphological changes between the control and the treated groups, and between chemical peels and microdermabrasion. Both salicylic acid 30% and microdermabrasion were associated with thickened epidermal layer, shallow dermal papillae, dense collagen, and elastic fibers. There was a significant increase among those treated sites vs control regarding epidermal thickness and collagen thickness. Also, there was a highly statistically significant increase among those treated with salicylic acid vs microdermabrasion regarding the epidermal, collagen, and elastin thickness. Both methods stimulate the repair process. The mechanisms underlying these variations are open for further investigations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Thermodynamics of cosolvent action: phenacetin, salicylic acid and probenecid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M A; Escalera, B; Reíllo, A; Sánchez, A B; Bustamante, P

    2009-03-01

    The solubility of phenacetin, salicylic acid, and probenecid in ethanol-water and ethanol-ethyl acetate mixtures at several temperatures (15-40 degrees C) was measured. The solubility profiles are related to medium polarity changes. The apparent thermodynamic magnitudes and enthalpy-entropy relationships are related to the cosolvent action. Salicylic acid and probenecid show a single peak against the solubility parameter delta(1) of both solvent mixtures, at 40% (delta(1) = 21.70 MPa(1/2)) and 30% (delta(1) = 20.91 MPa(1/2)) ethanol in ethyl acetate, respectively. Phenacetin displays two peaks at 60% ethanol in ethyl acetate (23.30 MPa(1/2)) and 90% ethanol in water (delta(1) = 28.64 MPa(1/2)). The apparent enthalpies of solution display a maximum at 30% (phenacetin and salicylic acid) and 40% (probenecid) ethanol in water, respectively. Two different mechanisms, entropy at low ethanol ratios, and enthalpy at high ethanol ratios control the solubility enhancement in the aqueous mixture. In the nonaqueous mixture (ethanol-ethyl acetate) enthalpy is the driving force throughout the whole solvent composition for salicylic acid and phenacetin. For probenecid, the dominant mechanism shifts from entropy to enthalpy as the ethanol in ethyl acetate concentration increases. The enthalpy-entropy compensation plots corroborate the different mechanisms involved in the solubility enhancement by cosolvents. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  3. Effects of salicylic acid on monoterpene production and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in plant defense responses. However, little is available about its effects on monoterpene responses. Therefore, monoterpene contents and antioxidant systems were measured three days after foliar application of SA with different concentrations in Houttuynia cordata. SA at low ...

  4. Impact of salicylic acid on antioxidants, biomass and osmotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... Key words: Antioxidants, growth, salicylic acid, water stress. INTRODUCTION ... Prolonged water stress affects virtually all metabolic processes and often results in severe reductions in plant productivity and death of plants. The effect of .... increases the conservation of water in tomato and ama- ranth during ...

  5. Salicylic acid pretreatment reduces chilling injury of cactus pear fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loook

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... Effect of pre-storage salicylic acid, calcium chloride and 2 .... variety were harvested on 17 July, 2011 from uniform plants growing in a commercial ... index was calculated using the following formula: CI = ∑ (value of hedonic ...

  6. Influence of Salicylic Acid on the Antimicrobial Potential of Stevia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on the antimicrobial profile of Stevia leaf extracts against soybean seed-borne pathogens. Methods: Stevia seeds were planted in a greenhouse and SA foliar applied after six weeks on the whole plant at concentrations of 0 and 0.1 g L-1. The extracts of the plant leaf ...

  7. Evaluation of the antifungal properties of nystatin-salicylic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antifungal activity of nystatin-salicylic acid combinations against clinical isolates of Candida albicans was investigated separately using the overlay inoculum susceptibility disc, the decimal assay for additively (DDA) and the rate of time kill methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the individual ...

  8. Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic quantitation of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, B E; Bochner, F; Imhoff, D M; Johns, D; Rowland, M

    1980-01-01

    We have developed a specific and sensitive method for the determination of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine. Any proteins present are precipitated with methyl cyanide. After centrifugation, an aliquot of the supernate is directly injected into an octadecyl silane reversed-phase chromatographic column, then eluted with a mixture of water, butanol, acetic acid, and sodium sulfate, and quantitated at 313 nm by ultraviolet detection according to peak-height ratios (with internal standard, o-methoxybenzoic acid) or peak heights (no internal standard). The method allows estimates within 25 min. Sensitivity was 0.2 mg/L for gentisic acid, and 0.5 mg/L for both salicyluric and salicylic acid (20-micro L injection volume); response was linear with concentration to at least 2.000 g/L for salicylic acid and metabolites. Analytical recovery of salicylic acid and metabolites from urine is complete. Intra-assay precision (coefficient of variation) is 5.52% at 7.5 mg/L for salicylic acid, 5.01% at 9.33 mg/L for salicyluric acid, and 3.07% at 7.96 mg/L for gentisic acid. Interassay precision is 7.32% at 7.51 mg/L for salicylic acid, 5.52% at 8.58 mg/L for salicyluric acid, and 3.97% at 8.32 mg/L for gentisic acid. We saw no significant interference in urine from patients being treated with various drugs other than aspirin.

  9. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  10. Simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Sánchez-Ferrer Robles, I.

    2011-09-01

    A new methodology for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids is proposed. The strong overlapping of the fluorescence spectra of both analytes makes impossible the conventional fluorimetric determination. For that reason, the use of fluorescence decay curves to resolve mixtures of analytes is proposed; this is a novel technique that provides the benefits in selectivity and sensitivity of the fluorescence decay curves. In order to assess the goodness of the proposed method, a prediction set of synthetic samples were analyzed obtaining recuperation percentages between 98.2 and 104.6%. Finally, a study of the detection limits was done using a new criterion resulting in values for the detection limits of 8.2 and 11.6 μg L -1 for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively. The validity of the method was tested in human serum and human urine spiked with aliquots of the analytes. Recoveries obtained were 96.2 and 94.5% for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively.

  11. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caarls, Lotte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between the hormone signaling pathways allows for fine tuning of transcriptional programs, determining resistance to invaders and trade-offs with plant development. Here, we give an overview of how SA can control transcriptional reprogramming of JA-induced genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. SA can influence activity and/or localization of transcriptional regulators by post-translational modifications of transcription factors and co-regulators. SA-induced redox changes, mediated by thioredoxins and glutaredoxins, modify transcriptional regulators that are involved in suppression of JA-dependent genes, such as NPR1 and TGA transcription factors, which affects their localization or DNA binding activity. Furthermore, SA can mediate sequestering of JA-responsive transcription factors away from their target genes by stalling them in the cytosol or in complexes with repressor proteins in the nucleus. SA also affects JA-induced transcription by inducing degradation of transcription factors with an activating role in JA signaling, as was shown for the ERF transcription factor ORA59. Additionally, SA can induce negative regulators, among which WRKY transcription factors, that can directly or indirectly inhibit JA-responsive gene expression. Finally, at the DNA level, modification of histones by SA-dependent factors can result in repression of JA-responsive genes. These diverse and complex regulatory mechanisms affect important signaling hubs in the integration of hormone signaling networks. Some pathogens have evolved effectors that highjack hormone crosstalk mechanisms for their own good, which are described in this review as well.

  12. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte eCaarls

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between the hormone signaling pathways allows for fine tuning of transcriptional programs, determining resistance to invaders and trade-offs with plant development. Here, we give an overview of how SA can control transcriptional reprogramming of JA-induced genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. SA can influence activity and/or localization of transcriptional regulators by post-translational modifications of transcription factors and co-regulators. SA-induced redox changes, mediated by thioredoxins and glutaredoxins, modify transcriptional regulators that are involved in suppression of JA-dependent genes, such as NPR1 and TGA transcription factors, which affects their localization or DNA binding activity. Furthermore, SA can mediate sequestering of JA-responsive transcription factors away from their target genes by stalling them in the cytosol or in complexes with repressor proteins in the nucleus. SA also affects JA-induced transcription by inducing degradation of transcription factors with an activating role in JA signaling, as was shown for the ERF transcription factor ORA59. Additionally, SA can induce negative regulators, among which WRKY transcription factors, that can directly or indirectly inhibit JA-responsive gene expression. Finally, at the DNA level, modification of histones by SA-dependent factors can result in repression of JA-responsive genes. These diverse and complex regulatory mechanisms affect important signaling hubs in the integration of hormone signaling networks. Some pathogens have evolved effectors that highjack hormone crosstalk mechanisms for their own good, which are described in this review as well.

  13. Chlorogenic acids biosynthesis in Centella asiatica cells is not stimulated by salicylic acid manipulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ncube, EN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. In particular, salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been...

  14. pH-dependent and carrier-mediated transport of salicylic acid across Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanaga, H; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1994-07-01

    The transport of monocarboxylic acid drugs such as salicylic acid was examined in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2 cells that possess intestinal epithelia-like properties. [14C]Salicylic acid transport was pH-dependent and appeared to follow the pH-partition hypothesis. However, 10 mM unlabelled salicylic acid significantly reduced the permeability coefficient of [14C]salicylic acid. Kinetic analysis of the concentration dependence of the permeation rate of salicylic acid across Caco-2 cells showed both saturable (Kt = 5.28 +/- 0.72 mM Jmax = 36.6 +/- 3.54 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1) and nonsaturable (kd = 0.37 +/- 0.08 microL min-1 (mg protein)-1) processes. The permeation rate of [14C]salicylic acid was competitively inhibited by both acetic acid and benzoic acid, which were demonstrated in our previous studies to be transported in the carrier-mediated-transport mechanism which is responsible for monocarboxylic acids. Furthermore, certain monocarboxylic acids significantly inhibited [14C]salicylic acid transport, whereas salicylamide and dicarboxylic acids such as succinic acid did not. From these results, it was concluded that the transcellular transport of [14C]salicylic acid across Caco-2 cells is by the pH-dependent and carrier-mediated transport mechanism specific for monocarboxylic acids.

  15. Synthetic nanoparticles of bovine serum albumin with entrapped salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronze-Uhle ES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ES Bronze-Uhle,1 BC Costa,1 VF Ximenes,2 PN Lisboa-Filho1 1Department of Physics, São Paulo State University (Unesp, School of Sciences, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Chemistry, São Paulo State University (Unesp, School of Sciences, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Bovine serum albumin (BSA is highly water soluble and binds drugs or inorganic substances noncovalently for their effective delivery to various affected areas of the body. Due to the well-defined structure of the protein, containing charged amino acids, albumin nanoparticles (NPs may allow electrostatic adsorption of negatively or positively charged molecules, such that substantial amounts of drug can be incorporated within the particle, due to different albumin-binding sites. During the synthesis procedure, pH changes significantly. This variation modifies the net charge on the surface of the protein, varying the size and behavior of NPs as the drug delivery system. In this study, the synthesis of BSA NPs, by a desolvation process, was studied with salicylic acid (SA as the active agent. SA and salicylates are components of various plants and have been used for medication with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal properties. However, when administered orally to adults (usual dose provided by the manufacturer, there is 50% decomposition of salicylates. Thus, there has been a search for some time to develop new systems to improve the bioavailability of SA and salicylates in the human body. Taking this into account, during synthesis, the pH was varied (5.4, 7.4, and 9 to evaluate its influence on the size and release of SA of the formed NPs. The samples were analyzed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. Through fluorescence, it was possible to analyze the release of SA in vitro in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The results of

  16. Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mallick, Nirupama; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrated that exogenous application of 200 microM salicylic acid through root feeding and foliar spray could induce resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici (Fol) in tomato. Endogenous accumulation of free salicylic acid in tomato roots was detected by HPLC and identification was confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. At 168h of salicylic acid treatment through roots, the endogenous salicylic acid level in the roots increased to 1477ngg(-1) FW which was 10 times higher than control plants. Similarly, the salicylic acid content was 1001ngg(-1) FW at 168h of treatment by foliar spray, which was 8.7 times higher than control plants. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were 5.9 and 4.7 times higher, respectively than the control plants at 168h of salicylic acid feeding through the roots. The increase in PAL and POD activities was 3.7 and 3.3 times higher, respectively at 168h of salicylic acid treatments through foliar spray than control plants. The salicylic acid-treated tomato plants challenged with Fol exhibited significantly reduced vascular browning and leaf yellowing wilting. The mycelial growth of Fol was not significantly affected by salicylic acid. Significant increase in basal level of salicylic acid in noninoculated plants indicated that tomato root system might have the capacity to assimilate and distribute salicylic acid throughout the plant. The results indicated that the induced resistance observed in tomato against Fol might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  17. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  18. Spectroscopic study of jet-cooled heterodimers of salicylic acid with acetic and trifluoroacetic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmani, F.; Zehnacker-Rentien, A.

    1997-06-01

    The photophysical properties of the intermolecular hydrogen-bonded complexes of salicylic acid with acetic acid and trifluoroacetic acid have been investigated in a supersonic expansion. The fluorescence excitation spectra are characterized by a long harmonic progression upon a low frequency mode and their origin is blue-shifted with respect to that of pure salicylic acid. The emission spectra exhibit a single broad band peaking at 360 and 390 nm respectively for the complex with trifluoroacetic and acetic acids and are not dependent on the excitation wavelength. The results have been rationalized in terms of a single minimum energy curve in both the ground and excited states.

  19. Kinetic and safety assessment for salicylic acid nitration by nitric acid/acetic acid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, R; Caprio, V; Di Somma, I; Sanchirico, R

    2006-06-30

    The nitration process of salicylic acid for the production of the important intermediate 5-nitrosalicylic acid is studied from thermokinetic and safety points of view. Investigations carried out by considering, as process deviations, the loss of the thermal control point out the possibility of runaway phenomena due to the occurrence of polynitration reactions. Isothermal experiments are carried out in various conditions to assess the involved reaction network and reaction kinetics.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Conjugates of Niacin and Salicylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Chi B; Bemis, Jean E; Benson, Ericka; Bista, Pradeep; Carney, David; Fahrner, Richard; Lee, Diana; Liu, Feng; Lonkar, Pallavi; Milne, Jill C; Nichols, Andrew J; Picarella, Dominic; Shoelson, Adam; Smith, Jesse; Ting, Amal; Wensley, Allison; Yeager, Maisy; Zimmer, Michael; Jirousek, Michael R

    2016-02-11

    This report describes the synthesis and preliminary biological characterization of novel fatty acid niacin conjugates and fatty acid salicylate conjugates. These molecular entities were created by covalently linking two bioactive molecules, either niacin or salicylic acid, to an omega-3 fatty acid. This methodology allows the simultaneous intracellular delivery of two bioactives in order to elicit a pharmacological response that could not be replicated by administering the bioactives individually or in combination. The fatty acid niacin conjugate 5 has been shown to be an inhibitor of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), a key regulator of cholesterol metabolism proteins such as PCSK9, HMG-CoA reductase, ATP citrate lyase, and NPC1L1. On the other hand, the fatty acid salicylate conjugate 11 has been shown to have a unique anti-inflammatory profile based on its ability to modulate the NF-κB pathway through the intracellular release of the two bioactives.

  1. Glycosylation of capsaicinoids with Panax ginseng stimulated by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuragi, H; Shimoda, Kei; Ohiro, Azusa; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-12-01

    The efficient production of β-glycosides of capsaicin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured cells of Panax ginseng is reported. Capsaicin 4-O-(6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-primeveroside, 12%) together with capsaicin 4-O-β-D-glucoside (6%) was isolated from the cell suspension of P. ginseng after one week of incubation with capsaicin. On the other hand, 8-nordihydrocapsaicin was glycosylated to 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-O-β-D-glucoside (5%) and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-O-β-primeveroside (9%) by P. ginseng. Pretreatment of the cultured cells with salicylic acid greatly enhanced the glucosylation activity toward capsaicinoids. When 500 μM of salicylic acid was added to the cultures prior to the addition of substrate, capsaicin was converted into capsaicin 4-O-β-D-glucoside (17%) and capsaicin β-primeveroside (21%) and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin was glycosylated to 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-O-β-D-glucoside (16%) and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin β-primeveroside (15%).

  2. Paracetamol and salicylic acid removal from contaminated water by microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escapa, C; Coimbra, R N; Paniagua, S; García, A I; Otero, M

    2017-12-01

    The biomass growth, pharmaceutical removal and light conversion efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana under the presence of paracetamol (PC) and salicylic acid (SaC) were assessed and compared at two different concentrations of these pharmaceuticals (I: 25 mg l-1, II: 250 mg l-1). Microalgae were resistant to these concentrations and, moreover, their growth was significantly stimulated (p ≤ 0.05) under these drugs (biomass concentration increased above 33% PCI, 35% SaCI, 13% PCII and 45% SaCII, as compared with the respective positive controls). At the steady state of the semicontinuous culture, C. sorokiniana showed removal efficiencies above 41% and 69% for PCI and PCII, respectively; and above 93% and 98% for SaCI and SaCII, respectively. Under an irradiance of 370 μE m-2 s-1, higher quantum yields were reached by microalgae under the presence of drugs, either at dose I or II, than by the respective positive controls. These results point to C. sorokiniana as a robust strain for the bioremediation of paracetamol and salicylic acid concentrated wastewaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous determination of salicylic, 3-methyl salicylic, 4-methyl salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in fruit, vegetables and derived beverages by SPME-LC-UV/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo

    2016-03-20

    Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2 mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089 Section 721.10089 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...

  5. Influence of salicylic acid on in vitro propagation and salt tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of salicylic acid on in vitro propagation and salt tolerance in Hibiscus acetosella and Hibiscus moscheutos (cv 'Luna Red'). HF Sakhanokho, RY Kelley. Abstract. Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to improve in vitro regeneration as well as induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effects of varying SA ...

  6. Role of mycorrhizal fungi and salicylic acid in salinity tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity is one of the common agricultural and biological problems. Most researchers showed that inoculation of plants with mycorrhizal fungi and using salicylic acid increase tolerance of plants due to salinity. In this study, the effect of mycorrhizal fungi, including Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, and salicylic acid (0.2 ...

  7. SYNTHESIS OF FLAVANONE-6-CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM SALICYLIC ACID DERIVATIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Mardjan, Muhammad Idham Darussalam; Ambarwati, Retno; Matsjeh, Sabirin; Wahyuningsih, Tutik Dwi; Haryadi, Winarto

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of flavanone-6-carboxylic acid derivatives had been conducted via the route of chalcone. The synthesis was carried out from salicylic acid derivative, i.e. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, via esterification, Fries rearrangement, Claisen-Schmidt condensation and 1,4-nucleophilic addition reactions. Structure elucidation of products was performed using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrometers. Reaction of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with methanol catalyzed with sulfuric acid produced methyl 4-h...

  8. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene plant defense pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Plant defence against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defence responses...

  9. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  10. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, Denise; Zeigler, Michelle; Schmelz, Eric; Taylor, Mark G; Rushing, Sarah; Jones, Jeffrey B; Klee, Harry J

    2010-04-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-methyltransferases. In order to elaborate the mechanism of MeSA synthesis in tomato, we screened a set of O-methyltransferases for activity against multiple substrates. An enzyme that specifically catalyzes methylation of SA, SlSAMT, as well as enzymes that act upon jasmonic acid and indole-3-acetic acid were identified. Analyses of transgenic over- and under-producing lines validated the function of SlSAMT in vivo. The SlSAMT gene was mapped to a position near the bottom of chromosome 9. Analysis of MeSA emissions from an introgression population derived from a cross with Solanum pennellii revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to higher fruit methyl salicylate emissions. The higher MeSA emissions associate with significantly higher SpSAMT expression, consistent with SAMT gene expression being rate limiting for ripening-associated MeSA emissions. Transgenic plants that constitutively over-produce MeSA exhibited only slightly delayed symptom development following infection with the disease-causing bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). Unexpectedly, pathogen-challenged leaves accumulated significantly higher levels of SA as well as glycosylated forms of SA and MeSA, indicating a disruption in control of the SA-related metabolite pool. Taken together, the results indicate that SlSAMT is critical for methyl salicylate synthesis and methyl salicylate, in turn, likely has an important role in controlling SA synthesis.

  11. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids by first derivative spectrometry in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogić, Dunja

    1993-03-01

    A multicomponent first derivative UV spectrometric procedure for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and salicylic acid in the solution containing 1 % (w/v) of citric acid in some pharmaceutical preparations is presented. The method is based on the use of the first derivative minimum spectrometric measurements at 286 nm for aspirin and at 318 nm for salicylic acid. Four kinds of cmmercial Aspirin tablets were assayed without a long pretreatment of the pharmaceuticals from the tablet additives. Beer's law is obeyed from 13.62-68.1 μg ml -1 of aspirin and from 2.723-13.616 μg ml -1 of salicylic acid. Detection limits at the 0.05 level of significance were calculated to be 1.24 and 0.25 μg ml -1 with relative standard deviations of 1.09 % and 1.2 % of aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively.

  12. Direct analysis of salicylic acid, salicyl acyl glucuronide, salicyluric acid and gentisic acid in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J H; Smith, P C

    1996-01-12

    A method for the simultaneous direct determination of salicylate (SA), its labile, reactive metabolite, salicyl acyl glucuronide (SAG), and two other major metabolites, salicyluric acid and gentisic acid in plasma and urine is described. Isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) employed a 15-cm C18 column using methanol-acetonitrile-25 mM acetic acid as the mobile phase, resulting in HPLC analysis time of less than 20 min. Ultraviolet detection at 310 nm permitted analysis of SAG in plasma, but did not provide sensitivity for measurement of salicyl phenol glucuronide. Plasma or urine samples are stabilized immediately upon collection by adjustment of pH to 3-4 to prevent degradation of the labile acyl glucuronide metabolite. Plasma is then deproteinated with acetonitrile, dried and reconstituted for injection, whereas urine samples are simply diluted prior to injection on HPLC. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid served as the internal standard. Recoveries from plasma were greater than 85% for all four compounds over a range of 0.2-20 micrograms/ml and linearity was observed from 0.1-200 micrograms/ml and 5-2000 micrograms/ml for SA in plasma and urine, respectively. The method was validated to 0.2 microgram/ml, thus allowing accurate measurement of SA, and three major metabolites in plasma and urine of subjects and small animals administered salicylates. The method is unique by allowing quantitation of reactive SAG in plasma at levels well below 1% that of the parent compound, SA, as is observed in patients administered salicylates.

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Salicylic Acid and Sparfloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Branton, Alice; Trivedi, Dahryn; Nayak, Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a naturally occurring derivative of benzoic acid, and widely used in organic synthesis and as a plant hormone. Sparfloxacin is fluorinated quinolone antibiotic having broad spectrum antimicrobial property. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of salicylic acid and sparfloxacin using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another was subjected to...

  14. Characterization of rhizobacteria associated to maize crop in IAA, siderophores and salicylic acid metabolite production

    OpenAIRE

    Annia Hernández; Narovis Rives; Alberto Caballero; Ana N. Hernández; Mayra Heydrich

    2007-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that rhizobacteria are able to produce metabolites having agricultural interest, including salicylic acid, the siderophores and phytohormones. Indol acetic acid (IAA) is the most well-known and studied auxin, playing a governing role in culture growth. The object of this work was to characterise rhizobacteria associated with the maize crop in terms of producing IAA, siderophores and salicylic acid metabolites. Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas fluorescens strains p...

  15. [Determination of sorbic acid, its salts and salicylic acid in food products of animal origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Ts M; Grigorova, D

    1979-01-01

    A foreign method for quantitative assay of sorbic acid and natrium sorbate in food stuff of plant origin was applied by the authors for food stuffs of animal origin. The conservant of the food stuff was isolated by water vapour distillation. Sorbic acid and natrium sorbate assay was performed on part of the distillate colorimetrically at wave length lambda--532 nm. The method proved highly sensitive (2 gammas and 94% reproduction). It can be used in conservant assay of various fish assortments, canned food, roe and some types of cheese. A qualitative method for proving the presence of salicylic acid is proposed, using water vapour distillation of the biological material. Part of the distillate produced is treated directly by 1% ferriammonium sulfate water solution. A violet tint of the solution proves the presence of salicylic acid in the product studied.

  16. Control of Diplodia pinea and D. scrobiculata in Pinus halepensis by 5-chloro-salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moret

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Diplodia pinea (syn. Sphaeropsis sapinea and D. scrobiculata are destructive pathogens of conifer species in many parts of the world. The sensitivity of these fungi to externally applied 5-chloro-salicylic acid on Pinus halepensis was studied. Trees treated with 2 mM 5-chloro-salicylic acid were more resistant to the fungi than untreated trees. After 15 days of treatment shoot dieback affected 30% of trees inoculated with D. pinea, compared to 60% of untreated trees. D. scrobiculata caused shoot dieback in 30% of untreated trees but only in 20% of trees pretreated with 5-chloro-salicylic acid. The controls never developed tip blight. The direct effect of 5-chloro-salicylic acid on the mycelial growth of D. pinea and D. scrobiculata was tested in vitro using PDA amended with 5-chloro-salicylic acid at five concentrations (0.2, 1, 2, 2.5, and 3.0 mM. The radial growth of colonies was measured after 48 and 72 h of incubation at 24°C. After 48 h, 5-chloro-salicylic acid significantly inhibited mycelial growth of D. pinea at 3mM, although there was no longer any significant difference in growth rates after 72 h of incubation. D. scrobiculata was slightly more sensitive to 5-chloro-salicylic acid than D. pinea. After 48 h, significant differences were observed in the mean colony diameter of D. scrobiculata when directly exposed to 5-chloro-salicylic acid at dilutions from 0 to 3 mM. After 72 h, however, mycelial growth was reduced significantly only at the highest concentrations (2; 2.5 and 3 mM (P-value <0.05.

  17. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Małolepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  18. Spherical crystallization: direct spherical agglomeration of salicylic Acid crystals during crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Y; Okumura, M; Takenaka, H

    1982-06-04

    Direct spherical agglomeration of salicylic acid crystals during crystallization is described. The needle-like salicylic acid crystals simultaneously form and agglomerate in a mixture of three partially miscible liquids, such as water, ethanol, and chloroform, with agitation. The agglomerates can be made directly into tablets because of their excellent flowability. Spherical crystallization could eliminate the usual separate agglomeration step after crystallization and may be adaptable to other pharmaceutical and chemical systems.

  19. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Materials and Methods: In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. Results: In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001 in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09. None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid - treated patients (P = 0.015. Conclusion: Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects.

  20. EFFECTS OF SALICYLIC ACID ON SEEDLING GROWTH AND NITROGEN METABOLISM IN CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is involved in the regulation of metabolic activity and defense mechanism in plants under various stress conditions. Present study was conducted to determine the effects of salicylic acid (10 to 500 μM on seedling growth, development and nitrogen use efficiency in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants with or without nitrogen nutrient. Salicylic acid increased contents of chlorophyll, total non-structural carbohydrate and total nitrogen, as well as nitrate assimilation through the induction of nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1 activity in isolated cucumber cotyledons. Accumulation of salicylic acid was two-fold higher in cotyledons without nitrate supply in comparison to that with nitrate supply. Further 50 μM of SA induced enhancement in seed germination and growth characteristics. However higher salicylic acid concentrations inhibited above physiological characteristics. Results show that, field application of salicylic acid need optimum physiological concentration (e.g., 50 μM to increase nitrogen use efficiency particularly during germination and seedling growth.

  1. Effects of Salicylic acid and Humic acid on Vegetative Indices of Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseusL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chamani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vinca flower (Catharanthus roseus L. is one of the most important medicinal plants of Apocynaceae (31, 27. Tropical plant native to a height of 30 to 35 centimeters (9 and a perennial shrub which is grown in cold areas for one year (27.One of the plants in the world today as a medicinal plant used the periwinkle plant. Among the 130 indole – terpenoids alkaloids which have been identified in the plant periwinkle vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastin are the most important component is used to treat a variety of cancers. Including therapies that are used for a variety of cancer, chemotherapy to help Vinca alkaloids collection (including vincristine and…. Vinblastin as effective member of this category, due to the low percentage of venom and effects at very low doses, is widely used today. These materials are generally formed as inhibitors of mitotic spindle in dividing cells have been identified. Vinblastin with these structural changes in connection kinotokor - microtubules and centrosomes in a dividing cell, the mitotic spindle stop (45.Salicylic acid belongs to a group of phenolic compounds found in plants, and today is widely regarded as a hormone-like substance. These classes of compounds act as growth regulators. Humic substances are natural organic compounds that contain 50 to 90% of organic matter, peat, charcoal, rotten food and non-living organic materials are aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (2. Materials and Methods: In this experiment, vinca F2 seeds in the mixed 4: 1 perlite and peat moss to the planting trays were sown. The seedlings at the 6-leaf stage were transfered to the main pot (pot height 30 and 25 cm diameter The pots bed soil mix consisting of 2 parts soil to one part sand and one part peat moss (v / v were used and after the establishment of seedlings in pots every two weeks with. Salicylic acid and humic acid concentrations 0 (control, 10, 100, 500 and 1000 mg were treated as a foliar spray

  2. AHL-priming functions via oxylipin and salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Sebastian T; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative action between the host plant and associated bacteria is crucial for the establishment of an efficient interaction. In bacteria, the synchronized behavior of a population is often achieved by a density-dependent communication called quorum sensing. This behavior is based on signaling molecules, which influence bacterial gene expression. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are such molecules in many Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, some AHLs are responsible for the beneficial effect of bacteria on plants, for example the long chain N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) can prime Arabidopsis and barley plants for an enhanced defense. This AHL-induced resistance phenomenon, named AHL-priming, was observed in several independent laboratories during the last two decades. Very recently, the mechanism of priming with oxo-C14-HSL was shown to depend on an oxylipin and salicylic acid (SA). SA is a key element in plant defense, it accumulates during different plant resistance responses and is the base of systemic acquired resistance. In addition, SA itself can prime plants for an enhanced resistance against pathogen attack. On the other side, oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites, are lipid-derived signaling compounds. Especially the oxidized fatty acid derivative cis-OPDA, which is the precursor of JA, is a newly described player in plant defense. Unlike the antagonistic effect of SA and JA in plant-microbe interactions, the recently described pathway functions through a synergistic effect of oxylipins and SA, and is independent of the JA signaling cascade. Interestingly, the oxo-C14-HSL-induced oxylipin/SA signaling pathway induces stomata defense responses and cell wall strengthening thus prevents pathogen invasion. In this review, we summarize the findings on AHL-priming and the related signaling cascade. In addition, we discuss the potential of AHL-induced resistance in new strategies of plant protection.

  3. AHL-priming functions via oxylipin and salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Timo Schenk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative action between the host plant and associated bacteria is crucial for the establishment of an efficient interaction. In bacteria, the synchronized behavior of a population is often achieved by a density-dependent communication called quorum sensing (QS. This behavior is based on signaling molecules, which influence bacterial gene expression. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs are such molecules in many Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, some AHLs are responsible for the beneficial effect of bacteria on plants, for example the long chain N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL can prime Arabidopsis and barley plants for an enhanced defense. This AHL-induced resistance phenomenon, named AHL-priming, was observed in several independent laboratories during the last two decades. Very recently, the mechanism of priming with oxo-C14-HSL was shown to depend on an oxylipin and salicylic acid (SA. SA is a key element in plant defense, it accumulates during different plant resistance responses and is the base of systemic acquired resistance. In addition, SA itself can prime plants for an enhanced resistance against pathogen attack. On the other side, oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA and related metabolites, are lipid-derived signaling compounds. Especially the oxidized fatty acid derivative cis-OPDA, which is the precursor of JA, is a newly described player in plant defense. Unlike the antagonistic effect of SA and JA in plant-microbe interactions, the recently described pathway functions through a synergistic effect of oxylipins and SA, and is independent of the JA signaling cascade. Interestingly, the oxo-C14-HSL-induced oxylipin/SA signaling pathway induces stomata defense responses and cell wall strengthening thus prevents pathogen invasion. In this review, we summarize the findings on AHL-priming and the related signaling cascade. In addition, we discuss the potential of AHL-induced resistance in new strategies of plant

  4. Salicylic acid interferes with GFP fluorescence in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Hofius, Daniel; Hennig, Lars

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins have become essential tools for cell biologists. They are routinely used by plant biologists for protein and promoter fusions to infer protein localization, tissue-specific expression and protein abundance. When studying the effects of biotic stress on chromatin, we unexpectedly observed a decrease in GFP signal intensity upon salicylic acid (SA) treatment in Arabidopsis lines expressing histone H1-GFP fusions. This GFP signal decrease was dependent on SA concentration. The effect was not specific to the linker histone H1-GFP fusion but was also observed for the nucleosomal histone H2A-GFP fusion. This result prompted us to investigate a collection of fusion proteins, which included different promoters, subcellular localizations and fluorophores. In all cases, fluorescence signals declined strongly or disappeared after SA application. No changes were detected in GFP-fusion protein abundance when fluorescence signals were lost indicating that SA does not interfere with protein stability but GFP fluorescence. In vitro experiments showed that SA caused GFP fluorescence reduction only in vivo but not in vitro, suggesting that SA requires cellular components to cause fluorescence reduction. Together, we conclude that SA can interfere with the fluorescence of various GFP-derived reporter constructs in vivo. Assays that measure relocation or turnover of GFP-tagged proteins upon SA treatment should therefore be evaluated with caution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Hardening of eucalyptus seedlings via salicylic acid application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Lima Mazzuchelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural and forest productivity suffer restrictions imposed by water stress, high temperature and high solar radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of stress attenuation and growth promotion of salicylic acid (SA application in eucalyptus (E. urophylla x E. grandis hybrid seedlings under water stress. A completely randomized design, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (three water treatments: constant irrigation with daily replacement of 40% (CI40% or 100% (CI100% of evapotranspirated water, and temporary irrigation suspension with replacement of only 40% of evapotranspirated water (S40%; and four SA concentrations: 0 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1, 200 mg L-1 and 300 mg L-1, was used. Plant photosynthetic parameters and biometric features were evaluated. The stomatal limitation was higher in plants under S40% irrigation, however, the SA application reverted this result, allowing the maintenance of the photosynthetic potential. There was interaction between irrigation regimes and SA doses for number of leaves, leaf area/number of leaves ratio and shoot and root dry mass. It was concluded that the application of 200 mg L -1 of SA positively affected the growth of eucalyptus seedlings under water stress, being considered an auxiliary management technique to their hardening process.

  6. In search of pure liquid salt forms of aspirin: ionic liquid approaches with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Katharina; Rijksen, Christiaan; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Rogers, Robin D

    2010-02-28

    We present an ionic liquid (IL) approach towards a dual functional liquid salt form of aspirin using different pharmaceutically active cations composed of antibacterials, analgesics, local anesthetics, and antiarrhythmic drugs in combination with acetylsalicylic acid or its metabolite salicylic acid and discuss stability of these ILs in comparison to solid salts. Several low-melting or liquid salts of salicylic acid with dual functionality and promising properties were isolated and characterized; however, although such ILs with aspirin could be prepared, they suffer from limited stability and slowly decompose into the corresponding salicylate ILs when exposed to moisture.

  7. Effect of salicylic acid and aloe vera gel on postharvest quality of table grapes ( Vitis Vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Peyro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of salicylic acid dipping and Aloe vera gel coating on shelf life and post harvest quality of table grapes (Vitis vinifera of the cultivar Shahroudi, a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete blocks design with three factors and three replicates in agricultural faculty of Islamic Azad University in 2014. The treatments were dipping in Salicylic acid (three levels of 0, 1 and 2 mmmol-1 for 15 minutes and coating with Aloe vera gel (four levels of 0, 10%, 15% and 20% w/v and measurement of traits in 1st day, 30th day and 60th day after treatment of berries. The results showed that the interaction effect of salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel application was significant on all of traits except for pH value in a way that the best and the minimum weight loss (0.09g was obtained by application of 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 20% Aloe vera gel in 1st day after treatment. The greatest amount of total soluble solids (428.43 g.100g-1 fruit juice was found in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 60th day. The highest Catalase enzyme activity (0.0013 Ua.mg-1Pro was attained in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 30th day. These results demonstrated that treatment of grape berries by salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel had positive effect on shelf life of table grapes and their postharvest quality

  8. Effects of salicylic acid foliar application on germination, growth and antioxidant potential of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Karalija, Erna; Parić, Adisa

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid is one of endogenous plant growth regulators that plays a key role in many physiological processes. The present study analysed the effect of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, ad 1.0 mM) of salicylic acid on morphological parameters, photosynthetic pigments, protein, proline, total carbohydrates, and secondary metabolites content as well as peroxidase activity. One month after sowing seedlings were replanted in new pots, and salicylic acid was applied in form of a foliar s...

  9. Acetyl salicylic acid attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Samuel Chege; Li, Xuelian; Zhao, Dandan; Guo, Zhenfeng; Liang, Haihai; Qian, Ming; Lv, Lifang; Li, Tianshi; Xu, Bozhi; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chaoqian; Lu, Yanjie; Du, Zhiming; Shan, Hongli; Yang, Baofeng

    2015-12-01

    Ventricular hypertrophy is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbid events. The vascular properties of low-dose acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) provide cardiovascular benefits through the irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase 1; however, the possible anti-hypertrophic properties and potential mechanism of aspirin have not been investigated in detail. In this study, healthy wild-type male mice were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation. The TAC-operated mice were treated with the human equivalent of low-dose aspirin (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); the remaining mice received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline with 0.65% ethanol, which was used as a vehicle. A cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model induced by angiotensin II (10 nmol·L(-1)) was treated with the human equivalent of low (10 or 100 μmol·L(-1)) and high (1000 μmol·L(-1)) aspirin concentrations in plasma. Changes in the cardiac structure and function were assessed through echocardiography and transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression was determined through RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Results indicated that aspirin treatment abrogated the increased thickness of the left ventricular anterior and posterior walls, the swelling of mitochondria, and the increased surface area in in vivo and in vitro hypertrophy models. Aspirin also normalized the upregulated hypertrophic biomarkers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Aspirin efficiently reversed the upregulation of β-catenin and P-Akt expression and the TAC- or ANG II-induced downregulation of GSK-3β. Therefore, low-dose aspirin possesses significant anti-hypertrophic properties at clinically relevant concentrations for anti-thrombotic therapy. The downregulation of β-catenin and Akt may be the underlying signaling mechanism of the effects of aspirin.

  10. Nitric oxide and salicylic acid signaling in plant defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klessig, Daniel F.; Durner, Jörg; Noad, Robert; Navarre, Duroy A.; Wendehenne, David; Kumar, Dhirendra; Zhou, Jun Ma; Shah, Jyoti; Zhang, Shuqun; Kachroo, Pradeep; Trifa, Youssef; Pontier, Dominique; Lam, Eric; Silva, Herman

    2000-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical signaling role in the activation of plant defense responses after pathogen attack. We have identified several potential components of the SA signaling pathway, including (i) the H2O2-scavenging enzymes catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, (ii) a high affinity SA-binding protein (SABP2), (iii) a SA-inducible protein kinase (SIPK), (iv) NPR1, an ankyrin repeat-containing protein that exhibits limited homology to IκBα and is required for SA signaling, and (v) members of the TGA/OBF family of bZIP transcription factors. These bZIP factors physically interact with NPR1 and bind the SA-responsive element in promoters of several defense genes, such as the pathogenesis-related 1 gene (PR-1). Recent studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is another signal that activates defense responses after pathogen attack. NO has been shown to play a critical role in the activation of innate immune and inflammatory responses in animals. Increases in NO synthase (NOS)-like activity occurred in resistant but not susceptible tobacco after infection with tobacco mosaic virus. Here we demonstrate that this increase in activity participates in PR-1 gene induction. Two signaling molecules, cGMP and cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR), which function downstream of NO in animals, also appear to mediate plant defense gene activation (e.g., PR-1). Additionally, NO may activate PR-1 expression via an NO-dependent, cADPR-independent pathway. Several targets of NO in animals, including guanylate cyclase, aconitase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (e.g., SIPK), are also modulated by NO in plants. Thus, at least portions of NO signaling pathways appear to be shared between plants and animals. PMID:10922045

  11. Degradation of the Plant Defense Signal Salicylic Acid Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Toxicity and Enhances Virulence on Tobacco

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Jacobs, Jonathan M; Ailloud, Florent; Fochs, Brianna; Prior, Philippe; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-01-01

    Plants use the signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) to trigger defenses against diverse pathogens, including the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum SA can also inhibit microbial growth...

  12. The electrochemical oxidation of salicylic acid and its derivatives on modified PbO2-electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia B. Shmychkova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of electrochemical oxidation of salicylic acid on PbO2-based anodes for effective wastewater treatment from organic pollutants have been summarized. Both the influence of various factors on the decomposition rate of organic substances and the influence of various modifying additives of lead dioxide anode on the process of mineralization of salicylic acid have been established. The total probable sequence of reactions to salicylic acid mineralization has been proposed. It is established that the destruction of salicylic acid in the first stage occurs through the accumulation of aromatic hydroxylation products, and during the total destruction - the destruction of the aromatic system with the formation of aliphatic compounds takes place. It is shown that the use of PbO2, deposited from methanesulfonate electrolytes and modified electrodes significantly reduces the conversion time of salicylic acid in aliphatic products compared to lead dioxide anodes obtained by traditional technology from nitrate bath. The highest degradation rate occurs at the anodes modified by bismuth. It was found that the destruction of the 5-aminosalicylic acid occurs through an intermediate oxidation of amino-group to hydroxy.

  13. Does foliar application of salicylic acid protects nitrate reductase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... preserving the activity of NR but was still less than the reference control regardless the cultivar used. Key words: Nitrate ..... Planta. 208:175-180. Khan W, Prithiviraj B, Smith D (2003). Photosynthetic response of corn and soybean to foliar application of salicylates. J. Plant Physiol. 160:485-492. Khodary ...

  14. The Phytochemical Changes of Violet Flowers (Viola cornuta Response to Exogenous Salicylic Acid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghorbani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Violet is one of the ornamental plants with a good value in landscaping and herbal medicine. Salicylic acid is a signaling agent involving in secondary metabolite production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological responses of violet flowers to exogenous salicylic acid. This experiment was conducted in the greenhouse, as a completely randomized design. Salicylic acid was sprayed on violet plants in four levels as 0, 0.1, 0.7, 1.5 mM and three replications. Flower diameter, flower stem length, fresh weight and dry matter percentage of violet flower were measured as morphological parametes. In laboratory parameters like antioxidant activity and anthocyanin variation were recorded using spectrophotometery method. The quercetin and rutin values were determined by HPLC. Results showed that salicylic acid significantly affected on flower diameter, total antioxidant capacity, rutin and quercetin contents. Therefore data analysis provides that high levels of salicylic acid increased morphological parameters and improved chemical substance involving to secondary metabolism promotion. Furthermore, using different concentrations of the hormone is required, to achieve the best quality and quantity of plant biomass and it is also necessary to achieve the best traits of ornamental and medicinal value

  15. The Phytochemical Changes of Violet Flowers (Viola cornuta Response to Exogenous Salicylic Acid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghorbani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Violet is one of the ornamental plants with a good value in landscaping and herbal medicine. Salicylic acid is a signaling agent involving in secondary metabolite production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological responses of violet flowers to exogenous salicylic acid. This experiment was conducted in the greenhouse, as a completely randomized design. Salicylic acid was sprayed on violet plants in four levels as 0, 0.1, 0.7, 1.5 mM and three replications. Flower diameter, flower stem length, fresh weight and dry matter percentage of violet flower were measured as morphological parametes. In laboratory parameters like antioxidant activity and anthocyanin variation were recorded using spectrophotometery method. The quercetin and rutin values were determined by HPLC. Results showed that salicylic acid significantly affected on flower diameter, total antioxidant capacity, rutin and quercetin contents. Therefore data analysis provides that high levels of salicylic acid increased morphological parameters and improved chemical substance involving to secondary metabolism promotion. Furthermore, using different concentrations of the hormone is required, to achieve the best quality and quantity of plant biomass and it is also necessary to achieve the best traits of ornamental and medicinal value

  16. Determination of free salicylic acid in chewing aspirin tablets by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Chen, Xin-shan; Wang, Rui-dong

    2003-07-01

    To establish a HPLC method for determining the content of free salicylic acid in chewing aspirin tablets. The determination was conducted on a HPLC column (C(18), 150 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 microm) with methanol-water-glacial acetic acid (8.0 5.5 1.0) as the mobile phase and the detection wavelength of 302 nm. The calibration curve was linear within the concentration range of 2.65 to 31.77 microg/ml (r=0.999 97) of salicylic acid. The average recovery rate was 100.21% with relative standard deviation of 0.53% (n=6). HPLC is quick and accurate of determining the content of free salicylic acid for chewing aspirin tablets.

  17. [Determination of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Zhao, Yuan-zheng; Zhang, Yi-na

    2002-05-01

    The contents of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A Hypersil BDS C18 column was used with the mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (35:65:3, volume ratio) and the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The average recoveries of aspirin and salicylic acid added were 99.27% (RSD = 0.8%) and 99.61%(RSD = 1.3%), respectively. The calibration curves had good linearity in the range of 0.028 g/L -0.141 mg/L and 0.77 mg/L -3.85 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9999 and 0.9998 for aspirin and salicylic acid respectively.

  18. [Determination of resorcinol and salicylic acid in piyanning tincture by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Zhou, M

    1998-11-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of resorcinol and salicylic acid in Piyanning tincture by HPLC has been proposed. Operating conditions were Hyppersil ODS column, 4.6 mm x 200 mm, V (methanol): V(water): V(acetic acid) = 50:50:0.9 mobile phase and UV detection at 285 nm. The linear ranges of the method were 0.05-0.25 g/L(r = 1.000) for resorcinol and 0.025-0.127 g/L(r = 1.000) for salicylic acid. The limits of detection were both 0.2 mg/L at a signal-to-noise of 3. The assay method was capable to resolve resorcinol and salicylic acid from their impurities.

  19. Percutaneous Absorption of Salicylic Acid after Administration of Trolamine Salicylate Cream in Rats with Transcutol® and Eucalyptus Oil Pre-Treated Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniz Sajjadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the effect of skin pre-treatment with Transcutol® and eucalyptus oil on systemic absorption of topical trolamine salicylate in rat. Methods: Pharmacokinetic parameters of salicylic acid following administration of trolamine salicylate on rat skin pre-treated with either Transcutol® or eucalyptus oil were determined using both non-compartmental and non-linear mixed effect modeling approaches and compared with those of control group. Results: Median (% of interquartile range/median of salicylic acid AUC0-8hr (ng/mL/hr values in Transcutol® or eucalyptus oil treated rats were 2522(139% and 58976(141%, respectively as compared to the 3023(327% of the control group. Skin pre-treatment with eucalyptus oil could significantly decrease extravascular volume of distribution (V/F and elimination rate constant (k of salicylic acid. Conclusion: Unlike Transcutol®, eucalyptus oil lead to enhanced transdermal absorption of trolamine salicylate through rat skin.

  20. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice.

  1. Study on the kinetics and transformation products of salicylic acid in water via ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruikang; Zhang, Lifeng; Hu, Jiangyong

    2016-06-01

    As salicylic acid is one of widely used pharmaceuticals, its residue has been found in various environmental water systems e.g. wastewater, surface water, treated water and drinking water. It has been reported that salicylic acid can be efficiently removed by advanced oxidation processes, but there are few studies on its transformation products and ozonation mechanisms during ozonation process. The objective of this study is to characterize the transformation products, investigate the degradation mechanisms at different pH, and propose the ozonation pathways of salicylic acid. The results showed that the rate of degradation was about 10 times higher at acidic condition than that at alkaline condition in the first 1 min when 1 mg L(-1) of ozone solution was added into 1 mg L(-1) of salicylic acid solution. It was proposed that ozone direct oxidation mechanism dominates at acidic condition, while indirect OH radical mechanism dominates at alkaline condition. A two stages pseudo-first order reaction was proposed at different pH conditions. Various hydroxylation products, carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids, such as 2,5-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, catechol, formaldehyde, glyoxal, acetaldehyde, maleic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid etc. were identified as ozonation transformation products. In addition, acrylic acid was identified, for the first time, as ozonation transformation products through high resolution liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometer. The information demonstrated in this study will help us to better understand the possible effects of ozonation products on the water quality. The degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed. As both O3 and OH radical were important in the reactions, the degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed at acidic and basic conditions. To our knowledge, there was no integrated study reported on the ozonation of

  2. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Matsubara

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  3. Second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the simultaneous determination of naproxen and salicylic acid in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantianos, D G; Ioannou, P C

    1996-07-01

    Second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectrometry was used to develop a simple, rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the simultaneous determination of naproxen and salicylic acid in human serum. The method is based on the intrinsic fluorescence of naproxen and salicylic acid in chloroform-1% acetic acid solution. A delta gamma of 130 nm was used for the direct measurement of salicylic acid in the binary mixture, whereas naproxen was determined from direct measurements at delta gamma = 60 nm and by means of a correction equation which incorporates the concentration of salicylic acid. The range of application is 0-14 mg l-1 for naproxen and 0-13 mg l-1 for salicylic acid. The detection limits for naproxen and salicylic acid are 0.003 and 0.01 mg l-1, respectively. Serum samples are extracted into chloroform-1% acetic acid solution prior to instrumental measurement. Analytical recoveries range from 97 to 105% (mean 102%) for naproxen and from 97 to 112% (mean 103%) for salicylic acid. The within-run precision (RSD) for the method for four naproxen-salicylic acid mixtures varied from 1.2 to 6.7% and the day-to-day precision for mixtures varied from 2.1 to 5.0%.

  4. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated...... at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days...... the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative...

  5. Salicylic acid on antioxidant activity and betacyan in production from leaves of Alternanthera tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Rodrigues-Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates effects of salicylic acid (an abiotic elicitor on the antioxidant activity and betacyan production from leaves of Alternanthera tenella cultured in vitro was evaluated. Plants were grown in a liquid MS medium and vermiculite substrate. After 35 days salicylic acid was added to the medium. Content of betacyanins, total phenols and flavonoids and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity were determined in leaves of A. tenella after 0, 12, 36 and 48h of treatment. After 36h, concentration of betacyanins and total phenols increased. On the other hand, the increase of the treatment time caused a slight decrease in total flavonoids and reduced the DPPH free radical activity. As result the antioxidant activity of the leaves of A. tenella is promoted by salicylic acid and can be attributed to the increase in betacyanin content, which are compounds with recognized antioxidant action.

  6. Microbial effectors target multiple steps in the salicylic acid production and signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki eTanaka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes attempting to colonize plants are recognized through the plant immune surveillance system. This leads to a complex array of global as well as specific defense responses, which are often associated with plant cell death and subsequent arrest of the invader. The responses also entail complex changes in phytohormone signaling pathways. Among these, salicylic acid signaling is an important pathway because of its ability to trigger plant cell death. As biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens need to invade living plant tissue to cause disease, they have evolved efficient strategies to downregulate salicylic acid signaling by virulence effectors, which can be proteins or secondary metabolites. Here we review the strategies prokaryotic pathogens have developed to target salicylic acid biosynthesis and signaling, and contrast this with recent insights into how plant pathogenic eukaryotic fungi and oomycetes accomplish the same goal.

  7. [Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on the cytophysiological reactions of wheat infected by brown rust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, L Ia; Shtubeĭ, T Iu

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the salicylic and succinic acids on the cytophysiological reactions of the plants and cellular structures of the fungus were investigated using the model of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. infected by brown rust. The experiments were performed on seedlings of the isogenic line of var. Thatcher with resistant gene Lr19. The salicylic and succinic acids accelerated and enhanced to a different extent the generation of active oxygen species and synthesis of callose and phenylpropanoids by the plant cells contacting with cellular structures of avirulent and virulent fungal clones.

  8. The Interaction Effect of Salicylic Acid and High Temperature Stress on Some Physiological Characteristics of Maize Zea mays L.(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Attarzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salicylic acid and High temperature on physiological characteristics of maize (cv. SC704. In order to, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications was carried out in Research Greenhouse of Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. The factors were included pre-treatment of concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 50, 100 and 200 μM and duration of 40°C (0, 8, 16 and 24 hours. Results showed that SPAD index increased significantly in levels of 50 and 100μM salicylic acid but it was low in control and 200μM salicylic acid. In level of 50μM salicylic acid, increase in duration of heat stress was resulted in increasing content of a and ab chlorophyll. However, it was occurred conversely in level of 200 μM salicylic acid, i.e., content of a and ab was decreased. Levels of salicylic acid and duration of heat stress did not effect on Fv/Fm and content of soluble sugar. Use of 200 μM salicylic acid decreased significantly relative water content, while increase in duration of heat stress caused to increase relative water content. In addition, increase in duration of heat stress resulted in increasing leaf temperature and proline content.

  9. Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidant activities and osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faried, Hafiz Nazar; Ayyub, Chaudhary Muhammad; Amjad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashid; Wattoo, Fahad Masoud; Butt, Madiha; Bashir, Mohsin; Shaheen, Muhammad Rashid; Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Potato is an important vegetable; however, salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mmol L-1 ). Salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L-1 was sprayed on to potato plants after 1 week of salinity application. Salt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N-Y LARA proved more responsive to salicylic acid application than 720-110 NARC, which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents), which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, and thereby increased potassium availability and reduced sodium content in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber yield showed a positive correlation with potassium content, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. Salt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid is authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced in N-Y LARA, reflecting greater tolerance than 720-110 NARC, which was confirmed as a susceptible cultivar. Hence salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L-1 and cultivation of N-Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K.; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Éva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda, E-mail: pal.magda@agrar.mta.hu

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cd induces the salicylic acid metabolism in wheat. • Salicylic acid is synthesized via benzoic acid and/or ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. • Cd tolerance can be explained by the highly induced glutathione metabolism. • Salicylic acid signalling is correlated with glutathione-related mechanisms. - Abstract: Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  11. Immunogenicity of aryl esters of salicylic or acetylsalicylic acid in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, H D

    1975-01-01

    A variety of derivatives of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acid have been investigated for their immunogenic properties in guinea pigs including salicylsalicylic acid (SSA), acetylsalicylsalicylic acid (ASSA), disalicylide (DI), trisalicylide (TRI), acetylsalicylic acid paracetamol ester (ASPE) and acetylsalicylic acid guajacol ester (ASGE). Contact sensitivity could be elicited by the sensitizing agent, however, with acetylsalicylic acid anhydride (ASAN) a more pronounced contact reaction could consistently be observed. Systemic anaphylactic reactions elicited by intravenous injection of N-salicyloyl bovine serum albumin could only be induced by ASAN, DI, TRI and ASSA, whereas SSA, ASPE and ASGE did not induce an anaphylactic state at a comparable dose level. From these results it is anticipated that all aryl esters of acetylsalicylic or salicylic acid are immunogenic when applied intradermally, leading to a N-salicyloyl specific immune response.

  12. Heat shock and salicylic acid on postharvest preservation of organic strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiane Coltro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock and salicylic acid have been studied on shelf-life extension of fruits. The benefits of these techniques have been related to their effect on inducing physiological defense responses against the oxidative stress and pathogen development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat shock and salicylic acid on the postharvest preservation and contents of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, fresh weight loss and microbiological quality of organic strawberries cv. Dover. Strawberries produced organically and stored at 5 ºC were subjected to heat shock (45 ºC ± 3 ºC for 3 h, application of salicylic acid (soaking in 2.0 mmol L-1 solution, heat shock in combination with salicylic acid and control. After treatment, the fruits were packed and stored in a climatic chamber at 5 ºC ± 2 ºC. At 1, 7 and 14 days, the experimental units were removed from refrigeration and kept at room temperature of approximately 20 ºC for two days. There was no effect of treatments on fresh weight loss, incidence of pathogens or chemical variations in strawberry fruits during the storage period. In natural conditions, organically grown strawberries remained in good condition for sale up to seven days of storage in all treatments.

  13. Deprotonation of salicylic acid and 5-nitrosalicylic acid in aqueous solutions of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraji Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The protonation constant values of two hydroxybenzoic acids (salicylic and 5-nitrosalicylic acid were studied in some water-ethanol solutions using spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods at 25°C and in an ionic strength of 0.1 M sodium perchlorate. The results indicated that the pKa values increase with increasing proportion of ethanol in mixed solvent. The dependence of the protonation constants on the variation of the solvent were correlated by the dielectric constants of the media. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the solvent influence, the obtained results were explained in terms of the Kamlet-Taft parameters α (hydrogen-bond donor acidity, π

  14. Influence of salicylic acid pre-treatment on cadmium tolerance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dose-dependent changes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance, non-protein thiol (NP-SH) production and their relationship were investigated in sixteen-day-old flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings derived from seeds pre-soaked with various salicylic acid (SA) doses and grown hydroponically under increased Cd concentrations ...

  15. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Hedychium bousigonianum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to induce somatic embryogenesis in Hedychium bousigonianum Pierre ex Gagnepain and assess the influence of salicylic acid (S) on somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos and subsequently regenerated plants were successfully obtained 30 days after transfer of embryogenic...

  16. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 2. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L. AY ZUNUN-PÉREZ T GUEVARA-FIGUEROA SN ...

  17. Retrobiosynthetic study of salicylic acid in Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustafa, Natali Rianika

    2007-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal compound in systemic acquired resistance in plants. The level of this C6C1 compound in plants increases after a pathogenic attack. There are two biosynthetic pathways of SA, the phenylalanine pathway, which is thought to occur in plants, and the

  18. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  19. In vitro effects of salicylic acid, calcium and copper ions on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro effects of single and combined application of calcium ion (Ca2+), copper ion (Cu2+) and salicylic acid (SA) were evaluated on growth and sporulation of Ganoderma boninense. In poison medium test, T7-(Ca+Cu+SA) showed effective control of G. boninense in-vitro with EC50 and EC90 values of ...

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new salicylate macrolactones from anacardic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logrado, Lucio P.L.; Santos, Maria Lucilia dos [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Isolamento e Transformacao de Moleculas Organicas]. E-mail: mlsantos@unb.br; Silveira, Damaris [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude; Romeiro, Luiz A.S. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Taguatinga, DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Quimica Bioorganica e Medicinal; Moraes, Manoel O. de; Cavalcanti, Bruno C.; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V.; Pessoa, Claudia do O [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Oncologia Experimental

    2005-11-15

    onnection with our ongoing investigation in the search for new bioactive compounds using non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids from Anacardium occidentale as starting material, we describe the synthesis and cytotoxicity screening of some novel salicylate macrolactones prepared from anacardic acids, the major constituents of natural cashew nut-shell liquid (CNSL). (author)

  1. WRKY transcription factors involved in salicylic acid-induced defense gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verk, Marcel Cristiaan van

    2010-01-01

    The salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway triggered by attack of biotrophic pathogens leads to broad spectrum resistance against a plethora of pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses and is known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). One of the hallmarks of SAR is the accumulation of PR proteins and

  2. Sugar signaling regulation by Arabidopsis SIZ1-driven sumoylation is independent of salicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto Araújo R F; Verde, Nuno; Tavares, Rui Manuel

    2018-01-01

    inefficient responses to nutrient imbalance in phosphate, nitrate and copper. Recently, we reported that siz1 also displays altered responses to exogenous sugar supplementation. The siz1 mutant is a salicylic acid (SA) accumulator, and SA may interfere with sugar-dependent responses and signaling events. Here......, we extended our previous studies to determine the importance of SA in the SIZ1 response to sugars, by introducing the bacterial salicylate hydroxylase NahG into the siz1 background. Results demonstrate that siz1 phenotypes involving delayed germination are partially dependent of SA levels, whereas...

  3. New insight into photo-bromination processes in saline surface waters: The case of salicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamtam, Fatima; Chiron, Serge, E-mail: serge.chiron@msem.univ-montp2.fr

    2012-10-01

    It was shown, through a combination of field and laboratory observations, that salicylic acid can undergo photo-bromination reactions in sunlit saline surface waters. Laboratory-scale experiments revealed that the photochemical yields of 5-bromosalicylic acid and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid from salicylic acid were always low (in the 4% range at most). However, this might be of concern since these compounds are potential inhibitors of the 20{alpha}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, with potential implications in endocrine disruption processes. At least two mechanisms were involved simultaneously to account for the photo-generation of brominated substances. The first one might involve the formation of reactive brominated radical species (Br{center_dot}, Br{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) through hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation of bromide ions. These ions reacted more selectively than hydroxyl radicals with electron-rich organic pollutants such as salicylic acid. The second one might involve the formation of hypobromous acid, through a two electron oxidation of bromine ions by peroxynitrite. This reaction was catalyzed by nitrite, since these ions play a crucial role in the formation of nitric oxide upon photolysis. This nitric oxide further reacts with superoxide radical anions to yield peroxynitrite and by ammonium through the formation of N-bromoamines, probably due to the ability of N-bromoamines to promote the aromatic bromination of phenolic compounds. Field measurements revealed the presence of salicylic acid together with 5-bromosalicylic and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid in a brackish coastal lagoon, thus confirming the environmental significance of the proposed photochemically induced bromination pathways. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brominated derivatives of salicylic acid were detected in a brackish lagoon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photochemical pathway was hypothesized to account for bromination of salicylic acid. Black

  4. SYNTHESIS OF FLAVANONE-6-CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM SALICYLIC ACID DERIVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idham Darussalam Mardjan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of flavanone-6-carboxylic acid derivatives had been conducted via the route of chalcone. The synthesis was carried out from salicylic acid derivative, i.e. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, via esterification, Fries rearrangement, Claisen-Schmidt condensation and 1,4-nucleophilic addition reactions. Structure elucidation of products was performed using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrometers. Reaction of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with methanol catalyzed with sulfuric acid produced methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in 87% yield. The acid-catalyzed-acetylation of the product using acetic anhydride gave methyl 4-acetoxybenzoate in 75% yield. Furthermore, solvent-free Fries rearrangement of methyl 4-acetoxybenzoate in the presence of AlCl3 produced 3-acetyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the acetophenone derivatives in 67% yield. Then, Claisen-Schmidt condensation of the acetophenone and benzaldehyde derivatives of p-anisaldehyde and veratraldehyde in basic condition gave 2'-hydroxychalcone-5'-carboxylic acid derivatives  in 81 and 71 % yield, respectively. Finally, the ring closure reaction of the chalcone yielded the corresponding flavanone-6-carboxylic acids in 67 and 59% yield, respectively.

  5. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradkhani S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

  6. Involvement of salicylic acid, ethylene and jasmonic acid signalling pathways in the susceptibility of tomato to Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, X.; Gomila, J.; Takken, F.L.W.

    Phytohormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA), play key roles in plant defence following pathogen attack. The involvement of these hormones in susceptibility following Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) infection has mostly been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, Fo

  7. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 regulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent responses via EDS1 and PAD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Petersen, Morten; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis MPK4 has been implicated in plant defense regulation because mpk4 knockout plants exhibit constitutive activation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defenses, but fail to induce jasmonic acid (JA) defense marker genes in response to JA. We show here that mpk4 mutants are also defective...

  8. Effect of Short Term Salicylic Acid and Ascorbic Acid Treatments on Delaying Flowers’ Senescence of Cut Rose Cv. Red Naomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Samady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted on rose cut flowers, Red Naomy cultivar, with the length of 35 cm, for 18 hours as a short-term treatment in a factorial based on completely randomized design with five treatments including sucrose + 8-Hydroxyquinoline sulfate, salicylic acid + sucrose + 8-Hydroxyquinoline sulfate, ascorbic acid + sucrose + 8-Hydroxyquinoline sulfate, Salicylic acid + ascorbic acid + sucrose‌ + 8-Hydroxyquinoline sulfate and distilled water as control, and three replications in bottles. Morphological traits such as shelf life, changes in water uptake, fresh weight, flower diameter and physiological traits such as total protein and proline contents were measured. The results showed that combination of Salicylic acid + sucrose + 8-Hydroxyquinoline sulfate treatment significantly affected shelf life compared to control and other treatments. The results also revealed that the combination of Salicylic acid + ascorbic acid + sucrose‌ + 8-Hydroxyquinoline sulfate delayed flowers senescence and increased the amount of water uptake, fresh weight and flower diameter. Moreover, the greatest protein and proline contents were obtained under ascorbic acid + sucrose + 8-Hydroxyquinoline sulfate treatment and sucrose + 8-Hydroxyquinoline sulfate, respectively.

  9. Comparison of Catalysts Preyssler and Silica-Supported Nano Preyssler in the Synthesis of Acetyl Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari, H.; Ahmadpour, A.; Bamoharram, F. F.; Heravi, M. M.; Eslami, N.

    2012-01-01

    The extensive demand for cleaner environment is forcing chemical industry to use less hazardous materials. In this regard, heteropolyacids attracted considerable amount of interest due to the less toxic behavior in addition of possessing higher acidity. Heteropoly acids have been used as catalysts for the reaction of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride. The performance of different forms of heteropoly acids in the presence of acetic anhydride as acetylating agent for acetylation of salicylic...

  10. Chlorogenic Acids Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica Cells Is not Stimulated by Salicylic Acid Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, E N; Steenkamp, P A; Madala, N E; Dubery, I A

    2016-07-01

    Exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. In particular, salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been reported to induce the production of phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid derivatives bound to quinic acid (chlorogenic acids). Centella asiatica is an important medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties owing to its wide spectrum of secondary metabolites. We investigated the effect of SA on C. asiatica cells by monitoring perturbation of chlorogenic acids in particular. Different concentrations of SA were used to treat C. asiatica cells, and extracts from both treated and untreated cells were analysed using an optimised UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. Semi-targeted multivariate data analyses with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed a concentration-dependent metabolic response. Surprisingly, a range of chlorogenic acid derivatives were found to be downregulated as a consequence of SA treatment. Moreover, irbic acid (3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonilquinic acid) was found to be a dominant CGA in C. asiatica cells, although the SA treatment also had a negative effect on its concentration. Overall SA treatment was found to be an ineffective elicitor of CGA production in cultured C. asiatica cells.

  11. Postharvest life of cut gerbera flowers as affected by salicylic acid and citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidarnezhadian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Effect of salicylic acid (SA combined with citric acid (CA on gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii cut flowers was studied. The study was conducted in a factorial arrangement, carried out in a complete randomized design. The factors were SA (0.5,1.5 and 3 mM and CA (1.5 and 3 mM. The effects of treatments on the total chlorophyll content, anthocyanin leakage and malondialdehyde content of cut flowers of gerbera were investigated. The results showed that the vase solution containing 1.5 mM SA significantly increased vase life compared to the control. In addition, the malondialdehyde accumulation reduced in the same solution while membrane stability was improved. Results suggest that SA increases vase life by affecting many of the age-related changes associated with Gerbera petal senescence.

  12. Effect of salicylic acid on Concentration of nutrients, protein and antioxidant enzymes of basil under lead stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Padash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, phenolic compounds and plant growth regulator has been proposed, to reduce the negative effects of stress. Salicylic acid is a substance that causes plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. This experiment was conducted in Zabol University during 2013 as factorial randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Factors included 4 levels of lead nitrate; 0 (control, 100, 200 and 300 mg per kg of soil and foliar application of salicylic acid at 3 levels of 0, 50 and 100 ppm. Addition of lead significantly reduced concentrations of potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorous and nitrogen and increased concentrations of sodium, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. In addition, salicylic acid spraying had a significant influence on all traits, and salicylic acid spraying at 100 mL/L increased concentrations of potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen and decreased concentrations of polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. In this study the interaction between salicylic acid and lead on potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen, sodium and catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were significant, and salicylic acid play moderating role and reducing the negative effects of lead toxicity. The results suggested salicylic acid application in basil can increase uptake of macro and micro nutrients required for plant growth and reduce the negative effects of stress lead-induced oxidative damage.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy and Tolerability of Glycolic Acid, Salicylic Mandelic Acid, and Phytic Acid Combination Peels in Melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay; Bansal, Shivani; Sethi, Sumit; Gupta, Chitra

    2016-03-01

    Melasma is acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by light-to-deep brown pigmentation over cheeks, forehead, upper lip, and nose. Treatment of this condition is difficult and associated with high recurrence rates. Chemical peels have become a popular modality in the treatment of melasma. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of glycolic acid (35%) versus salicylic-mandelic (SM) acid (20% salicylic/10% mandelic acid) versus phytic combination peels in Indian patients with melasma. Ninety patients diagnosed with melasma were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 30 patients each. Group A received glycolic acid (GA-35%) peel, Group B received SM acid, and Group C received phytic combination peels. Each group was primed with 4% hydroquinone and 0.05% tretinoin cream for 4 weeks before treatment. Chemical peeling was done after every 14 days in all groups until 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation using melasma area and severity index (MASI) score and photography was recorded at every visit and follow-up was done until 20 weeks. There was a decrease in MASI score in all 3 groups but it was statistically significantly lower in Group A than Group C (p = .00), and it was also statistically significantly lower in Group B than Group C (p = .00) but there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (p = .876). Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was 62.36% reduction in GA group, 60.98% reduction in SM group, and 44.71% in phytic acid group. It is concluded that GA (35%) and SM acid peels are both equally efficacious and a safe treatment modality for melasma in Indian skin, and are more effective than phytic acid peels. Salicylic-mandelic peels are better tolerated and more suitable for Indian skin.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes of salicylic acid derivatives with 2-aminobenzotiyazol derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    İlkimen, Halil; Yenikaya, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    In thisstudy, mixed ligand transitionmetal complexes of Cu(II)have been prepared between salicylic acid derivatives [salicylic acid (H2sal) or acetylsalicylic acid (Hasal)] and 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives[2-aminobenzothiazole (abt) or 2-amino-6-chlorobenzothiazole (Clabt) or2-amino-6-methylbenzothiazole (Meabt)]. The structures of amorphous metalcomplexes have been proposed by evaluating the data obtained from elementalanalysis, ICP-OES, FT-IR, UV-Vis, thermal analysis, magnetic suscepti...

  15. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Woo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release.

  16. Effects of salicylic acid on growth, biochemical constituents in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakci, S

    2011-02-15

    In the present study, the effect of different concentrations of salicylic acid which is an endogenous organic acid in plants and which is commonly cited as a hormone, on the growth and some other parameters of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv.) seedlings was investigated. The solutions were applied to the roots of seedlings using hydroponic method. In general, 1.5 mM concentration of salicylic acid had a stimulating effect while 5 and 10 mM concentrations had varying degrees of inhibitive effects on the seedlings. Although 0.3 mM SA application produced prominent results in the case of all parameters, the difference was not found statistically significant. The inhibitive effect produced by high SA was found much more dominant than the stimulating effect of low SA concentrations. Thus, it was established that SA had a bidirectional physiological effect on the seedlings in a concentration-dependent manner.

  17. Cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts (verrucae): a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Jayakody, Shalmini; Kang’ombe, Arthur Ricky; Stamuli, Eugena; Turner, Gwen; Thomas, Kim; Curran, Mike; Denby, Gary; Hashmi, Farina; McIntosh, Caroline; McLarnon, Nichola; Torgerson, David; Watt, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts. Design A multicentre, open, two arm randomised controlled trial. Setting University podiatry school clinics, NHS podiatry clinics, and primary care in England, Scotland, and Ireland. Participants 240 patients aged 12 years and over, with a plantar wart that in the opinion of the healthcare professional was suitable for treatment with both cryotherapy and salicylic acid. Interventions Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen delivered by a healthcare professional, up to four treatments two to three weeks apart. Patient self treatment with 50% salicylic acid (Verrugon) daily up to a maximum of eight weeks. Main outcome measures Complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were (a) complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks controlling for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of wart, (b) patient self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months, (c) time to clearance of plantar wart, (d) number of plantar warts at 12 weeks, and (e) patient satisfaction with the treatment. Results There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in the proportions of participants with complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks (17/119 (14%) v 15/110 (14%), difference 0.65% (95% CI –8.33 to 9.63), P=0.89). The results did not change when the analysis was repeated but with adjustment for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of plantar wart or for patients’ preferences at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months (29/95 (31%) v 33/98 (34%), difference –3.15% (–16.31 to 10.02), P=0.64) or in time to clearance (hazard ratio 0.80 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.25), P=0.33). There was also no evidence of a difference in the number of plantar

  18. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Naik, D.N.; PrabhaDevi

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid...

  19. Involvement of heat shock proteins 60 in acetyl salicylic acid radioprotection of Albino rat submandibular salivary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested the association of heat shock protein 60 overexpression with reduction of histopathological damage in acetyl salicylic acid radioproprotected rat submandibular salivary gland.

  20. PLANT MICROBIOME. Salicylic acid modulates colonization of the root microbiome by specific bacterial taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeis, Sarah L; Paredes, Sur Herrera; Lundberg, Derek S; Breakfield, Natalie; Gehring, Jase; McDonald, Meredith; Malfatti, Stephanie; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Jones, Corbin D; Tringe, Susannah G; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2015-08-21

    Immune systems distinguish "self" from "nonself" to maintain homeostasis and must differentially gate access to allow colonization by potentially beneficial, nonpathogenic microbes. Plant roots grow within extremely diverse soil microbial communities but assemble a taxonomically limited root-associated microbiome. We grew isogenic Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered immune systems in a wild soil and also in recolonization experiments with a synthetic bacterial community. We established that biosynthesis of, and signaling dependent on, the foliar defense phytohormone salicylic acid is required to assemble a normal root microbiome. Salicylic acid modulates colonization of the root by specific bacterial families. Thus, plant immune signaling drives selection from the available microbial communities to sculpt the root microbiome. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Improving the Keeping Quality and Vase Life of Cut Alstroemeria Flowers by Pre and Post-harvest Salicylic Acid Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz SOLEIMANY-FARD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Keeping quality and length of vase life are important factors for evaluation of cut flowers quality, for both domestic and export markets. Studding the effect of pre- and post-harvest salicylic acid applications on keeping quality and vase life of cut alstroemeria flowers during vase period is the approach taken. Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid at 0.0 (with distilled water, 1, 2 and 3 mM were sprayed to run-off (approximately 500 mL per plant, about two weeks before flowers harvest. The cut flowers were harvested in the early morning and both of cut flowers treated (sprayed and untreated were kept in vase solutions containing salicylic acid at 0.0 (with distilled water, 1, 2 and 3 mM. Sucrose at 4% was added to all treatments as a base solution. The changes in relative fresh weight, water uptake, water loss, water balance, total chlorophyll content and vase life were estimated during vase period. The results showed that the relative fresh weight, water uptake, water balance, total chlorophyll content and vase life decreased significantly while the water loss increased significantly during experiment for all treatments. A significant difference between salicylic acid and control treatments in all measured parameters is observed. During vase period, the salicylic acid treatments maintained significantly a more favourable relative fresh weight, water uptake, water balance, total chlorophyll content and supressed significantly water loss, as compared to control treatment. Also, the results showed that the using salicylic acid increased significantly the vase life cut alstroemeria flowers, over control. The highest values of measured parameters were found when plants were treated by pre + post-harvest application of salicylic acid at 3 mM. The result revealed that the quality attributes and vase life of cut alstroemeria flowers were improved by the use of salicylic acid treatment.

  2. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic acid: a Potential Role in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S.; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2015-01-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anti-cancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin’s chemopreventive actions may involve cell cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The down regulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. Firstly, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Secondly, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, pre-incubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid, dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Thirdly, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid down-regulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Implications Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the anti-proliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. PMID:26685215

  3. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid: A Potential Role in Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-03-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anticancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin's chemopreventive actions may involve cell-cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The downregulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. First, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Second, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, preincubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Third, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid downregulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the antiproliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Functional Analogues of Salicylic Acid and Their Use in Crop Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Faize; Mohamed Faize

    2018-01-01

    Functional analogues of salicylic acid are able to activate plant defense responses and provide attractive alternatives to conventional biocidal agrochemicals. However, there are many problems that growers must consider during their use in crop protection, including incomplete disease reduction and the fitness cost for plants. High-throughput screening methods of chemical libraries allowed the identification of new compounds that do not affect plant growth, and whose mechanisms of action are ...

  5. Pharmacokinetics and in vitro efficacy of salicylic acid after oral administration of acetylsalicylic acid in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntenkötter, Kathrin; Osmers, Maren; Schenk, Ina; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Machnik, Marc; Düe, Michael; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2017-01-19

    Although acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is not frequently used as a therapeutic agent in horses, its metabolite SA is of special interest in equestrianism since it is a natural component of many plants used as horse feed. This led to the establishment of thresholds by horse sport organizations for SA in urine and plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma and urine concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) after oral administration of three different single dosages (12.5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) to eight horses in a cross-over designed study. In the 12.5 mg/kg group, SA concentrations in urine peaked 2 h after oral administration (2675 μg/mL); plasma concentrations peaked at 1.5 h (17 μg/mL). In the 25 mg/kg group, maximum concentrations were detected after 2 h (urine, 2785 μg/mL) and 1.5 h (plasma, 23 μg/mL). In the 50 mg/kg group, maximum concentrations were observed after 5 h (urine, 3915 μg/mL) and 1.5 h (plasma, 45 μg/mL). The plasma half-life calculated for SA varied between 5.0 and 5.7 h. The urine concentration of SA fell below the threshold of 750 μg/mL (set by the International Equestrian Federation FEI and most of the horseracing authorities) between 7 and 26 h after administration of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg ASA and between 24 and 36 h after administration of 50 mg/kg ASA. For ASA, IC50 were 0.50 μg/mL (COX-1) and 5.14 μg/mL (COX-2). For salicylic acid, it was not possible to calculate an IC50 for either COX due to insufficient inhibition of both cyclooxygenases. The established SA thresholds of 750 μg//mL urine and 6.5 μg/mL plasma appear too generous and are leaving space for misuse of the anti-inflammatory and analgetic compound ASA in horses.

  6. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  7. Possible Reduction of the ٍٍEffect of Salinity on Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris with Application of Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Khoshbakht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is the most important environmental stress that reduces plants growth and yield. It has been shown that salicylic acid, as an endogenous signal, is responsible for inducing stress tolerance in plants. In this experiment, the effect of salicylic acid and sodium chloride on growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris was studied. When bean plants were at two-leaf stage, they were sprayed by three concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 0.5 and 1 mM. Then, plants were treated with two concentrations of sodium chloride (zero and 100 mM for 14 days. The results showed that salinity caused a significant reduction in fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, relative chlorophyll content, percentage of relative water content (RWC of leaf, stress index and significant increase in proline and soluble sugars as compared to the control treatment. Plants that were treated with both concentrations of salicylic acid showed higher fresh and dry weights. Also, application of salicylic acid in both concentrations, in saline conditions, improved the percentage of leaf RWC, amount of relative chlorophyll and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm of leaves as compared to control plants. In summary, it was concluded that spraying of salicylic acid on bean plants could improve growth and thus resistance to salinity under saline conditions.

  8. The Impacts of Mycorrhiza and Phsphorus Along with the Use of Salicylic Acid on Maize Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedra Taheri Oshtrinani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of biological and chemical fertilizers, along with the use of salicylic acid, on the agronomic characteristics of corn in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications were evaluated at the Agricultural Research Station of Boroujerd in 2011. Factors were three levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 100 and 150 kg ha, two levels of biological fertilizers (mycorrhizal fungi (inoculation and non- inoculation of seeds and two levels of salicylic acid (0.5 and 1 mM, respectively. The results showed that phosphorus fertilizer and mycorrhizal inoculation of seeds affected number of seed rows, seed weight, seed yield and biological yield significantly. Seed yield of plants inoculated with mycorrhiza was 8412 kg.ha-1 which is 24% higher than non-inoculated ones. The effect of salicylic acid on plant height, stem diameter, ear length, ear diameter, number of seed rows, seed weight, seed yield and biological yield and harvest index was also significant. The yield of plants with 1 mM salicylic acid treatment amounted to be 8316 kg.ha-1 which is 24% higher than none treated ones. Phosphorus and mycorrhizal interaction on the number of rows of seeds, seed weight, seed yield and biological yield were significant. Salicylic acid and phosphorus interactions and three way treatment effects were only significant on grain yield. This study showed that salicylic acid and mycorrhizal inoculation of seeds can increase seed yield by improving yield components.

  9. Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography assay of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in film-coated aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, J; Epstein, P; Chen, P

    1984-12-28

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous assay of acetylsalicylic acid (I) and salicylic acid (II) in film-coated aspirin tablets. As little as 0.1% II (relative to I) can be quantitatively determined. Using a 5-microns octadecylsilane column with water-acetonitrile-phosphoric acid (76:24:0.5) as the mobile phase enabled the chromatographic separation to be completed in 4 min. Due to the slow rate of decomposition of I to II in the extraction solvent, acetonitrile-methanol-phosphoric acid (92:8:0.5), the analysis of many samples was routinely performed by means of automated HPLC equipment. Other compounds (non-aspirin salicylates, caffeine and acetaminophen) were also separated by the chromatographic system.

  10. Pipecolic Acid Orchestrates Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance and Defense Priming via Salicylic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Gruner, Katrin; Schuck, Stefan; Bräutigam, Andrea; Zeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of the two immune-regulatory plant metabolites, salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip), in the establishment of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR), SAR-associated defense priming, and basal immunity. Using SA-deficient sid2, Pip-deficient ald1, and sid2 ald1 plants deficient in both SA and Pip, we show that SA and Pip act both independently from each other and synergistically in Arabidopsis thaliana basal immunity to Pseudomonas syringae. Transcri...

  11. Structural basis for substrate recognition in the salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubieta, Chloe; Ross, Jeannine R; Koscheski, Paul; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Noel, Joseph P

    2003-08-01

    Recently, a novel family of methyltransferases was identified in plants. Some members of this newly discovered and recently characterized methyltransferase family catalyze the formation of small-molecule methyl esters using S-adenosyl-L-Met (SAM) as a methyl donor and carboxylic acid-bearing substrates as methyl acceptors. These enzymes include SAMT (SAM:salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase), BAMT (SAM:benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase), and JMT (SAM:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase). Moreover, other members of this family of plant methyltransferases have been found to catalyze the N-methylation of caffeine precursors. The 3.0-A crystal structure of Clarkia breweri SAMT in complex with the substrate salicylic acid and the demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine reveals a protein structure that possesses a helical active site capping domain and a unique dimerization interface. In addition, the chemical determinants responsible for the selection of salicylic acid demonstrate the structural basis for facile variations of substrate selectivity among functionally characterized plant carboxyl-directed and nitrogen-directed methyltransferases and a growing set of related proteins that have yet to be examined biochemically. Using the three-dimensional structure of SAMT as a guide, we examined the substrate specificity of SAMT by site-directed mutagenesis and activity assays against 12 carboxyl-containing small molecules. Moreover, the utility of structural information for the functional characterization of this large family of plant methyltransferases was demonstrated by the discovery of an Arabidopsis methyltransferase that is specific for the carboxyl-bearing phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid.

  12. Modulation of human stratum corneum properties by salicylic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Piérard, G E

    1998-01-01

    Topical all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) has been reported to decrease the in vivo skin response to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The converse was also shown with a synergistic effect of RA following prior applications of SLS. The reason for such effects is not clear. We employed measures of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), squamometry and sequential corneosurfametry to explore the protective activity of a 0.05% RA cream at the level of the stratum corneum. Nonionic oil-in-water emulsions with or without 5% salicylic acid (SA) served as test product references. Data indicated that the RA formulation was responsible for a stochastic impairment in the TEWL and for an increased intercorneocyte cohesion. SA and the unmedicated emulsion did not lead to similar TEWL changes. The squamometry test proved to be very sensitive to disclose the effects of SA and RA without, however, allowing to distinguish the difference in the physiological processes involved. The corneosurfametry bioassay did not show any protection or synergistic effect between RA or SA and SLS challenge on the stratum corneum. This is in contrast to a previous work showing a positive protective effect afforded by retinol against SLS. The combined effects of irritant compounds affecting the stratum corneum are complex. The precise reason for some of their biological consequences remains a conundrum. On balance, products such as SA and RA do not appear to afford protection or impairment to a surfactant challenge at the level of the stratum corneum.

  13. AtWRKY22 promotes susceptibility to aphids and modulates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Karen J; Wiegers, Gerrie L; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; van Haarst, Jan C; Kruijer, Willem; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2016-05-01

    Aphids induce many transcriptional perturbations in their host plants, but the signalling cascades responsible and the effects on plant resistance are largely unknown. Through a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping study in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified WRKY22 as a candidate gene associated with feeding behaviour of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae The transcription factor WRKY22 is known to be involved in pathogen-triggered immunity, and WRKY22 gene expression has been shown to be induced by aphids. Assessment of aphid population development and feeding behaviour on knockout mutants and overexpression lines showed that WRKY22 increases susceptibility to M. persicae via a mesophyll-located mechanism. mRNA sequencing analysis of aphid-infested wrky22 knockout plants revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signalling and down-regulation of genes involved in plant growth and cell-wall loosening. In addition, mechanostimulation of knockout plants by clip cages up-regulated jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes, resulting in substantial negative JA-SA crosstalk. Based on this and previous studies, WRKY22 is considered to modulate the interplay between the SA and JA pathways in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stimuli. Its induction by aphids and its role in suppressing SA and JA signalling make WRKY22 a potential target for aphids to manipulate host plant defences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Ayano; Sato, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    We analysed effects of abscisic acid (ABA, a negative regulatory hormone), alone and in combination with positive or neutral hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), on rice growth and expression of cell cycle-related genes. ABA significantly inhibited shoot growth and induced expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6 interacted with OsCDKA;1 and/or OsCDKA;2. When SA was simultaneously supplied with ABA, the antagonistic effect of SA completely blocked ABA inhibition. SA also blocked ABA inhibition of DNA replication and thymidine incorporation in the shoot apical meristem. These results suggest that ABA arrests cell cycle progression by inducing expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6, which inhibit the G1/S transition, and that SA antagonizes ABA by blocking expression of OsKRP genes.

  15. Exogenous treatment with indole-3-acetic acid and salicylic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agami, Ramadan A; Mohamed, Gamal F

    2013-08-01

    The seedlings of wheat were grown in the presence of CdCl2 (500 or 1000 μM Cd), were applied with 500 μM of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 500 μM salicylic acid (SA) as seed soaking and were sampled at 56 days after sowing. The plants exposed to Cd exhibited a substantial decline in growth, pigment content, relative water content (RWC) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) and leaf structure. However, pretreatment with IAA or SA mitigated the stress generated by Cd and markedly improved the aforesaid parameters. The Cd increased proline content, electrolyte leakage and plant Cd content. However, the IAA or SA treatment attenuated the adverse effects of Cd on these attributes. The results showed that pretreatment with IAA or SA enhanced the antioxidant defense activities in Cd stressed wheat, thus alleviating Cd induced oxidative damage and enhancing Cd tolerance and leaf anatomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. AtWRKY22 promotes susceptibility to aphids and modulates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Karen J.; Wiegers, Gerrie L.; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; van Haarst, Jan C.; Kruijer, Willem; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids induce many transcriptional perturbations in their host plants, but the signalling cascades responsible and the effects on plant resistance are largely unknown. Through a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping study in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified WRKY22 as a candidate gene associated with feeding behaviour of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The transcription factor WRKY22 is known to be involved in pathogen-triggered immunity, and WRKY22 gene expression has been shown to be induced by aphids. Assessment of aphid population development and feeding behaviour on knockout mutants and overexpression lines showed that WRKY22 increases susceptibility to M. persicae via a mesophyll-located mechanism. mRNA sequencing analysis of aphid-infested wrky22 knockout plants revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signalling and down-regulation of genes involved in plant growth and cell-wall loosening. In addition, mechanostimulation of knockout plants by clip cages up-regulated jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes, resulting in substantial negative JA–SA crosstalk. Based on this and previous studies, WRKY22 is considered to modulate the interplay between the SA and JA pathways in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stimuli. Its induction by aphids and its role in suppressing SA and JA signalling make WRKY22 a potential target for aphids to manipulate host plant defences. PMID:27107291

  17. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used. PMID:23818890

  18. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimabi Wahidullah

    Full Text Available As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl with salicylic acid (3-8 were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12, metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13 and β-carbolines, norharman (14, harman (15 and methyl derivative (16, which are beneficial to the host and the environment.

  19. Degradation of the plant defence hormone salicylic acid by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Franziska; Ajami-Rashidi, Ziba; Doehlemann, Gunther; Kahmann, Regine; Djamei, Armin

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant defence hormone which plays an important role in local and systemic defence responses against biotrophic pathogens like the smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Here we identified Shy1, a cytoplasmic U. maydis salicylate hydroxylase which has orthologues in the closely related smuts Ustilago hordei and Sporisorium reilianum. shy1 is transcriptionally induced during the biotrophic stages of development but not required for virulence during seedling infection. Shy1 activity is needed for growth on plates with SA as a sole carbon source. The trigger for shy1 transcriptional induction is SA, suggesting the possibility of a SA sensing mechanism in this fungus. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of Catalysts Preyssler and Silica-Supported Nano Preyssler in the Synthesis of Acetyl Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nazari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive demand for cleaner environment is forcing chemical industry to use less hazardous materials. In this regard, heteropolyacids attracted considerable amount of interest due to the less toxic behavior in addition of possessing higher acidity. Heteropoly acids have been used as catalysts for the reaction of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride. The performance of different forms of heteropoly acids in the presence of acetic anhydride as acetylating agent for acetylation of salicylic acid was compared. The best conditions were observed using Preyssler and Silica-supported Preyssler Nanoparticles as catalysts. The catalyst is recyclable and reusable.

  1. Functional Characterization of Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase from Camellia sinensis, Providing the Aroma Compound of Methyl Salicylate during the Withering Process of White Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wang, Rongxiu; Yang, Tianyuan; Jiang, Li'na; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu

    2017-12-20

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is one of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that releases floral scent and plays an important role in the sweet flowery aroma of tea. During the withering process for white tea producing, MeSA was generated by salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT) with salicylic acid (SA), and the specific floral scent was formed. In this study, we first cloned a CsSAMT from tea leaves (GenBank accession no. MG459470) and used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express the recombinant CsSAMT. The enzyme activity in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems was identified, and the protein purification, substrate specificity, pH, and temperature optima were investigated. It was shown that CsSAMT located in the chloroplast, and the gene expression profiles were quite different in tea organs. The obtained results might give a new understanding for tea aroma formation, optimization, and regulation and have great significance for improving the specific quality of white tea.

  2. Glycine Betaine and Salicylic Acid Induced Modification in Water Relations and Productivity of Drought Wheat Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of parameters associated with adjustments in internal water balance, namely: diurnal variation in transpiration rate, stomatal opening area, relative water content, water use efficiency, hormonal level of wheat flag leaves in relation to grain yield is presented. Drought induced marked decreases in diurnal and mean daily values of transpiration rate, stomatal pore areas (on upper and lower sides, relative water content, water use efficiency, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, cytokinins (CKs and grain yield but led to a significant increase in the abscisic acid (ABA concentration in flag leaves of the wheat cultivars. Grain presoaking in salicylic acid or foliar application with glycine betaine alleviated the stress by keeping water within leaves and consequently recover the turgidity of stressed plants by restricting the transpiration rate, stomatal closure, decreasing the ABA level and enhancing the growth promoters particularly (IAA, GA3 & CKs particularly with the sensitive cultivar. Furthermore, the effect was more pronounced with glycine betaine + salicylic acid treatment. The grain yield appeared to be positively correlated with IAA, GA3, CK, RWC, WUEG and WUEB but negatively correlated with ABA, SWD, transpiration rate and stomatal areas on both wheat cultivars.

  3. MAP KINASE PHOSPHATASE1 and PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE1 Are Repressors of Salicylic Acid Synthesis and SNC1-Mediated Responses in Arabidopsis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebastian Bartels; Jeffrey C. Anderson; Manna A. González Besteiro; Alessandro Carreri; Heribert Hirt; Antony Buchala; Jean-Pierre Métraux; Scott C. Peck; Roman Ulm

    2009-01-01

    ...) accession results in growth defects and constitutive biotic defense responses, including elevated levels of salicylic acid, camalexin, PR gene expression, and resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae...

  4. Effect of Salicylic Acid and Ethephon on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyla Shakeri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water or soil salinities are the most important factors that reduce the seed germination of plants. Ethephon can break seed dormancy in a variety of plants, such as cereals and speeds up germination. In some plants pretreatment of seeds with salicylic acid has increased the germination percentage. To study effect of salicylic acid and ethephon on seed germination of wheat (Seivand cultivar under salinity condition a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted at the Plant Research Laboratory of Neyshabur Branch of Islamic Azad University in 2011. Four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mM, three salicylic acid levels (0, 0.5, 1 mM and four ethephon levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2 mM were used. The results showed that at salinity condition seed germination rate and percentage, shoot and root length, their dry weight and α-amylase activity decreased and proline content increased. Pretreatment of seeds by salicylic acid increased seed germination percentage, some growth parameters, α-amylase activity and proline content under salinity condition. Moreover, pretreatment of seeds by ethephon decreased some growth parameters and increased proline content but its effect on germination and α-amylase activity were not significant. It seems that Salicylic acid as a plant growth regulator under salinity condition and ethephon convertion to ethylene, activated plant tolerance mechanisms to salinity condition and decrease damaging effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat.

  5. The Effect of Foliar Application of Salicylic acid and Thiamine on the Biochimical Characteristics of Gerbera jamesonii cv. Pink elegance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mansouri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera is one of the ten important cut flowers in terms of production and consumption in the world and Iran. In this research effects of foliar application of salicylic acid and thiamine on biochemical characteristics of gerbera flower were investigated. This experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications in the greenhouse commercial of the Golazin Maghsoud Company. Treatments were included of municipal water (control, salicylic acid 75 and 150 µM and thiamine 250 and 500 µM. Foliar application was performed with interval of two weeks in two stages. The results showed that the treatments had a significant effect on biochemical characteristics of gerbera. The greatest amount of chlorophyll a (36.6 µg/g Fw, b (17.27µg/g Fw and total chlorophyll content (61.17 µg/g Fw were related to Thiamine 250 µM and the highest level of carotenoids content 7.87 (µg/g Fw was related to Thiamine 500 µM. The most reducing sugars content (181.51 mg/g Fw reported in 75 µM salicylic acid. The highest activity of catalase and peroxidase enzyme (94.5 and 70.7 unit enzyme per minute in gram fresh weight, respectively were related to 75 and 150 µM salicylic acid. Thus, salicylic acid and thiamine increased photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activities.

  6. Synergistic Accumulative Effect of Salicylic Acid and Dibutyl Phthalate on Paclitaxel Production in Corylus avellana Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei, A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Suspension cell cultures of Corylus avellana were challenged with salicylic acid and its combined use with dibutyl phthalate solvent. Salicylic acid with concentrations of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg L–1 and 10% (v/v dibutyl phthalate were used and added on day 8 and 10 of subculture, respectively. The results showed that growth, viability and protein content of cells were decreased by the treatments, compared to control. In all treatments, hydrogen peroxide content and lipid peroxidation rate of cells increased, compared to those of the control cells. Activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase increased by salicylic acid and, dibutyl phthalate exaggerated effect of salicylic acid. While flavonoids content decreased by the treatments, paclitaxel content increased significantly. The extracellular paclitaxel was more affected, compared to cell-associated paclitaxel and all treatments increased paclitaxel release and specific yield compared to that of the control. The most production of paclitaxel and specific yield of it were observed under effect of combined use of salicylic acid (50 mg L–1 and dibutyl phthalate, suggesting a synergistic accumulative effect.

  7. Batch salicylic acid nitration by nitric acid/acetic acid mixture under isothermal, isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, R; Canterino, M; Caprio, V; Di Somma, I; Sanchirico, R

    2006-12-01

    Runaway phenomena and thermal explosions can originate during the nitration of salicylic acid by means of a nitric acid/acetic acid mixture when the thermal control is lost, mainly as a result of the formation and thermal decomposition of picric acid. The prediction of the behaviour of this system is thus of great importance in view of possible industrial applications and the need to avoid the occurrence of unwanted dangerous events. During a previous investigation a model was developed to simulate its behaviour when the starting concentration of the substrate is too low, thus, preventing the precipitation of poor soluble intermediates. In this work this model is extended to deal with more concentrated systems even in case of a solid phase separating during the process. To this purpose the previously assessed dependence of the solubility of 3-nitro and 5-nitrosalicylic acids upon temperature and nitric acid concentration is included in the model. It is assumed that when 3-nitro and 5-nitrosalicylic acids are partially suspended in the reacting medium a kinetic regime of "dissolution with reaction" is established; that is, the redissolution of these species is a fast process compared to the successive nitration to give dinitroderivatives. Good results are obtained in the comparison of the experimental data with those calculated both in isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions when the revised model is used.

  8. Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.5 acyl acid amido synthetase mediates metabolic crosstalk in auxin and salicylic acid homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Westfall, Corey S.; Sherp, Ashley M.; Zubieta, Chloe; Alvarez, Sophie; Schraft, Evelyn; Marcellin, Romain; Ramirez, Loren; Jez, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the acyl acid amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3.5 (AtGH3.5) conjugates both indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA) to modulate auxin and pathogen response pathways. To understand the molecular basis for the activity of AtGH3.5, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with IAA and AMP. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that the substrate preference of AtGH3.5 is wider than originally described and includes the natural auxin phenyl...

  9. Influence of salicylic acid on seed germination of Vicia faba L. under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Anaya; Rachid Fghire; Said Wahbi; Kenza Loutfi

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination is the critical stage for species survival. Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as broad bean. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination and influence of salicylic acid on seed in order to improving salt tolerant on broad bean. Vicia faba L. is an important pulse crop in the Mediterranean region. In many cases broad bean is grown on saline soils where growth and yield are limited...

  10. One-stop genomic DNA extraction by salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-11-15

    Salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by nonspecific binding of the particles as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared with traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Salicylic Acid Alleviates Aluminum Toxicity in Soybean Roots through Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ning; Song, Fengbin; Zhu, Xiancan; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Li, Xiangnan

    2017-01-01

    As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA) improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al) stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM) and SA (10 μM)/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor) for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. Al stress induced an incr...

  12. Salicylic acid alleviates cold-induced photosynthesis inhibition and oxidative stress in Jasminum sambac

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Han; He, Mengying; Ma, Kun; HUANG, YONGGAO; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a signal molecule that mediates many biotic and abiotic stress-induced physiological responses in plants. In the current study the protective effects of SA on cold stress-caused oxidative damage and photosynthesis inhibition in jasmine plants (Jasminum sambac) were examined. Jasmine seedlings were pretreated with 100 µM SA for 3 days and then subjected to cold stress (4 °C) for 15 days. The amounts of superoxide radicals (O_2^{-}) and hydrogen peroxide (H_{2}O_{2}) sign...

  13. Optimization and validation of liquid chromatography and headspace-gas chromatography based methods for the quantitative determination of capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, glycol monosalicylate, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, camphor and l-menthol in a topical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Jochen; D'Autry, Ward; Van den Bossche, Larissa; Dewever, Cédric; Forier, Michel; Vandenwaeyenberg, Stephanie; Wolfs, Kris; Hoogmartens, Jos; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2012-02-23

    Capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, methyl and ethyl salicylate, glycol monosalicylate, camphor and l-menthol are widely used in topical formulations to relieve local pain. For each separate compound or simple mixtures, quantitative analysis methods are reported. However, for a mixture containing all above mentioned active compounds, no assay methods were found. Due to the differing physicochemical characteristics, two methods were developed and optimized simultaneously. The non-volatile capsaicinoids, salicylic acid and glycol monosalicylate were analyzed with liquid chromatography following liquid-liquid extraction, whereas the volatile compounds were analyzed with static headspace-gas chromatography. For the latter method, liquid paraffin was selected as compatible dilution solvent. The optimized methods were validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision in a range of 80% to 120% of the expected concentrations. For both methods, peaks were well separated without interference of other compounds. Linear relationships were demonstrated with R² values higher than 0.996 for all compounds. Accuracy was assessed by performing replicate recovery experiments with spiked blank samples. Mean recovery values were all between 98% and 102%. Precision was checked at three levels: system repeatability, method precision and intermediate precision. Both methods were found to be acceptably precise at all three levels. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of some real samples (cutaneous sticks). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Salicylic acid as a tridentate anchoring group for azo-bridged zinc porphyrin in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Faliang; Jiang, Xu; Li, Bo; Jing, Huanwang; Zhu, Zhenping

    2013-12-11

    Two series dyes of azo-bridged zinc porphyrins have been devised, synthesized, and performed in dye-sensitized solar cells, in which salicylic acids and azo groups were introduced as a new anchoring group and π-conjugated bridge via a simple synthetic procedure. The representation of the new dyes has been investigated by optical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical means. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of their DSSC devices has been improved compared with other DSSC devices sensitized by symmetrical porphyrin dyes. The results revealed that tridentate binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles could enhance the efficiency of electron injection. The binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles may play a crucial role in the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs.

  15. The effects of surface-applied jasmonic and salicylic acids on caterpillar growth and damage to tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron L. Iverson; Louis R. Iverson; Steve Eshita

    2001-01-01

    We tested the role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in altering the tomato plant's defense against herbivory by tobacco hornworm. Treatments of SA or JA were topically applied to tomato plants, hornworm consumption was allowed to proceed for 12 days, and harvest analyses were performed Measurements taken included a subjective plant rating (1-10 score...

  16. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tajik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L., the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. The stigmas contain three major compounds, crocins (carotenoid compound responsible for color, picrocrocin (responsible for taste and safranal (responsible for odor. It has been used for medicinal purposes, as a spice and condiment for food and as a dye since ancient times. Numerous studies have shown crocins as main carotenoids of saffron to be capable of a variety of pharmacological effects, such as protection against cardiovascular diseases, inhibition of cancer cell development. Salicylic acid (SA is a signaling molecule and a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the plant physiological processes. In order of importance of saffron as valuable product, the aim of this study is to investigate effects of salicylic acid application (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM on crocin and safranal content and antioxidant activity of stigma. Results showed that SA application at 1 mM were the most effective treatments in increase of crocin content and stronger antioxidant activity, but SA had a negative effect on safranal content and the highest quantity of this compound was observed in control plants.

  17. Combination photodynamic therapy of human breast cancer using salicylic acid and methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Jahanshiri, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination therapy with methylene blue (MB) assisted photodynamic therapy (PDT) and salicylic acid (SA) as chemo-therapy anticancer agent. The binding of salicylic acid to methylene blue was studied using spectrophotometric method. The results show the 1:2 complex formation between SA and MB. The binding constants and related Gibbs free energies o are obtained (Kb1 = 183.74, Kb2 = 38.13 and ∆ Gb1° = 12.92 kJ·mol- 1, ∆ Gb2° =9.02 kJ·mol- 1). The spectrophotometric results show the improvement in solubilization and reduction prevention for SA and MB in the complex form. These results are in agreements with cellular experiments. The dark toxicity measurements represent the improve efficacy of chemotherapy using combination of SA and MB. The photodynamic therapy results (using red LED as light source (630 nm; power density: 30 mW cm- 2)) show that the cancer cell killing efficiency of MB increases in the combination with SA due to reduction prevention and stabilization of monomeric form of MB.

  18. Tolerance and safety of superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Zafar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure that may have some potentially undesirable side-effects. AIMS: The present study is directed towards safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses. METHODS: The study was a non-comparative and a prospective one. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients of either sex, aged between 10 to 60 years, undergoing superficial chemical peeling for various facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, freckles, post-inflammatory scars/pigmentation, actinic keratoses, plane facial warts, etc. were included in the study. Eight weekly peeling sessions were carried out in each patient. Tolerance to the procedure and any undesirable effects noted during these sessions were recorded. RESULTS: Almost all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema were quite common but the incidence of major side-effects was very low and these too, were easily manageable. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side-effects between facial dermatoses (melasma, acne and other pigmentary disorders. CONCLUSION: Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is a well tolerated and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses.

  19. Electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid by a cobalt hydrotalcite-like compound modified Pt electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, Isacco; Scavetta, Erika; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica

    2011-03-15

    In this paper a study of the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) at a Pt electrode coated with a Co/Al hydrotalcite-like compound (Co/Al HTLC coated-Pt) film is presented. The voltammetric behaviour of the modified electrode in 0.1M NaOH shows two different redox couples: Co(II)/Co(III) and Co(III)/Co(IV). The electrocatalysis occurs at the same potential of the latter couple, showing that Co(IV) centers act as the oxidant. The CV investigation demonstrates that the process is controlled both by mass and charge transfer and that the Co(IV) centers involved in the oxidation are two for each SA molecule. The estimated value of the catalytic constant is 4×10(4) M(-1) s(-1). The determination of salicylic acid was performed both by DPV and chronoamperometry. The linearity ranges and the LOD values resulted 1×10(-5) to 5×10(-4), 5×10(-7) to 1×10(-4), 6×10(-6) and 2×10(-7) M, respectively. The Co/Al HTLC electrode has been used for SA determination in BAYER Aspirina® and the obtained results are consistent with an independent HPLC analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Salicylic acid nanoparticles behavior on chick CAM vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard [' Politechnica' University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Buteica, Alice Sandra; Neamtu, Johny [University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Faculty of Pharmacy (Romania); Istrati, Daniela [' Politechnica' University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Mindrila, Ion, E-mail: tutu0101@yahoo.com [University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Department of Morphological Sciences (Romania)

    2013-08-15

    A modified ferrite co-precipitation synthesis was used to obtain core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/salicylic acid magnetic nanoparticles (Sa-MNP) with well-dispersed aqueous solution properties. The newly developed iron oxide nanoparticles properties were investigated with X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and laser light scattering for their characteristic establishment. The resulting Sa-MNPs have spherical morphology, homogenous size distribution around 60 nm (35 nm FWHM), and a 67 mV Zeta potential value (15.5 mV STDV). In vivo biocompatibility and intravascular behavior of the 60 nm diameter size range synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated on chick chorioallantoic membrane model. The results show a reversible and good controlled intravascular accumulation under static magnetic field, a low risk of embolisation with nanoparticle aggregates detached from venous intravascular nanoblocked areas, a persistent blocking of the arterioles and dependent capillaries network, a good circulating life time and biocompatibility. The beneficial effects of salicylic acid (SA) and in vivo demonstrated capacity of Sa-MNPs to cutoff regional vascular supply under static magnetic field control suggest a possible biomedical application of these MNPs in targeted cancer therapy through magnetic controlled blood flow nanoblocking mechanism.

  1. Fe3O4/Salicylic acid nanoparticles behavior on chick CAM vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Buteică, Alice Sandra; Neamţu, Johny; Istrati, Daniela; Mîndrilă, Ion

    2013-08-01

    A modified ferrite co-precipitation synthesis was used to obtain core-shell Fe3O4/salicylic acid magnetic nanoparticles (Sa-MNP) with well-dispersed aqueous solution properties. The newly developed iron oxide nanoparticles properties were investigated with X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and laser light scattering for their characteristic establishment. The resulting Sa-MNPs have spherical morphology, homogenous size distribution around 60 nm (35 nm FWHM), and a 67 mV Zeta potential value (15.5 mV STDV). In vivo biocompatibility and intravascular behavior of the 60 nm diameter size range synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated on chick chorioallantoic membrane model. The results show a reversible and good controlled intravascular accumulation under static magnetic field, a low risk of embolisation with nanoparticle aggregates detached from venous intravascular nanoblocked areas, a persistent blocking of the arterioles and dependent capillaries network, a good circulating life time and biocompatibility. The beneficial effects of salicylic acid (SA) and in vivo demonstrated capacity of Sa-MNPs to cutoff regional vascular supply under static magnetic field control suggest a possible biomedical application of these MNPs in targeted cancer therapy through magnetic controlled blood flow nanoblocking mechanism.

  2. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salicylic acid peeling combined with vitamin C mesotherapy versus salicylic acid peeling alone in the treatment of mixed type melasma: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balevi, Ali; Ustuner, Pelin; Özdemir, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    Melasma is a distressing condition for both dermatologists and patients. We evaluated the effectiveness of salicylic acid (SA) peel and vitamin C mesotherapy in the treatment of melasma. Fifty female patients were divided into two groups. All patients were treated with 30% SA peel every two weeks for two months. In addition, after SA peeling Group A was intradermally administered 10 vitamin C on the melasma lesion at 1-cm intervals. All patients were followed up for 6 months, during which the recurrence rates were evaluated. Digital photographs of the melasma site were taken and patients' Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores were assessed. After the treatment, the patients were asked to complete the melasma quality of life questionnaire (MelasQoL) to evaluate their satisfaction with the treatment. All the adverse effects were noted. The MelasQoL and MASI scores of patients in both groups significantly decreased after the treatment. Apart from a burning sensation, no adverse event was observed and all patients tolerated the treatment well. SA peel combined with vitamin C mesotherapy is a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of melasma with no significant side effects and minimal downtime.

  5. Effect of Salicylic Acid and Chelated Magnesium Sulfate on Fruit Quality Improvement (Physical Characteristics in Pear (cv. Louise Bonne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahjabin adel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruit quality is described based on the crop functions (for industry or table and/or difference of the consumer tastes in different societies. The conformity of the quality with consumer demands has an effective role in improvement of the marketing process. For example, elongated pears are preferred for the processing industries and conserving productions. The lack of attention to retaining of quality and/or improvement of apparent situation of gardening product in proportion to consumer demands decreases especial consumer acceptance. The necessity of having desired quality characteristics in pear fruits from the characters viewpoint of fruit specific gravity (major rating criterion of pears and proportion of length to diameter (minor rating, because of their role in market acceptance and pricing, is evident. Fruit quality, while harvesting, as one of the components of plants fertility influenced under different parameters like nourishment and could be managed during growth season. In other words, the gain of qualities proportionated to consumers demands and/or processing industries is possible by the use of acquired method such as the kind of mother plant nutrition, and control of pests and diseases, etc. In the current research, the effect of salicylic acid and chelated magnesium sulfate was studied on physical indexes of fruits quality of pear fruit. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of treatment agents, an experiment was conducted in the ecological conditions of Qazvinon Pear trees belonging to Louise Bonne cultivar in the Randomized Complete Block Design. The treatments includecontrol group (with andwithout water,chelated magnesium sulfate with concentration of 0.5 gram in a liter, chelated magnesium sulfate with concentration of 0.7gram in a liter, salicylic acid with concentration of0.1 gram in a liter,the compound treatment of salicylic acid with concentration of 0.1 andchelated magnesium sulfate with

  6. Efficacy of Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. Versus Salicylic Acid for Wart Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadami Yazdi, Elham; Minaei, Mohamad Bagher; Hashem Dabaghian, Fataneh; Ebrahim Zadeh Ardakani, Mohamad; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Rastegari, Mohamad; Ghadami Yazdi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Wart is a skin disease with circular appendages, which is called "suloul" in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). According to ITM literature, warts have different types and causes. The most important mechanism is excretion of materials (Khelt) from body to skin and mucus; its causative material is often phlegm, black bile or a combination of them. To treat warts, it is necessary to consider the patient's life style, modify his dietary intake and moisturize his temperament. This study aimed to compare Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. as a method of ITM, versus salicylic acid in treatment of wart. In this study, conducted in Yazd, Iran, 100 patients were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Group 1) salicylic acid, group 2) salicylic acid and D. sophia L. group 3) M. communis L. group 4) M. communis L. and D. sophia L. Numbers, sizes of lesions and symptoms, on days 0, 20, 40 and 90 were examined and analyzed. The relapse rate was investigated three months after. Changes of sizes and numbers of warts in each period of time in each group, compared to baseline, were assessed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. To compare these changes between the groups, Kruskal Wallis test was used. In this study 100 patients participated, 69% of which were female. Compared to baseline, mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 40 were 1.12 ± 4.2, 0.96 ± 2.5, 1.32 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.2 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.02). Mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 90 were 1.84 ± 4.5, 1.56 ± 2.8, 1.24 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.6 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.03). In addition mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 40 were 0.96 ± 1.8, 1.03 ± 2.4, 2.47 ± 3.0 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P sophia L. can modify the digestion process and patients can excrete large amounts of the substance that causes warts. Therefore, it is better to use it more than 40 days. According to our investigation, in ITM

  7. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care : randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W.; Eekhof, Just A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Methods: Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were

  8. Salicylic Acid and 4-Nitroaniline Removal from Water Using Magnetic Biochar: An Environmental and Analytical Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, Akila G.; Dewage, Narada Bombuwala; Todd, Olivia Adele; Essandoh, Matthew; Anderson, Renel; Mlsna, Todd; Mlsna, Deb

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption studies of salicylic acid (SA) and 4-nitroaniline (4NA) from aqueous solutions were performed with magnetic biochar (MBC) in order to train students in analytical techniques such as standard calibration curves, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and chemical separations within the context of wastewater purification. Analysis of samples purified…

  9. Salicylic acid and cysteine contribute to arbutin-induced alleviation of angular leaf spot disease development in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Wielanek, Marzena; Chwatko, Grażyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Piątek, Milena; Gajewska, Ewa; Skłodowska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Arbutin induced suppression of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber resulting from lower populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans in the infected tissues. This study provides insight into mechanisms that may potentially account for this effect. In the absence of the pathogen, exogenous arbutin-induced expression of PR1, the marker of salicylic acid signaling, increased the content of salicylic acid and modulated the cysteine pool. This suggested that arbutin promoted cucumber plants to a "primed" state. When challenged with the pathogen, the arbutin-treated plants showed strongly reduced infection symptoms 7 days after inoculation. At this time point, they were characterized by higher contents of free and protein-bound cysteine due to higher cysteine biosynthetic capacity related to increased activities of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase when compared with plants infected without arbutin treatment. Moreover, in the arbutin-treated and infected plants the contents of free salicylic acid and its conjugates were also increased, partly owing to its biosynthesis via the phenylpropanoid pathway. We suggest that arbutin-induced abrogation of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber could be mediated by salicylic acid and cysteine-based signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

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    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  11. Combined patch containing salicylic acid and nicotinamide: role of drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Cristina; Ferretti, Chiara; Nicoli, Sara; Santi, Patrizia

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate a combined patch containing salicylic (SA) acid and nicotinamide (NA), useful for the treatment of mild acne, and to verify their mutual effect on drug permeation and skin retention. The performance of the patch was tested in vitro in permeation experiments using pig ear skin as barrier. To better understand the data obtained from the film, permeation from solutions and isopropyl myristate/water partition coefficient were also determined. The results obtained in the present work suggest a mutual influence of NA and SA on their permeation across the skin from an innovative transdermal film. The partition coefficient obtained when the two molecules were simultaneously present was typically lower than the respective value obtained with NA and SA alone.

  12. Increasing leaf longevity and disease resistance by altering salicylic acid catabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Susheng; Zhang, Kewei

    2018-01-23

    The present invention relates to a transgenic plant having an altered level of salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase ("S3H") protein, compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plant displays an altered leaf senescence phenotype, relative to a non-transgenic plant. The present invention relates to a mutant plant comprising an inactivated gene encoding S3H protein, where the mutant plant displays a premature or precocious leaf senescence phenotype, relative to a non-mutant plant. The present invention also relates to methods for promoting premature or precocious leaf senescence in a plant, delaying leaf senescence in a plant, and making a mutant plant having a decreased level of S3H protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a premature or precocious leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. The present invention also relates to inducing or promoting pathogen resistance in plants.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

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    Hiromu Suzuki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1 infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  14. [Possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glian'ko, A K; Makarova, L E; Vasil'eva, G G; Mironova, N V

    2005-01-01

    H2O2 content was studied in the roots and epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L.) with normal (cultivar Marat) and disturbed (non-nodulating mutant K14 and hypernodulating mutant Nod3) regulation of root nodulation after inoculation with active industrial strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum by. viceae 250a/CIAM 1026. Pea biotypes differed by H2O2 content in the roots and epicotyls. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) (0.2 mM) affected H2O2 and SA contents in the roots in an inoculation-dependent manner. The involvement of hydrogen peroxide and SA as signaling molecules as well as of antibacterial agents in the pea-rhizobium interaction at the initial stages of symbiosis is proposed.

  15. A Case of Terra Firma-Forme Dermatosis Treated with Salicylic Acid Alcohol Peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sin Wook; Lee, Suk Young; Kim, Jong Baik; Choi, Hoo Min; Ro, Byung In; Cho, Han Kyoung

    2017-02-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) is a bizarre, acquired and idiopathic dermatosis that etiology has still not been fully defined. It is characterized by the presence of asymptomatic, brownish dirt-like lesion maybe due to disorder of keratinization. These lesions cannot be removed with ordinary cleansing. Therefore, TFFD can be differentiated from dermatosis neglecta. Patient was a 17-year-old man with brownish lesions on his face for 1 month. The patient had a history of regular washing habit with soap and water. The lesions were asymptomatic however due to cosmetic reasons, the patient wanted to treat his skin lesions. Punch biopsy revealed hyperkeratosis and fungal spore are in stratum corneum. Salicylic acid peeling with alcohol base was performed on the patient's face. The skin lesions disappeared completely on gentle swabbing with peeling. In this point, the diagnosis of TFFD could be considered. Since, this disease can be confused with dermatosis neglecta, we report this case with literature review.

  16. 2-Bromophenyl Salicylate

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    Karelle S. Aiken

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 2-Bromophenyl salicylate is synthesized from 2-benzyloxybenzoic acid in two steps. The final compound has been characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HRMS. The melting point for 2-bromophenyl salicylate is provided.

  17. The Effects of Seed Pre-priming with Salicylic Acid under Salinity Stress on Germination and Growth Characteristics of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Fennel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Moradi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salicylic acid (SA or orthohydroxybenzoic acid play a major role in regulation of many physiological processes e.g. growth, development, ion absorption and germination of plats. In order to evaluate the effects of prepriming Fennel seed with salicylic acid in salinity stress condition, on germination and growth characteristics of Fennel, an experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications. The experimental treatments were salicylic acid with 7 levels (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 4 mM and salinity with 5 levels (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percentage. All salicylic acid and salinity treatments had significant effect on percentage and speed germination, length of radicle and hypocotyle, dry weight of radicle, hypocotyle and seedling and radicle / hypocotyle ratio (R/H. One mM salicylic acid had the highest percentage and speed of germination, length of radicle and hypocotyle and dry weight of radicle, hypocotyle and seedling. The highest radicle/hypocotyle ratio was obtained at 1.5 mM salicylic acid. Four mM salicylic acid didn't have significant effect on all maintained parameters. With no salinity stress (control, salicylic acid didn’t have any significant effect on all parameters, but when there was salinity stress; prepriming increased all studied characteristics significantly. Therefore, based on our results it seems that salinity resistance of Fennel seeds at germination stage will increase by treating seeds with on mM salicylic acid. Keywords: Fennel, Germination, Orthohydroxybenzoic acid, Salinity stress

  18. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; de Waal, Margot W.M.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W.; Eekhof, Just A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Methods Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Results Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%–51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%–35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%–25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%–64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%–30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%–21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Interpretation For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. (ClinicalTrial.gov registration no. ISRCTN42730629) PMID:20837684

  19. Pseudomonas putida response in membrane bioreactors under salicylic acid-induced stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Sergio; Rosas, Irene; González, Elena; Gutierrez-Lavin, Antonio; Diaz, Mario, E-mail: mariodiaz@uniovi.es

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • MBR under feed-induced stress conditions: starvation and changing feeding conditions. • High capacity of MBR to withstand high variations in feed loads. • Slow biofilm formation under starvation conditions during the first days. • Observed growth of P. putida for substrate to microorganism ratio higher than 0.6 g/g. • Maximum specific growth rate and growth yield values of around 37.5 h{sup −1} and 0.5 g/g. - Abstract: Starvation and changing feeding conditions are frequently characteristics of wastewater treatment plants. They are typical causes of unsteady-state operation of biological systems and provoke cellular stress. The response of a membrane bioreactor functioning under feed-induced stress conditions is studied here. In order to simplify and considerably amplify the response to stress and to obtain a reference model, a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was selected instead of an activated sludge and a sole substrate (salicylic acid) was employed. The system degraded salicylic acid at 100–1100 mg/L with a high level of efficiency, showed rapid acclimation without substrate or product inhibition phenomena and good stability in response to unsteady states caused by feed variations. Under starvation conditions, specific degradation rates of around 15 mg/g h were achieved during the adaptation of the biomass to the new conditions and no biofilm formation was observed during the first days of experimentation using an initial substrate to microorganisms ratio lower than 0.1. When substrate was added to the reactor as pulses resulting in rapidly changing concentrations, P. putida growth was observed only for substrate to microorganism ratios higher than 0.6, with a maximum Y{sub X/S} of 0.5 g/g. Biofilm development under changing feeding conditions was fast, biomass detachment only being significant for biomass concentrations on the membrane surface that were higher than 16 g/m{sup 2}.

  20. Application of Glycine, Tufool and Salicylic Acid in Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. under Drought Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kheirkhah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of strategic products to supply sugar in water limited areas of Iran. Thus, proper managements to supply enouph water in production of sugar beet is very important. To evaluate the effects of some anti stress substances like salicylic acid, tyuful and glycine to irritigate the effect of early water deficit on suger beet, an experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Research Farm of Fariman Sugar Factory in 2013. Treatments consisted of control (without using anti stress substances, with three concentration of salicylic acid (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mM, tyuful with three concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 liter per thousand and glycine with three concentration (1, 2 and 3 liters per thousand. The results showed that the effects of anti-stress materials significantly affected the sugar content, root yield, white sugar yield and harmful nitrogen. Highest sugar content (15.65%, root yield (83.82 t.ha-1 and white sugar percentage (11.15% were obtained by using tyuful 1.5 lit/1000. While, the lowest levels of these characters were obtained from control (not using anti stress substances. Maximum harmful nitrogen was produced in control treatment (4.38 and highest level of alkalinity with mean of 3.49 was observed by using 3 lit/1000 of glycine. Our results showed that all of the anti stress substances had positive effects on sugar beet under drought stress condition.

  1. Response of Brassica napus L grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salarizdah Mohammadreza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem that has negative effect on plant growth, production and photosynthesis. Fresh and dry plant weights decreases with salinity treatments. The very important role of salicylic acid (SA in response to different stress and modification and decline damages due to stresses has established in different studies. In this research, effect of grain soaking presowing in (0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 5 mM of salicylic acid (SA and NaCl (0, 4, 8 and 12 dsm-1 on canola (Brassica napus L was studied. Increasing of NaCl level reduced the germination percentage(GP, Average velocity of germination (AVG and growth parameters of 15-day old seedlings in compared to control plants. pretreated of SA in content 1mM significantly increased the germination percentage, and in contents more than of 1mM reduced the germination percentage in seeds under salinity stress. SA in content 1mM increased RWC, root and shoot of fresh weight in the stressed seedlings. Increasing of NaCl level increased Electrolyte leakage and MDA content in the stress seedling. electrolyte leakage and MDA content were markedly reduced under salt stress with SA 1mM than without. It was concluded that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator to improve salt tolerance in canola. Our observations indicate that, although SA is not essential for germination under normal growth conditions, it plays a promotive role in seed germination under high salinity by reducing oxidative damage.

  2. Spectroscopic studies of solid-state forms of donepezil free base and salt forms with various salicylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G.

    2014-12-01

    The polymorphic forms of donepezil free base have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. None of the free base crystal forms was observed to exhibit detectable fluorescence in the solid state under ambient conditions. Crystalline salt products were obtained by the reaction of donepezil with salicylic and methyl-substituted salicylic acids, with the salicylate and 4-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as non-solvated products, and the 3-methylsalicylate and 5-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as methanol solvated products. The intensity of solid-state fluorescence from donepezil salicylate and donepezil 4-methylsalicylate was found to be reduced relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids, while the solid-state fluorescence intensity of donepezil 3-methylsalicylate methanolate and donepezil 5-methylsalicylate methanolate was greatly increased relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids. Desolvation of the solvated salt products led to formation of glassy solids that exhibited strong green fluorescence.

  3. Preharvest salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid treatments preserve quality and enhance antioxidant systems during postharvest storage of sweet cherry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M José; Serrano, María; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Castillo, Salvador; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián

    2017-03-01

    Sweet cherries are much appreciated by consumers as a result of their organoleptic quality attributes and antioxidant properties, although they deteriorate rapidly after harvest. Different preharvest strategies have been carried out to increase their quality at the time of harvest. We present data regarding the effect of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) treatments on sweet cherry quality during postharvest storage. At harvest and during postharvest storage, sweet cherry fruits ('Sweet Heart', 'Sweet Late' and 'Lapins') from SA (0.5 mmol L-1 ) and ASA (1 mmol L-1 ) treated trees had a higher colour (lower chroma index), firmness, total soluble solids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins and hydrophilic total antioxidant activity. In addition, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase was also enhanced in SA- and ASA-treated cherries. Both SA and ASA preharvest treatments could be promising tools for improving sweet cherry quality at harvest and after storage, with an additional effect on delaying the postharvest ripening process by increasing the levels of antioxidant compounds and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. HSP-72 accelerated expression in mononuclear cells induced in vivo by acetyl salicylic acid can be reproduced in vitro when combined with H2O2.

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    Alvaro A Sandoval-Montiel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among NSAIDs acetyl salicylic acid remains as a valuable tool because of the variety of benefic prophylactic and therapeutic effects. Nevertheless, the molecular bases for these responses have not been complete understood. We explored the effect of acetyl salicylic acid on the heat shock response. RESULTS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from rats challenged with acetyl salicylic acid presented a faster kinetics of expression of HSP-72 messenger RNA and protein in response to in vitro heat shock. This effect reaches its maximum 2 h after treatment and disappeared after 5 h. On isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from untreated rats, incubation with acetyl salicylic acid was ineffective to produce priming, but this effect was mimicked when the cells were incubated with the combination of H2O2+ ASA. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of acetyl salicylic acid to rats alters HSP-72 expression mechanism in a way that it becomes more efficient in response to in vitro heat shock. The fact that in vitro acetyl salicylic acid alone did not induce this priming effect implies that in vivo other signals are required. Priming could be reproduces in vitro with the combination of acetyl salicylic acid+H2O2.

  5. Moniliophthora perniciosa produces hormones and alters endogenous auxin and salicylic acid in infected cocoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilaru, Aruna; Bailey, Bryan A; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2007-09-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causative agent of witches' broom disease in Theobroma cacao. Exogenously provided abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) promoted mycelial growth, suggesting the ability of the pathogen to metabolize plant hormones. ABA, IAA, JA, and SA were found endogenously in the mycelium and in the fruiting body of the pathogen. The pathogen contained high amounts of SA in the mycelium (0.5+/-0.04 microg g(-1) DW) and IAA (2+/-0.6 microg g(-1) DW) in the basidiocarps. Growth of the mycelium in the presence of host leaves for 10 days did not affect ABA or JA content of the leaves but IAA and SA increased 2.5- and 11-fold, respectively. The amounts of IAA and SA in infected leaves increased beyond the levels of the uninfected leaves and suggest a synergistic response to host-pathogen interaction. The ability of M. perniciosa to produce and sustain growth in the presence of elevated endogenous IAA and SA levels during colonization indicates that these phytohormones contribute to its pathogenicity.

  6. Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils--comparison of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana

    2006-07-28

    Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic acid and ammonium salicylate agents with different concentrations by a single extraction protocol were applied in this paper. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used for aluminium quantification. The comparison of results from both methods show the possibility to supersede the first laborious method for the second simpler one in Al environmental risk assessment. The use of 1% 8-hydroxyquinoline in 2% acetic acid and 0.2% salicylic acid by a single extraction protocol without a need of sample filtration can supersede the SPE procedure in the Al pollution soil monitoring. Finally, the new scheme usable in a laboratory and moreover, directly in a field was proposed for Al fractionation in solid and liquid environmental samples. The labile Al species in soils and sediments are separated after their single leaching by 8-hydroxyquinoline or salicylic acid without a need of sample filtration. The labile Al species in soil solutions and natural waters are separated after their ultrafiltration followed by the SPE procedure with Iontosorb Oxin or Iontosorb Salicyl.

  7. Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils-comparison of two methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matus, Peter [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mlynska dolina, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)]. E-mail: matus@fns.uniba.sk; Kubova, Jana [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mlynska dolina, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-07-28

    Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic acid and ammonium salicylate agents with different concentrations by a single extraction protocol were applied in this paper. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used for aluminium quantification. The comparison of results from both methods show the possibility to supersede the first laborious method for the second simpler one in Al environmental risk assessment. The use of 1% 8-hydroxyquinoline in 2% acetic acid and 0.2% salicylic acid by a single extraction protocol without a need of sample filtration can supersede the SPE procedure in the Al pollution soil monitoring. Finally, the new scheme usable in a laboratory and moreover, directly in a field was proposed for Al fractionation in solid and liquid environmental samples. The labile Al species in soils and sediments are separated after their single leaching by 8-hydroxyquinoline or salicylic acid without a need of sample filtration. The labile Al species in soil solutions and natural waters are separated after their ultrafiltration followed by the SPE procedure with Iontosorb Oxin or Iontosorb Salicyl.

  8. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

  9. Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained.

  10. Salicylic acid, a plant defense hormone, is specifically secreted by a molluscan herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kästner

    Full Text Available Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA. We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1 was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding.

  11. Salicylic acid, a plant defense hormone, is specifically secreted by a molluscan herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding.

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.5 acyl acid amido synthetase mediates metabolic crosstalk in auxin and salicylic acid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Corey S; Sherp, Ashley M; Zubieta, Chloe; Alvarez, Sophie; Schraft, Evelyn; Marcellin, Romain; Ramirez, Loren; Jez, Joseph M

    2016-11-29

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the acyl acid amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3.5 (AtGH3.5) conjugates both indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA) to modulate auxin and pathogen response pathways. To understand the molecular basis for the activity of AtGH3.5, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with IAA and AMP. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that the substrate preference of AtGH3.5 is wider than originally described and includes the natural auxin phenylacetic acid (PAA) and the potential SA precursor benzoic acid (BA). Residues that determine IAA versus BA substrate preference were identified. The dual functionality of AtGH3.5 is unique to this enzyme although multiple IAA-conjugating GH3 proteins share nearly identical acyl acid binding sites. In planta analysis of IAA, PAA, SA, and BA and their respective aspartyl conjugates were determined in wild-type and overexpressing lines of A thaliana This study suggests that AtGH3.5 conjugates auxins (i.e., IAA and PAA) and benzoates (i.e., SA and BA) to mediate crosstalk between different metabolic pathways, broadening the potential roles for GH3 acyl acid amido synthetases in plants.

  13. Inhibition of the gravitropic bending response of flowering shoots by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Haya; Meir, Shimon; Halevy, Abraham H; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia

    2003-10-01

    The upward gravitropic bending of cut snapdragon, lupinus and anemone flowering shoots was inhibited by salicylic acid (SA) applied at 0.5 mM and above. This effect was probably not due to acidification of the cytoplasm, since other weak acids did not inhibit bending of snapdragon shoots. In order to study its mode of inhibitory action, we have examined in cut snapdragon shoots the effect of SA on three processes of the gravity-signaling pathway, including: amyloplast sedimentation, formation of ethylene gradient across the stem, and differential growth response. The results show that 1 mM SA inhibited differential ethylene production rates across the horizontal stem and the gravity-induced growth, without significantly inhibiting vertical growth or amyloplast sedimentation following horizontal placement. However, 5 mM SA inhibited all three gravity-induced processes, as well as the growth of vertical shoots, while increasing flower wilting. It may, therefore, be concluded that SA inhibits bending of various cut flowering shoots in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, at a low concentration SA exerts its effect in snapdragon shoots by inhibiting processes operating downstream to stimulus sensing exerted by amyloplast sedimentation. At a higher concentration SA inhibits bending probably by exerting general negative effects on various cellular processes. c2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of betamethasone dipropionate and salicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedor-Hackmann, E R; Gianotto, E A; Santoro, M I

    1998-06-01

    The simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate (BD) and salicylic acid (SA) in both ointment and topical solution was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method was standardized using a LiChrospher 100 RP-18 (125 x 4 mm, 5 microns) column, acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-acetic acid 1% (25:20:55 v/v), apparent pH 3.3, as mobile phase, and UV detection at 254 nm. The peak area response versus concentration was linear in a concentration range from 5.0 to 50.0 micrograms/ml of BD and from 20.0 to 200.0 micrograms/ml of SA. The correlation coefficients were 0.9997 for BD and 0.9987 for SA, and the relative standard errors of estimates were 1.38% for BD and 3.27% for SA. The coefficient of variation and the recovery average were, respectively, 0.41-1.15% and 100.09% for BD, and 0.57-0.95% and 99.79% for SA.

  15. Salicylic acid alters antioxidant and phenolics metabolism in Catharanthus roseus grown under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Neelam; Misra, Rahul; Mariam, Ajiboye; Yusuf, Kafayat; Yusuf, Lateefat

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a potential non-enzymatic antioxidant and a plant growth regulator, which plays a major role in regulating various plant physiological mechanisms. The effects of salicylic acid (SA; 0.05 mM) on physiological parameters, antioxidative capacity and phenolic metabolism, lignin, alkaloid accumulation in salt stressed Catharanthus roseus were investigated. Catharanthus roseus seeds were grown for two months in a glass house at 27-30°C in sunlight, and then divided into four different groups and transplanted with each group with the following solutions for one month: group I (non-saline control), group II, 100 mM NaCl, group III, 0.05 mM SA, group IV, 100 mM NaCl+0.05 mM SA and to determine the physiological parameters (DW, FW, WC), chlorophyll contents, carotenoid contents, lipid peroxidation, phenolics, lignin, alkaloid and enzymatic assays in each leaf pairs and roots. SA exhibited growth-promoting property, which correlated with the increase of dry weight, water content, photosynthetic pigments and soluble proteins. SA has additive effect on the significant increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics and lignin contents in all leaf pairs and root of C. roseus. SA enhances malondialdehyde content in all leaf pairs and root. The antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-tranferase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase) as well as alkaloid accumulation increased in all treatments over that of non-saline control but the magnitude of increase was found more in root. Further, the magnitude of increase of alkaloid accumulation was significantly higher in 100 mM NaCl, but highly significant was found in presence of 0.05 mM SA and intermediate in presence of both 0.05 mM SA+100 mM NaCl. We concluded that applied SA to salt stress, antioxidant and phenolic metabolism, and alkaloid accumulation were significantly altered and the extent of alteration varied

  16. Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhi Dihazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa. Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants.

  17. The salicylic acid effect on the Salvia officianlis L. sugar, protein and proline contents under salinity (NaCl stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi Sahar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth is impressed by biotic and abiotic stress inversely. There are many reports about proteins change level in salinity stress. Leaves fill up more soluble sugar of glucose, fructose and proline with treatment of salicylic acid. In this research, Salivia officialis seeds planted in pots containing perlite were put in a growth chamber under controlled conditions of 27 ±2 0C and 23 ±2 0C temperature, 14h lightness and 10h darkness; NaCl concentration of 0,4,8,12 ds/m and salicylic acid concentration of 0,1,2,4 mM were used in the form of factorial experiment in a complete randomized design (CRD. The results demonstrated that increasing of proline and sugars due to osmotic slope in plants lead to increasing of tolerance against dehydrations of leave content and acceleration of plant developments in stress conditions.

  18. A study of the effect of salicylic acetic acid on a lymphocyte cell model of cellular activation and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Enrique Aranda; de la Haba-Rodríguez, Juan; Macho, Antonio; Lucena, Concha; Gómez, Auxiliadora; Calzado, Marco; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2006-01-18

    Salicylic acetic acid (SAA) is a drug that has formed part of the treatment of many diseases for many years. Its anti-inflammatory activity is well known, but recently its possible role in the interference in the oncogenesis mechanisms has become apparent. With the aim of supporting these yet preliminary observations, we studied the effect of salicylic acetic acid on a cellular activation and proliferation model. We used lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, which were later exposed to cellular activation and proliferation stimulus by the SEB antigen. Lymphocyte activation was determined by direct immunoflourescence through expression of the receptor IL-2 (CD25) alpha chain and proliferation through the incorporation of tritiated thymidine to the DNA in synthesis together with the determination of the cellular cycle by flow cytometry. We found that both processes, activation and proliferation, are inhibited by increasing doses of SAA.

  19. The Endophytic Bacteria, Salicylic Acid, and Their Combination as Inducers of Rice Resistance Against Xanthomonas Oryzae Pv. Oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Leiwakabessy, Christoffol; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Mutaqien, Kikin H; Trikoesoemaningtyas, Trikoesoemaningtyas; Giyanto, Giyanto

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial leaf damage or blight brought by bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (X. oryzae pv. oryzae) is considered as an extremely serious disease of rice worldwide, including Indonesia. Induced resistance using chemical and biological agents was considered as a method to control the disease. The objectives of this research were to analyze of endophytic bacteria (Lysinibacillus sphaericus/L.sphaericus) and salicylic acid as the inducers of rice resistance against X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Thi...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae) are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA) 95% CI: 85.09-117.26) more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [controlled-trials.com] and National Research Register N0484189151. PMID:22369511

  1. Nanogram amounts of salicylic acid produced by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 activate the systemic acquired resistance pathway in bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, G; Capieau, K; Audenaert, K; Buchala, A; Métraux, J P; Höfte, M

    1999-05-01

    Root colonization by specific nonpathogenic bacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants to pathogen infections. In bean, this kind of systemic resistance can be induced by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 and depends on the production of salicylic acid by this strain. In a model with plants grown in perlite we demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2-induced resistance is equivalent to the inclusion of 1 nM salicylic acid in the nutrient solution and used the latter treatment to analyze the molecular basis of this phenomenon. Hydroponic feeding of 1 nM salicylic acid solutions induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in roots and increased free salicylic acid levels in leaves. Because pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance involves similar changes it was concluded that 7NSK2-induced resistance is mediated by the systemic acquired resistance pathway. This conclusion was validated by analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in roots and of salicylic acid levels in leaves of soil-grown plants treated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The induction of systemic acquired resistance by nanogram amounts of salicylic acid is discussed with respect to long-distance signaling in systemic acquired resistance.

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant uncouples the constitutive activation of salicylic acid signalling from growth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swain, S.; Roy, S.; Shah, J.; Wees, S.C.M. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Nandi, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis genotypes with a hyperactive salicylic acidmediated signalling pathway exhibit enhanced disease resistance, which is often coupled with growth and developmental defects, such as dwarfing and spontaneous necrotic lesions on the leaves, resulting in reduced biomass yield. In this article,

  3. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Cullin-RING Ubiquitin Ligases in Salicylic Acid-Mediated Plant Immune Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Furniss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant immune responses against biotrophic pathogens are regulated by the signaling hormone salicylic acid (SA. SA establishes immunity by regulating a variety of cellular processes, including programmed cell death (PCD to isolate and kill invading pathogens, and development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR which provides long-lasting, broad-spectrum resistance throughout the plant. Central to these processes is post-translational modification of SA-regulated signaling proteins by ubiquitination, i.e. the covalent addition of small ubiquitin proteins. Emerging evidence indicates SA-induced protein ubiquitination is largely orchestrated by Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs, which recruit specific substrates for ubiquitination using interchangeable adaptors. Ligation of ubiquitin chains interlinked at lysine 48 leads to substrate degradation by the 26S proteasome. Here we discuss how CRL-mediated degradation of both nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat domain containing (NLR immune receptors and SA-induced transcription regulators are critical for functional PCD and SAR responses, respectively. By placing these recent findings in context of knowledge gained in other eukaryotic model species, we highlight potential alternative roles for processive ubiquitination in regulating the activity of SA-mediated immune responses.

  5. β-carbonic anhydrases play a role in salicylic acid perception in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Castelló, María José; Canet, Juan Vicente; Lamilla, Julián; Colombo, María Laura; Tornero, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is required for defense responses. NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1) and NON RECOGNITION OF BTH-4 (NRB4) are required for the response to SA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we isolated several interactors of NRB4 using yeast two-hybrid assays. Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not show any obvious phenotype, we investigated other βCAs and found that NRB4 also interacts with βCA3 and βCA4. Moreover, several βCAs interacted with NPR1 in yeast, including one that interacted in a SA-dependent manner. This interaction was abolished in loss-of-function alleles of NPR1. Interactions between βCAs and both NRB4 and NPR1 were also detected in planta, with evidence for a triple interaction, NRB4-βCA1-NPR1. The quintuple mutant βca1 βca2 βca3 βca4 βca6 showed partial insensitivity to SA. These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic anhydrases is to modulate the perception of SA in plants.

  6. Multiple targets of salicylic acid and its derivatives in plants and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Klessig

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs, as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, High Mobility Group Box protein (HMGB and Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions, but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms.

  7. Potential role of salicylic acid in modulating diacylglycerol homeostasis in response to freezing temperatures in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei-Juan; Xiao, Shi; Chen, Qin-Fang

    2015-01-01

    In our recent article in Molecular Plant, we reported that 3 lipase-like defense regulators SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 (SAG101), ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. The transcripts of SAG101, EDS1 and PAD4 were inducible by cold stress and their knockout or knockdown mutants exhibited enhanced chilling and freezing tolerance in comparison to the wild type. The freezing tolerance phenotype showed in the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants was correlated with the transcriptional upregulation of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs (CBFs) and their regulons as well as increased levels of proline. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants showed ameliorated cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, which were highly induced by freezing stress in the wild-type leaves. Moreover, the contents of salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) were significantly decreased in the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants compared to the wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that the SAG101, EDS1 and PAD4 are negative regulators in the freezing response and function, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG in Arabidopsis.

  8. Foliar Application of Benzothiadiazole and Salicylic Acid to Combat Sheath Blight Disease of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja SOOD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A field study was undertaken to ascertain the effects of elicitors viz. benzothiadiazole (BTH and salicylic acid (SA on defense related enzymes viz. peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, superoxide dismutase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, and phenols in rice (Pusa Basmati I plants. First foliar spray of BTH (50 mg/kg and SA (50 mg/kg was done at the maximum tillering stage and inoculation with Rhizoctonia solani was carried 24 h after elicitor treatment. Elicitors were further sprayed at every growth stage. Time course analysis showed peak accumulation of defense related enzymes and phenols in the rice leaves treated with BTH and SA, and accumulation was the highest at the flowering stage. Higher enzymatic activity was observed in elicitor treated plants inoculated with R. solani. Compared to the untreated control plants, application of elicitors before R. solani inoculation significantly elicited the defense related enzymes and phenols. Moreover, application of elicitors had a positive effect on yield and disease reduction. It is suggested that pretreatment of rice leaves with BTH and SA could be used to enhance the level of protection against sheath blight and to improve rice yield in the fields.

  9. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates the toxicity of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Zhang, Qingming

    2017-03-01

    The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in protecting wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) from contamination by the insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in this study. The wheat plants were grown in soils with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40mgkg-1) of chlorpyrifos. When the third leaf emerged, the wheat leaves were sprayed with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16mgL-1 of SA once a day for 6 days. The results showed that wheat exposed to higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos (≥20mgkg-1) caused declines in growth and chlorophyll content and altered the activities of a series of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Interestingly, treatments with different concentrations of SA mitigated the stress generated by chlorpyrifos and improved the measured parameters to varying degrees. Furthermore, a reverse transcription and quantitative PCR experiment revealed that the activities of SOD and CAT can be regulated by their target gene in wheat when treated with SA. We also found that SA is able to block the accumulation of chlorpyrifos in wheat. However, the effect of SA was related to its concentration. In this study, the application of 2mgL-1 of SA had the greatest ameliorating effect on chlorpyrifos toxicity in wheat plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on Meloidogyne javanica reproduction in tomato plants

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    Seddigheh Fatemy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., play a major role in loss of agricultural production. Natural substances, such as salicylic acid (SA could possibly be involved in inducing host plant resistance against nematodes. The present study is concerned with exploring the effects of varying concentrations of SA as seed priming and soil drench on tomato growth parameters and the reproduction of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. SA at 50 μM concentration caused only 2% of juvenile mortality under in vitro conditions. SA applied as 50 μM seed treatment caused 95% and, as a soil drench, 78% reduction in the number of egg masses that formed on tomato plants. The numbers of galls were reduced to a lesser extent. Final nematode density per gram of soil was reduced to less than 1 by the 50 μM SA seed treatment, and in other treatments decreased by between 70 and 88% compared with control plants. Our results indicate SA has potential to lower root knot nematode reproduction in tomato, and seed priming is a fairly easy method to work with.

  11. Inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on Meloidogyne javanica reproduction in tomato plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moslemi, F.; Fatemy, S.; Bernard, F.

    2016-11-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), play a major role in loss of agricultural production. Natural substances, such as salicylic acid (SA) could possibly be involved in inducing host plant resistance against nematodes. The present study is concerned with exploring the effects of varying concentrations of SA as seed priming and soil drench on tomato growth parameters and the reproduction of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. SA at 50 μM concentration caused only 2% of juvenile mortality under in vitro conditions. SA applied as 50 μM seed treatment caused 95% and, as a soil drench, 78% reduction in the number of egg masses that formed on tomato plants. The numbers of galls were reduced to a lesser extent. Final nematode density per gram of soil was reduced to less than 1 by the 50 μM SA seed treatment, and in other treatments decreased by between 70 and 88% compared with control plants. Our results indicate SA has potential to lower root knot nematode reproduction in tomato, and seed priming is a fairly easy method to work with. (Author)

  12. β-carbonic anhydrases play a role in salicylic acid perception in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Medina-Puche

    Full Text Available The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA is required for defense responses. NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1 and NON RECOGNITION OF BTH-4 (NRB4 are required for the response to SA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we isolated several interactors of NRB4 using yeast two-hybrid assays. Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not show any obvious phenotype, we investigated other βCAs and found that NRB4 also interacts with βCA3 and βCA4. Moreover, several βCAs interacted with NPR1 in yeast, including one that interacted in a SA-dependent manner. This interaction was abolished in loss-of-function alleles of NPR1. Interactions between βCAs and both NRB4 and NPR1 were also detected in planta, with evidence for a triple interaction, NRB4-βCA1-NPR1. The quintuple mutant βca1 βca2 βca3 βca4 βca6 showed partial insensitivity to SA. These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic anhydrases is to modulate the perception of SA in plants.

  13. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Fatma, Mehar; Per, Tasir S.; Anjum, Naser A.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses (such as metals/metalloids, salinity, ozone, UV-B radiation, extreme temperatures, and drought) are among the most challenging threats to agricultural system and economic yield of crop plants. These stresses (in isolation and/or combination) induce numerous adverse effects in plants, impair biochemical/physiological and molecular processes, and eventually cause severe reductions in plant growth, development and overall productivity. Phytohormones have been recognized as a strong tool for sustainably alleviating adverse effects of abiotic stresses in crop plants. In particular, the significance of salicylic acid (SA) has been increasingly recognized in improved plant abiotic stress-tolerance via SA-mediated control of major plant-metabolic processes. However, the basic biochemical/physiological and molecular mechanisms that potentially underpin SA-induced plant-tolerance to major abiotic stresses remain least discussed. Based on recent reports, this paper: (a) overviews historical background and biosynthesis of SA under both optimal and stressful environments in plants; (b) critically appraises the role of SA in plants exposed to major abiotic stresses; (c) cross-talks potential mechanisms potentially governing SA-induced plant abiotic stress-tolerance; and finally (d) briefly highlights major aspects so far unexplored in the current context. PMID:26175738

  14. Physiological and biochemical responses of Hibiscus sabdariffa to drought stress in the presence of salicylic acid

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    Marzieh Mirshekari

    2017-08-01

    Salicylic acid (SA is one of the important signal molecules, which modulates plant responses to environmental stress. In the present work, impact of exogenous SA on some physiological and biochemical traits of Hibiscus sabdariffa in response to drought stress was studied. Hibiscus sabdariffa seedlings were exposed to six drought levels (0, -0.05, -0.1, -0.5, -0.75, and 1 MPa with two SA concentrations (0 and 500 µM in 5 days intervals up to 20 days in a factorial design. During drought stress period, the root and shoot growth, relative water content, pigments content, non-reducing sugar and starch content was significantly decreased. SA treatment cause prevention of the growth reduction and improvement of relative water content. Protein concentration was roughly unchanged during drought stress with SA, while, reducing sugars accumulates and non-reducing sugars and starch significantly decreases. The results show that exogenous SA application on leaves during drought stress can ameliorate detrimental effects of stress through reducing water loss and accumulating reducing sugars, which cause preserving turgor pressure of the cells.

  15. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SAYYARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the seedlings were subjected to chilling 5 h/day at 4°C for 5 days. Statistical analysis showed significant effects of the application methods and SA concentrations on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, proline and chilling injury index. SA application improved growth parameters and increased chlorophyll content of watermelon seedling subjected to chilling stress and provided significant protection against chilling stress compared to non-SA-treated seedlings. Although two SA application methods improved chilling stress tolerance, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method. SA ameliorated the injury caused by chilling stress via inhibiting proline accumulation and leaf electrolyte leakage. The highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.5 mM SA application. Results indicate that SA could be used effectively to protect watermelon seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  16. Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argueso, Cristiana T.; Ferreira, Fernando J.; Epple, Petra; To, Jennifer P. C.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Schaller, G. Eric; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Kieber, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an important role for hormones in plant immunity. We are now beginning to understand the contribution of crosstalk among different hormone signaling networks to the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate development and responses to the environment. Cytokinin signaling involves a phosphorelay circuitry similar to two-component systems used by bacteria and fungi to perceive and react to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we asked whether cytokinin and components of cytokinin signaling contribute to plant immunity. We demonstrate that cytokinin levels in Arabidopsis are important in determining the amplitude of immune responses, ultimately influencing the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. We show that high concentrations of cytokinin lead to increased defense responses to a virulent oomycete pathogen, through a process that is dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and activation of defense gene expression. Surprisingly, treatment with lower concentrations of cytokinin results in increased susceptibility. These functions for cytokinin in plant immunity require a host phosphorelay system and are mediated in part by type-A response regulators, which act as negative regulators of basal and pathogen-induced SA–dependent gene expression. Our results support a model in which cytokinin up-regulates plant immunity via an elevation of SA–dependent defense responses and in which SA in turn feedback-inhibits cytokinin signaling. The crosstalk between cytokinin and SA signaling networks may help plants fine-tune defense responses against pathogens. PMID:22291601

  17. Ectopic expression of JcWRKY transcription factor confers salinity tolerance via salicylic acid signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinita Agarwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants, being sessile, have developed intricate signalling network to specifically respond to the diverse environmental stress. The crop performance and yield is limited due to exposure of multiple stresses simultaneously. The coordinated crosstalk between different signalling components, including phytohormones and transcription factor(s play a crucial role towards increased stress resistance in crops. Transcription factors play an important role in regulating the downstream processes during stress. The plant-specific WRKY TFs form one of the largest TF family and are involved in diverse plant processes, involving growth, development and stress signalling through auto and cross regulation with different genes and TFs. The salicylic acid -inducible JcWRKY TF confers salinity tolerance in transgenic tobacco, as was evident by increased chlorophyll content and seed germination potential. The transgenic plants showed increased soluble sugar, membrane stability, reduced electrolyte leakage and generation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2•− as compared to the wild type (WT. Furthermore, the low SA treatment along with salinity improved the tolerance potential of the transgenics by maintaining ROS homeostasis and high K+/Na+ ratio. The transcript expression of SA biosynthetic gene ICS1 and antioxidative enzymes (CAT and SOD showed upregulation during stress. Thus, the present study reflects that JcWRKY might be working in co-ordination with SA and salt stress signalling to orchestrate the different biochemical and molecular pathways to manoeuvre stress tolerance of the transgenic plants.

  18. DL-beta-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance of potato against Phytophthora infestans requires salicylic acid but not oxylipins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Altmann, Simone; Rosahl, Sabine

    2010-05-01

    Inducing systemic resistance responses in crop plants is a promising alternative way of disease management. To understand the underlying signaling events leading to induced resistance, functional analyses of plants defective in defined signaling pathway steps are required. We used potato, one of the economically most-important crop plants worldwide, to examine systemic resistance against the devastating late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans, induced by treatment with dl-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA). Transgenic plants impaired in either the 9-lipoxygenase pathway, which produces defense-related compounds, or the 13-lipoxygenase pathway, which generates jasmonic acid-derived signals, expressed wild-type levels of BABA-induced resistance. Plants incapable of accumulating salicylic acid (SA), on the other hand, failed to mount this type of induced resistance. Consistently, treatment of these plants with the SA analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid restored BABA-induced resistance. Together, these results demonstrate the indispensability of a functional SA pathway for systemic resistance in potato induced by BABA.

  19. A clinical and histopathological comparison of the effectiveness of salicylic acid to a compound of inorganic acids for the treatment of digital dermatitis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capion, N.; Larsson, E. K.; Nielsen, O. L.

    2018-01-01

    ; however, the demand for effective nonantibiotic alternatives is increasing. The objective was to evaluate the performance of 3 nonantibiotic topical treatments (salicylic acid and a compound of inorganic acids in a 20% solution and in a dry form) on DD in a commercial dairy herd. Within the 30-d test...... of spirochetes present in the epidermis), 2 (moderate number of spirochetes present and reaching an intermediary level in the epidermis), and 3 (large number of spirochetes present and reaching the deepest part of the epidermis or the superficial dermis). The improvement rate was 10/14 (71%) for salicylic acid......, 11/15 (73%) for the inorganic acid solution, and 8/13 (62%) for the inorganic acid powder. The analysis showed no difference among treatments. The association between clinical score and histopathological score was determined by an odds ratio. The odds ratio of a healed lesion having spirochetes...

  20. The Effects of Topically Applied Glycolic Acid and Salicylic Acid on Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Erythema, DNA Damage and Sunburn Cell Formation in Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Wei, Rong-Rong; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Coelho, Sergio G.; Kaidbey, Kays; Barton, Curtis; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Beer, Janusz Z.; Miller, Sharon A.; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Background α-Hydroxy acids (αHA) are reported to reduce signs of aging in the skin and are widely used cosmetic ingredients. Several studies suggest that αHA can increase the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet radiation. More recently, β-hydroxy acids (βHA), or combinations of αHA and βHA have also been incorporated into antiaging skin care products. Concerns have also arisen about increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation following use of skin care products containing β-HA. Objective To determine whether topical treatment with glycolic acid, a representative αHA, or with salicylic acid, a βHA, modifies the short-term effects of solar simulated radiation (SSR) in human skin. Methods Fourteen subjects participated in this study. Three of the four test sites on the mid-back of each subject were treated daily Monday - Friday, for a total of 3.5 weeks, with glycolic acid (10%), salicylic acid (2%), or vehicle (control). The fourth site received no treatment. After the last treatment, each site was exposed to SSR, and shave biopsies from all 4 sites were obtained. The endpoints evaluated in this study were erythema (assessed visually and instrumentally), DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Results Treatment with glycolic acid resulted in increased sensitivity of human skin to SSR, measured as an increase in erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Salicylic acid did not produce significant changes in any of these biomarkers. Conclusions Short-term topical application of glycolic acid in a cosmetic formulation increased the sensitivity of human skin to SSR, while a comparable treatment with salicylic acid did not. PMID:19411163

  1. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboza, Xolani Irvin; Bertling, Isa; Odindo, Alfred Oduor

    2014-11-15

    Chilling injury (CI) is associated with the degradation of membrane integrity which can be aligned to phenolic oxidation activated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), enzymes responsible for tissue browning. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a further enzyme prominent in the phenolic metabolism that is involved in acclimation against chilling stress. It was hypothesized that treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) may enhance chilling tolerance in lemon fruit by increasing the synthesis of total phenolics and PAL by activating the key enzyme regulating the shikimic acid pathway whilst inhibiting the activity of POD and PPO. Lemon fruit were treated with 10μM MJ, 2mM SA or 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA, waxed, stored at -0.5, 2 or 4.5°C for up to 28 days plus 7 days at 23°C. Membrane integrity was studied by investigating membrane permeability and the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in lemon flavedo following cold storage. The 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA treatment was most effective in enhancing chilling tolerance of lemon fruit, significantly reducing chilling-induced membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation of lemon flavedo tissue. This treatment also increased total phenolics and PAL activity in such tissue while inhibiting POD activity, the latter possibly contributing to the delay of CI manifestation. PPO activity was found to be a poor biochemical marker of CI. Treatment with 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA resulted in an alteration of the phenolic metabolism, enhancing chilling tolerance, possibly through increased production of total phenolics and the activation of PAL and inhibition of POD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of sodium salicylate on rosmarinic acid, carnosol and carnosic acid accumulation by Salvia officinalis L. shoots grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Dmitrović, Slavica; Filipović, Biljana; Perić, Marija; Mišić, Danijela; Simonović, Ana; Todorović, Slađana

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate sodium salicylate (NaSA) as an elicitor of rosmarinic acid (RA) and phenolic diterpenes, carnosol (C) and carnosic acid (CA) production, in a culture of Salvia officinalis shoots. In sage shoots grown in vitro, 28 polyphenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, and phenolic diterpenes) were identified. In shoots treated for 1 week with increasing NaSA concentrations, the content of C increased from 2.3 in control to 5.7 mg g(-1) DW in shoots treated with 500 µM NaSA. In shoots that were recovered on basal medium for 3 weeks, the maximal amount of C (14 mg/g(-1) DW) was with 150 µM NaSA treatment. In treated and recovered shoots, the increase in C was accompanied with a decrease in CA, resulting in 1.9-fold increase in the C/CA ratio. Accumulation of RA was not affected by the NaSA treatment. However, elicitation by NaSA was accompanied with growth retardation. NaSA can improve C production in sage shoot culture, probably by stimulating the conversion of CA to C.

  3. Purification and properties of lipoxygenase from wheat seedlings infected by Fusarium graminearum and treated by salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Моlodchenkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase from wheat seedlings in normal conditions, infected by Fusarium graminearum and treated by salicylic acid was isolated. The isolated enzyme was purified by the methods of salting-out (60% ammonium sulphate, dialysis, gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. Specific activity of the purified enzyme was 8.0-12.5 ΔЕ234/mg of protein, degree of purification – 11.6-15.3 times. The enzyme yield was 18.3-27.9%. Molecular mass of lipoxygenase is 90 kDa, amino acid composition is distinguished by a high content of glutamic acid, proline, valine, isoleucine, leucine and low level of histidine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, cystein. Research of lipoxygenase substrate dependence indicated that the enzyme catalysed with the maximum velocity of the reaction of arachidonic acid oxidation at a substrate concentration of 4.5 mM at pH 7.2, the reaction of linoleic acid oxidation at a substrate concentration of 4.5 mM at pH 7.2 and the reaction of linolenic acid oxidation at a substrate concentration of 9.0 mM at pH 8.0. The change of wheat lipoxygenase activity depending on genotype resistance to Fusarium graminearum and millieu of germination was shown. One of the manifestations of the protective effect of salicylic acid is its ability to induce changes of lipoxygenase activity.

  4. Determination of gadolinium and yttrium using ionic associates with 3,5-diiodo-salicylic acid and rhodamine C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tselik, E.I.; Poluehktov, N.S.; Mishchenko, V.T. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Odessa. Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst.)

    1982-03-01

    Influence of non-colored complexing substances on extraction of Gd and Y ionic associates with 3.5-diodo-salicylic acid and rhodamine B is investigated. The technique of analysis of the Gd and Y oxide mixture is developed with the use of 1.10-phenanthroline and mandelic acid as masking reagents, first of which in the most part masks the Gd reaction, the second reagent masks the Y one. The low boundary of the determined contents constitutes 1-2%. The equilibrium constants of the substitution reaction of the rhodamine B in the 1.10-phenanthroline compounds are determined.

  5. Treatment of Acne Vulgaris With Salicylic Acid Chemical Peel and Pulsed Dye Laser: A Split Face, Rater-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakh, Olga; Mahoney, Anne Marie; Novice, Karlee; Kamalpour, Julia; Sadeghian, Azeen; Mondo, Dana; Kalnicky, Cathy; Guo, Rong; Peterson, Anthony; Tung, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed dye laser (PDL) has been used to treat acne lesions and scar erythema by interrupting superficial vasculature. Salicylic acid chemical peels are employed chiefly due to their lipophilic, comedolytic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although studies have looked at peels and laser therapy independently in acne management, we examined these treatments in combination. Our primary objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of concurrent use of salicylic acid peels with PDL versus salicylic acid peels alone in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Adult patients with moderate to severe acne were included. Subjects received a total of 3 treatments at 3-week intervals. Per randomized split-face treatment, at week 0, one half of the subject's face was treated with PDL (595 nm) followed by whole face application of a 30% salicylic acid peel. At weeks 3 and 6, the treatments were repeated. At 0 and 9 weeks, patients were assessed with the Global Evaluation Acne (GEA) scale and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. Nineteen subjects were enrolled, and 18 completed the study. Significant improvement in acne was seen in both the combined (laser and peel) and chemical peel alone treatment arms (P peel only group. Based on the GEA scale scoring, a statistically significant greater difference in acne improvement was seen, from week 0 to week 9, in the combination treatment group compared with the peel only group (P = .003). While acne subjects had significant benefit from the salicylic acid peel alone, they experienced greater significant benefit from PDL treatment used in conjunction with salicylic acid peels. The adjunctive utilization of PDL to salicylic acid peel therapy can lead to better outcomes in acne management.

  6. Parthenolide accumulation and expression of genes related to parthenolide biosynthesis affected by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in Tanacetum parthenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdi, Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad Reza; Maroufi, Asad

    2015-11-01

    Up-regulation of germacrene A synthase and down-regulation of parthenolide hydroxylase genes play key role in parthenolide accumulation of feverfew plants treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid. Parthenolide is an important sesquiterpene lactone due to its anti-migraine and anti-cancer properties. Parthenolide amount was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography after foliar application of methyl jasmonate (100 µM) or salicylic acid (1.0 mM) on feverfew leaves in time course experiment (3-96 h). Results indicate that exogenous application of methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid activated parthenolide biosynthesis. Parthenolide content reached its highest amount at 24 h after methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid treatments, which were 3.1- and 1.96-fold higher than control plants, respectively. Parthenolide transiently increased due to methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid treatments until 24 h, but did not show significant difference compared with control plants at 48 and 96 h time points in both treatments. Also, the transcript levels of early pathway (upstream) genes of terpene biosynthesis including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and the biosynthetic genes of parthenolide including germacrene A synthase, germacrene A oxidase, costunolide synthase and parthenolide synthase were increased by methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid treatments, but with different intensity. The transcriptional levels of these genes were higher in methyl jasmonate-treated plants than salicylic acid-treated plants. Parthenolide content measurements along with expression pattern analysis of the aforementioned genes and parthenolide hydroxylase as side branch gene of parthenolide suggest that the expression patterns of early pathway genes were not directly consistent with parthenolide accumulation pattern; hence, parthenolide accumulation is

  7. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomila L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011–2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L−1), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(−)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(−)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  8. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-08-27

    The chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L(-1)), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(-)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(-)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  9. Effect of Mycorrhizal Inoculation and Pre-treatment with Salicylic Acid at Different Levels of Drought on Morphological Traits and Yield of Flax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ansari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth hormones and beneficial microorganisms, could reduce the drought damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatment with salicylic acid and inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi at different levels of irrigation on flax growth. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with 3 replications was performed in growth chamber of college of agriculture, Isfahan university of technology and in the years 2010-2011. Treatments were irrigation regimes at 3 levels (100%, 70% and 40% field capacity, mycorrhizae at 3 levels (non-inoculated and inoculated with two species Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices and salicylic acid in 2 levels (seeds treated with 250 μM concentration of salicylic acid for 8 hours and non-treated seeds. The level of 40% field capacity irrigation reduced the leaf number, root length, root dry weight, height, stem and leaf and total plant dry weight, number and weight of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule and seed yield and increased vesicle diameter and percent colonization. Both mycorrhizal species in the three levels of irrigation increased the drought tolerance of the flax but in G. mosseae was more effective. Salicylic acid decreased some of the investigated traits. Inoculation with mycorrhiza and treatment with salicylic acid reduced the investigated characteristics than the inoculation with mycorrhiza and non-application of salicylic acid. 100% field capacity and G. mosseae species were the best irrigation level and mycorrhizal fungi respectively. Therefore it is suggest that application of mycorrhizal fungi especially G. mosseae species increase in the cultivation of flax plants without treatment with salicylic acid, especially in drought conditions because in addition to increased yield, water consumption is also lower and it makes the plant more tolerant to stress conditions such as drought.

  10. Hydrogen Peroxide Is Involved in Salicylic Acid-Elicited Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA is an elicitor to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in plant cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 plays an important role as a key signaling molecule in response to various stimuli and is involved in the accumulation of secondary metabolites. However, the relationship between them is unclear and their synergetic functions on accumulation of secondary metabolites are unknown. In this paper, the roles of SA and H2O2 in rosmarinic acid (RA production in Salvia miltiorrhiza cell cultures were investigated. The results showed that SA significantly enhanced H2O2 production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activity, and RA accumulation. Exogenous H2O2 could also promote PAL activity and enhance RA production. If H2O2 production was inhibited by NADPH oxidase inhibitor (IMD or scavenged by quencher (DMTU, RA accumulation would be blocked. These results indicated that H2O2 is secondary messenger for signal transduction, which can be induced by SA, significantly and promotes RA accumulation.

  11. Acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid decrease tumor cell viability and glucose metabolism modulating 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Guilherme A; Furtado, Cristiane M; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Zancan, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The common observation that cancer cells present higher glycolytic rates when compared to control cells leads to the proposal of glycolysis as a potential target for the development of anti-tumoral agents. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA), present anti-tumoral properties, inducing apoptosis and altering tumor glucose utilization. The present work aims at evaluating whether ASA could directly decrease cell glycolysis through inhibition of the major regulatory enzyme within this pathway, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK). We show that ASA and SA inhibit purified PFK in a dose-dependent manner, and that this inhibition occurs due to the modulation of the enzyme quaternary structure. ASA and SA promote the dissociation of the enzyme active tetramers into quite inactive dimers, a common regulatory mechanism of this enzyme. The inhibitory effects of ASA and SA on PFK are fully reversible and can be prevented or reverted by the binding of the enzyme to the actin filaments. Both drugs are also able to decrease glucose consumption by human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, as well as its viability, which decrease parallelly to the inhibition of PFK on these cells. In the end, we demonstrate the ability of ASA and SA to directly modulate an important regulatory intracellular enzyme, and propose that this is one of their mechanisms promoting anti-tumoral effects.

  12. Pipecolic Acid Orchestrates Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance and Defense Priming via Salicylic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Gruner, Katrin; Schuck, Stefan; Bräutigam, Andrea; Zeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of the two immune-regulatory plant metabolites, salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip), in the establishment of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR), SAR-associated defense priming, and basal immunity. Using SA-deficient sid2, Pip-deficient ald1, and sid2 ald1 plants deficient in both SA and Pip, we show that SA and Pip act both independently from each other and synergistically in Arabidopsis thaliana basal immunity to Pseudomonas syringae. Transcriptome analyses reveal that SAR establishment in Arabidopsis is characterized by a strong transcriptional response systemically induced in the foliage that prepares plants for future pathogen attack by preactivating multiple stages of defense signaling and that SA accumulation upon SAR activation leads to the downregulation of photosynthesis and attenuated jasmonate responses systemically within the plant. Whereas systemic Pip elevations are indispensable for SAR and necessary for virtually the whole transcriptional SAR response, a moderate but significant SA-independent component of SAR activation and SAR gene expression is revealed. During SAR, Pip orchestrates SA-dependent and SA-independent priming of pathogen responses in a FLAVIN-DEPENDENT-MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1)-dependent manner. We conclude that a Pip/FMO1 signaling module acts as an indispensable switch for the activation of SAR and associated defense priming events and that SA amplifies Pip-triggered responses to different degrees in the distal tissue of SAR-activated plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in groundnut, Arachis hypogaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) was studied in groundnut genotypes (ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 and ICG 1697) with different levels of resistance to insects and the susceptible check JL 24 under greenhouse conditions. Activities of oxidative enzymes and the amounts of secondary metabolites and proteins were quantified at 6 days after JA and SA application/insect infestation. Data were also recorded on plant damage and H. armigera larval weights and survival. Higher levels of enzymatic activities and amounts of secondary metabolites were observed in the insect-resistant genotypes pretreated with JA and then infested with H. armigera than in JL 24. The insect-resistant genotypes suffered lower insect damage and resulted in poor survival and lower weights of H. armigera larvae than JL 24. In some cases, JA and SA showed similar effects. JA and SA induced the activity of antioxidative enzymes in groundnut plants against H. armigera, and reduced its growth and development. However, induced response to application of JA was greater than to SA, and resulted in reduced plant damage, and larval weights and survival, suggesting that induced resistance can be used as a component of pest management in groundnut. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Impact of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-regulated defences on root colonization by Trichoderma harzianum T-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Appels, Freek V W; van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-08-03

    We recently found that the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-78 primes tomato plants for salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-regulated defenses, resulting in enhanced resistance against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. By using SA- and JA-impaired mutant lines and exogenous hormonal application, here we investigated whether the SA- and JA-pathways also have a role in T-78 root colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana. Endophytic colonization by T-78 was faster in the SA-impaired mutant sid2 than in the wild type. Moreover, elicitation of SA-dependent defenses by SA application reduced T-78 colonization, indicating that the SA-pathway affects T-78 endophytism. In contrast, elicitation of the JA-pathway, which antagonized SA-dependent defenses, resulted in enhanced endophytic colonization by T-78. These findings are in line with our previous observation that SA-dependent defenses are repressed by T-78, which likely aids colonization by the endophytic fungus.

  15. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate enhance drought tolerance in chamomile plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarli Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Salicylic acid (SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA have antioxidant properties and function as direct radical scavengers. Two Matricaria chamomilla cultivars (Bodgold and Hungary breed seeds were used in this study to investigate the effects of exogenous application of SA and MeJA on protection against drought stress as well as on changes of malone dialdehyde (MDA and electrolyte leakage index (ELI, and the fluctuation of proline and soluble sugars content in the leaves under drought stress. Methods: The experiment was conducted in a factorial design based on randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Chamomile plants were treated by two levels of drought stress as well as two different levels of MeJA (i.e., 0.0 and 100 μM and SA (i.e., 0.0 and 0.5 mM solutions. Results: There was a dramatic drought induced increase in the MDA content (128% and ELI (49% in the leaves. Deleterious effect of drought stress was more severe in untreated plants than in treated ones. Treatments with SA and MeJA significantly improved drought tolerance in chamomile plants. These treatments effectively maintained membrane integrity, thereby retarding electrolyte leakage and membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA. Treatments with SA and MeJA were also effective in enhancing the antioxidant concentrations of proline and soluble sugars. Conclusion: The production of these antioxidants could have been part of a defence system against drought damage, reducing MDA and ELI and maintaining membrane stability.

  16. Multistep involvement of glutathione with salicylic acid and ethylene to combat environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Srijani; Datta, Riddhi; Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Sinha, Ragini; Kumar, Deepak; Hazra, Saptarshi; Mazumdar, Aparupa Bose; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2014-07-01

    The role of glutathione (GSH) in plant defense is an established fact. However, the association of GSH with other established signaling molecules within the defense signaling network remains to be evaluated. Previously we have shown that GSH is involved in defense signaling network likely through NPR1-dependent salicylic acid (SA)-mediated pathway. In this study, to gain further insight, we developed chloroplast-targeted gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (NtGp line) and constructed a forward subtracted cDNA (suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)) library using NtGp line as a tester. Interestingly, in addition to SA-related transcripts like pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a) and SAR8.2 m/2l, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACC oxidase), a key enzyme of ethylene (ET) biosynthesis, was identified in the SSH library. Besides, transcription factors like WRKY transcription factor 3 (WRKY3), WRKY1 and ethylene responsive factor 4 (ERF4), associated with SA and ET respectively, were also identified thus suggesting an interplay of GSH with ET and SA. Furthermore, proteomic profiling of NtGp line, performed by employing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), corroborated with the transcriptomic profile and several defense-related proteins like serine/threonine protein kinase, and heat shock 70 protein (HSP70) were identified with increased accumulation. Fascinatingly, induction of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase) was also noted thus demonstrating the active involvement of GSH with ET. Protein gel blot analysis confirmed the enhanced accumulation of ACC oxidase in NtGp line. Together, our data revealed that GSH is involved in the synergistic multiple steps crosstalk through ET as well as SA to combat environmental stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytokinins act synergistically with salicylic acid to activate defense gene expression in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chang-Jie; Shimono, Masaki; Sugano, Shoji; Kojima, Mikiko; Liu, Xinqiong; Inoue, Haruhiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Hormone crosstalk is pivotal in plant-pathogen interactions. Here, we report on the accumulation of cytokinins (CK) in rice seedlings after infection of blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and its potential significance in rice-M. oryzae interaction. Blast infection to rice seedlings increased levels of N(6)-(Δ(2)-isopentenyl) adenine (iP), iP riboside (iPR), and iPR 5'-phosphates (iPRP) in leaf blades. Consistent with this, CK signaling was activated around the infection sites, as shown by histochemical staining for β-glucuronidase activity driven by a CK-responsive OsRR6 promoter. Diverse CK species were also detected in the hyphae (mycelium), conidia, and culture filtrates of blast fungus, indicating that M. oryzae is capable of production as well as hyphal secretion of CK. Co-treatment of leaf blades with CK and salicylic acid (SA), but not with either one alone, markedly induced pathogenesis-related genes OsPR1b and probenazole-induced protein 1 (PBZ1). These effects were diminished by RNAi-knockdown of OsNPR1 or WRKY45, the key regulators of the SA signaling pathway in rice, indicating that the effects of CK depend on these two regulators. Taken together, our data imply a coevolutionary rice-M. oryzae interaction, wherein M. oryzae probably elevates rice CK levels for its own benefits such as nutrient translocation. Rice plants, on the other hand, sense it as an infection signal and activate defense reactions through the synergistic action with SA.

  19. Efficacy of the addition of salicylic acid to clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide combination for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Sevgi; Fetil, Emel; Yücel, Filiz; Gül, Eylem; Güneş, Ali T

    2012-05-01

    Clindamycin phosphate (CDP), benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and salicylic acid (SA) are known to be effective acne therapy agents depending on their anti-inflammatory and comedolytic properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the addition of SA treatment to CDP and BPO (SA and CDP + BPO) and compare it with CDP + BPO in patients with mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris. Forty-nine patients were enrolled in a 12 week prospective, single-blind, randomized, comparative clinical study. Efficacy was assessed by lesion counts, global improvement, quality of life index and measurements of skin barrier functions. Local side effects were also evaluated. Both combinations were effective in reducing total lesion (TL), inflammatory lesion (IL) and non-inflammatory lesion (NIL) counts. There were statistically significant differences between treatment groups for reductions in NIL counts beyond 2 weeks, IL counts and TL counts throughout the all study weeks, and global improvement scores evaluated by patients and investigator at the end of the study in favor of SA and CDP + BPO treatment when compared to CDP + BPO treatment. Both combinations significantly decreased stratum corneum hydration, although skin sebum values decreased with SA and CDP + BPO treatment. These combinations were also well tolerated except significantly higher frequency of mild to moderate transient dryness in patients applied SA and CDP + BPO. The addition of SA to CDP + BPO treatment demonstrated significantly better and faster results in terms of reductions in acne lesion counts and well tolerated except for higher frequency of mild to moderate transient dryness. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Improving drought and salinity tolerance in barley by application of salicylic acid and potassium nitrate

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    Khalaf Ali Fayez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and physiological activities of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Gustoe grown in soil cultures were evaluated to recognize the ameliorative role of salicylic acid (SA and KNO3 against the negative effects of salt and water deficit stresses. Barley plants were subjected to three levels of NaCl (50, 100 and 150 mM, three levels of water stress (80%, 70% and 50% of the soil water content (SWC and the combination of 150 mM NaCl + 50 μM SA, 150 mM NaCl + 10 mM KNO3, 50% SWC + 50 μM SA and 50% SWC + 10 mM KNO3 for two weeks. Salt and water deficit stresses reduced the shoot growth, leaf photosynthetic pigments, K+ contents and provoked oxidative stress in leaves confirmed by considerable changes in soluble carbohydrate, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and Na+ contents. Leaf soluble protein of salt and water deficit treated plants was unaffected. The Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing salt and water deficit treated plants. Application of 50 μM SA or 10 mM KNO3 to150 mM NaCl and/or 50% SWC treated plants improved these attributes under salt and water stresses. Soluble carbohydrates in stressed plants may have a significant role in osmotic adjustment. It can be concluded that the addition of SA or KNO3 can ameliorate the oxidative stress in barley stressed plants. This ameliorative effect might be maintained through low MDA contents and decreased Na+/K+ ratio in leaves. This study also provided evidence for the ability of barley cultivation in salt and water deficit soils due to its capacity for osmotic adjustment.

  1. Alleviation of Osmotic Stress Effects by Exogenous Application of Salicylic or Abscisic Acid on Wheat Seedlings

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    Katarzyna Cyganek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the role of salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings. This was accomplished by determining the impact of the acids applied exogenously on seedlings grown under osmotic stress in hydroponics. The investigation was unique in its comprehensiveness, examining changes under osmotic stress and other conditions, and testing a number of parameters simultaneously. In both drought susceptible (SQ1 and drought resistant (CS wheat cultivars, significant physiological and biochemical changes were observed upon the addition of SA (0.05 mM or ABA (0.1 μM to solutions containing half-strength Hoagland medium and PEG 6000 (−0.75 MPa. The most noticeable result of supplementing SA or ABA to the medium (PEG + SA and PEG + ABA was a decrease in the length of leaves and roots in both cultivars. While PEG treatment reduced gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content in CS, and osmotic potential, and conversely, increased lipid peroxidation, soluble carbohydrates in SQ1, proline content in both cultivars and total antioxidants activity in SQ1, PEG + SA or PEG + ABA did not change the values of these parameters. Furthermore, PEG caused a two-fold increase of endogenous ABA content in SQ1 and a four-fold increase in CS. PEG + ABA increased endogenous ABA only in SQ1, whereas PEG + SA caused a greater increase of ABA content in both cultivars compared to PEG. In PEG-treated plants growing until the harvest, a greater decrease of yield components was observed in SQ1 than in CS. PEG + SA, and particularly PEG + ABA, caused a greater increase of these yield parameters in CS compared to SQ1. In conclusion, SA and ABA ameliorate, particularly in the tolerant wheat cultivar, the harmful effects and after effects of osmotic stress induced by PEG in hydroponics through better osmotic adjustment achieved by an increase in proline and carbohydrate content as well as by an increase in antioxidant

  2. Exogenous salicylic acid improves freezing tolerance of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsuk; Min, Kyungwon; Arora, Rajeev

    2017-10-20

    Salicylic acid (SA)-treatment has been reported to improve plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. However, its effect on freezing tolerance has not been well investigated. We investigated the effect of exogenous SA on freezing tolerance of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. We also explored if nitric oxide (NO) and/or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediation was involved in this response, since these are known as primary signaling molecules involved in many physiological processes. A micro-centrifuge tube-based system used to apply SA to petiolate spinach leaves (0.5 mM over 4-d) was effective, as evident by SA content of leaf tissues. SA-treatment did not hamper leaf growth (fresh and dry weight; equatorial and longitudinal length) and was also not significantly different from 25% Hoagland controls vis-à-vis growth. SA application significantly improved freezing tolerance as evidenced by reduced ion-leakage and alleviated oxidative stress (lower accumulation of O2·- and H2O2) following freeze-thaw stress treatments (-6.5, -7.5, and -8.5 °C). Improved freezing tolerance of SA-treated leaves was paralleled by increased proline and ascorbic acid (AsA) accumulation. A 9-d cold acclimation (CA) treatment also improved leaf freezing tolerance (compared to non-acclimated control) and was accompanied by accumulation of SA and proline. Our results indicate that increased FST may be associated with accumulation of compatible solutes (proline) and antioxidants (AsA). Notably, the beneficial effect of SA on freezing tolerance was abolished when either H2O2- or NO-scavenger (1 μM N-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA or 100 μM hemoglobin, HB, respectively) was added to SA as pretreatment. Our data suggest that SA-induced freezing tolerance in spinach may be mediated by NO and H2O2 signaling. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Alleviation of osmotic stress effects by exogenous application of salicylic or abscisic acid on wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcińska, Izabela; Czyczyło-Mysza, Ilona; Skrzypek, Edyta; Grzesiak, Maciej T; Janowiak, Franciszek; Filek, Maria; Dziurka, Michał; Dziurka, Kinga; Waligórski, Piotr; Juzoń, Katarzyna; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Stanisław

    2013-06-26

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings. This was accomplished by determining the impact of the acids applied exogenously on seedlings grown under osmotic stress in hydroponics. The investigation was unique in its comprehensiveness, examining changes under osmotic stress and other conditions, and testing a number of parameters simultaneously. In both drought susceptible (SQ1) and drought resistant (CS) wheat cultivars, significant physiological and biochemical changes were observed upon the addition of SA (0.05 mM) or ABA (0.1 μM) to solutions containing half-strength Hoagland medium and PEG 6000 (-0.75 MPa). The most noticeable result of supplementing SA or ABA to the medium (PEG + SA and PEG + ABA) was a decrease in the length of leaves and roots in both cultivars. While PEG treatment reduced gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content in CS, and osmotic potential, and conversely, increased lipid peroxidation, soluble carbohydrates in SQ1, proline content in both cultivars and total antioxidants activity in SQ1, PEG + SA or PEG + ABA did not change the values of these parameters. Furthermore, PEG caused a two-fold increase of endogenous ABA content in SQ1 and a four-fold increase in CS. PEG + ABA increased endogenous ABA only in SQ1, whereas PEG + SA caused a greater increase of ABA content in both cultivars compared to PEG. In PEG-treated plants growing until the harvest, a greater decrease of yield components was observed in SQ1 than in CS. PEG + SA, and particularly PEG + ABA, caused a greater increase of these yield parameters in CS compared to SQ1. In conclusion, SA and ABA ameliorate, particularly in the tolerant wheat cultivar, the harmful effects and after effects of osmotic stress induced by PEG in hydroponics through better osmotic adjustment achieved by an increase in proline and carbohydrate content as well as by an increase in antioxidant activity.

  4. Cauliflower mosaic virus protein P6 inhibits signaling responses to salicylic acid and regulates innate immunity.

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    Andrew J Love

    Full Text Available Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV encodes a multifunctional protein P6 that is required for translation of the 35S RNA and also acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate that P6 additionally acts as a pathogenicity effector of an unique and novel type, modifying NPR1 (a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA- and jasmonic acid (JA-dependent signaling and inhibiting SA-dependent defence responses We find that that transgene-mediated expression of P6 in Arabidopsis and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana has profound effects on defence signaling, suppressing expression of representative SA-responsive genes and increasing expression of representative JA-responsive genes. Relative to wild-type Arabidopsis P6-expressing transgenics had greatly reduced expression of PR-1 following SA-treatment, infection by CaMV or inoculation with an avirulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst. Similarly transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of P6 (including a mutant form defective in translational transactivation activity suppressed PR-1a transcript accumulation in response to Agrobacterium infiltration and following SA-treatment. As well as suppressing the expression of representative SA-regulated genes, P6-transgenic Arabidopsis showed greatly enhanced susceptibility to both virulent and avirulent Pst (titres elevated 10 to 30-fold compared to non-transgenic controls but reduced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Necrosis following SA-treatment or inoculation with avirulent Pst was reduced and delayed in P6-transgenics. NPR1 an important regulator of SA/JA crosstalk, was more highly expressed in the presence of P6 and introduction of the P6 transgene into a transgenic line expressing an NPR1:GFP fusion resulted in greatly increased fluorescence in nuclei even in the absence of SA. Thus in the presence of P6 an inactive form of NPR1 is mislocalized in the nucleus even in uninduced plants

  5. The plastidial retrograde signal methyl erythritol cyclopyrophosphate is a regulator of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Mark; Xiao, Yanmei; Bjornson, Marta; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Hicks, Derrick; Souza, Amancio de; Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Panyu; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-03-01

    The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and tailors plant adaptive responses. However, the underlying regulatory modules of this crosstalk are largely unknown. Global transcriptomic analyses of mutant plants (ceh1) with elevated levels of the stress-induced plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) revealed robustly induced JA marker genes, expected to be suppressed by the presence of constitutively high SA levels in the mutant background. Analyses of a range of genotypes with varying SA and MEcPP levels established the selective role of MEcPP-mediated signal(s) in induction of JA-responsive genes in the presence of elevated SA. Metabolic profiling revealed the presence of high levels of the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), but near wild type levels of JA in the ceh1 mutant plants. Analyses of coronatine-insensitive 1 (coi1)/ceh1 double mutant plants confirmed that the MEcPP-mediated induction is JA receptor COI1 dependent, potentially through elevated OPDA. These findings identify MEcPP as a previously unrecognized central regulatory module that induces JA-responsive genes in the presence of high SA, thereby staging a multifaceted plant response within the environmental context. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Characterization of Withania somnifera leaf transcriptome and expression analysis of pathogenesis-related genes during salicylic acid signaling.

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    Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L. Dunal is a valued medicinal plant with pharmaceutical applications. The present study was undertaken to analyze the salicylic acid induced leaf transcriptome of W. somnifera. A total of 45.6 million reads were generated and the de novo assembly yielded 73,523 transcript contig with average transcript contig length of 1620 bp. A total of 71,062 transcripts were annotated and 53,424 of them were assigned GO terms. Mapping of transcript contigs to biological pathways revealed presence of 182 pathways. Seventeen genes representing 12 pathogenesis-related (PR families were mined from the transcriptome data and their pattern of expression post 17 and 36 hours of salicylic acid treatment was documented. The analysis revealed significant up-regulation of all families of PR genes by 36 hours post treatment except WsPR10. The relative fold expression of transcripts ranged from 1 fold to 6,532 fold. The two families of peroxidases including the lignin-forming anionic peroxidase (WsL-PRX and suberization-associated anionic peroxidase (WsS-PRX recorded maximum expression of 377 fold and 6532 fold respectively, while the expression of WsPR10 was down-regulated by 14 fold. Additionally, the most stable reference gene for normalization of qRT-PCR data was also identified. The effect of SA on the accumulation of major secondary metabolites of W. somnifera including withanoside V, withaferin A and withanolide A was also analyzed and an increase in content of all the three metabolites were detected. This is the first report on expression patterns of PR genes during salicylic acid signaling in W. somnifera.

  7. The role of salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid and oxalic acid in promoting the oxidation of alkenes with H(2)O(2) catalysed by [Mn(IV) (2)(O)(3)(tmtacn)(2)](2+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Johannes W.; Alsters, Paul L.; Meetsma, Auke; Hage, Ronald; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    The role played by the additives salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid and oxalic acid in promoting the catalytic activity of [Mn(IV) (2)(O)(3)(tmtacn)(2)](PF(6))(2) {1(PF(6))(2), where tmtacn = N, N ', N ''-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane} in the epoxidation and cis-dihydroxylation of alkenes with

  8. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  9. Salicylate absorption from a bismuth subsalicylate preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S; Chen, S L; Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Ericsson, C D; Hulse, M

    1981-06-01

    The active ingredient in Pepto-Bismol (PB) (Norwich-Eaton), a common antidiarrheal, is bismuth subsalicylate. The absorption of salicylate after oral PB was studied in six fasted men. Plasma concentrations of total salicylate and the urinary excretion profile of salicylate were determined as a function of time and dose. After 60 ml PB, 500.1 +/- 33.6 mg (mean +/- SD) salicylate were recovered in urine, representing 95.0 +/- 6.4% of salicylic acid equivalents in 60 ml of the formulation. Peak plasma salicylate levels were reached 0.5 to 3 hr after ingestion and averaged 40.1 +/- 17.3 micrograms/ml. Absorption of salicylate was also essentially complete after 15- and 30-ml doses of the antidiarrheal preparation, and a linear relationship between dose and recovery of salicylate in the urine was found. Salicylate kinetics was nonlinear after a multiple-dose regimen of 60 ml every 6 hr for five doses.

  10. Apoplastic peroxidases are required for salicylic acid-mediated defense against Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicole D; Cheng, Zhenyu; Fu, Zheng Qing; Daudi, Arsalan; Bolwell, G Paul; Dong, Xinnian; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases or apoplastic peroxidases play an important role in the plant defense response. Diminished expression of at least two Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase encoding genes, PRX33 (At3g49110) and PRX34 (At3g49120), as a consequence of anti-sense expression of a heterologous French bean peroxidase gene (asFBP1.1), were previously shown to result in reduced levels of ROS following pathogen attack, enhanced susceptibility to a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and reduced levels of callose production and defense-related gene expression in response to the microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules flg22 and elf26. These data demonstrated that the peroxidase-dependent oxidative burst plays an important role in the elicitation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Further work reported in this paper, however, shows that asFBP1.1 antisense plants are not impaired in all PTI-associated responses. For example, some but not all flg22-elicited genes are induced to lower levels by flg22 in asFPB1.1, and callose deposition in asFPB1.1 is similar to wild-type following infiltration with a Pseudomonas syringae hrcC mutant or with non-host P. syringae pathovars. Moreover, asFPB1.1 plants did not exhibit any apparent defect in their ability to mount a hypersensitive response (HR). On the other hand, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated activation of PR1 was dramatically impaired in asFPB1.1 plants. In addition, P. syringae-elicited expression of many genes known to be SA-dependent was significantly reduced in asFBP1.1 plants. Consistent with this latter result, in asFBP1.1 plants the key regulator of SA-mediated responses, NPR1, showed both dramatically decreased total protein abundance and a failure to monomerize, which is required for its translocation into the nucleus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicology of isoproturon to the food crop wheat as affected by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lu; Lu, Yan Li; Yang, Hong

    2012-07-01

    Isoproturon, a herbicide belonging to the phenylurea family, is widely used to kill weeds in soils. Recent study indicated that isoproturon has become a contaminant in ecosystems due to its intensive use, thus bringing environmental risks to crop production safety. Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the components in plant defense signaling pathways and regulates diverse physiological responses to biotic and environmental stresses. The purpose of the study is to help to understand how SA mediates the biological process in wheat under isoproturon stress. Wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yangmai 13) were surface-sterilized and placed on moist filter paper for germination. After 24 h, the germinating seeds were placed on a plastic pot (1 L) containing 1,120 g soil mixed with isoproturon at 4 mg kg(-1) soil. After 4 days, wheat leaves were sprayed with 5 mg L(-1) SA. The SA treatment was undertaken once a day and lasted for 6 days, when the third true leaf was well developed. For control seedlings, only water was sprayed. Seedlings were grown under a light intensity of 300 µmol m(-2) s(-1) with a light/dark cycle of 12/12 h at 25°C, and watered to keep 70% relative water content in soils. We investigated the role of SA in alleviating isoproturon-induced toxicity in the food crop wheat (T. aestivum). Plants exposed to 4 mg kg(-1) isoproturon showed growth stunt and oxidative damage, but concomitant treatment with 5 mg L(-1) SA was able to attenuate the toxic effect. Isoproturon in soils was readily accumulated by wheat, but such accumulation can be blocked significantly by SA application. Treatment with SA decreased the abundance of O(2) (.-) and H(2)O(2), as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes, and increased activities of catalase in isoproturon-exposed plants. The enzyme activities were confirmed by the native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Further, an RT-PCR-based assay was performed to show that several transcripts coding antioxidant enzymes were

  12. The physiological and biochemical effects of salicylic acid on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) exposed to flurochloridone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Armagan; Yigit, Emel

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of the flurochloridone as well as flurochloridone and exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on Helianthus annuus L. to find out herbicide-induced toxicity reducing influence of SA. We examined and compared the physiological and biochemical effects of different concentrations of flurochloridone (11, 32 and 72 mM) in both the SA pre-treated and non-treated plants. The plants treated with flurochloridone exhibited reduced total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and relative water content compared to the control group, whereas the plants that were pre-treated with SA exhibited relatively higher values for the same physiological parameters. In the SA non-treated plants, the superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were increased in the treatment groups compared to the control group. In the treatment groups, these enzyme activities were decreased in the SA-pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. Ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in the flurochloridone-treated plants compared to the control plants. The ascorbate peroxidase activity increased in the control groups but decreased in the treatment groups in the SA pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. However, SA treatment decreased the activity of catalase in the control and treatment groups compared to the plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased the malondialdehyde content in the treated groups compared to the control groups, whereas SA-pretreatment decreased malondialdehyde content compared to plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased endogenous SA content compared to the control. Although the residual levels of herbicide in the plants increased proportionately with increasing herbicide concentrations, the SA-pre-treated plants exhibited reduced residual herbicide levels compared to the plants that were not treated

  13. Effect of Salt and Drought Stresses and Pretreatment of Salicylic acid on Seed Germination Characteristics of Lavender (Lavandula stricta Del.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sanginabadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, medicinal and aromatic plants have received much attention in several fields such as agro alimentary, perfumes, pharmaceutical industries and natural cosmetic products. Although secondary metabolites in the medicinal and aromatic plants impressed conventionally by their genotypes, their biosynthesis is strongly influenced by environmental factors. It means biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect growth parameters, essential oil yield and constituents. Abiotic environmental stresses especially salinity and drought has the most effect on medicinal plants. The genus Lavandula (lavender of Lamiaceae family consists of about 30 species, many of which are found in Mediterranean, Sahara-Arabian and Iran-Turanian regions. There are only two species of Lavandula growing naturally in Iran, L. stricta Del. and L. sublepidata Rech. K. These species are not mentioned as medicinal plants in references; however L. soechas L., L. vera DC., L. angustifolia Mill. and L. dantata L. occurs naturally in Iran. Lavandula stricta Del. is a native aromatic plant in Iran from Lamiaceae. In traditional medicine, it is used for treatment of rheumatic pain, stomach pain and cough. Germination is one of the critical stages in the cycle of plants growth due to its important role in determining the final density of plant. Under water stress and salinity conditions, plant germination and its final density is important. Salicylic acid (from Latin salix is a monohydroxybenzoic acid which is a type of phenolic acid and a beta hydroxy acid with C7H6O3 chemical formula. This colorless crystalline organic acid is widely used in organic synthesis and functions as a plant hormone which is derived from salicin metabolism. Salicylic acid (SA is a phenolic phytohormone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport. SA also induces specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast

  14. Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial

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    Stamuli Eugena

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA 95% CI: 85.09-117.26 more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [controlled-trials.com] and National Research Register N0484189151.

  15. Dataset on exogenous application of salicylic acid and methyljasmonate and the accumulation of caffeine in young leaf tissues and catabolically inactive endosperms

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    Avinash Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous exposure of coffee plants to 50 μM and 500 μM salicylic acid through liquid hydroponic medium or the exposure to volatile fumes of methyljasmonate was carried out to study the role of salicylic acid and methyljasmonate on the accumulation of caffeine and other methylxanthines like 7-methylxanthine, theobromine and theophylline. Transcript levels of the first, second and third N-methyltransferase involved in the core caffeine biosynthetic pathway namely, xanthosine methyltransferase (XMT, methylxanthine methyltransferase (MXMT and di-methylxanthine methyltransferase (DXMT was investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR for validating the reason behind the changes of caffeine biosynthetic potential under the influence of the two analogues of plant phytohormones. Maturing coffee fruits are known to be biologically inactive with respect to caffeine biosynthetic activity in the endosperms. To understand this, fruits were treated with different doses of salicylic acid in a time-course manner and the de-repression of tissue maturation-mediated knockdown of caffeine biosynthesis by exogenously applied salicylic acid was achieved. In our companion paper [1] it was shown that the repression of NMT genes during the dry weight accumulation phase of maturing endosperm could be relaxed by the exogenous application of salicylic acid and methyljasmonate. A probable model based on the work carried out therein and based on other literature [2–4] was proposed to describe that the crosstalk between salicylic acid or methyljasmonate and the ABA/ethylene pathway and might involve transcription factors downstream to the signaling cascade.

  16. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  17. Salicylic Acid Ameliorates the Effects of Oxidative Stress Induced by Water Deficit in Hydroponic Culture of Nigella sativa

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    Rozita Kabiri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic stress associated with drought, and salinity is a serious problem that inhibits the growth of plants, mainly due to disturbance of the balance between production of ROS and antioxidant defense and causing oxidative stress. The results obtained in the last few years strongly prove that salicylic acid could be a very promising and protective compound for the reduction of biotic and abiotic stresses in sensitive of crops, because under certain conditions, it has been found to mitigate the damaging effects of various stress factors in plants. In this research, salicylic acid was used in control, and drought stressed plants, and the role of this compound in reduction of oxidative damages in Nigella plant was investigated. Data presented in this study indicated that SA application through the root medium brought on the increased levels of drought tolerance in black cumin seedlings. Plants pre-treated with SA exhibited slight injury symptoms whereas those that were not pre-treated with SA had moderate damage and lost considerable portions of their foliage. SA very profoundly inducing the activity of CAT, APX and GPX in plants, which led to reduction in H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation (MDA and LOX activity so it seems that the application of SA greatly improves the dehydration tolerance through elevated activities of antioxidant systems or may be the expression of genes encoding some ROS-scavenging enzymes under drought stress, which would maintain the redox homeostasis and integrity of cellular components.

  18. Cytokinins mediate resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in tobacco through increased antimicrobial phytoalexin synthesis independent of salicylic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskinsky, Dominik K; Naseem, Muhammad; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Plickert, Nicole; Engelke, Thomas; Griebel, Thomas; Zeier, Jürgen; Novák, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav; Pfeifhofer, Hartwig; van der Graaff, Eric; Simon, Uwe; Roitsch, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that are involved in various regulatory processes throughout plant development, but they are also produced by pathogens and known to modulate plant immunity. A novel transgenic approach enabling autoregulated cytokinin synthesis in response to pathogen infection showed that cytokinins mediate enhanced resistance against the virulent hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci. This was confirmed by two additional independent transgenic approaches to increase endogenous cytokinin production and by exogenous supply of adenine- and phenylurea-derived cytokinins. The cytokinin-mediated resistance strongly correlated with an increased level of bactericidal activities and up-regulated synthesis of the two major antimicrobial phytoalexins in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), scopoletin and capsidiol. The key role of these phytoalexins in the underlying mechanism was functionally proven by the finding that scopoletin and capsidiol substitute in planta for the cytokinin signal: phytoalexin pretreatment increased resistance against P. syringae. In contrast to a cytokinin defense mechanism in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) based on salicylic acid-dependent transcriptional control, the cytokinin-mediated resistance in tobacco is essentially independent from salicylic acid and differs in pathogen specificity. It is also independent of jasmonate levels, reactive oxygen species, and high sugar resistance. The novel function of cytokinins in the primary defense response of solanaceous plant species is rather mediated through a high phytoalexin-pathogen ratio in the early phase of infection, which efficiently restricts pathogen growth. The implications of this mechanism for the coevolution of host plants and cytokinin-producing pathogens and the practical application in agriculture are discussed.

  19. A rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantitation of aspirin, salicylic acid, and caffeine in effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, MaryJean; Kumar, Vimal

    2003-09-01

    A rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure is developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of aspirin, salicylic acid, and caffeine extracted from an effervescent tablet. The method uses a Hypersil C18 column (5 micro m, 15 cm x 4.6 mm) for an isocratic elution in a water-methanol-acetic acid mobile phase at a wavelength of 275 nm. The tablets' buffering effects and acid neutralizing capacity require an extraction solvent of methanol-formic acid. The range of linearity for aspirin is 0.5-1.25 mg/mL, caffeine 0.065-0.195 mg/mL, and salicylic acid 0.4-6.0% of aspirin. The overall recovery is 100.2%, 100.7%, and 99.2% for aspirin, caffeine, and salicylic acid, respectively. Under the conditions of the method, aspirin, caffeine, and salicylic acid are adequately resolved with proper peak symmetry in less than 7 min.

  20. Simultaneous determination of shikimic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in wild and transgenic Nicotiana langsdorffii plants exposed to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    The presence and relative concentration of phytohormones may be regarded as a good indicator of an organism's physiological state. The integration of the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes and of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (gr) in Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann plants has shown to determine various physiological and metabolic effects. The analysis of wild and transgenic N. langsdorffii plants, exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations) was conducted, in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses. The development of a new analytical procedure was necessary, in order to assure the simultaneous determination of analytes and to obtain an adequately low limit of quantification. For the first time, a sensitive HPLC-HRMS quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and shikimic acid was developed and validated. The method was applied to 80 plant samples, permitting the evaluation of plant stress responses and highlighting some metabolic mechanisms. Salicylic, jasmonic and shikimic acids proved to be suitable for the comprehension of plant stress responses. Chemical and heat stresses showed to induce the highest changes in plant hormonal status, differently affecting plant response. The potential of each genetic modification toward the applied stresses was marked and particularly the resistance of the gr modified plants was evidenced. This work provides new information in the study of N. langsdorffii and transgenic organisms, which could be useful for the further application of these transgenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of salicylic acid, arbutin and corticosteroids in skin whitening creams available in Pakistan using chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, A; Khan, I U; Iqbal, H

    2016-08-01

    A simple, new and efficient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the separation of most popular ingredients in skin whitening creams. For RP-HPLC analysis, a Hibar(®) C18 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm column (Merck Millipore, Carolina, USA) as stationary phase with a mobile phase consisting a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water 40 : 40 : 20 (pH 7.0), respectively, at flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) (total run time 10 min) at room temperature was used. Detection was performed at 254 and 280 nm using photodiode array detector. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection and quantification. The method results in excellent separation of skin whitening agents in cosmetic creams. The method is specific for salicylic acid, arbutin, cortisone, hydrocortisone, betamethasone valerate and betamethasone dipropionate. The calibration curve of skin whitening agents was linear with the regression analysis showed r(2) ≥ 0.999. %RSD for inter- and intraday precision were determined as 0.461 and 0.329 for salicylic acid, 0.427 and 0.317 for arbutin, 0.360 and 0.346 for cortisone, 0.336 and 0.350 for hydrocortisone, 0.463 and 0.339 for betamethasone valerate and 0.385 and 0.372 for betamethasone dipropionate, respectively. LOD and LOQ were calculated as 0.48 and 1.20 μg mL(-1) for salicylic acid, 0.09 and 0.22 μg mL(-1) for arbutin, 0.07 and 0.18 μg mL(-1) for cortisone, 0.06 and 0.24 μg mL(-1) for hydrocortisone, 0.07 and 0.20 μg mL(-1) for betamethasone valerate and 0.02 and 0.06 μg mL(-1) for betamethasone dipropionate. The recovery of skin whitening agents were 97.18% for salicylic acid, 97.99% for arbutin, 98.30% cortisone, 97.63% for hydrocortisone, 98.65% for betamethasone valerate and 98.18% for betamethasone dipropionate, respectively. According to this study, salicylic acid is present in 87.88% skin whitening creams

  2. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and salicylic acid interaction with the human erythrocyte membrane bilayer induce in vitro changes in the morphology of erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Belmar, Jessica; Villena, Fernando; Gallardo, María José; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-documented information, there are insufficient reports concerning the effects of salicylate compounds on the structure and functions of cell membranes, particularly those of human erythrocytes. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) with cell membranes, human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models were utilized. These consisted of bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. The capacity of ASA and SA to perturb the multibilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was evaluated by X-ray diffraction while DMPC unilamellar vesicles (LUV) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. Moreover, we took advantage of the capability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the changes in the thermotropic phase behavior of lipid bilayers resulting from ASA and SA interaction with PC and PE molecules. In an attempt to further elucidate their effects on cell membranes, the present work also examined their influence on the morphology of intact human erythrocytes by means of defocusing and scanning electron microscopy, while isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. Results indicated that both salicylates interact with human erythrocytes and their molecular models in a concentration-dependent manner perturbing their bilayer structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of platelet reactivity of patients with cardiovascular disease on-treatment with acetyl salicylic acid: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awidi, Abdalla; Saleh, Akram; Dweik, Manar; Kailani, Baraah; Abu-Fara, Mohammed; Nabulsi, Rinad; Bener, Abdulbari

    2011-09-01

    Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel are extensively used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, the responsiveness to ASA treatment may vary among individuals. This study was conducted to investigate the profile and prevalence of ASA resistance in cardiac patients. From August 2007 to August 2008, a total of 282 cardiac patients were enrolled. Two study groups were identified: patients taking 100 mg ASA daily but without clopidogrel, and patients taking both 100 mg ASA and 75 mg clopidogrel daily. Platelet function was determined with the Multiplate analyzer to determine platelet responsiveness. Salicylate blood level was measured for all patients on ASA. Seventy-three patients (26%) were determined to be nonresponsive to ASA, and 45 patients (16%) were partially responsive, whereas 164 patients (58.2%) were responsive to ASA. Myocardial infarction and coronary obstruction were both strongly associated with ASA nonresponsiveness (p < 0.001). ASA resistance occurred more in female patients (p = 0.002). The salicylate blood level was found to be low in ASA-resistant patients (35.33 ± 50.22 mg/l) and higher in sensitive patients (54.26 ± 18.7 mg/l; p < 0.001). Quantitative assessment of platelet functions is predictive of ASA treatment failure in individual patients. Dual antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel and ASA was found to have greater inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation than either agent alone. Non-adherence may be a significant mediator of poor outcome.

  4. Bacteria-triggered systemic immunity in barley is associated with WRKY and ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTORs but not with salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjukta; Wenig, Marion; Langen, Gregor; Sharma, Sapna; Kugler, Karl G; Knappe, Claudia; Hause, Bettina; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Babaeizad, Valiollah; Imani, Jafargholi; Janzik, Ingar; Stempfl, Thomas; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Mayer, Klaus F X; Vlot, A Corina

    2014-12-01

    Leaf-to-leaf systemic immune signaling known as systemic acquired resistance is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we characterize systemic immunity in barley (Hordeum vulgare) triggered after primary leaf infection with either Pseudomonas syringae pathovar japonica (Psj) or Xanthomonas translucens pathovar cerealis (Xtc). Both pathogens induced resistance in systemic, uninfected leaves against a subsequent challenge infection with Xtc. In contrast to systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), systemic immunity in barley was not associated with NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 or the local or systemic accumulation of salicylic acid. Instead, we documented a moderate local but not systemic induction of abscisic acid after infection of leaves with Psj. In contrast to salicylic acid or its functional analog benzothiadiazole, local applications of the jasmonic acid methyl ester or abscisic acid triggered systemic immunity to Xtc. RNA sequencing analysis of local and systemic transcript accumulation revealed unique gene expression changes in response to both Psj and Xtc and a clear separation of local from systemic responses. The systemic response appeared relatively modest, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction associated systemic immunity with the local and systemic induction of two WRKY and two ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ERF)-like transcription factors. Systemic immunity against Xtc was further associated with transcriptional changes after a secondary/systemic Xtc challenge infection; these changes were dependent on the primary treatment. Taken together, bacteria-induced systemic immunity in barley may be mediated in part by WRKY and ERF-like transcription factors, possibly facilitating transcriptional reprogramming to potentiate immunity. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin delayed-release tablet formulations by second-derivative UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, Z; Burda, K

    1998-12-01

    A rapid, simple assay procedure was developed for simultaneous analysis of aspirin (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) in aspirin delayed-release tablet formulation by 'zero crossing' second-derivative UV spectrophotometry. The zero-order absorption spectra and second derivative spectra of ASA and SA were recorded in diluting solution acetonitrile-formic acid (99:1). The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by the determination of ASA and SA in five tablets formulations (each 20 tablets of the same batch) by the described method and by high performance liquid chromatographic method, and the results were in good agreement.

  6. Thermochemical analysis on rare earth complex of gadolinium with salicylic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Sheng-Xiong, E-mail: 54xsx@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China); Li, Ai-Tao; Jiang, Jian-Hong; Huang, Shuang; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Qiang-Guo [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China)

    2012-11-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new novel rare earth complex Gd(C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}(C{sub 9}H{sub 6}NO) was synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dissolution enthalpies of the relevant substances were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enthalpy change of the reaction was determined to be (211.54 {+-} 0.69) kJ mol{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The standard molar enthalpy of formation of complex was -(1890.7 {+-} 3.1) kJ mol{sup -1}. - Abstract: The rare earth complex, Gd(C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}(C{sub 9}H{sub 6}NO), was synthesized by the reaction of Gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate with salicylic acid (C{sub 7}H{sub 6}O{sub 3}) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (C{sub 9}H{sub 7}NO). And it was characterized by elemental analysis, UV spectra, IR spectra, molar conductance and thermogravimetric analysis. In a optimalizing calorimetric solvent, the dissolution enthalpies were determined by an advanced solution-reaction isoperibol microcalorimeter, respectively: {Delta}{sub s}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}} [2 C{sub 7}H{sub 6}O{sub 3}(s) + C{sub 9}H{sub 7}NO(s), 298.15 K] = 41.95 {+-} 0.44 kJ mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub s}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}} [Gd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O(s), 298.15 K] = -29.11 {+-} 0.39 kJ mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub s}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}} [Gd(C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}(C{sub 9}H{sub 6}NO)(s), 298.15 K] = -46.99 {+-} 0.39 kJ mol{sup -1} and {Delta}{sub s}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}} [Solution D(aq), 298.15 K] = -90.33 {+-} 0.37 kJ mol{sup -1}. The enthalpy change of the synthesized reaction was estimated to be {Delta}{sub r}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}}=211.54{+-}0.69 kJ mol{sup -1}. From data in the literature, through Hess' law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Gd(C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}(C{sub 9}H{sub 7}NO)(s) was calculated to be {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}} [Gd(C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}(C{sub 9}H

  7. Structure, stability, and antiplatelet activity of O-acyl derivatives of salicylic acid and lipophilic esters of acetylsalicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodnik, Ilya B; Lapshina, Elena; Sudnikovich, Elena; Boncler, Magdalena; Luzak, Bogusława; Rózalski, Marcin; Helińska, Magdalena; Watała, Cezary

    2009-01-01

    The anti-thrombotic activity of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has been shown to be due to specific irreversible acetylation of blood platelet cyclooxygenase. The aim of our study was to investigate the associations between the antiplatelet activities of derivatives of both ASA and salicylic acid (SA), as well as the structure, stability, and molecular properties of these compounds. Homologous series of O-acyl derivatives of salicylic acid (propionyl-, butyrylsalicylic acids, PSA, BSA) and lipophilic dodecyl (C12)-, hexadecyl (C16)-, and cholesteryl acetylsalicylates were synthesized and tested for structure-activity relationships. The molecular properties (heat of formation, molecular surface area, dipole moment) of ASA and SA derivatives obtained by theoretical calculations changed with the increasing length of the acyl or alkyl residue. The inhibition of whole blood platelet aggregation and the reduction in thromboxane (TX) generation by O-acyl derivatives were concentration-dependent and decreased along with increasing the length of acyl hain. These effects correlated with the extent of platelet reactivity and P-selectin expression inhibition in collagen-activated platelets. In contrast to ASA and O-acyl derivatives of SA, none of the lipophilic ASA derivatives had a significant inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. In conclusion, all SA and ASA derivatives studied under in vitro conditions showed much lower antiplatelet activities than ASA itself, despite their higher affinity to plasma proteins or membrane components and their equivalent ability to acetylate protein free amino groups.We suggest the significance of the carboxylic group, dipole moment, geometry, and size of these pharmaceuticals in their ability to bind to the active site of cyclooxygenase and their antiplatelet efficacy.

  8. Salicylic acid degradation by advanced oxidation processes. Coupling of solar photoelectro-Fenton and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Campos, Benjamin; Brillas, Enric; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; El-Ghenymy, Abdellatif; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Ruiz-Ruiz, Edgar J

    2016-12-05

    A 3.0 L solar flow plant with a Pt/air-diffusion (anode/cathode) cell, a solar photoreactor and a photocatalytic photoreactor filled with TiO2-coated glass spheres has been utilized to couple solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis (SPC) for treating a 165mgL(-1) salicylic acid solution of pH 3.0. Organics were destroyed by OH radicals formed on the TiO2 photocatalyst and at the Pt anode during water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and cathodically generated H2O2, along with the photolytic action of sunlight. Poor salicylic acid removal and mineralization were attained using SPC, anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2) and coupled AO-H2O2-SPC. The electro-Fenton process accelerated the substrate decay, but with low mineralization by the formation of byproducts that are hardly destroyed by OH. The mineralization was strongly increased by SPEF due to the photolysis of products by sunlight, being enhanced by coupled SPEF-SPC due to the additional oxidation by OH at the TiO2 surface. The effect of current density on the performance of both processes was examined. The most potent SPEF-SPC process at 150mAcm(-2) yielded 87% mineralization and 13% current efficiency after consuming 6.0AhL(-1). Maleic, fumaric and oxalic acids detected as final carboxylic acids were completely removed by SPEF and SPEF-SPC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Salicylic acid is involved in the Nb-mediated defense responses to Potato virus X in Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gerardo; Gerhardt, Nadia; Siciliano, Florencia; Vojnov, Adrián; Malcuit, Isabelle; Marano, María Rosa

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the role of salicylic acid (SA) in Nb-mediated hypersensitive resistance to Potato virus X (PVX) avirulent strain ROTH1 in Solanum tuberosum, we have constructed SA-deficient transgenic potato plant lines by overexpressing the bacterial enzyme salicylate hydroxylase (NahG), which degrades SA. Evaluation of these transgenic lines revealed hydrogen peroxide accumulation and spontaneous lesion formation in an age- and light-dependent manner. In concordance, NahG potato plants were more sensitive to treatment with methyl viologen, a reactive oxygen species-generating compound. In addition, when challenged with PVX ROTH1, NahG transgenic lines showed a decreased disease-resistance response to infection and were unable to induce systemic acquired resistance. However, the avirulent viral effector, the PVX 25-kDa protein, does induce expression of the pathogenesis-related gene PR-1a in NahG potato plants. Taken together, our data indicate that SA is involved in local and systemic defense responses mediated by the Nb gene in Solanum tuberosum. This is the first report to show that basal levels of SA correlate with hypersensitive resistance to PVX.

  10. Salicylic acid derivatives as potential anti asthmatic agents using disease responsive drug delivery system for prophylactic therapy of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Kalidhindi Rama Satyanarayana; Ambhore, Nilesh S; Mulukutla, Shashank; Gupta, Saurabh; Murthy, Vishakantha; Kumar, M N Kiran; Madhunapantula, Subba Rao V; Kuppuswamy, Gowthamarajan; Elango, Kannan

    2016-02-01

    Asthma is a multi-factorial and complicated lung disorder of the immune system which has expanded to a wider ambit unveiling its etiology to be omnipresent at both ends of the spectrum involving basic pharmacology and in-depth immunology. As asthma occurs through triggered activation of various immune cells due to different stimuli, it poses a great challenge to uncover specific targets for therapeutic interventions. Recent pharmacotherapeutic approaches for asthma have been focused on molecular targeting of transcription factors and their signaling pathways; mainly nucleus factor kappa B (NFκB) and its associated pathways which orchestrate the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, GM-CSF), chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1a, eotaxin), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) and inflammatory enzymes (cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS). 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sodium salicylate are known to suppress NFκB activation by inhibiting inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKκB). In order to target the transcription factor, a suitable carrier system for delivering the drug to the intracellular space is essential. 5-ASA and sodium salicylate loaded liposomes incorporated into PEG-4-acrylate and CCRGGC microgels (a polymer formed by crosslinking of trypsin sensitive peptide and PEG-4-acrylate) could probably suit the needs for developing a disease responsive drug delivery system which will serve as a prophylactic therapy for asthmatic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potentiometric determination of acetylsalicylic acid by sequential injection analysis (SIA) using a tubular salicylate-selective electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paseková, H; Sales, M G; Montenegro, M C; Araújo, A N; Polásek, M

    2001-03-01

    This paper deals with the development of an automated procedure for formulation assays and dissolution tests based on a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system involving an ion-selective electrode as sensing device. Construction of a tubular salicylate (Sal) selective electrode suitable for potentiometric determination of acetylsalicylic acid (Asa) in pharmaceutical formulations is described. The flow-through electrode is formed by a PVC membrane containing 29.2% (w/w) PVC, 5.8% (w/w) tetraoctylammonium salicylate (ionic sensor), 58.5% o-nitrophenyloctylether (plasticizer) and 6.5% (w/w) p-tert-octylphenol (stabilising additive which increases electrode selectivity). The calibration range is 0.05--10 mM Sal, the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.05 mM Sal, the slope is 56.0 mV per decade at 22 degrees C. The R.S.D. is 0.20% (15 readings) when determining 2.5 mM Sal in standard solution. The electrode is used for sensing Asa after its on-line chemical hydrolysis to Sal in a SIA system. The sampling rate is 6 h(-1) but for the dissolution tests the frequency is increased to 20 h(-1). The SIA set-up is employed for the assay of Asa in plain tablets, composed tablets and effervescent tablets and for performing dissolution tests of normal and sustained release tablets. Results obtained by this technique compare well with those required by the US Pharmacopoeia XXIV.

  12. Polyurethane dressing, tetracycline and salicylic acid use for treatment of digital dermatitis in cattle. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, A; Sauter-Louis, C; Maierl, J

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics is a proven approach for local and systemic treatment of digital dermatitis (DD). Even if they are administered only locally and at low dosage, their use should be restricted to an absolute minimum. The efficacy of a commercial polyurethane wound dressing in treating acute digital dermatitis was compared with topical treatment using a commercially available tetracycline spray and a salicylic acid paste. A total of 105 cows in a dairy farm (with about 160 dairy cows) were included in the study, with 101 cows needing topical treatment for digital dermatitis on one or both hind feet. All animals underwent hoof trimming prior to the treatment. Affected feet (n = 152) were randomly assigned to one of three comparable treatment groups. Topical treatment was administered to all visible digital dermatitis lesions. Animals in the positive control groups were given a topical treatment of tetracycline (53 DD lesions in 49 cows) or salicylic acid (53 DD lesions in 50 cows) formulations, whose therapeutic effects were scientifically verified. Spray was applied once, at a usual dosage and without any bandage. Salicylic acid paste was fixed in place with a bandage for 5 days. In the test group (46 DD lesions in 45 cows), a polyurethane bandage was left in place for 10 days. Whereas, 47 feet (from 38 cows) without lesions or with lesions showing no pain were designated as group 0. Each lesion was evaluated at day 0 during trimming, and on day 10 and 36. The lesions were scored based on severity and size. All groups showed a statistically significant improvement in the clinical appearance of the lesions at day 10. There were no significant differences in the findings between the second and the third evaluation (day 10 and day 36) either within a group or between the groups. The use of an alternative treatment regimen like a polyurethane wound dressing shows good clinical healing, it is as effective as the conventional methods, and unlike the conventional

  13. Auxin promotes susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae via a mechanism independent of suppression of salicylic acid-mediated defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutka, Andrew M; Fawley, Stephen; Tsao, Tiffany; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2013-06-01

    Auxin is a key plant growth regulator that also impacts plant-pathogen interactions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae manipulates auxin physiology in Arabidopsis thaliana to promote pathogenesis. Pseudomonas syringae strategies to alter host auxin biology include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and production of virulence factors that alter auxin responses in host cells. The application of exogenous auxin enhances disease caused by P. syringae strain DC3000. This is hypothesized to result from antagonism between auxin and salicylic acid (SA), a major regulator of plant defenses, but this hypothesis has not been tested in the context of infected plants. We further investigated the role of auxin during pathogenesis by examining the interaction of auxin and SA in the context of infection in plants with elevated endogenous levels of auxin. We demonstrated that elevated IAA biosynthesis in transgenic plants overexpressing the YUCCA 1 (YUC1) auxin biosynthesis gene led to enhanced susceptibility to DC3000. Elevated IAA levels did not interfere significantly with host defenses, as effector-triggered immunity was active in YUC1-overexpressing plants, and we observed only minor effects on SA levels and SA-mediated responses. Furthermore, a plant line carrying both the YUC1-overexpression transgene and the salicylic acid induction deficient 2 (sid2) mutation, which impairs SA synthesis, exhibited additive effects of enhanced susceptibility from both elevated auxin levels and impaired SA-mediated defenses. Thus, in IAA overproducing plants, the promotion of pathogen growth occurs independently of suppression of SA-mediated defenses. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Phenolics in Panax ginseng Bioreactor Root Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 μM methyl jasmonate (MJ or salicylic acid (SA in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L. Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%, DPPH activity (40%, flavonoids (88%, ascorbic acid (55%, NPSH (33%, and cysteine (62% contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes.

  15. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids in human serum and aspirin formulations by second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantianos, D G; Ioannou, P C; Efstathiou, C E

    1991-04-01

    A second-derivative synchronous scanning spectrofluorimetric method for the simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) is described. The method is based on the native fluorescence of both acids in a 1% acetic acid-chloroform solution. Both ASA and SA can be determined within the concentration ranges 0.2-70 and 0.03-10 micrograms ml-1, respectively. The effect of each acid on the signal of the other has been studied in detail. Empirical equations have been used to overcome this effect, thus allowing the accurate determination of both acids in binary mixtures, without a separation step. The method has been applied to the determination of ASA and SA in blood serum and to the determination of SA impurities in aspirin formulations. Recoveries from sera spiked with both ASA (2.5-50 micrograms ml-1) and SA (100-160 micrograms ml-1) varied from 99.5 to 106.7% (mean = 102.6%) and from 93.0 to 98.0% (mean = 95.8%), respectively. Recoveries of SA from spiked aspirin solutions (0.25-1.5 mg g-1 of aspirin) varied from 98.0 to 102.0% (mean = 100.3%).

  16. Chitosan oligosaccharide and salicylic acid up-regulate gene expression differently in relation to the biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Heng; Kjær, Anders; Fretté, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    oligosaccharide (COS) and salicylic acid (SA) on both artemisinin production and gene expression related to the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin. COS up-regulated the transcriptional levels of the genes ADS and TTG1 2.5 fold and 1.8 fold after 48 h individually, whereas SA only up-regulated ADS 2.0 fold after...

  17. Oral chemoprevention with acetyl salicylic Acid, vitamin d and calcium reduces the risk of tobacco carcinogen-induced bladder tumors in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J

    2013-01-01

    , and diet with chemoprevention (acetyl salicylic acid, 1-alpha 25(0H)2-vitamin D3 and calcium). There were significantly fewer tumors (0 (0-0) vs. 0 (0-2), p = .045) and fewer animals with tumors (0/20 vs. 5/20, p = .045) in the chemoprevention group compared with controls. Thus, chemoprevention diet...

  18. Quantifying the Effects of Prior Acetyl-Salicylic Acid on Sepsis-Related Deaths: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis Using Propensity Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trauer, James; Muhi, Stephen; McBryde, Emma S.; Al Harbi, Shmeylan A.; Arabi, Yaseen M.; Boyle, Andrew J.; Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yung-Tai; Falcone, Marco; Gajic, Ognjen; Godsell, Jack; Gong, Michelle Ng; Kor, Daryl; Lösche, Wolfgang; McAuley, Daniel F.; O'Neal, Hollis R.; Osthoff, Michael; Otto, Gordon P.; Sossdorf, Maik; Tsai, Min-Juei; Valerio-Rojas, Juan C.; van der Poll, Tom; Violi, Francesco; Ware, Lorraine; Widmer, Andreas F.; Wiewel, Maryse A.; Winning, Johannes; Eisen, Damon P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective was to conduct a meta-analysis on published observational cohort data describing the association between acetyl-salicylic acid (aspirin) use prior to the onset of sepsis and mortality in hospitalized patients. Study Selection: Studies that reported mortality in

  19. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on citrus foliage: Effecs on foliar volatiles and aggregation behavior of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well-known activators of chemical defenses in plants. The SA pathway is involved in citrus response to infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas); less is known about the role of jasmonates in citrus defense response. We examined the eff...

  20. Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized oil powders for topical application-release and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from oil powders compared to redispersed powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-08-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared to those of the respective template emulsions and redispersed oil powders. Physical characterization of the various formulations was performed, such as droplet size analysis and oil leakage, and relationships drawn with regards to release and trans(dermal) delivery. The experimental outcomes revealed that the oil powders could be redispersed in water without changing the release characteristics of salicylic acid. pH and polymer type affected the release of salicylic acid from the oil powders, template emulsions, and redispersed powders similarly. Contrary, the transdermal delivery from the oil powders and from their respective redispersed oil powders was differently affected by pH and polymer type. It was hypothesized that the release had been influenced by the electrostatic interactions between salicylic acid and emulsifiers, whereas the transdermal performance could have been determined by the particle or aggregate sizes of the formulations.

  1. A Novel WRKY transcription factor is required for induction of PR-1a gene expression by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Verk, Marcel C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/327618671; Pappaioannou, Dimitri; Neeleman, Lyda; Bol, John F; Linthorst, Huub J M

    PR-1a is a salicylic acid-inducible defense gene of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). One-hybrid screens identified a novel tobacco WRKY transcription factor (NtWRKY12) with specific binding sites in the PR-1a promoter at positions -564 (box WK(1)) and -859 (box WK(2)). NtWRKY12 belongs to the class of

  2. Molybdenum (VI binded to humic and nitrohumic acid models in aqueous solutions. Salicylic, 3-nitrosalicylic, 5-nitrosalicylic and 3,5 dinitrosalicylic acids: part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercê Ana Lucia R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work electrochemical and Ultraviolet-Visible studies were performed in solutions of salicylic acid models of humic and nitrohumic acids, a laboratory artifact, and molybdenum in order to determine the affinity of these models towards the metal ion. Molybdenum, which plays a very important role in the soil chemistry, and together with humic substances, impart fertility to soil and water and is a key element in the activity of nitrogenase. The obtained results showed that at least one complexed species is present at the pH range of 6.3 to 8.0, even for the less basic chosen models, the nitrosalicylic acids. Previous study showed that phthalic and nitrophthalic, also humic and nitrohumic acids model compounds, presented complexed species with molybdenum only till pH 6.5. The calculated formation constants showed that the substitution of the nitro group in the orto position was less favoured than in the para substitution, probably due to a steric hindrance in the former, which was clearly seen in the double substituted salicylic nitro derivative. The cyclic voltammetry as well as the Ultraviolet-Visible obtained spectra were able to show that the chemistry of molybdenum in aqueous solutions as the pH is increased is very complex, and the molybdate stops acting as an anion only after pH around 4, when it finally becomes a cation MoO2(2+ (M.

  3. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Yield, Component Yield and Essential Oil of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. under Water Deficit Stress

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    E. Rezaei Chiyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the production of medicinal plants can be influenced by environmental factors such as water limitation. In other hand salicylic acid as a plant regulator can enhance drought resistance in plants. In order to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals on yield, yield components and essential oil of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., a field experiment was conducted a farm located in West Azerbaijan province- city Nagadeh, West- Azerbaijan, during growing season of 2011- 2012. The experiment was arranged as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation intervals (6, 12 and 18 days and three levels of salicylic acid concentration (0, 0.5 and 1 mM considered as in main plots and sub-plots, respectively. Results showed that irrigation had significant effects on all characteristics such as Plant height, number of follicule per plant, number of seed per follicule, biological yield, grain yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield with the exception of 1000- seed weight. With increasing irrigation intervals from 6 to 18 days, plant height, number of follicule per plant, number of seed per follicule, biological yield, grain yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were decreased up to 49, 52, 40, 35, 43, 20 and 55 %, respectively. In contrast, yield components and yield were enhanced up to treatments 0.5 mM of salicylic acid. Grain yield and essential oil yield with application of 0.5 mM salicylic acid increased up to 13 and 11 % compared to control, respectively. It seems that due to the limited sources of water in the region irrigation after 12 days and 0.5 mM salicylic acid concentration are suitable for black cumin grain production.

  5. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula (Calendula officinalis L. under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat H.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of salicylic acid (SA as a phytohormone has been increased due to resistance to stresses such as salt stress. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous salicylic acid application on growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula grown under salt stress and greenhouse conditions. For this purpose a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with 3 levels of SA (0 (control, 1, 2 mM and 3 levels of NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM with 4 replications. At flowering stage, SA was applied with spraying two times in two week intervals. NaCl was also applied as drench (200 ml per pot in two day intervals. The results showed that salinity decreased the growth, Chlorophyll reading values, flower number per plant and flower diameter. However, foliar applications of SA resulted in greater root, shoot and total dry weight, plant height and leaf area of calendula plants under salt stress. The highest chlorophyll reading values was obtained from 2.00 mM SA application in all NaCl treatments. Salinity decreased number of flower per plant and flower diameter as ornamental characteristics; however SA increased them under salinity stress. Plants treated with 1.00 mM SA had the highest flower diameter at 100 and 200 mM of NaCl. Electrolyte leakage increased by salinity, however foliar application of SA significantly reduced electrolyte leakage under salt stress. Based on the present results, foliar application of SA treatments can ameliorate the negative effects of salinity on the growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula plants.

  7. Effectiveness of salicylic acid paste for treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cows compared with tetracycline spray and hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Innerebner, Carmen; Pesenhofer, Robert; Hangl, Andreas; Tichy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of salicylic acid paste (PASTE) was tested for topical treatment of 25 acute and 25 chronic digital dermatitis (DD) lesions. Control groups with the same number of acute and chronic DD lesions were treated with topical oxytetracycline spray (SPRAY) and by washing only with water (HYDRO) respectively. The therapeutic effects were evaluated using a pain score, the healing rate, the lesion size and other parameters. Pre-treatment and control examinations were carried out on day 0, 4, 14 and 21. In the PASTE group, 76.0% of acute DD lesions were pain free and 64.0% of acute DD lesions were healed on day 21 showing a normal skin surface (MO). Only 28.0% of acute DD lesions treated with SPRAY and 16.0% treated with HYDRO had healed on day 21. A significantly higher healing rate was revealed in acute lesions for the PASTE compared to the HYDRO group (p < 0.05) for all three re-checks, and for the PASTE group compared with the SPRAY group (p < 0.05) for day 4 and day 14. Healing rates of chronic DD lesions were higher in the PASTE group with 44.0% on day 14 and 36.0% on day 21, compared with 16.0% in the SPRAY and 32.0% in the HYDRO group on day 14, and 20.0% (SPRAY) and 28.0% (HYDRO) on day 21 respectively. The recurrence rate of lesions after they had healed during the study period was 14.5% in total. Digital dermatitis lesions treated with salicylic acid paste and a wrap showed significantly higher healing rates within the study period, odds ratios for healing of acute lesions with PASTE were 4.5 to 6.7 times higher than with SPRAY, and 9.3 to 36.4 higher compared with HYDRO.

  8. Salicylic Acid Perturbs sRNA-Gibberellin Regulatory Network in Immune Response of Potato to Potato virus Y Infection

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    Maja Križnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato virus Y is the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We aimed at unraveling the roles of small RNAs (sRNAs in the complex immune signaling network controlling the establishment of tolerant response of potato cv. Désirée to the virus. We constructed a sRNA regulatory network connecting sRNAs and their targets to link sRNA level responses to physiological processes. We discovered an interesting novel sRNAs-gibberellin regulatory circuit being activated as early as 3 days post inoculation (dpi before viral multiplication can be detected. Two endogenous sRNAs, miR167 and phasiRNA931 were predicted to regulate gibberellin biosynthesis genes GA20-oxidase and GA3-oxidase. The increased expression of phasiRNA931 was also reflected in decreased levels of GA3-oxidase transcripts. Moreover, decreased concentration of gibberellin confirmed this regulation. The functional relation between lower activity of gibberellin signaling and reduced disease severity was previously confirmed in Arabidopsis-virus interaction using knockout mutants. We further showed that this regulation is salicylic acid-dependent as the response of sRNA network was attenuated in salicylic acid-depleted transgenic counterpart NahG-Désirée expressing severe disease symptoms. Besides downregulation of gibberellin signaling, regulation of immune receptor transcripts by miR6022 as well as upregulation of miR164, miR167, miR169, miR171, miR319, miR390, and miR393 in tolerant Désirée, revealed striking similarities to responses observed in mutualistic symbiotic interactions. The intertwining of different regulatory networks revealed, shows how developmental signaling, disease symptom development, and stress signaling can be balanced.

  9. Stems age, nitrogen fertilizer and salicylic acid application in cutting induction of noble dendrobium orchid of the Yamamoto series cultivars

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    Jeferson João Soccol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of noble dendrobium orchid (Dendrobium nobile Lindl. by cutting was studied in two experiments. In the first experiment we evaluated the effect stem age on propagation success: mature stems - from already bloomed stems; and young stems – yet to bloom; and Nitrogen fertilizer application, from two sources: as Nitrate and Ammonium (respectively as Calcium Nitrate at concentrations of: 5.81 gL-1; 11.61 gL-1; 17.42 gL-1; and Urea at concentrations of 2.00 gL-1; 4.00 gL-1 and 6.00 gL-1 plus control treatments. We evaluated the following parameters: the number of cuttings stalks that launched shoots and/or roots, vigor, number of roots per plant and root length per plant. Factorial analysis of variance (stems age x source of Nitrogen; and age of stem x Nitrogen level was applied using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM approach. Where significant differences were observed, averages were compared using post-hoc tests (Tukey. Propagation success was higher using cuttings from mature stems (60.2%, a value 1.6 times higher than obtained with stem cuttings from young stems (38.0%. Application of Nitrogen, in both forms, did not influence any of the evaluated parameters. In the second experiment we treated cuttings from mature stems with Salicylic acid in 3 concentrations (0.10 mM; 0.50 mM; 1.00 mM and plus a control treatment. Evaluated parameters included proportion of cuttings stalks that launched shoots and/or roots, leaf length, root length, and number of roots per stem cutting. Factorial analysis of variance was applied with post-hoc tests. Application of 0.50 mM of Salicylic acid increased the proportion of cuttings stalks that launched shoots and/or roots by 20.5% relative to the control treatment.

  10. Development of an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid in rose leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Renato; Daeseleire, Els; Van Pamel, Els; Scariot, Valentina; Leus, Leen

    2014-07-09

    This paper describes a method to detect and quantitate the endogenous plant hormones (±)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, (-)-jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid by means of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in hybrid rose leaf matrices. Deuterium-labeled [(2)H6] (+)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, [(2)H6] (±)-jasmonic acid, and [(2)H4]-salicylic acid were used as internal standards. Rose samples (10 mg) were extracted with methanol/water/acetic acid (10:89:1) and subsequently purified on an Oasis MCX 1 cm(3) Vac SPE cartridge. Performance characteristics were validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Recovery, repeatability, and within-laboratory reproducibility were acceptable for all phytohormones tested at three different concentrations. The decision limit and detection capability for (±)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, (-)-jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were 0.0075 and 0.015 μg/g, 0.00015 and 0.00030 μg/g, and 0.0089 and 0.018 μg/g, respectively. Matrix effects (signal suppression or enhancement) appeared to be high for all substances considered, implying the need for quantitation based on matrix-matched calibration curves.

  11. The Role of Salicylic Acid and Chitosan Foliar Applications ‎under Drought Stress Condition on Some Physiological Traits ‎and Oil Yield of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Amiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of drought and foliar applications of salicylic acid and chitosan on some physiological traits and oil yield of safflower under drought a split plot experiment with three replications based on a randomized complete block design was conducted at the University of Zabol, Iran. Treatments were three levels irrigations at 25, 50 and 75% of soil available water assigned to main plots, and four levels of foliar applications of salicylic acid and chitosan (control, 0.424 g/liter of salicylic acid, 5 g/liter of chitosan and mixed application of salicylic acid and chitosan to sub-plots. Water stress reduced oil yield and phosphorus, potassium and calcium contents of shoot. Oil yield was decreased with increasing drought stress by 11% as compared to that of control. Severe water stress also increased the amount of sodium in seed, but its effects on nitrogen and iron control of shoot, membrane stability index and relative humidity were not significant. Foliar application of salicylic acid and chitosan increased macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and micronutrients (calcium and iron. Seed oil yield was not affected by foliar spray. In general, combined application chitosan and salicylic acid on traits under study was effective. It can be suggested that combined application of chitosan and salicylic acid could be effective in growing safflower at this region.

  12. Heterotrimeric G proteins-mediated resistance to necrotrophic pathogens includes mechanisms independent of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid/ethylene- and abscisic acid-mediated defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusov, Yuri; Sewelam, Nasser; Rookes, James Edward; Kunkel, Matt; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer Martin; Botella, José Ramón

    2009-04-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are involved in the defense response against necrotrophic fungi in Arabidopsis. In order to elucidate the resistance mechanisms involving heterotrimeric G proteins, we analyzed the effects of the Gβ (subunit deficiency in the mutant agb1-2 on pathogenesis-related gene expression, as well as the genetic interaction between agb1-2 and a number of mutants of established defense pathways. Gβ-mediated signaling suppresses the induction of salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, ethylene (ET)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent genes during the initial phase of the infection with Fusarium oxysporum (up to 48 h after inoculation). However, at a later phase it enhances JA/ET-dependent genes such as PDF1.2 and PR4. Quantification of the Fusarium wilt symptoms revealed that Gβ- and SA-deficient mutants were more susceptible than wild-type plants, whereas JA- and ET-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants demonstrated various levels of resistance. Analysis of the double mutants showed that the Gβ-mediated resistance to F. oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola was mostly independent of all of the previously mentioned pathways. However, the progressive decay of agb1-2 mutants was compensated by coi1-21 and jin1-9 mutations, suggesting that at this stage of F. oxysporum infection Gβ acts upstream of COI1 and ATMYC2 in JA signaling. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Protection against salicylate ototoxicity by zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, T; Rebentisch, E; Vormann, J

    1989-03-01

    One day after oral application of 700 mg (5.5 mmol)/kg salicylic acid given as Na salicylate, hearing thresholds in rats, measured by acoustically evoked responses at 10 and 20 kHz, were increased. Salicylate-induced hearing loss was completely prevented by simultaneous s.c. injection of 6 mg (92 mumol)/kg Zn, whereas simultaneous s.c. injection of 1.5 mmol/kg MgCl2 had no effect. Simultaneous s.c. injection of 100 mg (152 mumol)/kg desferrioxamine had only a minor beneficial effect indicating that salicylate-induced Fe accumulation plays no significant role in salicylate ototoxicity.

  14. Transition metal modified and partially calcined inorganic-organic pillared clays for the adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine, and caffeine from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2012-11-15

    Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are considered emerging contaminants, and their efficient removal from water is going to be a challenging endeavor. Microporous adsorbent materials, including pillared clays, could offer a potential solution if tailored properly. Although pillared clays have been employed previously for the removal of organics, the effective removal of PPCPs will only be possible if their surface and textural properties are manipulated from the bottom-up. This work presents the use of modified inorganic-organic pillared clays (IOCs) for the adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine, and caffeine. The IOCs have been modified with Co(2+), Cu(2+), or Ni(2+) to induce complexation-like adsorbate-adsorbent interactions at ambient conditions, in an attempt to provide an efficient and yet reversible driving force in the sub-ppm concentration range. Furthermore, the IOCs were partially calcined to increase effective surface area by an order of magnitude while preserving some hydrophobicity. In general, the Ni(2+) IOCs exhibited the greatest interaction with salicylic and clofibric acids, respectively, while the Co(2+) adsorbents excelled at adsorbing caffeine at low concentrations. All of the metal-modified IOCs showed comparable adsorption capacities for the case of carbamazepine, probably due to the lack of availability of particular functional groups in this adsorbate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Forced degradation of mometasone furoate and development of two RP-HPLC methods for its determination with formoterol fumarate or salicylic acid

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I.; Fouad, Marwa A.; El-Shal, Manal A.; Tolba, Enas H.

    2016-01-01

    Two simple, selective and precise stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic methods were developed and validated for the determination of mometasone furoate in two binary mixtures, with formoterol fumarate (Mixture 1) and salicylic acid (Mixture 2). Also, a forced degradation study of mometasone furoate was carried out including acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal and photo-degradation. For mixture 1, the method was based on isocratic elution using a mobile phase c...

  16. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

  17. [Analysis of preservatives used in cosmetic products: salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, potassium sorbate, phenoxyethanol, and parabens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Preservatives are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic products. The Japanese standards for cosmetics set restrictions on the maximum amount of each preservative added to cosmetics as per the purpose of use of cosmetics. For the investigation into the actual conditions of commonly used preservatives in commercial cosmetics, we analyzed parabens, phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, salicylic acid, and potassium sorbate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one samples were obtained from cosmetic product manufacturers located in 14 prefectures in Japan. Among different acid- and salt-based preservatives, sodium benzoate was observed to have been used in many products. These acid- and salt-based preservatives were used with parabens in personal washing products, such as shampoo and soap. The labels of two of the cosmetic product samples displayed inaccurate ingredient information, that is, a preservative other than the one used in the corresponding product was listed on them. The amount of preservatives used did not exceed regulatory limits in any of the analyzed samples.

  18. Naringenin inhibits seed germination and seedling root growth through a salicylic acid-independent mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Iker; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-12-01

    Flavonoids fulfill an enormous range of biological functions in plants. In seeds, these compounds play several roles; for instance proanthocyanidins protect them from moisture, pathogen attacks, mechanical stress, UV radiation, etc., and flavonols have been suggested to protect the embryo from oxidative stress. The present study aimed at determining the role of flavonoids in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) seed germination, and the involvement of salicylic acid (SA) and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid), two phytohormones with the same biosynthetic origin as flavonoids, the shikimate pathway, in such a putative role. We show that naringenin, a flavanone, strongly inhibits the germination of A. thaliana seeds in a dose-dependent and SA-independent manner. Altered auxin levels do not affect seed germination in Arabidopsis, but impaired auxin transport does, although to a minor extent. Naringenin and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) impair auxin transport through the same mechanisms, so the inhibition of germination by naringenin might involve impaired auxin transport among other mechanisms. From the present study it is concluded that naringenin inhibits the germination of Arabidopsis seeds in a dose-dependent and SA-independent manner, and the results also suggest that such effects are exerted, at least to some extent, through impaired auxin transport, although additional mechanisms seem to operate as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant-plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2016-08-01

    Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant-plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant-plant-plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nucleation-growth of salicylic acid-oxoTiO{sub 2} colloids synthesized by sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieng, S.; Jia, Z. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 avenue J.-B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Subra-Paternault, P. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Membranes et Nanoobjets, CBMN – UMR 5248, Bâtiment, 14B, Allée Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 33600 Pessac (France); Kanaev, A. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 avenue J.-B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Chhor, K., E-mail: khay.chhor@lspm.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 avenue J.-B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, the preparation of hybrid oxo-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified by salicylic acid (SA) is reported. The size-selected TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized in a sol-gel reactor with rapid micromixing of reagents and binding of SA molecules occurs at the nucleation stage. UV-visible absorption, Raman spectroscopy and Light scattering measurements evidence the formation of a SA–oxo-TiO{sub 2} charge-transfer complex. In particularly, the C=O vibration mode of SA shifts to lower frequencies upon complexation while the C-O vibration modes of both carboxylate and phenolic groups retain their position. The absence of C-O shift comes from two effects that cancel each other, i.e. the hardening of this mode related to the C=O mode changes and its softening due to the replacement of hydrogen in COH group by Ti atoms. Kinetic studies of the oxo-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles nucleation and growth in presence of SA show that the acidic ligand at the nanoparticle surface acts as an attractor for another oxo-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle leading to polycondensation. This mechanism is responsible for the acceleration of the nanoparticle aggregation kinetics and shortening of the induction time. The hybrid nanoparticles are stable at pH ≤ 7.7 and release SA molecules at pH ≥ 8.5. - Highlights: • Hybrid oxo-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified by salicylic acid (SA) are prepared. • The synthesis is achieved during the nucleation stage of sol-gel process. • The formation of SA–oxo-TiO{sub 2} charge-transfer complex is evidenced. • Mechanism responsible for the acceleration of the nanoparticle aggregation kinetics is proposed. • SA-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are stable at pH ≤ 7.7 and release SA molecules at pH ≥ 8.5.

  1. Enhanced daidzin production from jasmonic and acetyl salicylic acid elicited hairy root cultures of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Mohd; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Giri, Charu Chandra

    2016-07-01

    Daidzin (7-O-glucoside of daidzein) has several pharmacological benefits in herbal remedy, as antioxidant and shown antidipsotropic activity. Hairy root culture of Psoralea corylifolia L. was developed for biomass and enhanced daidzin production using signalling compounds such as jasmonic acid (JA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Best response of 2.8-fold daidzin (5.09% DW) with 1 μM JA treatment after second week and 7.3-fold (3.43% DW) with 10 μM JA elicitation after 10th week was obtained from hairy roots compared to untreated control. ASA at 10 μM promoted 1.7-fold increase in daidzin (1.49% DW) content after seventh week compared to control (0.83% DW). Addition of 25 μM ASA resulted in 1.44% DW daidzin (1.5-fold increase) with 0.91% DW in control after fifth week and 1.44% DW daidzin (2.3-fold increase) after eighth week when compared to untreated control (0.62% DW). Reduced biomass with increased daidzin content was facilitated by elicited hairy root cultures.

  2. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  3. Low concentrations of salicylic acid delay methyl jasmonate-induced leaf senescence by up-regulating nitric oxide synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yingbin; Liu, Jian; Xing, Da

    2016-09-01

    In plants, extensive efforts have been devoted to understanding the crosstalk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in pathogen defenses, but this crosstalk has scarcely been addressed during senescence. In this study, the effect of SA application on methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced leaf senescence was assessed. We found that low concentrations of SA (1-50 μM) played a delayed role against the senescence promoted by MeJA. Furthermore, low concentrations of SA enhanced plant antioxidant defenses and restricted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in MeJA-treated leaves. When applied simultaneously with MeJA, low concentrations of SA triggered a nitric oxide (NO) burst, and the elevated NO levels were linked to the nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1)-dependent pathway via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. The ability of SA to up-regulate plant antioxidant defenses, reduce ROS accumulation, and suppress leaf senescence was lost in NO-deficient Atnoa1 plants. In a converse manner, exogenous addition of NO donors increased the plant antioxidant capacity and lowered the ROS levels in MeJA-treated leaves. Taken together, the results indicate that SA at low concentrations counteracts MeJA-induced leaf senescence through NOA1-dependent NO signaling and strengthening of the antioxidant defense. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Effect of Pre and Postharvest Treatment of Salicylic Acid and Putrescine on Some Fruit Quality of Granny Smith Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Babalar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research the effects of four levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2 mM of each of salicylic acid and putrescine treatments on the quality improvement of Granny Smith apple fruit were studied. Factorial experiment in randomized complete block with three replications on 16 trees, eighteen years in researcher station of agriculture university of Tehran was designed. For this purpose the trees were sprayed with the treatments solutions in three stages including; immediately after full bloom, 45 days after full bloom, and 116 days after full bloom (two weeks before harvesting. After harvesting, three or four fruits were assigned for each sample and immersion into the treatment solutions for 30 min, packed, and moved to 1±0.5º C temperate and 85-90% relative humidity storage. Samples each 45 days in 5 stages exited from storage and evaluated for fruit weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, treatable acidity (TA, (TSS/TA and pH. The results showed, in to storage time fruit weight loss in treated fruits significantly (p

  5. On the origin of surface imposed anisotropic growth of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids crystals during droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Cysewski, Piotr; Pawelec, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław

    2015-03-01

    In this paper droplet evaporative crystallization of salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) crystals on different surfaces, such as glass, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and paraffin was studied. The obtained crystals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. In order to better understand the effect of the surface on evaporative crystallization, crystals deposited on glass were scraped off. Moreover, evaporative crystallization of a large volume of solution was performed. As we found, paraffin which is non-polar surface promotes formation of crystals morphologically similar to those obtained via bulk evaporative crystallization. On the other hand, when crystallization is carried out on the polar surfaces (glass and PVA), there is a significant orientation effect. This phenomenon is manifested by the reduction of the number of peaks in PXRD spectrum recorded for deposited on the surface crystals. Noteworthy, reduction of PXRD signals is not observed for powder samples obtained after scraping crystals off the glass. In order to explain the mechanism of carboxylic crystals growth on the polar surfaces, quantum-chemical computations were performed. It has been found that crystal faces of the strongest orientation effect can be characterized by the highest surface densities of intermolecular interactions energy (IIE). In case of SA and ASA crystals formed on the polar surfaces the most dominant faces are characterized by the highest adhesive and cohesive properties. This suggests that the selection rules of the orientation effect comes directly from surface IIE densities.

  6. Polysaccharide arabinogalactan from larch Larix sibirica as carrier for molecules of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acid: preparation, physicochemical and pharmacological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyachenko, Yulia S; Dushkin, Alexandr V; Polyakov, Nikolay E; Khvostov, Mikhail V; Tolstikova, Tatyana G; Tolstikov, Genrikh A; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z

    2015-05-01

    Inclusion complexes of salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) with polysaccharide arabinogalactan (AG) from larch wood Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii were synthesized using mechanochemical technology. In the present study, we have investigated physicochemical properties of the synthesized complexes in solid state and in aqueous solutions as well as their anti-aggregation and ulcerogenic activity. The evidence of the complexes formation was obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation technique. It was shown that in aqueous solution the molecules of SA and ASA are in fast exchange between the complex with AG macromolecules and solution. The stability constant of aspirin complex was calculated. It was shown that mechanochemically synthesized complexes are more stable when compared to the complex obtained by mixing solutions of the components. Complexes of ASA show two-fold increase of anti-platelet effect. It allows to reduce the dose of the antithrombotic drug and its ulcerogenic activity. These results substantiate the possibility to design new preparations on the basis of ASA with increased activity and safety.

  7. Contribution of salicylic acid glucosyltransferase, OsSGT1, to chemically induced disease resistance in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Kenji; Satou, Junji; Iwata, Michiaki; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Koga, Jinichiro; Kawano, Tomonori; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Anzai, Hiroyuki; Mitomi, Masaaki

    2009-02-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a natural disease response in plants, can be induced chemically. Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a key endogenous signaling molecule that mediates SAR in dicotyledonous plants. However, the role of SA in monocotyledonous plants has yet to be elucidated. In this study, the mode of action of the agrochemical protectant chemical probenazole was assessed by microarray-based determination of gene expression. Cloning and characterization of the most highly activated probenazole-responsive gene revealed that it encodes UDP-glucose:SA glucosyltransferase (OsSGT1), which catalyzes the conversion of free SA into SA O-beta-glucoside (SAG). We found that SAG accumulated in rice leaf tissue following treatment with probenazole or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. A putative OsSGT1 gene from the rice cultivar Akitakomachi was cloned and the gene product expressed in Escherichia coli was characterized, and the results suggested that probenazole-responsive OsSGT1 is involved in the production of SAG. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated silencing of the OsSGT1 gene significantly reduced the probenazole-dependent development of resistance against blast disease, further supporting the suggestion that OsSGT1 is a key mediator of development of chemically induced disease resistance. The OsSGT1 gene may contribute to the SA signaling mechanism by inducing up-regulation of SAG in rice plants.

  8. Investigating the role of solvent-solute interaction in crystal nucleation of salicylic acid from organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamar, Dikshitkumar; Zeglinski, Jacek; Mealey, Donal; Rasmuson, Åke C

    2014-08-20

    In previous work, it has been shown that the crystal nucleation of salicylic acid (SA) in different solvents becomes increasingly more difficult in the order: chloroform, ethyl acetate acetonitrile, acetone, methanol, and acetic acid. In the present work, vibration spectroscopy, calorimetric measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Raman and infrared spectra suggest that SA exists predominately as dimers in chloroform, but in the other five solvents there is no clear evidence of dimerization. In all solvents, the shift in the SA carbonyl peak reflecting the strength in the solvent-solute interaction is quite well correlated to the nucleation ranking. This shift is corroborated by DFT calculated energies of binding one solvent molecule to the carboxyl group of SA. An even better correlation of the influence of the solvent on the nucleation is provided by DFT calculated energy of binding the complete first solvation shell to the SA molecule. These solvation shell binding energies are corroborated by the enthalpy of solvent-solute interaction as estimated from experimentally determined enthalpy of solution and calculated enthalpy of cavity formation using the scaled particle theory. The different methods reveal a consistent picture and suggest that the stronger the solvent binds to the SA molecule in solution, the slower the nucleation becomes.

  9. Effect of plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria and culture filtrate of Sclerotium rolfsii on phenolic and salicylic acid contents in chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Udai P; Sarma, Birinchi K; Singh, Dhananjaya P

    2003-02-01

    Two plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf4 and P. aeruginosa strain Pag, protected chickpea ( Cicer arietinum) plants from Sclerotium rolfsii infection when applied singly or in combination as seed treatment. Pag gave the best protection to the seedlings, applied either singly (mortality 16%) or in combination with Pf4 (mortality 17%) compared with 44% and 24% mortality in control and Pf4 treatment, respectively. The two PGPR strains induced the synthesis of specific phenolic acids, salicylic acid (SA), as well as total phenolics at different growth stages of chickpea seedlings with varied amount. The maximum amount of total phenolics was recorded in all the aerial parts of 4-week-old plants. Gallic, ferulic, chlorogenic, and cinnamic acids were the major phenolic acids detected in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Induction of such phenolic acids in the seedlings was observed up to 6 weeks in comparison with control. Salicylic acid (SA) was induced frequently during the first 3 weeks of growth only. Between the two strains, Pag was more effective in inducing phenolic acid synthesis applied either singly or in combination with strain Pf4 during the entire 6 weeks of growth of chickpea. In the presence of a culture filtrate of S. rolfsii, the two Pseudomonas strains induced more phenolic acids in treated than in non-treated and control plants. The occurrence of salicylic acid was frequent in the first 24 h, but infrequent at 48 and 96 h. Foliar spray of Pseudomonas strains also enhanced the phenolic acid content as well as total phenolics within 24 h of application. Gallic, chlorogenic, and cinnamic acids were consistently discerned in the treated leaves, whereas SA was absent even up to 96 h of application. Resistance in chickpea plants by Pseudomonas strains through induction of phenolic compounds as well as induced systemic resistance via SA-dependent pathway was evident.

  10. Comparative studies about the influence of salicylic and acetylsalicilic acid on content of assimilatory pigments in the primary leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia PURCAREA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA and some of its derivates are phenolic compounds recently recognized as plant growth regulators involved in many physiological processes including photosynthesis. One of the important derivates of Salicylic Acid is the Acetylsalicylic Acid. In the present investigation we studied the influence of exogenous Acetylsalicylic and Salicylic acid with different concentrations on the assimilatory pigments contents of the primary leaves of wheat seedlings in comparison with the same parameters of the control lots which were treated with water. The wheat seedlings were soaked for 6 hours in 0.01mM; 0.1mM; 0.5mM and 1 mM SA or ASA solutions and in water for the control lot, germinated for 7 days on filter paper moistened with water. After that, we planted the plantlets in sand and sprayed their coleoptiles and primary leaves, each day for an additional 7 days, with water. In the 14th days of germination we determined the content of assimilatory pigments extracted with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. The results showed that exogenous 0.01 mM, 0.1mM, 0.5 mM or 1.0 mM SA solution treatments cause more significant increases in the assimilatory pigments contents in leaves of wheat plantlets than treatments with ASA solutions of the same concentrations do.

  11. Involvement of salicylic acid, glutathione and protein S-thiolation in plant cell death-mediated defence response of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Wielanek, Marzena; Głowacki, Rafał; Kornas, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    The response of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants performing C3 photosynthesis and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to the non-host necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea was analyzed at the local and systemic levels. The induction of programmed cell death, lignin and callose deposition, changes in salicylic acid, glutathione and cysteinylglycine pools as well as the content of thiolated proteins were studied. The infected C3 and CAM plants exhibited hypersensitive-like defence response, however fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide revealed programmed cell death events in C3 plants only. The local immune response was not related to callose and lignin deposition. In the infected plants, salicylic acid, glutathione and cysteinylglycine, the first product of glutathione catabolism, as well as protein S-thiolation, predominantly S-glutathionylation, contributed to local defence at sites of inoculation. They (except protein thiolation) were also active in the establishment of systemic acclimation response monitored in the non-treated upper leaves. The extent to which they were involved in the local and systemic responses induced by B. cinerea differed in C3 and CAM plants. The accumulation of free salicylic acid, both in treated and upper leaves of the infected plants, was much more pronounced in CAM plants. The results have been discussed with respect to redox regulations in defence against necrotrophic pathogens and to stress acclimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium: 2-hydroxy-5-selenocyanatobenzoic acid as an anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Pietro Maria; Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Sari, Marcel Henrique Marcondes; Oliveira, Carla Elena Sartori; Canto, Rômulo Faria Santos; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Braga, Antonio Luiz; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of per oral (p.o.) administration of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium compounds in chemical models of nociception in mice. The compounds (50 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered 30 and 60 min before the nociceptive behavior and compared to the positive-control, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 200 mg/kg; p.o.). In addition, a dose-response curve (25-100 mg/kg) for compounds was carried out in the formalin test. When assessed in the chemical models, acetic acid-induced writhing behavior, formalin and glutamate tests, the compounds showed the following antinociceptive profile 1B>2B>1A>2A, suggesting a chemical structure-dependent relationship. Then, the anti-inflammatory properties and toxicological potential of compound 1B were investigated. Compound 1B, similar to the positive-control, ASA, diminished the edema formation and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity induced by croton oil (2.5%) in the ear tissue. The results also indicate that a single oral administration of 1B caused neither signs of acute toxicity nor those of gastrointestinal injury. The administration of 1B did not alter the water and food intakes, plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities or urea levels and cerebral or hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity. Salicylic acid-derivative organoseleniums, mainly compound 1B, have been found to be novel compounds with antinociceptive/anti-inflammatory properties; nevertheless, more studies are required to examine their therapeutic potential for pain treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Gibberellin on Seed Reserve Utilization, Germination and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Seeds Under Drought Stress

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    Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming methods have been used to increases germination characteristics under stress conditions. The study aimed was to determine the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellin on seed reserve utilization, germination and enzyme activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was the seed treatments (unpriming, salicylic acid and gibberellin and the second factor was drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar. The results indicated that for these traits: germination percentage, germination index, weight of utilized (mobilized seed, seed reserve utilization efficiency, seedling dry weight and seed reserve depletion percentage was a significant treatment Ч drought interaction. Thus priming improved study traits in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Also, priming improves enzyme activity as compared to the unprimed seeds.

  14. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Novel salicylic acid-based chemically crosslinked pH-sensitive hydrogels as potential drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdirek, Bahar; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2017-08-07

    In this work, salicylic acid (SA), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, was chemically incorporated into hydrogel systems to achieve sustained SA release profiles. With its anti-inflammatory properties, sustained release of SA would be relevant for treating diseases such as diabetes and cancer. In this work, SA was chemically incorporated into hydrogel systems via covalent attachment to an itaconate moiety followed by UV-initiated crosslinking using acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate. The chemical composition of the hydrogel system was confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. The SA-based hydrogels were designed as pH-responsive hydrogels, collapsing at acidic pH (1.2) values and swelling at higher pH (7.4) values for gastrointestinal-specific delivery. The hydrogel systems exhibited a pH-dependent SA release profile: SA release was much slower at pH 1.2 compared to pH 7.4. Under acidic pH conditions, 30wt% SA was released after 24h, whereas 100wt% SA was released in a sustained manner within 24h in pH 7.4 PBS buffer. The pore structure of the gel networks were studied using SEM and exhibit appropriate pore sizes (15-60μm) for physically encapsulating drugs. In addition, rheological studies of the hydrogels proved that these systems are mechanically strong and robust. Mucoadhesive behaviors were confirmed using a Texture Analyzer, the work of adhesion for the hydrogels was around 290 g·mm and the maximum detachment force was around 135g. The SA-based hydrogels demonstrate great potential for oral delivery of bioactives in combination with SA to treat serious diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Evaluation of Exogenous Application of Salicylic Acid on Physiological Characteristics, Proline and Essential Oil Content of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomila L. under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions

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    Mojtaba Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid concentrations on the physiological and biochemical traits and essential oil content of chamomile under normal and heat stress conditions as induced by delayed sowing. The experiments were conducted during 2011–2012 as a factorial using a randomized complete block design with three replications, in a very hot region. The factors included five salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control, 1, 10, 25 and 100 mg·L−1 and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold. The seeds of chamomile were sown on two different sowing dates including an optimum planting date and a late planting date. The physiological traits (plant height, capitol diameter, 1000 grain weight, fresh and dried flower weight, total chlorophyll, proline and essential oil content were investigated. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of the environmental conditions (normal and heat stress was significant on all physiological and biochemical traits with the exception of the essential oil content. The heat stress decreased physiological traits and total chlorophyll in comparison with the normal conditions but it had no significant effect on the essential oil content. Findings indicated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid improves essential oil content in chamomile cultivars under environmental heat stress conditions.

  17. The Effect of Halopriming and Salicylic Acid on the Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum under Different Cadmium Concentrations

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    Arezoo ESPANANY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hereby study was based on a factorial experiment conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, at Agriculture College, Shahrekord University, Iran, in 2014. The role of salicylic acid (SA, potassium nitrate (KNO3 and potassium chloride (KCl was evaluated on seed germination of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. under different cadmium concentrations. Treatments included four levels of seed priming (no priming, potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, salicylic acid and four levels of cadmium concentration (0, 10, 20, 30 mg/L. Cadmium chloride caused a significant inhibition in germination percentage, root elongation, shoot elongation and seedling dry weight. The shoot length was more sensitive to cadmium concentrations than the root length. Primed seeds with SA (100 mg/L proved protection against Cd stress and increased the germination percentage, root elongation, shoot elongation and dry weight of seedlings compared to the control treatment. Seeds treated with SA alleviated the Cd negative effect on germination parameters. In conclusion, using seed priming with salicylic acid can be recommended as a good technique for fenugreek crop on fields exposed to high cadmium toxicity.

  18. Different mechanisms of Trichoderma virens-mediated resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt involve the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2017-06-12

    In the present study, we investigated the role of Trichoderma virens (TriV_JSB100) spores or cell-free culture filtrate in the regulation of growth and activation of the defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by the development of a biocontrol-plant-pathogen interaction system. Two-week-old tomato seedlings primed with TriV_JSB100 spores cultured on barley grains (BGS) or with cell-free culture filtrate (CF) were inoculated with Fusarium pathogen under glasshouse conditions; this resulted in significantly lower disease incidence in tomato Oogata-Fukuju plants treated with BGS than in those treated with CF. To dissect the pathways associated with this response, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signalling in BGS- and CF-induced resistance was evaluated using JA- and SA-impaired tomato lines. We observed that JA-deficient mutant def1 plants were susceptible to Fusarium pathogen when they were treated with BGS. However, wild-type (WT) BGS-treated tomato plants showed a higher JA level and significantly lower disease incidence. SA-deficient mutant NahG plants treated with CF were also found to be susceptible to Fusarium pathogen and displayed low SA levels, whereas WT CF-treated tomato plants exhibited moderately lower disease levels and substantially higher SA levels. Expression of the JA-responsive defensin gene PDF1 was induced in WT tomato plants treated with BGS, whereas the SA-inducible pathogenesis-related protein 1 acidic (PR1a) gene was up-regulated in WT tomato plants treated with CF. These results suggest that TriV_JSB100 BGS and CF differentially induce JA and SA signalling cascades for the elicitation of Fusarium oxysporum resistance in tomato. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Degradation of the Plant Defense Signal Salicylic Acid Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Toxicity and Enhances Virulence on Tobacco

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    Tiffany M. Lowe-Power

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants use the signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA to trigger defenses against diverse pathogens, including the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. SA can also inhibit microbial growth. Most sequenced strains of the heterogeneous R. solanacearum species complex can degrade SA via gentisic acid to pyruvate and fumarate. R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 expresses this SA degradation pathway during tomato pathogenesis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that subinhibitory SA levels induced expression of the SA degradation pathway, toxin efflux pumps, and some general stress responses. Interestingly, SA treatment repressed expression of virulence factors, including the type III secretion system, suggesting that this pathogen may suppress virulence functions when stressed. A GMI1000 mutant lacking SA degradation activity was much more susceptible to SA toxicity but retained the wild-type colonization ability and virulence on tomato. This may be because SA is less important than gentisic acid in tomato defense signaling. However, another host, tobacco, responds strongly to SA. To test the hypothesis that SA degradation contributes to virulence on tobacco, we measured the effect of adding this pathway to the tobacco-pathogenic R. solanacearum strain K60, which lacks SA degradation genes. Ectopic addition of the GMI1000 SA degradation locus, including adjacent genes encoding two porins and a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, significantly increased the virulence of strain K60 on tobacco. Together, these results suggest that R. solanacearum degrades plant SA to protect itself from inhibitory levels of this compound and also to enhance its virulence on plant hosts like tobacco that use SA as a defense signal molecule.

  20. Dermcidin isoform-2 induced nullification of the effect of acetyl salicylic acid in platelet aggregation in acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Sarbashri; Jana, Pradipta; Maiti, Smarajit; Guha, Santanu; Sinha, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation of platelets on the plaque rupture site on the coronary artery is reported to cause both acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). While the inhibition of platelet aggregation by acetyl salicylic acid was reported to produce beneficial effects in ACS, it failed to do in AMI. The concentration of a stress induced protein (dermcidin isoform-2) was much higher in AMI than that in ACS. Incubation of normal platelet rich plasma (PRP) with dermcidin showed one high affinity (Kd = 40 nM) and one low affinity binding sites (Kd = 333 nM). When normal PRP was incubated with 0.4 μM dermcidin, the platelets became resistant to the inhibitory effect of aspirin similar to that in the case of AMI. Incubation of PRP from AMI with dermcidin antibody restored the sensitivity of the platelets to the aspirin effect. Incubation of AMI PRP pretreated with 15 μM aspirin, a stimulator of the NO synthesis, resulted in the increased production of NO in the platelets that removed the bound dermcidin by 40% from the high affinity binding sites of AMI platelets. When the same AMI PRP was retreated with 10 μM aspirin, the aggregation of platelets was completely inhibited by NO synthesis. PMID:25055737

  1. Development of a guided bone regeneration device using salicylic acid-poly(anhydride-ester) polymers and osteoconductive scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ashley; Kim, Brian; Cottrell, Jessica; Snyder, Sabrina; Witek, Lukasz; Ricci, John; Uhrich, Kathryn E; O'Connor, J Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Successful repair of craniofacial and periodontal tissue defects ideally involves a combined therapy that includes inflammation modulation, control of soft tissue infiltration, and bone regeneration. In this study, an anti-inflammatory polymer, salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SAPAE) and a three-dimensional osteoconductive ceramic scaffold were evaluated as a combined guided bone regeneration (GBR) system for concurrent control of inflammation, soft tissue ingrowth, and bone repair in a rabbit cranial defect model. At time periods of 1, 3, and 8 weeks, five groups were compared: (1) scaffolds with a solid ceramic cap (as a GBR structure); (2) scaffolds with no cap; (3) scaffolds with a poly(lactide-glycolide) cap; (4) scaffolds with a slow release SAPAE polymer cap; and (5) scaffolds with a fast release SAPAE polymer cap. Cellular infiltration and bone formation in these scaffolds were evaluated to assess inflammation and bone repair capacity of the test groups. The SAPAE polymers suppressed inflammation and displayed no deleterious effect on bone formation. Additional work is warranted to optimize the anti-inflammatory action of the SAPAE, GBR suppression of soft tissue infiltration, and stimulation of bone formation in the scaffolds and create a composite device for successful repair of craniofacial and periodontal tissue defects. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Salicylic acid restrains nickel toxicity, improves antioxidant defence system and enhances the production of anticancer alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2013-05-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to ameliorate various stresses in plants. In order to explore the role of SA under nickel (Ni) stress, thirty-days old plants of periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.) were supplied with eight treatments comprising basal application of Ni (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg kg(-1)) and foliar application of SA (0 and 10(-5)M) under net house conditions. Ni application significantly reduced the growth attributes including plant height, leaf-area index and fresh and dry weights of shoot and root. Increasing Ni concentration led to a gradual decrease in photosynthetic parameters and activities of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase. The plants, undergoing Ni stress, exhibited a significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase together with an increase in electrolyte leakage and proline content. Total alkaloid content was also declined in Ni-treated plants. Foliar application of SA (10(-5)M) reduced the deleterious effects of Ni on plant growth, accelerating the restoration of growth processes. SA also improved the total alkaloid content under normal as well as adverse conditions. Foliar spray of SA significantly improved the content of anticancer alkaloids vincristine (by 22.2%) and vinblastine (by 50.0%) in plants treated with 150 mg kg(-1) of Ni. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on physiological traits and CBF gene expression in peach floral organs under freezing stress

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    Zhang Binbin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA treatment on the cold resistance of peach flower, the floral organs of two peach cultivars were treated with 20 mg/L SA and stored at 0°C for observation and sample collection. Water application was the control. After a treatment period, the anther relative water content of the control and SA-treated flowers decreased. The extent of the reduction was greater in the control, suggesting that the SA treatment significantly helped to maintain the anther water content of peach. Analysis of the stigma relative electric conductivity revealed that the SA treatment prevented membrane injury during the low temperature treatment. Additionally, we measured CBF gene expression at low temperature in the petal, stigma and ovary. The expression was markedly upregulated in the cold-treated floral organs. CBF gene expression after SA treatment was higher than in the control when cold conditions continued. These results suggest that the effects of SA on ameliorating the freezing injury to peach floral organs and on enhancing cold tolerance may be associated with the induction of CBF gene.

  4. Non-recognition-of-BTH4, an Arabidopsis mediator subunit homolog, is necessary for development and response to salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, Juan Vicente; Dobón, Albor; Tornero, Pablo

    2012-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) signaling acts in defense and plant development. The only gene demonstrated to be required for the response to SA is Arabidopsis thaliana non-expresser of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1), and npr1 mutants are insensitive to SA. By focusing on the effect of analogs of SA on plant development, we identified mutants in additional genes acting in the SA response. In this work, we describe a gene necessary for the SA Non-Recognition-of-BTH4 (NRB4). Three nrb4 alleles recovered from the screen cause phenotypes similar to the wild type in the tested conditions, except for SA-related phenotypes. Plants with NRB4 null alleles express profound insensitivity to SA, even more than npr1. NRB4 null mutants are also sterile and their growth is compromised. Plants carrying weaker nrb4 alleles are also insensitive to SA, with some quantitative differences in some phenotypes, like systemic acquired resistance or pathogen growth restriction. When weak alleles are used, NPR1 and NRB4 mutations produce an additive phenotype, but we did not find evidence of a genetic interaction in F1 nor biochemical interaction in yeast or in planta. NRB4 is predicted to be a subunit of Mediator, the ortholog of MED15 in Arabidopsis. Mechanistically, NRB4 functions downstream of NPR1 to regulate the SA response.

  5. Constitutively active Arabidopsis MAP Kinase 3 triggers defense responses involving salicylic acid and SUMM2 resistance protein

    KAUST Repository

    Genot, Baptiste

    2017-04-12

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important regulators of plant immunity. Most of the knowledge about the function of these pathways is derived from loss-of-function approaches. Using a gain-of-function approach, we investigated the responses controlled by a constitutively active (CA) MPK3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. CA-MPK3 plants are dwarfed and display a massive de-repression of defense genes associated with spontaneous cell death as well as accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phytoalexins and the stress-related hormones ethylene and salicylic acid (SA). Remarkably CA-MPK3/sid2 and CA-MPK3/ein2-50 lines which are impaired in SA synthesis and ethylene signaling, respectively, retain most of the CA-MPK3-associated phenotypes, indicating that constitutive activity of MPK3 can bypass SA and ethylene signaling to activate defense responses. A comparative analysis of the molecular phenotypes of CA-MPK3 and mpk4 autoimmunity suggested convergence between the MPK3 and MPK4-guarding modules. In support of this model, CA-MPK3 crosses with summ1 and summ2, two known suppressors of mpk4, resulted in a partial reversion of the CA-MPK3 phenotypes. Overall, our data unravel a novel mechanism by which the MAPK signaling network contributes to a robust defense response system.

  6. Protein pattern of canola (Brassica napus L. changes in response to salt and salicylic acid in vitro

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    Razavizadeh Roya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salicylic acid (SA on the salt (NaCl tolerance mechanism was studied in canola plants (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. by molecular and physiological experiments in plant tissue culture. Seeds of B. napus ‘Ocapy’ were germinated at 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing different levels (0, 2, and 5 μM of SA for 4 weeks. Total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid content increased in response to interactive effects of SA and NaCl treatments at some concentrations. Proline content was increased under salt and SA treatments in shoot and root tissues. Salt alone and in combination with SA increased the total soluble protein content of shoots only, while the different concentrations of SA in the culture media affected variously the total soluble protein content. Protein patterns of shoots and roots showed some remarkable differences, based on gel electrophoresis and the consequent analysis of bands by ImageJ program. The relative expression of 15 and 12 protein bands in shoots and roots, respectively, differed under the applied treatments. In addition, the protein profile indicated that salinity and SA regulate the expression of salt-stress-inducible proteins as well as induced de novo synthesis of specific polypeptides. The findings may help to explain the salt tolerance mechanisms and to produce salt-tolerant canola plants.

  7. Activation of Plant Innate Immunity by Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 3 and Its Inhibition by Salicylic Acid.

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    Hyong Woo Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs signal the presence of tissue damage to induce immune responses in plants and animals. Here, we report that High Mobility Group Box 3 (HMGB3 is a novel plant DAMP. Extracellular HMGB3, through receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1, induced hallmark innate immune responses, including i MAPK activation, ii defense-related gene expression, iii callose deposition, and iv enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Infection by necrotrophic B. cinerea released HMGB3 into the extracellular space (apoplast. Silencing HMGBs enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea, while HMGB3 injection into apoplast restored resistance. Like its human counterpart, HMGB3 binds salicylic acid (SA, which results in inhibition of its DAMP activity. An SA-binding site mutant of HMGB3 retained its DAMP activity, which was no longer inhibited by SA, consistent with its reduced SA-binding activity. These results provide cross-kingdom evidence that HMGB proteins function as DAMPs and that SA is their conserved inhibitor.

  8. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivi, M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M. S.; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-01-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease. PMID:27721689

  9. Clinical comparison of salicylic acid peel and LED-Laser phototherapy for the treatment of Acne vulgaris in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Monique Narciso; Gerenutti, Marli; Yoshida, Valquíria Miwa Hanai; Grotto, Denise

    2017-02-01

    Acne vulgaris treatments usually cause sensitivity, teratogenicity and bacterial resistance. Investigations of other therapeutic techniques, such as phototherapy, are highly relevant. Thus, we compared the effectiveness of two Acne vulgaris treatments in adolescents: peeling with salicylic acid (SA) and phototherapy. Teens were randomly divided into: group I, treatment with SA peels (10%) and group II, treatment with phototherapy (blue LED and red laser lights). Photographs were taken before and after ten sessions of each treatment, carried out weekly, and compared. To compare the differences between the treatments, the Student t-test was used. P values treatment of acne in teenagers since the number of comedones, papules and pustules decreased significantly at the end of the session. However, when the two treatments were compared, phototherapy showed a significant difference in reducing the number of pustules. The combined use of red and blue lights due to their anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties is a more efficient alternative for treating Acne vulgaris in relation to SA and proves more reliable and without side effects, improving the adolescents' skin health.

  10. Interactive effects of Salicylic acid and nitric oxide in alleviating zinc toxicity of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdjoyan, Shahram; Kermanian, Hossein; Abolhasani Soorki, Ali; Modarres Tabatabaei, Sedigheh; Elyasi, Nazli

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the possible protective role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide, and their combination on 21-day-old safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seedlings grown under zinc (Zn) stress. The results revealed that exposure to 500 µM ZnSO4.7H2O for 10 days markedly reduced the root and shoot dry weights in Zn-treated plants, while the application of SA, SNP and specially SA + SNP significantly increased the root and shoot dry weights in seedlings subjected to Zn stress. Addition of SA, SNP and SA + SNP interestingly reduced root-to-shoot translocation of zinc and increased significantly the level of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (ASC) in leaves of Zn-stressed plants. The Zn-treated plants supplemented with SA and SNP revealed an improved activity of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and those enzymes which are involved in glyoxalase system as compared to the plants treated with Zn only. However, no significant relationship was found between SA or SNP supplementation and glutathione S-transferase activity in Zn-stressed plants. These findings demonstrate that exogenous application of SA or SNP could ameliorate the negative effects of Zn on safflower plants probably by stimulation of antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems.

  11. Serum salicylic acid and fruit and vegetable consumption in obese and normal-weight children: a pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Mariani, Benedetta; Battezzati, Alberto; Diaferio, Lucia; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Radaelli, Giovanni; Verduci, Elvira

    2017-06-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic compound produced by plants, may play a beneficial role on health. This pilot study evaluated whether there might be an association between serum SA and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in obese and normal-weight children. Thirty-four obese children (17 boys and 17 girls) and 34 normal-weight children were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by the 7-day dietary record. Serum SA was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. FV intake in obese and normal-weight children was not different between groups (175.00 (97.66) g versus 192.29 (90.54) g, p = .455). Obese children had lower serum SA than normal-weight children [mean difference, -0.025; 95% CI (-0.044; -0.006) μmol/L]. Serum SA was not associated with daily intake of FV in obese (p = .111) and normal-weight (p = .092) children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of FV on serum SA, taking into account also the quantity and the type.

  12. The Xanthomonas effector XopJ triggers a conditional hypersensitive response upon treatment of N. benthamiana leaves with salicylic acid

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    Suayib eÜstün

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available XopJ is a Xanthomonas type III effector protein that promotes bacterial virulence on susceptible pepper plants through the inhibition of the host cell proteasome and a resultant suppression of salicylic acid (SA – dependent defense responses. We show here that Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently expressing XopJ display hypersensitive response (HR –like symptoms when exogenously treated with SA. This apparent avirulence function of XopJ was further dependent on effector myristoylation as well as on an intact catalytic triad, suggesting a requirement of its enzymatic activity for HR-like symptom elicitation. The ability of XopJ to cause a HR-like symptom development upon SA treatment was lost upon silencing of SGT1 and NDR1, respectively, but was independent of EDS1 silencing, suggesting that XopJ is recognized by an R protein of the CC-NBS-LRR class. Furthermore, silencing of NPR1 abolished the elicitation of HR-like symptoms in XopJ expressing leaves after SA application. Measurement of the proteasome activity indicated that proteasome inhibition by XopJ was alleviated in the presence of SA, an effect that was not observed in NPR1 silenced plants. Our results suggest that XopJ - triggered HR-like symptoms are closely related to the virulence function of the effector and that XopJ follows a two-signal model in order to elicit a response in the non-host plant N. benthamiana.

  13. Salicylic acid affects the expression of VvCBF4 gene in grapes subjected to low temperature

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    Mohammad Ali Aazami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA on the expression of Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding factor 4 (VvCBF4 gene under low-temperature conditions in an Iranian Vitis viniferea L. ‘Sultanina’. The experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with four replications. 100 μmol/L SA (0, 1, 6 and 12 h before applying cold stress in temperatures of 1 ± 0.5 °C (for 1, 3, 6 and 12 h and 22 °C (as control were applied. The highest expression was observed in plants treated 6 h before sampling. By increasing the duration of low temperature, the expression of VvCBF4 increased. Increasing the duration of cold stress to 6 h in 1 °C increased the expression of VvCBF4 to 24.3 fold. Exogenous application of SA and cold stress treatments increased the expression of VvCBF4. In conclusion, exogenous application of SA in cold stress, increased the expression of VvCBF4 depending on treating time before cold stress. The highest VvCBF4 expression was observed in plants treated 6 h before sampling and increasing the time decreased the expression. By increasing the expression of VvCBF4 the tolerance of plant to cold stress increased.

  14. Reyes's syndrome, encephalopathy, hyperammonemia and acetyl salicylic acid ingestion in a city hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberg, Abraham; Fernández, María A; Coll, Carlos; Rosello, Diego O; Romay, Salvador; Perazzo, Juan C; Filinger, Ester J

    2009-01-01

    Twelve cases of Reye's syndrome are presented with different degrees of encephalopathy, hyperammonemia and hypoglycemia; associated to acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) ingestion. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe our experience in selected patients with Reye's syndrome associated to the ASA ingestion and to underline the influence of hyperammonemia on Reye's encephalopathy. All the cases presented moderate hyperbilirubinemia, elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase with an average of 302+/-205 UI/L and 285+/-149 UI/L respectively. Arterial blood ammonia averaged 172.4+/-71.3 micromol/L and glycaemia averaged 35.2+/-17.0 mg/dl. A high mortality was found in our series (41.7%). Considering that encephalopathy is the leading syndrome in these cases, the influence of ammonia on brain tissue was described. Glutamate is an excitotoxic neurotransmitter, capable to produce neuron and astrocyte damage and apoptosis. The presence of ASA could cause the onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition and the mitochondrial swelling in the astrocyte, leading to hyperammonemia. In Reye's syndrome, hyperammonemia and perhaps the increase of glutamate are the leading factors in the mechanism of brain damage and encephalopathy. Aspirin must be carefully administrated and controlled by professionals. Furthermore, parents must be informed about the risks in the use of this drug in children.

  15. Synergistic efficacy of salicylic acid with a penetration enhancer on human skin monitored by OCT and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Dai, Cuixia; Fan, Shanhui; Lv, Jing; Nie, Liming

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been frequently used as a facial chemical peeling agent (FCPA) in various cosmetics for facial rejuvenation and dermatological treatments in the clinic. However, there is a tradeoff between therapeutic effectiveness and possible adverse effects caused by this agent for cosmetologists. To optimize the cosmetic efficacy with minimal concentration, we proposed a chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) azone to synergistically work with SA on human skin in vivo. The optical properties of human skin after being treated with SA alone and SA combined with azone (SA@azone) were successively investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results revealed that as the SA concentration increased, the light reflectance decreased and the absorption increased. We also found that SA@azone exhibited a synergistic effect on enhancing light penetration and OCT imaging depth. We demonstrated that the combination of DRS and OCT techniques could be used as a noninvasive, rapid and accurate measurement method to monitor the subtle changes of skin tissue after treatment with FCPA and CPE. The approach will greatly benefit the development of clinical cosmetic surgery, dermatosis diagnosis and therapeutic effect inspection in related biomedical studies.

  16. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT, polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  17. Contrastive response of Brassica napus L. to exogenous salicylic acid, selenium and silicon supplementation under water stress

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    Habibi Ghader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was designed to determine the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA, selenium (Se and silicon (Si on the resistance of canola (Brassica napus L. cv Okapi seedlings to salt stress. Foliar application of SA (0.1 mM in canola plants under drought stress for 25 days exhibited a significantly positive effect on shoot dry mass and raised the levels of total chlorophyll as well as boosting the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. In addition, soil application of silicon (0.35 g Na2SiO3/kg soil had ameliorative effects on canola root growth under drought. It is concluded that SA and Si enhanced the salt tolerance of canola by protecting the cell membrane against lipid peroxidation. However, the foliar application of Se (10 mg/l had no ameliorative effects on canola growth and antioxidant capacity under drought stress, as could be judged by accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA.

  18. Effect of salicylic acid on phenolic compounds related to date palm resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis

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    A. Dihazi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA plays a key role in establishing resistance to pathogens in many plants. To study the possible involvement of SA in the resistance of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (FOA, we investigated levels of phenolic compounds, known as indicators of resistance in the date palm/ Fusarium pathosystem. After treatment with SA the content of root soluble phenolics in F. oxysporum inoculated date palm seedlings was about 4 times higher in cv. Bousthami noir and 6 times higher in cv. Jihel than that in untreated plants showing disease symptoms. The largest increase was at a SA concentration of 50 µM. SA treatment also enhanced the content of cell wall phenolics. In addition, inoculation of SA-treated roots of date palm with FOA (strain ZAG resulted in a greater number of plants showing only limited hypersensitive reaction-like necrotic lesions. In contrast, SA-untreated plants normally showed spreading necrosis in response to fungus inoculation.

  19. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/salicylic acid nanoparticles versatility in magnetic mediated vascular nanoblockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mîndrilă, I., E-mail: tutu0101@yahoo.com [University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Faculty of Medicine (Romania); Buteică, S. A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Faculty of Pharmacy (Romania); Mihaiescu, D. E.; Badea, G.; Fudulu, A. [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science (Romania); Mărgăritescu, D. N. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Faculty of Medicine (Romania)

    2016-01-15

    An aqueous dispersion of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/salicylic acid magnetic nanoparticles (SaMNPs) was synthesized by a modified Massart method, characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) methods, and tested on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model to evaluate biocompatibility, biodistribution, intravascular time persistence, and ability to be magnetically target driven in order to block the blood supply into a tumor xenograft. ICP-OES, DLS, and HRTEM SaMNPs sample analyses showed a 0.356 mg/mL Fe concentration, a good stability in water (average Zeta potential of 39.3 mV), a hydrodynamic diameter around 52 nm and a core diameter in the 7–15 nm range for the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. In vivo CAM assay showed that SaMNPs were biocompatible with the chick embryo, were fixed almost completely by the liver, had no embolic potential, and a threshold-dose-dependent intravascular magnetic targeting time. Study on the CAM tumor model showed that SaMNPs could be used for long-term magnetically mediated nanoblocking of the capillary networks and 70-µm smaller arterioles.

  20. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant–plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1138, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Xu, Shaoxin [School of physics and materials science, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui, 230601 (China); Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1138, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Bian, Po, E-mail: bianpo@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1138, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in plants can be epigenetically alleviated by volatile signals from UV-C- irradiated neighboring plants. • Alleviation of TGS can be induced by UV-C irradiation through plant–plant–plant communication. • JA and SA signals take part in interplant communication for alleviation of TGS. - Abstract: Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant–plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant–plant and plant–plant–plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant–plant and plant–plant–plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant–plant–plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA.

  1. ORA59 and EIN3 interaction couples jasmonate-ethylene synergistic action to antagonistic salicylic acid regulation of PDF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Jiang, Jishan; Wang, Chang-Quan; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2017-04-01

    Hormonal crosstalk is central for tailoring plant responses to the nature of challenges encountered. The role of antagonism between the two major defense hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), and modulation of this interplay by ethylene (ET) in favor of JA signaling pathway in plant stress responses is well recognized, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show the opposing function of two transcription factors, ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) and EIN3-Like1 (EIL1), in SA-mediated suppression and JA-mediated activation of PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2). This functional duality is mediated via their effect on protein, not transcript levels of the PDF1.2 transcriptional activator octadecanoid-responsive Arabidopsis59 (ORA59). Specifically, JA induces ORA59 protein levels independently of EIN3/EIL1, whereas SA reduces the protein levels dependently of EIN3/EIL1. Co-infiltration assays revealed nuclear co-localization of ORA59 and EIN3, and split-luciferase together with yeast-two-hybrid assays established their physical interaction. The functional ramification of the physical interaction is EIN3-dependent degradation of ORA59 by the 26S proteasome. These findings allude to SA-responsive reduction of ORA59 levels mediated by EIN3 binding to and targeting of ORA59 for degradation, thus nominating ORA59 pool as a coordination node for the antagonistic function of ET/JA and SA. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. The role of calcium, silicon and salicylic acid treatment in protection of canola plants against boron toxicity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Ashraf M; Radi, Abeer A; El-Shazoly, Rasha M; Hamada, Afaf M

    2018-01-22

    Boron (B) toxicity often limits crop yield and the quality of production in agricultural areas. Here, we investigated the effects of calcium (Ca), silicon (Si) and salicylic acid (SA) on development of B toxicity, B allocation in canola (Brassica napus cultivar Sarw 4) and its role in non-enzymatic antioxidants in relation to yield of this cultivar under B toxicity. Canola seedlings were subjected to four B levels induced by boric acid in the absence or presence of Ca, Si and SA. The results showed that Ca, Si and SA addition ameliorated the inhibition in canola growth, water content (WC), and improved siliqua number, siliqua weight and seed index. The B content in shoots and roots and total B accumulation in the whole plant were increased in control plants under B-toxicity-stress, and these parameters were significantly decreased by addition of Ca, Si and SA. The shoot ascorbate pool (ascorbate, AsA, and dehydroascorbate, DHA), α-tocopherol and phenolics (free and bound) were increased under B toxicity, and were significantly decreased in most cases by addition of Ca, Si and SA, except α-tocopherol, which increased at low B levels (0, 25 and 50 mg kg soil -1 ). The glutathione content did not obviously change by B stress, while added Ca, Si and SA inhibited its accumulation under B stress. In addition, B toxicity reduced the shoot flavonoids content; however, this reduction was not alleviated by the use of Ca, Si and SA treatments. It could be concluded that growth and yield of canola plants grown under high B concentration improved after external application of Ca, Si or SA.

  3. Salicylic acid modulates levels of phosphoinositide dependent-phospholipase C substrates and products to remodel the Arabidopsis suspension cell transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eRuelland

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Basal phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C (PI-PLC activity controls gene expression in Arabidopsis suspension cells and seedlings. PI-PLC catalyzes the production of phosphorylated inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG from phosphoinositides. It is not known how PI-PLC regulates the transcriptome although the action of DAG-kinase (DGK on DAG immediately downstream from PI-PLC is responsible for some of the regulation. We previously established a list of genes whose expression is affected in the presence of PI-PLC inhibitors. Here this list of genes was used as a signature in similarity searches of curated plant hormone response transcriptome data. The strongest correlations obtained with the inhibited PI-PLC signature were with salicylic acid (SA treatments. We confirm here that in Arabidopsis suspension cells SA treatment leads to an increase in phosphoinositides, then demonstrate that SA leads to a significant 20% decrease in phosphatidic acid, indicative of a decrease in PI-PLC products. Previous sets of microarray data were re-assessed. The SA response of one set of genes was dependent on phosphoinositides. Alterations in the levels of a second set of genes, mostly SA-repressed genes, could be related to decreases in PI-PLC products that occur in response to SA action. Together, the two groups of genes comprise at least 40% of all SA-responsive genes. Overall these two groups of genes are distinct in the functional categories of the proteins they encode, their promoter cis-elements and their regulation by DGK or phospholipase D. SA-regulated genes dependent on phosphoinositides are typical SA response genes while those with an SA response that is possibly dependent on PI-PLC products are less SA-specific. We propose a model in which SA inhibits PI-PLC activity and alters levels of PI-PLC products and substrates, thereby regulating gene expression divergently.

  4. Dual regulation role of GH3.5 in salicylic acid and auxin signaling during Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongqin; Li, Qun; Li, Zhimiao; Staswick, Paul E; Wang, Muyang; Zhu, Ying; He, Zuhua

    2007-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role in plant disease resistance, and emerging evidence indicates that auxin, an essential plant hormone in regulating plant growth and development, is involved in plant disease susceptibility. GH3.5, a member of the GH3 family of early auxin-responsive genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), encodes a protein possessing in vitro adenylation activity on both indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and SA. Here, we show that GH3.5 acts as a bifunctional modulator in both SA and auxin signaling during pathogen infection. Overexpression of the GH3.5 gene in an activation-tagged mutant gh3.5-1D led to elevated accumulation of SA and increased expression of PR-1 in local and systemic tissues in response to avirulent pathogens. In contrast, two T-DNA insertional mutations of GH3.5 partially compromised the systemic acquired resistance associated with diminished PR-1 expression in systemic tissues. The gh3.5-1D mutant also accumulated high levels of free IAA after pathogen infection and impaired different resistance-gene-mediated resistance, which was also observed in the GH3.6 activation-tagged mutant dfl1-D that impacted the auxin pathway, indicating an important role of GH3.5/GH3.6 in disease susceptibility. Furthermore, microarray analysis showed that the SA and auxin pathways were simultaneously augmented in gh3.5-1D after infection with an avirulent pathogen. The SA pathway was amplified by GH3.5 through inducing SA-responsive genes and basal defense components, whereas the auxin pathway was derepressed through up-regulating IAA biosynthesis and down-regulating auxin repressor genes. Taken together, our data reveal novel regulatory functions of GH3.5 in the plant-pathogen interaction.

  5. Salicylic acid improves the salinity tolerance of Medicago sativa in symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti by preventing nitrogen fixation inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, F; López-Gómez, M; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C

    2013-07-01

    In this work we have investigated the contribution of pretreatment with 0.1 and 0.5mM salicylic acid (SA) to the protection against salt stress in root nodules of Medicago sativa in symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti. SA alleviated the inhibition induced by salinity in the plant growth and photosynthetic capacity of M. sativa-S. meliloti symbiosis. In addition, SA prevented the inhibition of the nitrogen fixation capacity under salt stress since nodule biomass was not affected by salinity in SA pretreated plants. Antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehidroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR), key in the main pathway that scavenges H2O2 in plants, were induced by SA pretreatments which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance in root nodules under salt stress. Catalase activity (CAT) was inhibited around 40% by SA which could be behind the increase of H2O2 detected in nodules of plants pretreated with SA. The accumulation of polyamines (PAs) synthesized in response to salinity was prevented by SA which together with the induction of 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) content suggest the prevalence of the ethylene signaling pathway induced by SA in detriment of the synthesis of PAs. In conclusion, SA alleviated the negative effect of salt stress in the M. sativa-S. meliloti symbiosis through the increased level of nodule biomass and the induction of the nodular antioxidant metabolism under salt stress. The H2O2 accumulation and the PAs inhibition induced by SA in nodules of M. sativa suggest that SA activates a hypersensitive response dependent on ethylene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does Glycine Betaine and Salicylic Acid Ameliorate the Negative Effect of Drought on Wheat by Regulating Osmotic Adjustment through Solutes Accumulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Osmotic pressure, some osmolytes concentration and grain yield were determined. Water stress caused an increase in osmotic pressure, proline, total soluble nitrogen, total soluble sugars, organic acids, ions (Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2 and Cl- content as well as Na+/K+ ratio in cell sap flag leaves of both wheat cultivars. The resistant variety had higher values of osmotic pressure, proline, organic acids and ions content than the sensitive one. On the other hand, water stress induced marked decrease (P<0.05 in grain yield. The applied chemicals mitigated the effect of water stress on the used wheat cultivars. The effect was more pronounced with glycine betaine + salicylic acid treatment. The applied chemicals increased the osmotic pressure, the osmolytes concentrations as well as the grain yield. Furthermore, the osmotic pressure of flag leaf sap appeared to depend on proline, TSN, TSS, organic acids and the ions content. The economic yield (grain yield was positively correlated with proline, keto-acids and osmotic pressure but negatively correlated with TSN, TSS and citric acid.

  7. Silver(I) compounds of the anti-inflammatory agents salicylic acid and p-hydroxyl-benzoic acid which modulate cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banti, C N; Giannoulis, A D; Kourkoumelis, N; Owczarzak, A M; Kubicki, M; Hadjikakou, S K

    2015-01-01

    Silver nitrate reacts with salicylic acid (salH2) or p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (p-HbzaH2) and equimolar amount of NaOH to yield a white precipitations which are then treated with tri(p-tolyl)phosphine (tptp) or tri(m-tolyl)phosphine (tmtp) to yield the complexes [Ag(tptp)2(salH)] (1), [Ag(tptp)2(p-Hbza)] (2) and [Ag(tmtp)2(salH)] (3). Complexes 1 and 3 are also obtained when aspirin (aspH) is used. The acetic ester of salicylic acid is hydrolyzed to form the complexes 1 and 3. However, when aspirin and tptp are used, a mixture of products was obtained which contains both 1 and an ionic complex of formula {[Ag(tptp)4](+)[(salH)(-)]∙[(CH3)2NCHO)]∙(H2O)} (1a). The complexes were characterized by m.p., e.a., mid-FT-IR, (1)H-,(31)P-NMR, HRMS, UV-vis spectroscopic techniques and X-ray crystallography. Two phosphorus and one carboxylic oxygen atoms form a trigonal planar geometry around Ag(I) ions in complexes 1-3. Complex 1a consists of a [Ag(tptp)4](+) cation and a deprotonated salH(-) counter anion. The influence of 1-3 on the viability of MCF-7 (breast) and HeLa (cervix) adenocarcinoma cells, is evaluated. DNA binding tests indicate the ability of 1-3 to modify the activity of cells. The binding constants of 1-3 towards calf-thymus DNA, reveal stronger interaction of 2. Changes in fluorescent emission light of ethidium bromide (EB) in the presence of DNA suggest intercalation or electrostatic interactions into DNA for 1 and 3. Docking studies on DNA-complex interactions confirm the binding of 1-3 in the minor groove of B-DNA. Moreover, the influence of 1-3 on the peroxidation of linoleic acid to hydroperoxylinoleic acid by the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX) was kinetically and theoretically studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Two New Thiophene Acetyl Salicylic Acid Esters and their ortho- and para-effect on Anticancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Hakan; Canturk, Zerrin

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the cytotoxic effect of ortho- and para-positional isomers of thiophene acetyl salicylic acid esters against cancer and normal cell lines. Two new thiophene-2-acetic acid esters (2-((2-(thiophen-2-yl)acetyl)thio)benzoic acid and 4-((2-(thiophen-2- yl)acetyl)thio)benzoic acid) were synthesized and characterized by Elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR and High-resolution mass spectroscopy. The compounds were tested for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against A549 and Caco2 tumor cell lines and CCD- 19Lu and CCD 841 CoN normal cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,4,diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. 2-((2-(thiophene-2-yl)acetyl)thio)benzoic acid showed a higher activity with (IC50 = 239.88µM/mL) compared with a reference drug nearly as active as cyclophosphamide (IC50 = 257.11 µM/mL) on Caco2 cell line. Apoptosis was observed by flow cytometric analysis on Caco2 cells. Thus, positional isomerism is critical for the pharmacological properties of thiophene acetyl salicylic acid esters against colon cancer cell line compared with nonsmall cell lung cancer cell line. The ortho-isomer induced cell death and was much more potent than the para-isomer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Effects of Foliar Spraying with Salicylic acid and Putrescine on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faraji-mehmany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L. is an annual, herbaceous plant belonging to the Labiatae family. This plant is most often used as a culinary herb, but it also has marked medicinal benefits, especially upon the whole digestive system. The most important components of S. hortensis include volatile oils, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, tannins, mucus, resins, carotenoids and mineral components. Plant growth regulators are used to improve the quality and quantity of medicinal plant production. Salicylic Acid is one of this PGRs that involved in seed germination, photosynthesis, Stomatal opening and closure, Membrane Permeability, Ions Absorption and transmission and other growth processes. Polyamines are ubiquitous low-molecular-weight aliphatic amines that are involved in regulating plant growth processes. The most commonly found polyamines in higher plants, putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd and spermine (Spm may be present in free, soluble conjugated and insoluble bound forms. It has been demonstrated that PAs are important for the normal course of diverse plant ontogeny processes such as cell division and elongation, organogenesis and somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted in factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Karaj, Iran. Foliar spraying with SA (1, 2 and 3 mM.l and Putrecine (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg l-1 was performed in thrice in Savory growth period. Spraying was performed at 21, 35 (Budding Phase and 56 (flowering initiation phase day after seed germination. In flowering stage, some morphological traits such as plant height, weight, yield, canopy diameter, stem diameter, leaf area, essential oil content and efficiency were measured. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance showed that the effects of salicylic acid and putrescine spraying on plant height, canopy diameter, stem diameter, number of axillary stems

  10. Glycine Betaine and Salicylic Acid Induced Modification in Water Relations and Productivity of Drought Wheat Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-01-01

    A study of parameters associated with adjustments in internal water balance, namely: diurnal variation in transpiration rate, stomatal opening area, relative water content, water use efficiency, hormonal level of wheat flag leaves in relation to grain yield is presented. Drought induced marked decreases in diurnal and mean daily values of transpiration rate, stomatal pore areas (on upper and lower sides), relative water content, water use efficiency, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic ac...

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Chelating Properties of Benzimidazole-Salicylic Acid Combined Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh V. Patel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminomethylation (i.e. Mannich reaction of benzimidazole was carried out by treating benzimidalzole with formaldehyde and 4-aminosalicylic acid. The resultant compound was designated as 1-(4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenyl aminomethyl benzimidazole (BI-SA. The transition metal complexes of Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+ of BI-SA have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, spectral studies, magnetic moment determination, molar conductivity measurement and microbicidal activity.

  12. Prolonged dark period modulates the oxidative burst and enzymatic antioxidant systems in the leaves of salicylic acid-treated tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Péter; Takács, Zoltán; Bela, Krisztina; Czékus, Zalán; Szalai, Gabriella; Tari, Irma

    2017-06-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant growth regulator playing a role in the hypersensitive reaction (HR) and the induction of systemic acquired resistance. Since the SA-mediated signalling pathways and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are light-dependent, the time- and concentration-specific induction of oxidative stress was investigated in leaves of tomato plants kept under light and dark conditions after treatments with 0.1mM and 1mM SA. The application of exogenous SA induced early superoxide- and H2O2 production in the leaves, which was different in the absence or presence of light and showed time- and concentration-dependent changes. 1mM SA, which induced HR-like cell death resulted in two peaks in the H2O2 production in the light but the first, priming peak was not detected in the dark. Unlike 0.1mM SA, 1mM SA application induced NADPH oxidase activity leading to increased superoxide production in the first hours of SA treatments in the light. Moreover, SA treatments inhibited catalase (CAT) activity and caused a transient decline in ascorbate peroxidase (APX), the two main enzymes responsible for H2O2 degradation, which led to a fast H2O2 burst in the light. Their activity as well as the expression of some isoenzymes of SOD and APX increased only from the 12th h in the illuminated samples. The activity of NADPH oxidase and expression SlRBOH1 gene encoding a NADPH oxidase subunit was much lower in the dark. In spite of low CAT and APX activity after SA treatments in the dark, the activation of guaiacol-dependent peroxidase (POD) could partially substitute H2O2 scavenging activity of these enzymes in the dark, which reduced the ROS burst and development of lesion formation in the leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of salicylic acid on photosynthesis, physio-biochemistry and quality of Panax ginseng under full sun shine in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wu-lin; Meng, Xiang-cai; Ma, Wei

    2015-09-01

    In order to search for a new pathway to improve the yield of ginseng through growing at the full sun shine accompanied by salicylic acid (SA), the net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) in Panax ginseng leaves, and the content of ginsenosides in roots were compared under various concentrations of SA and full sun shine with the traditional shade shed. Under the full sun shine, 0.05, 0.2 mmol x L(-1) SA increased net photosynthetic rate to a great extent. Under the cloudy day, the average net photosynthetic rate increased by 127.8% and 155.0% over the traditional shade shed, 13.9% and 27.5% over the treatment without SA respectively; under the clear day, 23.5% and 30.4% over the traditional shade shed, 8.6% and 14.6% over the treatment without SA, particularly obvious in the morning and late afternoon. With such concentration, SA increased activities of SOD, CAT, POD, and decreased the contents of the MDA. This difference resulted from different light intensity, rise of light saturation point, and fall of compensation point. Full sun shine decreased ginsenosides contents, but with SA, the ginsenosides regained, the content of Rg1 and Re, Rb1, total six types of ginsenosides in SA 0.2 mmol x L(-1) group were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05) and other groups. The application of 0.2 mmol x L(-1) SA under full sun shine during a short time has little threat to the P. ginseng in spring, and could enhance the resistance to the adversity, which would improve the yield of ginseng heavily.

  14. Expression Profiling during Arabidopsis/Downy Mildew Interaction Reveals a Highly-Expressed Effector That Attenuates Responses to Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Shuta; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Furzer, Oliver J.; Ishaque, Naveed; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Fabro, Georgina; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome. PMID:25329884

  15. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pilar López-Gresa

    Full Text Available Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA, were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV. The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH, which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  16. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gresa, M Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide is a second messenger in the salicylic acid-triggered adventitious rooting process in mung bean seedlings.

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    Wei Yang

    Full Text Available In plants, salicylic acid (SA is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR and hypertensive response (HR. SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings.

  18. Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA applications (10−3 and 10−5 M on activities of nitrate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutases (SOD, catalase (CAT and proline enzymes and physiological parameters was evaluated in two ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara under greenhouse conditions. In both varieties, tested treatments generally enhanced photosynthetic rate and total dry weight. Photosynthetic rate increases were generally accompanied by increased or unchanged stomatal conductance levels, although intercellular CO2 concentrations of treated plants were typically lower than in controls. Lower SA concentrations were generally more effective in enhancing photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Exogenous application of SA increased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content; the greatest responses were obtained in plants sprayed with 10–5 M SA, with significant increases observed in CAT (20.1%, POD (45.2%, SOD (44.1% and proline (43.1% activities. Increased CAT activity in leaves is naturally expected to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus net photosynthesis by maintaining a constant CO2 supply. Our results support the idea that low SA concentrations (10–5 M may induce nitrite reductase synthesis by mobilizing intracellular NO3− and can provide protection to nitrite reductase degradation in vivo in the absence of NO3–. Observed positive correlations among proline, SOD, CAT and POD activities in the studied varieties suggest that increased SOD activity was accompanied by increases in CAT and POD activities because of the high demands of H2O2 quenching.

  19. Evidence of salicylic acid pathway with EDS1 and PAD4 proteins by molecular dynamics simulation for grape improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Gitanjali; Jaiswal, Sarika; Iquebal, M A; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Sukhdeep; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Biotic stress is a major cause of heavy loss in grape productivity. In order to develop biotic stress-resistant grape varieties, the key defense genes along with its pathway have to be deciphered. In angiosperm plants, lipase-like protein phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) is well known to be essential for systemic resistance against biotic stress. PAD4 functions together with its interacting partner protein enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) to promote salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and SA-independent defense pathway. Existence and structure of key protein of systemic resistance EDS1 and PAD4 are not known in grapes. Before SA pathway studies are taken in grape, molecular evidence of EDS1: PAD4 complex is to be established. To establish this, EDS1 protein sequence was retrieved from NCBI and homologous PAD4 protein was generated using Arabidopsis thaliana as template and conserved domains were confirmed. In this study, computational methods were used to model EDS1 and PAD4 and simulated the interactions of EDS1 and PAD4. Since no structural details of the proteins were available, homology modeling was employed to construct three-dimensional structures. Further, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to study the dynamic behavior of the EDS1 and PAD4. The modeled proteins were validated and subjected to molecular docking analysis. Molecular evidence of stable complex of EDS1:PAD4 in grape supporting SA defense pathway in response to biotic stress is reported in this study. If SA defense pathway genes are explored, then markers of genes involved can play pivotal role in grape variety development especially against biotic stress leading to higher productivity.

  20. Expression profiling of marker genes responsive to the defence-associated phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzai, Yusuke; Kimura, Mamiko; Yamanaka, Yurie; Watanabe, Megumi; Matsui, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Onda, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Keiichi; Noutoshi, Yoshiteru

    2016-03-02

    Brachypodium distachyon is a promising model plants for grasses. Infections of Brachypodium by various pathogens that severely impair crop production have been reported, and the species accordingly provides an alternative platform for investigating molecular mechanisms of pathogen virulence and plant disease resistance. To date, we have a broad picture of plant immunity only in Arabidopsis and rice; therefore, Brachypodium may constitute a counterpart that displays the commonality and uniqueness of defence systems among plant species. Phytohormones play key roles in plant biotic stress responses, and hormone-responsive genes are used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate disease resistance responses during pathogen infection. For these purposes, defence-related phytohormone marker genes expressed at time points suitable for defence-response monitoring are needed. Information about their expression profiles over time as well as their response specificity is also helpful. However, useful marker genes are still rare in Brachypodium. We selected 34 candidates for Brachypodium marker genes on the basis of protein-sequence similarity to known marker genes used in Arabidopsis and rice. Brachypodium plants were treated with the defence-related phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene, and their transcription levels were measured 24 and 48 h after treatment. Two genes for salicylic acid, 7 for jasmonic acid and 2 for ethylene were significantly induced at either or both time points. We then focused on 11 genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) 1 protein and compared their expression patterns with those of Arabidopsis and rice. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Brachypodium contains several PR1-family genes similar to rice genes. Our expression profiling revealed that regulation patterns of some PR1 genes as well as of markers identified for defence-related phytohormones are closely related to those in rice. We propose that the Brachypodium immune

  1. Activation of the indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3-8 suppresses expansin expression and promotes salicylate- and jasmonate-independent basal immunity in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinhua; Cao, Yinglong; Huang, Liling; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2008-01-01

    New evidence suggests a role for the plant growth hormone auxin in pathogenesis and disease resistance. Bacterial infection induces the accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major type of auxin, in rice (Oryza sativa). IAA induces the expression of expansins, proteins that loosen the cell wall. Loosening the cell wall is key for plant growth but may also make the plant vulnerable to biotic intruders. Here, we report that rice GH3-8, an auxin-responsive gene functioning in auxin-dependent development, activates disease resistance in a salicylic acid signaling- and jasmonic acid signaling-independent pathway. GH3-8 encodes an IAA-amino synthetase that prevents free IAA accumulation. Overexpression of GH3-8 results in enhanced disease resistance to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae. This resistance is independent of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling. Overexpression of GH3-8 also causes abnormal plant morphology and retarded growth and development. Both enhanced resistance and abnormal development may be caused by inhibition of the expression of expansins via suppressed auxin signaling.

  2. Efficient removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution using salicylic acid type chelate adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fuqiang; Gao, Baojiao; Dai, Xin; Wang, Min; Wang, Xiaohua

    2011-09-15

    In this study, 5-aminosalicylic acid was successfully grafted onto the poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) macromolecular chains of PGMA/SiO(2) to obtain a novel adsorbent designated as ASA-PGMA/SiO(2). The adsorption properties of ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) for heavy metal ions were studied through batch and column methods. The experimental results showed that ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) possesses strong chelating adsorption ability for heavy metal ions, and its adsorption capacity for Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+) reaches 0.42, 0.40, 0.35, and 0.31 mmol g(-1), respectively. In addition, pH has a great influence on the adsorption capacity in the studied pH range. The adsorption isotherm data greatly obey the Langmuir and Freundlich model. The desorption of metal ions from ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) is effective using 0.1 mol l(-1) of hydrochloric acid solution as eluent. Consecutive adsorption-desorption experiments showed that ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) could be reused almost without any loss in the adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Photocarcinogenesis study of glycolic acid and salicylic acid (CAS Nos. 79-14-1 and 69-72-7) in SKH-1 mice (simulated solar light and topical application study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Acidic solutions have been used for decades to treat a variety of skin conditions. Many of these solutions consist of organic acids with a hydroxy group on a carbon adjacent to the carbonyl carbon and are referred to as alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA). Organic acids with hydroxy groups on the second carbon from the carbonyl carbon are referred to as beta-hydroxy acids (BHA). Both AHA and BHA are used to treat various skin conditions. One of the most widely used AHA is glycolic acid, while salicylic acid is a commonly used BHA. Chemical peels containing 20% to 70% glycolic acid have been used by dermatologists to treat ichthyosis, acne, xerosis, actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratoses, warts, and psoriasis. AHA have recently been used to treat photoaged skin and are now included in many commercially available cosmetic skin treatments. When used in a formulation for a chemical peel, topical treatment of skin with AHA and BHA can result in removal of the stratum corneum, alteration of the skin's histology, and increased cell proliferation in the basal layer of the epidermis. Since AHA and BHA are used to correct photoaged skin, and since exposure to sunlight of skin treated with AHA or BHA is likely, studies were designed to determine the effects of topical application of creams containing AHA (0%, 4%, or 10% glycolic acid, pH 3.5) or BHA (0%, 2%, or 4% salicylic acid, pH 4.0) on the photocarcinogenesis of simulated solar radiation using a filtered 6.5 kW xenon arc light source [simulated solar light (SSL)]. Male and female Crl:SKH-1 (hr-/hr-) hairless mice were exposed to glycolic acid or salicylic acid alone or in combination with SSL for 40 weeks, and the mice were followed for an additional 12 weeks. 1-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 36 male and 36 female mice were exposed to 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, or 0.9 minimal erythema dose (MED) of SSL during the afternoon (1200 to 1600 hours) 5 days per week for 40 weeks. Groups of 18 male and 18 female mice were treated in the morning (0800

  4. Adsorption of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution using salicylic acid type adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fuqiang; Du, Ruikui; Wang, Xiaohua; Wan, Min; Dai, Xin; Gao, Jianfeng

    2012-01-30

    In this study, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was successfully grafted onto the poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) macromolecular chains of PGMA/SiO(2) to obtain adsorbent ASA-PGMA/SiO(2). The adsorption properties of ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) for phenolic compounds were studied through batch and column methods. The experimental results showed that ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) possesses strong adsorption ability for phenolic compounds, and its adsorption capacity for phenol, 4-chlorophenol, and p-nitrophenol reaches 1.0, 1.1, and 1.32 mmolg(-1), respectively. In addition, pH has a great influence on the adsorption capacity. The adsorption isotherm data obeyed the Langmuir model well than Freundlich model. The desorption of phenolic compounds from the ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) adsorbent was most effectively achieved in a 0.1 molL(-1) sodium hydroxide solution. Consecutive adsorption-desorption experiments showed that the ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) adsorbent could be reused almost without any loss in the adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Signaling requirements and role of salicylic acid in HRT- and rrt-mediated resistance to turnip crinkle virus in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Shekara, A C; Navarre, DuRoy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kang, Hong-Gu; Klessig, Daniel; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2004-12-01

    Inoculation of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) on the resistant Arabidopsis ecotype Di-17 elicits a hypersensitive response (HR), which is accompanied by increased expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Previous genetic analyses revealed that the HR to TCV is conferred by HRT, which encodes a coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class resistance (R) protein. In contrast to the HR, resistance to TCV requires both HRT and a recessive allele at a second locus designated rrt. Here, we demonstrate that unlike most CC-NBS-LRR R genes, HRT/rrt-mediated resistance is dependent on EDS1 and independent of NDR1. Resistance is also independent of RAR1 and SGT1. HRT/rrt-mediated resistance is compromised in plants with reduced salicylic acid (SA) content as a consequence of mutations eds5, pad4, or sid2. By contrast, HR is not affected by mutations in eds1, eds5, pad4, sid2, ndr1, rar1, or sgt1b. Resistance to TCV is restored in both SA-deficient Di-17 plants expressing the nahG transgene and mutants containing the eds1, eds5, or sid2 mutations by exogenous application of SA or the SA analog benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid (BTH). In contrast, SA/BTH treatment failed to enhance resistance in HRT pad4, Col-0, or hrt homozygous progeny of a cross between Di-17 and Col-0. Thus, HRT and PAD4 are required for SA-induced resistance. Exogenously supplied SA or high endogenous levels of SA, due to the ssi2 mutation, overcame the suppressive effects of RRT and enhanced resistance to TCV, provided the HRT allele was present. High levels of SA upregulate HRT expression via a PAD4-dependent pathway. As Col-0 transgenic lines expressing high levels of HRT were resistant to TCV, but lines expressing moderate to low levels of HRT were not, we conclude that SA enhances resistance in the RRT background by upregulating HRT expression. These data suggest that the HRT-TCV interaction is unable to generate sufficient amounts of SA required for a

  6. Effects of Gibberrellic Acid and Salicylic Acid under Salinity on Na+ and K+ Absorbtion and Leaf Characteristic of Two Rapeseed Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nazarbeygi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out on two canola cultivars (Hayola401 and RGS at Research Laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Borujerd Branch. In this research the effects of GA3 (0.05 Mm, SA (5 M and NaCl (75, 100 and 150 Mm on Na+ and K+ changes in root, shoot, specific leaf area (SLA, leaf weight ratio (LWR and leaf area ratio (LAR were evaluated. The results showed that increasing salinity decreased the SLA, LWR and LAR while it decreased the K+ ion and increase the Na+ ion content as compared with those of control treatment. Applying of gibberellic acid and salicylic acid increased SLA, LWR and K+ ion content in root and shoot of the two cultivars significantly, but the effect of GA3 on these traits in higher concentration of NaCl (150 Mm was not significant. It is therefore concluded that Hayola401 was more tolerant to salinity stress as compared to RGS cultivar.

  7. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun Cheol eSong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 M and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through SA, JA, and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  8. Overexpression of NtWRKY50 Increases Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum and Alters Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid Production in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors (TFs modulate plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we characterized a WRKY IIc TF, NtWRKY50, isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plants. The results showed that NtWRKY50 is a nuclear-localized protein and that its gene transcript is induced in tobacco when inoculated with the pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. Overexpression of NtWRKY50 enhanced bacterial resistance, which correlated with enhanced SA and JA/ET signaling genes. However, silencing of the NtWRKY50 gene had no obvious effects on plant disease resistance, implying functional redundancy of NtWRKY50 with other TFs. In addition, it was found that NtWRKY50 can be induced by various biotic or abiotic stresses, such as Potato virus Y, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica, hydrogen peroxide, heat, cold, and wounding as well as the hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and ethylene (ET. Importantly, additional analysis suggests that NtWRKY50 overexpression markedly promotes SA levels but prevents pathogen-induced JA production. These data indicate that NtWRKY50 overexpression leads to altered SA and JA content, increased expression of defense-related genes and enhanced plant resistance to R. solanacearum. These probably due to increased activity of endogenous NtWRKY50 gene or could be gain-of-function phenotypes by altering the profile of genes affected by NtWRKY50.

  9. Plastic Transcriptomes Stabilize Immunity to Pathogen Diversity: The Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid Networks within the Arabidopsis/Botrytis Pathosystem[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Robert; Chen, Fang; Atwell, Susana

    2017-01-01

    To respond to pathogen attack, selection and associated evolution has led to the creation of plant immune system that are a highly effective and inducible defense system. Central to this system are the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) and crosstalk between the two, which may play an important role in defense responses to specific pathogens or even genotypes. Here, we used the Arabidopsis thaliana-Botrytis cinerea pathosystem to test how the host’s defense system functions against genetic variation in a pathogen. We measured defense-related phenotypes and transcriptomic responses in Arabidopsis wild-type Col-0 and JA- and SA-signaling mutants, coi1-1 and npr1-1, individually challenged with 96 diverse B. cinerea isolates. Those data showed genetic variation in the pathogen influences on all components within the plant defense system at the transcriptional level. We identified four gene coexpression networks and two vectors of defense variation triggered by genetic variation in B. cinerea. This showed that the JA and SA signaling pathways functioned to constrain/canalize the range of virulence in the pathogen population, but the underlying transcriptomic response was highly plastic. These data showed that plants utilize major defense hormone pathways to buffer disease resistance, but not the metabolic or transcriptional responses to genetic variation within a pathogen. PMID:29042403

  10. Shifting from priming of salicylic acid- to jasmonic acid-regulated defences by Trichoderma protects tomato against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-02-01

    Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the hormone signalling network in the host to induce resistance to nematodes. We investigated the role and the timing of the jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defensive pathways in Trichoderma-induced resistance to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A split-root system of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was used to study local and systemic induced defences by analysing nematode performance, defence gene expression, responsiveness to exogenous hormone application, and dependence on SA and JA signalling of Trichoderma-induced resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma impeded nematode performance both locally and systemically at multiple stages of the parasitism, that is, invasion, galling and reproduction. First, Trichoderma primed SA-regulated defences, which limited nematode root invasion. Then, Trichoderma enhanced JA-regulated defences, thereby antagonizing the deregulation of JA-dependent immunity by the nematodes, which compromised galling and fecundity. Our results show that Trichoderma primes SA- and JA-dependent defences in roots, and that the priming of responsiveness to these hormones upon nematode attack is plastic and adaptive to the parasitism stage. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Overexpression of NtWRKY50 Increases Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum and Alters Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid Production in Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuping; Liu, Ying; Tang, Yuanman; Chen, Juanni; Ding, Wei

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) modulate plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we characterized a WRKY IIc TF, NtWRKY50, isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. The results showed that NtWRKY50 is a nuclear-localized protein and that its gene transcript is induced in tobacco when inoculated with the pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. Overexpression of NtWRKY50 enhanced bacterial resistance, which correlated with enhanced SA and JA/ET signaling genes. However, silencing of the NtWRKY50 gene had no obvious effects on plant disease resistance, implying functional redundancy of NtWRKY50 with other TFs. In addition, it was found that NtWRKY50 can be induced by various biotic or abiotic stresses, such as Potato virus Y, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica, hydrogen peroxide, heat, cold, and wounding as well as the hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET). Importantly, additional analysis suggests that NtWRKY50 overexpression markedly promotes SA levels but prevents pathogen-induced JA production. These data indicate that NtWRKY50 overexpression leads to altered SA and JA content, increased expression of defense-related genes and enhanced plant resistance to R. solanacearum. These probably due to increased activity of endogenous NtWRKY50 gene or could be gain-of-function phenotypes by altering the profile of genes affected by NtWRKY50.

  12. Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene and Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata Shoots Under Salicylic Acid Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejtahed, Roghayeh Sadat; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Hoseini Tafreshi, Sayed Ali

    2015-08-01

    Partial fragments of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) genes were cloned and characterized from Salvia officinalis (SoPAL) and Salvia virgata (SvPAL). Different concentrations (250 and 500 μM) of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) were used when correlation between PAL expression and rosmarinic acid (RA) accumulation was compared. The results showed that the deduced cDNA sequences of the partial genes had high similarities with those of known PAL gene from other plant species. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that exogenous application of SA led to up-regulating of the PAL expression. Further analysis showed that in S. virgata, at higher concentration of SA, higher accumulation of RA was achieved, while in S. officinalis, the higher RA accumulation was observed at lower concentration of SA. It was concluded that there was no positive correlation between the intensity of PAL transcription and the RA accumulation in the studied species. Therefore, despite of the increase in transcription rate of the PAL at the higher concentration of SA, the lower amounts of RA were accumulated in the case of S. officinalis. Consequently, the hypothesis that PAL is the rate-determining step in RA biosynthesis is not always valid and probably some other unknown factors participate in the synthesis of phenolics.

  13. Zonun’s regime (35% glycolic acid peel with microneedling followed by tretinoin 0.05% plus glycolic acid 12% application followed by salicylic acid 30% peeling for treatment of acne scars: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne scars are the result of inflammation within the dermis brought on by acne. The scar is created by the wound trying to heal itself resulting in too much collagen in one spot. Current treatment available are not much satisfactory. Microneedling injure the dermis, thereby stimulating collagen formation. Glycolic acid acts as vehicle for delivery of drugs to dermis: in addition to that, it also has a role in collagen induction. Tretinoin helps in collagen formation. Salicylic acid remodel the superficial skin after the treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 4 patients in which 3 out of 4 patient, grade 3 acne scars and 1 out of 4 had grade 2 scar were treated with the regime. After taking consent 35% Glycolic acid peeling was done followed by microneedling. From the next day 12% Glycolic acid plus 0.05% Tretinoin is applied once a day for 2 months. After 2 months 30% Salicylic acid peeling is done. Photographs were taken before treatment, after 1 month and after 2 months of completion of the therapy and compared. Objective assessment was done according to Global Acne Scarring Classification. Result: subjectively 2 patients reported excellent response and 2 patients reported good response. Objectively, all patients showed good to excellent response. Conclusion: Zonun’s regime may be effective for treatment of acne scars.

  14. Molecular cloning of two novel peroxidases and their response to salt stress and salicylic acid in the living fossil Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Uzal, Esther; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Martínez-Cortés, Teresa; Pomar, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Peroxidase isoenzymes play diverse roles in plant physiology, such as lignification and defence against pathogens. The actions and regulation of many peroxidases are not known with much accuracy. A number of studies have reported direct involvement of peroxidase isoenzymes in the oxidation of monolignols, which constitutes the last step in the lignin biosynthesis pathway. However, most of the available data concern only peroxidases and lignins from angiosperms. This study describes the molecular cloning of two novel peroxidases from the 'living fossil' Ginkgo biloba and their regulation by salt stress and salicylic acid. Suspension cell cultures were used to purify peroxidases and to obtain the cDNAs. Treatments with salicylic acid and sodium chloride were performed and peroxidase activity and gene expression were monitored. A novel peroxidase was purified, which preferentially used p-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols as substrates and was able to form dehydrogenation polymers in vitro from coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. Two peroxidase full-length cDNAs, GbPrx09 and GbPrx10, were cloned. Both peroxidases showed high similarity to other basic peroxidases with a putative role in cell wall lignification. Both GbPrx09 and GbPrx10 were expressed in leaves and stems of the plant. Sodium chloride enhanced the gene expression of GbPrx09 but repressed GbPrx10, whereas salicylic acid strongly repressed both GbPrx09 and GbPrx10. Taken together, the data suggest the participation of GbPrx09 and GbPrx10 in the developmental lignification programme of the cell wall. Both peroxidases possess the structural characteristics necessary for sinapyl alcohol oxidation. Moreover, GbPrx09 is also involved in lignification induced by salt stress, while salicylic acid-mediated lignification is not a result of GbPrx09 and GbPrx10 enzymatic activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  15. Whey Protein/Polysaccharide-Stabilized Oil Powders for Topical Application—Release and Transdermal Delivery of Salicylic Acid from Oil Powders Compared to Redispersed Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; Du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-01-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared...

  16. The effect of patients’ preference on outcome in the EVerT cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts (verruca trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockayne Sarah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised controlled trials are widely accepted as the gold standard method to evaluate medical interventions, but they are still open to bias. One such bias is the effect of patient’s preference on outcome measures. The aims of this study were to examine whether patients’ treatment preference affected clearance of plantar warts and explore whether there were any associations between patients’ treatment preference and baseline variables in the EverT trial. Methods Two hundred and forty patients were recruited from University podiatry schools, NHS podiatry clinics and primary care. Patients were aged 12 years and over and had at least one plantar wart which was suitable for treatment with salicylic acid and cryotherapy. Patients were asked their treatment preference prior to randomisation. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to test the association between preference group and continuous baseline variables. The Fisher’s exact test was performed to test the association between preference group and categorical baseline variables. A logistic regression analysis was undertaken with verruca clearance (yes or no as the dependent variable and treatment, age, type of verruca, previous treatment, treatment preference as independent variables. Two analyses were undertaken, one using the health professional reported outcome and one using the patient’s self reported outcomes. Data on whether the patient found it necessary to stop the treatment to which they had been allocated and whether they started another treatment were summarised by treatment group. Results Pre-randomisation preferences were: 10% for salicylic acid; 42% for cryotherapy and 48% no treatment preference. There was no evidence of an association between treatment preference group and either patient (p=0.95 or healthcare professional (p=0.46 reported verruca clearance rates. There was no evidence of an association between preference group and any of the

  17. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence quenching of Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+} (bpy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine) in the presence of acetaminophen, salicylic acid and their metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslag, Catherine S. [Department of Chemistry, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65897 (United States); Richter, Mark M., E-mail: MarkRichter@missouristate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65897 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Quenching of Ru(bpy) {sub 3}{sup 2+} (bpy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine) coreactant electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) has been observed in the presence of acetaminophen, salicylic acid and related complexes. However, no quenching is observed with the acetylsalicylic acid. In most instances, quenching is observed with 100-fold excess of quencher (compared to ECL luminophore) with complete quenching observed between 10,000 and 100,000 fold excess. Fluorescence and UV-vis experiments coupled with bulk electrolysis support the formation of benzoquinone products upon electrochemical oxidation. The mechanism of quenching may involve the interaction of the electrochemically generated benzoquinone species with (i) the {sup Low-Asterisk }Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} excited state or (ii) highly energetic coreactant radicals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Efficient quenching of the electrogenerated chemiluminescence is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Acetaminophen, salicylic acid and related compounds can be detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle The mechanism of quenching involves benzoquinones formed upon electrolysis.

  18. Rhizobacterial salicylate production provokes headaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Peter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Ran, L.X.; Mercado-Blanco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Salicylic acid (SA) is produced in significant amounts by certain plant growth promoting rhizosphere bacteria, and some of these rhizobacteria have the ability to induce systemic resistance against diseases in plants. Exogenous application of SA to plants has long been known to lead to

  19. Modification of zirconium diphosphate with salicylic acid and its effect on the uranium (Vi) sorption; Modificacion del difosfato de circonio con acido salicilico y su efecto sobre la sorcion de uranio (VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M. G.; Garcia G, N. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Simoni, E., E-mail: guadalupe.almazan@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Paris Sud, Instituto de Fisica Nuclear, Georges Clemenceau No. 15, Orsay (France)

    2014-10-15

    The surface of zirconium diphosphate (ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}) was modified with salicylic acid and its effect was evaluated on the uranium (Vi) sorption. The modified surface of the material was analyzed with different analytical techniques among which are included the atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This analysis allowed showing that the salicylic acid is being held on the surface of the zirconium diphosphate. The reactivity of modified zirconium diphosphate compared with uranium (Vi) was investigated using the classical method of batch sorption. The analysis of sorption isotherms shows that the salicylic acid has an important effect in the uranium (Vi) sorption. According to the study conducted, the interaction among the uranium (Vi) and the surface of zirconium diphosphate modified with the salicylic acid most likely leads to the complexes formation of binary (U(Vi)/ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and ternary (U(Vi)/salicylate/ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}) surface. (Author)

  20. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modified by salicylic acid and arginine: Structure, surface properties and photocatalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Higee-Oriented Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu, Youzhi; Wei, Bing; Guo, Jiaxin; Jiao, Weizhou [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Higee-Oriented Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Zhaohan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang, Qiaoling, E-mail: zhangqiaoling@nuc.edu.cn [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Higee-Oriented Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A simple and versatile synthetic method to produce TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles surface-modified with various organic capping agents can be used for novel multifunctional photocatalysts as required for various applications in energy saving and environmental protection. - Highlights: • SA and Arg was modified through the method of dipping treatment-based on chemical adsorption in saturated solution. • Surface modified TiO{sub 2} applied in photodecomposition of nitroaromatic. • The photoreduction of nitroaromatic and photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation were enhanced by TiO{sub 2}–SA–Arg. • TiO{sub 2}–SA–Arg showed better lipophilic, dispersion and adsorption properties. - Abstract: In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were surface-modified with salicylic acid (SA) and arginine (Arg) using an environmentally friendly and convenient method, and the bonding structure, surface properties and degradation efficiency of p-nitrophenol (PNP) were investigated. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), water contact angle (WCA) measurements, ζ-potentiometric analysis, UV/visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed to evaluate the modification effect. The degradation rates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that bidentate or bridging bonds are most likely formed between SA/Arg and TiO{sub 2} surface. Surface modification with SA, Arg, or both can improve the lipophilic properties and decrease the zeta potential, and also result in a red shift of the absorption wavelength. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified by Arg or both SA and Arg show a large specific surface area and pore volume. Further, degradation

  1. Salicylic acid-related cotton (Gossypium arboreum) ribosomal protein GaRPL18 contributes to resistance to Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Yang, Zhaoen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Butt, Hamama Islam; Chen, Eryong; He, Shoupu; Zhang, Chaojun; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Fuguang

    2017-03-03

    Verticillium dahliae is a phytopathogenic fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt diseases responsible for considerable decreases in cotton yields. The complex mechanism underlying cotton resistance to Verticillium wilt remains uncharacterized. Identifying an endogenous resistance gene may be useful for controlling this disease. We cloned the ribosomal protein L18 (GaRPL18) gene, which mediates resistance to Verticillium wilt, from a wilt-resistant cotton species (Gossypium arboreum). We then characterized the function of this gene in cotton and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. GaRPL18 encodes a 60S ribosomal protein subunit important for intracellular protein biosynthesis. However, previous studies revealed that some ribosomal proteins are also inhibitory toward oncogenesis and congenital diseases in humans and play a role in plant disease defense. Here, we observed that V. dahliae infections induce GaRPL18 expression. Furthermore, we determined that the GaRPL18 expression pattern is consistent with the disease resistance level of different cotton varieties. GaRPL18 expression is upregulated by salicylic acid (SA) treatments, suggesting the involvement of GaRPL18 in the SA signal transduction pathway. Virus-induced gene silencing technology was used to determine whether the GaRPL18 expression level influences cotton disease resistance. Wilt-resistant cotton species in which GaRPL18 was silenced became more susceptible to V. dahliae than the control plants because of a significant decrease in the abundance of immune-related molecules. We also transformed A. thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0) plants with GaRPL18 according to the floral dip method. The plants overexpressing GaRPL18 were more resistant to V. dahliae infections than the wild-type Col-0 plants. The enhanced resistance of transgenic A. thaliana plants to V. dahliae is likely mediated by the SA pathway. Our findings provide new insights into the role of GaRPL18, indicating that it plays a crucial role in

  2. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Some Morphophysiological Characteristics of Border Flowers from Asteraceae Family under Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid zargarian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve physical and mental human healthy, development of the urban area landscape is necessary. Water deficit is one of the most important problems in arid and semi- arid regions. Water deficit causes to reduce growth of different plants parts, including roots, aerial parts, leaf area, height, dry weight, proteins, amino acids and chlorophyll. Using drought tolerance plantsisone solution. Moreover, one physiological method to decrease the hazardous effects of environmental stresses on plants is to applyplant growth regulators such as salicylic acid (SA. SA is one of the plant phenolic compounds in low amounts (mg/g wet weight or lower. This hormone can perform an important role in resistance to stresses. Asteraceae is one of the biggest plant families with over 20,000 species which is distributed worldwide in moderate and tropical regions. A lot of border flowers of this family are widely used in landscaping. Toselect drought tolerance flowers and application of materials that reducing stress effects, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of salicylic acid on some morphological and physiological characteristics of five border flowers of this family. Materials and Methods: The field experiment was conducted as split plot on randomized complete blocks design with four replications in which factors included two levels of water deficit (50, 100% FC as main plot and two levels of SA (0, 1mmol/L-1 as sub plot in the horticulturedepartment of faculty of Agriculture atFerdowsi University of Mashhad. In this investigation five border flowers (Ageratum houstonianum‘Blue Danube’, Tagetserecta ‘Discovery Yellow’, Tagetspatula‘Hero Harmony’, Zinnia elegans ‘Lilliput rose’andCallistephuschinensis ‘Milady Mix’ of Asteraceae family were chosen for study. The soil mixture was analyzed before starting the test. According to the result of physicochemical analysis of the soil, it had loamy texture

  3. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunzhou; Qin, Lei; Zhao, Jingjing; Muhammad, Tayeb; Cao, Hehe; Li, Hailiang; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II) and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways.

  4. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Li

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3 in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways.

  5. Spectroscopic and molecular docking study on the interaction between salicylic acid and the induced disease-resistant protein OsAAA1 of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya H.; Dai, Kang; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Yun H.; Wang, Chun T.; Liu, Xue Q.; Liu, Xin Q.

    2017-02-01

    The interaction between salicylic acid (SA) and the induced disease-resistant protein OsAAA1 in rice was studied using spectroscopy and molecular docking. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy demonstrated an interaction between OsAAA1 protein and SA. Spectroscopy showed that this interaction was a dynamic quenching process. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) further revealed that this interaction caused changes in the microenvironment of tyrosine and tryptophan and that the interaction site was closer to the tryptophan residue. The structural model of protein OsAAA1 was determined by homology modeling method, and the molecular docking simulation diagram of OsAAA1 with SA was obtained. These models, in combination with a Ramachandran plot analysis, showed amino acid residues ranging from position 240 to position 420 as the possible site interacting with SA. Among them, Gly389, Lys257 and Glu425 might be three key amino acids that can form hydrogen bonds with SA.

  6. In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of computer-selected analogues of carvacrol and salicylic acid on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción, Ramírez L; Froylán, Ibarra V; Herminia I, Pérez M; Norberto, Manjarrez A; Héctor J, Salgado Z; Yeniel, González C

    2013-10-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a tick that causes huge economic losses in cattle. The indiscriminate use of acaricides has generated resistance to most compounds present on the market. This makes further investigation on other potential acaricides necessary, the in silico assay being an alternative to the design of new compounds. In the present study a biosilico assay was performed using TOMOCOMD-CARDD (TOpological MOlecular COMputer Design-Computer-Aided Rational Drug Design) and WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) software. Two carvacrol and four salicylic acid derivatives, synthesized by conventional methods and evaluated with the larval packet test on larvae of R. (B.) microplus were selected. All evaluated compounds presented acaricidal activity; however, ethyl 2-methoxybenzoate (91.8 ± 1.7 % mortality) and ethyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (89.1 ± 1.6 % mortality) showed greater activity than salicylic acid. With regard to the carvacrol analogues, carvacrol acetate (67.8 ± 2.1 % mortality) and carvacrol methyl ether (71.7 ± 1.6 % mortality) also showed greater activity than carvacrol (35.9 ± 3.2 % mortality). TOMOCOMD-CARDD and WEKA software were helpful tools in the search for alternative structures with potential acaricidal activity on R. (B.) microplus.

  7. Hinokitiol Enhanced Vegetative Growth Parameters of Tomato cv. �Falkato� Compared with Salicylic Acid and Paclobutrazol under In Vitro Salinity Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz ESMAEILPOUR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the potential in vitro effect of hinokitiol on improvement of tomato seedling resistance to salinity stress. Effect of hinokitiol was compared with two anti-stress compounds, salicylic acid and paclobutrazol. Leaf numbers, shoot and root fresh weight and root fresh weight were recorded after about 8 weeks. Salt stress was accomplished by application of two levels of pure NaCl (50 and 100 mM on MS basal medium. The treatments consisted of different concentrations of hinokitiol (0, 1, 5 and 10 ppm, paclobutrazol (0, 1, 2 and 4 ?M and salicylic acid (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM. Results revealed that salinity blocked seed germination in media containing only 100 mM of pure NaCl without any treatment. In general all three compounds increased tomato seedling growth, indicating these compounds are able to alleviate the negative effect of salinity on tomato plants. However, Hinokitiol was the most efficient compound. Compared with SA, application of hinokitiol significantly increased leaf numbers, shoot length and shoot and root dry weight. Also, media containing different concentrations of hinokitiol produced higher root and shoot fresh weight than control and other treatments. Future physiological studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of induction of salt tolerance activity by hinokitiol.

  8. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  9. The salicylic acid effect on the tomato (lycopersicum esculentum Mill. germination, growth and photosynthetic pigment under salinity stress (NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahba Zahra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem that has negative effect on plant growth, production and photosynthesis. Fresh and dry plant weights decreases with salinity treatments. The very important role of salicylic acid (SA in response to different stress and modification and decline damages due to stresses has established in different studies. In this research tomato seeds planted in pots containing perlite in a growth chamber under controlled conditions of 27±2°c and 23±2°c temperature , 16h lightness and 8h darkness respectively, 15 Klux light intensity and 75% humidity; NaCl concentration of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM and salicylic acid concentration of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM were used in the form of factorial experiment in a complete randomized design (CRD. Results show that germination was decreased with salinity increasing. At low levels of salinity, SA leads to decrease in germination and had no effect in high levels of salinity. The length of shoot were not effected by salinity but decrease with increase in SA concentration. Low salinity concentrations led to significant increase in root length and high concentrations don’t have significant difference with control. SA also had no effect on it. The highest amount of a, b, c and total chlorophyll and carotenoid was show in 50 mM salinity levels.

  10. A Novel WRKY transcription factor is required for induction of PR-1a gene expression by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Verk, Marcel C; Pappaioannou, Dimitri; Neeleman, Lyda; Bol, John F; Linthorst, Huub J M

    2008-04-01

    PR-1a is a salicylic acid-inducible defense gene of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). One-hybrid screens identified a novel tobacco WRKY transcription factor (NtWRKY12) with specific binding sites in the PR-1a promoter at positions -564 (box WK(1)) and -859 (box WK(2)). NtWRKY12 belongs to the class of transcription factors in which the WRKY sequence is followed by a GKK rather than a GQK sequence. The binding sequence of NtWRKY12 (WK box TTTTCCAC) deviated significantly from the consensus sequence (W box TTGAC[C/T]) shown to be recognized by WRKY factors with the GQK sequence. Mutation of the GKK sequence in NtWRKY12 into GQK or GEK abolished binding to the WK box. The WK(1) box is in close proximity to binding sites in the PR-1a promoter for transcription factors TGA1a (as-1 box) and Myb1 (MBSII box). Expression studies with PR-1a promoterbeta-glucuronidase (GUS) genes in stably and transiently transformed tobacco indicated that NtWRKY12 and TGA1a act synergistically in PR-1a expression induced by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors. Cotransfection of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts with 35SNtWRKY12 and PR-1aGUS promoter fusions showed that overexpression of NtWRKY12 resulted in a strong increase in GUS expression, which required functional WK boxes in the PR-1a promoter.

  11. Hydrogen Peroxide and Nitric Oxide are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Induced Salvianolic Acid B Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Guo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO are key signaling molecules in cells whose levels are increased in response to various stimuli and are involved in plant secondary metabolite synthesis. In this paper, the roles of H2O2 and NO on salvianolic acid B (Sal B production in salicylic acid (SA-induced Salvia miltiorrhiza cell cultures were investigated. The results showed that H2O2 could be significantly elicited by SA, even though IMD (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or DMTU (a quencher of H2O2 were employed to inhibit or quench intracellular H2O2. These elicited H2O2 levels significantly increased NO production by 1.6- and 1.46 fold in IMD+SA and DMTU+SA treatments, respectively, and induced 4.58- and 4.85-fold Sal B accumulation, respectively. NO was also markedly elicited by SA, in which L-NNA (an inhibitor of NO synthase and cPTIO (a quencher of NO were used to inhibit or quench NO within cells, and the induced NO could significantly enhance H2O2 production by 1.92- and 1.37-fold in L-NNA+SA and cPTIO+SA treatments, respectively, and 3.27- and 1.50-fold for Sal B accumulation, respectively. These results indicate that elicitation of SA for either H2O2 or NO was independent, and the elicited H2O2 or NO could act independently or synergistically to induce Sal B accumulation in SA-elicited cells.

  12. Both the Jasmonic Acid and the Salicylic Acid Pathways Contribute to Resistance to the Biotrophic Clubroot Agent Plasmodiophora brassicae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Séverine; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Lariagon, Christine; Lemoine, Jocelyne; Marnet, Nathalie; Jubault, Mélanie; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Gravot, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in resistance to root pathogens has been poorly documented. We assessed the contribution of SA and JA to basal and partial resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. SA and JA levels as well as the expression of the SA-responsive genes PR2 and PR5 and the JA-responsive genes ARGAH2 and THI2.1 were monitored in infected roots of the accessions Col-0 (susceptible) and Bur-0 (partially resistant). SA signaling was activated in Bur-0 but not in Col-0. The JA pathway was weakly activated in Bur-0 but was strongly induced in Col-0. The contribution of both pathways to clubroot resistance was then assessed using exogenous phytohormone application and mutants affected in SA or JA signaling. Exogenous SA treatment decreased clubroot symptoms in the two Arabidopsis accessions, whereas JA treatment reduced clubroot symptoms only in Col-0. The cpr5-2 mutant, in which SA responses are constitutively induced, was more resistant to clubroot than the corresponding wild type, and the JA signaling-deficient mutant jar1 was more susceptible. Finally, we showed that the JA-mediated induction of NATA1 drove N(δ)-acetylornithine biosynthesis in infected Col-0 roots. The 35S::NATA1 and nata1 lines displayed reduced or enhanced clubroot symptoms, respectively, thus suggesting that in Col-0 this pathway was involved in the JA-mediated basal clubroot resistance. Overall, our data support the idea that, depending on the Arabidopsis accession, both SA and JA signaling can play a role in partial inhibition of clubroot development in compatible interactions with P. brassicae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Bacteria-Triggered Systemic Immunity in Barley Is Associated with WRKY and ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTORs But Not with Salicylic Acid1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjukta; Wenig, Marion; Langen, Gregor; Sharma, Sapna; Kugler, Karl G.; Knappe, Claudia; Hause, Bettina; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Babaeizad, Valiollah; Imani, Jafargholi; Janzik, Ingar; Stempfl, Thomas; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Mayer, Klaus F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf-to-leaf systemic immune signaling known as systemic acquired resistance is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we characterize systemic immunity in barley (Hordeum vulgare) triggered after primary leaf infection with either Pseudomonas syringae pathovar japonica (Psj) or Xanthomonas translucens pathovar cerealis (Xtc). Both pathogens induced resistance in systemic, uninfected leaves against a subsequent challenge infection with Xtc. In contrast to systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), systemic immunity in barley was not associated with NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 or the local or systemic accumulation of salicylic acid. Instead, we documented a moderate local but not systemic induction of abscisic acid after infection of leaves with Psj. In contrast to salicylic acid or its functional analog benzothiadiazole, local applications of the jasmonic acid methyl ester or abscisic acid triggered systemic immunity to Xtc. RNA sequencing analysis of local and systemic transcript accumulation revealed unique gene expression changes in response to both Psj and Xtc and a clear separation of local from systemic responses. The systemic response appeared relatively modest, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction associated systemic immunity with the local and systemic induction of two WRKY and two ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ERF)-like transcription factors. Systemic immunity against Xtc was further associated with transcriptional changes after a secondary/systemic Xtc challenge infection; these changes were dependent on the primary treatment. Taken together, bacteria-induced systemic immunity in barley may be mediated in part by WRKY and ERF-like transcription factors, possibly facilitating transcriptional reprogramming to potentiate immunity. PMID:25332505

  14. Forced degradation of mometasone furoate and development of two RP-HPLC methods for its determination with formoterol fumarate or salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzia I. El-Bagary

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, selective and precise stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic methods were developed and validated for the determination of mometasone furoate in two binary mixtures, with formoterol fumarate (Mixture 1 and salicylic acid (Mixture 2. Also, a forced degradation study of mometasone furoate was carried out including acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal and photo-degradation. For mixture 1, the method was based on isocratic elution using a mobile phase consisting of (Acetonitrile: 3 mM Sodium lauryl sulfate (60:40, v/v at a flow rate of 1 ml min−1. Quantitation was achieved applying dual wavelength detection where mometasone furoate and its degradation products were detected at 247 nm and formoterol fumarate and its degradation product were detected at 214 nm at 30 °C. For mixture 2 and for the forced degradation study, separation was based on isocratic elution of mometasone furoate, its degradation products and salicylic acid on a reversed phase C8 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:water:methanol:glacial acetic acid (60:30:10:0.1, v/v at a flow rate of 2 mL min−1. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 240 nm. In addition, products from alkaline forced degradation of mometasone furoate were verified by LC–MS. Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 10–800 μg mL−1 and 5–60 μg mL−1 for mometasone furoate and formoterol fumarate, respectively and over the concentration range of 5–320 μg mL−1 and 20–1280 μg mL−1 for mometasone furoate and salicylic acid, respectively. The two proposed methods could be successfully applied for the routine analysis of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations without any preliminary separation step.

  15. A new fluorogenic sensing platform for salicylic acid derivatives based on π-π and NH-π interactions between electron-deficient and electron-rich aromatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Anup; Hazra, Giridhari; Kim, Hong-Seok

    2017-05-01

    A novel simple fluorescent probe was designed for the recognition of electron-rich salicylic acid derivatives (SAs). The imidazole-appended aminomethyl perylene probe 1 selectively differentiated between electron-rich amino-SAs and electron-deficient nitro-SAs in EtOH, exhibiting the highest selectivity and sensitivity toward 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and showing strong 1:1 binding (Ka = 1.37 × 107 M- 1). This high selectivity and sensitivity resulted from the synergistic multiple hydrogen bonding interactions of secondary amine and imidazole units and π-π interactions between electron-rich and electron-deficient rings, along with the unusual NH-π interactions between 5-ASA and the perylene moiety of 1. The limit of detection (LOD) for 5-ASA in EtOH was 0.012 ppb.

  16. Searching for new NO-donor aspirin-like molecules: a new class of nitrooxy-acyl derivatives of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarato, Loretta; Donnola, Monica; Rolando, Barbara; Marini, Elisabetta; Cena, Clara; Coruzzi, Gabriella; Guaita, Elena; Morini, Giuseppina; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Biondi, Stefano; Ongini, Ennio

    2008-03-27

    A new class of products in which the phenol group of salicylic acid is linked to alkanoyl moieties bearing nitrooxy functions has been synthesized and studied for their polyvalent actions. The products were stable in acid and neutral media, while they were hydrolyzed in human serum. Their half-lives were dependent upon the structure of alkanoyl moieties. The products showed anti-inflammatory activities similar to aspirin when tested in the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in the rat. Interestingly, unlike aspirin, they showed reduced or no gastrotoxicity in a lesion model in rats at equimolar doses. A number of them were able to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by collagen in human platelet-rich plasma. All of the products were capable of relaxing rat aortic strips precontracted with phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner. Selected members of this new class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might represent possible safer alternatives to aspirin in different clinical settings.

  17. Influence of salicylic acid pretreatment on seeds germination and some defence mechanisms of Zea mays plants under copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcová, Šárka; Tůma, Jiří; Dučaiová, Zuzana Kovalíková; Waligórski, Piotr; Kula, Monika; Saja, Diana; Słomka, Aneta; Bąba, Wojciech; Libik-Konieczny, Marta

    2018-01-01

    The study was focused on the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on maize seeds germination and on some physiological and biochemical processes in maize plants growing in the hydroponic culture under copper (Cu) stress. A significant influence of SA pretreatment on the advanced induction of the maize seeds metabolic activity and the level of the endogenous SA in germinated seeds and developing roots have been stated. Although, the ability of maize seeds to uptake SA and accumulate it in the germinated roots was confirmed, the growth inhibition of Cu-stressed maize seedlings was not ameliorated by SA seeds pretreatment. Cu-stressed plants exhibited a decrease in the photosynthetic pigment concentration and the increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) - an indicator of an excess energy in PSII antenna assemblies lost as a heat. The amelioration effect of SA application was found only for carotenoids content which increased in stressed plants. It was also shown that maize roots growing in stress conditions significantly differed in the chemical composition in comparison to the roots of control plants, but the SA pretreatment did not affect these differences. On the other hand, it was found that SA seed pretreatment significantly influenced the ability of stressed plants to accumulate copper in the roots. It was stated that a higher level of exogenous SA application led to a lower accumulation of Cu ions in maize roots. Cu-stressed plants exhibited higher oxidative stress in roots than in leaves which was manifested as an increase in the concentration of hydrogen peroxide due to stress factor application. We observed an increase in catalase (CAT) activity in leaves of Cu-stressed plants which corresponded with a lower H2O2 content when compared with roots where the hydrogen peroxide level was higher, and the inhibition of the CAT activity was found. Furthermore, we found that the SA seed pretreatment led to a decrease in the H2O2 content in the roots of the Cu

  18. Adsorption of methyl orange and salicylic acid on a nano-transition metal composite: Kinetics, thermodynamic and electrochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, M; Mousavinia, F; Amiri, M J; Faraji, A R

    2016-12-01

    In this work synthesis of Mn-nanoparticles (MnNPs) supported on the Schiff base modified nano-sized SiO2Al2O3 mixed-oxides (Si/Al) and its implementation as an adsorbent for the removal of organic pollutions such as methyl orange (MO) and salicylic acid (SA) was investigated. Si/Al were functionalized by grafting Schiff base ligand and in the next step, MnNPs were prepared over the modified nano sol-gel Si/Al. Structures and adsorption characteristics of the obtained organometallic-modified SiO2/Al2O3 mixed oxide were studied by several methods such as elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES), Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). EPR data of the immobilized manganese ions resulted that the transition state of active sites in the nano-adsorbent are in the form of Mn(II) ions at the surface. The adsorption properties of heterogeneous Mn(II) ions showed that this nano-adsorbent has very good potential to remove MO and SA ions from aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of the SAPAS@MnNPs towards MO reached out to 89.3 and 29.1% and for SA approached to 54.6 and 18.9% at 150 and 500mg/dm(3) initial organic pollution concentrations, respectively. To investigate the adsorption kinetic of Mn(II) ions onto the nano-sized support, pseudo first and pseudo second order kinetics, and the Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models have also been applied to the equilibrium adsorption data. The contact time to obtain equilibrium for maximum adsorption capacity was 45min. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature and it was well explained with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. No remarkable loss of removal capacity even after 8th times regeneration

  19. Amino acid residues involved in inactivation of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance repressor MarR by salicylate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and plumbagin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Laura M; Levy, Stuart B

    2013-12-01

    MarR is the dedicated autorepressor of the marRAB operon found in seven genera of the Enterobacteraceae. The MarA transcriptional regulator directly activates numerous genes involved in multidrug resistance and other environmental responses. MarR is inactivated by certain phenolic ligands, such as salicylate, by an unknown mechanism. Our recent work has shown that several amino acid residues of Escherichia coli MarR affecting ligand binding are located between the dimerization and DNA-binding domains. To further characterize the ligand-binding region of MarR, we have now examined 7 point mutants generated by random mutagenesis and 11 site-directed alanine replacement mutants for inactivation by three ligands: salicylate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and plumbagin. Inactivation of MarR was quantitated in intact cells by loss of MarR-mediated repression of a chromosomal mar-lacZ transcriptional fusion. The results showed that most of the residues important for ligand effectiveness lay in the α1 and α2 helices of MarR, between the putative DNA-binding domain and the dimerization domain of MarR, reinforcing our earlier findings. Moreover, the three ligands had different, but overlapping, sets of residues impacting their effects on MarR. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel application of Onyxtrade mark monolithic column for simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and triamcinolone acetonide by sequential injection chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocholous, Petr; Holík, Pavel; Satínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2007-04-30

    A novel and fast simultaneous determination of triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) and salicylic acid (SA) in topical pharmaceutical formulations by sequential injection chromatography (SIC) as an alternative to classical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. A recently introduced Onyxtrade mark monolithic C18 (50mmx4.6mm, Phenomenex((R))) with 5mm monolithic precolumn were used for the first time for creating sequential injection chromatography system based on a FIAlab((R)) 3000 with a six-port selection valve and 5.0mL syringe pump in study. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile/water (35:65, v/v), pH 3.3 adjusted with acetic acid at flow rate 0.9mLmin(-1). UV detection provided by fibre-optic DAD detector was set up at 240nm. Propylparaben was chosen as suitable internal standard (IS). There is only simple pre-adjustment of the sample of topical solution (dilution with mobile phase) so the analysis is not uselessly elongated. Parameters of the method showed good linearity in wide range, correlation coefficient >0.999; system precision (relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) in the range 0.45-1.95% at three different concentration levels, detection limits (3sigma) 1.00mugmL(-1) (salicylic acid), 0.66mugmL(-1) (triamcinolone acetonide) and 0.33mugmL(-1) (propylparaben) and recovery from the pharmaceutical preparations in the range 97.50-98.94%. The chromatographic resolution between peaks of compounds was more than 4.5 and analysis time was 5.1min under the optimal conditions. The advantages of sequential injection chromatography against classical HPLC are discussed and showing that SIC can be a method of option in many cases.

  1. Arabidopsis wat1 (walls are thin1)-mediated resistance to the bacterial vascular pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum, is accompanied by cross-regulation of salicylic acid and tryptophan metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denancé, Nicolas; Ranocha, Philippe; Oria, Nicolas; Barlet, Xavier; Rivière, Marie-Pierre; Yadeta, Koste A; Hoffmann, Laurent; Perreau, François; Clément, Gilles; Maia-Grondard, Alessandra; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Savelli, Bruno; Fournier, Sylvie; Aubert, Yann; Pelletier, Sandra; Thomma, Bart P H J; Molina, Antonio; Jouanin, Lise; Marco, Yves; Goffner, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of Arabidopsis WAT1 (Walls Are Thin1), a gene required for secondary cell-wall deposition, conferred broad-spectrum resistance to vascular pathogens, including the bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and the fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum. Introduction of NahG, the bacterial salicylic acid (SA)-degrading salicylate hydroxylase gene, into the wat1 mutant restored full susceptibility to both R. solanacearum and X. campestris pv. campestris. Moreover, SA content was constitutively higher in wat1 roots, further supporting a role for SA in wat1-mediated resistance to vascular pathogens. By combining transcriptomic and metabolomic data, we demonstrated a general repression of indole metabolism in wat1-1 roots as shown by constitutive down-regulation of several genes encoding proteins of the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway and reduced amounts of tryptophan (Trp), indole-3-acetic acid and neoglucobrassicin, the major form of indole glucosinolate in roots. Furthermore, the susceptibility of the wat1 mutant to R. solanacearum was partially restored when crossed with either the trp5 mutant, an over-accumulator of Trp, or Pro35S:AFB1-myc, in which indole-3-acetic acid signaling is constitutively activated. Our original hypothesis placed cell-wall modifications at the heart of the wat1 resistance phenotype. However, the results presented here suggest a mechanism involving root-localized metabolic channeling away from indole metabolites to SA as a central feature of wat1 resistance to R. solanacearum. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Expression of pathogenesis related genes in response to salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in Malus hupehensis (Pamp. Rehd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Kuanyong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have been done to find out the molecular mechanism of systemic acquired resistance (SAR in plants in the past several decades. Numbers of researches have been carried out in the model plants such as arabidopsis, tobacco, rice and so on, however, with little work done in woody plants especially in fruit trees such as apple. Components of the pathway of SAR seem to be extremely conserved in the variety of species. Malus hupehensis, which is origin in China, is strong resistance with rootstock. In the study, we attempted to make the expression pattern of pathogenesis related (PR genes which were downstream components of the SAR pathway in response to salicylic acid(SA, methyl jasmonate(MeJA and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid(ACC in Malus hupehensis. Findings In order to analyze the expression pattern, the partial sequence of three PR genes from Malus hupehensis, MhPR1, MhPR5 and MhPR8 was isolated. These three PR genes were induced by SA, MeJA and ACC. However, MhPR1, MhPR5 and MhPR8 performed a distinct pattern of expression in different plant organs. MhPR5 and MhPR8 were basal expression in leaves, stems and roots, and MhPR1 was basal expression only in stems. The expression of MhPR1, MhPR5 and MhPR8 was enhanced during the first 48 h post-induced with SA, MeJA and ACC. Conclusions The results showed that a distinct pattern of expression of PR genes in Malus hupehensis which differed from the previous reports on model plants arabidopsis, tobacco and rice. MhPR1, MhPR5 and MhPR8 were induced by SA, MeJA and ACC, which were regarded as the marker genes in the SAR response in Malus hupehensis. In contrast with herbal plants, there could be specific signal pathway in response to SA, JA and ET for woody plants.

  3. Assessing the Role of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR Transcriptional Repressors in Salicylic Acid-Mediated Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Responsive Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caarls, Lotte; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Hickman, Richard; Jansen, Wouter; Verk, Marcel C Van; Proietti, Silvia; Lorenzo, Oscar; Solano, Roberto; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) cross-communicate in the plant immune signaling network to finely regulate induced defenses. In Arabidopsis, SA antagonizes many JA-responsive genes, partly by targeting the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)-type transcriptional activator ORA59. Members of the ERF transcription factor family typically bind to GCC-box motifs in the promoters of JA- and ethylene-responsive genes, thereby positively or negatively regulating their expression. The GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Here, we investigated whether SA-induced ERF-type transcriptional repressors, which may compete with JA-induced ERF-type activators for binding at the GCC-box, play a role in SA/JA antagonism. We selected ERFs that are transcriptionally induced by SA and/or possess an EAR transcriptional repressor motif. Several of the 16 ERFs tested suppressed JA-dependent gene expression, as revealed by enhanced JA-induced PDF1.2 or VSP2 expression levels in the corresponding erf mutants, while others were involved in activation of these genes. However, SA could antagonize JA-induced PDF1.2 or VSP2 in all erf mutants, suggesting that the tested ERF transcriptional repressors are not required for SA/JA cross-talk. Moreover, a mutant in the co-repressor TOPLESS, that showed reduction in repression of JA signaling, still displayed SA-mediated antagonism of PDF1.2 and VSP2. Collectively, these results suggest that SA-regulated ERF transcriptional repressors are not essential for antagonism of JA-responsive gene expression by SA. We further show that de novo SA-induced protein synthesis is required for suppression of JA-induced PDF1.2, pointing to SA-stimulated production of an as yet unknown protein that suppresses JA-induced transcription. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The interplay of van der Waals and weak chemical forces in the adsorption of salicylic acid on NaCl(001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tegenkamp, Christoph; Pfnür, Herbert; Bredow, Thomas

    2009-11-07

    The role of long range dispersion forces plays a significant role in the adsorption of weakly chemisorbed molecules, as demonstrated by our first-principles calculations with the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) applied to the model system salicylic acid (SA) on the NaCl(001) surface. While the vdW interaction accounts for more than half of the adsorption energy, the equilibrium geometry is still mostly determined by the chemical interaction between O and Na atoms. This seems to be due to a compensation effect of the vdW interaction in different parts of the planar SA molecule. The inclusion of the vdW interaction also results in a closer alignment of the highest occupied orbital of SA and the valence band maximum of NaCl(001) as a consequence of stronger hybridizations.

  5. Effects of salicylic acid-induced wine rich in anthocyanins on metabolic parameters and adipose insulin signaling in high-fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; de Rosas, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J; Ponce, María Teresa; Martinez, Liliana; Miatello, Roberto M; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of Syrah red wine treated with salicylic acid (RW SA) and its control red wine (RW) on metabolic parameters, systolic blood pressure and adipose tissue insulin signaling in high-fructose (F) fed rats. Grape treated with SA increased the anthocyanin (ANTs) levels in RW. F induced increased systolic blood pressure, dislipidemia and insulin resistance (HOMA:IR). F rats treated with RW significantly prevented these alterations while RW SA partially attenuated triglycerides levels and HOMA:IR without modifications in HDL cholesterol levels. F impaired the adipose tissue response to insulin. Supplementation with RW and RW SA partially attenuated these alterations. Rats supplemented with RW SA had lesser beneficial effects on metabolic alterations than control RW, while both RW and RW SA attenuated altered adipose response to insulin. More studies are necessary to deeply evaluate the effect on SA-induced RW rich in ANTs levels on metabolic alterations associated to MetS.

  6. Mechanism of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin Degradation under Solar Light in Presence of a TiO2-Polymeric Film Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Mukherjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of titanium dioxide (TiO2 as a photocatalyst has presented a promising avenue for the safe photocatalytic degradation of pollutants. Increasing levels of the release of pharmaceuticals in the environment and formation of the intermediates during their degradation may impose health and environmental risks and therefore require more attention. Photocatalytic degradation of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin was carried out in the presence of the TiO2-filled polymeric film as a photocatalyst under solar light irradiation. The polymeric film incorporates TiO2 in the matrix, which acts as a photocatalyst under solar illumination and degrades the acetyl salicylic acid (ASA into a range of organic compounds before complete demineralization (formation of carbon dioxide and water as final products. Among the intermediates, acetic acid was found to be present in a larger amount compared to other organic acids. The qualitative/quantitative analyses of the intermediates resulted in the determination of the most probable reaction’s mechanism in the degradation process. The mechanism of degradation of acetylsalicylic acid and its reaction pathway were developed from liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR and UV spectrophotometric analysis. It was found that hydroxyl groups were dominant in the degradation process compared to electrons and holes generated by TiO2. The total organic carbon (TOC analysis was also carried out to analyze the organic carbon content of the intermediates formed during the course of degradation.

  7. Acetyl Salicylic Acid Challenge in Children with Hypersensitivity Reactions to Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Differentiates Between Cross-Intolerant and Selective Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca-López, Natalia; Haroun-Diaz, Elisa; Ruano, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Alzate, Diana; Somoza, María Luisa; Vázquez de la Torre Gaspar, María; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; García-Martin, Elena; Blanca, Miguel; Canto, Gabriela

    2017-10-03

    Hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in children are becoming a great concern. Most studies have focused on adults, with noted discrepancies observed in the classification of hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in children when compared with adults. To phenotype a group of children with hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs, including paracetamol, and analyze the degree of agreement with the entities reported in adults and how they fit the proposed classifications. The study comprised 116 children aged 0.5 to 14 years, with a clinical history indicative of hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs. They all underwent a single-blind oral provocation test with acetyl salicylic acid, except in those cases when this was the suspected drug, in which case the challenge was done first with ibuprofen. If positive, cross-intolerance was established and if negative, an oral provocation test with the culprit drug was performed to establish a selective response or exclude allergy. Of the 26% diagnosed as hypersensitive to NSAIDs, 83% were cross-intolerant and 17% selective reactors. The highest significant differences between reactors and nonreactors were observed in the time to reaction after drug intake and the clinical entity (P < .0001), followed by drug involved and age (P < .01). From the total number of cases confirmed with NSAID hypersensitivity, 83% were cross-intolerant. In cross-intolerant reactions, both cutaneous and respiratory manifestations are common. Acetyl salicylic acid challenge as the first approach proved to be safe and useful to establish the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytokinins Mediate Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in Tobacco through Increased Antimicrobial Phytoalexin Synthesis Independent of Salicylic Acid Signaling1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkinsky, Dominik K.; Naseem, Muhammad; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Plickert, Nicole; Engelke, Thomas; Griebel, Thomas; Zeier, Jürgen; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Pfeifhofer, Hartwig; van der Graaff, Eric; Simon, Uwe; Roitsch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that are involved in various regulatory processes throughout plant development, but they are also produced by pathogens and known to modulate plant immunity. A novel transgenic approach enabling autoregulated cytokinin synthesis in response to pathogen infection showed that cytokinins mediate enhanced resistance against the virulent hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci. This was confirmed by two additional independent transgenic approaches to increase endogenous cytokinin production and by exogenous supply of adenine- and phenylurea-derived cytokinins. The cytokinin-mediated resistance strongly correlated with an increased level of bactericidal activities and up-regulated synthesis of the two major antimicrobial phytoalexins in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), scopoletin and capsidiol. The key role of these phytoalexins in the underlying mechanism was functionally proven by the finding that scopoletin and capsidiol substitute in planta for the cytokinin signal: phytoalexin pretreatment increased resistance against P. syringae. In contrast to a cytokinin defense mechanism in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) based on salicylic acid-dependent transcriptional control, the cytokinin-mediated resistance in tobacco is essentially independent from salicylic acid and differs in pathogen specificity. It is also independent of jasmonate levels, reactive oxygen species, and high sugar resistance. The novel function of cytokinins in the primary defense response of solanaceous plant species is rather mediated through a high phytoalexin-pathogen ratio in the early phase of infection, which efficiently restricts pathogen growth. The implications of this mechanism for the coevolution of host plants and cytokinin-producing pathogens and the practical application in agriculture are discussed. PMID:21813654

  9. Loss of Function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 in Tomato Enhances Basal Aphid Resistance in a Salicylate-Dependent Manner1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Carlos A.; Arévalo-Soliz, Lirio M.; Jia, Lingling; Navarre, Duroy A.; Chen, Zhaorigetu; Howe, Gregg A.; Meng, Qing-Wei; Smith, Jonathon E.; Goggin, Fiona L.

    2012-01-01

    We report here that disruption of function of the ω-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 (FAD7) enhances plant defenses against aphids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which eliminates the function of FAD7, reduces the settling behavior, survival, and fecundity of the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). Likewise, the antisense suppression of LeFAD7 expression in wild-type tomato plants reduces aphid infestations. Aphid resistance in the spr2 mutant is associated with enhanced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and mRNA encoding the pathogenesis-related protein P4. Introduction of the Naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase transgene, which suppresses SA accumulation, restores wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility to spr2. Resistance in spr2 is also lost when we utilize virus-induced gene silencing to suppress the expression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1), a positive regulator of many SA-dependent defenses. These results indicate that FAD7 suppresses defenses against aphids that are mediated through SA and NPR1. Although loss of function of FAD7 also inhibits the synthesis of jasmonate (JA), the effects of this desaturase on aphid resistance are not dependent on JA; other mutants impaired in JA synthesis (acx1) or perception (jai1-1) show wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility, and spr2 retains aphid resistance when treated with methyl jasmonate. Thus, FAD7 may influence JA-dependent defenses against chewing insects and SA-dependent defenses against aphids through independent effects on JA synthesis and SA signaling. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants Atfad7-2 and Atfad7-1fad8 also show enhanced resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) compared with wild-type controls, indicating that FAD7 influences plant-aphid interactions in at least two plant families. PMID:22291202

  10. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change.

  11. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  12. Salicylic and jasmonic acid pathways are necessary for defence against Dickeya solani as revealed by a novel method for Blackleg disease screening of in vitro grown potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, D D; Mühlenbock, P; Andreasson, E

    2015-09-01

    Potato is major crop ensuring food security in Europe, and blackleg disease is increasingly causing losses in yield and during storage. Recently, one blackleg pathogen, Dickeya solani has been shown to be spreading in Northern Europe that causes aggressive disease development. Currently, identification of tolerant commercial potato varieties has been unsuccessful; this is confounded by the complicated etiology of the disease and a strong environmental influence on disease development. There is currently a lack of efficient testing systems. Here, we describe a system for quantification of blackleg symptoms on shoots of sterile in vitro potato plants, which saves time and space compared to greenhouse and existing field assays. We found no evidence for differences in infection between the described in vitro-based screening method and existing greenhouse assays. This system facilitates efficient screening of blackleg disease response of potato plants independent of other microorganisms and variable environmental conditions. We therefore used the in vitro screening method to increase understanding of plant mechanisms involved in blackleg disease development by analysing disease response of hormone- related (salicylic and jasmonic acid) transgenic potato plants. We show that both jasmonic (JA) and salicylic (SA) acid pathways regulate tolerance to blackleg disease in potato, a result unlike previous findings in Arabidopsis defence response to necrotrophic bacteria. We confirm this by showing induction of a SA marker, pathogenesis-related protein 1 (StPR1), and a JA marker, lipoxygenase (StLOX), in Dickeya solani infected in vitro potato plants. We also observed that tubers of transgenic potato plants were more susceptible to soft rot compared to wild type, suggesting a role for SA and JA pathways in general tolerance to Dickeya. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. PtrWRKY73, a salicylic acid-inducible poplar WRKY transcription factor, is involved in disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanjiao; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Ye, Shenglong; Karim, Abdul; Ling, Zhengyi; He, Yunqiu; Yang, Siqi; Luo, Keming

    2015-05-01

    A salicylic acid-inducible WRKY gene, PtrWRKY73, from Populus trichocarpa , was isolated and characterized. Overexpression of PtrWRKY73 in Arabidopsis thaliana increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens but reduced resistance against necrotrophic pathogens. WRKY transcription factors are commonly involved in plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the roles of the WRKY genes in poplar defense. In this study, we isolated a salicylic acid (SA)-inducible WRKY gene, PtrWRKY73, from Populus trichocarpa, belonging to group I family and containing two WRKY domains, a D domain and an SP cluster. PtrWRKY73 was expressed predominantly in roots, old leaves, sprouts and stems, especially in phloem and its expression was induced in response to treatment with exogenous SA. PtrWRKY73 was localized to the nucleus of plant cells and exhibited transcriptional activation. Overexpression of PtrWRKY73 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in increased resistance to a virulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (PstDC3000), but more sensitivity to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. The SA-mediated defense-associated genes, such as PR1, PR2 and PAD4, were markedly up-regulated in transgenic plants overexpressing PtrWRKY73. Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1) was not affected, whereas a defense-related gene PAL4 had reduced in PtrWRKY73 overexpressor plants. Together, these results indicated that PtrWRKY73 plays a positive role in plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens but a negative effect on resistance against necrotrophic pathogens.

  14. Dynamics of the enhanced emissions of monoterpenes and methyl salicylate, and decreased uptake of formaldehyde, by Quercus ilex leaves after application of jasmonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filella, Iolanda; Peñuelas, Josep; Llusià, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a signalling compound with a key role in both stress and development in plants, and is reported to elicit the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here we studied the dynamics of such emissions and the linkage with photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. We sprayed JA on leaves of the Mediterranean tree species Quercus ilex and measured the photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductances, and emissions and uptake of VOCs using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography after a dark-light transition. Jasmonic acid treatment delayed the induction of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance by approx. 20 min, and decreased them 24 h after spraying. Indications were found of both stomatal and nonstomatal limitations of photosynthesis. Monoterpene emissions were enhanced (20-30%) after JA spraying. Jasmonic acid also increased methyl salicylate (MeSa) emissions (more than twofold) 1 h after treatment, although after 24 h this effect had disappeared. Formaldehyde foliar uptake decreased significantly 24 h after JA treatment. Both biotic and abiotic stresses can thus affect plant VOC emissions through their strong impact on JA levels. Jasmonic acid-mediated increases in monoterpene and MeSa emissions might have a protective role when confronting biotic and abiotic stresses.

  15. Arabidopsis GH3-LIKE DEFENSE GENE 1 is required for accumulation of salicylic acid, activation of defense responses and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Raina, Surabhi; Acharya, Biswa R; Maqbool, Shahina B; Mosher, Stephen L; Appel, Heidi M; Schultz, Jack C; Klessig, Daniel F; Raina, Ramesh

    2007-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the GH3-like gene family consists of 19 members, several of which have been shown to adenylate the plant hormones jasmonic acid, indole acetic acid and salicylic acid (SA). In some cases, this adenylation has been shown to catalyze hormone conjugation to amino acids. Here we report molecular characterization of the GH3-LIKE DEFENSE GENE 1 (GDG1), a member of the GH3-like gene family, and show that GDG1 is an important component of SA-mediated defense against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Expression of GDG1 is induced earlier and to a higher level in response to avirulent pathogens compared to virulent pathogens. gdg1 null mutants are compromised in several pathogen defense responses, including activation of defense genes and resistance against virulent and avirulent bacterial pathogens. Accumulation of free and glucoside-conjugated SA (SAG) in response to pathogen infection is compromised in gdg1 mutants. All defense-related phenotypes of gdg1 can be rescued by external application of SA, suggesting that gdg1 mutants are defective in the SA-mediated defense pathway(s) and that GDG1 functions upstream of SA. Our results suggest that GDG1 contributes to both basal and resistance gene-mediated inducible defenses against P. syringae (and possibly other pathogens) by playing a critical role in regulating the levels of pathogen-inducible SA. GDG1 is allelic to the PBS3 (avrPphB susceptible) gene.

  16. Application of gas-liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography to the analysis of trace amounts of salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic anhydride and acetylsalicylsalicylic acid in aspirin samples and aspirin formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S L

    1976-11-03

    The gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) determination of salicylic acid (SA) in 12 commercial acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) samples and 12 ASA formulations is reported. The GLC determination of SA as an impurity in ASA, utilising methylation with methyl iodide in the presence of potassium carbonate, requires a column chromatographic separation of SA prior to derivatization. Trace amounts of SA in ASA have also been determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Sil-X-I adsorption column using light petroleum-ethyl acetate-acetic acid as the mobile phase. Acetylsalicylic anhydride (ASN) and acetylsalicylsalicylic acid (ASSA) were determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase C18 column with water-methanol mixtures as the mobile phase. GLC was also applied to the determination of ASN as an impurity in ASA formulations.

  17. Plant hormones in defense response of Brassica napus to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - reassessing the role of salicylic acid in the interaction with a necrotroph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Miroslava; Sašek, Vladimír; Dobrev, Petre I; Valentová, Olga; Burketová, Lenka

    2014-07-01

    According to general model, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are induced in Arabidopsis after an attack of necrotroph, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) also seem to play a role. While signaling events in Arabidopsis have been intensively studied recently, information for the natural host Brassica napus is limited. In this study, multiple plant hormone quantification and expression analysis of marker genes of the signaling pathways was used to gain a complete view of the interaction of B. napus with S. sclerotiorum. Strong response of ET biosynthetic gene ACS2 was observed, accompanied by increases of SA and JA levels that correspond to the elevated expression of marker genes PR1 and LOX3. Interestingly, the level of ABA and the expression of its marker gene RD26 were also elevated. Furthermore, induction of the SA-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms. In addition, SA signaling is suggested as a possible target for manipulation by S. sclerotiorum. A gene for putative chorismate mutase SS1G_14320 was identified that is highly expressed during infection but not in vitro. Our results bring the evidence of SA involvement in the interaction of plant with the necrotroph that conflict with the current model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids in Coffea arabica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Marta; Ferreira, João P; Queiroz, Vagner T; Vilas-Boas, Luís; Silva, Maria C; Almeida, Maria H; Guerra-Guimarães, Leonor; Bronze, Maria R

    2014-02-01

    Plants have developed an efficient system of recognition that induces a complex network of signalling molecules such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in case of a pathogenic infection. The use of specific and sensitive methods is mandatory for the analysis of compounds in these complex samples. In this study a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of SA, JA and ABA in Coffea arabica (L.) leaves in order to understand the role of these phytohormones in the signalling network involved in the coffee defence response against Hemileia vastatrix. The results showed that the method was specific, linear (r ≥ 0.99) in the range 0.125-1.00 µg mL⁻¹ for JA and ABA and 0.125-5.00 µg mL⁻¹ for SA, and precise (relative standard deviation ≤11%), and the limit of detection (0.010 µg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was adequate for quantifying these phytohormones in this type of matrix. In comparison with healthy leaves, those infected with H. vastatrix (resistance reaction) displayed an increase in SA level 24 h after inoculation, suggesting the involvement of an SA-dependent pathway in coffee resistance. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Salicylic acid alleviates cadmium-induced stress responses through the inhibition of Cd-induced auxin-mediated reactive oxygen species production in barley root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Ladislav; Mistrík, Igor; Alemayehu, Aster; Zelinová, Veronika; Bočová, Beáta; Huttová, Jana

    2015-01-15

    Auxin is a master regulator of root growth by modulating its development under the constantly changing environment. Recently, an antagonistic interaction was suggested between SA and IAA signaling. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to analyze and compare the effect of the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signaling inhibitor p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) and salicylic acid (SA) as a potential IAA signaling inhibitor on the root growth, enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Cd- and IAA-treated barley root tips. Exposure of plants to Cd resulted in a more than threefold increase of IAA content in the root apex even 3h after the treatment. In addition, exogenously applied IAA evoked root responses such as root growth inhibition and swelling, ROS generation and activation of lipoxygenase or glutathione peroxidase identical to those induced by Cd. Furthermore, both Cd- and IAA-induced stress responses were markedly reversed by PCIB or SA post-treatment. Similarly to PCIB, SA did not affect the IAA content of root tips, suggesting the action of SA on the IAA signaling pathway in barley roots. SA probably does not alleviate the Cd toxicity in roots, but rather prevents or partially inhibits the root defense response to the presence of Cd through the inhibition of Cd-induced IAA-mediated ROS generation in roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2014-06-01

    In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease.

  1. Priming of seeds with methyl jasmonate induced resistance to hemi-biotroph Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, salicylic acid, and flavonol accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, P; Igielski, R; Pollmann, S; Kępczyńska, E

    2015-05-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was tested by seed treatment for its ability to protect tomato seedlings against fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Isolated from Solanum lycopersicon L. seeds, cv. Beta fungus was identified as F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici Race 3 fungus by using phytopathological and molecular methods. MeJA applied at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM reduced spore germination and mycelial growth in vitro. Soaking of tomato seeds in MeJA solution at 0.1 mM for 1 h significantly enhanced the resistance level against the tested fungus in tomato seedlings 4 weeks after inoculation. The extracts from leaves of 15-day-old seedlings obtained from previously MeJA soaked seeds had the ability to inhibit in vitro spore germination of tested fungus. In these seedlings a significant increase in the levels phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid (SA), kaempferol and quercetin was observed. Up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL5) and benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BSMT) genes and down-regulation of the isochorysmate synthase (ICS) gene in response to exogenous MeJA application indicate that the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), not the isochorismate (IC) pathway, is the primary route for SA production in tomato. Moreover, the increased accumulation of the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol appears closely related to the increase of PAL5, chalcone synthase (CHS) and flavonol synthase/flavanone 3-hydroxylase-like (FLS) genes. Elevated levels of salicylic acid in seedlings raised from MeJA-soaked seeds were simultaneously accompanied by a decrease of jasmonic acid, the precursor of MeJA, and an increase of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), the precursor of jasmonic acid. The present results indicate that the priming of tomato seeds with 0.1mM MeJA before sowing enables the seedlings grown from these seeds to reduce the attack of the soil-borne fungal pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici

  2. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-ɑ-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon.

  3. Preparation and properties of a pH sensitive carrier based on three kinds of polymer blend to control the release of 5-amino salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuming; Zhou, Zhengjie; Ding, Hongyan; Zhang, Shujiang

    2014-12-01

    High concentration of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) in the distal ileum and colon is necessary for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The control of small molecules, drugs, released from a polymeric matrix remains a great challenge. To study the preparation and properties of a pH-sensitive carrier for targeting delivery of 5-ASA. The carrier was prepared by ternary blends method based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium alginate (SA) and polylactic acid. It was characterized by infrared spectrometry and scanning electronic microscopy. The adsorption and release of 5-ASA in different pH media were investigated. We found out the best ratio of the materials for synthetic carrier. The vector exhibited good performance by the controlled release of the target drug experiment. The adsorption capacity of the carrier for 5-ASA was 70.34% in phosphate buffer saline at pH 1.00, and the release rate was 100.49% in phosphate buffer solution at pH 6.80. PVA is vector backbone of the carrier, and SA plays key role in its pH performance. It is a promising material to effectively deliver 5-ASA to the specific sites of IBD.

  4. Intracellular salicylic acid is involved in signal cascade regulating low ammonium-induced taxoid biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2011-05-01

    It was previously reported that low initial ammonium (2 mM) in medium had significant stimulating effects on the biosynthesis of taxuyunnanine C (Tc) by Taxus chinensis cells. However, the secondary metabolism induction mechanism of the low initial ammonium is yet unknown in plant cells. To provide an insight into the defense signals response to the low initial ammonium, oxidative burst and intracellular salicylic acid (SA) were detected, and their influences on the expression of important genes in taxoid biosynthetic pathway were examined in the cell cultures of T. chinensis. Induced H(2)O(2) production, elevated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, and enhanced SA biosynthesis were observed. Interestingly, inhibition of SA biosynthesis by paclobutrazol and (BOC-aminooxy) acetic acid significantly depressed the Tc stimulation and up-regulation of Tc biosynthetic genes of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase and taxadiene synthase. The role of intracellular SA in regulating Tc biosynthesis was further confirmed by applying exogenous SA in normal ammonium (20 mM) medium. The results indicated that SA acted as a signal in low initial ammonium-induced Tc biosynthesis. A signal transduction cascade from defense signal response to activated transcription of taxoid biosynthetic genes and enhanced Tc production is proposed.

  5. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione pathway which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance under salt stress. The increase in leaf sulfur content through higher activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl transferase (SAT) by SA application was associated with the increased accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and lower levels of oxidative stress. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analog, 2,6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and 1 mM GSH treatment produced similar results on rubisco, photosynthesis and growth of plants establishing that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the enzyme activity of ascorbate-glutathione pathway and increased GSH production. Thus, SA/GSH could be a promising tool for alleviation of salt stress in mustard plants.

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in response to plant signal salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and gamma-amino butyric acid reveals signalling cross-talk and Agrobacterium--plant co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ze-Chun; Haudecoeur, Elise; Faure, Denis; Kerr, Kathleen F; Nester, Eugene W

    2008-11-01

    Agrobacterium has evolved sophisticated strategies to perceive and transduce plant-derived cues. Recent studies have found that numerous plant signals, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), profoundly affect Agrobacterium-plant interactions. Here we determine and compare the transcriptome profiles of Agrobacterium in response to these three plant signals. Collectively, the transcription of 103, 115 and 95 genes was significantly altered by SA, IAA and GABA respectively. Both distinct cellular responses and overlapping signalling pathways were elicited by these three plant signals. Interestingly, these three plant compounds function additively to shut off the Agrobacterium virulence programme and activate the quorum-quenching machinery. Moreover, the repression of the virulence programme by SA and IAA and the inactivation of quorum-sensing signals by SA and GABA are regulated through independent pathways. Our data indicate that these plant signals, while cross-talk in plant signalling networks, also act as cross-kingdom signals and play redundant roles in tailoring Agrobacterium regulatory pathways, resulting in intensive signalling cross-talk in Agrobacterium. Our results support the notion that Agrobacterium has evolved the ability to hijack plant signals for its own benefit. The complex signalling interplay between Agrobacterium and its plant hosts reflects an exquisite co-evolutionary balance.

  7. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of salicylates in aerated aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation induced degradation of acetylsalicylic acid, its hydrolysis product salicylic acid and a salicylic acid derivative 5-sulpho-salicylic acid, was investigated in dilute aqueous solutions by UV-vis spectrophotometry, HPLC separation and diode-array or MS/MS detection, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and by Vibrio fischeri toxicity measurements. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to degrade these molecules readily, and first degradation products were hydroxylated derivatives in all cases. Due to the by-products, among them hydrogen peroxide, the toxicity first increased and then decreased with the absorbed dose. With prolonged irradiation complete mineralization was achieved.

  8. Influence of the temperature in the uranyl sorption in zirconium diphosphate modified with salicylic acid; Influencia de la temperatura en la sorcion de uranilo en difosfato de circonio modificado con acido salicilico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N.; Solis C, D. A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon y Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ordonez R, E., E-mail: nidgg@yahoo.com.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (MX)

    2011-11-15

    In this work the experimental conditions were established to evaluate the uranium (Vi) sorption to 20 and 40 C on the surface of the zirconium diphosphate (ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}) modified with a solution of salicylic acid 0.1 M. The modification of the ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} was produced during the hydrate process, taking advantage that these are formed complexes between the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of salicylic acid and amphoteric species of the interface solid/liquid. The method is used by lots to elaborate the isotherms that explain the behavior of this sorption in different ph conditions and temperature, the quantity of the uranium reaction is analyzed with the fluorescence technique. The results indicated that in the temperature increases the uranium sorption on the material and is more efficient to low ph values. (Author)

  9. Effects of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis and the Expression of Key Genes in the Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway in the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng-Fei; Wu, Chen-Gao; Dang, Zhi-Hao; Shi, Liang; Jiang, Ai-Liang; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate herein that salicylic acid (SA) can enhance ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Following treatment with different concentrations of SA, the GA content was increased 22.72% to 43.04% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA at different times, the GA content was improved 10.21% to 35.24% compared with the control group. By choosing the optimum point based on response surface methodology, the GA content could be increased up to 229.03 μg/100 mg, which was improved 66.38% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA, the transcription levels of key genes in the GA biosynthesis pathway-squalene (SQ) synthase (sqs), lanosterol (Lano; osc), and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (hmgr)-were improved 119.6-, 3.2-, and 4.2-fold, respectively. In addition, following treatment with 100 μmol/L SA, the levels of Lano and SQ, which are intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, were increased 2.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively. These results indicate that SA can regulate the expression of genes related to GA biosynthesis and increases the metabolic levels of Lano and SQ, thereby resulting in the accumulation of GA.

  10. A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuntong; Xu, Weirong; Duan, Dong; Wang, Yuejin; Nick, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. 'Carigane' (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot. To dissect the upstream signalling driving the activation of this promoter, we used a dual-luciferase reporter system in a grapevine cell culture. We show elevated responsiveness of the promoter from the wild grape to salicylic acid (SA) and to the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22, equal induction of both alleles by jasmonic acid (JA), and a lack of response to the cell death-inducing elicitor Harpin. This elevated SA response of the VpSTS promoter depends on calcium influx, oxidative burst by RboH, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, and JA synthesis. We integrate the data in the context of a model where the resistance of V. pseudoreticulata is linked to a more efficient recruitment of SA signalling for phytoalexin synthesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Haem oxygenase-1 is involved in salicylic acid-induced alleviation of oxidative stress due to cadmium stress in Medicago sativa.

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    Cui, Weiti; Li, Le; Gao, Zhaozhou; Wu, Honghong; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-09-01

    This work examines the involvement of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced alleviation of oxidative stress as a result of cadmium (Cd) stress in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedling roots. CdCl(2) exposure caused severe growth inhibition and Cd accumulation, which were potentiated by pre-treatment with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX), a potent HO-1 inhibitor. Pre-treatment of plants with the HO-1 inducer haemin or SA, both of which could induce MsHO1 gene expression, significantly reduced the inhibition of growth and Cd accumulation. The alleviation effects were also evidenced by a decreased content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The antioxidant behaviour was confirmed by histochemical staining for the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, haemin and SA pre-treatment modulated the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), or their corresponding transcripts. Significant enhancement of the ratios of reduced/oxidized homoglutathione (hGSH), ascorbic acid (ASA)/dehydroascorbate (DHA), and NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+), and expression of their metabolism genes was observed, consistent with a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution in the root tips. These effects are specific for HO-1, since ZnPPIX blocked the above actions, and the aggravated effects triggered by SA plus ZnPPIX were differentially reversed when carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HO-1, was added. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 is involved in the SA-induced alleviation of Cd-triggered oxidative stress by re-establishing redox homeostasis.

  12. N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Primes Plants for Cell Wall Reinforcement and Induces Resistance to Bacterial Pathogens via the Salicylic Acid/Oxylipin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Sebastian T; Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Samans, Birgit; Stein, Elke; Neumann, Christina; Schikora, Marek; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Becker, Annette; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-06-01

    The ability of plants to monitor their surroundings, for instance the perception of bacteria, is of crucial importance. The perception of microorganism-derived molecules and their effector proteins is the best understood of these monitoring processes. In addition, plants perceive bacterial quorum sensing (QS) molecules used for cell-to-cell communication between bacteria. Here, we propose a mechanism for how N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), a group of QS molecules, influence host defense and fortify resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against bacterial pathogens. N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) primed plants for enhanced callose deposition, accumulation of phenolic compounds, and lignification of cell walls. Moreover, increased levels of oxylipins and salicylic acid favored closure of stomata in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection. The AHL-induced resistance seems to differ from the systemic acquired and the induced systemic resistances, providing new insight into inter-kingdom communication. Consistent with the observation that short-chain AHLs, unlike oxo-C14-HSL, promote plant growth, treatments with C6-HSL, oxo-C10-HSL, or oxo-C14-HSL resulted in different transcriptional profiles in Arabidopsis. Understanding the priming induced by bacterial QS molecules augments our knowledge of plant reactions to bacteria and suggests strategies for using beneficial bacteria in plant protection. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Primes Plants for Cell Wall Reinforcement and Induces Resistance to Bacterial Pathogens via the Salicylic Acid/Oxylipin Pathway[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Sebastian T.; Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Samans, Birgit; Stein, Elke; Neumann, Christina; Schikora, Marek; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Becker, Annette; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to monitor their surroundings, for instance the perception of bacteria, is of crucial importance. The perception of microorganism-derived molecules and their effector proteins is the best understood of these monitoring processes. In addition, plants perceive bacterial quorum sensing (QS) molecules used for cell-to-cell communication between bacteria. Here, we propose a mechanism for how N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), a group of QS molecules, influence host defense and fortify resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against bacterial pathogens. N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) primed plants for enhanced callose deposition, accumulation of phenolic compounds, and lignification of cell walls. Moreover, increased levels of oxylipins and salicylic acid favored closure of stomata in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection. The AHL-induced resistance seems to differ from the systemic acquired and the induced systemic resistances, providing new insight into inter-kingdom communication. Consistent with the observation that short-chain AHLs, unlike oxo-C14-HSL, promote plant growth, treatments with C6-HSL, oxo-C10-HSL, or oxo-C14-HSL resulted in different transcriptional profiles in Arabidopsis. Understanding the priming induced by bacterial QS molecules augments our knowledge of plant reactions to bacteria and suggests strategies for using beneficial bacteria in plant protection. PMID:24963057

  14. Preparation of Calcined Zirconia-Carbon Composite from Metal Organic Frameworks and Its Application to Adsorption of Crystal Violet and Salicylic Acid

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    Zubair Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia-carbon (ZC composites were prepared via calcination of Zr-based metal organic frameworks, UiO-66 and amino-functionalized UiO-66, under N2 atmosphere. The prepared composites were characterized using a series of instrumental analyses. The surface area of the ZC composites increased with the increase of calcination temperature, with the formation of a graphite oxide phase observed at 900 °C. The composites were used for adsorptive removal of a dye (crystal violet, CV and a pharmaceutical and personal care product (salicylic acid, SA. The increase of the calcination temperature resulted in enhanced adsorption capability of the composites toward CV. The composite calcined at 900 °C exhibited a maximum uptake of 243 mg·g−1, which was much greater than that by a commercial activated carbon. The composite was also effective in SA adsorption (102 mg·g−1, and N-functionalization of the composite further enhanced its adsorption capability (109 mg·g−1. CV adsorption was weakly influenced by solution pH, but was more dependent on the surface area and pore volume of the ZC composite. Meanwhile, SA adsorption showed strong pH dependence, which implies an active role of electrostatic interactions in the adsorption process. Base-base repulsion and hydrogen bonding are also suggested to influence the adsorption of CV and SA, especially for the N-functionalized composite.

  15. Determination of salicylic acid using a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure followed by an online concentration technique through micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Chang-Wei; Fu, Shih-Feng; Wu, Mei-Yao; Wu, Tsunghsueh; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2017-01-06

    In this study, a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure combined with the online concentration and separation of salicylic acid (SA) through micellar electrokinetic chromatography-UV detection (MEKC-UV) was developed. Under optimal experimental conditions, a good linearity in the range of 0.01-100μmolL-1 was obtained with a coefficient of correlation of 0.9999. The detection sensitivity of the proposed method exhibited an approximately 1026-fold improvement compared with a single MEKC method without online concentration, and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 3.80nmolL-1. The repeatability of the method was evaluated using intraday and interday RSDs (11.5% and 17.0%, respectively). The method was used to determine SA concentrations in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun) from the NN genotype, nn genotype, and Nt-NahG mutant strains, as well as in shampoo and ointment samples. Rapid extraction and separation (<50min), acceptable repeatability (RSD<17.0%), and high spiked recoveries (95.8%-102.4%) were observed for plants, detergents, and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effects of salicylic acid on the leaf photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of cucumber seedlings under low temperature and light intensity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ai, Xi-Zhen; Liang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Liu, Sheng-Xue; Zheng, Nan

    2009-02-01

    In order to elucidate the regulation functions of salicylic acid (SA) on the photosynthesis of cucumber under low temperature and light intensity, the seedlings of cucumber 'Jinyou 3' under low temperature and light intensity were foliar-sprayed with different concentration SA, and the leaf gas exchange parameters, photochemical efficiency, MDA content, and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured. The results showed that under low temperature and light intensity, the leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (PhiPSII), and maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) of the seedlings all decreased but the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased, suggesting that nonstomatal limitation was the main cause of the decrease of Pn under low temperature and light intensity stress. Low temperature and light intensity also led to the increase of leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the decrease of catalase (CAT) activity, and the decrease after an initial increase of peroxidase (POD) activity. However, foliar-spraying 0.5-2.5 mmol x L(-1) of SA before the stress increased the leaf Pn, Gs, Tr, PhiPSII, Fv/Fm, and activities of SOD, POD and CAT while decreased the Ci and MDA content, suggesting that SA could regulate the leaf photosynthetic functions of cucumber seedlings, and enhance the seedlings resistance against low temperature and light intensity. The optimum concentration of SA for the foliar-spraying was 1 mmol x L(-1).

  17. The Role of Dermcidin Isoform 2: A Two-Faceted Atherosclerotic Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease and the Effect of Acetyl Salicylic Acid on It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwary Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are considered to be two major atherosclerotic risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD. A stress-induced protein identified to be dermcidin isoform 2 of Mr. 11 kDa from blood plasma of hypertensive persons when injected (0.1 μM in rabbits increased the systolic pressure by 77% and diastolic pressure by 45% over the controls within 2 h. Ingestion of acetyl salicylic acid (150 mg/70 kg by these subjects reduced systolic (130 mm Hg and diastolic pressures (80 mm Hg with reduction of plasma dermcidin level to normal ranges (9 nM. The protein was found to be a potent activator of platelet cyclooxygenase and inhibited insulin synthesis. Aspirin was found to reduce hypertension by reduction of plasma dermcidin level, neutralized the effect of cyclooxygenase, and restored the pancreatic insulin synthesis through NO synthesis. These results indicated that dermcidin could be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor for its hypertensive and diabetogenic effects.

  18. Magnetic, core-shell structured and surface molecularly imprinted polymers for the rapid and selective recognition of salicylic acid from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zulei; Niu, Dechao; Li, Yongsheng; Shi, Jianlin

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a novel kind of magnetic, core-shell structured and surface molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for the recognition of salicylic acid (SA) was facilely synthesized through a surface imprinting and sol-gel polymerization approach. The as-synthesized MMIPs exhibit uniform core-shell structure and favorable magnetic properties with a saturation magnetization of 22.8 emu g-1. The binding experiments demonstrated that MMIPs possessed high binding and specific recognition capacity, as well as fast binding kinetics and phase separation rate. The maximum binding capacity of MMIPs is around 36.8 mg g-1, nearly 6 times that of the magnetic non-imprinted polymers (MNIPs). Moreover, the selectivity experiments show that all the relative selectivity coefficients towards SA over its structure analogs are higher than 18, further indicating the markedly enhanced binding selectivity of MMIPs. Furthermore, the MMIPs were successfully applied for the determination of SA in environmental water samples with the recovery rates ranging from 94.0 to 108.0 %. This strategy may provide a versatile approach for the fabrication of well-defined molecularly imprinted polymers on nanomaterials for the analysis of complicated matrixes.

  19. The resistance of sour orange to Citrus tristeza virus is mediated by both the salicylic acid and RNA silencing defence pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Muñoz, Neus; Velázquez, Karelia; Vives, María Carmen; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Pina, José Antonio; Flores, Ricardo; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José

    2016-09-02

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) induces in the field the decline and death of citrus varieties grafted on sour orange (SO) rootstock, which has forced the use of alternative decline-tolerant rootstocks in affected countries, despite the highly desirable agronomic features of the SO rootstock. Declining citrus plants display phloem necrosis below the bud union. In addition, SO is minimally susceptible to CTV compared with other citrus varieties, suggesting partial resistance of SO to CTV. Here, by silencing different citrus genes with a Citrus leaf blotch virus-based vector, we have examined the implication of the RNA silencing and salicylic acid (SA) defence pathways in the resistance of SO to CTV. Silencing of the genes RDR1, NPR1 and DCL2/DCL4, associated with these defence pathways, enhanced virus spread and accumulation in SO plants in comparison with non-silenced controls, whereas silencing of the genes NPR3/NPR4, associated with the hypersensitive response, produced a slight decrease in CTV accumulation and reduced stunting of SO grafted on CTV-infected rough lemon plants. We also found that the CTV RNA silencing suppressors p20 and p23 also suppress the SA signalling defence, with the suppressor activity being higher in the most virulent isolates. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Salicylic acid-induced changes in physiological parameters and genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Artemisia vulgaris and Dendranthema nankingense during aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Xia, X L; Jiang, J F; Chen, S M; Chen, F D; Lv, G S

    2016-02-19

    Phloem-feeding aphids cause serious damage to plants. The mechanisms of plant-aphid interactions are only partially understood and involve multiple pathways, including phytohormones. In order to investigate whether salicylic acid (SA) is involved and how it plays a part in the defense response to the aphid Macrosiphoniella sanbourni, physiological changes and gene expression profiles in response to aphid inoculation with or without SA pretreatment were compared between the aphid-resistant Artemisia vulgaris 'Variegata' and the susceptible chrysanthemum, Dendranthema nankingense. Changes in levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (MDA), and flavonoids, and in the expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, including PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), CHS (chalcone synthase), CHI (chalcone isomerase), F3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase), F3'H (flavanone 3'-hydroxylase), and DFR (dihydroflavonol reductase), were investigated. Levels of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions, MDA, and flavonoids, and their related gene expression, increased after aphid infestation and SA pretreatment followed by aphid infestation; the aphid-resistant A. vulgaris exhibited a more rapid response than the aphid-susceptible D. nankingense to SA treatment and aphid infestation. Taken together, our results suggest that SA could be used to increase aphid resistance in the chrysanthemum.

  1. Avocado roots treated with salicylic acid produce phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl), a compound with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Sánchez, Gerardo; Castro-Mercado, Elda; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2014-02-15

    We demonstrated the ability of salicylic acid (SA) to induce a compound in avocado roots that strengthens their defense against Phytophthora cinnamomi. The SA content of avocado roots, before and after the application of exogenous SA, was determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). After 4h of SA feeding, the endogenous level in the roots increased to 223 μg g(-1) FW, which was 15 times the amount found in control roots. The methanolic extract obtained from SA-treated avocado roots inhibited the radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A thin layer chromatographic bioassay with the methanolic extract and spores of Aspergillus showed a distinct inhibition zone. The compound responsible for the inhibition was identified as phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the substance reduced germinative tube length in Aspergillus and radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A commercial preparation of phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) caused the same effects on mycelium morphology and radial growth as our isolate, confirming the presence of this compound in the root extracts. This is the first report of the induction of this compound in plants by SA, and the results suggest that it plays an important role in the defense response of avocado. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Dianthus superbus (Caryophyllaceae by Activating Photosynthesis, Protecting Morphological Structure, and Enhancing the Antioxidant System

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    Xiaohua Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress critically affects the physiological processes and morphological structure of plants, resulting in reduced plant growth. Salicylic acid (SA is an important signal molecule that mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on plants. Large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae usually exhibit salt-tolerant traits under natural conditions. To further clarify the salt-tolerance level of D. superbus and the regulating mechanism of exogenous SA on the growth of D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to examine the biomass, photosynthetic parameters, stomatal structure, chloroplast ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, and antioxidant activities of D. superbus young shoots under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions, with and without 0.5 mM SA. D. superbus exhibited reduced growth rate, decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn, increased relative electric conductivity (REC and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, and poorly developed stomata and chloroplasts under 0.6 and 0.9% salt stress. However, exogenously SA effectively improved the growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and stoma and chloroplast development of D. superbus. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl condition, there was no significant difference in the plant growth and physiological responses between SA-treated and non-SA-treated plants. Therefore, our research suggests that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effect of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development.

  3. Changes in the water status and osmotic solute contents in response to drought and salicylic acid treatments in four different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Naglaa; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A; Hassanen, Ahmed M; Moustafa, Mahmoud F M; Sakuma, Yoh; Inouhe, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) controls growth and stress responses in plants. It also induces drought tolerance in plants. In this paper, four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with different drought responses were treated with SA in three levels of drain (90, 60, 30% of maximum field capacity) to examine its interactive effects on drought responses and contents of osmotic solutes that may be involved in growth and osmotic adjustment. Under drought condition, the cultivars Geza 164 and Sakha 69 had the plant biomass and leaf relative water content (LRWC) greater than the cultivars Gemaza 1 and Gemaza 3. In all cultivars, drought stress decreased the biomass, LRWC, and the contents of inorganic solutes (Ca, K, Mg) and largely increased the contents of organic solutes (soluble sugars and proline). By contrast, SA increased the biomass, LRWC and the inorganic and organic solute contents, except proline. Correlation analysis revealed that the LRWC correlated positively with the inorganic solute contents but negatively with proline in all cultivars. SA caused maximum accumulations of soluble sugars in roots under drought. These results indicated that SA-enhanced tolerance might involve solute accumulations but independently of proline biosynthesis. Drought-sensitive cultivars had a trait lowering Ca and K levels especially in shoots. Possible functions of the ions and different traits of cultivars were discussed.

  4. The Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Protease FtSH4 Is Involved in Leaf Senescence via Regulation of WRKY-Dependent Salicylic Acid Accumulation and Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengchun; Li, Cui; Wang, Rui; Chen, Yaxue; Shu, Si; Huang, Ruihua; Zhang, Daowei; Li, Jian; Xiao, Shi; Yao, Nan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondria and autophagy play important roles in the networks that regulate plant leaf senescence and cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between mitochondrial signaling and autophagy are currently not well understood. This study characterized the function of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial AAA-protease gene FtSH4 in regulating autophagy and senescence, finding that FtSH4 mediates WRKY-dependent salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and signaling. Knockout of FtSH4 in the ftsh4-4 mutant resulted in severe leaf senescence, cell death, and high autophagy levels. The level of SA increased dramatically in the ftsh4-4 mutant. Expression of nahG in the ftsh4-4 mutant led to decreased SA levels and suppressed the leaf senescence and cell death phenotypes. The transcript levels of several SA synthesis and signaling genes, including SALICYLIC ACIDINDUCTION DEFICIENT2 (SID2), NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (NDR1), and NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1), increased significantly in the ftsh4-4 mutants compared with the wild type. Loss of function of SID2, NDR1, or NPR1 in the ftsh4-4 mutant reversed the ftsh4-4 senescence and autophagy phenotypes. Furthermore, ftsh4-4 mutants had elevated levels of transcripts of several WRKY genes, including WRKY40, WRKY46, WRKY51, WRKY60, WRKY63, and WRKY75; all of these WRKY proteins can bind to the promoter of SID2 Loss of function of WRKY75 in the ftsh4-4 mutants decreased the levels of SA and reversed the senescence phenotype. Taken together, these results suggest that the mitochondrial ATP-dependent protease FtSH4 may regulate the expression of WRKY genes by modifying the level of reactive oxygen species and the WRKY transcription factors that control SA synthesis and signaling in autophagy and senescence. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Comparison of salicylic acid, benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid for their ability to induce flowering in Lemna Gibba G3

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    Cleland, F.C.; Kang, B.G.; Khurana, J.P.

    1986-04-01

    The long-day plant Lemna gibba G3 fails to flower under continuous light on NH/sub 4//sup +/-free 0.5 H medium. This inhibition is completely reversed by 10 ..mu..M salicyclic acid (SA) or 32 ..mu..M benzoic acid (BA). By contrast, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-OH-BA) has virtually no effect on flowering at levels as high as 320 ..mu..M. Uptake rates for the three compounds are comparable. Competition studies using /sup 14/C-SA indicate that, compared to SA, BA is about 10-fold less effective and p-OH-BA is nearly 100-fold less effective in competing against /sup 14/C-SA uptake. Both the effectiveness of SA for inducing flowering and the uptake of /sup 14/C-SA are substantially increased as the pH of the medium is lowered from 8 to 4.5. Under a nitrogen atmosphere the uptake of /sup 14/C-SA is partially inhibited above pH 5. Phosphate metabolism may be important for flowering since increasing the phosphate level in the medium 10-15 fold results in substantial flowering, and suboptimal levels of Sa and phosphate interact synergistically to stimulate flowering. The interaction of phosphate with BA and p-OH-BA will be presented.

  6. Cerato-platanin induces resistance in Arabidopsis leaves through stomatal perception, overexpression of salicylic acid- and ethylene-signalling genes and camalexin biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baccelli

    Full Text Available Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs lead to the activation of the first line of plant defence. Few fungal molecules are universally qualified as MAMPs, and proteins belonging to the cerato-platanin protein (CPP family seem to possess these features. Cerato-platanin (CP is the name-giving protein of the CPP family and is produced by Ceratocystis platani, the causal agent of the canker stain disease of plane trees (Platanus spp.. On plane tree leaves, the biological activity of CP has been widely studied. Once applied on the leaf surface, CP acts as an elicitor of defence responses. The molecular mechanism by which CP elicits leaves is still unknown, and the protective effect of CP against virulent pathogens has not been clearly demonstrated. In the present study, we tried to address these questions in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results suggest that stomata rapidly sense CP since they responded to the treatment with ROS signalling and stomatal closure, and that CP triggers salicylic acid (SA- and ethylene (ET-signalling pathways, but not the jasmonic acid (JA-signalling pathway, as revealed by the expression pattern of 20 marker genes. Among these, EDS1, PAD4, NPR1, GRX480, WRKY70, ACS6, ERF1a/b, COI1, MYC2, PDF1.2a and the pathogenesis-related (PR genes 1-5. CP rapidly induced MAPK phosphorylation and induced the biosynthesis of camalexin within 12 hours following treatment. The induction of localised resistance was shown by a reduced susceptibility of the leaves to the infection with Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. These results contribute to elucidate the key steps of the signalling process underlying the resistance induction in plants by CP and point out the central role played by the stomata in this process.

  7. AP2/ERF Transcription Factor, Ii049, Positively Regulates Lignan Biosynthesis in Isatis indigotica through Activating Salicylic Acid Signaling and Lignan/Lignin Pathway Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruifang; Xiao, Ying; Lv, Zongyou; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Chen, Junfeng; Wang, Yun; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2017-01-01

    Lignans, such as lariciresinol and its derivatives, have been identified as effective antiviral ingredients in Isatis indigotica. Evidence suggests that the APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) family might be related to the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica. However, the special role played by the AP2/ERF family in the metabolism and its underlying putative mechanism still need to be elucidated. One novel AP2/ERF gene, named Ii049, was isolated and characterized from I. indigotica in this study. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that Ii049 was expressed highest in the root and responded to methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid treatments to various degrees. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that Ii049 protein was localized in the nucleus. Knocking-down the expression of Ii049 caused a remarkable reduction of lignan/lignin contents and transcript levels of genes involved in the lignan/lignin biosynthetic pathway. Ii049 bound to the coupled element 1, RAV1AAT and CRTAREHVCBF2 motifs of genes IiPAL and IiCCR, the key structural genes in the lignan/lignin pathway. Furthermore, Ii049 was also essential for SA biosynthesis, and SA induced lignan accumulation in I. indigotica. Notably, the transgenic I. indigotica hairy roots overexpressing Ii049 showed high expression levels of lignan/lignin biosynthetic genes and SA content, resulting in significant accumulation of lignan/lignin. The best-engineered line (OVX049-10) produced 425.60 μg·g(-1) lariciresinol, an 8.3-fold increase compared with the wild type production. This study revealed the function of Ii049 in regulating lignan/lignin biosynthesis, which had the potential to increase the content of valuable lignan/lignin in economically significant medicinal plants.

  8. Leptosphaeria maculans effector AvrLm4-7 affects salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) signalling and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Miroslava; Šašek, Vladimír; Trdá, Lucie; Krutinová, Hana; Mongin, Thomas; Valentová, Olga; Balesdent, Marie-HelEne; Rouxel, Thierry; Burketová, Lenka

    2016-08-01

    To achieve host colonization, successful pathogens need to overcome plant basal defences. For this, (hemi)biotrophic pathogens secrete effectors that interfere with a range of physiological processes of the host plant. AvrLm4-7 is one of the cloned effectors from the hemibiotrophic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicaceae' infecting mainly oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Although its mode of action is still unknown, AvrLm4-7 is strongly involved in L. maculans virulence. Here, we investigated the effect of AvrLm4-7 on plant defence responses in a susceptible cultivar of B. napus. Using two isogenic L. maculans isolates differing in the presence of a functional AvrLm4-7 allele [absence ('a4a7') and presence ('A4A7') of the allele], the plant hormone concentrations, defence-related gene transcription and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were analysed in infected B. napus cotyledons. Various components of the plant immune system were affected. Infection with the 'A4A7' isolate caused suppression of salicylic acid- and ethylene-dependent signalling, the pathways regulating an effective defence against L. maculans infection. Furthermore, ROS accumulation was decreased in cotyledons infected with the 'A4A7' isolate. Treatment with an antioxidant agent, ascorbic acid, increased the aggressiveness of the 'a4a7' L. maculans isolate, but not that of the 'A4A7' isolate. Together, our results suggest that the increased aggressiveness of the 'A4A7' L. maculans isolate could be caused by defects in ROS-dependent defence and/or linked to suppressed SA and ET signalling. This is the first study to provide insights into the manipulation of B. napus defence responses by an effector of L. maculans. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. AP2/ERF Transcription Factor, Ii049, Positively Regulates Lignan Biosynthesis in Isatis indigotica through Activating Salicylic Acid Signaling and Lignan/Lignin Pathway Genes

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    Ruifang Ma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignans, such as lariciresinol and its derivatives, have been identified as effective antiviral ingredients in Isatis indigotica. Evidence suggests that the APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF family might be related to the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica. However, the special role played by the AP2/ERF family in the metabolism and its underlying putative mechanism still need to be elucidated. One novel AP2/ERF gene, named Ii049, was isolated and characterized from I. indigotica in this study. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that Ii049 was expressed highest in the root and responded to methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid treatments to various degrees. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that Ii049 protein was localized in the nucleus. Knocking-down the expression of Ii049 caused a remarkable reduction of lignan/lignin contents and transcript levels of genes involved in the lignan/lignin biosynthetic pathway. Ii049 bound to the coupled element 1, RAV1AAT and CRTAREHVCBF2 motifs of genes IiPAL and IiCCR, the key structural genes in the lignan/lignin pathway. Furthermore, Ii049 was also essential for SA biosynthesis, and SA induced lignan accumulation in I. indigotica. Notably, the transgenic I. indigotica hairy roots overexpressing Ii049 showed high expression levels of lignan/lignin biosynthetic genes and SA content, resulting in significant accumulation of lignan/lignin. The best-engineered line (OVX049-10 produced 425.60 μg·g−1 lariciresinol, an 8.3-fold increase compared with the wild type production. This study revealed the function of Ii049 in regulating lignan/lignin biosynthesis, which had the potential to increase the content of valuable lignan/lignin in economically significant medicinal plants.

  10. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid.

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    Vijaya R Chitnis

    Full Text Available Maintenance and release of seed dormancy is regulated by plant hormones; their levels and seed sensitivity being the critical factors. This study reports transcriptional regulation of brassinosteroids (BR, ethylene (ET, cytokinin (CK and salicylic acid (SA related wheat genes by after-ripening, a period of dry storage that decays dormancy. Changes in the expression of hormonal genes due to seed after-ripening did not occur in the anhydrobiotic state but rather in the hydrated state. After-ripening induced dormancy decay appears to be associated with imbibition mediated increase in the synthesis and signalling of BR, via transcriptional activation of de-etiolated2, dwarf4 and brassinosteroid signaling kinase, and repression of brassinosteroid insensitive 2. Our analysis is also suggestive of the significance of increased ET production, as reflected by enhanced transcription of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in after-ripened seeds, and tight regulation of seed response to ET in regulating dormancy decay. Differential transcriptions of lonely guy, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases and cytokinin oxidases, and pseudo-response regulator between dormant and after-ripened seeds implicate CK in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Our analysis also reflects the association of dormancy decay in wheat with seed SA level and NPR independent SA signaling that appear to be regulated transcriptionally by phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and whirly and suppressor of npr1 inducible1 genes, respectively. Co-expression clustering of the hormonal genes implies the significance of synergistic and antagonistic interaction between the different plant hormones in regulating wheat seed dormancy. These results contribute to further our understanding of the molecular features controlling seed dormancy in wheat.

  11. Cyclopia and maternal ingestion of salicylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitos, M; Georgiou-Theodoropoulou, M; Koutselinis, A; Papacharalampus, N

    1986-01-01

    Salicylates are teratogens in animals, but their teratogenicity in man remains controverted. The possibility that massive oral intake in the first 3 months of pregnancy may induce malformations has not been eliminated. We report a second case of cyclopia associated with daily maternal ingestion of up to 4 g of acetylsalicylic acid in the first trimester.

  12. Loss of function of fatty acid desturase7 in tomato enhances basal aphid resistance in a salicylate-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives mediate induced resistance against caterpillars and other herbivores that cause tissue disruption. Far less is known about the role of jasmonates in plant interactions with phloem-feeding insects such as aphids. This study compared responses in tomato (Solanu...

  13. Comparison of tretinoin 0.05% cream and 3% alcohol-based salicylic acid preparation in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayeva, L; Akarsu, S; Fetil, E; Güneş, A T

    2011-03-01

    No single effective topical treatment is available for treating all pathogenic factors causing acne vulgaris (AV). Salicylic acid (SA), tretinoin (all-TRA) and clindamycin phosphate (CDP) are known to to be effective agents depending on their comedolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of SA and CDP combination (SA+CDP) with all-TRA and CDP (all-TRA+CDP) in patients with mild to moderate facial AV. Forty-six patients aged between 18 and 35 years were enrolled in a 12-week prospective, single-blind, randomized and comparative clinical study. Efficacy was assessed by lesion counts, global improvement, quality of life index and measurement of skin barrier functions. Local side effects were also evaluated. Both combinations were effective in reducing total lesion (TL), inflammatory lesion (IL) and non-inflammatory lesion (NIL) counts and showed significant global improvement as evaluated by the investigator. At the end of the study, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of all lesion counts. In addition, TL counts decreased faster in the all-TRA+CDP group compared with those in the SA+CDP group, with a significant difference between the two groups occurring as early as 2 weeks. Safety evaluations demonstrated that the incidence of mild to moderate side effects generally peaked at week 2 and declined gradually thereafter. Both combinations did not have an effect on stratum corneum hydration, although skin sebum values decreased with SA+CDP treatment. Combination of SA+CDP and all-TRA+CDP was effective in decreasing lesion counts and well tolerated with minimal local cutaneous reactions in patients with mild to moderate AV. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. The Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopJ targets the host cell proteasome to suppress salicylic-acid mediated plant defence.

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    Suayib Üstün

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv requires type III effector proteins (T3Es for virulence. After translocation into the host cell, T3Es are thought to interact with components of host immunity to suppress defence responses. XopJ is a T3E protein from Xcv that interferes with plant immune responses; however, its host cellular target is unknown. Here we show that XopJ interacts with the proteasomal subunit RPT6 in yeast and in planta to inhibit proteasome activity. A C235A mutation within the catalytic triad of XopJ as well as a G2A exchange within the N-terminal myristoylation motif abolishes the ability of XopJ to inhibit the proteasome. Xcv ΔxopJ mutants are impaired in growth and display accelerated symptom development including tissue necrosis on susceptible pepper leaves. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 restored the ability of the Xcv ΔxopJ to attenuate the development of leaf necrosis. The XopJ dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA and changes in defence- and senescence-associated gene expression. Necrosis upon infection with Xcv ΔxopJ was greatly reduced in pepper plants with reduced expression of NPR1, a central regulator of SA responses, demonstrating the involvement of SA-signalling in the development of XopJ dependent phenotypes. Our results suggest that XopJ-mediated inhibition of the proteasome interferes with SA-dependent defence response to attenuate onset of necrosis and to alter host transcription. A central role of the proteasome in plant defence is discussed.

  15. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  16. Salicylic acid mediated by the oxidative burst is a key molecule in local and systemic responses of cotton challenged by an avirulent race of Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C; Baccou, J C; Bresson, E; Baissac, Y; Daniel, J F; Jalloul, A; Montillet, J L; Geiger, J P; Assigbetsé, K; Nicole, M

    2000-03-01

    We analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species, the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), and peroxidase activity during the incompatible interaction between cotyledons of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cv Reba B50/Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum (Xcm) race 18. SA was detected in petioles of cotyledons 6 h after infection and 24 h post inoculation in cotyledons and untreated leaves. The first peak of SA occurred 3 h after generation of superoxide (O(2)(.-)), and was inhibited by infiltration of catalase. Peroxidase activity and accumulation of SA increased in petioles of cotyledons and leaves following H(2)O(2) infiltration of cotyledons from 0.85 to 1 mM. Infiltration of 2 mM SA increased peroxidase activity in treated cotyledons and in the first leaves, but most of the infiltrated SA was rapidly conjugated within the cotyledons. When increasing concentrations of SA were infiltrated 2. 5 h post inoculation at the beginning of the oxidative burst, the activity of the apoplastic cationic O(2)(.-)-generating peroxidase decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We have shown that during the cotton hypersensitive response to Xcm, H(2)O(2) is required for local and systemic accumulation of SA, which may locally control the generation of O(2)(.-). Detaching cotyledons at intervals after inoculation demonstrated that the signal leading to systemic accumulation of SA was emitted around 3 h post inoculation, and was associated with the oxidative burst. SA produced 6 h post infection at HR sites was not the primary mobile signal diffusing systemically from infected cotyledons.

  17. Combined ability of chromium (Cr) tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and salicylic acid (SA) in attenuation of chromium stress in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Riaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Imran, Qaiser; Ali, Irfan

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil has become a serious global problem. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of two chromium (Cr) tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) in combination with salicylic acid (SA) on plant growth, physiological, biochemical responses and heavy metal uptake under Cr contamination. A pot experiment (autoclaved sand as growing medium) was performed using maize (Zea mays L.) as a test crop under controlled conditions. Cr toxicity significantly reduced plant growth, photosynthetic pigment, carbohydrates metabolism and increased H2O2, MDA, relative membrane permeability, proline and Cr contents in maize leaves. However, inoculation with selected PGPB (T2Cr and CrP450) and SA application either alone or in combination alleviated the Cr toxicity and promoted plant growth by decreasing Cr accumulation, H2O2 and MDA level in maize. Furthermore, dual PGPB inoculation with SA application also improved plant performance under Cr-toxicity. Results obtained from this study indicate that PGPB inoculation and SA application enhanced Cr tolerance in maize seedlings by decreasing Cr uptake from root to shoot. Additionally, combination of both PGPB and SA also reduced oxidative stress by elevating the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant, also indicated by improved carbohydrate metabolism in maize plant exposed to Cr contamination. Comparatively, alleviation effects were more pronounced in PGPB inoculated plants than SA applied plants alone. The results suggest that combined use of PGPB and SA application may be exploited for improving production potential of maize in metal (Cr) contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Jessner's solution vs. 30% salicylic acid peels: a comparative study of the efficacy and safety in mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Surabhi; Amrani, Ashish; Sahu, Priyadarshini; Jain, Vijay Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Chemical peeling is a well-identified therapeutic modality for acne vulgaris (AV). Jessner's solution (JS) is a known peeling agent for acne since more than 100 years. Salicylic acid (SA) peel is a well-established peeling agent for acne. There is paucity of literature comparing the current peeling agents of choice, that is, SA with the older peeling agents, that is, JS for acne. To compare the efficacy and safety of 30% SA vs. JS peels in treatment of mild-to-moderate facial acne in Indian patients. A total of 40 patients with mild-to-moderate AV were enrolled for 12 weeks and were randomly divided into two groups: group 1, 30% SA peels and group 2, JS peels were performed 2 weeks apart with total of six peels in 12-week duration. Clinical improvement was assessed objectively using Michaelsson acne scores (MAS) and clinical photographs. Side effects were observed at each visit. At the end of therapy, improvement in MAS and percentage decrease in MAS were significantly higher in group 1 as compared to group 2. Likewise, decrease in mean comedone counts in group 1 was significantly higher as compared to group 2. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the decrease in mean papule and pustule counts between the two groups. Both the groups tolerated the peels well. Thus, 30% SA peels were more effective than JS peels in treatment of noninflammatory lesions, that is, comedones and in overall improvement of mild-to-moderate facial acne vulgaris. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Silicon-mediated resistance of Arabidopsis against powdery mildew involves mechanisms other than the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivancos, Julien; Labbé, Caroline; Menzies, James G; Bélanger, Richard R

    2015-08-01

    On absorption by plants, silicon (Si) offers protection against many fungal pathogens, including powdery mildews. The mechanisms by which Si exerts its prophylactic role remain enigmatic, although a prevailing hypothesis suggests that Si positively influences priming. Attempts to decipher Si properties have been limited to plants able to absorb Si, which excludes the model plant Arabidopsis because it lacks Si influx transporters. In this work, we were able to engineer Arabidopsis plants with an Si transporter from wheat (TaLsi1) and to exploit mutants (pad4 and sid2) deficient in salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence responses to study their phenotypic response and changes in defence expression against Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Gc) following Si treatment. Our results showed that TaLsi1 plants contained significantly more Si and were significantly more resistant to Gc infection than control plants when treated with Si, the first such demonstration in a plant transformed with a heterologous Si transporter. The resistant plants accumulated higher levels of SA and expressed higher levels of transcripts encoding defence genes, thus suggesting a role for Si in the process. However, TaLsi1 pad4 and TaLsi1 sid2 plants were also more resistant to Gc than were pad4 and sid2 plants following Si treatment. Analysis of the resistant phenotypes revealed a significantly reduced production of SA and expression of defence genes comparable with susceptible controls. These results indicate that Si contributes to Arabidopsis defence priming following pathogen infection, but highlight that Si will confer protection even when priming is altered. We conclude that Si-mediated protection involves mechanisms other than SA-dependent defence responses. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

  1. Effects of exogenously applied salicylic acid and putrescine alone and in combination with rhizobacteria on the phytoremediation of heavy metals and chickpea growth in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem; Bano, Asghari

    2017-09-21

    The present attempt was made to study the role of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and putrescine (Put) on the phytoremediation of heavy metal and on the growth parameters of chickpea grown in sandy soil. The SA and Put were applied alone as well as in combination with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPRs, isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea were characterized on the basis of colony morphology and biochemical traits through gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and identified by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus megaterium. The chickpea seeds were soaked in 24 h fresh cultures of isolates for 2-3 h prior to sowing. The growth regulators (PGRs), SA and Put (300 mg/L), were applied to the seedlings as foliar spray at 3-leaf stage. The result revealed that plants treated with SA and Put alone or in combination with PGPRs, significantly enhanced the accumulation of heavy metals in plant shoot. PGPR induces Ni accumulation in sensitive variety and Pb in both the varieties, the PGR in combination augment the bioremediation effects of PGPR and both sensitive and tolerant variety showed significant accumulation of Ni, Cd and Pb. SA was more effective in accumulating Ni and Cd whereas, significant accumulation of Pb was recorded in Put. PGPRs, further augmented the PGRs induced accumulation of heavy metals and macronutrients in chickpea shoot and in rhizosphere. SA increased the proline content of tolerant variety while decreasing the lipid peroxidation and proline content of the sensitive variety but decreased the stimulating effect of PGPR in proline production. Interactive effects of PGPR and PGRs is recommended for inducing phytoremediation in chickpea plants under drought stress.

  2. Salicylic acid induces H2O2 production and endochitinase gene expression but not ethylene biosynthesis in Castanea sativa in vitro model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfouche, Antoine L; Rugini, Eddo; Mencarelli, Fabio; Botondi, Rinaldo; Muleo, Rosario

    2008-05-05

    Salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), and wounding are all known to influence plant defense response. Experiments attempting to determine SA's relation to ET biosynthesis and defense gene expression have shown conflicting results. To confront this, we developed an in vitro model system to investigate how SA affects ET biosynthesis, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and endochitinase gene expression in the European chestnut. ET measurements of in vitro shoots indicated a critical time point for SA exogenous application, enabling us to study its effects independent of ET. In addition, ET measurements demonstrated that its own increased biosynthesis was a response to wounding but not to SA treatment. Application of the ET biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), on wounded and SA-treated shoots blocked wounding-induced ET production. Interestingly, SA inhibited ET production, but to a lesser extent than AVG. Additionally, SA also induced the accumulation of endochitinase transcript level. Likewise, a sensitive tissue-print assay showed that SA further increased the level of H(2)O(2). Yet, SA-induced endochitinase gene expression and SA-enhanced H(2)O(2) production levels were independent of ET. The cumulative results indicate that SA acts as an inducer of endochitinase PR gene expression and of H(2)O(2) oxidative burst. This suggests that SA is a component of the signal transduction pathway leading to defense against pathogens in chestnut. Further, the model system developed for this experiment should facilitate the deciphering of defense signaling pathways and their cross-talk. Moreover, it should also benefit the study of trees of long generation time that are known to be recalcitrant to in vitro studies.

  3. Salicylic acid alleviates the adverse effects of salt stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii seedlings by activating photosynthesis and enhancing antioxidant systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn, gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC, malondialdehyde (MDA content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn, and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. CONCLUSIONS: SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future.

  4. Expression of tomato salicylic acid (SA)-responsive pathogenesis-related genes in Mi-1-mediated and SA-induced resistance to root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Sergio; Fanelli, Elena; Leonetti, Paola

    2014-04-01

    The expression pattern of pathogenesis-related genes PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5, considered as markers for salicylic acid (SA)-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was examined in the roots and shoots of tomato plants pre-treated with SA and subsequently infected with root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne incognita). PR-1 was up-regulated in both roots and shoots of SA-treated plants, whereas the expression of PR-5 was enhanced only in roots. The over-expression of PR-1 in the whole plant occurred as soon as 1 day after SA treatment. Up-regulation of the PR-1 gene was considered to be the main marker of SAR elicitation. One d