Sample records for salaries and fringe benefits

  1. Salary/fringe benefit as correlation of job commitment of librarians in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined relationship between job satisfaction and library staff job commitment in federal university libraries in the North-Eastern Nigeria. Four objectives, two research questions and two hypotheses guided the outcome of the research. Survey research design was used to investigate a sample of 220 library ...

  2. A Study of Community College Faculty Salaries and Employer-Paid Insurance Benefits. (United States)

    Carbone, Gilbert J.

    Salaries and employer-paid insurance benefits for faculty members at public community colleges in Washington were compared with those of other states to provide a basis for a salary increase recommendation to the Governor and the Legislature. Salary level assessment involved comparing average salary increases to the cost of living advance as…

  3. 48 CFR 22.406-2 - Wages, fringe benefits, and overtime. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wages, fringe benefits... Contracts Involving Construction 22.406-2 Wages, fringe benefits, and overtime. (a) In computing wages paid... under the clause at 52.222-6, Davis-Bacon Act, by providing wages consisting of any combination of...

  4. Commuting-related fringe benefits in the Netherlands : Interrelationships and company, employee and location characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Linda; Dijst, Martin


    Mobility management measures taken by firms could potentially result in more sustainable transport choices and hence reduce traffic congestion and emissions. Fringe benefits offered to employees are a means to implement those measures. This paper explores the most common commuting-related fringe

  5. Transport-related fringe benefits: implications for moving and the journey to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommeren, van Jos; Vlist, van der A.J.; Nijkamp, Peter


    Firms offer compensation not only through wages, but also offer transport-related fringe benefits such as transport benefits (company cars, travel, and parking benefits) and relocation benefits to job applicants. We argue that these benefits are not randomly offered to employees, but depend on the

  6. Fringe Benefits and the Value of Summer Leisure for Public School Teachers in the Southeast. (United States)

    Mabry, Rodney H.; And Others

    This report focuses on the fringe benefit element of total compensation for teachers in the Southeast. Study objectives include the following: (1) identifying teachers' fringe benefits in 12 Southeastern States; (2) examining the variation in fringe benefits within the region; (3) examining whether summer free time is a benefit or detriment; and…

  7. The linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal


    This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance...... and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii......) encouraging workers to use sustainable transport modes for commuting and leisure travel....

  8. 20 CFR 641.565 - What policies govern the provision of wages and fringe benefits to participants? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What policies govern the provision of wages... PROGRAM Services to Participants § 641.565 What policies govern the provision of wages and fringe benefits...: annual leave; sick leave; holidays; health insurance; social security; and any other fringe benefits...

  9. 29 CFR 1604.9 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... prohibitions against sex discrimination contained in the act. (d) It shall be an unlawful employment practice... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE... discriminate between men and women with regard to fringe benefits. (c) Where an employer conditions benefits...

  10. 29 CFR 4.176 - Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time employees. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time... to temporary and part-time employees. (a) As set forth in § 4.165(a)(2), the Act makes no distinction, with respect to its compensation provisions, between temporary, part-time, and full-time employees...

  11. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum wages...

  12. The Society for Academic Emergency Medicine and Association of Academic Chairs in Emergency Medicine 2009-2010 emergency medicine faculty salary and benefits survey. (United States)

    Watts, Susan H; Promes, Susan B; Hockberger, Robert


    he objective was to report the results of a survey conducted jointly by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the Association of Academic Chairs in Emergency Medicine (AACEM) of faculty salaries, benefits, work hours, and department demographics for institutions sponsoring residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine (RRC-EM). Data represent information collected for the 2009-2010 academic year through an electronic survey developed by SAEM and AACEM and distributed by the Office for Survey Research at the University of Michigan to all emergency department (ED) chairs and chiefs at institutions sponsoring accredited residency programs. Information was collected regarding faculty salaries and benefits; clinical and nonclinical work hours; sources of department income and department expenses; and selected demographic information regarding faculty, EDs, and hospitals. Salary data were sorted by program geographic region and faculty characteristics such as training and board certification, academic rank, department title, and sex. Demographic data were analyzed with regard to numerous criteria, including ED staffing levels, patient volumes and length of stay, income sources, salary incentive components, research funding, and specific type and value of fringe benefits offered. Data were compared with previous SAEM studies and the most recent faculty salary survey conducted by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). Ninety-four of 155 programs (61%) responded, yielding salary data on 1,644 faculty, of whom 1,515 (92%) worked full-time. The mean salary for all faculty nationwide was $237,884, with the mean ranging from $232,819 to $246,853 depending on geographic region. The mean salary for first-year faculty nationwide was $204,833. Benefits had an estimated mean value of $48,915 for all faculty, with the mean ranging from $37,813 to $55

  13. 29 CFR 1620.11 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... benefits. Differences in the application of fringe benefit plans which are based upon sex-based actuarial studies cannot be justified as based on “any other factor other than sex.” (c) Where an employer...

  14. 36 CFR 1211.525 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1211.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX... employment not subject to the provision of § 1211.515. (b) Prohibitions. A recipient shall not: (1...

  15. 44 CFR 19.525 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of... or service of employment not subject to the provision of § 19.515. (b) Prohibitions. A recipient...

  16. 32 CFR 196.525 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX... employment not subject to the provision of § 196.515. (b) Prohibitions. A recipient shall not: (1...

  17. Does Gender Influence the Provision of Fringe Benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn


    leave, social benefits, and health insurance. This gender effect exists especially with regard to mandatory social insurance and is robust to the inclusion of standard determinants of wage compensation. The study also explores whether this finding is linked to gender differences in social networks......This contribution studies the provision of fringe benefits using a unique survey of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. Analysis of the survey reveals that women who own SMEs are more likely than men who own similar firms to provide employees with fringe benefits such as annual...... and workforce structure, worker recruitment mechanisms, and the degree of unionization. However, these factors cannot fully account for the observed differences in fringe benefits along the “gender of owner” dimension. There remains a sizable and unexplained fringe benefits premium paid to employees in women...

  18. 31 CFR 28.525 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.525 Fringe benefits..., families, or dependents of employees differently upon the basis of the employee's sex; (2) Administer...

  19. Fringe benefits of sexy science

    CERN Multimedia

    Highfield, R


    Simon Singh and Richard Wiseman are to take their new show to the Edinburgh Festival after good reviews followed its debut in London a few weeks ago. In the show, Singh talks about the mathematics of gambling and Wiseman lectures on the psychology of deception. The act is liberally interspersed with humour, anecdotes and demonstrations to make the experience fun but also informative (1/2 page).

  20. 26 CFR 1.61-21 - Taxation of fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... country club or other social club, and an employer-provided ticket to an entertainment or sporting event...) Effective date. (7) Outline of this section. § 1.61-21 (b) Valuation of fringe benefits (1) In general. (2...-provided aircraft for which the employer does not furnish a pilot. § 1.61-21 (c) Special valuation rules...

  1. Salary and the Gender Salary Gap in the Academic Profession


    Melanie E. Ward


    The academic profession is an occupation in which pay has fallen dramatically, resulting in the setting up of a Committee of Inquiry to examine both pay relativities and mechanisms for pay determination. This paper considers salary determination and the gender salary gap in the academic labour market drawing upon a particularly detailed data set of 900 academics from five traditional Scottish Universities. Results reveal an aggregate gender salary differential for academic staff of 15%. Most ...

  2. Sex, Salaries, and Library Support. (United States)

    Heim, Kathleen M.; Kacena, Carolyn


    Presents the rationale, method, results, analysis, and discussion of a survey of public libraries in the United States and Canada which asked for sex of director, director's salary, director's length of tenure, size of population served, per capita support, and beginning professional salary. This study extends work by Carpenter and Shearer (1972).…

  3. Academic Women and Salary Differentials. (United States)

    Academe, 1988


    Data from the 1988 report of Committee W on the Status of Women in the Academic Profession suggests that sex discrimination in salaries, rank, and tenure persist. A comparison of women faculty's salaries and ranks in five institutions of widely varying types is provided. (MSE)

  4. 26 CFR 1.61-2T - Taxation of fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary). (United States)


    ... perception of the value of a fringe benefit is not relevant to the determination of a fringe benefit's fair... outside the United States, Canada, and Mexico. For purposes of this section, the United States includes... employee and the employer must be disregarded. Also, the employee's subjective perception of the value of...

  5. Sex Segregation and Salary Structure in Academia. (United States)

    Fox, Mary Frank


    Do high proportions of women depress men's salary levels in academic departments? Are women's salary levels higher in male-dominated departments? Are men salary-compensated for working with women? This study demonstrated instead that the sex-salary relationship rests upon the connection between department composition and sex-related achievement…

  6. 45 CFR 2555.525 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 2555.525 Fringe..., families, or dependents of employees differently upon the basis of the employee's sex; (2) Administer...

  7. 13 CFR 113.525 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.525 Fringe..., families, or dependents of employees differently upon the basis of the employee's sex; (2) Administer...

  8. 38 CFR 23.525 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ...) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 23.525 Fringe..., families, or dependents of employees differently upon the basis of the employee's sex; (2) Administer...

  9. 45 CFR 618.525 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.525 Fringe..., families, or dependents of employees differently upon the basis of the employee's sex; (2) Administer...

  10. 24 CFR 3.525 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 3.525 Fringe..., families, or dependents of employees differently upon the basis of the employee's sex; (2) Administer...

  11. 18 CFR 1317.525 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.525 Fringe..., families, or dependents of employees differently upon the basis of the employee's sex; (2) Administer...

  12. 7 CFR 15a.56 - Fringe benefits. (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs and... available to spouses, families, or dependents of employees differently upon the basis of the employee's sex...

  13. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation. (United States)

    Scott, Frank A.; And Others


    Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)

  14. Salary Equity: Detecting Sex Bias in Salaries among College and University Professors. (United States)

    Pezzullo, Thomas R., Ed.; Brittingham, Barbara E., Ed.

    Sex bias in college faculty salaries is examined in this book. Part 1 contains the following four chapters on the use of multiple regression to detect and estimate sex bias in salaries: "The Assessment of Salary Equity: A Methodology, Alternatives, and a Dilemma" (Thomas R. Pezzullo and Barbara E. Brittingham); "Detection of Sex-Related Salary…

  15. 29 CFR 4.177 - Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means. (United States)


    ... into a pension fund, this fringe benefit obligation will be deemed to be met if, instead...) rate of pay, whichever is greater. For example, if the determination calls for a 5 percent pension fund... hour is to be paid into a pension fund, this fringe benefit obligation will be deemed to be met if...

  16. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today. (United States)

    Beyer, Kirk D.


    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  17. 17 CFR 256.920 - Salaries and wages. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salaries and wages. 256.920... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Expense § 256.920 Salaries and wages. (a) This account shall include salaries, wages, bonuses and other consideration for services, with the exception of director's fees paid directly...

  18. Placements & Salary Survey 2008: Jobs and Pay Both up (United States)

    Maatta, Stephanie


    Despite a difficult economy and tightening budgets, both jobs and salaries rose for 2007 graduates. Echoing the previous year's growth, reported annual salaries increased approximately 3.1%, from $41,014 in 2006 to $42,361. The picture was most positive for graduates in the Southeast, whose average annual starting salary surged past the $40,000…

  19. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or any...

  20. Finding Wage and Salary Information. (United States)

    Ward, Suzanne M.; Petruzzi, Heidi Ann


    Identifies sources for assisting patrons with occupational and industrial wage queries. Discusses books, vocational guides, indexes, trade associations, trade unions, commercial services, government publications and agencies, journals, universities and research centers, and online sources, and also provides a list of sources. (AEF)

  1. Optical helices and spiral interference fringes (United States)

    Harris, M.; Hill, C. A.; Vaughan, J. M.


    Very pure optical helices have been generated in an argon ion laser of low Fresnel number. The beam character, with continuous cophasal surface of helical form, is clearly demonstrated by spiral interference fringes produced in a novel interferometric arrangement. In addition to single-start helices the multistart fringe patterns establish both two-start and three-start helices (of pitch two and three wavelengths, respectively), and also the state of helicity (i.e. rotational hand) of the beams.

  2. Physician assistant specialty choice: Distribution, salaries, and comparison with physicians. (United States)

    Morgan, Perri; Everett, Christine M; Humeniuk, Katherine M; Valentin, Virginia L


    To describe trends in physician assistant (PA) specialty distribution, compare these trends with physicians, and quantify the relationship of PA specialty prevalence with both PA and physician salary. PA specialty and salary data were obtained from the 2013 American Academy of PAs' Annual Survey; physician specialty and salary data from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and the Medical Group Management Association. Analyses included descriptive statistics and linear regression. The proportion of PAs working in primary care decreased from 50% in 1997 to 30% in 2013. Substantial growth in PA proportions occurred in surgical and medical subspecialties. Regression models showed a higher prevalence of PAs in specialties with higher PA salary, higher physician salary, and higher physician-to-PA salary ratio (P<0.05). PAs are moving toward subspecialty practice. Our study suggests that demand for PAs may be an important factor driving the trend toward specialization.

  3. Sex, Salaries, and Library Support: A New Look. (United States)

    Muther, Kay Jones


    Data from 1987 and 1994 for four divisions of population and figures relating sex, salaries, and library support were compared to analyze changes over time. Comparisons show that average per capita support is up, average salary is up, the number of librarians is up and the numbers of male and female library directors are nearly equal. (Author/JKP)

  4. The "Big Bang" in Public and Private Faculty Salaries (United States)

    Rippner, Jennifer A.; Toutkoushian, Robert K.


    The gap between average faculty salaries at public and private institutions has been growing wider over the past 40 years, yet little is known about the nature and causes of the gap. This study uses data on more than 1,000 institutions to examine institutional average faculty salaries and how they have changed for public and private institutions.…

  5. Detecting salary discrimination against male and female managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutte, C.G.; Messick, D.M.


    This paper reports two experiments that examine factors influencing the detection of salary discrimination in organizations. Subjects were presented with information about the qualifications and salaries of female and male managers in 10 departments of an hypothetical company and were asked to judge

  6. An Examination of Superintendent Salaries and Compensation Packages in Kentucky (United States)

    Carroll, Lisa M.


    The salaries and compensation packages of women in the United States fall short of those to men holding similar employment positions. This study will look specifically at the salaries and compensation packages of current Kentucky school superintendents and investigate whether or not there exists discrepencies among them along gender lines. The…

  7. Sex and Salary in a Female Dominated Profession. (United States)

    Dowell, David R.


    Describes a study that used multiple regression analysis to examine whether the apparent influence of sex discrimination on librarians' salaries would be reduced if other factors were considered. The effects of education, employment level, and publications on librarian salaries are discussed, and three approaches to achieving comparable worth are…

  8. Research Administrator Salary: Association with Education, Experience, Credentials and Gender (United States)

    Shambrook, Jennifer; Roberts, Thomas J.; Triscari, Robert


    The 2010 Research Administrators Stress Perception Survey (2010 RASPerS) collected data from 1,131 research administrators on salary, years experience, educational level, Certified Research Administrator (CRA) status, and gender. Using these data, comparisons were made to show how salary levels are associated with each of these variables. Using…

  9. Stereotype threat in salary negotiations is mediated by reservation salary. (United States)

    Tellhed, Una; Björklund, Fredrik


    Women are stereotypically perceived as worse negotiators than men, which may make them ask for less salary than men when under stereotype threat (Kray et al., 2001). However, the mechanisms of stereotype threat are not yet properly understood. The current study investigated whether stereotype threat effects in salary negotiations can be explained by motivational factors. A total of 116 business students negotiated salary with a confederate and were either told that this was diagnostic of negotiating ability (threat manipulation) or not. Measures of minimum (reservation) and ideal (aspiration) salary goals and regulatory focus were collected. The finding (Kray et al., 2001) that women make lower salary requests than men when under stereotype threat was replicated. Women in the threat condition further reported lower aspiration salary, marginally significantly lower reservation salary and less eagerness/more vigilance than men. Reservation salary mediated the stereotype threat effect, and there was a trend for regulatory focus to mediate the effect. Thus, reservation salary partly explains why women ask for less salary than men under stereotype threat. Female negotiators may benefit from learning that stereotype threat causes sex-differences in motivation. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  10. Access to health insurance at small establishments: what can we learn from analyzing other fringe benefits? (United States)

    Abraham, Jean Marie; DeLeire, Thomas; Royalty, Anne Beeson


    Workers employed at small establishments are less likely to be offered health insurance than workers in larger establishments. They are also paid less and are less likely to be offered pensions, paid sick leave, and paid vacations. Using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we examine the relationship between health insurance and other components of workers' compensation. We also propose an approach for identifying and prioritizing the reasons why workers in small establishments are less likely to be offered employer health insurance by comparing the provision of health insurance and how it changes with establishment size to the provision of these other fringe benefits and how they change with establishment size. We find that workers in larger establishments are not only more likely to be offered health insurance by their employer, but also are more likely to be offered retirement and paid vacation benefits. The results of our benefits comparison analysis suggest an important role for administrative costs as an obstacle to offering health insurance.

  11. Brief Report Job satisfaction in salary and promotion for secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brief Report Job satisfaction in salary and promotion for secondary school teachers in Eastern Cape, South Africa. ... Journal of Psychology in Africa ... showed that there were no significant differences between male and female teachers.

  12. 26 CFR 1.132-8 - Fringe benefit nondiscrimination rules. (United States)


    ... classification that is based on factors such as seniority, full-time vs. part-time employment, or job description.... Similarly, if a greater discount is given to employees with more seniority, full-time work status, or a... $50,000 and was in the top-paid group of employees for such year, or (iv) Was at any time an officer...

  13. Gender, Salary and Promotion in the Academic Profession


    Melanie E. Ward


    This paper examines the hypothesis that the gender salary gap observed in the academic labour market is predominantly explained by the differing average characteristics of male and female academics and barriers to female promotion. Preliminary analysis reveals that the crowding of women onto the lower rungs of academia is a strong determinant of their lower average salary. This effect should be transitory as young women, now entering the profession, move up its ranks. We construct a rank atta...

  14. Salary discrepancies between practicing male and female physician assistants. (United States)

    Coplan, Bettie; Essary, Alison C; Virden, Thomas B; Cawley, James; Stoehr, James D


    Salary discrepancies between male and female physicians are well documented; however, gender-based salary differences among clinically practicing physician assistants (PAs) have not been studied since 1992 (Willis, 1992). Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to evaluate the presence of salary discrepancies between clinically practicing male and female PAs and to analyze the effect of gender on income and practice characteristics. Using data from the 2009 American Academy of Physician Assistants' (AAPA) Annual Census Survey, we evaluated the salaries of PAs across multiple specialties. Differences between men and women were compared for practice characteristics (specialty, experience, etc) and salary (total pay, base pay, on-call pay, etc) in orthopedic surgery, emergency medicine, and family practice. Men reported working more years as a PA in their current specialty, working more hours per month on-call, providing more direct care to patients, and more funding available from their employers for professional development (p income, base pay, overtime pay, administrative pay, on-call pay, and incentive pay based on productivity and performance (p income (p income (p = .011) and base pay (p = .005) in emergency medicine, and higher base pay in family practice (p salary discrepancies remain between employed male and female PAs regardless of specialty, experience, or other practice characteristics. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Kristensen, Nicolai


    The two key predictions of hedonic wage theory are that there is a trade-off between wages and nonmonetary rewards and that the latter can be used as a sorting device by firms to attract and retain the kind of employees they desire. We use the vignettes method to estimate individuals' willingness......-to-pay for fringe benefits and job amenities. We find negative wage-fringe trade-offs, considerable heterogeneity in willingness-to-pay for fringe benefits, and signs of sorting....

  16. Generation of carrier fringes in holography and shearography. (United States)

    Shang, H M; Quan, C; Tay, C J; Hung, Y Y


    Double-exposure holography and double-exposure shearography are often used together with the carrier fringe technique, which requires additional shifting of the light source in a prescribed manner between exposures. In the holographic carrier fringe technique, difficulty in prescribing a suitable movement of the light source may be alleviated through visualization of the moiré fringes that are reconstructed by slight displacement of two overlaid families of ellipsoids in a holodiagram. Because shearography is the first differential of holography, it is often impractical to perform two successive optical differentiations on the ellipsoids to visualize the shearographic carrier fringes. A simple method of discerning holographic and shearographic carrier fringes is described. The method is based on the hyperboloids in a holodiagram that represent Young's (interference) fringes produced by the interference of two point sources. The hyperboloids are analogous to holographic carrier fringes, whereas the moiré patterns reconstructed from two overlaid hyperboloids are analogous to shearographic carrier fringes. Use of this method for explaining the formation of deformation fringes in plate bending, as well as the effect of light-source movement on the deformation fringes, is also illustrated.

  17. Salary differences of male and female physician assistant educators. (United States)

    Coombs, Jennifer; Valentin, Virginia


    The Physician Assistant Education Association (PAEA) annual report has shown substantial salary differences between male and female physician assistant (PA) faculty. Despite this published difference between the salaries, very little research has been conducted on the subject. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a significant difference between male and female PA faculty salaries. The researchers set out to determine if these differences could be further distinguished by education level, rank, or position. In addition, any difference between the percentages of male and female faculty promoted to higher ranks and in leadership positions was also explored. Salary, gender, degree, rank, and position were obtained and deidentified from the 25th PAEA annual report. SPSS Version 20 was used to analyze the data. Statistical analysis included descriptive measures and an independent t test. Data from only those PA educators who reported full-time employment were used. The final analysis included 477 PA faculty salaries. Female PA educators showed statistically significant lower annual incomes than their male counterparts. The income disparity persisted when differentiated by education, rank, and position. Higher percentages of male PA faculty members were found in higher ranks and in leadership positions. This study confirms previous reports that female PA faculty earn less than their male counterparts. With increasing numbers of female PAs entering academia, the lack of women in leadership positions and the wage disparity are concerning.

  18. A profile of PMS salaried GP contracts and their impact on recruitment. (United States)

    Williams, J; Petchey, R; Gosden, T; Leese, B; Sibbald, B


    Personal medical services (PMS) pilot sites aim to use salaried GP schemes to improve GP recruitment and retention and enhance the quality of service provision, particularly in underserved areas. Our objectives were to (i) compare the work incentives of salaried compared with standard GP contracts; (ii) assess recruitment success to salaried posts; and (iii) describe the types of GPs attracted to these new posts. All first wave PMS pilot sites with salaried GP posts known to be 'live' in October 1998 were included in the analysis of employment contracts and job descriptions. Information on recruitment was obtained by a questionnaire survey of PMS sites that were intending to recruit a salaried GP. The mean full-time equivalent salary was 43,674 pounds sterling with additional benefits in terms of sick leave, maternity leave and paid expenses. Eighty-nine percent of posts were eligible for the NHS pension scheme. Posts were mainly full time (40.8 hours per week). GPs were responsible for providing services equivalent in scope to general medical services. One-fifth of contracts freed GPs from out-of-hours responsibility and most freed them from practice management. Forty-three of the pilot sites actively recruited to fill 63 salaried posts, which involved a total of 51 recruitment 'rounds', with some pilots advertising more than once. There were 291 applications. The median number of applicants per post was three and the median time to recruitment was 6 weeks. Eighty-five percent of sites were satisfied with the quality of their applicants and 64% with the quantity. Eighty-five percent of applicants previously had been working in general practice, most in locum or salaried posts. Applicants tended to be young and male. Sixty posts were filled. Salaried contracts offer positive incentives to recruitment in terms of reduced hours of work and freedom from administrative responsibility. Recruitment success was similar to that achieved by inner city practices generally

  19. Salary survey of the Medical Library Group of Southern California and Arizona. (United States)

    Smith, J L; Connolly, B F; Davis, M; Graham, E; Wheeler, S


    The 1982 salary survey of the Medical Library Group of Southern California and Arizona (MLGSCA) indicates that 211 health sciences librarians in Southern California and Arizona earned a mean annual salary of $20,910 for 1982. Data analysis shows a positive correlation between salary and educational level. Other factors found to affect salary were job history, number of positions held, MLA certification, and professional responsibility. Age, gender, and MLA certification did not have a consistent positive correlation with salary. Results indicate that the salaries of hospital librarians are, on the average, roughly comparable to those of academic librarians in Southern California and Arizona. PMID:6743878

  20. Placements & Salaries Survey 2009: Jobs and Pay Take a Hit (United States)

    Library Journal, 2009


    "It's a recession, baby!" was the common refrain among the Library and Information Science (LIS) graduates of the class of 2008. This was a record year for the number of graduates participating in "Library Journal"'s annual Placements & Salaries survey, and they had stories to tell, providing evidence of both hard times in the job market, and some…

  1. Sex and Salary: Equal Pay for Comparable Work. (United States)

    Galloway, Sue; Archuleta, Alyce


    Discusses the concept of equal pay for comparable work, an unsolved issue for library workers, and examines the results of several studies on sex and salary discrimination in the San Francisco area and in California. There are a number of suggestions for library workers who want to get a better deal. (JPF)

  2. Salary Structure Effects and the Gender Pay Gap in Academia (United States)

    Barbezat, Debra A.; Hughes, James W.


    This paper presents estimates of the gender salary gap and discrimination based on the most recent national faculty survey data. New estimates for 1999 indicate that male faculty members still earn 20.7% more than comparable female colleagues. Depending upon which decomposition technique is employed, the portion of this gap attributable to…

  3. The Influence of Salary in Attracting and Retaining School Leaders (United States)

    Pijanowski, John C.; Brady, Kevin P.


    This article examines the salary trajectory of teachers as they move up the career ladder into leadership positions. The issue of compensation is set in the context of a principal shortage that has been widely reported and discussed in the literature. Urban schools are shown to experience the principal shortage differently from rural schools.…

  4. Thompson's Assessment of Organizations: Universities and the AAUP Salary Grades (United States)

    Schramm, Carl J.


    The behavior of salaries in 652 colleges and universities over a ten-year period relative to the published AAUP scales is analyzed using four hypotheses developed from Thompson concerning the use of other organizations as reference groups in measuring organizational performance. (Author)

  5. Killing of Gyrodactylus salaris by heat and chemical disinfection. (United States)

    Koski, Perttu; Anttila, Pasi; Kuusela, Jussi


    Gyrodactylus salaris is a monogenean, which has collapsed tens of wild Atlantic salmon populations. One of the means of preventing the spread of the parasite is the disinfection of the fishing equipment, which is used in the rivers having susceptible salmon populations. Little is known about the dosage of disinfectants against G. salaris. There are not standards for the testing of disinfectants against multicellular parasites. The present investigation developed a method to test disinfectants and examined the effectiveness of heated water and a commercially available disinfectant (Virkon S) in killing G. salaris. Individual G. salaris worms were followed under the microscope during treatment with heated water or Virkon S disinfectant blend. The logarithm of the time needed to kill the parasite was used as a dependent variable in linear regression. The upper 99.98 % prediction line for the dependent variable was used to obtain a value resembling the time needed for a 4 log reduction of the microbial pathogen, which is commonly used as a criterion for disinfectants. Also 6 log reduction was applied. Exposure to a relatively low temperature was found to kill the parasite. Even 5-50 min treatment (=10-100 times the 99.98 % upper prediction value) with heated water at 40 °C might be used. This would enable the utilisation of hot tap water in the disinfection of fishing gear. The present practice of 1 % Virkon S for 15 min was also found to kill the parasite. The follow-up of single parasites of a test population and the use of the calculated upper predictive line in the regression analysis offers a method to analyse the effects of disinfectants on parasites like G. salaris. The results of our tests give possibilities for using disinfection methods, which may be more acceptable by the fishermen than the present ones.

  6. Salary survey of the Medical Library Group of Southern California and Arizona.


    Smith, J.L; Connolly, B.F.; Davis, M.; Graham, E; Wheeler, S


    The 1982 salary survey of the Medical Library Group of Southern California and Arizona (MLGSCA) indicates that 211 health sciences librarians in Southern California and Arizona earned a mean annual salary of $20,910 for 1982. Data analysis shows a positive correlation between salary and educational level. Other factors found to affect salary were job history, number of positions held, MLA certification, and professional responsibility. Age, gender, and MLA certification did not have a consist...

  7. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  8. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  9. Teacher Salary and National Achievement: A Cross-National Analysis of 30 Countries (United States)

    Akiba, Motoko; Chiu, Yu-Lun; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Liang, Guodong


    Using national teacher salary data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and student achievement data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this study compared secondary school teacher salary in 30 countries and examined the relationship between average teacher salary and national…

  10. A Comparison of Salary Structures between Economics and Agricultural Economics Departments


    Hilmer, Christiana E.; Hillmer, Michael J.


    This study is the first to empirically assess the difference between the prevailing salary structures in economics and agricultural economics departments at public institutions in the United States. We find that average salaries in economics departments tend to be higher than salaries in agricultural economics departments. Regression analysis suggest that years since Ph.D. explains a greater proportion of salaries in agricultural economics departments while the tier of school explains a great...

  11. Colloid mobilization and transport during capillary fringe fluctuations. (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L


    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead-filled column. We studied four specific conditions: (1) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase, (2) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially wet porous medium, (3) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially dry porous medium, and (4) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase with the presence of a static air bubble. Confocal images confirmed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively charged and hydrophilic positively charged colloids did. Our results demonstrate that capillary fringe fluctuations are an effective means for colloid mobilization.

  12. Transverse vertical dispersion in groundwater and the capillary fringe. (United States)

    Klenk, I D; Grathwohl, P


    Transverse dispersion is the most relevant process in mass transfer of contaminants across the capillary fringe (both directions), dilution of contaminants, and mixing of electron acceptors and electron donors in biodegrading groundwater plumes. This paper gives an overview on literature values of transverse vertical dispersivities alpha(tv) measured at different flow velocities and compares them to results from well-controlled laboratory-tank experiments on mass transfer of trichloroethene (TCE) across the capillary fringe. The measured values of transverse vertical dispersion in the capillary fringe region were larger than in fully saturated media, which is credited to enhanced tortuosity of the flow paths due to entrapped air within the capillary fringe. In all cases, the values observed for alpha(tv) were model, based on the mean square displacement and the pore size accounting for only partial diffusive mixing at increasing flow velocities, shows very good agreement with measured and published data.

  13. Salary adjustments and other changes to the Staff Rules & Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2005, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2006. Information on these decisions and other important changes relating to the Staff Rules and Regulations are summarised below: Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 1 and R A 2 respectively): increased by 1.2% with effect from 1 January 2006. Elements increased by 1.2%, following the movement of the Geneva consumer price index : a) Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4), with effect from 1 January 2006. b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2005/2006 i.e. with effect from 1 September 2005. Related adjustments will be implemented wherever applicable to Paid Associates and Students. Contributions to the Pension Fund: Contributions of the Organization and active members increased by a total of 0.63% of basic salary from 1 January 2006, shared as ...

  14. Salaries and Wages Paid Professional and Support Personnel in Public Schools, 2010-2011. National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools: A Reference Tool for School Administrators. 38th Edition (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy; Licciardi, Christopher M.; Cooke, Willa D.


    This report presents salary and wage data collected as part of the "ERS National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools, 2010-2011." The survey, conducted in Fall 2010, collected data on salaries scheduled and salaries paid for 23 selected professional positions and 10 selected support positions in public school systems throughout the…

  15. Salary Equity Study 2010


    Virginia Tech. Office of Institutional Research and Effectiveness


    As part of the ongoing AdvanceVT program, Virginia Tech conducts salary equity studies on a regular basis to determine sources of variation in faculty salaries. This year’s equity study, conducted by the Office of Institutional Research and Effectiveness, analyzed salary data from December 2009 to reflect a timeframe similar to the previous studies. Considerable attention was paid to race/ethnicity as well as gender as factors in explaining variation in salaries. As in the past, the analysis ...

  16. Gender salary and promotion gaps in Japanese academia: Results from science and engineering


    Takahashi, Ana Maria; 高橋, 新吾; Maloney, Thomas


    Using original survey data on Japanese academics in science and engineering, we examined the gender salary and promotion gaps. We found a 6% gender salary gap after controlling for ranks. This gap was unaffected when quality and quantity of publications were controlled for. In contrast, promotion gap disappeared when publication variables were controlled for. We failed to find negative effects of marriage and children on women's salary and promotion, though a positive sorting into motherhood ...

  17. Gender salary and promotion gaps in Japanese academia: Results from science and engineering


    Ana Maria Takahashi; Shingo Takahashi; Thomas Maloney


    Using original survey data on Japanese academics in science and engineering, we examined the gender salary and promotion gaps. We found a 6\\% gender salary gap after controlling for ranks. This gap was unaffected when quality and quantity of publications were controlled for. In contrast, promotion gap disappeared when publication variables were controlled for. We failed to find negative effects of marriage and children on women's salary and promotion, though a positive sorting into motherhood...

  18. Salaries of recent male and female college graduates: Educational and labor market effects.


    Lois Joy


    Why do recent male college graduates earn more than their female counterparts? The author explores this question by estimating several salary regressions using data from the 1993-94 NCES Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study. The results suggest that labor market variables outweighed academic variables in their contribution to the gender salary gap. Of the academic variables, gender differences in total credits accounted for more of the salary gap than did gender differences in majors, ...

  19. Placements & Salaries 2001: Salaries Rebound, Women Break Out. (United States)

    Terrell, Tom


    Presents results of the annual placements and salaries survey of library schools. Highlights include job trends; a rise in salaries; gender issues; minorities; placements by region and by type of organization; graduates' attitudes; the need to teach more technology; average salaries; and a comparison of salaries by type of organization. (LRW)

  20. Salary adjustments and changes to the Staff Rules & Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2006, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2007. Council has also approved the conclusions of the 2005 Five-Yearly Review and a new (11th) of the Staff Rules and Regulations edition comes into force on 1 January 2007. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively in the 11th edition, R A 1 and R A 2 in the 10th edition): increased by 1.6% with effect from 1 January 2007. Elements increased by 1.4%, following the movement of the Geneva consumer price index: a) Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 3 in the 11th edition), with effect from 1 January 2007; b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01 in the 11th edition, R A 8.01 in the 10th edition) for the academic year 2006/2007 i.e. with effect from 1 September 2006. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Stud...

  1. Salary adjustments and other changes to the Staff Rules & Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2004, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2005. Information on these decisions and other main changes concerning the Staff Rules & Regulations is summarised below: Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 1 and R A 2 respectively): increased by 1.3% with effect from 1 January 2005. Elements increased by 1.7%, following the movement of the Geneva consumer price index : Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4), with effect from 1 January 2005. Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2004/2005 i.e. with effect from 1 September 2004. Related adjustments will be implemented wherever applicable to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, variations occur in the actual percentage increases quoted, due to the ...

  2. Impact of the "salary scholarship" impact profile and student achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlanga, Vanesa


    Full Text Available In Spain, within the framework of the Strategy 2015, the implementation of scholarships, grants and wages especially adapted to the new situation of the European Higher Education, intended to ensure access to university education to those most disadvantaged social groups economically. This research makes an ex post facto, descriptive-comparative aimed at assessing the impact of the grant salary, as an economic factor, on equity, access and academic performance in the first year of college. The study was conducted with a total of 10,394 new students in the 2010-11 cohort at the University of Barcelona, from the database from the institution itself. A total of 642 students agreed to grant salary, with differences depending on the branch of knowledge, gender, and the path to college. In relation to their peers, scholarship students come from families with occupations and / or study less, so scholarships model contributes to equity in access. In relation to performance analysis, scholarship students enrolled and present, on average, a larger number of subjects in order to meet the academic requirements for scholarship renewal, but the results are final academic in several branches knowledge, influenced negatively. One possible explanation is the largest academic pressure of this group in a phase usually complicated: the transition to college.



    Srivastava, Lorie; Thilmany, Dawn D.


    The objective of the 1998 Tracking Survey conducted by the CWAE was to examine differences in the professional experiences of female agricultural economists, including the salary study presented here. A comparative analysis presents detailed frequency, performance and pay measures for all types of employers. The econometric analysis of salary focuses more specifically on agricultural economists currently employed in the Land Grant System. The importance of salary to an individual, their rank,...

  4. Salaried contracts in UK general practice: a study of job satisfaction and stress. (United States)

    Gosden, Toby; Williams, Jacky; Petchey, Roland; Leese, Brenda; Sibbald, Bonnie


    To compare job satisfaction and stress levels of general practitioners (GPs) employed on salaried contracts with GPs on a 'standard' performance-related contract paid by fee-for-service and capitation. Job satisfaction and stress levels were assessed using data from two postal surveys of GPs: a national survey of 'standard' contract GPs carried out in 1998; and a survey of salaried GPs and their non-salaried GP employers in 1999. Differences in satisfaction and stress scores were assessed by t-tests; regression analysis was used to control for confounding factors and possible selection bias. We achieved a response rate of 77% in the 1999 survey of salaried and non-salaried GPs; 48% of 'standard' contract GPs responded in the 1998 survey. We found that salaried GPs were as satisfied overall as both non-salaried GP employers and GPs on the 'standard' contract, even after controlling for confounding factors and selection bias. Salaried GPs were more satisfied with their remuneration, working hours and the recognition they got for their work. They experienced more stress with two factors but less stress with 19 factors compared with the 'standard' contract GPs. Overall job satisfaction levels among salaried doctors were similar to those of doctors on contracts paid by mixed fee-for-service and capitation. Future studies of job satisfaction levels under different doctor payment systems need to take account of the extent to which doctors have preferences for different types of contract if they are to derive unbiased results.

  5. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Kristensen, Nicolai

    The two key predictions of hedonic wage theory are that there is a trade-o¤ between wages and nonmonetary rewards and that the latter can be used as a sorting device by firms to attract and retain the kind of employees they desire. Empirical analysis of these topics are scarce as they require...... negative wage-fringe trade-offs, con-siderable heterogeneity in willingness to pay for fringe benefits, and signs of sorting. The findings imply that personnel economics models can be applied also to the analysis of nonmonetary rewards....

  6. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haridas, Divya [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India); P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B. [School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)


    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  7. Population growth and settlement expansion in the fringes of Addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on estimating the rate of urban settlement expansion in the fringes of Addis Ababa, and on examining the causes for this and the impacts it has on the livelihoods of the farming households living there. For this purpose, aerial photographs covering the study area, GIS tools and GPS were used; ...

  8. Binaural interference: effects of temporal interferer fringe and interstimulus interval. (United States)

    Camalier, Corrie R; Grantham, D Wesley; Bernstein, Leslie R


    Binaural interference refers to the phenomenon in which the potency of binaural cues conveyed by a "target" stimulus occupying one spectral region is degraded by the presence of an "interferer" stimulus occupying a spectral region remote from the target. It is typified by conditions in which thresholds for detection of interaural temporal difference conveyed by a high-frequency target are elevated when the target is accompanied by a spectrally remote low-frequency interferer. This study explored effects of temporal relations between targets and interferers on binaural interference. In the first experiment, duration by which the interferer preceded and/or trailed the target (onset and offset "fringes") was varied. Results indicated binaural interference decreased with total duration of the temporal fringe, but did not depend on whether that duration was composed of onset, offset, or onset + offset fringes. In the second experiment, binaural interference was measured as a function of the interstimulus interval (ISI) between the two presentations of the target. Results indicated that shorter ISIs increased thresholds in both the interferer and no-interferer conditions, but did not affect binaural interference. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying the effects of manipulations of the interferer temporal fringe and manipulation of the ISI are essentially independent.

  9. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  10. Salary Inequities Between Men and Women in Schools of Social Work: Myth or Reality? (United States)

    Gould, Ketayun H.; Kim, Bok-lim C.


    Findings on the effects of sex on salary differentials between men and women faculty in schools of social work in the U.S. and Canada are presented. Results indicate a significant difference in mean salaries of men and women when five variables are controlled for, and on all possible combinations of the five. (Editor/JT)

  11. Examining the Relationships among Doctoral Completion Time, Gender, and Future Salary Prospects for Physical Scientists (United States)

    Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.


    Using data from a national survey of Ph.D.-holding chemists and physicists, time-to-doctoral degree is found to be a strong predictor of salary: each additional year in graduate school corresponds to a significantly lower average salary. This is true even while controlling for standard measures of scientific merit (grant funding and publication…

  12. Analysis of the Localization of Michelson Interferometer Fringes Using Fourier Optics and Temporal Coherence (United States)

    Narayanamurthy, C. S.


    Fringes formed in a Michelson interferometer never localize in any plane, in the detector plane and in the localization plane. Instead, the fringes are assumed to localize at infinity. Except for some explanation in "Principles of Optics" by Born and Wolf (1964 (New York: Macmillan)), the fringe localization phenomena of Michelson's interferometer…

  13. Decorrelation and fringe visibility: On the limiting behavior of varous electronic speckle pattern correlation interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owner-Petersen, Mette


    I discuss the behavior of fringe formation in image-plane electronic speckle-pattern correlation interferometers as the limit of total decorrelation is approached. The interferometers are supposed to operate in the difference mode. The effect of decorrelation will be a decrease in fringe visibility...... until the limit of total decorrelation, when no fringes will be formed, is reached. A quantitative evaluation of the partially decorrelated fringe pattern is presented for the case of decorrelation due to both tilt and in-plane translation of an object surface element. It is shown that the fringe...

  14. Process-focused Salary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Shao-zu; LI Wei


    Salary often acts as the main incentive by managers to push employees to adjust their behaviors so as to realize organization's goal. With the transfer from function-focused organization to proeess-focused organization, the new relative salary system should be established at the same time. This article is intended to introduce an original salary system-process-focused salary system. After pointing out faults of traditional function-focused salary system, the article explains the design thoughts behind the new process-focused salary system, summaries its three styles: based-on-cost, based-on-quality and based-on-task; and at last defines its application scope.

  15. Gender, Ethnicity, and Highest Degree Earned as Salary Determinants for Senior Student Affairs Officers at Public Institutions. (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.; Walker, David A.; Robinson, Daniel C.


    The 1999-2000 NASPA Salary Survey was used to examine effects of gender, ethnicity, and highest degree earned on mean salaries of senior student affairs officers at four-year public institutions. Found that degree attainment and ethnicity significantly affected salaries, while gender did not, although women and people of color were not represented…

  16. A Study of the Relationship between Gender, Salary, and Student Ratings of Instruction at a Research University (United States)

    Magel, Rhonda C.; Doetkott, Curt; Cao, Li


    Salary studies in the United States and some other countries show a gap between male and female faculty salaries in higher education that widens over time. The present study examines one possible explanation, particularly at research universities, by examining changes in faculty salaries in relation to student ratings of instruction. Student…

  17. Gender differences in salary and practice ownership expectations of matriculating veterinary students. (United States)

    Bristol, David G


    To examine gender differences in initial and long-term salary and practice ownership expectations among first-year veterinary students. Survey. First-year veterinary students at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine during 2000 through 2003 and 2005 through 2009. A 1-page survey was distributed to students during orientation exercises or on the first day of a first-year course on ethics and jurisprudence. Students were asked to indicate their expected salary at graduation and in 5-year increments after graduation and to indicate whether they expected to own a practice after graduation. Responses were obtained from 567 female and 120 male students. There was no significant difference in initial salary expectations between male and female students. However, men had higher expectations for salary increases over the course of their career, so that expected salary was significantly higher for men than for women 5 years after graduation and beyond. A significantly greater percentage of men (69/93 [74.2%]) than women (242/499 [48.5%]) indicated they expected to own a practice. Although male and female veterinary students had similar expectations with regard to initial salaries, the male students had higher long-term salary expectations and were more likely to indicate an expectation to become a practice owner. Differences in expectations may lead to differences in behavior when those expectations are or are not met.

  18. The Ecology of Fringe Science and its Bearing on Policy

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, HM; Reyes-Galindo, LI


    In this paper we illustrate the tension between mainstream 'normal', 'unorthodox' and 'fringe' science that is the focus of two ongoing projects that are analysing the full ecology of physics knowledge. The first project concentrates on empirically understanding the notion of consensus in physics by investigating the policing of boundaries that is carried out at the arXiv preprint server, a fundamental element of the contemporary physics publishing landscape. The second project looks at physics outside the mainstream and focuses on the set of organisations and publishing outlets that have mushroomed outside of mainstream physics to cover the needs of 'alternative', 'independent' and 'unorthodox' scientists. Consolidating both projects into the different images of science that characterise the mainstream (based on consensus) and the fringe (based on dissent), we draw out an explanation of why today's social scientists ought to make the case that, for policy-making purposes, the mainstream's consensus should be...

  19. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (United States)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  20. Salary is not enough to attract and retain the best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles


    Full Text Available Organizations face the challenge of attracting and retaining talented staff. In some instances, a reference to the existence of a war for talent is made. It is that way that the retention of workers has stopped being managed, exclusively, with the offer of good salaries. This paper explores, in a first instance, the theoretical framework that describes the principal tools of talent retention that companies develop, and that are considered as part of the total remuneration that workers receive: economic compensations, recognition, career plans and staff development, feedback, personal and professional life balance, social network and team making, proper relationship with superiors and organizational climate life. Later, the results that were obtained from interviews with ten of the best companies to work for in Peru, according to the Great Place to Work Institute ranking in 2007, on retaining talent tools that they implement are shown. Finally, conclusions on the case studies are presented.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ariffin, Hashim Fadzil; Ha, Norbani Che


    ...). The data then been analysed using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find the significance differences between gender, level of education and salary scale with the three dimensions of OC...

  2. Salary Comparisons of Men and Women: A Look at Recent College Graduates (United States)

    Notestine, Earl B.; Kerlin, Lola


    This study examines salary differences by sex for a group of male and female college graduates. The results of the mail questionnaire lend support to current claims of discrimination in the employment of women. Implications for counselors are discussed. (SJL)

  3. 26 CFR 1.132-6 - De minimis fringes. (United States)


    ... normally works from 8:00 am to 4:00 pm). Another example of unusual circumstances is a temporary change in...; occasional cocktail parties, group meals, or picnics for employees and their guests; traditional birthday or... performance, or family crisis). (2) Benefits not excludable as de minimis fringes. Examples of fringe benefits...

  4. The Dynamics of Spatial Structure and Spatial Pattern Changes at the Fringe Area of Makassar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batara Surya


    Full Text Available The study is conducted at the fringe area of Makassar City by analyzing dynamics of spatial structure and spatial pattern changes at the fringe area of Makassar City. It applies quantitative and qualitative approaches (mixed method. Data is acquired from some sources and informants living at the fringe area of Makassar City. Spatial utilization shift and development of transport infrastructure, especially for main road corridor connecting down town of Makassar City and fringe area, affect significantly spatial structure and spatial pattern changes at the fringe area of  Makassar City. Dynamics of spatial structure and spatial pattern changes contributes changes of resident mobility; while, development tendency of the existing spatial and land use is no longer determined based on productivity, but it is valued by functions of space and land at the fringe are of Makassar City.

  5. Combination of oriented partial differential equation and shearlet transform for denoising in electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns. (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun; Tang, Chen; Gu, Fan; Cheng, Jiajia


    It is a key step to remove the massive speckle noise in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringe patterns. In the spatial-domain filtering methods, oriented partial differential equations have been demonstrated to be a powerful tool. In the transform-domain filtering methods, the shearlet transform is a state-of-the-art method. In this paper, we propose a filtering method for ESPI fringe patterns denoising, which is a combination of second-order oriented partial differential equation (SOOPDE) and the shearlet transform, named SOOPDE-Shearlet. Here, the shearlet transform is introduced into the ESPI fringe patterns denoising for the first time. This combination takes advantage of the fact that the spatial-domain filtering method SOOPDE and the transform-domain filtering method shearlet transform benefit from each other. We test the proposed SOOPDE-Shearlet on five experimentally obtained ESPI fringe patterns with poor quality and compare our method with SOOPDE, shearlet transform, windowed Fourier filtering (WFF), and coherence-enhancing diffusion (CEDPDE). Among them, WFF and CEDPDE are the state-of-the-art methods for ESPI fringe patterns denoising in transform domain and spatial domain, respectively. The experimental results have demonstrated the good performance of the proposed SOOPDE-Shearlet.

  6. Theory and algorithms of an efficient fringe analysis technology for automatic measurement applications. (United States)

    Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Guerrero-Sanchez, Fermin; Robledo-Sanchez, Carlos


    Some advances in fringe analysis technology for phase computing are presented. A full scheme for phase evaluation, applicable to automatic applications, is proposed. The proposal consists of: a fringe-pattern normalization method, Fourier fringe-normalized analysis, generalized phase-shifting processing for inhomogeneous nonlinear phase shifts and spatiotemporal visibility, and a phase-unwrapping method by a rounding-least-squares approach. The theoretical principles of each algorithm are given. Numerical examples and an experimental evaluation are presented.

  7. Fringe pattern analysis for optical metrology theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises


    The main objective of this book is to present the basic theoretical principles and practical applications for the classical interferometric techniques and the most advanced methods in the field of modern fringe pattern analysis applied to optical metrology. A major novelty of this work is the presentation of a unified theoretical framework based on the Fourier description of phase shifting interferometry using the Frequency Transfer Function (FTF) along with the theory of Stochastic Process for the straightforward analysis and synthesis of phase shifting algorithms with desired properties such

  8. Boussinesq Modeling of Wave Propagation and Runup over Fringing Coral Reefs, Model Evaluation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G


    ..., for waves propagating over fringing reefs. The model evaluation had two goals: (a) investigate differences between laboratory and field characteristics of wave transformation processes over reefs, and (b...

  9. Evaluation of recent pharmacy graduates' practice patterns, professional lifelong learning, pharmacy organization memberships, and salary. (United States)

    Bond, C A; Pitterle, M E; Raehl, C L


    To document information on recent bachelor of science (B.S.) pharmacy graduates' practice patterns, professional lifelong learning (PLL) methods, pharmacy organization memberships, and salary. The association between advanced training and education on PLL methods, pharmacy organization membership, and salary are explored. Pertinent literature was identified by MEDLINE searches (1966-1992). The results of a Fall 1991 survey of recent B.S. pharmacy graduates (n = 371) of the University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy are reported (55 percent response rate). Hospital pharmacists devoted more time to PLL outside of work (18.00 +/- 17.89 h/mo) than community pharmacists (9.93 +/- 8.76 h/mo), t = 5.02, degrees of freedom (df) = 289, p degree program, residency, or fellowship (advanced degree/training [ADT]) spent more time in PLL (17.76 +/- 10.63 h/mo) compared with graduates who had only obtained a B.S. degree (10.63 +/- 8.56 h/mo), t = 3.80, df = 311, p degree only) showed the strongest correlation of membership affiliation, which was about equal with ASHP (phi = 0.32) and ACCP (phi = 0.33). Although pharmacists changed their individual pharmacy organization memberships during the first seven years after graduation, there was no evidence of a decline in overall interest in pharmacy organization membership. Pharmacists who had completed ADT had an annual mean salary of $51,112 +/- $10,012; those pharmacists who did not complete an ADT program had an annual mean salary of $46,440 +/- $7802, a difference of $4672 per year. Hospital pharmacists who had obtained ADT had an annual mean salary of $51,840 +/- $9765; B.S. pharmacists without ADT in hospital practice had an annual mean salary of $43,603 +/- $8192, a difference of $8237 per year. Pharmacists' PLL methods, organization memberships, and salaries varied significantly by their practice site and the completion of an ADT program.

  10. Frontal and Lateral Submarine Lobe Fringes: Comparing Sedimentary Facies, Architecture and Flow Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Yvonne T.; Hodgson, David M.; Prélat, Amandine; Kane, Ian A.; Flint, Stephen S.; Mountney, Nigel P.


    Submarine lobe-fringe deposits form heterolithic successions that may include a high proportion of hybrid beds. The identification of lobe-fringe successions aids interpretation of paleogeographic setting and the degree of basin confinement. Here, for the first time, the sedimentological and

  11. Nationwide survey of work environment perceptions and dentists' salaries in community health centers. (United States)

    Bolin, Kenneth A; Shulman, Jay D


    Experienced private practitioners make up a significant proportion of dentists entering community health center (CHC) practices. The authors conducted a study to identify sources of dissatisfaction that affect the retention of these dentists and to determine current CHC dentist salaries. CHC dentists nationwide were surveyed regarding salary and job satisfaction indicators. The authors mailed 569 surveys, and the response rate was 73.8 percent. The authors explored associations between job satisfaction indicators, salaries and dentists' intentions to leave the CHCs. Practitioners in private practice are the largest group of dentists recruited by CHCs (54.5 percent). However, 31.2 percent of currently employed dentists do not intend to remain in CHC dental practices. Salary was not associated significantly with the intention to leave. Years of experience, freedom of professional judgment, altruistic motivation, importance placed on loan repayment and amount of administrative time allowed were associated significantly with career change intentions. Periodic salary surveys can monitor factors associated with recruitment and retention of dentists in community and migrant health centers, and standardized exit surveys can identify factors causing dissatisfaction among dentists who leave. Employment opportunities in public nonprofit practices are increasing under current federal grant programs. However, unless job satisfaction issues are addressed adequately with dentists in social safety net programs, additional work force needs will not be met.

  12. Is there a financial incentive to immigrate? Examining of the health worker salary gap between India and popular destination countries


    George, Gavin; Rhodes, Bruce


    Background International migration is one of the factors resulting in the shortage of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in India. Literature suggests that migration is fuelled by the prospect of higher salaries available abroad. The extent of these salary differentials are unknown, and this study seeks to examine the salaries of selected HRH in India and four popular destination countries (United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada and the United Arab Emirates), whilst accounting for the...

  13. The Relationship between Doctoral Completion Time, Gender, and Future Salary Prospects for Physical Scientists (United States)

    Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.


    Drawing from a national survey of Ph.D.-holding physical scientists, we present evidence that doctoral completion time is a strong predictor of future salary prospects: each additional year in graduate school corresponds to a substantially lower average salary. This is true even while controlling for typical measures of scientific merit (grant funding and publication rates) and several other structural and career factors expected to influence salaries. Extending this picture to include gender effects, we show that women earn significantly less than men overall and experience no effect of doctoral completion time on their salaries, while men see a significant gain in salary stemming from earlier completion times. Doctoral completion time is shown to be largely unconnected to measures of prior academic success, research independence, and scientific merit suggesting that doctoral completion time is, to a great extent, out of the control of individual graduate students. Nonetheless, it can be influential on an individual's future career prospects, as can gender-related effects.

  14. Faculty Salary: Issues in Multiple Regressions (United States)

    Liu, Richard; Liu, Rebecca


    Equity in faculty salaries has always been a controversial issue facing institutions of higher education. As a bastion of academic freedom where faculty and students purse knowledge, it is almost anti-intellectual to find a gender gap in salaries. More importantly, there are laws, which ensure gender equity in salaries. Thus, salary equity has…

  15. Errors in the calculation of new salary positions and performance premiums – 2017 MERIT exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Following the receipt of the letters dated May 12th announcing the qualification of their performance (MERIT 2017), and the notification of their salary slips for the month of May, several colleagues have come to us to enquire about the calculation of salary increases and performance premiums. After verification, the Staff Association has informed the Management, in a meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on June 1st, about errors owing to rounding in the applied formulas. James Purvis, Head of HR department, has published in the CERN Bulletin dated July 18th an article, under the heading “Better precision (rounding)”, that gives a short explanation of these rounding effects. But we want to further bring you more precise explanations. Advancement On the salary slips for the month of May, the calculations of the advancement and new salary positions were done, by the services of administrative computing in the FAP department, on the basis of the salary, rounded to the nearest franc...

  16. The Effects of Gender and Race on Salary Growth: The Role of Occupational Structure in a Service Sector Firm


    Mellor, Jennifer M; Elizabeth A. Paulin


    Using data from a financial services firm, the determinants of salary growth are estimated in a two-stage model with special attention given to the roles of gender and race. While the analysis reveals no overt bias in salary growth decisions, there is evidence of institutional bias within one branch of the firm. In that branch the proportion of white females in an occupation is negatively related to salary growth for all but white males. Additional analysis suggests that rules governing promo...

  17. Community structure and abundance of benthic infaunal invertebrates in Maine fringing marsh ecosystems (United States)

    Richard A. MacKenzie; Michele Dionne; Jeremy Miller; Michael Haas; Pamela A. Morgan


    Fringing marshes are abundant ecosystems that dominate the New England coastline. Despite their abundance, very little baseline data is available from them and few studies have documented the ecosystems services that they provide. This information is important for conservation efforts as well as for an increased understanding of how fringing marshes function compared...

  18. Distributed energy generation techniques and the competitive fringe effect in electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Petrikaite, Vaiva; Scholtens, Bert


    We analyse the impact of two different generation techniques used by fringe suppliers on the intensity of competition in the electricity wholesale market. For that purpose, we derive a Cournot model of this market taking into account long-term contracts, international trade and fringe suppliers

  19. Engaging Fringe Stakeholders in Business and Society Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Lauren; Muthuri, Judy N.


    Business and society (B&S) researchers, as well as practitioners, have been critiqued for ignoring those with less voice and power (e.g., women, nonliterate, or indigenous peoples) often referred to as “fringe stakeholders.” Existing methods used in B&S research often fail to address issues...... of meaningful participation, voice and power, especially in developing countries. In this article, we stress the utility of visual participatory research (VPR) methods in B&S research to fill this gap. Through a case study on engaging Ghanaian cocoa farmers on gender inequality issues, we explore how VPR...... methods may be used by researchers to achieve more inclusive, and thus more credible, stakeholder research that can improve decision making within businesses. Furthermore, we argue that ingrained social and environmental problems tackled by B&S research and the unique context in which they occur may open...

  20. Skeleton extraction and phase interpolation for single ESPI fringe pattern based on the partial differential equations. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Danyu; Xiao, Zhitao; Geng, Lei; Wu, Jun; Xu, Zhenbei; Sun, Jiao; Wang, Jinjiang; Xi, Jiangtao


    A novel phase extraction method for single electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringes is proposed. The partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to extract the skeletons of the gray-scale fringe and to interpolate the whole-field phase values based on skeleton map. Firstly, the gradient vector field (GVF) of the initial fringe is adjusted by an anisotropic PDE. Secondly, the skeletons of the fringe are extracted combining the divergence property of the adjusted GVF. After assigning skeleton orders, the whole-field phase information is interpolated by the heat conduction equation. The validity of the proposed method is verified by computer-simulated and experimentally obtained poor-quality ESPI fringe patterns.

  1. [Salary and clinical productivity among physicians in Norwegian somatic hospitals 2001-2008]. (United States)

    Johannessen, Karl-Arne


    Analysis of the future need for medical doctors necessitates an assessment of their productivity. The goals of this study were to analyze the relation between doctors' work force and the increased activity in hospitals, and to describe the development of working hours and salary for hospital doctors in a gender perspective. Information about man-labour years, working time and salary for doctors in Norwegian somatic hospitals was retrieved for the period 2001-2008. Number of hospital stays, DRG points and outpatient consultations per man-labour year are used as measures of doctors' clinical productivity. The percentage of female doctors increased from 34.7 % to 42.2 %. The mean annual salary increased more for men (14.4 % higher in 2001 and 16.6 % higher in 2008) than women. Total salary costs for doctors increased by 69.9 % (from 3.66 bill to 6.22 bill. NOK); 42.6 % of this increase was generated by new positions (1 306 man-labour years, + 21.2 %). Labour years from extended working hours increased by 6.8 % (constituting 1043 labour years in 2008; 12.2 % of the total), but the average extended labour time per doctor decreased (-16.7 % for women and -9.6 % for men). The number of hospital stays increased by 13.2 %, DRG points increased by 12.4 % and outpatient consultations increased by 9.3 % per doctor's work year in the period 2001-2008. Higher salaries for men may be explained by age, more men in senior positions and longer working hours than for women. The productivity of Norwegian doctors still increased from 2001 to 2008 (taking into account the increase in salary).

  2. 3D hand and palmprint acquisition using full-field composite color fringe projection (United States)

    Feng, Hui; Wang, Zhaohui; Kuang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhang, Sixiang


    This paper presents a method to simultaneously get 3D hand and palmprint information by projecting composite color fringe patterns. The existing researches mainly focus on 2D biological features, and the extracted features from 2D image are distorted by pressure or lose the third dimensional information. But 3D features with non-contact operation can obtain the characteristic distribution patterns without distortion, and simultaneously obtain real hand morphology and the global properties of hand and palmprint. A prototype 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the composite color fringe patterns on the hand surface. The hardware configuration comprises a DLP (digital light processing) projector, a color CCD camera with fireware port and a personal computer (PC). In order to fast acquire 3D accurate shape data, sinusoidal and binary fringe patterns are coded into red, green and blue channels to generate composite color fringe pattern images. The DLP projector projects composite RGB fringe patterns onto the surface of human hands. From another viewpoint, the CCD camera captures the images and saves them into the computer for postprocessing. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. While the absolute fringe order of each sinusoidal fringe pattern is determined by the binary fringe pattern sequences. The absolute phase map of each pixel can be calculated by combining the obtained wrapped phase and the absolute fringe order. Some experimental results on human hands show that the proposed method correctly obtains the absolute phase (shape) data of hand and palmprint.

  3. Teachers' Unions and Compensation: The Impact of Collective Bargaining on Salary Schedules and Performance Pay Schemes (United States)

    West, Kristine Lamm; Mykerezi, Elton


    This study examines the impact that collective bargaining has on multiple dimensions of teacher compensation, including average and starting salaries, early and late returns to experience, returns to graduate degrees, and the incidence of different pay for performance schemes. Using data from the School and Staffing Survey (SASS) and a more recent…

  4. Occupational Perceptions of Males and Females as a Function of Sex Ratios, Salary, and Availability. (United States)

    Subich, Linda Mezydlo; And Others


    Examined undergraduate students' willingness to explore, enter, and predict success in three occupations as a function of subject sex and information about occupational sex ratio, salary, and position availability. Results indicated males were more likely to report an interest in further exploration of and entry into the occupations, as well as to…

  5. Institutional Gender Equity Salary Analysis and Recursive Impact of Career and Life Choices (United States)

    Peterson, Teri S.


    This study employed mixed methods, engaging both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. In terms of the quantitative inquiry, the purpose of this study was to explore and assess gender-based salary inequities at a Carnegie Classified Research High university in the Intermountain West. Qualitative inquiry was used to follow up and contextually…

  6. Coherent Integrations, Fringe Modeling, and Bootstrapping With the NPOI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, Anders M; Mozurkewich, Dave; Schmitt, Henrique; Armstrong, J. T; Gilbreath, G. C; Hindsley, Robert; Pauls, Thomas A; Peterson, Deane M


    .... It causes fringes to move on ms time-scales, forcing very short exposures. Because of the semi-random phase shifts, the traditional approach averages exposure power spectra to build signal-to-noise ratio (SNR...

  7. Trends in gender, employment, salary, and debt of graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges. (United States)

    Chieffo, Carla; Kelly, Alan M; Ferguson, James


    To characterize trends in gender, employment, starting salaries, and educational debt of graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges from 1988 to 2007. Meta-analysis. Sample Population-Veterinary medical graduates from 26 or 27 of 27 US veterinary schools and colleges from 1988 through 2007. Data were obtained from surveys published in the JAVMA. A chi2 test for trend was used to analyze trends in choices of employment and educational indebtedness for the veterinary graduate populations over time. The greatest changes in employment occurred in predominantly large animal practice, which attracted 10.7% of new graduates in 1989 but only 2.2% in 2007, and in advanced study, which attracted 15.2% of new graduates in 1989 and 36.8% in 2007. In 2007, 75% of graduates were women, but this gender shift was not associated with the decline in the percentage of graduates entering rural practice. From 1989 through 2007, starting salaries in private practice increased at a rate of 4.60%/y. During the same period, educational debt increased at an annual rate of 7.36%, or 60% higher than the rate of increases for starting salaries. As a result, debt at graduation increased from 1.1 times the starting salary in 1989 to 2.0 times the starting salary in 2007. Veterinary students are now more in debt than they have ever been. This trend together with a substantial increase in the rate of interest charged for government-backed education loans create conditions for new graduates that appear unsustainable.

  8. Differentiation between a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic form of Gyrodactylus salaris using PCR-RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walther; Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde; Buchmann, Kurt


    A new method based on PCR-RFLP is presented. It is able to differentiate between the Danish non-pathogenic form of Gyrodactylus salaris and the Norwegian pathogenic form.......A new method based on PCR-RFLP is presented. It is able to differentiate between the Danish non-pathogenic form of Gyrodactylus salaris and the Norwegian pathogenic form....

  9. Differences by Race and Gender in Expected Starting Salaries of Bachelor Degree Recipients in Connecticut (United States)

    Free, Rhona C.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Clifford, Maryanne T.


    Data from the Connecticut Department of Higher Education and the National Association of Colleges and Employers were used to explore effects of college major on differences by race and gender in estimated starting salaries of 2006 bachelor degree recipients from Connecticut colleges and universities. Females' relatively high presence in majors…

  10. Salary, Space, and Satisfaction: An Examination of Gender Differences in the Sciences (United States)

    Darrah, Marjorie; Hougland, James; Prince, Barbara


    How can universities be more successful in recruiting and promoting the professional success of women in their science-related departments? This study examines selected pieces of the puzzle by examining actual salary and space allocations to 282 faculty members in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and the social and…

  11. Salary Determinants for Senior Student Affairs Officers: Revisiting Gender and Ethnicity in Light of Institutional Characteristics (United States)

    Engstrom, Cathy McHugh; McIntosh, Joshua G.; Ridzi, Frank M.; Kruger, Kevin


    Previous literature has suggested that ascribed characteristics, such as gender and ethnicity, achieved characteristics such as highest degree earned; and institutional characteristics such as size and public or private affiliation of the college, may serve as determinants of salary among senior student affairs officers. This research, however,…

  12. 2011 Canadian Teacher Salary Rankings: Provinces and Territories. BCTF Research Report. Section I. 2012-TS-01 (United States)

    White, Margaret


    This paper is an update of research report 2011-TS-02. It presents tables that show the minimum and maximum salaries for BC's Category 5 and Category 6, or equivalent, for provinces and territories. A sample of school districts is included for those provinces/territories with multiple collective agreements.

  13. Psychology Students' Expectations Regarding Educational Requirements and Salary for Desired Careers (United States)

    Strapp, Chehalis M.; Drapela, Danica J.; Henderson, Cierra I.; Nasciemento, Emily; Roscoe, Lauren J.


    This study investigated the accuracy of psychology majors' expectations regarding careers. Psychology majors, including 101 women and 35 men (M[subscript age] = 23 years; standard deviation[subscript age] = 6.25), indicated a desired career and estimated the level of education needed and the expected annual salary for the career. Students'…

  14. Results of the 2015 Perfusionist Salary Study. (United States)

    Lewis, Doreen M; Dove, Steven; Jordan, Ralph E


    Presently, there exists no published valid and reliable salary study of clinical perfusionists. The objective of the 2015 Perfusionist Salary Study was to gather verifiable employee information to determine current compensation market rates (salary averages) of clinical perfusionists working in the United States. A salary survey was conducted between April 2015 and March 2016. The survey required perfusionists to answer questions about work volume, scheduling, and employer-paid compensation including benefits. Participants were also required to submit a de-identified pay stub to validate the income they reported. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all survey questions (e.g., percentages, means, and ranges). The study procured 481 responses, of which 287 were validated (i.e., respondents provided income verification that matched reported earnings). Variables that were examined within the validated sample population include job title, type of institution of employment, education level, years of experience, and geographic region, among others. Additional forms of compensation which may affect base compensation rates were also calculated including benefits, call time, bonuses, and pay for ancillary services (e.g., extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ventricular assist device). In conclusion, in 2015, the average salary for all perfusionists is $127,600 with 19 years' experience. This research explores the average salary within subpopulations based on other factors such as position role, employer type, and geography. Information from this study is presented to guide employer compensation programs and suggests the need for further study in consideration of attrition rates and generational changes (i.e., perfusionists reaching retirement age) occurring alongside the present perfusionist staffing shortage affecting many parts of the country.

  15. Are Public School Teacher Salaries Paid Compensating Wage Differentials for Student Racial and Ethnic Characteristics? (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie M.


    The present paper examines the relationship between public school teacher salaries and the racial concentration and segregation of students in the district. A particularly rich set of control variables is included to better measure the effect of racial characteristics. Additional analyses included Metropolitan Statistical Area fixed effects and…

  16. Not Equal for All: Gender and Race Differences in Salary for Doctoral Degree Recipients (United States)

    Webber, Karen L.; Canché, Manuel González


    Despite a recent increase in women and racial/ethnic minorities in U.S. postsecondary education, doctoral recipients from these groups report lower salaries than male and majority peers. With a longitudinal sample of approximately 10,000 respondents from the "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," this study adds to the limited literature…

  17. A Study of Instructional Faculty Salaries at USF, SUS and National Peers (United States)

    Micceri, Theodore


    This study investigates 10-year trends in instructional faculty salaries by sex and rank for USF, five SUS Peers (UF, FSU, FIU, UCF, FAU) and eight National Peers (North Carolina State, Alabama-Birmingham, Illinois-Chicago, California-Irvine, SUNY-Stony Brook, SUNY-Buffalo, Cincinnati, Rutgers). Methods: Historical instructional faculty salary…

  18. Rated satisfaction with salary and promotion by secondary school teachers in Transkei. (United States)

    Mwamwenda, T S


    Among 114 secondary school teachers there was no significant difference between the 55 who were satisfied with their salary and the 59 who were not, but the difference was significant between 37 who were satisfied with promotion and 73 who were not. There was no sex difference for either measure.

  19. 78 FR 73451 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case... (United States)


    ... risk for liability for claiming unallowable costs is significant, while companies that are not subject to CAS have no such liability and do not face the possibility of False Claims Act prosecutions, Civil... respondent asserted that the rule is unnecessary since the FAR cost principles already protect the Government...

  20. Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion for Faculty in the Humanities 1977-95. (United States)

    Ginther, Donna K.; Hayes, Karen J.


    From the humanities sample of the Survey of Doctoral Recipients 1977-95, a cross-sectional sample of tenured/tenure-track faculty and a longitudinal sample of doctoral recipients 1975-89 were studied. Gender salary differences were largely explained by rank. Substantial gender differences in tenure were found, with a slight decline in the gap for…

  1. The Interaction Effects of Gender, Race, and Marital Status on Faculty Salaries (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Bellas, Marcia L.; Moore, John V.


    Large national surveys of faculty afford analysts the opportunity to examine differences in faculty salary based on combinations of all three dimensions--gender, race/ethnicity, and marital status--as well as the possible interactive effects among them. In this study, the authors used data from the 1999 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty…

  2. M. D. Faculty Salaries in Psychiatry and All Clinical Science Departments, 1980-2006 (United States)

    Haviland, Mark G.; Dial, Thomas H.; Pincus, Harold Alan


    Objective: The authors compare trends in the salaries of physician faculty in academic departments of psychiatry with those of physician faculty in all academic clinical science departments from 1980-2006. Methods: The authors compared trend lines for psychiatry and all faculty by academic rank, including those for department chairs, by graphing…

  3. Academic productivity and its relationship to physician salaries in the University of California Healthcare System. (United States)

    Fijalkowski, Natalia; Zheng, Luo Luo; Henderson, Michael T; Moshfeghi, Andrew A; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Moshfeghi, Darius M


    To evaluate whether physicians with higher academic productivity, as measured by the number of publications in Scopus and the Scopus Hirsch index (h-index), earn higher salaries. This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were ophthalmologists, otolaryngologists, neurosurgeons, and neurologists classified as "top earners" (>$100,000 annually) within the University of California (UC) healthcare system in 2008. Bibliometric searches on Scopus were conducted to retrieve the total number of publications and Hirsch indices (h-index), a measure of academic productivity. The association between the number of publications and h-index on physicians' total compensation was determined with multivariate regression models after controlling for the four specialties (ophthalmology, otolaryngology, neurosurgery, and neurology), the five institutions (UC San Francisco, UC Los Angeles, UC San Diego, UC Irvine, and UC Davis), and academic rank (assistant professor, associate professor, and professor). The UC healthcare system departments reported 433 faculty physicians among the four specialties, with 71.6% (n = 310) earning more than $100,000 in 2008 and classifying as top earners. After controlling for the specialty, institution, and ranking, there was a significant association between the number of publications on salary (P Scopus number of publications and h-index were correlated (P Scopus h-index was of borderline significance in predicting physician salary (P = 0.12). Physicians with higher Scopus publications had higher total salaries across all four specialties. Every 10 publications were associated with a 2.40% increase in total salary after controlling for specialty, institution, rank, and chair. Ophthalmologists, otolaryngologists, neurosurgeons, and neurologists in the UC healthcare system who are more academically productive receive greater remuneration.

  4. Determination of slope, curvature, and twist from a single shearography fringe pattern using derivative-based regularized phase tracker (United States)

    Deepan, Balakrishnan; Quan, Chenggen; Tay, Cho Jui


    A fringe analysis algorithm for determination of slope, curvature, and twist from a single fringe pattern in digital speckle-shearing interferometry is proposed. A method for estimation of biased curvature and twist maps from fringe orientation and fringe density maps is employed. The curvature and twist maps obtained are further processed by B-spline interpolation to achieve high quality curvature and twist maps. A derivative-based regularized phase tracker (RPT) utilizes these predetermined curvature and twist maps for determination of a slope map from a single shearography fringe pattern. The proposed model requires less computational time and it overcomes the limitations of the RPT model. The method is validated with an experimental fringe pattern. The results show that this method is robust against speckle noise and it is able to retrieve accurate slope, curvature, and twist maps from a single shearography fringe pattern.

  5. Placements & Salaries Survey 2010: Stagnant Salaries, Rising Unemployment (United States)

    Maatta, Stephanie L.


    "Library Journal's annual Placements & Salaries Survey, with 1,996 respondents representing 38.7% of the approximately 5160 2009 LIS graduates, found an uptick in starting salaries, but bigger bumps in part-time and temporary jobs, an expanding gender gap, setbacks for minority graduates, and a drop in the number of total graduates. On the up…

  6. Bachelor's Degree Salary Report (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    An update on salary offers to graduating college seniors indicates sharp increases for those with bachelor's degrees in engineering and science, according to the College Placement Council.Students majoring in petroleum engineering draw the top offers: $26,652 per annum, an 11.8% increase; some offers even topped $30,000 per year! Second-ranked chemical engineering, at $24,360, experienced a 12.7% gain. Since the July 1980 report, increases in average salary offers for the 11 bachelor's level engineering disciplines ranged from 10% to 14%.

  7. Nitrogen dynamics in subtropical fringe and basin mangrove forests inferred from stable isotopes. (United States)

    Reis, Carla Roberta Gonçalves; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld; Rochelle, André Luis Casarin; Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Oliveira, Rafael Silva


    Mangroves exhibit low species richness compared to other tropical forests, but great structural and functional diversity. Aiming to contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of mangrove forests, we investigated nitrogen (N) dynamics in two physiographic types of mangroves (fringe and basin forests) in southeastern Brazil. Because fringe forests are under great influence of tidal flushing we hypothesized that these forests would exhibit higher N cycling rates in sediment and higher N losses to the atmosphere compared to basin forests. We quantified net N mineralization and nitrification rates in sediment and natural abundance of N stable isotopes (δ(15)N) in the sediment-plant-litter system. The fringe forest exhibited higher net N mineralization rates and δ(15)N in the sediment-plant-litter system, but net nitrification rates were similar to those of the basin forest. The results of the present study suggest that fringe forests exhibit higher N availability and N cycling in sediment compared to basin forests.

  8. The Impact of Masker Fringe and Masker Sparial Uncertainty on Sound Localization (United States)


    spatial uncertainty on sound localization and to examine how such effects might be related to binaural detection and informational masking. 2 Methods...AFRL-RH-WP-TP-2012-0037 THE IMPACT OF MASKER FRINGE AND MASKER SPARIAL UNCERTAINTY ON SOUND LOCALIZATION Brian D. Simpson¹, Robert H...MASKER FRINGE AND MASKER SPARIAL UNCERTAINTY ON SOUND LOCALIZATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  9. Oil on the Water Characterization with Coherent Fringe Projection and Digital Holographic In-line Interferometry (United States)


    DW2A.19. pdf Digital Holography and 3D Imaging Technical Digest ©2013 OSA Oil on the water characterization with coherent fringe projection and digital...requires elaborate image processing. Coherent fringe projection (CFP) techniques proved to be efficient in non- contact metrology of microstructured...plane wave reflected from the water surface. Zo\\£l^iZ% DW2A.19. pdf Digital Holography and 3D Imaging Technical Digest ©2013 OSA 0 50

  10. Inequalities in the distribution of pharmacists' wage-and-salary earnings: indicators and their development. (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M


    Disparities in wages and salaries can be viewed as the dispersion of a statistical distribution that responds to observed and unobserved characteristics, and reflects socioeconomic phenomena such as the interplay of supply and demand, availability of information, and efficiency of markets in their search for equilibrium. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of inequality in the distribution of pharmacists' wage-and-salary earnings and establish the extent to which inequality primarily occurred because of variation between/among groups or within groups of pharmacists in several classifications of human-capital and job-related preference variables. Data were collected through the use of a survey questionnaire mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, USA. Five indicators of inequality (the log earnings variance, the coefficient of variation, the lower median share, the 90-10 decile ratio, and the Gini coefficient) were estimated for eight human-capital classifications and eight job-related classifications. A one-way ANOVA model was applied to the groups in each classification to compare variation between/among versus within pharmacy groups. Pharmacists' wage-and-salary earnings were more evenly distributed than most income distributions discussed in the literature. They were more equitably distributed for full-time pharmacists than for all pharmacists in the data set. All five-inequality indicators behaved similarly. Notable differences were observed between/among groups within the gender, age group, marital status, number of children, academic degree, and type of primary pharmacy activity classifications. Inequalities in wages and salaries have been identified both between/among and within pharmacist groups in several classifications using five commonly accepted indicators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shelters and Their Use by Fishes on Fringing Coral Reefs (United States)

    Ménard, Alexandre; Turgeon, Katrine; Roche, Dominique G.; Binning, Sandra A.; Kramer, Donald L.


    Coral reef fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by coral reef fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean coral reef by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ≥3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m2) on two fringing reefs in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm3 to over 4,000,000 cm3, with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m−2, with a median volume of 1,200 cm3 and a total volume of 52,000 cm3m−2. The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among reef zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some coral reef fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for coral reef fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural reefs and improve the design of artificial reefs. PMID:22745664

  12. Shelters and their use by fishes on fringing coral reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ménard

    Full Text Available Coral reef fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by coral reef fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean coral reef by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ≥3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m(2 on two fringing reefs in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm(3 to over 4,000,000 cm(3, with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m(-2, with a median volume of 1,200 cm(3 and a total volume of 52,000 cm(3 m(-2. The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among reef zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some coral reef fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for coral reef fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural reefs and improve the design of artificial reefs.

  13. Coaching Salaries: Approaching Equality (United States)

    Grebe, Keith R.; Leslie, David K.


    A survey conducted in the Iowa public schools indicates that the coaches of teams for girls and teams for boys tend to be paid equal salaries when the teams are of the same sports, but because fewer terms of the so-called major sports are offered for girls than for boys, there are presently fewer high paying coaching opportunities for women than…



    Hashim Fadzil Ariffin; Norbani Che Ha


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the Organizational Commitment (OC) among Malaysian hotel employees. The aim is to identify the perception of employees concerning OC that they have perceived at their workplace and, how gender, education level and range of salary affect them. The data have been collected through sets of questionnare answered by 624 respondents who are hotel employees in Malaysia. The dimensions of OC which are affective, continuance and normative have been analysed ...

  15. Organizational Differences between U.S. Major Leagues and European Leagues: Implications for Salary Caps


    Helmut Dietl; Egon Franck; Markus Lang; Alexander Rathke


    This paper outlines and compares the organizational structure of major sports leagues, explores the reasoning behind their formation, and derives implications for salary caps in European football. To understand why sports leagues have developed a specific organizational structure, one must take the economic peculiarities of team sports leagues into consideration. For this purpose, we analyze the production process and illuminate its major peculiarities. For example, we present the difference ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Odnoshevna


    Full Text Available The purposes of the paper are: the detailed analysis of salary calculations, the evaluation of the effectiveness of employees’ work, the development of optimizing mechanisms of salary calculations by increasing productivity and implementation of the methods of employees’ labour stimulation. Methodology. The study is based on an analysis of different groups of enterprises, including agricultural ones. It is analysed that for today the efficiency of labour at some enterprises drops due to low wages and the lack of employees’ motivation mechanism. Results. The study found that the process of salary calculations has a lot of problematic aspects, such as a deficient work organization, insufficient stimulation of workers, poorly composed documents, etc. To improve such a situation, it is suggested an introduction of automation in order to reduce the wasting of working time for data processing of an accounting department and to improve significantly the quality and speed of information transfer to the head of an enterprise and external users. It is offered to use a labour ball to improve employees’ motivation, which is a form of accounting for the work varying on quality and quantity that was contributed to production. According to the scoring results, a mechanism of bonuses for employees is suggested. Practical implications. We suggested entering new documents to control the number of issued orders – “Registration Book of Issued Orders”. To provide a high level of quality control of executed works, it is suggested to display data in a special primary document “Record Sheet of Performance Quality”. It is offered to use partial salary payment for unprofitable enterprises through payment in kind. Value/originality. At first, the results will allow increasing the firm’s performance quality without losing employees, and subsequently – allow increasing the profitability of the enterprise.

  17. Career Satisfaction and Perceived Salary Competitiveness among Individuals Who Completed Postdoctoral Research Training in Cancer Prevention. (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Nelson, David E; Izmirlian, Grant


    Studies examining career satisfaction of biomedical scientists are limited, especially in the context of prior postdoctoral training. Here we focused on career satisfaction defined as satisfaction with one's career trajectory and perceived salary competitiveness among a predominantly Ph.D.-trained population of scientists who completed cancer prevention-related postdoctoral training between 1987-2011. National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) alumni (n = 114), and previous recipients of NCI-sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA/F32) postdoctoral fellowships (n = 140) completed online surveys. Associations of career satisfaction and perception of salary competitiveness with demographic, training, and employment-related factors were examined using logistic regression. Overall, 61% reported high levels of satisfaction with their career trajectory to-date. Higher salary (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07-7.69) and having more leadership roles (OR = 2.26, 95% CI:1.04-4.90) were independently associated with higher career satisfaction. Persons with race/ethnicity other than white (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.82) or age ≥ 50 (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17-0.94) had lower career satisfaction levels. There were no statistically significant differences in career satisfaction levels by gender, scientific discipline, or employment sector. 74% perceived their current salary as competitive, but persons with 5-9, or ≥10 years in their current position reported lower levels (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.65; and OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.87, respectively), as did individuals in government positions (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11-0.98). These data add to the understanding of career satisfaction of those with advanced training in biomedical research by examining these measures in relation to prior postdoctoral research training and across multiple career sectors.

  18. Career Satisfaction and Perceived Salary Competitiveness among Individuals Who Completed Postdoctoral Research Training in Cancer Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Faupel-Badger

    Full Text Available Studies examining career satisfaction of biomedical scientists are limited, especially in the context of prior postdoctoral training. Here we focused on career satisfaction defined as satisfaction with one's career trajectory and perceived salary competitiveness among a predominantly Ph.D.-trained population of scientists who completed cancer prevention-related postdoctoral training between 1987-2011. National Cancer Institute (NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP alumni (n = 114, and previous recipients of NCI-sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA/F32 postdoctoral fellowships (n = 140 completed online surveys. Associations of career satisfaction and perception of salary competitiveness with demographic, training, and employment-related factors were examined using logistic regression. Overall, 61% reported high levels of satisfaction with their career trajectory to-date. Higher salary (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07-7.69 and having more leadership roles (OR = 2.26, 95% CI:1.04-4.90 were independently associated with higher career satisfaction. Persons with race/ethnicity other than white (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.82 or age ≥ 50 (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17-0.94 had lower career satisfaction levels. There were no statistically significant differences in career satisfaction levels by gender, scientific discipline, or employment sector. 74% perceived their current salary as competitive, but persons with 5-9, or ≥10 years in their current position reported lower levels (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.65; and OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.87, respectively, as did individuals in government positions (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11-0.98. These data add to the understanding of career satisfaction of those with advanced training in biomedical research by examining these measures in relation to prior postdoctoral research training and across multiple career sectors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Fadzil Ariffin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the Organizational Commitment (OC among Malaysian hotel employees. The aim is to identify the perception of employees concerning OC that they have perceived at their workplace and, how gender, education level and range of salary affect them. The data have been collected through sets of questionnare answered by 624 respondents who are hotel employees in Malaysia. The dimensions of OC which are affective, continuance and normative have been analysed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA. The data then been analysed using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA to find the significance differences between gender, level of education and salary scale with the three dimensions of OC. The result of this study reveals that there is no significant diffrences between three dimensions of OC and gender. Findings also show that there are significant differences between education level and three dimensions of OC. Similarly, the results also display significant differences between salary scale and, affective and continuance commitment but not with normative comitment. Managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also discussed.

  20. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems. (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  1. Portability, Salary and Asset Price Risk: A Continuous-Time Expected Utility Comparison of DB and DC Pension Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Chen


    Full Text Available This paper compares two different types of private retirement plans from the perspective of a representative beneficiary: a defined benefit (DB and a defined contribution (DC plan. While salary risk is the main common risk factor in DB and DC pension plans, one of the key differences is that DB plans carry portability risks, whereas DC plans bear asset price risk. We model these tradeoffs explicitly in this paper and compare these two plans in a utility-based framework. Our numerical analysis focuses on answering the question of when the beneficiary is indifferent between the DB and DC plan. Most of our results confirm the findings in the existing literature, among which, e.g., portability losses considerably reduce the relative attractiveness of the DB plan. However, we also find that the attractiveness of the DB plan can decrease in the level of risk aversion, which is inconsistent with the existing literature.

  2. Influence of displacement and its first- and second-order derivative components on curvature fringe formations in speckle shearography. (United States)

    Wang, Kaifu; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Li, Enbang


    The influence of displacement and its first- and second-order derivative components on curvature fringe formations in speckle shearography is discussed. The results show that (a) all the displacement components have no direct influence on curvature fringe formations; (b) only the first-order derivative component along the centerline of three apertures has an influence on curvature fringe formations, whereas all the other first-order components have no influence; and (c) all the second-order derivative components have no influence on curvature fringe formations. Results from theory and experiments are in good agreement.

  3. Statistical analysis of the established salary in small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Pin’kovetskaya


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the present regularities, specific to the employees’ salaries of aggregates of small and medium enterprises related to the three dimensional categories and located in different regions of Russia. The following tasks were solved: the indexes, characterizing average monthly salary of employees based on the mentioned enterprises were assessed, belonging to different size categories and located in each of the regions; the relations were established between the average monthly salaries of employees of aggregates of small and medium enterprises and the cost of living in all regions of the country.Preliminary results of stopwatch reading of small and medium business activities in 2015 were used as initial data. The research was based on the comparison of indexes for the entrepreneurial sector and the full range of enterprises and organizations.Modeling differentiation of salaries’ values of small and medium enterprises aggregations, as well as its relationship to the values of the subsistence level was based on the development of the density function of normal distribution. The quality of the developed models was checked according to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Pearson and Shapiro-Wilk criteria.The obtained results have some theoretical significance, in particular, when conducting research related to the justification of the proposed wage of employees of enterprises different in number, the formation of measures for increasing efficiency of the entrepreneurial sector activity. Density functions of normal distribution given in the paper can be used in the justification of concepts, plans and programs of developing small and medium entrepreneurship in regions and municipalities. The practical importance of research results connected with the possibility of their use by entrepreneurs directly (especially by beginners when assessing the potential of enterprise creation and definition of employees’ proposed salaries. In

  4. How Large Is the Gap in Salaries of Male and Female Engineers? SRS Issue Brief. (United States)

    Lal, Bhavya; Yoon, Sam; Carlson, Ken

    This issue brief examines the gender salary gap in engineering, an occupation in which women held 10% of the jobs in 1995. Using multivariate regression analysis, various potential explanations for the salary gap in this field are explored. It was concluded that the salary gap is primarily explained by the fact that female engineers, on average,…

  5. Role Conflict and Reality Shock among Neophyte Navy Nurses (United States)


    Bamberger, and Sharon C. Conley. (1990). Work processes, role conflict, and role overload. Work and Occupations, 17 (5), 199-227. Benner , Patricia . (1984...From novice to expert. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Benner , Patricia and Richard Benner . (1975). The new graduate: perspectives...turnover rate in their first year ( Benner , 1975). Typically the college graduates did NOT leave their first job because of fringe benefits, salary, (or

  6. Problems of salaries management in oil and gas companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gennad'evna Kolosova


    Full Text Available Basing on the results of the author's analysis and generalization of practical experience in the organization of remuneration on the oil and gas companies of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District — Yugra, the current state and remuneration policy were defined. The designed SWOT matrix reveals the possibilities of further improvement of the remuneration organization. Innovative development of remuneration systems involves a complex process of selecting management tools to achieve performance targets and implementing business strategies. A study of the most upfront human resources and staff practices in the Russian oil and gas sector has allowed the author to formulate approaches to building effective systems of remuneration. The suggestions described in this paper coordinate the interests of employers and employees. At the same time, they increase efficiency and job satisfaction through raising personal responsibility, which will gain the effectiveness of incentives for oil and gas companies.

  7. The Role of the Faculty in Budgetary and Salary Matters (United States)

    AAUP Bulletin, 1976


    This statement by the AAUP Committee T on College and University Government defines the role of the faculty in decisions as the allocation of financial resources according to the principle of shared authority and offers some principles and derivative guidelines for faculty participation in this area. (LBH)

  8. Human capital and salary differences in Mexico, 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Varela Llamas


    Full Text Available The aim of this document is to estimate two models econometrics on the determination of the wages in Mexico for the period 2000–2009. There is in use information of the National Survey of Urban Employment and of the National Survey of Occupation and Employment of the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (inegi. The impact is analyzed on the wage income of variables of offer of work as labor experience and human capital. In contrast, variables of demand are in use as size of company, sector of activity and other attributes of sociodemographic character. The results indicate that the wage differences by degree of education are marked, but they are also by type of establishment and economic activity.

  9. Knight Commission to Fight High Salaries and Recruiting Pressures (United States)

    Wolverton, Brad; Lipka, Sara


    Last week, commissioners of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics organized a meeting to tackle recruiting problems and gender inequalities in college sports, but another topic--the high pay of football and men's basketball coaches--came up repeatedly. This article reports on what the commission intends to do in order to…

  10. Archives, ethics, salaries, and the struggle: a view from Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to records in a country that was engaged in a liberation war are raised. Authorisation of access and the capacity of African countries to manage their archives are also discussed. The importance of a country having its own archives consolidated and accessible within the country is stressed. (Innovation: 2002 24: 25-31) ...

  11. Peer Salaries and Employee Satisfaction in the Workplace


    Mumford, Karen A.; Smith, Peter N.


    We explore the relationship between reported job satisfaction and own wage, relative wage and average comparison group wage; allowing for asymmetry in these responses across genders. We find that the choice of relevant comparison group is affected by gender in Britain; men display behaviour characteristic of competitiveness whilst women do not.

  12. Nursing home administrator compensation: pay equity and determinants of salary. (United States)

    Singh, Douglas A


    This study evaluates the issue of gender-based pay inequality. Male NHAs earn 7 percent more than female NHAs, but factors such as education, experience, tenure, facility size, ownership, location, competition, and emphasis on private pay census account for the difference. The findings, however, indicate that racial inequalities and gender differences among married NHAs may be present, requiring further investigation. Key implications of the results are discussed.

  13. Speckle and fringe dynamics in imagingspeckle-pattern interferometry for spatial-filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Iversen, Theis F. Q.; Yura, Harold T.


    This paper analyzes the dynamics of laser speckles and fringes, formed in an imaging-speckle-pattern interferometer with the purpose of sensing linear three-dimensional motion and out-of-plane components of rotation in real time, using optical spatial-filtering-velocimetry techniques. The ensemble......-average definition of the cross-correlation function is applied to the intensity distributions, obtained in the observation plane at two positions of the object. The theoretical analysis provides a description for the dynamics of both the speckles and the fringes. The analysis reveals that both the magnitude...... and direction of all three linear displacement components of the object movement can be determined. Simultaneously, out-ofplane rotation of the object including the corresponding directions can be determined from the spatial gradient of the in-plane fringe motion throughout the observation plane. The theory...

  14. Modeling of Dipole and Quadrupole Fringe-Field Effects for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.; Lindberg, R.


    The proposed upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to a multibend-achromat lattice requires shorter and much stronger quadrupole magnets than are present in the existing ring. This results in longitudinal gradient profiles that differ significantly from a hard-edge model. Additionally, the lattice assumes the use of five-segment longitudinal gradient dipoles. Under these circumstances, the effects of fringe fields and detailed field distributions are of interest. We evaluated the effect of soft-edge fringe fields on the linear optics and chromaticity, finding that compensation for these effects is readily accomplished. In addition, we evaluated the reliability of standard methods of simulating hardedge nonlinear fringe effects in quadrupoles.

  15. In-situ measurements of ions and neutrals near Saturn's F-ring (United States)

    Perry, M. E.; Cravens, T. E.; Smith, H. T.; Perryman, R. S.; Tseng, W. L.; Teolis, B. D.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.


    Each week from December 2016 until April 2017, Cassini dove through a gap in the F-ring. During several of those traverses, the orientation of Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS [1]) enabled in situ measurements of both ions and neutrals, providing data that contribute to improving our understanding of the rings, their interaction with Saturn, and the influence of the magnetosphere. The Enceladus plumes, Saturn's atmosphere, and ring sputtering (photolysis and radiolysis) are all potential sources of F-ring particles.

  16. Pharmacists' wages and salaries: The part-time versus full-time dichotomy. (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Popovici, Ioana


    Recent years have seen significant growth in part-time work among pharmacy personnel. If preferences and outlooks of part-time and full-time workers differ, job-related incentives may not have the same effect on both groups; different management practices may be necessary to cope with rapidly evolving workforces. To compare wage-and-salary responses to the number of hours worked, human-capital stock, and job-related preferences between full-time and part-time pharmacists. The analysis focused on the pharmacist workforce because, unlike other professions, remuneration is fairly linear with respect to the amount of time worked. Data were collected from a self-reported survey of licensed pharmacists in southern Florida (U.S. State). The sample consisted of 979 full-time and 254 part-time respondents. Using ordinary least squares, a model estimated, separately for full-time and part-time pharmacists, annual wage-and-salary earnings as functions of average workweek, human-capital stock, and job-related preferences. Practitioners working less than 36 h/week were driven almost exclusively by pay, whereas practitioners working 36 h or more exhibited a more comprehensive approach to their work experience that included variables beyond monetary remuneration. Managing part-time pharmacists calls for emphasis on wage-and-salary issues. Job-security and gender- and children-related concerns, such as flexibility, should be oriented toward full-time practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Organization and overall job satisfaction among publicly employed, salaried dentists in Sweden and Denmark. (United States)

    Ordell, Sven; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Berthelsen, Hanne; Bergström, Kamilla


    In Sweden and Denmark, clinical dentistry is changing and public dentistry is in transition towards more market orientation. Dentists' overall job satisfaction is important for how public dentistry can fulfil the new expectations from patients, the public and politicians. The aim of this study was to investigate what organizational factors were important for publicly employed salaried dentists' overall job satisfaction. A random sample of active, general dental practitioners (private and publicly employed) was selected in Denmark and in Sweden, and they received a postal questionnaire. The number of questionnaires was 1835 and the response rate was 68% (n = 1226). This study analysed only the publicly employed dentists. The sampling frame for the Swedish dentists was 431, response rate 68.9% (n = 297) and for the Danish ones 194, response rate 81.9% (n = 159). Multivariate regression was used with overall job satisfaction as a dependent variable. Common organizational variables were important. The used model explained between 32% (Sweden) and 39% (Denmark) of the variance in overall job satisfaction. The only significant individual factor was less job satisfaction for Swedish dentists born outside Sweden. An organizational climate characterized by a focus on professional values was associated with job satisfaction in both countries. Among the Swedish dentists, number of colleagues and degree of influence were also important and among the Danish ones sufficient time for patients. Organizational factors had an impact on salaried publicly employed dentists' overall job satisfaction in both countries. The findings may have implications for other Human Service Organizations with employed professionals.

  18. Flexible decoupled camera and projector fringe projection system using inertial sensors (United States)

    Stavroulakis, Petros; Sims-Waterhouse, Danny; Piano, Samanta; Leach, Richard


    Measurement of objects with complex geometry and many self-occlusions is increasingly important in many fields, including additive manufacturing. In a fringe projection system, the camera and the projector cannot move independently with respect to each other, which limits the ability of the system to overcome object self-occlusions. We demonstrate a fringe projection setup where the camera can move independently with respect to the projector, thus minimizing the effects of self-occlusion. The angular motion of the camera is tracked and recalibrated using an on-board inertial angular sensor, which can additionally perform automated point cloud registration.


    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources humaines; Tel. 74128


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2002, salaries and pensions are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2003. Information on these decisions and other main changes concerning the Staff Rules & Regulations is summarised below : 1. Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 and R A 2 respectively): increased by 1.2% with effect from 1 January 2003. 2. Elements increased by 0.6%, following the Geneva cost-of-living movement: - Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4), with effect from 1 January 2003. - Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement stipulated in Article R A 8.01 for the academic year 2002/2003, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2002. - Pensions, with effect from 1 January 2003. 3. Related adjustments will be implemented wherever applicable to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, variations occur in the actual percentage increases quoted, due to the constant increment values and...


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2001, salaries and pensions are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2002. Information on these decisions and other main changes concerning the Staff Rules & Regulations is summarised below : Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 and R A 2 respectively) : increased by 1.3% with effect from 1 January 2002. Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4) : increased by 0.8% with effect from 1 January 2002. Reimbursement of education fees : maximum amounts of reimbursement stipulated in Article R A 8.01 are increased by 0.8% for the academic year 2001/2002, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2001. Variable Subsistence Indemnity for duty travel (Articles R IV 1.40 and 1.41): revised rates, as proposed by the Management, applied with effect from 1 January 2002. Related adjustments will be implemented wherever applicable to Paid Associates and Students. Pensions : increased by 0.8% with effect ...


    CERN Multimedia


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2003, salaries and pensions are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2004. Information on these decisions and other main changes concerning the Staff Rules & Regulations is summarised below: 1. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 1 and R A 2 respectively): increased by 1.1% with effect from 1 January 2004. 2. Elements increased by 0.7%, following the movement of the Geneva consumer price index: a) Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4), with effect from 1 January 2004. b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2003/2004, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2003. c) Pensions, with effect from 1 January 2004. 3. Related adjustments will be implemented wherever applicable to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, var...


    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines


    Salaries and pensions will be adjusted with effect from 1st January 2000. The Finance Committee and Council have also taken several decisions concerning the Staff Rules & Regulations, which will be amended accordingly. The main points are listed below: Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 and Annex RÊAÊ2 respectively): Increased by 1.292% with effect from 1st January 2000.Family Allowance and Child Allowance (AnnexRÊAÊ4):Increased by 0.9% with effect from 1st January 2000. The new figures are 285 and 315 Swiss francs/month respectively.Pensions: Increased by 1.3% with effect from 1st January 2000.Reimbursement of education fees: Maximum amounts of reimbursement stipulated in Article R A 8.01 are increased by 0.9% for the academic year 1999/2000, i.e. to 12Õ996 and 15Õ074 Swiss francs respectively with effect from 1ê September 1999.Related amendments will be implemented wherever applicable to Paid Associ...

  3. Electrically actuated MEMS resonators: Effects of fringing field and nonlinear viscoelasticity (United States)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.


    This paper studies the nonlinear electromechanical response of a MEMS resonator numerically. A nonlinear continuous multi-physics model of the MEMS resonator is developed taking into account the effects of fringing field, size, residual axial load, and viscoelasticity. Moreover, both longitudinal and transverse motions are accounted for in the system modelling and simulations. The equations of motion of the MEMS resonator are obtained employing Hamilton's principle together with the modified version of the couple stress based theory (to account for size effects) and the Kelvin-Voigt model (to account for nonlinear energy dissipation). The Meijs-Fokkema electrostatic load formula is used to reliably model the fringing field effects. The continuous multi-physics model, consisting of geometrical, electrical, and viscos nonlinearities is discretised via a weighted-residual method, yielding a set of nonlinearly coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resultant set of ODEs is solved numerically when the microresonator is actuated by a biased DC voltage and an AC voltage. The results of the numerical simulations are presented in the form of DC voltage-deflection, DC voltage-natural frequency, and AC frequency-displacement diagrams. The effects of fringing field, residual axial load, small-scale, and nonlinear energy dissipation are highlighted. It is shown that fringing field effects are significant on both static and dynamic electromechanical responses of the MEMS resonator.

  4. Western Pairie Fringed Orchid: Its Status, Ecology, and in Vitro Propagation (United States)

    Jyotsna Sharma; J. W. Van Sambeek; Christopher J. Starbuck


    Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles), listed in 1989 as federally threatened, has been extirpated from 75% of historic sites throughout its range. We describe (a) threats to the orchid; (b) seed germination on synthetic medium; and (c) in vitro germination with mycorrhizal fungi. Destruction of prairies for...

  5. Difference in salary among science Doctorate


    Ceesay, Ebrima K


    Abstract The paper examined the salary difference among science Doctorates for 2004 and 2006.The variation of certain factors such as experience, gender, marital status, Publication, Presentation, hiring and difference in sciences faculties (like natural sciences, social sciences etc.) leads to differences in salary at the end of the doctorate program. The model found out that male and female have different salary due factors such as early marriage, child bearing and household responsibil...

  6. The Structure and Determinants of Expected and Actual Starting Salaries of Higher Education Students in Germany: Identical or Different? (United States)

    Frick, Bernd; Maihaus, Michael


    Using two representative samples of some 74,000 students and 11,000 graduates, respectively, we analyse the accuracy of students' wage expectations given their individual characteristics. We find that students are aware of the effects of most of their own characteristics, as a large number of determinants of expected and realised salaries do not…

  7. A novel interference fringes software counting method (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhao; Chen, Benyong; Wu, Xiaowei; Li, Dacheng


    Conventional interference fringes counting methods often process two sinusoidal interference signals with a phase difference of π/2 to realize fringe-counting. But when the signals fluctuate in half a period of the signal, the conventional fringe-counting method sometimes produces direction-distinguishing mistakes, then resulting in counting errors. To address the problem, this paper presents a novel interference fringes counting method that uses software to distinguish the forward or backward direction of interference fringe and to count. This fringe-counting method can accurately distinguish the moving direction induced by the fluctuation of interference fringes, so it has the advantages of exact counting, intelligence and reliability. An experimental setup based on a Michelson interferometer is constructed to demonstrate the utility of this fringe-counting method for displacement measurement, and experimental results with a range of 1036mm is presented.

  8. Half-Way Out: How Requiring Outside Offers to Raise Salaries Influences Faculty Retention and Organizational Commitment (United States)

    O'Meara, KerryAnn


    This institutional case study examines the influence of a policy requiring outside offers for faculty salary increases on institutional retention efforts and faculty organizational commitment. Outside offers and policies governing them are rarely examined, and studied here from the perspective of administrators, leaving faculty, and faculty who…

  9. Can a District-Level Teacher Salary Incentive Policy Improve Teacher Recruitment and Retention? Policy Brief 13-4 (United States)

    Hough, Heather J.; Loeb, Susanna


    In this policy brief, Heather Hough and Susanna Loeb examine the effect of the Quality Teacher and Education Act of 2008 (QTEA) on teacher recruitment, retention, and overall teacher quality in the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD). They provide evidence that a salary increase can improve a school district's attractiveness within their…

  10. Geometric analysis of influence of fringe directions on phase sensitivities in fringe projection profilometry. (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Guo, Hongwei; Asundi, Anand K


    In fringe projection profilometry, phase sensitivity is one of the important factors affecting measurement accuracy. A typical fringe projection system consists of one camera and one projector. To gain insight into its phase sensitivity, we perform in this paper a strict analysis in theory about the dependence of phase sensitivities on fringe directions. We use epipolar geometry as a tool to derive the relationship between fringe distortions and depth variations of the measured surface, and further formularize phase sensitivity as a function of the angle between fringe direction and the epipolar line. The results reveal that using the fringes perpendicular to the epipolar lines enables us to achieve the maximum phase sensitivities, whereas if the fringes have directions along the epipolar lines, the phase sensitivities decline to zero. Based on these results, we suggest the optimal fringes being circular-arc-shaped and centered at the epipole, which enables us to give the best phase sensitivities over the whole fringe pattern, and the quasi-optimal fringes, being straight and perpendicular to the connecting line between the fringe pattern center and the epipole, can achieve satisfyingly high phase sensitivities over whole fringe patterns in the situation that the epipole locates far away from the fringe pattern center. The experimental results demonstrate that our analyses are practical and correct, and that our optimized fringes are effective in improving the phase sensitivities and, further, the measurement accuracies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Souto Maior


    Full Text Available Marx, more than once, makes clear that “the capital always does the workforce work longer than necessary for the reproduction of the value of the latter” and it is the production of surplus value. However, the legal form makes it appear that the work has in itself a value, and that the wages represent this value. The classical economic notion of salary does seem that the work has been fully paid and the legal, to define the institute also brings the idea that the salary is fair, since the measure is at least sufficient to meet the vital needs. In addition, the salary, legally speaking, is conceptualized as “consideration for work done”, and as there was a level equivalence between work and wages. The legal world, assuming that assumption leads us to further alienating abstraction when one pays, in sequence, to call into question the various forms of compensation. Already completely removed from reality, legal studies on wages lead us, in sequence, to take new forms: term of payment; forms of wage fixation and protection rules for the payment takes place. Ie, when more one studies the legal form, most distant of the essence. As Marx says, “the wage-form thus extinguishes every trace of the division of the working day into necessary labor and over-work, paid work and unpaid work”, and the salary, “All labor appears as paid labor”. In other words, again: “In wage labor, on the contrary, even the mostwork or unpaid labor appears as paid work.”. On the other hand, the law, notably the Labour Law, is a cultural object which cannot be neglected, as it is part of life of workers and can, in a sense, paradoxical as it may seem, help formulate understandings to away from the sale, so that it is a right repeatedly attacked by the ruling class itself, to whom the legal forms in general benefit. The compensation for moral damage and moral harassment, increasingly frequent in labor law, and even compensation for social harm (

  12. Fringe Mind Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutels, J.J.M.


    This paper discusses a number of basic strategies for modeling the mind in historical perspective. The best-known strategies are expansionism and eliminativism, which are both problematic: eliminativism compromises our self-understanding, while expansionism is unable to cope with fringe minds. Using

  13. Numerous possible oriented partial differential equations and investigation of their performance for optical interferometry fringes denoising. (United States)

    Mi, Qinghua; Yan, Si; Tang, Chen


    Filtering methods based on oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs) have been demonstrated as a powerful tool for denoising while preserving all fringes. In this paper, we first briefly review the existing OPDEs and then derive numerous possible OPDE filtering models based on the variational methods. These models include a class of new single OPDE models, a class of new selective OPDE models, a class of new coupled OPDEs, and a class of new double OPDEs. We also investigate the performance of main OPDE models, including the choices of parameters and the influences of fringe orientation and diffusion control function on filtering results via our extensive experiments. Finally, we summarize the performance of these OPDEs.

  14. Inner vane fringes of barn owl feathers reconsidered: morphometric data and functional aspects. (United States)

    Bachmann, Thomas; Wagner, Hermann; Tropea, Cameron


    It is a challenge to understand how barn owls (Tyto alba) reduce noise during flight to be able to hunt small mammals by audition. Several specializations of the wing and the wing feathers have been implicated in noise reduction. What has been overlooked so far are the fringes at the inner vanes of remiges. We demonstrated, by using precise imaging techniques combined with morphometric measurements and air-flow studies, that these fringes merge into neighboring feather vanes by gliding into the grooves at the lower wing surface that are formed by parallel-oriented barb shafts. The connection of adjacent feathers results in a smooth lower wing surface and thus reduces sharp and noisy edges. This finding sheds new light on the mechanisms underlying noise reduction of flying owls. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  15. Diffusive-dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe: Impact of water table fluctuations and heterogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Peter; Haberer, Cristina; Ye, Yu

    and the dispersion coefficients are the same as below the water table. Water table fluctuations cause temporarily increased fluxes of oxygen into groundwater during draining conditions and entrapped air after water table rise. High-permeability inclusions in the capillary fringe enhance mass transfer of oxygen......Diffusive–dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe is important for many groundwater quality issues such as transfer of volatile compounds into (and out of) the groundwater, the supply of oxygen for aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons as well as for precipitation of minerals (e.g. iron...... to the underlying anoxic groundwater by increased dispersion due to flow focusing and by significant air trapping in the coarse material inclusions....

  16. Improved 3D displacement measurements method and calibration of a combined fringe projection and 2D-DIC system (United States)

    Siegmann, Philip; Felipe-Sese, Luis; Diaz-Garrido, Francisco


    An improved measurement method and an automatic calibration procedure are proposed for a combined 2D Digital Image Correlation and Fringe Projection system that allows measuring in- and out-of-plane displacement maps with only one image at each deformation stage of a specimen. The proposed method increases the accuracy and range of the out-of-plane displacements by taking into account the divergences of both the projected fringes (uncollimated) and the camera (with non-zero FOV). The calibration is performed automatically by acquiring a sequence of images of a reference plane by displacing perpendicular to it the camera and fringe projector with a motorized translation stage. The acquired images are then used to obtain a fringe function for each pixel and the necessary parameters required for the correction of the in-plane displacements. Furthermore, a closed form expression is obtained that relates the out-of-plane displacements with the shifted phase at each pixel for a given experimental set-up. This expression is in good agreement with the fringe function obtained by fitting a simple 2nd order polynomial to the experimental obtained calibration data. Finally, the polynomial approach is proposed as a fringe function because it avoids the errors in the determination of the required parameters of the theoretical expression as well as some small misalignment or aberration effects.

  17. Fringe structures and tunable bandgap width of 2D boron nitride nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Feng


    Full Text Available We report studies of the surface fringe structures and tunable bandgap width of atomic-thin boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs. BNNSs are synthesized by using digitally controlled pulse deposition techniques. The nanoscale morphologies of BNNSs are characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In general, the BNNSs appear microscopically flat in the case of low temperature synthesis, whereas at high temperature conditions, it yields various curved structures. Experimental data reveal the evolutions of fringe structures. Functionalization of the BNNSs is completed with hydrogen plasma beam source in order to efficiently control bandgap width. The characterizations are based on Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and FTIR transmittance spectra. Red shifts of spectral lines are clearly visible after the functionalization, indicating the bandgap width of the BNNSs has been changed. However, simple treatments with hydrogen gas do not affect the bandgap width of the BNNSs.

  18. Fast in-situ tool inspection based on inverse fringe projection and compact sensor heads (United States)

    Matthias, Steffen; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard


    Inspection of machine elements is an important task in production processes in order to ensure the quality of produced parts and to gather feedback for the continuous improvement process. A new measuring system is presented, which is capable of performing the inspection of critical tool geometries, such as gearing elements, inside the forming machine. To meet the constraints on sensor head size and inspection time imposed by the limited space inside the machine and the cycle time of the process, the measuring device employs a combination of endoscopy techniques with the fringe projection principle. Compact gradient index lenses enable a compact design of the sensor head, which is connected to a CMOS camera and a flexible micro-mirror based projector via flexible fiber bundles. Using common fringe projection patterns, the system achieves measuring times of less than five seconds. To further reduce the time required for inspection, the generation of inverse fringe projection patterns has been implemented for the system. Inverse fringe projection speeds up the inspection process by employing object-adapted patterns, which enable the detection of geometry deviations in a single image. Two different approaches to generate object adapted patterns are presented. The first approach uses a reference measurement of a manufactured tool master to generate the inverse pattern. The second approach is based on a virtual master geometry in the form of a CAD file and a ray-tracing model of the measuring system. Virtual modeling of the measuring device and inspection setup allows for geometric tolerancing for free-form surfaces by the tool designer in the CAD-file. A new approach is presented, which uses virtual tolerance specifications and additional simulation steps to enable fast checking of metric tolerances. Following the description of the pattern generation process, the image processing steps required for inspection are demonstrated on captures of gearing geometries.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Breaking Characteristics over a Fringing Reef under Monochromatic Wave Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-In Lee


    Full Text Available Fringing reefs play an important role in protecting the coastal area by inducing wave breaking and wave energy dissipation. However, modeling of wave transformation and energy dissipation on this topography is still difficult due to the unique structure. In the present study, two-dimensional laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the cross-shore variations of wave transformation, setup, and breaking phenomena over an idealized fringing reef with the 1/40 reef slope and to verify the Boussinesq model under monochromatic wave conditions. One-layer and two-layer model configurations of the Boussinesq model were used to figure out the model capability. Both models predicted well (r2>0.8 the cross-shore variation of the wave heights, crests, troughs, and setups when the nonlinearity is not too high (A0/h0<0.07 in this study. However, as the wave nonlinearity and steepness increase, the one-layer model showed problems in prediction and stability due to the error on the vertical profile of fluid velocity. The results in this study revealed that one-layer model is not suitable in the highly nonlinear wave condition over a fringing reef bathymetry. This data set can contribute to the numerical model verification.

  20. Fourier analysis of RGB fringe-projection profilometry and robust phase-demodulation methods against crosstalk distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo


    In this paper we apply the frequency transfer function (FTF) formalism to analyze the red, green and blue (RGB) phase-shifting fringe-projection profilometry technique. The phase-shifted fringe patterns in RGB fringe projection are typically corrupted by crosstalk because the sensitivity curves of most projection-recording systems overlap. Crosstalk distortion needs to be compensated in order to obtain high quality measurements. We study phase-demodulation methods for null/mild, moderate, and severe levels of RGB crosstalk. For null/mild crosstalk, we can estimate the searched phase-map using Bruning's 3-step phase-shifting algorithm (PSA). For moderate crosstalk, the RGB recorded data is usually preprocessed before feeding it into Bruning's PSA; alternatively, in this paper we propose a computationally more efficient approach, which combines crosstalk compensation and phase-demodulation into a single process. For severe RGB crosstalk, we expect non-sinusoidal fringes' profiles (distorting harmonics) and sign...

  1. "This Beer Festival Has a Theatre Problem!": The Evolution and Rebranding of the Edmonton International Fringe Theatre Festival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Batchelor, Brian


    The Edmonton International Fringe Theatre Festival was founded in 1981 on the premise that a non-adjudicated, first-come first-served structure combined with bare minimum administrative and financial...

  2. Predicting the Salary Satisfaction of Exempt Employees. (United States)

    Dreher, George F.


    Examined the degree to which salary satisfaction can be predicted using company-maintained information. Studying managerial, professional, and technical employees, results suggest that without inclusion of a variety of employee perceptions, only a small proportion of pay satisfaction could be accounted for, with salary and sex as primary objective…

  3. Modelling the harmonized tertiary Institutions Salary Structure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the Harmonized Tertiary Institution Salary Structure (HATISS IV) used in Nigeria. The irregularities in the structure are highlighted. A model that assumes a polynomial trend for the zero step salary, and exponential trend for the incremental rates, is suggested for the regularization of the structure.

  4. Quantum interference fringes beating the diffraction limit. (United States)

    Kawabe, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Hideki; Okamoto, Ryo; Sasaki, Keiji; Takeuchi, Shigeki


    Spatially formed two-photon interference fringes with fringe periods smaller than the diffraction limit are demonstrated. In the experiment, a fringe formed by two-photon NOON states with wavelength lambda=702.2 nm is observed using a specially developed near-field scanning optical microscope probe and two-photon detection setup. The observed fringe period of 328.2 nm is well below the diffraction limit (351 nm = lambda /2). Another experiment with a path-length difference larger than the coherent length of photons confirms that the observed fringe is due to two-photon interference.

  5. Teachers’ salaries in the totalitarian system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lisnic


    Full Text Available In the article there are presented results of the research of dynamics of teachers' salaries in 1945-1980s, a comparison of the salary with a living wage, as well as a comparison of official data with memories of teachers. There are given data on housing and living conditions of teachers in rural areas, the privileges in buying certain goods for teachers and other members of pedagogical staff in rural schools and loans on subsistence farming and construction of houses. There are examples of the calculation of salaries of teachers by grade in accordance with the provisions of the teachers' salary increase. There are also analyzed teachers' salaries depending on the working time, planning payroll for this category of workers and payments for additional work undertaken by them. The further research in this area will help to more fully understand the real social and financial status of teachers.

  6. Is there a financial incentive to immigrate? Examining of the health worker salary gap between India and popular destination countries. (United States)

    George, Gavin; Rhodes, Bruce


    International migration is one of the factors resulting in the shortage of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in India. Literature suggests that migration is fuelled by the prospect of higher salaries available abroad. The extent of these salary differentials are unknown, and this study seeks to examine the salaries of selected HRH in India and four popular destination countries (United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada and the United Arab Emirates), whilst accounting for the in-country cost of living. This study will therefore determine truer financial incentives for Indian HRH to migrate abroad. A purchasing power parity (PPP) ratio is employed to equalise the international price of buying a representative basket of commonly bought goods (including food, entertainment, fuel and utilities). Using the PPP index, real differences in salaries are directly compared for selected work categories and different levels of work experience in the four respective countries. Nurses in the USA can earn up to 82.7% more than their Indian counterparts. Nurses in Canada and the UAE reveal more modest salary differentials, yet still significant better off by up to 28 and 20% respectively. Only nurses in the UK are potentially materially worse off than nurses working in India. We observe significant potential PPP gains of up to 57.4, 99.1 and 94.4% for medical doctors in the USA, Canada and the UAE respectively. Medical specialists potentially experience the greatest income disparities with anaesthetists potentially earning up to 600% more than their counterparts in India. Radiologists operating in the UK and general surgeons working in the USA can potentially earn more than double that of their counterparts working in India. We observe more modest positive or negligible PPP gains in other selected countries for health specialists. Even when considering the differences in the cost of living, the financial incentive for selected cadres of Indian HRH to seek work abroad remains

  7. 29 CFR 4.175 - Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension benefits. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension... health, welfare, and/or pension benefits. (a) Determining the required amount of benefits. (1) Most fringe benefit determinations containing health and welfare and/or pension requirements specify a fixed...

  8. Phase demodulation for digital fringe projection profilometry: a review (United States)

    Martinez-Laguna, Juana; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.


    Phase demodulation is an essential image processing stage required by digital fringe projection profilometers. Currently, several approaches for phase demodulation have been proposed. In this work, a set of phase demodulation methods useful for digital fringe projection profilometry is presented. This survey covers fringe pattern normalization, extraction of wrapped phase, and phase unwrapping. Experimental results obtained with a laboratory fringe projection system are presented.

  9. Wages and salaries as a motivational tool for enhancing organizational performance. A survey of selected Nigerian workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Eniola SULE


    Full Text Available This study examined how the organisation’s human capital was compensated and see whether the compensation even serves as a motivational tool to enhance organisational performance. Seven research questions and two hypotheses were postulated to find solutions to the problems of the study. One hundred and twenty personnel formed the sample size from six organisations. A self-designed instrument labeled Wages and Salaries as a Motivational Tool Questionnaire 2 (WASAMOTOQ2 containing seven sections was used in the collection of data. The findings of the study revealed those factors that militate against adequate compensation to include labour market conditions, the ability of the organisation to pay adequate compensation and the existing country/nation’s present cost of living; what makes up good and adequate compensation include recognition of individual performance and taking care of individual incentives and it shows the relationship between compensation and motivation. It further established the consequential effect of inadequate compensation and motivation on the organisational development. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were proffered that there should be wages/salaries scale and schedule; such should be based on identified indices in the study; that disparity between two identical workers should not be based purely on ‘paper’ qualification but the ability to ‘deliver’; and that wages/salaries should display equality, no ‘sacred cow’.

  10. [First Insights into Scope of Practice and Salary of Physician Assistants, A New Healthcare Profession, in Germany]. (United States)

    Marschall, Tanja; Hoffmann, Marcus


    Background In 2010, the first government-approved physician assistant (PA) program was introduced at the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Karlsruhe (DHBW). There are not sufficient data regarding the scope of practice and salary of our graduates. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to obtain information regarding these. Methods The survey included all graduates (2 classes, n=27). A specific questionnaire was developed, including 37 questions e. g. on the current employment status, scope of practice, salary and job satisfaction regarding the PA program and career. A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out using SPSS. Results 25 graduates participated in the survey (96.1%); the average age of participants was 32.2 years (25-53 years). 88% (n=22) were employed as a PA, most of them worked in internal medicine (n=11) or surgery (n=9). Responsibilities that are often or very often assigned to the PAs are preparing final documents, taking over a coordinating role in the therapeutic team, as well as participation in taking patient medical history and conducting physical examinations. In two-thirds of respondents, the gross monthly base salary (full-time position) was about 3000 euros. 77.3% (n=17) of graduates were generally satisfied or very satisfied with their current situation. Conclusions It appears that graduates of the DHBW are well integrated into the staff structure of hospitals, as far as the scope of practice and average salary are concerned. Further studies on the integration of this new profession in Germany and on their extended scope of practice in comparison to established healthcare professions will be conducted. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Heavy Metals in Soils and Tomatoes Grown in Urban Fringe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Heavy metals are ubiquitous in the environment, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic activities, and humans are exposed to them through various pathways. (Wilson and Pyatt, 2007). Heavy metals like iron, tin, copper, manganese and vanadium occur naturally in the environment and could serve as plant nutrients.

  12. Lateral ink mobility and fringe field effects across the porous matrix of an electrophoretic display (United States)

    Li Tsui, Kelly; Ahumada, Manuel; Bryning, Mateusz; Hartono, Michelle; Lee, Sang-Joon J.


    This investigation studies fringe field between laterally adjacent electrodes in a reverse-emulsion electrophoretic display (REED). The display consists of a nanodroplet ink and a porous matrix that serves as the "paper" between planar electrodes. One relative advantage of this type of electronic paper display is that it can be produced with lowcost materials and manufacturing processes. A concern for image resolution, however, is the fringe field effect that occurs in the gaps between neighboring electrodes. Ideally the dye-containing nanodroplets in the ink move in a direction that is strictly perpendicular to the opposing pairs of electrodes. However, nanodroplet saturation and potential gradients from neighboring electrodes may result in lateral displacement of the nanodroplets as well. Accordingly, this study examines how fringe field between neighboring electrodes is affected by lateral spacing and applied voltage. Transient and steady-state effects were studied by fabricating and testing devices that were patterned with different lateral spacing between electrodes, and switching under different voltage levels. Relative luminance was extracted from digital microscope images, captured in the vicinity between neighboring electrodes. Measurements were recorded for electrode spacing of 20 μm, 40 μm, 60 μm, and 80 μm with devices switched at ±1.5 V and ±2.5 V. Gradients in luminance overlapped at lateral distances below 60 μm, and became distinct for left and right electrodes spaced by at least 80 μm. Higher applied voltage resulted in steeper transition between light and dark states, but exhibited distortion at electrode edges.

  13. Heavy Metals in Soils and Tomatoes Grown in Urban Fringe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Mn and Fe in soils and tomato leaves and fruits from peri-urban environments in. Asaba, Delta State were determined after acid digestion by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentrations of metals in the soil samples were 10.14, 2.28, 3.96, 7.88, 0.15, 14.53 and 66.00 ...

  14. Wave Action and Sediment Transport on Fringing Reef. (United States)


    investigations of wave refraction and wave energy crest and continue breaking until they reach the on small coral islands of the Campeche Bank (6...Paper 260—B , p. 265—273 . (6) Walsh , D. E . , Reid , R. 0. , and Bader , R. G . , 1962, Wave refraction and wave energy on Cayo Arenas , Campeche ... Bank . Texas A & H Res . Foundation Project 286 (a), p. 1—62. (7) Wilson , W. S., Wilson, D. G., and Michael, J. A., 197 3, Analysis of swell near the

  15. English Salaries: Findings of the 1984-85 ADE Survey. (United States)

    Huber, Bettina J.


    Summarizes the salary data collected as part of ADE's 1984-85 survey of English programs and compares the ADE data with the findings of other salary surveys for 1984-85 to assess the accuracy of the ADE findings. Rough estimates of salaries for English faculty for 1985-86 and 1986-87 are provided. (JC)

  16. The Effect of Sex on Salaries of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors. (United States)

    Beardsley, Mark M.; And Others


    Examined the relationship between sex and annual salary for 650 certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs). Found sex to be a significant predictor of CRC annual salaries when effects of religion, employment setting, education, work/location, and work experience were controlled. Indicated that women earn 84% of the salaries earned by men.…

  17. Fringe Focus: Informal Economy and Green Career Development. (United States)

    Plant, Peter


    Asserts that what are currently regarded as peripheral career development activities will move to the center of career counseling. Argues that counseling in the informal economy and environmentally concerned career counseling will move up the agenda as traditional concepts of careers fade away. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/GCP)

  18. Object detection via eye tracking and fringe restraint (United States)

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Hanming; Zeng, Ying; Tong, Li; Yan, Bin


    Object detection is a computer vision problem which caught a large amount of attention. But the candidate boundingboxes extracted from only image features may end up with false-detection due to the semantic gap between the top-down and the bottom up information. In this paper, we propose a novel method for generating object bounding-boxes proposals using the combination of eye fixation point, saliency detection and edges. The new method obtains a fixation orientated Gaussian map, optimizes the map through single-layer cellular automata, and derives bounding-boxes from the optimized map on three levels. Then we score the boxes by combining all the information above, and choose the box with the highest score to be the final box. We perform an evaluation of our method by comparing with previous state-ofthe art approaches on the challenging POET datasets, the images of which are chosen from PASCAL VOC 2012. Our method outperforms them on small scale objects while comparable to them in general.

  19. Group- and phase-velocity-mismatch fringes in triple sum-frequency spectroscopy (United States)

    Morrow, Darien J.; Kohler, Daniel D.; Wright, John C.


    The effects of group- and phase-velocity mismatch are well known in optical harmonic generation, but the nondegenerate cases remain unexplored. In this work we develop an analytic model which predicts velocity mismatch effects in nondegenerate triple sum-frequency mixing, TSF. We verify this model experimentally using two tunable, ultrafast, short-wave IR lasers to demonstrate spectral fringes in the TSF output from a 500-μ m -thick sapphire plate. We find the spectral dependence of the TSF depends strongly on both the phase-velocity and the group-velocity differences between the input and output fields. We define practical strategies for mitigating the impact of velocity mismatches.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Vorina


    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the impact of gender, degree of education and the amount of salary in the satisfaction with life and political culture on example in Slovenia. The main goal of the research is to determine whether (and how the impact of gender, level of education and the amount of salary on the satisfaction with life and political culture. A written “online” survey (with Google-drive was conducted from 25/4/2013 to 7/5/2013. We observe that there are statistically significant differences among the respondents with different degree of education (p-value = 0.003 and amount of salary (p-value = 0.002 regarding the satisfaction with life. We found out that there isn’t statistically significantly different between satisfaction with life and gender. We also found out that there are statistically significant differences among the gender (p-value = 0.007 and respondents with different amount of salary (p-value = 0.002 regarding the satisfaction with political culture. The respondents with highest amount of salary are more satisfied with life than the respondents with the lowest amount of salary.

  1. Impact of Work Environment, Salary Package and Employees’ Perception on Organizational Commitment: A study of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) of Pakistan


    Jawad Akhtar


    The chief purpose of this research paper is to investigate how factors like (1) work environment; (2) salary Package and (3) Employees’ perception have an effect on the employees’ organizational commitment in the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) of Pakistan.

  2. Fringe-print-through error analysis and correction in snapshot phase-shifting interference microscope. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tian, Xiaobo; Liang, Rongguang


    To reduce the environmental errors, a snapshot phase-shifting interference microscope (SPSIM) has been developed for surface roughness measurement. However, fringe-print-through (FPT) error widely exists in the phase-shifting interferometry (PSI). To ensure the measurement accuracy, we analyze the sources which introduce the FPT error in the SPSIM. We also develop a FPT error correction algorithm which can be used in the different intensity distribution conditions. The simulation and experiment verify the correctness and feasibility of the FPT error correction algorithm.

  3. Predicting likelihood of seeking help through the employee assistance program among salaried and union hourly employees. (United States)

    Delaney, W; Grube, J W; Ames, G M


    This research investigated belief, social support and background predictors of employee likelihood to use an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) for a drinking problem. An anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered in the home. Bivariate analyses and simultaneous equations path analysis were used to explore a model of EAP use. Survey and ethnographic research were conducted in a unionized heavy machinery manufacturing plant in the central states of the United States. A random sample of 852 hourly and salaried employees was selected. In addition to background variables, measures included: likelihood of going to an EAP for a drinking problem, belief the EAP can help, social support for the EAP from co-workers/others, belief that EAP use will harm employment, and supervisor encourages the EAP for potential drinking problems. Belief in EAP efficacy directly increased the likelihood of going to an EAP. Greater perceived social support and supervisor encouragement increased the likelihood of going to an EAP both directly and indirectly through perceived EAP efficacy. Black and union hourly employees were more likely to say they would use an EAP. Males and those who reported drinking during working hours were less likely to say they would use an EAP for a drinking problem. EAP beliefs and social support have significant effects on likelihood to go to an EAP for a drinking problem. EAPs may wish to focus their efforts on creating an environment where there is social support from coworkers and encouragement from supervisors for using EAP services. Union networks and team members have an important role to play in addition to conventional supervisor intervention.

  4. The effects of noise-bandwidth, noise-fringe duration, and temporal signal location on the binaural masking-level difference. (United States)

    Yasin, Ifat; Henning, G Bruce


    The effects of forward and backward noise fringes on binaural signal detectability were investigated. Masked thresholds for a 12-ms, 250-Hz, sinusoidal signal masked by Gaussian noise, centered at 250 Hz, with bandwidths from 3 to 201 Hz, were obtained in N(0)S(0) and N(0)S(π) configurations. The signal was (a) temporally centered in a 12-ms noise burst (no fringe), (b) presented at the start of a 600-ms noise burst (backward fringe), or (c) temporally centered in a 600-ms noise burst (forward-plus-backward fringe). For noise bandwidths between 3 and 75 Hz, detection in N(0)S(0) improved with the addition of a backward fringe, improving further with an additional forward fringe; there was little improvement in N(0)S(π). The binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) increased from 0 to 8 dB with a forward-plus-backward fringe as noise bandwidths increased to 100 Hz, increasing slightly to 10 dB at 201 Hz. This two-stage increase was less pronounced with a backward fringe. With no fringe, the BMLD was about 10-14 dB at all bandwidths. Performance appears to result from the interaction of across-time and across-frequency listening strategies and the possible effects of gain reduction and suppression, which combine in complex ways. Current binaural models are, as yet, unable to account fully for these effects.

  5. Localization of Interference Fringes. (United States)

    Simon, J. M.; Comastri, Silvia A.


    Discusses a proof for determining the localized fringes position arrived at when one considers the interference of two extended sources when one is able to observe fringes only at certain points in space. Shows how the localized fringes may be found in a device used to observe Newton's rings. (Author/CS)

  6. Are seaward pneumatophore fringes transitional between mangrove and lower-shore system compartments? (United States)

    Barnes, R S K


    Work in temperate New Zealand has concluded that seaward fringes of Avicennia pneumatophores (P) form an 'important ecological transitional environment' between seagrass (Z) and mangrove (M), supporting intermediate macrofaunal numbers and biodiversity (Alfaro, 2006). This study re-examined that hypothesis in subtropical Moreton Bay, Queensland, and investigated its dependence on the nature of the lower-shore habitat; i.e. whether seagrass or sandflat (S). Adjacent macrobenthic assemblages across 45 m deep Z:P:M and S:P:M interfaces were compared uni- and multivariately and via various assemblage metrics. Here, system compartment P was not intermediate. In Z:P:M interfaces it was essentially an extension of the lower-shore assemblage and supported peak biodiversity. In contrast, P in S:P:M interfaces was partly an extension of the upper-shore assemblage with unchanged biodiversity but minimum abundance. Several species spanned the whole interface zone, and assemblage structure and several metrics remained unchanged across it. These findings are discussed in relation to ecotones in general. Like other such zones the characteristics of pneumatophore-fringe ecotones are context dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary assessment of bioengineered fringing shoreline reefs in Grand Isle and Breton Sound, Louisiana (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea


    Restoration of three-dimensional shell habitats in coastal Louisiana presents a valuable and potentially self-sustaining approach to providing shoreline protection and critical nekton habitat and may contribute to water quality maintenance. The use of what has been called “living shorelines” is particularly promising because in addition to the hypothesized shoreline protection services, it is predicted that, if built and located in viable sites, these living shorelines may ultimately contribute to water quality maintenance through filtration of bivalves and may enhance nekton habitat. This approach, however, has not been tested extensively in different shallow water estuarine settings; understanding under what conditions a living shoreline must have to support a sustainable oyster population, and where these reefs may provide valuable shoreline protection, is key to ensuring that this approach provides an effective tool for coastal restoration. This project gathered preliminary data on the sustainability and shoreline stabilization of three large bioengineered fringing reefs located in Grand Isle, Lake Eloi, and Lake Fortuna, Louisiana. We collected preconstruction and postconstruction physiochemical and biological data by using a before-after-control-impact approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these living shoreline structures on reducing marsh erosion, enabling reef sustainability, and providing other ecosystem benefits. Although this project was originally designed to compare reef performance and impacts across three different locations over 2 years, delays in construction because of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in reefs being built from 12 to 18 months later than anticipated. As a result, monitoring postconstruction was severely limited. One reef, Grand Isle, was completed in March 2011 and monitored up to 18 months postcreation, whereas Lake Eloi and Lake Fortuna reefs were not completed until January 2012, and only 8 months of

  8. The Role of Villages and Townships in Informal Land Development in China: An Investigation on the City Fringe of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Zhao


    Full Text Available The past decades have witnessed a number of informal land developments on the urban fringe in China although many strict state regulations have been made to control this. The dual urban rural land system is widely believed to be one major determinant of informal developments in the existing literature. However, the important role of local villages and townships are often neglected. This paper aims to shed light on this by looking at the gated informal housing communities in Beijing as a case study. It investigates the role of villages and townships in informal land development and the conflicts of interest that arise with state regulations in the context of political decentralization. The results of analysis show that township governments have an ambivalent attitude or even give tacit approval to informal land development in villages since these informal developments actually bring economic benefits to local villagers and themselves. The situation seems to be worse as townships have poor fiscal capacity and a growing administrative responsibility for improvement of local development in the context of decentralization. Villages are keen to capture economic benefits from informal land development with help from private developers. As a result, a local, informal coalition between townships, villages, and private developers emerged at the grass roots level. This presents a major challenge to the state regulations designed for sustainable urban growth management.

  9. Faculty Salary as a Predictor of Student Outgoing Salaries from MBA Programs (United States)

    Hamlen, Karla R.; Hamlen, William A.


    The authors' purpose was to investigate the predictive value of faculty salaries on outgoing salaries of master of business administration (MBA) students when controlling for other student and program variables. Data were collected on 976 MBA programs using Barron's "Guide to Graduate Business Schools" over the years 1988-2005 and the…

  10. Quality of life, work ability, and self employment: a population survey of entrepreneurs, farmers, and salary earners. (United States)

    Saarni, S I; Saarni, E S; Saarni, H


    Self employment is increasing but it is not yet known how its different forms affect health, quality of life, and work ability. We compared the work ability, subjective quality of life (QoL), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of entrepreneurs both with and without personnel, farmers, and salaried workers. We investigated which domains of HRQoL are associated with work status. A nationally representative general population sample comprising 5834 Finns aged between 30 and 64. Work ability was measured using the work ability index (WAI), HRQoL using 15D and EQ-5D, and QoL with self reported global quality of life. Entrepreneurs with personnel had better work ability than salary earners, but there were no differences in QoL or HRQoL between the entrepreneurs and salary earners. Farmers scored lowest on all measures; this finding remained even after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and chronic conditions. The low WAI score of farmers was mainly explained by poor subjective work ability, while their low 15D score was mainly the result of poor functioning in the psychosocial domains of HRQoL. The low EQ-5D score of farmers was explained by problems with mobility, usual activities, and with pain or discomfort. Farmers have poorer work ability, QoL, and HRQoL than other working groups, but this does not appear to be caused by physical health problems. From a research point of view, farmers should be categorised separately from other forms of entrepreneurship. From a public health point of view, improving farmers' wellbeing may require psychosocial interventions exceeding traditional health promotion.

  11. Gender-Based Salary Inequity in Social Work: Mediators of Gender's Effect on Salary (United States)

    Koeske, Gary F.; Krowinski, William J.


    This study examined the direct effect of gender, controlling for years of experience, job role, and other variables, in a sample of 359 Pennsylvania social workers. Men social workers received significantly more yearly salary (an estimated $3,665 more) than women social workers. A path analysis suggested that the salary advantage for men that was…

  12. Gender-based salary inequity in social work: mediators of gender's effect on salary. (United States)

    Koeske, Gary F; Krowinski, William J


    This study examined the direct effect of gender, controlling for years of experience, job role, and other variables, in a sample of 359 Pennsylvania social workers. Men social workers received significantly more yearly salary (an estimated 3,665 dollars more) than women social workers. A path analysis suggested that the salary advantage for men that was attributable to their acquiring more experience and management positions was slightly larger than the direct effect of gender. The ability of merit variables to explain salary was somewhat greater for men than women. Other variables that mediated the effect of gender on salary were MSW specialization, working in a social work or a related area, and practice area (children and youths, health, mental health, or other area). The results suggest that substantial gender disparity continues to exist in social worker salaries.

  13. Association between recent internal travel and malaria in Ugandan highland and highland fringe areas. (United States)

    Lynch, Caroline A; Bruce, Jane; Bhasin, Amit; Roper, Cally; Cox, Jonathan; Abeku, Tarekegn A


    To examine the association between travel (recency of travel, transmission intensity at destination compared to origin and duration of travel) and confirmed malaria in Uganda. Health facility-based case-control study in highland (~2200 m), and highland fringe (~1500 m) areas with adjustment for other covariates. In the highland site, patients who had travelled to areas of higher transmission intensity than their home (origin) areas recently were nearly seven times more likely to have confirmed malaria than those who had not (OR 6.9; P = 0.01, 95% CI: 1.4-33.1). In the highland fringe site, there was also a statistically significant association between travel and malaria (OR 2.1; P = 0.04, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9). For highland areas, or areas of low malaria transmission, health authorities need to consider internal migrants when designing malaria control programs. Control interventions should include information campaigns reminding residents in these areas of the risk of malaria infection through travel and to provide additional mosquito nets for migrants to use during travel. Health authorities may wish to improve diagnosis in health facilities in highland areas by adding travel history to malaria case definitions. Where routine monitoring data are used to evaluate the impact of interventions on the malaria burden in highland areas, health authorities and donors need ensure that only cases from the local area and not 'imported cases' are counted. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Geoscience salaries up by 10.8% (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    According to a recent salary survey of over 4000 scientists in all fields by Research and Development (March 1984) geoscientists ranked fourth place for 1984. Mathematics, aeronautical engineering, and metallurgy had higher median salaries, but the discipline of geoscience had a higher median salary than that of physics, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, ceramics, chemistry, industrial engineering, biology, and other fields of research and development. The 1984 median salary for geoscientists was $40,950, up from the median value by 10.8%. In 1983, geoscience was ranked in ninth place.The geoscientist profile for 1984 was not unusual. The median age was 47.5 years, and the median years of experience was 18. Geoscientists are the best educated. Eighty-two percent of the geoscientists polled had advanced degrees beyond the bachelor's degree. Fifty-six percent of the geoscientists had the Ph.D. degree.

  15. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee in November 2009 and decisions taken by the Council in December 2009, certain financial benefits have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2010. An increase of 1.6% has been applied to the scale of basic salaries and to stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). The adjusted amounts are available from the HR Department intranet site or from departmental secretariats. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, no adjustments have been made to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). The following social benefits also remain unchanged: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Tel. 70674 (Classification and Remuneration Service)

  16. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries. (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.


    Discusses the challenges involved in conducting a salary-equity study for nonfaculty academic employees and shows how such an analysis was conducted at one institution. Describes how the institution reacted to the study. (EV)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhošev


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the salary as the most important legal institute, element and principle of the labour relations. Before we approach the analysis of the legal regime of the salary, we will define the term labour relations. This paper puts special emphasis on the terminology of the notion salary, as well as the legal nature of the legal regime of the salary. Additionally, in this paper the most important international legal instruments of ILO, UN and The European Council are analyzed for salary regulation and ban on compensation discrimination. In this context, the most important legal acts in the Republic of Macedonia are analyzed which regulate the legal institute salary, i.e. the minimum wage (The Constitution, Labour Law, and Law on Minimum Wage.

  18. Quantum interference fringes beating the diffraction limit


    Kawabe, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Hideki; Okamoto, Ryo; Sasaki, Keiji; Takeuchi, Shigeki


    Spatially formed two-photon interference fringes with fringe periods smaller than the diffraction limit are demonstrated. In the experiment, a fringe formed by two-photon NOON states with wavelength λ=702.2 nm is observed using a specially developed near-field scanning optical microscope probe and two-photon detection setup. The observed fringe period of 328.2 nm is well below the diffraction limit (351 nm = λ/2). Another experiment with a path-length difference larger than the coherent lengt...

  19. A Coordinated Approach to Food Safety and Land Use Law at the Urban Fringe. (United States)

    Miller, Stephen R


    Much has been written about the rise of the local food movement in urban and suburban areas. This essay tackles an emerging outgrowth of that movement: the growing desire of urban and suburban dwellers to engage rural areas where food is produced not only to obtain food but also as a means of tourism and cultural activity. This represents a potentially much-needed means of economic development for rural areas and small farmers who are increasingly dependent on non-farm income for survival. The problem, however, is that food safety and land use laws struggle to keep up with these changes, waffling between over-regulation and de-regulation. This essay posits a legal path forward to steer clear of regulatory extremes and to help the local food movement grow and prosper at the urban fringe. We must cultivate our garden.

  20. Seasonal and life-phase related differences in growth in Scarus ferrugineus on a southern Red Sea fringing reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afeworki, Y.; Videler, J. J.; Berhane, Y. H.; Bruggemann, J. H.

    Temporal trends in growth of the rusty parrotfish Scarus ferrugineus were studied on a southern Red Sea fringing reef that experiences seasonal changes in environmental conditions and benthic algal resources. Length increment data from tagging and recapture were compared among periods and sexes and

  1. Characteristics of Speed Line Cutter and Fringe Analysis of Workpiece Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang


    Full Text Available Easy to operate, speed line cutter has a high machining cost performance, so is very popular among the majority of users. The precision of guide rails, screws and nuts used in most of the machines is not high, and the machine control cannot compensate for the screw pitch error, clearance during the transmission and machining error due to electrode wear. Furthermore, control signal may also be lost in control process. The development of speed line cutter focuses on the quality and machining stability of CNC speed line cutter. This article makes an analysis about the impact of machine’s inherent characteristics on machining workpiece surface, and concludes that analysis shall be made on the irregular fringe, therefore to heighten the machining precision.

  2. 3D shape measurement of shoeprint impression with structured illumination and fringe pattern analysis (United States)

    Su, Xianyu; Cao, Yiping; Xiang, Liqun; Chen, Wenjing


    The shoeprint impressions of suspect left at the crime scene can sometimes tell investigators what type of shoes to be looked for. These shoeprint impressions as one of the important evidence are useful in the detection of criminals. In this paper we propose a novel technique for identifying and analyzing the 3D characteristics of shoeprint impressions. We also design 3D shoeprint impression analysis system based on the combination the 3D shape measurement with structured illumination and fringe pattern analysis. We give a detail discussion on the principle and configuration of the system. Laboratory experiments show the technique is efficient in the detection of shoeprint and in the offering the reference for judicial evidence.

  3. Spatial and temporal optimization in habitat placement for a threatened plant: the case of the western prairie fringed orchid (United States)

    John Hof; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Michael Bevers


    This paper investigates an optimization approach to determining the placement and timing of habitat protection for the western prairie fringed orchid. This plant’s population dynamics are complex, creating a challenging optimization problem. The sensitivity of the orchid to random climate conditions is handled probabilistically. The plant’s seed, protocorm and above-...

  4. Retrograde Accretion of a Caribbean Fringing Reef Controlled by Hurricanes and Sea-level Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Blanchon


    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of sea-level (SL rise on coral reefs requires reliable models of reef accretion. Most assume that accretion results from vertical growth of coralgal framework, but recent studies show that reefs exposed to hurricanes consist of layers of coral gravel rather than in-place corals. New models are therefore needed to account for hurricane impact on reef accretion over geological timescales. To investigate this geological impact, we report the configuration and development of a 4-km-long fringing reef at Punta Maroma along the northeast Yucatan Peninsula. Satellite-derived bathymetry (SDB shows the crest is set-back a uniform distance of 315 ±15 m from a mid-shelf slope break, and the reef-front decreases 50% in width and depth along its length. A 12-core drill transect constrained by multiple 230Th ages shows the reef is composed of an ~2-m thick layer of coral clasts that has retrograded 100 m over its back-reef during the last 5.5 ka. These findings are consistent with a hurricane-control model of reef development where large waves trip and break over the mid-shelf slope break, triggering rapid energy dissipation and thus limiting how far upslope individual waves can fragment corals and transport clasts. As SL rises and water depth increases, energy dissipation during wave-breaking is reduced, extending the clast-transport limit, thus leading to reef retrogradation. This hurricane model may be applicable to a large sub-set of fringing reefs in the tropical Western-Atlantic necessitating a reappraisal of their accretion rates and response to future SL rise.

  5. Direct support workforce supporting individuals with IDD: current wages, benefits, and stability. (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Matthew D; Hewitt, Amy; Nord, Derek; Hepperlen, Renee


    Abstract Direct support professionals (DSPs) and frontline supervisors (FLSs) play an integral role in the lives of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and are often the individuals directly responsible for assisting people with IDD to live and fully participate in their communities. These two groups of workers have typically been employed at lower wages with limited access to fringe benefits, contributing to high rates of turnover compared to a similarly skilled worker in the United States. This article summarizes findings and is the first investigation in several years to systematically examine the wages, fringe benefits, and stability of the DSP and FLS workforces supporting individuals with IDD. Findings suggest that a typical DSP may expect to earn about $11.25 per hour, while FLSs may expect wages of about $15.45 hourly. Of concern, however, is that fringe benefit provision was quite limited in this sample. Implications, including relation to past reports of DSP workforce development, are discussed.

  6. Anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint recognition system using single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi


    Fingerprint is a unique, un-alterable and easily collected biometric of a human being. Although it is a 3D biological characteristic, traditional methods are designed to provide only a 2D image. This touch based mapping of 3D shape to 2D image losses information and leads to nonlinear distortions. Moreover, as only topographic details are captured, conventional systems are potentially vulnerable to spoofing materials (e.g. artificial fingers, dead fingers, false prints, etc.). In this work, we demonstrate an anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint detection system using a combination of single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis. For fingerprint detection using fringe projection, light from a low power LED source illuminates a finger through a sinusoidal grating. The fringe pattern modulated because of features on the fingertip is captured using a CCD camera. Fourier transform method based frequency filtering is used for the reconstruction of 3D fingerprint from the captured fringe pattern. In the next step, for spoof detection using biospeckle analysis a visuo-numeric algorithm based on modified structural function and non-normalized histogram is proposed. High activity biospeckle patterns are generated because of interaction of collimated laser light with internal fluid flow of the real finger sample. This activity reduces abruptly in case of layered fake prints, and is almost absent in dead or fake fingers. Furthermore, the proposed setup is fast, low-cost, involves non-mechanical scanning and is highly stable.

  7. The Combination of Speckle Correlation and Fringe Projection for the Measurement of Dynamic 3-D Deformations of Airbag Caps (United States)

    Weber, Herbert; Lichtenberger, Ralf; Wolf, Thomas

    Highly dynamic 3-D deformations of airbag caps in the time interval from the ignition of the airbag to the fracture of the covers have been studied optically. The large out-of-plane displacement compared to the in-plane displacements afforded that the measurement problem was solved by combining white light speckle correlation with fringe projection. In order to record the speckle patterns and the fringe patterns simultaneously by two high speed CCD cameras they had to be separated spectrally. The in-plane displacements yield from the speckle patterns by pattern recognition methods. The out-of-plane displacements can be calculated from the contour of the caps. They yield from the phase maps which are calculated from the fringe patterns. For each time instant only one image is available so that phase shifting procedures to evaluate the fringe patterns could not be applied. In this paper we present a method which is based on the simulation of a phase locked loop (PLL). This results in continuous phase maps without phase unwrapping.

  8. Family planning providers losing ground on salary front. 1998 salary survey results. (United States)


    Findings from Contraceptive Technology Update's 1998 salary survey show that while physicians, administrators, and nurse midwives have realized gains in median income since 1997, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, physician assistants, and health educators have lost ground. 159 readers responded to the survey. 1998 median salaries for physicians, nurse midwives, and administrators were $100,000, $60,000, and $45,000, respectively. Nurse practitioners who held no other administrative titles reported a pay drop from the 1997 median of $42,500 to $41,111 in 1998, while the median pay for registered nurses fell from $32,500 in 1997 to $30,000 in 1998, physician assistants' median salary declined from $40,000 to $35,000, and health educators' median salary declined from $42,000 to $18,748. This is the second year of reduced salaries for nurse practitioners. 98% of survey participants were female; almost two-thirds of the responses were received from the Midwest and the South, two areas of traditionally lower salaries; almost all worked in a city or county health department; and more than 66% of responses came from respondents who worked in medium-size or rural communities. Nurses with master's degrees reported higher median salaries, and job placements for master's degree nursing graduates were among the highest for any degree level at graduation.

  9. Salary Surveys: How? Why? Who? When? Where? How to Conduct One in Your Community. (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; Pettygrove, Willa

    This pamphlet was written to assist child care employees in conducting a survey of the salaries, benefits, and working conditions of individuals and/or day care centers. The following topics are discussed: reasons for making a survey; limits of surveys; personnel, time, and money involved; sample selection and informaton collection strategies;…

  10. Adjustments to financial benefits and contributions with effect from 1 January 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2010, certain financial benefits and contributions impacting salaries and stipends have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2011. 1) Annual adjustments An increase of 0.35% to the scale of basic salaries paid to Staff Members and the scale of stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Regulations). No adjustments to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Regulations). No modifications to the following social benefits: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Regulations) Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Regulations). 2) Five-yearly review 2010, financial elements: Adjustment of basic salaries: An increase of 1% for Career Path D. An increase of 2% for Career Paths E to G. Technical adjustment of th...

  11. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults (United States)

    Intellect, 1977


    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  12. The impact of moderate-to-severe Crohn's Disease on employees' salary growth. (United States)

    Loftus, Edward V; Skup, Martha; Ozbay, Ahmet Burak; Wu, Eric; Guérin, Annie; Chao, Jingdong; Mulani, Parvez


    Moderate-to-severe Crohn's Disease (CD) has been shown to reduce daily activities; however, little is known of the impact on employees' salary growth. Employment and health care benefit data were extracted from the OptumHealth Reporting and Insights database, aggregating data from 23 self-insured U.S. companies with approximately 2.5 million covered beneficiaries. Employees diagnosed with moderate-to-severe CD (i.e., ≥1 prescription fill for systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, methotrexate or cyclosporine, or biologic agents within 6 months after the first observed CD diagnosis) between January 1999 and December 2006 were retrospectively matched with controls without CD based on year of birth, sex, industry, and geographic region. Employees' salaries and salary growth rates were estimated and compared between cohorts. Both descriptive comparison and multivariate regression analyses controlling for baseline characteristics and differences in comorbidities were performed. A total of 918 employees with moderate-to-severe CD were matched to 2154 CD-free controls. The 2 cohorts did not differ in their annual salary in the first year of observation. However, regression analyses revealed that the 2 groups had significantly different adjusted annualized salary growth rates (0.69% versus 1.01%, P salary increase rate than controls. A total income loss of $3195 per person was estimated for employees with CD compared with their CD-free peers over a cumulative 5 years after the first calendar year. In the United States, employees with moderate-to-severe CD had a substantially lower salary growth rate than their peers without CD, suggesting an impaired career progression.

  13. Qualitative risk assessment of routes of transmission of the exotic fish parasite Gyrodactylus salaris between river catchments in England and Wales. (United States)

    Peeler, E J; Gardiner, R; Thrush, M A


    Gyrodactylus salaris is a freshwater, monogenean ecto-parasite of Atlantic-salmon. Infection of its natural host, the Baltic strain of Atlantic-salmon, is inapparent. G. salaris also can infect rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) permanently, and cause infection of exotic fish-disease threat to the UK. We used risk analysis to assess the most-important routes of spread for G. salaris between rivers in England and Wales. The movement of live rainbow-trout was identified as the most-important route of transmission; this route is likely to lead rapidly to the wide geographic spread of the parasite. The movement of other species of fish (especially from sites holding rainbow-trout) is also an important risk. Other routes of spread (including mechanical transmission on farm equipment and vehicles, angling equipment, canoes, etc.) might allow limited local spread (mainly to neighbouring rivers).

  14. The Safety Pharmacology Society salary survey. (United States)

    Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Brabham, Tiffini; Soloviev, Maxim; Markgraf, Carrie G; Correll, Krystle; Traebert, Martin; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Hugo; Botchway, Alfred; Leishman, Derek J; Curtis, Michael J


    Safety pharmacology is a growing discipline with scientists broadly distributed across international geographical regions. This electronic salary survey is the first to be distributed amongst the entire Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) membership. An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Society. Categorical survey questions assessed membership employment types, annual incomes, and professional certifications, along with other associated career attributes. This survey was distributed to the SPS membership that is comprised of safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and pharmacologists working globally in the pharmaceutical industry, at contract research organizations (CRO), regulatory agencies, and academia or within the technology provider industry. The survey was open for responses from December 2015 to March 2016. The survey response rate was 28% (129/453). North America (68%) was the region with the largest number of respondents followed by Europe (28%). A preponderance of respondents (77%) had 12years of industry experience or more. 52% of responders earned annually between $40,000 and $120,000. As expected, salary was generally positively correlated with the number of years of experience in the industry or the educational background but there was no correlation between salary and the number of employee's directly supervised. The median salary was higher for male vs female respondents, but so was median age, indicative of no gender 'salary gap'. Our 2016 SPS salary survey results showcased significant diversity regarding factors that can influence salary compensation within this discipline. These data provided insights into the complex global job market trends. They also revealed the level of scientific specialization embedded within the organization, presently uniquely positioned to support the dynamic career paths of current and future safety pharmacologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: risk assessment and proposed management strategy. (United States)

    Hannak, Judith S; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen


    Shallow reefs (reef flats tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors' socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers--the target group for further education and skill training--were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive 'ecotourism zone' while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Annual adjustments to 2013 financial benefits

    CERN Document Server


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2012, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2013. HR Department

  17. Annual adjustments to 2014 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2013, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2014. HR Department

  18. Annual adjustments to 2015 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2014, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2015.

  19. Annual adjustments to 2016 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by the Council in December 2015, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2016.  

  20. Ninth Triennial Toxicology Salary Survey. (United States)

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne


    This survey serves as the ninth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5919 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 1293 responses were received (response rate 21.8%). The results of the 2014 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Eighth triennial toxicology salary survey. (United States)

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne


    This survey serves as the eighth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5800 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 2057 responses were received (response rate 35.5%). The results of the 2012 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists.

  2. Multiplication method for sparse interferometric fringes. (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Zhang, Xingyi; Zhou, Youhe


    Fringe analysis in the interferometry has been of long-standing interest to the academic community. However, the process of sparse fringe is always a headache in the measurement, especially when the specimen is very small. Through theoretical derivation and experimental measurements, our work demonstrates a new method for fringe multiplication. Theoretically, arbitrary integral-multiple fringe multiplication can be acquired by using the interferogram phase as the parameter. We simulate digital images accordingly and find that not only the skeleton lines of the multiplied fringe are very convenient to extract, but also the main frequency of which can be easily separated from the DC component. Meanwhile, the experimental results have a good agreement with the theoretic ones in a validation using the classical photoelasticity.

  3. Nutrient variations and isotopic evidences of particulate organic matter provenance in fringing reefs, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Di; Cao, Wenzhi, E-mail:; Liang, Ying; Huang, Zheng


    Nutrient over-enrichment is considered to be one of the causes of coral decline. Increase in traditional fishing in the Xuwen National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (XW) and tourism around the Sanya National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (SY) are causing this coral decline. This study reviews the current state of knowledge of the nutrient status of coastal fringing reefs in South China and evaluates the primary sources of nutrients using stable isotope method. Surveys of seawater nutrients showed that the seawater remained clean in both the XW and SY coastal coral reef areas. Based on the isotopic differences between anthropogenic sewage and naturally occurring aquatic nutrients, the isotopic values of particulate organic matter (POM) and the C/N ratios were successfully used to identify the presence of anthropogenic nutrients in aquatic environments. The δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and C/N compositions of POM from XW and SY (− 21.18 ± 2.11‰, 10.30 ± 5.54‰, and 5.35 ± 0.69 and − 20.80 ± 1.34‰, 7.06 ± 3.95‰, and 5.77 ± 2.15, respectively) showed statistically significant variations with the season. The δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of POM suggest marine and terrestrial-derived nutrient sources. Organic carbon is a mixture of marine phytoplankton, marine benthic algae and terrestrial-derived plants. The δ{sup 15}N values suggest terrestrial-derived sewage and upwelling-dominated nitrogen sources. In the presence of natural upwelling and coastal currents, coastal coral reef areas are more vulnerable to the increasing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Anthropogenic activities might lead to large increases in the nutrient concentrations and could trigger the shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominated ecosystems, which would ultimately result in the degradation of the coastal coral reef ecosystem. These results provide some understanding of the declining coral reef ecosystem and the importance of conservation areas and coastal coral reef resource management

  4. Veterans Benefits: Burial Benefits and National Cemeteries (United States)


    hospital, nursing home, or domiciliary care facility; and (2) a plot allowance for a veteran eligible for burial in a national cemetery who is not... domiciliary care . The VA was permitted to enter into contracts to provide the burial and funeral services for veterans who died in VA facilities...Veterans Affairs (VA) provides a range of benefits and services to veterans who meet certain eligibility rules; benefits include hospital and medical care

  5. Path Analysis of Work Family Conflict, Job Salary and Promotion Satisfaction, Work Engagement to Subjective Well-Being of the Primary and Middle School Principals (United States)

    Hu, Chun-mei; Cui, Shu-jing; Wang, Lei


    Objective: To investigate the path analysis of work family conflict, job salary and promotion satisfaction, work engagement to subjective well-being of the primary and middle school principals, and provide advice for enhancing their well-being. Methods: Using convenient sampling, totally 300 primary and middle school principals completed the WFC,…

  6. Gender differences in nurse practitioner salaries. (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; El-Banna, Majeda M; Briggs, Linda A; Park, Jeongyoung


    While male nurses have been shown to earn considerably more than female nurses, there is less evidence on gender disparities in salary among nurse practitioners (NPs). This study examines whether the gender gap in NP salaries persists after controlling for differences in work setting and demographic factors. We analyzed the relationship between gender and salary (2011 pretax earnings) among 6591 NPs working as NPs at least 35 h per week, using the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners. We first conducted bivariate regression analyses examining the relationship between gender and earnings, and then developed a multivariate model that controlled for individual differences in demographic and work characteristics. Male NPs earned $12,859 more than female NPs, after adjusting for individual differences in demographics and work characteristics. The gender gap was $7405 for recent NP graduates, and grew over time. Male NPs earned significantly more than female NPs across all clinical specialty areas. The gender disparities in NP salaries documented here regardless of professional seniority or clinical area should spark healthcare organizations to conduct pay equity assessments of their employees' salaries to identify and ameliorate pay inequality. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. Contaminant profiles for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna associated with the mangrove fringe along middle and lower East Tampa Bay (United States)

    Contaminant concentrations are reported for surface water, sediment, seagrass, mangroves, Florida Crown conch, blue crabs and fish collected during 2010-2011 from the mangrove fringe along eastern Tampa Bay. Concentrations of trace metals, chlorinated pesticides, atrazine, total ...

  8. The role of gender in MPH graduates' salaries. (United States)

    Bradley, E H; White, W; Anderson, E; Mattocks, K; Pistell, A


    Several studies have demonstrated that workforce roles and salaries differ substantially between men and women in administrative positions within the health care industry. Recent studies of graduates with masters of business administration (MBA) and masters of health administration (MHA) degrees have indicated that women tend to experience lower salaries, given like responsibilities. However, the impact of gender on salary has been less studied among masters of public health (MPH) graduates in the health care field. Our objective was to assess the impact of gender on salary among MPH degree graduates. Using a cross-sectional survey of all graduates from the MPH program at Yale University between 1991-1997 (n = 201, response rate = 51%), we ascertained graduates' reported salary in the first job post-graduation and reported salary in their current position. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the unadjusted and adjusted associations between gender and salary. Salaries in both the first job post-graduation and in the current job differed significantly by gender, with women earning less than men (p-values gender-related salary gap widened as the years since graduation increased, although the sample size did not allow comprehensive testing of this trend.

  9. Glass fiber reinforced plastics within the fringe and flexure tracker of LINC-NIRVANA (United States)

    Smajic, Semir; Eckart, A.; Horrobin, M.; Lindhorst, B.; Pott, J.-U.; Rauch, C.; Rost, S.; Straubmeier, C.; Tremou, E.; Wank, I.; Zuther, J.


    The Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS) is meant to monitor and correct atmospheric piston varia­ tion and instrumental vibrations and flexure during near-infrared interferometric image acquisition of LING­ NIRVANA. In close work with the adaptive optics system the FFTS enables homothetic imaging for the Large Binocular Telescope. One of the main problems we had to face is the connection between the cryogenic upper part of the instrument, e.g. detector head, and the lower ambient temperature part. In this ambient temperature part the moving stages are situated that move the detector head in the given field of view (FOV). We show how we solved this problem using the versatile material glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP's) and report in what way this material can be worked. We discuss in detail the exquisite characteristics of this material which we use to combine the cryogenic and ambient environments to a fully working system. The main characteristics that we focus on are the low temperature conduction and the tensile strength of the GFRP's. The low temperature conduction is needed to allow for a low heat-exchange between the cryogenic and ambient part whereas the tensile strength is needed to support heavy structures like the baffle motor and to allow for a minimum of flexure for the detector head. Additionally, we discuss the way we attached the GFRP to the remaining parts of the FFTS using a two component encapsulant.

  10. The lizard fauna of Guam's fringing islets: Island biogeography, phylogenetic history, and conservation implications (United States)

    Perry, G.; Rodda, G.H.; Fritts, T.H.; Sharp, T.R.


    We sampled the lizard fauna of twenty-two small islets fringing the Pacific island of Guam and used these data to shed light on the processes responsible for present-day diversity. Habitat diversity, measured by islet area and vegetation complexity, was significantly correlated with the number of species found on an islet. However, islet distance and elevation were not significant predictors of diversity. Distribution patterns were slightly different for the two major families in our sample, Scincidae and Gekkonidae: skinks needed larger islets to maintain a population than did geckos. Presence/absence patterns were highly and significantly nested, and population density was correlated with the number of islets on which a species was found. An area cladogram was poorly supported and showed no faunal similarity between nearby islands. These patterns indicate that extinctions on most islets were due mostly to non-catastrophic, long-acting biological causes. The presence on the islets of species extirpated on Guam and the lack of significant nestedness on islands with greater maximum elevation highlight the impact that predators (primarily brown treesnakes) can have. Our findings also show that small reserves will not suffice to protect endangered lizard faunas, and that the islets may serve as a short-term repository of such species until snake-free areas can be established on Guam.

  11. Polarization modeling and predictions for DKIST part 2: application of the Berreman calculus to spectral polarization fringes of beamsplitters and crystal retarders (United States)

    Harrington, David M.; Snik, Frans; Keller, Christoph U.; Sueoka, Stacey R.; van Harten, Gerard


    We outline polarization fringe predictions derived from an application of the Berreman calculus for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) retarder optics. The DKIST retarder baseline design used six crystals, single-layer antireflection coatings, thick cover windows, and oil between all optical interfaces. This tool estimates polarization fringes and optic Mueller matrices as functions of all optical design choices. The amplitude and period of polarized fringes under design changes, manufacturing errors, tolerances, and several physical factors can now be estimated. This tool compares well with observations of fringes for data collected with the spectropolarimeter for infrared and optical regions at the Dunn Solar Telescope using bicrystalline achromatic retarders as well as laboratory tests. With this tool, we show impacts of design decisions on polarization fringes as impacted by antireflection coatings, oil refractive indices, cover window presence, and part thicknesses. This tool helped DKIST decide to remove retarder cover windows and also recommends reconsideration of coating strategies for DKIST. We anticipate this tool to be essential in designing future retarders for mitigation of polarization and intensity fringe errors in other high spectral resolution astronomical systems.

  12. Manipulation of incoherent and coherent spin ensembles in diluted magnetic semiconductors via ferromagnetic fringe fields; Manipulation inkohaerenter und kohaerenter Spinensembles in verduennt-magnetischen Halbleitern mittels ferromagnetischer Streufelder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halm, Simon


    In this thesis it is demonstrated that fringe fields of nanostructured ferromagnets provide the opportunity to manipulate both incoherent and coherent spin ensembles in a dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS). Fringe fields of Fe/Tb ferromagnets with a remanent out-of-plane magnetization induce a local magnetization in a (Zn,Cd,Mn)Se DMS. Due to the sp-d exchange interaction, optically generated electron-hole pairs align their spin along the DMS magnetization. One obtains a local, remanent spin polarization which was probed by spatially resolved, polarization sensitive photoluminescence spectroscopy. Fringe fields from in-plane magnetized Co ferromagnets allow to locally modify the precession frequency of the Manganese magnetic moments of the DMS in an external magnetic field. This was probed by time-resolved Kerr rotation technique. The inhomogeneity of the fringe field leads to a shortening of the ensemble decoherence time and to the effect of a time-dependent ensemble precession frequency. (orig.)

  13. Population redistribution within the rural-urban fringe: a typology of small towns and rural municipalities in the state of New Jersey. (United States)

    Airola, T M; Parker, R A


    Population redistribution within the rural-urban fringe of the United States is examined using the state of New Jersey over the period 1970-1980 as an example. "This article provides additional evidence for the redistribution of population to the rural-urban fringe and identifies those types of municipalities that experienced the greatest growth during the 1970s. Furthermore, it finds that the factors that account for population growth at the rural-urban fringe are not only those associated with suburbanization, but also those associated with nonmetropolitan growth. It also demonstrates that population growth at the rural-urban fringe varies not only by municipal type but also by race." excerpt

  14. [Higher salary as an incentive for scientific activity?]. (United States)

    Gulsvik, Amund; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw


    Few publications are available on how salaries are established for physicians with science as their main occupation. The results of a questionnaire survey to medical doctors are reported. A questionnaire was sent to members of The Norwegian Medical Association's branch for doctors in academic medicine in spring 2005. Questions concerned how they thought scientific qualifications and production affected their present salary and what they considered to be a reasonable salary for a researcher with their qualifications and production. 304 of 487 (62%) doctors answered. The study included 128 full-time professors, 101 associate professors or post-doctoral scientists with a PhD, 44 scientists without a PhD and 31 PhD-students. The average age was 52 years, and 28% were women. 71% had a university as their main employer. The median number of peer-reviewed scientific publications was 19 per physician-scientist for the last 5 years. The average annual salary was 498,000 NOK, and the average increase in salary considered to be reasonable was 279,000 NOK. A reasonable salary for evaluating a PhD-thesis was considered to be 18,700 NOK and that for giving a 45-minute lecture was 3,200 NOK. In a multiple linear regression analysis on actual salary, the significant predictors were employer, scientific qualifications, age, and sex. Predictors for the difference between reasonable and actual salary was scientific production and employer. Age, employer or scientific qualifications could not predict who considered a doubling of the present salary (for a 45-minute lecture and evaluating a PhD) to be appropriate. Universities should be aware of the large gap between salaries to physician-scientists employed by universities and to those employed by other institutions. Scientific production should be more emphasized in future negotiations on salaries.

  15. The shelf space and strategic placement of healthy and discretionary foods in urban, urban-fringe and rural/non-metropolitan Australian supermarkets. (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J


    Supermarkets are a key influence on eating behaviours, but it is unknown if the promotion of food within stores varies on a geographic gradient from urban, to urban-fringe and non-metropolitan areas. The present study aimed to assess the shelf space and strategic placement of healthy and discretionary foods in each of urban, urban-fringe and non-metropolitan Australian supermarkets. Design/Setting In-store audits were conducted in stores from one of the two major Australian supermarket chains in urban (n 19), urban-fringe (n 20) and non-metropolitan (n 26) areas of Victoria. These audits examined selected food items (crisps/chips, chocolate, confectionery, soft drinks/sodas, fruits and vegetables) and measured the shelf space and the proportion of end-of-aisle and cash register displays containing these products. Store size was measured as the sum of aisle length. Differences in the supermarket food environment with respect to location were assessed, before and after adjustment for neighbourhood socio-economic position. The strategic placement of discretionary foods was commonly observed in all supermarkets. Adjusting for store size (larger in urban-fringe and rural areas), urban stores had greater shelf space devoted to fruits and vegetables, and less checkouts with soft drinks, than urban-fringe and rural/non-metropolitan areas. Differences remained following adjustment for neighbourhood socio-economic position. No clear pattern was observed for end-of-aisle displays, or the placement of chocolate and confectionery at checkouts. The shelf space of healthy and discretionary foods in urban-fringe and rural stores parallels the prevalence of overweight and obesity in these areas. Interventions in urban-fringe and rural stores targeting the shelf space of healthy foods and the placement of soft drinks at key displays may be useful obesity prevention initiatives.

  16. Industrial Concentration and Employee Compensation: Some Evidence from Japan


    土井, 教之


    This paper examines the effects of industrial concentration on employee compensation including fringe benefits, using data of Japanese manufacturing industry. The primary findings are; (1) concentration has a positive and significant effect on direct wages and on total compensation, but is not significantly related to fringe benefits per workers; (2) firm size has a positive and significant impact on wages, total compensation and fringe benefits, particularly so on fringe benefits; (3) unioni...

  17. Lunatic Fringe and p53 Cooperatively Suppress Mesenchymal Stem-Like Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Chung


    Full Text Available Claudin-low breast cancer (CLBC is a poor prognosis molecular subtype showing stemness and mesenchymal features. We previously discovered that deletion of a Notch signaling modulator, Lunatic Fringe (Lfng, in the mouse mammary gland induced a subset of tumors resembling CLBC. Here we report that deletion of one copy of p53 on this background not only accelerated mammary tumor development but also led to a complete penetrance of the mesenchymal stem-like phenotype. All mammary tumors examined in the Lfng/p53 compound mutant mice displayed a mesenchymal/spindloid pathology. These tumors showed high level expressions of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT markers including Vimentin, Twist, and PDGFRα, a gene known to be enriched in CLBC. Prior to tumor onset, Lfng/p53 mutant mammary glands exhibited increased levels of Vimentin and E-cadherin, but decreased expressions of cytokeratin 14 and cytokeratin 8, accompanied by elevated basal cell proliferation and an expanded mammary stem cell-enriched population. Lfng/p53 mutant glands displayed increased accumulation of Notch3 intracellular fragment, up-regulation of Hes5 and down-regulation of Hes1. Analysis in human breast cancer datasets found the lowest HES1 and second lowest LFNG expressions in CLBC among molecular subtypes, and low level of LFNG is associated with poor survival. Immunostaining of human breast cancer tissue array found correlation between survival and LFNG immunoreactivity. Finally, patients carrying TP53 mutations express lower LFNG than patients with wild type TP53. Taken together, these data revealed genetic interaction between Lfng and p53 in mammary tumorigenesis, established a new mouse model resembling CLBC, and may suggest targeting strategy for this disease.

  18. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan (United States)

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo


    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  19. Measuring Gender Bias in the Salaries of Tenured Faculty Members. (United States)

    Becker, William E.; Toutkoushian, Robert K.


    Examines how analysts have treated rank in faculty salary models and the problems associated with either including or excluding controls for rank. Uses a sample selection statistical procedure to correct for the effects on salary of gender bias in promotion from associate to full professor. (EV)

  20. 40 CFR 13.21 - Employee salary offset-general. (United States)


    ....C. 5705, employee training expenses under 5 U.S.C. 4108 and to other debts where collection by... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee salary offset-general. 13.21... STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 13.21 Employee salary offset—general. (a) Purpose. This section...

  1. Can Students Predict Starting Salaries? Yes! (United States)

    Webbink, Dinand; Hartog, Joop


    We use Dutch panel data in which students have been asked to state their expected starting salary and confront these with realisations four years later. Both level and structure of expectations and realisations are remarkably close: we barely find systematic under- or overestimation effects.

  2. Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: a case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boer Hugo J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes comprises 90–100 species that occur from India to Japan and southeast to Australia and Fiji. Most species have large white or pale yellow petals with conspicuously fringed margins, the fringes sometimes several cm long. Pollination is usually by hawkmoths. Previous molecular data for a small number of species suggested that a monophyletic Trichosanthes might include the Asian genera Gymnopetalum (four species, lacking long petal fringes and Hodgsonia (two species with petals fringed. Here we test these groups’ relationships using a species sampling of c. 60% and 4759 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA. To infer the time and direction of the geographic expansion of the Trichosanthes clade we employ molecular clock dating and statistical biogeographic reconstruction, and we also address the gain or loss of petal fringes. Results Trichosanthes is monophyletic as long as it includes Gymnopetalum, which itself is polyphyletic. The closest relative of Trichosanthes appears to be the sponge gourds, Luffa, while Hodgsonia is more distantly related. Of six morphology-based sections in Trichosanthes with more than one species, three are supported by the molecular results; two new sections appear warranted. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses suggest an Oligocene origin of Trichosanthes in Eurasia or East Asia, followed by diversification and spread throughout the Malesian biogeographic region and into the Australian continent. Conclusions Long-fringed corollas evolved independently in Hodgsonia and Trichosanthes, followed by two losses in the latter coincident with shifts to other pollinators but not with long-distance dispersal events. Together with the Caribbean Linnaeosicyos, the Madagascan Ampelosicyos and the tropical African Telfairia, these cucurbit lineages represent an ideal system for more detailed studies of the evolution and function of petal fringes in plant

  3. Allegheny County Employee Salaries 2016 (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Employee salaries are a regular Right to Know request the County receives. Here is the disclaimer language that is included with the dataset from the Open Records...

  4. Numerical modeling of the impact of sea-level rise on fringing coral reef hydrodynamics and sediment transport (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Elias, E.; Field, M.E.; Presto, M.K.


    Most climate projections suggest that sea level may rise on the order of 0.5-1.0 m by 2100; it is not clear, however, how fluid flow and sediment dynamics on exposed fringing reefs might change in response to this rapid sea-level rise. Coupled hydrodynamic and sediment-transport numerical modeling is consistent with recent published results that suggest that an increase in water depth on the order of 0.5-1.0 m on a 1-2 m deep exposed fringing reef flat would result in larger significant wave heights and setup, further elevating water depths on the reef flat. Larger waves would generate higher near-bed shear stresses, which, in turn, would result in an increase in both the size and the quantity of sediment that can be resuspended from the seabed or eroded from adjacent coastal plain deposits. Greater wave- and wind-driven currents would develop with increasing water depth, increasing the alongshore and offshore flux of water and sediment from the inner reef flat to the outer reef flat and fore reef where coral growth is typically greatest. Sediment residence time on the fringing reef flat was modeled to decrease exponentially with increasing sea-level rise as the magnitude of sea-level rise approached the mean water depth over the reef flat. The model results presented here suggest that a 0.5-1.0 m rise in sea level will likely increase coastal erosion, mixing and circulation, the amount of sediment resuspended, and the duration of high turbidity on exposed reef flats, resulting in decreased light availability for photosynthesis, increased sediment-induced stress on the reef ecosystem, and potentially affecting a number of other ecological processes.

  5. Calibration techniques for fringe projectors (United States)

    Peters, Joerg; Patzelt, Stefan; Horn, Frank; Goch, Gert


    Fringe Projection systems generate phase distributions of an object illuminated with a specific fringe pattern. These phase correspond to the object coordinates. It is mostly necessary to transform the dimension-less phases to a metric dimension. Until today this is realized by photogrammetric techniques, which are subdivided into three main processes. At first a reference plane is defined. Then a grid within this plane is fixed. In the third step, the height axis is calibrated by different methods, for example, by use of a single height step or another well defined base object. This article describes a new method to calibrate the measuring volume by a multi-value calibration algorithm. As a first step, the fringe projection systems detects the phase distribution of a plane, denoted as reference plane. The, the plane moves stepwise in z-direction. In each step the phase distribution is detected, while an interferometer measures the distance of the z-coordinate form the reference plane. Together with the discrete x-y-coordinates of a CCD- detection unit, a 3D measuring volume is defined. The volume calibration is performed by separate polynomials for each x- y-coordinate, which are derived from the corresponding values of the phase distributions and the interferometric height values. With this method some problems of the conventional 'single value calibration' can be solved. This contribution describes the theoretical solution of the problem and presents first experimental results.

  6. Perceptions of gender equality in work-life balance, salary, promotion, and harassment: results of the NASPGHAN task force survey. (United States)

    Tomer, Gitit; Xanthakos, Stavra; Kim, Sandra; Rao, Meenakshi; Book, Linda; Litman, Heather J; Fishman, Laurie N


    Gender equality in the workplace has not been described in pediatric gastroenterology. An electronic survey that explored perceptions of career parity, work-life balance, and workplace harassment was sent to all members of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Reponses were anonymous. Of the 303 respondents (21%), there was an even distribution across geographic region, age, and gender (54% men). Gender affected perception of salary and promotion; 46% of men but only 9% of women feel that "women earn the same as men" (P genders of academic practice respondents, compared with other practice models, perceived men were promoted more quickly than women (P = 0.008). Women had higher dissatisfaction with mentoring than men (29% vs 13%, P = 0.03). Significantly more men than women reported spouses with "flexible jobs" (35% vs 14%, P gender. Overall, women are more likely to be dissatisfied with work-life balance than men (P = 0.046). Satisfaction with work-life balance is lower among women versus men pediatric gastroenterologists, but does not correlate with flexibility of spouse's job or caring for young children. Gender-divergent perception of promotion, parity of compensation, and mentoring requires further investigation.

  7. Hydrodynamics of a bathymetrically complex fringing coral reef embayment: Wave climate, in situ observations, and wave prediction (United States)

    Hoeke, R.; Storlazzi, C.; Ridd, P.


    This paper examines the relationship between offshore wave climate and nearshore waves and currents at Hanalei Bay, Hawaii, an exposed bay fringed with coral reefs. Analysis of both offshore in situ data and numerical hindcasts identify the predominance of two wave conditions: a mode associated with local trade winds and an episodic pattern associated with distant source long-period swells. Analysis of 10 months of in situ data within the bay show that current velocities are up to an order of magnitude greater during long-period swell episodes than during trade wind conditions; overall circulation patterns are also fundamentally different. The current velocities are highly correlated with incident wave heights during the swell episodes, while they are not during the modal trade wind conditions. A phase-averaged wave model was implemented with the dual purpose of evaluating application to bathymetrically complex fringing reefs and to examine the propagation of waves into the nearshore in an effort to better explain the large difference in observed circulation during the two offshore wave conditions. The prediction quality of this model was poorer for the episodic condition than for the lower-energy mode, however, it illustrated how longer-period swells are preferentially refracted into the bay and make available far more nearshore wave energy to drive currents compared to waves during modal conditions. The highly episodic circulation, the nature of which is dependent on complex refraction patterns of episodic, long-period swell has implications for flushing and sediment dynamics for incised fringing reef-lined bays that characterize many high islands at low latitudes around the world.

  8. Differentiation of Siberian Miners’ Salaries in Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinovyev


    Full Text Available The work considers seasonal variations and differentiation of Siberian miners’ salaries in late XIX – early XX centuries, proves that seasonal variations of salaries depended on the excess demand on labor in summer and the contraction of demand in winter, detects that salary differentiated, depending on workers’ qualification, sex, age, nationality, industry, location of an enterprise. Such differences in Siberian miners’ salaries were typical for early industrial period of the development of the society.

  9. Gender Differences in Job Satisfaction, Satisfaction with Society and Satisfaction from their Salary in Greek Civil Servants who are working under conditions of Labour—Intensive (United States)

    Antonakas, Nikolaos; Mironaki, Amalia


    The objective of this study is to determine empirically the existence of differences in three dimensions of satisfaction in Greek civil servants' gender, when they work under conditions of stress and tension. The three dimensions of satisfaction selected to be considered were job satisfaction, satisfaction with society and satisfaction from their salary. For this a two parts questionnaire was used. The first part included, besides sex and socially demographic characteristics of employees and the second part consisted of the above aspects of satisfaction. Used a sample of 290 employees and a factor analysis was conducted on the results of the questionnaire. The central question of this paper was whether the strength of the force of better wage, compared with the average civil servant, affects a different way to meet women and men's satisfaction who work under working conditions—intensity. The main finding of this study was the existence differences between women and men in the dimension of satisfaction from the salary.

  10. Community and social responses to land use transformations in the Nairobi rural-urban fringe, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo


    Full Text Available The process of urbanization is one of the most important dimensions of economic, social and physical changes. It is almost a truism that the planet’s future is an urban one and that the largest and fastest growing cities are in developing countries. Approximately 25 percent of Africa’s population lived in towns and cities in 1975. By the year 2000, due to rural-urban migration and rapid rates of natural increase, 38 percent of the continent’s population lived in urban areas. The proportion is expected to increase to 47 percent by 2015 and to double by 2025, Kenya is not an exception. Rapid urban population growth means an increasing demand for urban land. This land is not available within the city, but in the rural-urban fringe, for various reasons. This is partly due to low land prices, high rents at the core of the cities and legal flexibility in land use planning in the rural-urban fringe. Urban growth is already engulfing the surrounding agricultural lands and small villages. The conversion of agricultural land to residential uses is leading to the rapid transformations in the agricultural production, spatial structure, social structure, land ownership and land market in these areas. This chapter focuses on the responses/actions of the communities within Nairobi rural-urban fringe and how they manoeuvre through the consequences of changes occasioned by land conversions. It used Town council of Karuri as a case study.  The chapter is based on qualitative research approaches presents evidence on how subaltern’ actions plays an important role in creating order in an otherwise chaotic situation as a result of ‘poorly planned’ residential development. The subalterns’ actions, as evidenced by their agency, are manifested in community’s contribution and participation in provision of infrastructure and services within the Nairobi’s rural-urban fringe due to inability of formal provision by planning authorities.Le processus d

  11. Investigating excitation-dependent and fringe-field effects of electromagnet and permanent-magnet phase shifters for a crossed undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ting-Yi, E-mail: [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Yang, Chih-Sheng; Chu, Yun-Liang; Lin, Fu-Yuan; Jan, Jyh-Chyuan [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Ching-Shiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China)


    To enhance the flux density or to control polarization, a phase shifter was designed and used to modulate the phase matching between segmented undulators. A larger hysteresis loop causes, however, a repeatability issue in the phase matching; the fringe field of the phase shifter creates an extra magnetic-field error. The design of the phase shifter must therefore minimize the hysteresis loop and fringe field to maintain the phases exact and to ignore the crosstalk effect. Two critical issues are the hysteresis-loop problem and the fringe-field effect, which determine the radiation performance and the stability of the ring. To investigate these issues, a phase shifter was constructed to operate in accordance with electromagnetic- and permanent-type magnets; the results from the field measurements and shims are discussed here. The shimming algorithm and a compact permanent-magnet phase shifter that eliminates the issues are also presented.

  12. Sex Differences in Physician Salary in US Public Medical Schools. (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Olenski, Andrew R; Blumenthal, Daniel M


    Limited evidence exists on salary differences between male and female academic physicians, largely owing to difficulty obtaining data on salary and factors influencing salary. Existing studies have been limited by reliance on survey-based approaches to measuring sex differences in earnings, lack of contemporary data, small sample sizes, or limited geographic representation. To analyze sex differences in earnings among US academic physicians. Freedom of Information laws mandate release of salary information of public university employees in several states. In 12 states with salary information published online, salary data were extracted on 10 241 academic physicians at 24 public medical schools. These data were linked to a unique physician database with detailed information on sex, age, years of experience, faculty rank, specialty, scientific authorship, National Institutes of Health funding, clinical trial participation, and Medicare reimbursements (proxy for clinical revenue). Sex differences in salary were estimated after adjusting for these factors. Physician sex. Annual salary. Among 10 241 physicians, female physicians (n = 3549) had lower mean (SD) unadjusted salaries than male physicians ($206 641 [$88 238] vs $257 957 [$137 202]; absolute difference, $51 315 [95% CI, $46 330-$56 301]). Sex differences persisted after multivariable adjustment ($227 783 [95% CI, $224 117-$231 448] vs $247 661 [95% CI, $245 065-$250 258] with an absolute difference of $19 878 [95% CI, $15 261-$24 495]). Sex differences in salary varied across specialties, institutions, and faculty ranks. For example, adjusted salaries of female full professors ($250 971 [95% CI, $242 307-$259 635]) were comparable to those of male associate professors ($247 212 [95% CI, $241 850-$252 575]). Among specialties, adjusted salaries were highest in orthopedic surgery ($358 093 [95% CI, $344 354-$371 831]), surgical subspecialties ($318 760 [95

  13. CHIS - Annual adjustment of benefits and fixed contributions

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    As foreseen by the CHIS Rules, an annual adjustment is applied to: ceilings for certain benefits contributions for voluntary membership as well as supplementary contributions for spouses/partners. Benefits The ceilings have been maintained at the level of 2009. The full list of benefits is available on the CHIS Website.   Voluntary contributions The full contribution based on reference salary II is now 975 CHF per month. This fixed amount contribution is applied to voluntary affiliated users and associates with normal coverage. Half of this rate (487 CHF) is applied to apprentices as well as to voluntary affiliated users and associates with reduced coverage. A rate of 390 CHF is applied to children maintaining their insurance cover on a voluntary and temporarily basis.   Supplementary contributions From 1st January 2010 the supplementary contribution for the spouse or registered partner of a staff member, fellow or pensioner is as follow...

  14. Beyond Your Paycheck: An Employee Benefits Primer. (United States)

    Stanton, Michael


    Discusses fringe benefits and points out that employee benefits in medium and large firms account for more than 27 percent of total compensation. Differentiates among statutory (required by law), compensatory (wages paid for time not worked such as vacation and sick leave), and supplementary (including insurance and pension plans) benefits and…

  15. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo’orea, French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Connors


    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm and microplastic (plastic < 5 mm of the fringing reef of an isolated South Pacific island, Mo’orea, French Polynesia was quantified. Macroplastic was found on every beach on the island that was surveyed. The distribution of this plastic was categorized by site type and by the presence of Turbinaria ornata, a common macroalgae on Mo’orea. Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m−2. Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems.

  16. Representation and Salary Gaps by Race-Ethnicity and Gender at Selective Public Universities (United States)

    Li, Diyi; Koedel, Cory


    We use data from 2015-2016 to document faculty representation and wage gaps by race-ethnicity and gender in six fields at selective public universities. Consistent with widely available information, Black, Hispanic, and female professors are underrepresented and White and Asian professors are overrepresented in our data. Disadvantaged minority and…

  17. Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems, Fall 1979. Pupils, Staff, Revenues, Expenditures, and Salaries. (United States)

    McDowell, Lena M.; Prince, Elaine J.

    The 26th annual survey of public elementary and secondary education conducted in fall 1979 by the National Center for Education Statistics yielded data on school districts, enrollment, administrative and teaching staffs, pupil-teacher ratios, high school completions (graduations and equivalency certificates), revenue sources, and expenditures,…

  18. Social Security and Medicare Benefits (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Cash benefits and rehabilitation benefits paid in each year from the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, and benefits paid from...

  19. Workforce and Salary Survey Trends: Opportunities and Challenges for the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Michael D., E-mail:


    The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed.

  20. Work and Productive Restructuring in Neoliberal Brazil – Precariousness of Work and Salary Redundancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Alves


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the social mutations that occur in the world of labor based on the neoliberal era in Brazil. It examines the precariousness of work as being an element that composes the new social metabolism that emerges with the productive restructuring of capital and the constitution of the neoliberal State. It presents as the objective causes of the increased precariousness of work the intensification and expansion of the exploitation and plundering of the labor force, the dismounting of labor collectives and of corporate-union resistance; as well as the social fragmentation in the cities due to the exacerbated growth of mass unemployment.

  1. LineVISAR. A fringe-trace data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The line-imaging ORVIS or VISAR provides velocity as a function of position and time for a line on an experimental setup via a streak camera record of interference fringes. This document describes a Matlab-based program which guides the user through the process of converting these fringe data to a velocity surface. The data reduction is of the "fringe trace" type, wherein the changes in velocity at a given position on the line are calculated based on fringe motion past that point. The analyst must establish the fringe behavior up front, aided by peak-finding routines in the program. However, the later work of using fringe jumps to compensate for phase problems in other analysis techniques is greatly reduced. This program is not a standard GUI construction, and is prescriptive. At various points it saves the progress, allowing later restarts from those points.

  2. Kick the pesticide habit: forces affecting pesticide use and pesticide policy in the fringe of Hanoi and Nanjing, stakeholders' perspectives and policy recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, den E.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Dihn Ti Hai Van,; Tran Manh Tuong,; Nooy-van Tol, J.


    This study intends to contribute in the effort to develop a more rational crop protection strategy and an environmentally sound production in the fringe of Nanjing (China) and Hanoi (Vietnam). This paper reports on the first results of a research project jointly executed in China and Vietnam by

  3. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2008, certain financial and social benefits will be adjusted with effect from 1st January 2009. An increase of 2.7% will be applied to the scale of basic salaries and the scale of stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, the following financial elements will increase by 3.2%: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) b) Payment of education fees: payment ceilings (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) for the academic year 2008/2009. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, adjustments will be applied to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students. The adjusted amounts are available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 70674

  4. Using an Equity/Performance Matrix to Address Salary Compression/Inversion and Performance Pay Issues (United States)

    Richardson, Peter; Thomas, Steven


    Pay compression and inversion are significant problems for many organizations and are often severe in schools of business in particular. At the same time, there is more insistence on showing accountability and paying employees based on performance. The authors explain and show a detailed example of how to use a Compensation Equity/ Performance…

  5. An Analysis of Major Determinants of Teacher Salaries and Their Implications for Educational Expenditures. (United States)

    Sharples, Brian

    The purposes of this study were to compare the responsiveness of educational expenditures per pupil in Ontario, first, to changes in instructional expenditures per pupil during 1971-77, and, second, to changes in proxy measures of educational quality and price levels of teacher services for 1974-77. Variables used to represent quality and price…

  6. Unemployment Rates and Starting Salaries: Are Australian Graduates at the Whim of the Wage Curve? (United States)

    Carroll, David


    The existence of an inverse relationship between wage levels and regional unemployment rates, commonly referred to as the wage curve, is well established in the economic literature and was described by Card (1995) as being "close to an empirical law of economics". This microeconomic wage-unemployment relationship, first identified by…

  7. Gender Pay Equity in Higher Education: Salary Differentials and Predictors of Base Faculty Income (United States)

    Meyers, Laura E.


    This study investigates faculty gender pay equity in higher education. Using data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty and drawing on human capital theory, structural theory, and the theory of comparable worth, this study uses cross-classified random effects modeling to explore what factors may be contributing to the pay…

  8. Technological change and salary variation in Mexican regions: Analyzing panel data for the service sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camberos C.


    Full Text Available In this paper Hypothesis Biased Technological Change is applied for Mexican workers services sector, belonging several Mexican regions. Economics Census microdata, 1998, 2003 and 2008 are used. Hypothesis is proved with technological gaps, under consideration of different index and result statistics consistency by taking account panel analysis. Mayor wages differences at 2008 year were find out between Capital region and South one, about five hundred percent on 1998 year; but it was lower on 2008, two hundred percent. This result is in correspondence with diminishing technological gap, perhaps caused by economic crisis impact.

  9. Performance Accountability and the Community College: Using Institutional Performance to Determine Faculty Salaries (United States)

    Smith, Douglas A.; Tran, Henry


    Performance accountability systems are increasingly utilized by state legislatures to hold community colleges more accountable for student outcomes and responsible spending through the linking of state funding to specific outputs. Through these actions, it is reasonable expect an emphasis on institutional performance to permeate into a community…

  10. Below the Salary Line: Employee Engagement of Non-Salaried Employees (United States)

    Shuck, Brad; Albornoz, Carlos


    This exploratory empirical phenomological study looks at employee engagement using Kahn (1990) and Maslow's (1970) motivational theories to understand the experience of non-salaried employees. This study finds four themes that seem to affect employee engagement: work environment, employee's supervisor, individual characteristics of the employee,…

  11. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo’orea, French Polynesia (United States)


    Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm) and microplastic (plastic Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m−2. Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:28875079

  12. Anthropogenic organic contaminants in water, sediments and benthic organisms of the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia. (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Jennerjahn, Tim C; Khrycheva, Polina; Sivatharshan, Yoganathan; Yuwono, Edy; Schwarzbauer, Jan


    Segara Anakan, a mangrove-fringed coastal lagoon in Indonesia, has a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates and is increasingly affected by human activities. We found > 50 organic contaminants in water, sediment and macrobenthic invertebrates from the lagoon most of which were polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Composition of PACs pointed to petrogenic contamination in the eastern lagoon. PACs mainly consisted of alkylated PAHs, which are more abundant in crude oil than parent PAHs. Highest total PAC concentration in sediment was above reported toxicity thresholds for aquatic invertebrates. Other identified compounds derived from municipal sewage and also included novel contaminants like triphenylphosphine oxide. Numbers of stored contaminants varied between species which is probably related to differences in microhabitat and feeding mode. Most contaminants were detected in Telescopium telescopium and Polymesoda erosa. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the risk potential of alkylated PAHs, which has hardly been addressed previously. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan


    Takahashi, Ana Maria; 高橋, 新吾


    By using unique data about academic economists in Japanese universities, we conduct the first detailed study of gender salary differences within Japanese academia. Despite the common belief among Japanese academics that there cannot be a gender salary gap within the Japanese academia, our empirical results show that female academic economists earn 7% less than comparable males, after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. The coeffici...

  14. An improved model for the cantilever NEMS actuator including the surface energy, fringing field and Casimir effects (United States)

    Farrokhabadi, Amin; Mohebshahedin, Abed; Rach, Randolph; Duan, Jun-Sheng


    The influence of the surface energy on the instability of nano-structures under the electrostatic force has been investigated in recent years by different researchers. It appears that in all prior research, the response of all structures becomes softer due to the surface effects. In the present study, the pull-in instability of a NEMS device incorporating the electrostatic force and Casimir intermolecular attraction for different values of the surface parameter is investigated by the Duan-Rach method of determined coefficients (MDC) in order to identify the remarkable effect of the surface energy. Although the obtained results verify the behavior of such structures in presence of the fringing field and the Casimir attraction same as the previous investigations, however the incremental effects of the surface energy cause the aforementioned structures to behave more stiffly in contrast.

  15. In vivo visualization method by absolute blood flow velocity based on speckle and fringe pattern using two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki, E-mail:; Naruki, Shoji; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Momose, Noboru; Homae, Tomotaka; Hachiga, Tadashi [National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 1-2 Ebie-Neriya, Imizu, Toyama 933-0293 (Japan); Ishida, Hiroki [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Andoh, Tsugunobu [Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Takada, Yogo [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)


    Two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry (two-beam MLDV) is a non-invasive imaging technique able to provide an image of two-dimensional blood flow and has potential for observing cancer as previously demonstrated in a mouse model. In two-beam MLDV, the blood flow velocity can be estimated from red blood cells passing through a fringe pattern generated in the skin. The fringe pattern is created at the intersection of two beams in conventional LDV and two-beam MLDV. Being able to choose the depth position is an advantage of two-beam MLDV, and the position of a blood vessel can be identified in a three-dimensional space using this technique. Initially, we observed the fringe pattern in the skin, and the undeveloped or developed speckle pattern generated in a deeper position of the skin. The validity of the absolute velocity value detected by two-beam MLDV was verified while changing the number of layers of skin around a transparent flow channel. The absolute velocity value independent of direction was detected using the developed speckle pattern, which is created by the skin construct and two beams in the flow channel. Finally, we showed the relationship between the signal intensity and the fringe pattern, undeveloped speckle, or developed speckle pattern based on the skin depth. The Doppler signals were not detected at deeper positions in the skin, which qualitatively indicates the depth limit for two-beam MLDV.

  16. 2015 Virginia Tech Instructional Faculty Salary Equity Study


    Durodoye, Raifu; Bush, Kristen; Pleitz, Jacob


    The Virginia Tech Instructional Faculty Salary Equity Study was modeled after similar analyses conducted at like institutions. In both of those cases, the linear regression analyses approximated a methodology recommended by NSF and developed by AAUP (Paychecks: A Guide to Conducting Salary Equity Studies for Higher Education Faculty, by Lois Haignere, AAUP, 2002). In the Virginia Tech study, the regression analyses were supplemented with a hierarchical analysis that incorporated nested inform...

  17. Journalists’ salary structure in Spain during the crisis


    Sergio Roses, Ph.D.


    Media companies are implementing staff cost reduction strategies as a way to confront the current economic crisis. This article describes the salary structure of Spanish Journalists during the 2009 crisis, based on data collected through a phone survey applied to a sample of one thousand Spanish journalists. The description of the data is based on a set of social and occupational variables. The study is accompanied by a bivariate analysis of the relation between the salary level of the survey...

  18. Observations of tidal flow, waves and drag within a fringing coastal mangrove forest in the Mekong delta (United States)

    Mullarney, J. C.; Bryan, K. R.; Henderson, S. M.; Norris, B. K.; Vo Luong, H. P.


    In recent years attention has focused on the ability of mangroves to protect shorelines against damage from the combined hydrodynamic forces of waves and tides, owing to the presence of roots (pneumatophores) and tree trunks enhancing vegetative drag. However, field measurements within these dynamic environments are limited. We report on field observations from the seaward side of Cù Lao Dung Island (Soc Trang Province) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The island encompasses two contrasting environments from a sandy, prograding flat with gentle topographic slope on the southwest side to a steep, eroding and muddy fringe region on the northeast side. The data capture the flow transitions from mudflat across the fringing region to the forest interior. We observe a rotation of the obliquely incident flows to an orientation perpendicular to the vegetated/unvegetated boundary. The balances governing the large scale flow are assessed and indicate the relative importance of friction, winds and depth-averaged pressure forces. We find drag coefficients of 10-30 times greater than the usual values associated with bottom friction, with values particularly elevated in the regions of dense pneumatophores that are important during the early stages of the tidal cycle. The field observations are used in the set-up of a simple one-dimensional process model. The model predicts the movement of the tide across the vegetated flat, associated sediment transport and evolution of the across flat profile. Preliminary results indicate that mangrove profiles may evolve towards a close to linear shape in contrast to systems with temperate species or no vegetation.

  19. Predictors of Accounting Salaries: A Comparison of Bachelor Degree Graduate Salaries with Associate Degree Graduate Salaries (United States)

    Tickell, Geoffrey


    This paper reports on an investigation comparing the employment salary of bachelor degree in accounting graduates with associate degree in accounting graduates two years after their graduation. Using hierarchical regression analyses, this study shows the predictive strength of participants' academic qualifications, age, gender, GPA, professional…

  20. Bricolage: Re-Discovering History through Intermediality and Performance. A Report on the UCT/CityVarsity Production of "A Day, Across" at the Cape Town Fringe 2014 (United States)

    Muftic, Sanjin


    "A Day, Across," performed by the CityVarsity School of Creative Arts at the Cape Town Fringe 2014, was a student production that investigated the link between the youth of South Africa and the centennial of the start of World War I. This paper presents a brief analysis of the rehearsal process as well as certain performance sequences in…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maksymiv


    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  2. Effects of diotic fringes on interaural disparity detection (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goff, Nicolas; Kohlrausch, Armin; Dau, Torsten


    Detection thresholds were measured for interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) that were carried by probe segments embedded in otherwise diotic broadband noise (fringe). The duration of the probe was varied between 5 and 200 ms, and the duration of the fringe wa...

  3. Observation: Leafy spurge control in western prairie fringed orchid habitat (United States)

    Donald R. Kirby; Rodney G. Lym; John J. Sterling; Carolyn Hull Sieg


    The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles) is a threatened species of the tallgrass prairie. Invasion by leafy spurge (Euphorbiaes esula L.) is a serious threat to western prairie fringed orchid habitat. The obiectives of this study were to develop a herbicide treatment to control leafy spurge...

  4. Pagans and Satan and Goths, Oh My: Dark Leisure as Communicative Agency and Communal Identity on the Fringes of the Modern Goth Scene


    Spracklen, K; Spracklen, B


    Goth music's cultural terrain has been extensively mapped in the first decade of this century. Through a dark leisure framework, the present article examines the way in which parts of the Goth scene embraced paganism and, latterly, Satanism, as actual practices and ontologies of belief. Ethnographic research and case studies on paganism and Satanism in Goth subcultures are used. This paper argues that being a pagan or Satanist in the fringes of the Goth scene is a way of using dark leisure to...

  5. Hydrogeology salary survey (United States)

    McCray, Kevin

    The average hydrogeologist works for a private consulting firm, has a master's degree, studied geology to earn that degree, has more than 8 years of professional experience, and earns between $32,501 and $35,000 annually, according to the results of a recent survey among members of the groundwater scientific community. Some 63% of 388 responses received from the 5001 questionnaires distributed by the Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers, a division of the National Water Well Association(NWWA), were from individuals who said that they were employed as hydrogeologists.

  6. Actin fringes of polar cell growth. (United States)

    Stephan, Octavian O H


    The eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic framework that is involved in many biological processes, such as cell growth, division, morphology, and motility. G-actin polymerizes into microfilaments that associate into bundles, patches, and networks, which, in turn, organize into higher order structures that are fundamental for the course of important physiological events. Actin rings are an example for such higher order actin entities, but this term represents an actually diverse set of subcellular structures that are involved in various processes. This review especially sheds light on a crucial type of non-constricting ring-like actin networks, and categorizes them under the term 'actin fringe'. These 'actin fringes' are visualized as highly dynamic and yet steady structures in the tip of various polarized growing cells. The present comprehensive overview compares the actin fringe characteristics of rapidly elongating pollen tubes with several related actin arrays in other cell types of diverse species. The current state of knowledge about various actin fringe functions is summarized, and the key role of this structure in the polar growth process is discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  7. Remuneration and Employee Benefits in Organizations in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová


    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive environment, the goal of organizations is to recruit, retain and sufficiently stimulate employees to give high quality performance, which may actually be achieved by a well‑developed system of remuneration and a wide range of suitably selected employee benefits. The article aims to identify and evaluate important factors influencing the area of employee remuneration and benefits offered in organizations in the Czech Republic. The research was carried out through a questionnaire survey that involved selected organizations in the Czech Republic (n = 402. The obtained primary data were processed using descriptive and multidimensional statistics. The factors examined in relation to the employee remuneration and benefits include: industries and sectors of organizations; markets in which they operate; the size of organizations by the headcount; the existence or absence of the Human Resource Department. The results confirm that the organizations that want to maintain a good position in the labour market pay attention to their personnel marketing, which is also helped by the right (suitable system of employee remuneration and fringe benefits thanks to which they retain their employees and can increase employee satisfaction and loyalty. Employee benefits are exactly what may distinguish the organizations from their competitors in the labour market.

  8. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock Dan W


    Full Text Available Abstract On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA standard.

  9. Evaluation of anthropogenic influences on the Luhuitou fringing reef via spatial and temporal analyses (from isotopic values) (United States)

    Cao, D.; Cao, W.; Yu, K.; Wu, G.; Yang, J.; Su, X.; Wang, F.


    Coral reefs have suffered remarkable declines worldwide. Nutrient overenrichment is considered to be one of the primary local causes. The Luhuitou fringing reef in southern China is a well-known tourist destination that is subject to enormous coastal renovation. The mean δ13C, δ15N value, and carbon over nitrogen ratio (C/N) of particulate organic matter were -21.56 ± 1.94‰, 7.04 ± 3.81‰, and 5.81 ± 1.86, respectively, suggesting mixed sources of carbon and nitrogen. The IsoError calculations suggested that marine phytoplankton and marine benthic algae dominated the majority of carbon sources, while anthropogenic and terrestrial organic nitrogen dominated the nitrogen sources. A tendency toward greater terrestrial detritus and anthropogenic-derived discharges was found during dry seasons and greater marine-derived organic matter during wet seasons. These results demonstrated the existence of anthropogenic influences and high dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations and C/N ratios. Anthropogenic nutrient discharge moderated nitrogen limitation, whereas phosphorus became more important to the reef ecosystem. Despite the marine carbon sources dominated, freshwater and terrestrial-derived organic carbon sources were also very important. Meanwhile, anthropogenic and terrestrial organic nitrogen sources were dominant. Therefore, pollution from more extensive region and anthropogenic activities from riverine sewage discharges adjacent to reefs should be focused to effectively reduce human-derived nutrients on reefs.

  10. Land-based nutrient enrichment of the Buccoo Reef Complex and fringing coral reefs of Tobago, West Indies. (United States)

    Lapointe, Brian E; Langton, Richard; Bedford, Bradley J; Potts, Arthur C; Day, Owen; Hu, Chuanmin


    Tobago's fringing coral reefs (FR) and Buccoo Reef Complex (BRC) can be affected locally by wastewater and stormwater, and regionally by the Orinoco River. In 2001, seasonal effects of these inputs on water-column nutrients and phytoplankton (Chl a), macroalgal C:N:P and delta(15)N values, and biocover at FR and BRC sites were examined. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, particularly ammonium) increased and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) decreased from the dry to wet season. Wet season satellite and Chl a data showed that Orinoco runoff reaching Tobago contained chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) but little Chl a, suggesting minimal riverine nutrient transport to Tobago. C:N ratios were lower (16 vs. 21) and macroalgal delta(15)N values higher (6.6 per thousand vs. 5.5 per thousand) in the BRC vs. FR, indicating relatively more wastewater N in the BRC. High macroalgae and low coral cover in the BRC further indicated that better wastewater treatment could improve the health of Tobago's coral reefs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. What is a Breast Surgeon Worth? A Salary Survey of the American Society of Breast Surgeons. (United States)

    Manahan, Eric; Wang, Li; Chen, Steven; Dickson-Witmer, Diana; Zhu, Junjia; Holmes, Dennis; Kass, Rena


    Breast surgeons negotiating employment agreements have little national data available. To reduce this knowledge gap, the Education Committee of the American Society of Breast Surgeons conducted a survey of its membership. In 2014, survey questionnaires were sent to society members. Data collected included gender, type of practice, percentage devoted to breast surgery, volume of breast cases, work relative value units, location, benefits, and salary. Descriptive statistics were provided, and a multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyze the impact of various potential factors on salary. Of the 2784 members, a total of 843 observations were included. Overall, 54% of respondents dedicated 100 % of their practice to breast surgery, 64.3% were female, and 40% were fellowship-trained in breast surgery or surgical oncology. The mean income in 2013 was $330.7k. Results from a multinomial model showed gender (p income was higher for males ($378k vs. $310k). The lowest expected income by practice setting was in solo private practice ($249.2k), followed by single-specialty private practice ($285.8k), and academic ($308.5k), with the highest being multispecialty group private practice ($346.6k) and hospital-employed practice ($368.0k). Practice 100% dedicated to breast surgery had a lower than expected income ($326k vs. $343k). Salary-specific data for breast surgeons are limited, and differences in salary were seen across geographic regions, type of practice, and gender. This type of breast-surgeon-specific data may be helpful in ensuring equitable compensation.

  12. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. (United States)

    Connors, Elizabeth J


    Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm) and microplastic (plastic plastic was categorized by site type and by the presence of Turbinaria ornata, a common macroalgae on Mo'orea. Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m(-2). Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems.

  13. Comparison of Fuzzy AHP Buckley and ANP Models in Forestry Capability Evaluation (Case Study: Behbahan City Fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rahimi


    Full Text Available The area of Zagros forests is continuously in danger of destruction. Therefore, the remaining forests should be carefully managed based on ecological capability evaluation. In fact, land evaluation includes prediction or assessment of land quality for a special land use with regard to production, vulnerability and management requirements. In this research, we studied the ecological capability of Behbahan city fringe for forestry land use. After the basic studies were completed and the thematic maps such as soil criteria, climate, physiography, vegetation and bedrock were prepared, the fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making methods of Fuzzy AHP Buckley and ANP were used to standardize and determine the weights of criteria. Finally, the ecological model of the region’s capability was generated to prioritize forestry land use and prepare the final map of evaluation using WLC model in seven classes. The results showed that in ANP method, 55.58% of the area is suitable for forestry land use which is more consistent with the reality, while in the Fuzzy AHP method, 95.23% of the area was found suitable. Finally, it was concluded that the ANP method shows more flexibility and ability to determine suitable areas for forestry land use in the study area.

  14. Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cyronak


    Full Text Available To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn to total alkalinity (TA dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from −1.55 to 7.76 mmol m−2 d−1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m−2 d−1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

  15. Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands) (United States)

    Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.


    To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

  16. ZnO coated Fabry-Perot interferometric optical fiber for detection of gasoline blend vapors: Refractive index and fringe visibility manipulation studies (United States)

    Pawar, Dnyandeo; Kitture, Rohini; Kale, S. N.


    ZnO nanoparticles-coated Fabry-Perot interferometer based optical fiber sensor is demonstrated to detect different gasoline blend concentrations in ethanol. Different gasoline blends (with ethanol varying from 0% (E0) to 100% (E100)) have been subjected to the sensor to observe the change in refractive index of the material that leads to the wavelength shift and fringe visibility change of the interference spectrum. The sensor shows the remarkable response with different gasoline blend mixtures within the time span of 0-60 s in terms of wavelength and Intensity (power) shift. The maximum wavelength shift of 12.1 nm is observed for E0 mixture and least of 3 nm for E100 in 60 s, respectively. A fast response time and recovery time of 5 s and 9 s, respectively, are obtained for E0 mixture. The results are related to the formation of interference pattern due the ZnO-mediated-Fabry-Perot cavity, changes in refractive index with the change in external gaseous environment, changes in fringe visibility of the spectrum and the interaction of oxygen vacancies on ZnO surface with the gasoline moieties. The rates of sensing and recovery times are related to the Reid vapor pressures of ethanol and gasoline. Hence a dual scale of sensing, both in terms of wavelength shift (refractive index) and intensity shift (fringe visibility) has been proposed for gasoline blend sensing.

  17. 3D mapping of breast surface using digital fringe projection (United States)

    Vairavan, Rajendaran; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Mohamad Shahimin, Mukhzeer; Sauli, Zaliman; Leng, Lai Siang; Wan Norhaimi, Wan Mokhzani; Marimuthu, Rajeswaran; Abdullah, Othman; Kirtsaeng, Supap


    Optical sensing technique has inherited non-contact nature for generating 3D surface mapping where its application ranges from MEMS component characterization, corrosion analysis, and vibration analysis. In particular, the digital fringe projection is utilized for 3D mapping of objects through the illumination of structured light for medical application extending from oral dental measurements, lower back deformation analysis, monitoring of scoliosis and 3D face reconstruction for biometric identification. However, the usage of digital fringe projection for 3D mapping of human breast is very minimal. Thus, this paper addresses the application of digital fringe projection for 3D mapping of breast surface based on total non-contact nature. In this work, phase shift method is utilized to perform the 3D mapping. The phase shifted fringe pattern are displayed through a digital projector onto the breast surface, and the distorted fringe patterns are captured by a CCD camera. A phase map is produced, and phase unwrapping was executed to obtain the 3D surface mapping of the breast. The surface height profile from 3D fringe projection was compared with the surface height measured by a direct method using electronic digital vernier caliper. Preliminary results showed the feasibility of digital fringe projection in providing a 3D mapping of breast and its application could be further extended for breast carcinoma detection.

  18. Image Processing Code for Sharpening Photoelastic Fringe Patterns and Its Usage in Determination of Stress Intensity Factors in a Sample Contact Problem


    Khaleghian, Seyedmeysam; Emami, Anahita; Soltani, Nasser


    This study presented a type of image processing code which is used for sharpening photoelastic fringe patterns of transparent materials in photoelastic experiences to determine the stress distribution. C-Sharp software was utilized for coding the algorithm of this image processing method. For evaluation of this code, the results of a photoelastic experience of a sample contact problem between a half-plane with an oblique edge crack and a tilted wedge using this image processing method was com...

  19. Urban expansion and transportation : the impact of urban form on commuting patterns on the city fringe of Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Lue, Bin; de Roo, Gert


    A key issue in the development of China's growing megacities in the transport-related environmental costs due to rapid urban expansion. In light of this issue, the authors examine the impact of urban form on commuting patterns on the city fringe of Beijing. Based on household-survey data, the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The construction sector faced, after the economic crisis who affected deeply this sector, both with a lack of qualified staff and with reduced salary levels. The accounting records for the staff includes salary entitlements, bonuses, additions, awards of payroll, allowances for rest and those for temporary disability paid from the salary fund, the first representing staff participation in profit, granted by law, and other rights in cash and / or kind of entity due to staff for their work. In this paper we present the contributions due to the State Budget by society and by the employees and we present the recognition of these operations in accounting formulas in accordance with the OMFP 1802/2014. In Romania the level of contributions to the pension system was reduced for the employer with the aim of decreasing tax evasion recorded. In this paper we want to reflect the impact of this decision on the pension system.

  1. Team Organization Method Using Salary Auction Game for Sustainable Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyun Kim


    Full Text Available In performing team-based projects in engineering class, students usually face many problems, such as free-riding, lack of responsibility, boredom, and insufficient initiative. This papers proposes a new method for performing team-based projects in engineering class—specifically, a gamified method for team organization using a salary auction game. On the description of the design and use of a salary auction game in engineering class, a case study conducted using a survey method is reported to validate the practical value of the proposed auction game. The salary auction game proposed in this paper demonstrates that a gamified team organization method in engineering class could be used as an effective tool to enhance motivation and to improve learning outcomes of engineering students.

  2. Starting Salary Outcomes of Cooperative Education Graduates. (United States)

    Gardner, Philip D.; And Others


    Comparison of 370 engineering co-op graduates with 1,037 nonco-op engineering graduates showed that co-op participants had higher starting salaries; 5 or fewer terms of co-op had better effects. Women, especially electrical, mechanical, or chemical majors, had substantially better salaries with co-op experience. (SK)

  3. The Impact of NFL Salary Cap Concentration on Team Success

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    Timothy E. Zimmer


    Full Text Available The paper empirically tests National League Football (NFL team data from 2000 through 2009 to ascertain factors of team performance. Of particular interest is the assessment of payroll distribution on team performance. The results indicate that the salary concentration has a non-linear influence on team performance. Success in the NFL can be best achieved at either extreme of low or high salary concentrations. A threshold of team talent must be assembled before on field success is achieved. Acquiring elite talent, especially at the quarterback position, is likely the best alternative to achieve high levels of team performance. It is further shown that larger markets have a positive performance bias which suggests an ability to more easily acquire better player talent. The results indicate that NFL salary distribution has an impact on team success, and that it is preferable to acquire fewer elite players than many good players.

  4. The relative contribution of processes driving variability in flow, shear, and turbidity over a fringing coral reef: West Maui, Hawaii (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Jaffe, B.E.


    High-frequency measurements of waves, currents and water column properties were made on a fringing coral reef off northwest Maui, Hawaii, for 15 months between 2001 and 2003 to aid in understanding the processes governing flow and turbidity over a range of time scales and their contributions to annual budgets. The summer months were characterized by consistent trade winds and small waves, and under these conditions high-frequency internal bores were commonly observed, there was little net flow or turbidity over the fore reef, and over the reef flat net flow was downwind and turbidity was high. When the trade winds waned or the wind direction deviated from the dominant trade wind orientation, strong alongshore flows occurred into the typically dominant wind direction and lower turbidity was observed across the reef. During the winter, when large storm waves impacted the study area, strong offshore flows and high turbidity occurred on the reef flat and over the fore reef. Over the course of a year, trade wind conditions resulted in the greatest net transport of turbid water due to relatively strong currents, moderate overall turbidity, and their frequent occurrence. Throughout the period of study, near-surface current directions over the fore reef varied on average by more than 41?? from those near the seafloor, and the orientation of the currents over the reef flat differed on average by more than 65?? from those observed over the fore reef. This shear occurred over relatively short vertical (order of meters) and horizontal (order of hundreds of meters) scales, causing material distributed throughout the water column, including the particles in suspension causing the turbidity (e.g. sediment or larvae) and/or dissolved nutrients and contaminants, to be transported in different directions under constant oceanographic and meteorologic forcing.

  5. Spatiotemporal variability of dimethylsulphoniopropionate on a fringing coral reef: the role of reefal carbonate chemistry and environmental variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L Burdett

    Full Text Available Oceanic pH is projected to decrease by up to 0.5 units by 2100 (a process known as ocean acidification, OA, reducing the calcium carbonate saturation state of the oceans. The coastal ocean is expected to experience periods of even lower carbonate saturation state because of the inherent natural variability of coastal habitats. Thus, in order to accurately project the impact of OA on the coastal ocean, we must first understand its natural variability. The production of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP by marine algae and the release of DMSP's breakdown product dimethylsulphide (DMS are often related to environmental stress. This study investigated the spatiotemporal response of tropical macroalgae (Padina sp., Amphiroa sp. and Turbinaria sp. and the overlying water column to natural changes in reefal carbonate chemistry. We compared macroalgal intracellular DMSP and water column DMSP+DMS concentrations between the environmentally stable reef crest and environmentally variable reef flat of the fringing Suleman Reef, Egypt, over 45-hour sampling periods. Similar diel patterns were observed throughout: maximum intracellular DMSP and water column DMS/P concentrations were observed at night, coinciding with the time of lowest carbonate saturation state. Spatially, water column DMS/P concentrations were highest over areas dominated by seagrass and macroalgae (dissolved DMS/P and phytoplankton (particulate DMS/P rather than corals. This research suggests that macroalgae may use DMSP to maintain metabolic function during periods of low carbonate saturation state. In the reef system, seagrass and macroalgae may be more important benthic producers of dissolved DMS/P than corals. An increase in DMS/P concentrations during periods of low carbonate saturation state may become ecologically important in the future under an OA regime, impacting larval settlement and increasing atmospheric emissions of DMS.

  6. Gender differences in the salaries of physician researchers. (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A; Stewart, Abigail; Sambuco, Dana; DeCastro, Rochelle; Ubel, Peter A


    It is unclear whether male and female physician researchers who perform similar work are currently paid equally. To determine whether salaries differ by gender in a relatively homogeneous cohort of physician researchers and, if so, to determine if these differences are explained by differences in specialization, productivity, or other factors. A US nationwide postal survey was sent in 2009-2010 to assess the salary and other characteristics of a relatively homogeneous population of physicians. From all 1853 recipients of National Institutes of Health (NIH) K08 and K23 awards in 2000-2003, we contacted the 1729 who were alive and for whom we could identify a mailing address. The survey achieved a 71% response rate. Eligibility for the present analysis was limited to the 800 physicians who continued to practice at US academic institutions and reported their current annual salary. A linear regression model of self-reported current annual salary was constructed considering the following characteristics: gender, age, race, marital status, parental status, additional graduate degree, academic rank, leadership position, specialty, institution type, region, institution NIH funding rank, change of institution since K award, K award type, K award funding institute, years since K award, grant funding, publications, work hours, and time spent in research. The mean salary within our cohort was $167,669 (95% CI, $158,417-$176,922) for women and $200,433 (95% CI, $194,249-$206,617) for men. Male gender was associated with higher salary (+$13,399; P = .001) even after adjustment in the final model for specialty, academic rank, leadership positions, publications, and research time. Peters-Belson analysis (use of coefficients derived from regression model for men applied to women) indicated that the expected mean salary for women, if they retained their other measured characteristics but their gender was male, would be $12,194 higher than observed. Gender differences in salary exist

  7. Sex differences in child nutritional and immunological status 5-9 years post contact in fringe highland Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Decaro, Jason A; Decaro, Erin; Worthman, Carol M


    This study examines sex differences in vulnerability among children experiencing rapid culture change that may reflect distinct microecologies driven by differential parental investment and/or sex-specific life history strategies. Apparent female growth canalization may be a life history strategy favoring growth over maintenance but also may reflect sex-differentiated selection for resilience based on unequal treatment during early life. Stature, weight, and serum measures of C-reactive protein (CRP, an inflammation marker) and Epstein-Barr Virus antibodies (EBV, a humoral immune response marker) were collected longitudinally among children/adolescents ages 5-20 years (N = 65), 5-9 years after sustained contact in a fringe highland hunter-horticulturalist group from the Schrader Range in Papua New Guinea exhibiting male preference and sex-biased survival. It was hypothesized that girls would exhibit canalization, with better nutritional status than boys; lower maintenance investment would yield lower female immune activation; and because of differential survivorship, females would appear increasingly canalized as early conditions for girls worsened relative to boys. Girls had greater arm circumference z-scores than boys, less frequent stunting, and lower CRP despite high pathogen load. Average nutritional status for girls improved over time as the sex ratio became increasingly male biased and the condition of female infants reportedly worsened. Both canalization and survivorship effects were found. Although a life history perspective on female canalization can help explain developmental outcomes in populations undergoing rapid culture change amid adversity, possible sex differences in the strength of survivorship effects that select for resiliency should not be ignored. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Identification and characterization of LFD-2, a predicted fringe protein required for membrane integrity during cell fusion in neurospora crassa. (United States)

    Palma-Guerrero, Javier; Zhao, Jiuhai; Gonçalves, A Pedro; Starr, Trevor L; Glass, N Louise


    The molecular mechanisms of membrane merger during somatic cell fusion in eukaryotic species are poorly understood. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, somatic cell fusion occurs between genetically identical germinated asexual spores (germlings) and between hyphae to form the interconnected network characteristic of a filamentous fungal colony. In N. crassa, two proteins have been identified to function at the step of membrane fusion during somatic cell fusion: PRM1 and LFD-1. The absence of either one of these two proteins results in an increase of germling pairs arrested during cell fusion with tightly appressed plasma membranes and an increase in the frequency of cell lysis of adhered germlings. The level of cell lysis in ΔPrm1 or Δlfd-1 germlings is dependent on the extracellular calcium concentration. An available transcriptional profile data set was used to identify genes encoding predicted transmembrane proteins that showed reduced expression levels in germlings cultured in the absence of extracellular calcium. From these analyses, we identified a mutant (lfd-2, for late fusion defect-2) that showed a calcium-dependent cell lysis phenotype. lfd-2 encodes a protein with a Fringe domain and showed endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane localization. The deletion of an additional gene predicted to encode a low-affinity calcium transporter, fig1, also resulted in a strain that showed a calcium-dependent cell lysis phenotype. Genetic analyses showed that LFD-2 and FIG1 likely function in separate pathways to regulate aspects of membrane merger and repair during cell fusion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Groundwater and porewater as a major source of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands) (United States)

    Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.


    To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by radon) and shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1. Both sources of TA were important on a reef wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependant on the time of day. On a daily basis, groundwater can contribute approximately 70% to 80% of the TA taken up by corals within the lagoon. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water-column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

  10. 3D information detection with novel five composite fringe patterns (United States)

    Deng, Huaxia; Deng, Ji; Ma, Mengchao; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Liandong; Wang, Ziming


    A novel phase unwrapping method with five composite fringe patterns and phase-shifting method was proposed for three-dimensional information detection. The composite fringe patterns were composed of phase-shifted sinusoidal and stair phase-coding fringe patterns. The fringe patterns are five step phase-shifted. The relative phase and the stair code-words can be obtained simultaneously based on the five step phase-shifting algorithm. The monochrome composite structure has the improvement on the measurement speed and has the potential of solving the problem of color coupling and color imbalance. Combined with the modified minimum phase map theory, this method can provide more code-words for the full field measurement. Simulation and experimental results were presented in the final part to verify the flexibility and feasibility of the proposed method.

  11. Echolocation intensity and directionality of perching and flying fringe-lipped bats, Trachops cirrhosus (Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie eSurlykke


    Full Text Available The Neotropical frog-eating bat, Trachops cirrhosus, primarily hunts stationary prey, either by gleaning on the wing, or in a sit-and-wait mode hanging from a perch. It listens passively for prey-generated sounds, but uses echolocation in all stages of the hunt. Like other bats in the family Phyllostomidae, T.cirrhosus has a conspicuous nose leaf, hypothesized to direct and focus echolocation calls emitted from the nostrils. T. cirrhosus is highly flexible in its cognitive abilities and its use of sensory strategies for prey detection. Additionally, T. cirrhosus has been observed to echolocate both with closed and open mouth. We hypothesize that its flexibility extends to echolocation call design. We investigated the effect of hunting mode, perching or flying, as well as the effect of mouth opening, on the acoustic parameters and directionality of the echolocation call. We used a multi-microphone array, a high-speed video camera, and a microphone-diode-video system to directly visualize the echolocation sound beam synchronized with the bat’s behavior. We found that T. cirrhosus emits a highly directional sound beam with HAM (half amplitude angle of 12o-18o and DI (directionality index of ~17 dB, among the most directional bat sonar beams measured to date. The directionality was high both when flying and when perching. The emitted intensity was low, around 88 dB SPL at10 cm from the mouth, when hanging, but higher, around 100 dB SPL at10 cm, when flying or just before take-off.Our data suggests that the limited search volume of T.cirrhosus’ sonar beam, defined by the high directionality and the rather low intensity of its echolocation calls, is adapted to the highly cluttered hunting habitat and to the perch hunting mode.

  12. 20 CFR 670.930 - How are FECA benefits computed? (United States)


    ... How are FECA benefits computed? (a) FECA benefits for disability or death are computed using the entrance salary for a grade GS-2 as the student's monthly pay. (b) The provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8113 (a) and... not begin to accrue until the day following the date on which the injured student completes his or her...

  13. Echolocation intensity and directionality of perching and flying fringe-lipped bats, Trachops cirrhosus (Phyllostomidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Jakobsen, Lasse; Kalko, Elisabeth K V


    The Neotropical frog-eating bat, Trachops cirrhosus, primarily hunts stationary prey, either by gleaning on the wing, or in a sit-and-wait mode hanging from a perch. It listens passively for prey-generated sounds, but uses echolocation in all stages of the hunt. Like other bats in the family...... with closed and open mouth. We hypothesize that its flexibility extends to echolocation call design. We investigated the effect of hunting mode, perching or flying, as well as the effect of mouth opening, on the acoustic parameters and directionality of the echolocation call. We used a multi-microphone array...

  14. To the fringe and back: Violent extremism and the psychology of deviance. (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W; Jasko, Katarzyna; Chernikova, Marina; Dugas, Michelle; Webber, David


    We outline a general psychological theory of extremism and apply it to the special case of violent extremism (VE). Extremism is defined as motivated deviance from general behavioral norms and is assumed to stem from a shift from a balanced satisfaction of basic human needs afforded by moderation to a motivational imbalance wherein a given need dominates the others. Because motivational imbalance is difficult to sustain, only few individuals do, rendering extreme behavior relatively rare, hence deviant. Thus, individual dynamics translate into social patterns wherein majorities of individuals practice moderation, whereas extremism is the province of the few. Both extremism and moderation require the ability to successfully carry out the activities that these demand. Ability is partially determined by the activities' difficulty, controllable in part by external agents who promote or oppose extremism. Application of this general framework to VE identifies the specific need that animates it and offers broad guidelines for addressing this pernicious phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Local positive feedback and the persistence and recovery of fringe Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. mangroves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, T.J.; Langevelde, van F.; Boer, de W.F.


    While mangrove restoration efforts are reasonably successful, failure often occurs in high wave energy situations. Due to differences in wave energy, seedling mortality rates vary strongly with position on the intertidal flat between high water spring and high water neap elevations. However, a local

  16. Phase Analysis of Fringe Pattern In Shearography (United States)

    Yusof, M. Y.; Abdullah, W. S. Wan


    This paper discusses the phase analysis of interference pattern from coherent light Nd:YAG 532 nm laser source. The Twyman-Green Interferometer set-up is used for generating the fringe pattern in the phase calibration. The piezoelectric transducer (PZT) is used to achieve the required phase shift of the fringe pattern. It was found that the system required 8.8 volts of out-put DC voltage to shift 2π radians phase. The accuracy of optical phase measurement of the interference pattern is analyzed by wrapped phases of three-phase stepping and four-phase stepping procedures. Comparison of the experimental phase measurement data and the theoretical phase calculations are also highlighted.

  17. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fani Anatolitou


    .... Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk...

  18. An average salary: approaches to the index determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Pozdnyakova


    Full Text Available The article “An average salary: approaches to the index determination” is devoted to studying various methods of calculating this index, both used by official state statistics of the Russian Federation and offered by modern researchers.The purpose of this research is to analyze the existing approaches to calculating the average salary of employees of enterprises and organizations, as well as to make certain additions that would help to clarify this index.The information base of the research is laws and regulations of the Russian Federation Government, statistical and analytical materials of the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia for the section «Socio-economic indexes: living standards of the population», as well as materials of scientific papers, describing different approaches to the average salary calculation. The data on the average salary of employees of educational institutions of the Khabarovsk region served as the experimental base of research. In the process of conducting the research, the following methods were used: analytical, statistical, calculated-mathematical and graphical.The main result of the research is an option of supplementing the method of calculating average salary index within enterprises or organizations, used by Goskomstat of Russia, by means of introducing a correction factor. Its essence consists in the specific formation of material indexes for different categories of employees in enterprises or organizations, mainly engaged in internal secondary jobs. The need for introducing this correction factor comes from the current reality of working conditions of a wide range of organizations, when an employee is forced, in addition to the main position, to fulfill additional job duties. As a result, the situation is frequent when the average salary at the enterprise is difficult to assess objectively because it consists of calculating multiple rates per staff member. In other words, the average salary of

  19. Minimizing Fizeau Fringes During the Contact Printing of Diffraction Gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarlo, D; Rushford, M; Kuzmenko, P; Ge, J


    An index matching fluid has been used to minimize the effect of interference fringes which develop when contact printing diffraction gratings on silicon wafers. These fringes are the result of interference effects when there is a small but uneven gap between the photomask and resist surface. They are especially troublesome when printing and etching large area, coarse diffraction gratings on the surface of silicon wafers and silicon disks.

  20. Employees' motivation and emloyees' benefits


    Nedzelská, Eva


    The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...

  1. Gender-Based Salary Differences in African American Senior Student Affairs Officers. (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.


    Study examined representation and salary differences related to gender for African American Senior Student Affairs Officers (SSAOs). Data from a national survey revealed gender and institutional size significantly affect mean SSAO salary for African American respondents. African American women SSAOs make significantly less than African American…

  2. Interconnectivity: Benefits and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Access to affordable and reliable electricity supplies is a basic prerequisite for economic and social development, prosperity, health, education and all other aspects of modern society. Electricity can be generated both near and far from the consumption areas as transmission lines, grid interconnections and distribution systems can transport it to the final consumer. In the vast majority of countries, the electricity sector used to be owned and run by the state. The wave of privatisation and market introduction in a number of countries and regions which started in the late 1980's has in many cases involved unbundling of generation from transmission and distribution (T and D). This has nearly everywhere exposed transmission bottlenecks limiting the development of well-functioning markets. Transmission on average accounts for about 10-15% of total final kWh cost paid by the end-user but it is becoming a key issue for effective operation of liberalised markets and for their further development. An integrated and adequate transmission infrastructure is of utmost importance for ensuring the delivery of the most competitively priced electricity, including externalities, to customers, both near and far from the power generating facilities. In this report, the role of interconnectivity in the development of energy systems is examined with the associated socio-economic, environmental, financial and regulatory aspects that must be taken into account for successful interconnection projects.

  3. Agronomic benefits and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 11, 2013 ... R.C. Suelo. Nutr. Veg. 10 40–47. LONERAGAN J, GROVE T, ROBSON A and SNOWBALL K (1979). Phosphorus toxicity as a factor in zinc-phosphorus interactions in plants. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43 966–972. LU P and O'CONNOR GA (2001) Biosolids effects on phosphorus retention and release in some ...

  4. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan W Brock


      ABSTRACT: On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process...

  5. Salaries of New Superintendents: A Public Relations Concern for Many Public School Boards (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip


    Salaries for new superintendents form a highly visible factor that has direct implications for school-community public relations. To provide a means for guiding school board members and to provide a format for justifying salaries, a model is presented that serves both purposes. Within this model, attention is afforded to specifying a relevant…

  6. A Ten Year Study of Salary Differential by Sex through a Regression Methodology. (United States)

    Williams, John Delane; And Others

    A 10-year study of salary differential by sex was undertaken at the University of North Dakota using a multiple regression methodology, with rank, discipline, degree, years in department, years in current rank, and sex as predictors. The sex variable evidenced lower salaries for women when controlling for the other variables throughout the study…

  7. Agronomic benefits and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 11, 2013 ... Use of sewage sludge on agricultural land has been practised for ..... version 9.0 (SAS Institute, 2002), to determine significant treat- ..... COSCIONE A, CANTARELLA H, SOUSA J and. CARDOSO E (2010) Ammonia volatilization in soil treated with tannery sludge. Bioresour. Technol. 101 4690–4696.

  8. Walkability and Street Intersections in Rural-Urban Fringes: A Decision Aiding Evaluation Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivan Blecic; Dario Canu; Arnaldo Cecchini; Tanja Congiu; Giovanna Fancello


    .... Partly this is inevitable given the structural features and supply of services and activities in such areas, but part is due to a frequent neglect of pedestrian mobility in planning and urban design...

  9. Environmental Processes and Spectral Reflectance Characteristics Associated with Soil Erosion in Desert Fringe Regions (United States)

    Jacobberger, P. A.


    Results of analysis of spectral variation of sand dunes in El Ghorabi, Bahariya, Egypt; Tombouctou/Azaouad, Mali; and Tsodilo Hills, western Botswana are presented. Seasonal variations in dune extent and location of dune crests and their relationship to such factors as wind and weather variations are emphasized.

  10. Gender differences in salary of internal medicine residency directors: a national survey. (United States)

    Willett, Lisa L; Halvorsen, Andrew J; McDonald, Furman S; Chaudhry, Saima I; Arora, Vineet M


    Whether salary disparities exist between men and women in medical education leadership roles is not known. The study objective was to determine whether salary disparities exist between male and female Internal Medicine residency program directors, and if so, to identify factors associated with the disparities and explore historical trends. The annual Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) survey in August 2012 included items to assess the salary and demographic characteristics of program directors, which were merged with publically available program data. To assess historical trends, we used similarly obtained survey data from 2008 to 2011. The study included program directors of 370 APDIM member programs, representing 95.6% of the 387 accredited Internal Medicine training programs in the United States and Puerto Rico. Of the 370 APDIM member programs, 241 (65.1%) completed the survey, of whom 169 (70.1%) were men and 72 (29.9%) were women. Program directors' total annual salary, measured in $25,000 increments, ranged from $75,000 or less to more than $400,000. Historical trends of mode salary by gender from 2008 to 2012 were assessed. The mode salary was $200,000 to 225,000 for men and $175,000 to $200,000 for women (P = .0005). After controlling for academic rank, career in general internal medicine, and program director age, the distribution of salary remained different by gender (P = .004). Historical trends show that the difference in mode salary has persisted since 2008. Leaders in academic medical centers, residency and fellowship directors, and all faculty in medical education need to be aware that salary disparities cited decades ago persist in this sample of medical educators. Closing the gender gap will require continued advocacy for measuring and reporting salary gaps, and changing the culture of academic medical centers. Copyright © 2015 Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Boussinesq Modeling of Wave Propagation and Runup over Fringing Coral Reefs, Model Evaluation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G


    This report describes evaluation of a two-dimensional Boussinesq-type wave model, BOUSS-2D, with data obtained from two laboratory experiments and two field studies at the islands of Guam and Hawaii...

  12. Urban Sprawl and Land Use Characteristics in the Urban Fringe of Metro Manila, Philippines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M


    Census data and GIS were used to examine population growth rate patterns, changes in land use and the characteristics of mixed land use in Metro Manila, Philippines, one of the most rapidly growing...

  13. Flexible calibration and measurement strategy for a multi-sensor fringe projection unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albers, O; Poesch, A; Reithmeier, E


    .... The objective is the development of an easy to use calibration and measurement procedure. Only one simple geometrical calibration target is needed and the calibration of the projection unit is not mandatory...

  14. Fish assemblages on fringing reefs in the southern Caribbean: biodiversity, biomass and feeding types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahson B. Alemu I.


    Full Text Available Reef fish assemblages in the Caribbean are under increasing pressure from human activities. Inadequate enforcement of legislation coupled with unreliable and data-poor landings in Tobago have led to the unregulated exploitation of reef fish for decades. This study addresses the lack of data on major reefs. Visual observations of fish fauna were conducted from November 2011-May 2013 at open access reef sites (Speyside, Charlotteville, Culloden, Arnos Vale, Mt. Irvine, La Guira, Kilgwyn, Plymouth and Black Rock and one protected area (Buccoo Reef Marine Park. Belt transects surveys were used to determine fish density, species diversity and abundance at the 10-15m depth contour. Fish sizes were converted to biomass using the length-weight relationship of fish W=aLb. Most fish assemblages were dominated by small herbivores (40cm e.g. Serranidae, were noted, which is indicative of fishing pressure. MDS ordination identified three fish assemblages: i northeastern, ii southwestern and iii intermediate. The northwestern cluster (Speyside and Charlotteville were most representative of reef fish assemblages across the entire island, and exhibited the highest species richness, diversity and biomass. However, the southwestern cluster the highest numerical abundance. The marine protected area contained higher fish biomass, abundance, diversity and richness, but it was only representative of reef fish assemblages on the southwest of the island and not the entire Tobago. Research on the reef fishery, particularly spear fishing, is recommended to determine impact.

  15. Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer -- First Light with Telescope 1 and Progress to Fringes (United States)

    Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Haniff, Chris A.; Buscher, David F.; Young, John S.; Payne, Ifan; Romero, Van D.; Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer Team


    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI), a 10-telescope optical/near-IR interferometer in central NM has been conceived to be the most ambitious optical interferometric array under construction to date. With baselines ranging from 7.8 to 343 meters, and limiting magnitudes of 14 at K band, it will be able to assess many thousands of astronomical targets on spatial scales of 10's to 0.1's of milliarcseconds. After over a decade of funding from NRL and the major partner institutions (NM Tech and Cambridge University), new funding was obtained in late 2015 via a Cooperative Agreement between NM Tech and the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) to bring the facility to a three-interferometer system capable of observing geosynchronous satellites. However, we still maintain an exciting and compelling astronomical portfolio which will produce statistical samples of: YSOs and their surrounding disks, systems dominated by mass-loss and mass-transfer, pulsational stars and binary systems, and image the environs of AGN in nearby galaxies. An update on the status and plans for MROI for the next 3 years under the current Cooperative Agreement will be presented. In addition, we will present some examples of observational applications feasible with MROI both in the near-term and as we approach the full 10-telescope facility and describe how the astronomical community can become involved in this exciting project.We wish to acknowledge our sponsors in the NM Congressional Delegation and AFRL FA #9453-15-2-0086 for our recent support.

  16. Combining shearography and interferometric fringe projection in a single device for complete control of industrial applications (United States)

    Blain, Pascal; Michel, Fabrice; Piron, Pierre; Renotte, Yvon; Habraken, Serge


    Noncontact optical measurement methods are essential tools in many industrial and research domains. A family of new noncontact optical measurement methods based on the polarization states splitting technique and monochromatic light projection as a way to overcome ambient lighting for in-situ measurement has been developed. Recent works on a birefringent element, a Savart plate, allow one to build a more flexible and robust interferometer. This interferometer is a multipurpose metrological device. On one hand the interferometer can be set in front of a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. This optical measurement system is called a shearography interferometer and allows one to measure microdisplacements between two states of the studied object under coherent lighting. On the other hand, by producing and shifting multiple sinusoidal Young's interference patterns with this interferometer, and using a CCD camera, it is possible to build a three-dimensional structured light profilometer.

  17. Physics on the fringe smoke rings, circlons, and alternative theories of everything

    CERN Document Server

    Wertheim, Margaret


    For the past fifteen years, acclaimed science writer Margaret Wertheim has been collecting the works of "outsider physicists," many without formal training and all convinced that they have found true alternative theories of the universe. Jim Carter, the Einstein of outsiders, has developed his own complete theory of matter and energy and gravity that he demonstrates with experiments in his backyard‚ with garbage cans and a disco fog machine he makes smoke rings to test his ideas about atoms. Captivated by the imaginative power of his theories and his resolutely DIY attitude, Wertheim has been following Carter's progress for the past decade. Centuries ago, natural philosophers puzzled out the laws of nature using the tools of observation and experimentation. Today, theoretical physics has become mathematically inscrutable, accessible only to an elite few. In rejecting this abstraction, outsider theorists insist that nature speaks a language we can all understand. Through a profoundly human profile of Jim Ca...

  18. Application of reactive transport modelling to growth and transport of microorganisms in the capillary fringe


    Hron, Pavel; Jost, Daniel; Bastian, Peter; Gallert, Claudia; Winter, Josef; Ippisch, Olaf


    A multicomponent multiphase reactive transport simulator has been developed to facilitate the investigation of a large variety of phenomena in porous media including component transport, diffusion, microbiological growth and decay, cell attachment and detachment and phase exchange. The coupled problem is solved using operator splitting. This approach allows a flexible adaptation of the solution strategy to the concrete problem. Moreover, the individual submodels were optimised to be able to d...

  19. Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting (United States)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.


    Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its

  20. Journalists’ salary structure in Spain during the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roses, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Media companies are implementing staff cost reduction strategies as a way to confront the current economic crisis. This article describes the salary structure of Spanish Journalists during the 2009 crisis, based on data collected through a phone survey applied to a sample of one thousand Spanish journalists. The description of the data is based on a set of social and occupational variables. The study is accompanied by a bivariate analysis of the relation between the salary level of the surveyed journalists and the aforementioned variables.The results show that the salary level of Spanish journalists depends on such variables as sex, age, professional experience, the type, size, and geographic location of the employing media company, occupational category, contract type, and seniority in employment. However, journalists’ income is independent of education level, or the completion of graduate or postgraduate degrees in Journalism, Communication or Media studies. The findings of our study –of interest to scholars and media organisations- will help monitoring in the near future the effects of the media’s cost-cutting policies on the salaries of Spanish journalists.

  1. Pratiques manageriales et stress au travail chez les salaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par ailleurs, le management centré sur les résultats de l'entreprise contribue plus au développement du stress que celui axé sur le social (le personnel). Mots-clés: stress, relations hiérarchiques, communication, management, salarié. English Title: Managerial practices and work stress on Abidjan employees.

  2. Government take cautious stance on curbing top salaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.


    At the end of 2007, the Frijns Committee, which makes recommendations on policy concerning top salaries, published its third annual report. The committee wants to maintain self-regulation in companies and again spoke out against legislation. Although the finance minister repeatedly referred to the


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert H, Jackson


    The following study examines the process of the creation of indio identity and status, at least on paper, that defi ned the role of the natives in colonial society, on three distinct mission frontiers...

  4. Separated Fringe Packet Observations with the CHARA Array. II. Omega Andromeda, HD 178911, and Xi Cephei (United States)


    and represent the difference between the single and double star cases described in Equation (8) compared to the ideal path case of approximately 1μm...speckle interferometry program in 1985 (McAlister et al. 1987). Summary information for components can be found in the Washington Double Star (WDS...for their continued sup- port of the Double Star Program. We very much appreciate the hard work of Isabelle Tallon-Bosc for the support for this

  5. Diurnal variability in turbidity and coral fluorescence on a fringing reef flat: Southern Molokai, Hawaii (United States)

    Piniak, G.A.; Storlazzi, C.D.


    Terrigenous sediment in the nearshore environment can pose both acute and chronic stresses to coral reefs. The reef flat off southern Molokai, Hawaii, typically experiences daily turbidity events, in which trade winds and tides combine to resuspend terrigenous sediment and transport it alongshore. These chronic turbidity events could play a role in restricting coral distribution on the reef flat by reducing the light available for photosynthesis. This study describes the effects of these turbidity events on the Hawaiian reef coral Montipora capitata using in situ diurnal measurements of turbidity, light levels, and chlorophyll fluorescence yield via pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Average surface irradiance was similar in the morning and the afternoon, while increased afternoon turbidity resulted in lower subsurface irradiance, higher fluorescence yield (??F/Fm???), and lower relative electron transport rates (rETR). Model calculations based on observed light extinction coeffecients suggest that in the absence of turbidity events, afternoon subsurface irradiances would be 1.43 times higher than observed, resulting in rETR for M. capitata that are 1.40 times higher.

  6. Estimation of nearshore groundwater discharge and its potential effects on a fringing coral reef. (United States)

    Blanco, Ariel C; Watanabe, Atsushi; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Motooka, Shunsuke; Herrera, Eugene C; Yamamoto, Takahiro


    Radon (²²²Rn) measurements were conducted in Shiraho Reef (Okinawa, Japan) to investigate nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD(nearshore)) dynamics. Estimated average groundwater flux was 2-3 cm/h (maximum 7-8 cm/h). End-member radon concentration and gas transfer coefficient were identified as major factors influencing flux estimation accuracy. For the 7-km long reef, SGD(nearshore) was 0.39-0.58 m³/s, less than 30% of Todoroki River's baseflow discharge. SGD(nearshore) was spatially and temporally variable, reflecting the strong influence of subsurface geology, tidal pumping, groundwater recharge, and hydraulic gradient. SGD(nearshore) elevated nearshore nitrate concentrations (0.8-2.2 mg/l) to half of Todoroki River's baseflow NO₃⁻-N (2-4 mg/L). This increased nearshore Chl-α from 0.5-2 μg/l compared to the typically low Chl-α (< 0.1-0.4 μg/l) in the moat. Diatoms and cyanobacteria concentrations exhibited an increasing trend. However, the percentage contributions of diatoms and cyanobacteria significantly decreased and increased, respectively. SGD may significantly induce the proliferation of cyanobacteria in nearshore reef areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Paleoproterozoic Green Mountain arc: A composite(?), bimodal, oceanic, fringing arc (United States)

    Jones, D.S.; Barnes, C.G.; Premo, W.R.; Snoke, A.W.


    The inferred subduction affinity of the ~1780-Ma Green Mountain arc, a dominantly bimodal igneous terrane (together with immature marine and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks) accreted to the southern margin of the Wyoming province, is integral to arc-accretion models of the Paleoproterozoic growth of southern Laurentia. Conversely, the dominantly bimodal nature of many putative arc-related igneous suites throughout southern Laurentia, including the Green Mountain arc, has also been used to support models of growth by extension of pre-existing crust. We report new geochemical and isotopic data from ~1780-Ma gabbroic and granodioritic to tonalitic rocks of the Big Creek Gneiss, interpreted as consanguineous with previously studied metavolcanic rocks of the Green Mountain Formation.The ~1780-Ma Big Creek Gneiss mafic rocks show clear geochemical signatures of a subduction origin and provide no supporting evidence for extensional tectonism. The ~1780-Ma Big Creek Gneiss felsic rocks are attributed to partial melting of mafic and/or mixed lower-crustal material. The bimodal nature of the suite results from the combination of arc basalts and felsic crustal melts. The lack of andesite is consistent with the observed tholeiitic differentiation trend of the mafic magmas. The lower e{open}Nd(1780Ma) values for the felsic rocks vs. the mafic rocks suggest that the unexposed lower crust of the arc may be older than the arc and that Trans-Hudson- or Penokean-aged rocks possibly form the substratum of the arc. Our results reinforce previous interpretations that arc-related magmatism played a key role in the Paleoproterozoic crustal growth of southern Laurentia, but also support the possibility of unexposed older crust as basement to the arcs. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Life on the Fringe: The Early Writings of Lewis Nkosi and Nat Nakasa1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One evening in the late 1950s, Lewis Nkosi and his friend Nat Nakasa were walking through downtown Johannesburg when, as both later recalled, they decided to stop into a whites-only restaurant called The Texan. They ordered their coffees at the bar, knowing that the American man behind the counter expected them to ...

  9. 29 CFR 541.602 - Salary basis. (United States)


    ... the workplace or to other employees, such as rules prohibiting smoking in explosive plants, oil... violence. (6) An employer is not required to pay the full salary in the initial or terminal week of...

  10. Sex Discrimination as to Maternity Benefits (United States)

    Larson, Arthur


    A general survey of the state of the law at all points where maternity produces a claim of sex discrimination in employment and discussion of whether, under Geduldig v. Aiello, all private fringe benefit systems must equate normal pregnancy with temporary sickness and disability. (JT)

  11. Profilometry of discontinuous solids by means of co-phased demodulation of projected fringes with RGB encoding (United States)

    Padilla, J. M.; Servin, M.; Garnica, G.


    Here we describe a 2-projectors and 1-camera setup for profilometry of discontinuous solids by means of co-phased demodulation of projected fringes and red, green, and blue (RGB) multichannel operation. The dual projection configuration for this profilometer is proposed to solve efficiently specular regions and self-occluding shadows due to discontinuities, which are the main drawbacks for a 1-projector 1-camera configuration. This is because the regions where shadows and specular reflections are generated, and the fringe contrast drops to zero, are in general different for each projection direction; thus, the resulting fringe patterns will have complementary phase information. Multichannel RGB operation allows us to work simultaneously with both projectors and to record independently the complementary fringe patterns phase-modulated by the 3D profile of the object under study. In other words, color encoding/decoding reduces the acquisition time respect to one-at-a-time grayscale operation and, in principle, enables the study of dynamic phenomena. The co-phased demodulation method implemented in this work benefits from the complex (analytic) nature of the output signals estimated with most phase demodulation methods (such as the Fourier method, and temporal phaseshifting algorithms). This allowed us to straightforwardly generate a single phase-map well-defined for the entire area of interest. Finally we assessed our proposed profilometry setup by measuring a fractured spherical cap made of (uncoated) expanded polystyrene. The results were satisfactory but in the authors' opinion this must be considered a preliminary report.

  12. Information Portal Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN


    Full Text Available All transformations of our society are the product of the large use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT and Internet. ICT are technologies which facilitate communication, processing, and transmission of information by electronic means. It is very important to use the new technologies to the correct value because this determinate an increase of global benefits. Portal provides a consistent way to select, evaluate, prioritize and plan the right information. In research we point the important costs and benefits for an informational portal. The portal for local administrative determinate for citizens the access to information of interest and on the other hand make easier for employer to manage the documents.

  13. Biomass,litterfall and decomposition rates for the fringed Rhizophora mangle forest lining the Bon Accord Lagoon,Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahanna A Juman


    Full Text Available The mangrove forest that fringes the Bon Accord Lagoon measures 0.8 km² and is dominated by red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle .This forest forms the landward boundary of the Buccoo Reef Marine Park in Southwest Tobago,and is part of a mangrove-seagrass-coral reef continuum.Biomass and productivity,as indicated by litterfall rates,were measured in seven 0.01 ha monospecific plots from February 1998 to February 1999,and decomposition rates were determined. Red mangrove above-ground biomass ranged between 2.0 and 25.9 kg (dry wt.m-2 .Mean biomass was 14.1 ±8.1 kg (dry wt.m-2 yielding a standing crop of 11 318 ±6 488 t. Litterfall rate varied spatially and seasonally.It peaked from May to August (4.2-4.3 g dry wt.m-2 d-1 and was lowest from October to December (2.3-2.8 g dry wt.m-2 d-1 .Mean annual litterfall rate was 3.4 ±0.9 g dry wt.m-2 d-1 .Leaf degradation rates ranged from 0.3%loss d-1 in the upper intertidal zone to 1%loss d-1 at a lower intertidal site flooded by sewage effluent.Mean degradation rate was 0.4 ±1%loss d-1 .The swamp produces 2.8 t dry wt.of litterfall and 12 kg dry wt.of decomposed leaf material daily.Biomass and litterfall rates in Bon Accord Lagoon were compared to five similar sites that also participate in the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Programme (CARICOMP.The Bon Accord Lagoon mangrove swamp is a highly productive fringed-forest that contributes to the overall productivity of the mangrove-seagrass-reef complex.El manglar que bordea la laguna de Bon Accord mide 0.8 km² y predomina el mangle rojo (Rhizophora mangle .Este manglar es el límite terrestre del Parque Nacional Buccoo Reef en el suroeste de Tobago,y es parte de un continuo de mangles-pastos-arrecifes.En este trabajo se midió la biomasa y productividad,mediante la caída de hojas,y las tasas de descomposición en siete parcelas monoespecíficas de 0.01 ha,de febrero 1998 a febrero 1999.La biomasa sobre el suelo del mangle rojo se registró entre 2

  14. Environmental benefits and social cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Kjær, J.; Brüsh, W.


    There is a need for introducing interdisciplinary tools and approaches in water management for participatory integrated assessment of water protection costs and environmental benefits for different management scenarios. This is required for the Water Framework Directive. Bayesian belief networks...... management actions on agricultural economics and groundwater and drinking water quality, with the overall aim of exploring complexity and uncertainties...

  15. An alumni-based evaluation of graduate training in health communication: results of a survey on careers, salaries, competencies, and emerging trends. (United States)

    Edgar, Timothy; Hyde, James N


    Published information about career options and the core competencies necessary for health communication professionals (HCPs) is limited. Although the number of graduate programs in health communication continues to grow, no formal assessment of the success of this type of training has been conducted. The current study presents the results of an evaluation of the Master's Program in Health Communication offered collaboratively by Emerson College and the Tufts University School of Medicine. The program was one of the first of its kind and has graduated more health communication students than any other in the United States. To conduct the assessment of the program, the two schools collaborated on the development of an on-line survey for the alumni. Of the 131 graduates eligible to participate, 106 completed the survey. The survey yielded detailed information on the following: (1) career options for individuals with master's degrees in health communication; (2) value of graduate coursework for developing competencies in health communication; (3) salary expectations for individuals with graduate degrees in health communication; and (4) emerging trends in the field. These findings have important implications for the development of new programs and the refinement of existing ones in health communication.

  16. Türkiye’de Büyük Ölçekli İşletmelerde Uygulanan Ücret ve Maaş Yönetim Sistemi = Wage and Salary Management in Large Scale Businesses in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal ZEHİR


    Full Text Available Firms in the growth process have confronted important problems of management and organization. In order to solve these problems they have begun to organize along departments.One of the departments of the organization is called human resource department. The basic criteria used in determining wage levels include job analysis, job descriptions and job specifications and then job and personnel performance appraisals. The criteria also help personnel specialists avoid inadequecies and inequalities in wage structures. The tasks of the human resources department are to attract, keep and promote the employees. This field research has been conducted in the top 100 firms of Türkiye concerning wage and salary strategies. It has been found that 86% of the responding firms use modern techniques of wage and salary management. The remaining firms are preparing to do so. Recommendations are offered according to the obtained data and their results, in the chapter for results and evaluation.

  17. Comanagement at the Fringes: Examining Stakeholder Perspectives at Macassar Dunes, Cape Town, South Africa - at the Intersection of High Biodiversity, Urban Poverty, and Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Graham


    Full Text Available Theoretically, co-management provides a fruitful way to engage local residents in efforts to conserve and manage particular spaces of ecological value. However, natural resource management, and biodiversity conservation in particular, are faced with novel sets of complexities in the rapidly urbanizing areas of Cape Town, South Africa, and in the nexus between an apartheid past, informal settlements, remnant biodiversity patches, and urban poverty. Departing from such a dynamic social and ecological context, this article first provides an historical account of the decade-long comanagement process at Macassar Dunes, and then considers, through stakeholder perceptions, what are the successes and failures of the contested process. We find that comanagement at Macassar Dunes faces serious legitimacy, trust, and commitment issues, but also that stakeholders find common ground on education and awareness-raising activities. In conclusion we argue that the knowledge generated from case studies like this is useful in challenging and rethinking natural resource management theory generally, but specifically it is useful for the growing cities of the Global South. More case studies and a deeper engagement are needed with geographical theories on the "urban fringe" as "possibility space", to help build a firm empirical base for theorizing comanagement "at the fringes", i.e., at the intersection of poverty, socioeconomic inequality, and high biodiversity and ecological values.

  18. Lower Paleolithic hominin ecology at the fringe of the desert: Faunal remains from Bizat Ruhama and Nahal Hesi, Northern Negev, Israel. (United States)

    Yeshurun, Reuven; Zaidner, Yossi; Eisenmann, Véra; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Bar-Oz, Guy


    The Southern Levant is a pivotal area for the study of hominin paleoecology during the Lower Paleolithic, because of its location on the out-of-Africa dispersal route and its significant ecological diversity. Important information has been gained by archaeofaunal studies, which usually reveal that exploitation of diverse Mediterranean environments with woodlands, marshes and lake margins, represents a dominant subsistence strategy for Lower Paleolithic hominins. Here, we present new taxonomic and taphonomic data from two sites in the southern coastal plain of the Southern Levant, at the fringe of the Negev Desert: Bizat Ruhama (Early Pleistocene) and Nahal Hesi (Middle Pleistocene). The sites preserve anthropogenic faunas, with the former signaling a marrow-exploitation strategy, perhaps related to scavenging from carnivore kills, and the latter showing evidence for primary access to fleshed ungulate carcasses. The species composition of these Northern Negev sites is unique for the Levantine Lower Paleolithic in that these sites lack typical woodland and riparian species, probably indicating an open, relatively uniform environment with patchy water sources and trees, much like this semiarid region today. Bizat Ruhama and Nahal Hesi are among the only Levantine Lower Paleolithic faunas associated with such a setting, thereby widening the known spectrum of environments exploited by hominins in the region. It is suggested that the two sites, coupled with the nearby Late Pleistocene evidence, reflect a largely stable semiarid environment on the northwestern fringe of the Negev Desert throughout much of the Pleistocene. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Acidification mediated by a river plume and coastal upwelling on a fringing reef at the east coast of Hainan Island, Northern South China Sea (United States)

    Dong, Xu; Huang, Haining; Zheng, Nan; Pan, Aijun; Wang, Sumin; Huo, Cheng; Zhou, Kaiwen; Lin, Hui; Ji, Weidong


    We investigated the dynamics of carbonate system which was greatly modulated by a river plume and coastal upwelling in July 2014 and July 2015 at the east coast of Hainan Island where a fringing reef distributes inshore. By using a three end-member mixing model, we semiquantitatively estimated the removal of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mediated by biological production in the river plume and upwelled water to be 13 ± 17 and 15 ± 16 μmol kg-1, respectively. The enhanced organic production was mainly responsible for these DIC consumptions in both two regimes, however, nearly a half of DIC removal was attributed to biocalcification in the plume system while it was negligible in the upwelling system. Furthermore, the modeled results over reefs revealed that river plume and coastal upwelling were two major threats of acidification to coral communities at the east coast of Hainan Island during cruises. In comparison, the biological contribution to acidification was limited for balancing between organic production and biocalcification during July 2014 cruise, whereas the acidification was greatly intensified by organic degradation during July 2015 cruise. It was verified that naturally local acidification (physical and biological processes) played a major role in great pH decreases on a short-term scale, leading to coastal waters more vulnerable to anthropogenic "ocean acidification" (uptake of atmospheric CO2) by reducing buffering capacity of waters. Finally, effects of acidification associated with other local threats on a fringing reef were further depicted with a conceptual model.

  20. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits]. (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena


    Dietary guidelines indicate that to get a proper nutrition is recommended eating 3 or more servings per day of whole grain. However, the recommendation is little known in the Spanish population, and almost the entire population doesn't fulfill it. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the nutritional and health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereals and the potential benefits related to the meeting of this guideline. Literature search regarding the topic. Whole grain cereals are rich in carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals, and its contribution to the average diet helps to achieve current recommended intakes and nutritional goals, so its consumption in the recommended amount supposes a nutritional benefit. Moreover, several studies indicate that increased consumption of whole grain cereal is associated with protection against various chronic degenerative diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer and metabolic syndrome), assisting in the maintenance of digestive health and body weight. These results may be due to the contribution of nutrients, fiber and phytochemicals of these foods, as well as the displacement of the diet of other products with a less desirable nutritional profile, taking into account the composition of the average Spanish diet. In fact, the consumption of whole grain cereals has been linked with a possible improvement in the intestinal microbiota and antioxidant protection. In spite of these advantages, cereal consumption is looked with suspicion by many individuals, especially those concerned about weight control and additional benefits associated to consumption of whole grain cereals are not known. Whole grain cereals should be daily consumed in amounts of 3 or more servings/day, to achieve the nutritional and health benefits described in numerous investigations. More outreach is needed to ensure that the guideline is known and it's applied. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA

  1. Benefits and risks of breastfeeding (United States)

    In 2005, the American Academy of Pediatrics extended their position concerning the superiority of human milk for feeding human infants and the reasons for encouraging breastfeeding. Yet questions have been raised whether the benefits of breastfeeding pertain to populations in the industrialized wor...

  2. Interactions between two congeneric gyrodactylids (Gyrodactylus derjavini and G. salaris) with different microhabitats on their common host rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbøl, Line W.; Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde; Buchmann, Kurt


    De to Gyrodactylus arter G. derjavini og G. salaris foretrækker forskellige områder på deres fælles vært. Dette ses både i monkulturer og i blandede kulturer, som dette arbejde belyser eksperimentelt....

  3. Baseline data for evaluating development trajectory and provision of ecosystem services of created fringing oyster reefs in Vermilion Bay, Louisiana (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea


    Understanding the time frame in which ecosystem services (that is, water quality maintenance, shoreline protection, habitat provision) are expected to be provided is important when restoration projects are being designed and implemented. Restoration of three-dimensional shell habitats in coastal Louisiana and elsewhere presents a valuable and potentially self-sustaining approach to providing shoreline protection, enhancing nekton habitat, and providing water quality maintenance. As with most restoration projects, the development of expected different ecosystem services often occurs over varying time frames, with some services provided immediately and others taking longer to develop. This project was designed initially to compare the provision and development of ecosystem services by created fringing shoreline reefs in subtidal and intertidal environments in Vermilion Bay, Louisiana. Specifically, the goal was to test the null hypothesis that over time, the oyster recruitment and development of a sustainable oyster reef community would be similar at both intertidal and subtidal reef bases, and these sustainable reefs would in time provide similar shoreline stabilization, nekton habitat, and water quality services over similar time frames. Because the ecosystem services hypothesized to be provided by oyster reefs reflect long-term processes, fully testing the above-stated null hypothesis requires a longer-time frame than this project allowed. As such, this project was designed to provide the initial data on reef development and provision of ecosystem services, to identify services that may develop immediately, and to provide baseline data to allow for longer-term follow up studies tracking reef development over time. Unfortunately, these initially created reef bases (subtidal, intertidal) were not constructed as planned because of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in April 2010, which resulted in reef duplicates being created 6 months apart. Further confounding the

  4. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengesha Tesfaye


    Malaria parasite and its vectors were found to be common during transmission periods in the highland fringes of Butajira. Thus, health education about the risk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be complemented from sero-epidemiological, prospective longitudinal and retrospective studies along with metrological and ecological factors, and socio-demographic data before concluding in favour of highland malaria transmission in the area. In light of its abundance, which coincided with the malaria transmission seasons, the possible role of An. christyi as a secondary vector in the highlands must be further investigated by including blood meal sources detection.

  5. Employee benefits under IAS/IFRS and the Czech accounting legislation, the tax point of view including

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová


    Full Text Available The regulation of employee benefit is limited in the Czech Accounting Legislation. There are only short-term employee benefits – wages, salaries, when employees has rendered services to an entity during a period – month. Entities could create funds from a net profit –fund for social and cultural benefits which could serve as source of social services financing for employees. There are employee benefits defined very extensive in IAS/IFRS. It is IAS 19 – Employee Benefits which defines four Gross of employee benefits: short-term employee benefits, post employment benefits, other long –term employee benefits and termination benefits. There are defined all conditions for employee benefits re­co­gni­tion and treatments for recording and reporting in IAS 19.The paper is concerned with the employee benefits evaluation. The impact on the tax base is eva­lua­ted. There are the most significant types of employee benefits surveyed. They are divided into five groups with the respect to their impact on the tax base. The impact of these benefits is described from their impact on social insurance and health insurance calculation base point of view, as well.

  6. Parameter estimation of optical fringes with quadratic phase using the fractional Fourier transform (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Feng; Tao, Ran; Ni, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Ting-Zhu; Yang, Wen-Ming


    Optical fringes with a quadratic phase are often encountered in optical metrology. Parameter estimation of such fringes plays an important role in interferometric measurements. A novel method is proposed for accurate and direct parameter estimation using the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT), even in the presence of noise and obstacles. We take Newton's rings fringe patterns and electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) interferograms as classic examples of optical fringes that have a quadratic phase and present simulation and experimental results demonstrating the performance of the proposed method.

  7. Salary and Decision Making : Relationship Between Pay and Focus on Financial Profitability and Prosociality in an Organizational Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, J.

    This investigation examined the relationship between organizationally based financial incentives and a focus on profit vs. prosociality during decision making. Participants were 84 managers from a Fortune 200 corporation. Managers read a vignette containing a dilemma and freely generated issues that

  8. Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia; Storlazzi, Curt; Rosenberger, Kurt


    Many low-lying tropical islands are susceptible to sea level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, a 5 month deployment of wave gauges and a current meter was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had waves with maximum heights greater than 6 m with peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly skewed infragravity (0.04–0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004–0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, reached 3.7 m above the reef bed at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3 h time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results (1) demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash, and (2) lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of these extreme events, negatively impacting coastal resources and infrastructure.

  9. Optimal pulse width modulation for sinusoidal fringe generation with projector defocusing. (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Song


    Recently, a study showed that generating sinusoidal fringe patterns by properly defocusing binary ones can significantly simplify three-dimensional shape measurement system development and drastically improve its speed. However, when the fringe stripes are very wide, it is very difficult for this technique to achieve high-quality measurement. This Letter presents a method to improve this technique by selectively eliminating high-frequency harmonics induced by a squared binary pattern. As a result, better sinusoidal fringe patterns can be generated with a small degree of defocusing even for wide fringe stripes. Simulation and experiments will be presented to verify the performance of this proposed technique.

  10. Fringe projection profilometry with portable consumer devices (United States)

    Liu, Danji; Pan, Zhipeng; Wu, Yuxiang; Yue, Huimin


    A fringe projection profilometry (FPP) using portable consumer devices is attractive because it can realize optical three dimensional (3D) measurement for ordinary consumers in their daily lives. We demonstrate a FPP using a camera in a smart mobile phone and a digital consumer mini projector. In our experiment of testing the smart phone (iphone7) camera performance, the rare-facing camera in the iphone7 causes the FPP to have a fringe contrast ratio of 0.546, nonlinear carrier phase aberration value of 0.6 rad, and nonlinear phase error of 0.08 rad and RMS random phase error of 0.033 rad. In contrast, the FPP using the industrial camera has a fringe contrast ratio of 0.715, nonlinear carrier phase aberration value of 0.5 rad, nonlinear phase error of 0.05 rad and RMS random phase error of 0.011 rad. Good performance is achieved by using the FPP composed of an iphone7 and a mini projector. 3D information of a facemask with a size for an adult is also measured by using the FPP that uses portable consumer devices. After the system calibration, the 3D absolute information of the facemask is obtained. The measured results are in good agreement with the ones that are carried out in a traditional way. Our results show that it is possible to use portable consumer devices to construct a good FPP, which is useful for ordinary people to get 3D information in their daily lives.

  11. Novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform method of synthetic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T.M.; Albano, R.K.


    We have developed a one-dimensional theory and a computer model for synthetically imaging scenes using a novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform technique. Our method probes a scene using two interfering beams of slightly different frequency. These beams form a moving fringe pattern which scans the scene and resonates with any spatial frequency components having the same spatial frequency as the scanning fringe pattern. A simple, non-imaging detector above the scene observes any scattered radiation from the scene falling onto it. If a resonance occurs between the scanning fringe pattern and the scene, then the scattered radiation will be modulated at the difference frequency between the two probing beams. By changing the spatial period of the fringe pattern and then measuring the amplitude and phase of the modulated radiation that is scattered from the scene, the Fourier amplitudes and phases of the different spatial frequency components making up the scene can be measured. A synthetic image of the scene being probed can be generated from this Fourier amplitude and phase data by taking the inverse Fourier transform of this information. This technique could be used to image objects using light, ultrasonic, or other electromagnetic or acoustic waves.

  12. The Socio-Economic Value of Teacher Salaries Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mikhailovna Avraamova


    Full Text Available The socio-economic results of the reform in teachers’ salary, which had a positive impact on the quality of school education, are considered. However, the economic difficulties that our country encounters, may jeopardize the achieved results. The results of the monitoring study of the Center of the Economics of Lifelong Education of RANEPA «Efficiency of the school education» conducted in 2015 in the Sverdlovsk, Voronezh, Ivanovo regions serve as information base. 2800 school teachers, 2800 households having a school student at family, 200 directors of the educational organizations are interviewed according to the survey method. Surveys are conducted on the representative selection including both urban and rural population. It is shown that the average teacher’s salary has reached the level of the average salary in the region in the 2013/2014 that met the requirements of the May Presidential Decree. This ratio was retained next year, and the size of the teachers’ salaries fully reflected the differentiation of the socio-economic indicators of the development of the Russian regions under consideration. The main positive effects of teachers’ salaries raise are: the rejuvenation of the teaching staff, professional development of teachers, their entering the Russian middle class. The authors study the impact of negative phenomena in the economy on the prospects of reproduction of the achieved socio-economic results of teachers’ salaries raise. The reduction of pupils’ parents’ incomes that can lead to a decrease in a request for paid educational services, which is one of the sources of extra-budgetary funding of school education are considered as such effects. From this perspective, the projective educational strategy of the parents of school students is considered. The analysis of the economic activities of school organizations, on the one hand, and educational strategies for the parents of schoolchildren in the conditions of

  13. [Estimation of the number of minimum salaries attributed to professions in function of their prestige]. (United States)

    Sousa, F A; da Silva, J A


    The purpose of this study was to verify the relationship between professional prestige scaled through estimations and the professional prestige scaled through estimation of the number of minimum salaries attributed to professions in function of their prestige in society. Results showed: 1--the relationship between the estimation of magnitudes and the estimation of the number of minimum salaries attributed to the professions in function of their prestige is characterized by a function of potence with an exponent lower than 1,0,2--the orders of degrees of prestige of the professions resultant from different experiments involving different samples of subjects are highly concordant (W = 0.85; p salaries).

  14. PERSPECTIVE: Fire on the fringe (United States)

    Pyne, Stephen J.


    upgraded by further research, could solve. The drivers behind sprawl were fundamentally irrational: they resided in such inchoate urgings as aesthetics, a desire to `live in nature', a longing for personal privacy and social isolation. Correction required the imposition of science-based reason onto the scene, which argued for research. What you propose as a solution depends on how you define the problem. Houses were burning and residents too often dying; this was clearly a threat to public safety, an incitement for political action, and an incentive for research. But what were the causes? Scholarly disciplines and national traditions defined it differently. Europeans thought the issue fundamentally social. The breakdown in the old landscape created a disorder of which free-burning fire was a manifestation. This was in keeping with a long heritage of European thinking that identified fire with unrest and that argued that fire control was primarily a matter of social control. People needed to reassert their presence on the land. Those countries with large public estates such as Australia and the US conceived the problem in a converse way. At issue was the unwise (and unwarranted) encroachment of people into the bush. An ideal response would be to banish people from the fringe regions. Fire is `natural' and belongs in wildlands: it is people who upset the order of things. While government has a duty to shield its citizens from harm, it should not allow such measures to destroy nature preserves or the capacity of fire to propagate through them. People have to learn to `live with' fire. In both cases the prevailing assumption is that science will identify solutions, which society will apply. Yet here we have a case of countries implicitly pointing their national sciences in different directions because of their distinctive histories. It would seem that history as a discipline might also have something to contribute to this discourse both in terms of tracking land use and of

  15. DInSAR fringes simulation of sandbox models (United States)

    Derron, Marc-Henri; Carrea, Dario; Michoud, Clément; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    Interpreting satellite DInSAR patterns of slope movements can be difficult because of unwrapping problems, loss of coherence or radar imaging geometry limitations (layover, shadowing …). We investigate the potential of simulating interferometric fringes as a tool to help understanding real DInSAR images. Various types of gravitational slope deformations (sliding, toppling …) have been produced in a sandbox in the lab. These experiments were monitored with a micro-lidar Minolta-Konika Vivid 9i to get successive Digital Elevation Models of the surface. A pair of DEM is then used to simulate DInSAR fringes patterns, with the possibility to vary the wavelength, the angle between the line of sight and the ground displacement, the look angle, the baseline, etc. DInSAR fringes simulated here are idealized. They are not affected by any noise, decoherence, layover or shadow effects; radar image deformations are computed in ancillary files. However it appears that even these ideal wrapped fringes patterns get rapidly very complex when deformation is strong. Then this kind of tool is of interest to better constrain ground surface deformations from resulting InSAR fringes (from lab models or real landslides data). It makes also possible to test how the acquisition geometry impacts the InSAR result depending on the type of slope movement considered.

  16. Salaries and Salary Scales of Full-Time Teaching Staff at Canadian Universities, 2006/2007: Final Report. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 073 (United States)

    Statistics Canada, 2009


    The data in this report are drawn from the "University and College Academic Staff Survey" ("UCASS"). Conducted since 1946, "UCASS" presents a national picture of the socio-economic characteristics of full-time university teachers in degree-granting institutions. The information is conducted annually, with a reference…

  17. Salaries and Salary Scales of Full-Time Teaching Staff at Canadian Universities, 2008/2009: Preliminary Report. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 076 (United States)

    Statistics Canada, 2009


    The data in this report are drawn from the "University and College Academic Staff Survey" ("UCASS"). Conducted since 1946, "UCASS" presents a national picture of the socio-economic characteristics of full-time university teachers in degree-granting institutions. The survey is conducted annually, with a reference date…

  18. The quest for synergy when developing the urban fringe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Engberg, Lars A.

    How can planning policies related to urban fringe development and disadvantaged neighbourhoods create synergy? This question is approached and answered by various research fields and explored on various urban-planning levels, displaying case-studies related to urban regeneration, post-industrial...... and suburban development and urban fringe literature. The present paper adds to these discussions by analysing two case-studies in Denmark in which local government pursue traditional urban-growth strategies in urban-fringe development - a post-industrial harbour and a large suburb, located just outside...... the traditional city core. However, the traditional approach to growth is in both cases confronted with the presence of close-by disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Stakeholders are engaged in the difficult quest of creating synergy for both development and disadvantage by means of public investments. The paper...

  19. First fringe measurements with a phase-tracking stellar interferometer. (United States)

    Shao, M; Staelin, D H


    A prototype two-telescope stellar interferometer with a 1.5-m base line has been used to track the white-light fringes, 0.4-0.9 microm, from Polaris. Continuous fringe phase and amplitude measurements were made with ~220-photon/4-msec integration time and 1.27-cm(2) collecting area under 2-arc sec seeing conditions. The same control algorithm should be able to track fringes from an 8.7-mg star using the light from two 13-cm (5-in.) telescopes and a 10-msec integration time under 1-arc sec seeing conditions. When tracking, the servo maintained equal path lengths to 0.1-microm rms in the two arms of the interferometer, thus cancelling the path-length variations caused by earth rotation and atmospheric turbulence. In the future, two-color phase measurements will make optical aperture synthesis and optical very long-base-line astrometry possible.

  20. Probiotics, immunomodulation, and health benefits. (United States)

    Gill, Harsharn; Prasad, Jaya


    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amount, confer a health benefit on the host. Amongst the many benefits associated with the consumption of probiotics, modulation of the immune system has received the most attention. Several animal and human studies have provided unequivocal evidence that specific strains of probiotics are able to stimulate as well as regulate several aspects of natural and acquired immune responses. There is also evidence that intake of probiotics is effective in the prevention and/or management of acute gastroenteritis and rotavirus diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease and pouchitis, and paediatric atopic disorders. The efficacy of probiotics against bacterial infections and immunological disorders such as adult asthma, cancers, diabetes, and arthritis in humans remains to be proven. Also, major gaps exist in our knowledge about the mechanisms by which probiotics modulate immune function. Optimum dose, frequency and duration of treatment required for different conditions in different population groups also remains to be determined. Different probiotic strains vary in their ability to modulate the immune system and therefore efficacy of each strain needs to be carefully demonstrated through rigorously designed (randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled) studies. This chapter provides an over view of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in health and disease, and discusses possible mechanisms through which probiotics mediate their disparate effects.

  1. Examining gender salary disparities: an analysis of the 2003 multistate salary survey. (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence M; Schommer, Jon C; Mott, Dave; Gaither, Caroline A; Doucette, William R; Zgarrick, Dave P; Droege, Marcus


    Pharmacist salary and wage surveys have been conducted at the state and national level for more than 20 years; however, it is not known to what extent, if any, wage disparities due to gender still exist. The overall objective of this study was to determine if wage disparities exist among male and female pharmacists at the multistate and individual state level for each of 6 states studied. A secondary objective was to explore the effect of various demographic variables on the hourly wages of pharmacists. Data were collected from 1,688 pharmacists in 6 states during 2003 using a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A multiple regression analysis on hourly wage testing the effects of state of practice, practice setting, position, terminal degree, and years in practice was conducted. Subsequent multiple regression analyses were conducted individually for each of the 6 states to test the effects of the above variables on hourly wage for both male and female pharmacists, followed by state-level analyses for male and female pharmacists, respectively. For the pooled data, all variables were found to be significant predictors of hourly wage, except for earning a PharmD degree without a residency or graduate degree. Gender was not a significant predictor of wage disparities in the state-level analyses. Position was the only significant predictor of wage disparities in all states (except Tennessee) such that pharmacists in management positions make significantly higher salaries than those in staff positions. The results of these analyses suggest that wage disparities due to gender do not exist at the state level for the 6 states surveyed, when controlling for practice setting, position, terminal degree, and years in practice. The larger number of men in management positions may explain lower wages for female pharmacists.

  2. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Anatolitou


    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  3. 25 CFR 900.8 - What must an initial contract proposal contain? (United States)


    ..., presented by major categories such as: (i) Personnel (differentiating between salary and fringe benefits... degree of Federal programmatic involvement anticipated during the term of the agreement. (k) The extent...

  4. Motivation and benefits of implementation and certification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to provide a contribution to the research related to the motivation and benefits associated to the quality management systems. The selection of the motives and benefits were validated through statistical analysis and the relationship between expected and perceived benefits was discussed. Keywords: Quality ...

  5. Reading the ideological subtext in André Brink’s An Instant in the Wind and Patrick White’s A Fringe of Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wenzel


    Full Text Available From a postcolonial perspective, the simultaneous publication of André Brink’s An Instant in the Wind and Patrick White’s A Fringe of Leaves provides an interesting example of rewriting. Although both texts refer to the original story of Eliza Fraser that has featured in several genres, they approach the event from different historical time-frames. This article attempts to indicate that the contextual and formal similarities between the two novels are underpinned by different ideological subtexts that clearly manifest the respective authors’ preoccupations and their unconscious reactions to socio-political contexts. It would seem that Brink’s main concern lies with race relations, while White is more engrossed with gender issues.

  6. Unequal distribution of salary from a gender perspective and the impact of recession on the catalan labor market


    Adillón, M.Jesús Gómez; Piqué, M.Àngels Cabasés


    In order to highlight the uneven impact of recession on the labor market in Catalonia (Spain), especially regarding wage structure, this study examines the evolution of its main variables in the period 2005-2012 from a gender perspective. For ten years prior to recession, female employment improved, mainly due to the expansion of the tertiary sector and public sector and numerous new political and legislative actions. These actions aimed at the interdiction of certain long-held and deep-roote...

  7. Job Requirements for Marketing Graduates: Are There Differences in the Knowledge, Skills, and Personal Attributes Needed for Different Salary Levels? (United States)

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Karns, Gary L.


    Several studies in the business press and in the marketing literature point to a "transformation" of marketing caused by the availability of large amounts of data for marketing analysis and planning. However, the effects of the integration of technology on entry-level jobs for marketing graduates have not been fully explored. This study…

  8. The TCN/AACN 2010 "salary survey": professional practices, beliefs, and incomes of U.S. neuropsychologists. (United States)

    Sweet, Jerry J; Meyer, Dawn Giuffre; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Moberg, Paul J


    Doctoral-level members of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association, and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, and other neuropsychologists, were invited to participate in a web-based survey in early 2010. The sample of respondents was 56% larger than a prior related income and practice survey in 2005. The substantial proportional change in gender taking place in the field has continued, with 7 of 10 post-doctoral residents being women and, for the first time ever, more than half of the total sample of respondents being women. Whereas the median age of APA members has been over 50 since the early 1990s, the current median age of clinical neuropsychologists remains at 47 and has remained essentially unchanged since 1989, indicating substantial entrance of young psychologists into the field. The Houston Conference training model has influenced the vast majority of residency training sites, and is endorsed as compatible with prior training by two-thirds of all respondents. Testing assistant usage remains commonplace, and is much more common in institutions. The "flexible battery" approach has again increased in popularity and predominates, whereas endorsement of the "fixed/standardized battery" approach has continued to decline. The vast majority of clinical neuropsychologists work full time. Average length of time reported for evaluations increased significantly from 2005, which does not appear to be explained by changes in common referral sources or common diagnostic conditions being evaluated. The most common factors affecting evaluation length were identified, with the top three being goal of evaluation, stamina/health of examinee, and age of examinee. Pediatric specialists are more likely than others to work part time, more likely to be women, more likely to work in institutions, and report lower incomes than respondents whose professional identity is purely adult or a

  9. Impact Analysis of Working Condition, Salary, Corporate Ownership and Fairness on Employee Job Satisfaction in PT. Bpr Prismadana Manado


    Lasut, Gilbert


    Nowadays a lot of people not really think about the job satisfaction in their work place especially the chief at some company, while the job satisfaction is very important for employee performance. Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about jobs and different aspects of their jobs it is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. Job Satisfaction is a part that is always related to the employee and the productivity that can increase employee...

  10. How and Why Do IT Entrepreneurs Leave Their Salaried Employment to Start a SME? A Mixed Methods Research Design (United States)

    Mourmant, Gaëtan

    This method paper addresses an untapped but important type of IT turnover: IT entrepreneurship. We seek to develop a mixed methods research (MMR) design to understand the factors and processes that influence turnover behavior of prospective (nascent) IT entrepreneurs. To do this, we review two prior streams of research: the entrepreneurship literature and IT employee turnover. We incorporate the results of this literature review into a conceptual framework describing how the relevant factors leading to entrepreneurial and turnover behavior change over time, either gradually or suddenly, in response to specific events. In addition, we also contribute to the research by arguing that mixed methods research (MMR) is appropriate to bridge the gap between entrepreneurial literature and the IT turnover literature. A third important contribution is the design of the MMR, combining a longitudinal approach with a retrospective approach; a qualitative with a quantitative approach and, the exploratory design with the triangulation design [1]. Finally, we discuss practical implications for IT managers and IT entrepreneurs.

  11. On the effects of fringe fields in the LHC ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F.


    The effects of the dipole and quadrupole fringe fields on such machine parameters as chromaticity, anharmonicity, closed orbit, etc are investigated by stepwise ray-tracing in the Version 4 of the LHC RING. First the ray-tracing method is described, then follows an overview of the relevant LHC characteristics and in particular the fringe filed data and the corresponding field models. Some key points concerning the application to the ray-tracing in the LHC ring are emphasized. Then follows a detailed study of the machine parameters. (author). 10 refs.

  12. Analytical expressions for fringe fields in multipole magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Muratori


    Full Text Available Fringe fields in multipole magnets can have a variety of effects on the linear and nonlinear dynamics of particles moving along an accelerator beam line. An accurate model of an accelerator must include realistic models of the magnet fringe fields. Fringe fields for dipoles are well understood and can be modeled at an early stage of accelerator design in such codes as mad8, madx, gpt or elegant. Existing techniques for quadrupole and higher order multipoles rely either on the use of a numerical field map, or on a description of the field in the form of a series expansion about a chosen axis. Usually, it is not until the later stages of a design project that such descriptions (based on magnet modeling or measurement become available. Furthermore, series expansions rely on the assumption that the beam travels more or less on axis throughout the beam line; but in some types of machines (for example, Fixed Field Alternating Gradients or FFAGs this is not a good assumption. Furthermore, some tracking codes, such as gpt, use methods for including space charge effects that require fields to vary smoothly and continuously along a beam line: in such cases, realistic fringe field models are of significant importance. In this paper, a method for constructing analytical expressions for multipole fringe fields is presented. Such expressions allow fringe field effects to be included in beam dynamics simulations from the start of an accelerator design project, even before detailed magnet design work has been undertaken. The magnetostatic Maxwell equations are solved analytically and a solution that fits all orders of multipoles is derived. Quadrupole fringe fields are considered in detail as these are the ones that give the strongest effects. The analytic expressions for quadrupole fringe fields are compared with data obtained from numerical modeling codes in two cases: a magnet in the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider inner triplet, and a

  13. Sex Differences in Radiologist Salary in U.S. Public Medical Schools. (United States)

    Kapoor, Neena; Blumenthal, Daniel M; Smith, Stacy E; Ip, Ivan K; Khorasani, Ramin


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate salary differences between male and female academic radiologists at U.S. medical schools. Laws in several U.S. states mandate public release of government records, including salary information of state employees. From online salary data published by 12 states, we extracted the salaries of all academic radiologists at 24 public medical schools during 2011-2013 (n = 573 radiologists). In this institutional review board-approved cross-sectional study, we linked these data to a physician database with information on physician sex, age, faculty rank, years since residency, clinical trial involvement, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, scientific publications, and clinical volume measured by 2013 Medicare payments. Sex difference in salary, the primary outcome, was estimated using a multilevel logistic regression adjusting for these factors. Among 573 academic radiologists, 171 (29.8%) were women. Female radiologists were younger (48.5 vs 51.6 years, p = 0.001) and more likely to be assistant professors (50.9% [87/171] vs 40.8% [164/402], p = 0.026). Salaries between men and women were similar in unadjusted analyses ($290,660 vs $289,797; absolute difference, $863; 95% CI, -$18,363 to $20,090), and remained so after adjusting for age, faculty rank, years since residency, clinical trial involvement, publications, total Medicare payments, NIH funding, and graduation from a highly ranked medical school. Among academic radiologists employed at 24 U.S. public medical schools, male and female radiologists had similar annual salaries both before and after adjusting for several variables known to influence salary among academic physicians.

  14. Flexible geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection 3D measurement. (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Liang; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing


    System geometrical calibration is a challenging task in fringe-reflection 3D measurement because the fringe displayed on the LCD screen does not lie within the camera's field of view. Commonly, a flat mirror with markers can accomplish system geometrical calibration. However, the position of the markers must be precisely located by photogrammetry in advance. In this Letter, we introduce a calibration method by use of a markerless flat mirror. Experiments in phase measuring deflectometry demonstrate that the proposed method is simple and flexible.

  15. Complexity of Risks and Benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elasy, Tom A


    ... was simultaneously earning her Masters in Business Administration degree, I likened the benefits of health care (with glucose control, those benefits include reductions in microvascular complications) to a "top-line" evaluation. It is essential, however, to have a "bottom-line" evaluation as well. Bottom-line evaluations would involve subtracting the c...

  16. Carotid revascularization: risks and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien M


    Full Text Available Marlene O'Brien, Ankur Chandra Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Despite a decline during the recent decades in stroke-related death, the incidence of stroke has remained unchanged or slightly increased, and extracranial carotid artery stenosis is implicated in 20%–30% of all strokes. Medical therapy and risk factor modification are first-line therapies for all patients with carotid occlusive disease. Evidence for the treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 70% with either carotid artery stenting (CAS or carotid endarterectomy (CEA is compelling, and several trials have demonstrated a benefit to carotid revascularization in the symptomatic patient population. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is more controversial, with the largest trials only demonstrating a 1% per year risk stroke reduction with CEA. Although there are sufficient data to advocate for aggressive medical therapy as the primary mode of treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, there are also data to suggest that certain patient populations will benefit from a stroke risk reduction with carotid revascularization. In the United States, consensus and practice guidelines dictate that CEA is reasonable in patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis, a reasonable life expectancy, and perioperative risk of less than 3%. Regarding CAS versus CEA, the best-available evidence demonstrates no difference between the two procedures in early perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, and no difference in 4-year ipsilateral stroke risk. However, because of the higher perioperative risks of stroke in patients undergoing CAS, particularly in symptomatic, female, or elderly patients, it is difficult to recommend CAS over CEA except in populations with prohibitive cardiac risk, previous carotid surgery, or prior neck radiation. Current treatment

  17. Adjustments to financial benefits and contributions with effect from 1 January 2012

    CERN Document Server


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2010, June and December 2011, certain financial benefits and contributions impacting salaries and stipends have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2012. 1)  Five-yearly review 2010 (decisions taken by Council in December 2010) In line with the second phase of Council decisions, increases of 1% and 2% have been applied to basic salaries in Career Path D and Career Paths E to G respectively1); In addition, Health Insurance Scheme contribution rates have been modified (from 4.27%) to 4.41% for the member and (from 6.59%) to 6.86% for the Organization. 2)  Package of measures towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund (decisions taken by Council in June 2011) In accordance with Council decisions, the Organization’s contribution rate for new members of the Fund as of 1.1.2012 is 17%.  The provisions for current members remain unchanged. 3)&nb...

  18. Gender Differences in Salary in a Recent Cohort of Early-Career Physician-Researchers (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A.; Stewart, Abigail; Sambuco, Dana; DeCastro, Rochelle; Ubel, Peter A.


    Purpose Since prior studies have suggested that male physicians earn more than their female counterparts, the authors examined whether this disparity exists in a recently hired cohort. Method In 2010-11, the authors surveyed recent recipients of National Institutes of Health (NIH) mentored career development (i.e., K08 or K23) awards, receiving responses from 1,275 (75% response rate). For the 1,012 physicians with academic positions in clinical specialties who reported salary, they constructed linear regression models of salary considering gender, age, race, marital status, parental status, additional doctoral degree, academic rank, years on faculty, specialty, institution type, region, institution NIH funding rank, K-award type, K-award funding institute, K-award year, work hours, and research time. They evaluated the explanatory value of spousal employment status using Peters-Belson regression. Results Mean salary was $141,325 (95% confidence interval [CI] 135,607-147,043) for women and $172,164 (95% CI 167,357-176,971) for men. Male gender remained an independent, significant predictor of salary (+$10,921, P salary that was not fully explained by specialty, academic rank, work hours, or even spousal employment. Creating more equitable procedures for establishing salary at academic institutions is important. PMID:24072109

  19. Gender differences in salary in a recent cohort of early-career physician-researchers. (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A; Stewart, Abigail; Sambuco, Dana; DeCastro, Rochelle; Ubel, Peter A


    Studies have suggested that male physicians earn more than their female counterparts. The authors examined whether this disparity exists in a recently hired cohort. In 2010-2011, the authors surveyed recent recipients of National Institutes of Health (NIH) mentored career development (i.e., K08 or K23) awards, receiving responses from 1,275 (75% response rate). For the 1,012 physicians with academic positions in clinical specialties who reported salary, they constructed linear regression models of salary considering gender, age, race, marital status, parental status, additional doctoral degree, academic rank, years on faculty, specialty, institution type, region, institution NIH funding rank, K award type, K award funding institute, K award year, work hours, and research time. They evaluated the explanatory value of spousal employment status using Peters-Belson regression. Mean salary was $141,325 (95% confidence interval [CI] 135,607-147,043) for women and $172,164 (95% CI 167,357-176,971) for men. Male gender remained an independent, significant predictor of salary (+$10,921, P gender difference in salary that was not fully explained by specialty, academic rank, work hours, or even spousal employment. Creating more equitable procedures for establishing salary is important.

  20. Risks, benefits, health and the food economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Fischer, A.R.H.


    This report examines consumer attitudes and purchase behaviour towards risks and benefits of food products. Experimental approaches are used to analyse determinants of consumer risk and benefit perceptions regarding food products. The results suggest that perceptions and behaviour of consumers

  1. A dual-direction fringe projection method for the 3D measurement of translucent object (United States)

    Zhao, Huijie; Liang, Xiaoyue; Jiang, Hongzhi; Li, Hong


    The fringe projection technology is widely used in 3D measurement fields. However when the technology is applying to translucent objects, the subsurface scattering and absorbing always leads to a decline of the measurement accuracy. The aim of this paper is to propose a dual-direction fringe projection method in order to obtain an more accurate measurement result for the translucent objects as while as change the whole measurement system little and do not reduce the measuring rapidity. The paper mainly includes three parts: (1) The principle of dual-direction fringe projection method and different forms of dual-direction fringe; (2) Analysis of the different effect for the measurement accuracy brought by different factors; (3) Experiments for artificial tooth by various dual-direction fringes and accuracy analysis. The experiment results showed that by this method it is possible to improve the measurement accuracy for the translucent objects.

  2. Benefits and Risks Associated with Landscapes (United States)

    To fully reap the benefits that lawns and landscapes can provide our urban and suburban communities, these green spaces must be well-maintained. The landscaping initiative helps manage the benefits and risks associated with lawn care.

  3. Livelihood trends in Response to Climate Change in Forest Fringe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the forest fringe communities in Ghana where the rural livelihoods of the people have been compromised due to deforestation and climate change is the Offin basin. The removal of forests impacts on local climate, water availability, and livelihoods due to influence of forests on precipitation and water balance. Fluxes ...

  4. Impact of Forest Reserves on Livelihoods of Fringe Communities...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. This study looked at how the livelihoods of forest fringe communities have been affected by the constitution of four forest reserves in Brong Ahafo and Ashanti Regions of Ghana. The selec- tion of the reserves for study was based on the fact that the reserves were surrounded by a num- ber of relatively new and ...

  5. VISAR fringe analysis under extreme spatially varying shock loading (United States)

    Erskine, David; Fratanduono, Dayne


    Many VISAR velocity interferometers employ a streak camera to record fringes along the spatial axis (Y) of a target, versus time. When the shock loading (thus velocity history) varies rapidly versus Y, the fringe analysis challenges traditional algorithms since the Y-spacing of fringes can vary strongly with Y, and be significantly different than the uniform pre-shock (bias) spacing. For traditional colum-by-column analysis the intensity signal shape would be a sinusoid with rapidly varying frequency (chirped), which can confuse a traditional algorithm expecting a monochromatic peak in Fourier space. And for a traditional push-pull row-by-row approach, the phase steps are irregular. We describe preliminary success in analyzing such data in simulation. We find it useful to (a) separate the nonfringing component from the data early; (b) maximize linearity of a plot of fringing magnitude versus nonfringing intensity to choose optimal weight values; (c) when using a row-by-row approach sampling 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees phase we add a fifth sample at 360 degrees, which is averaged with the 0 degree sample and replaces it. This increases the robustness to variable phase step (following P. Hariharan). The pre-shock and post-shock regions are separately processed/concatenated. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of fringe tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus L.) is used as a raw material by pharmaceutical industries for the preparation of homeopathy tinctures. In this study, antioxidant activity of ... The both extracts neutralized the activities of radicals and inhibited the peroxidation reactions of linoleic acid emulsion. Total antioxidant activity was

  7. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia. (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris


    Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting within 3 years of formation as opposed to after 6 years for tourism. Disaggregation of data revealed that the main benefits from hunting were income for conservancy management and food in the form of meat for the community at large. The majority of tourism benefits were salaried jobs at lodges. A simulated ban on trophy hunting significantly reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs, whereas eliminating income from tourism did not have as severe an effect. Given that the benefits generated from hunting and tourism typically begin at different times in a conservancy's life-span (earlier vs. later, respectively) and flow to different segments of local communities, these 2 activities together may provide the greatest incentives for conservation on communal lands in Namibia. A singular focus on either hunting or tourism would reduce the value of wildlife as a competitive land-use option and have grave repercussions for the viability of community-based conservation efforts in Namibia

  8. Improved Goldstein Interferogram Filter Based on Local Fringe Frequency Estimation. (United States)

    Feng, Qingqing; Xu, Huaping; Wu, Zhefeng; You, Yanan; Liu, Wei; Ge, Shiqi


    The quality of an interferogram, which is limited by various phase noise, will greatly affect the further processes of InSAR, such as phase unwrapping. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) geophysical measurements', such as height or displacement, phase filtering is therefore an essential step. In this work, an improved Goldstein interferogram filter is proposed to suppress the phase noise while preserving the fringe edges. First, the proposed adaptive filter step, performed before frequency estimation, is employed to improve the estimation accuracy. Subsequently, to preserve the fringe characteristics, the estimated fringe frequency in each fixed filtering patch is removed from the original noisy phase. Then, the residual phase is smoothed based on the modified Goldstein filter with its parameter alpha dependent on both the coherence map and the residual phase frequency. Finally, the filtered residual phase and the removed fringe frequency are combined to generate the filtered interferogram, with the loss of signal minimized while reducing the noise level. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experimental results based on both simulated and real data.

  9. Contaminant profiles for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna associated with the mangrove fringe along middle and lower eastern Tampa Bay. (United States)

    Lewis, M A; Russell, M J


    Contaminant concentrations are reported for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna collected during 2010-2011 from the mangrove fringe along eastern Tampa Bay, Florida. Concentrations of trace metals, chlorinated pesticides, atrazine, total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls were species-, chemical- and location-specific. Contaminants in sediments did not exceed proposed individual sediment quality guidelines. Most sediment quality assessment quotients were less than one indicating the likelihood of no inhibitory effect based on chemical measurements alone. Faunal species typically contained more contaminants than plant species; seagrass usually contained more chemicals than mangroves. Bioconcentration factors for marine angiosperms were usually less than 10 and ranged between 1 and 31. Mercury concentrations (ppm) in blue crabs and fish did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fish tissue criterion of 0.3 and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level of 1.0. In contrast, total mercury concentrations in faunal species often exceeded guideline values for wildlife consumers of aquatic biota. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Experience of contractual change in UK general practice: a qualitative study of salaried GPs (United States)

    Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; McDonald, Ruth; Harrison, Stephen; Sanders, Caroline


    Background General practice in the UK underwent major change in 2004, with the introduction of new contracts and a significant element of pay for performance. Although salaried GPs form an increasing proportion of the general practice workforce, little is known of their experiences. Aim To explore the views and experiences of salaried GPs working in English general practice. Design and setting Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews in 17 practices across England, between July 2007 and September 2009. Method Interviews were conducted with 23 salaried GPs. A topic guide included questions on motivations for a career in general practice, descriptions of their daily working environment and duties, practice relationships, and future aspirations. Results The new ability to opt out of out-of-hours responsibilities was deemed positive for the profession but not a major driver for choosing medical speciality. Views regarding the impact of the Quality and Outcomes Framework were ambivalent. Differences in pay were regarded as largely reflective of differences in responsibility between salaried GPs and principals. Most participants reported conducting varied work in collaborative practices. Participants held varying career aspirations. Conclusion Salaried GPs' working experiences were dependent upon personal aspirations and local context. Most salaried GPs were reportedly content with their current position but many also had aspirations of eventually attaining GP principal status. The current lack of available partnerships threatens to undo recent positive workforce progress and may lead to deep dissatisfaction within the profession and a future workforce crisis. Further large-scale quantitative work is required to assess the satisfaction and future expectations of those in salaried posts. PMID:22520916

  11. Benefits of Unionization Still Unclear for U.S. Academic Libraries and Librarians. A Review of: Applegate, R. (2009. Who benefits? Unionization and academic libraries and librarians. The Library Quarterly, 79(4, 443‐463.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto


    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the quantitative benefits of unionization for libraries, librarians, and students at academic libraries in the United States.Design – Quantitative analysis of existing datasets.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – One thousand nine hundred four accredited colleges and universities in the United States.Methods – Institutions that provided data for both the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES Academic Libraries Survey (ALS and the NCES Integrated Postsecondary Education Data Service (IPEDS survey series in 2004 were considered for inclusion in this study. Of these institutions, only those with student populations over 500 and employing more than one librarian were included. The study did not include specialized libraries at institutions where “most of their degrees were awarded in a single area” (p. 449. The institutions were categorized by type derived from data by Carnegie and the Association of Research Libraries. The final categories were: ARL, Doctoral Non‐ARL, Masters, Baccalaureate, and Associates. Governance was determined by using information from IPEDS that classified the institutions as public, private not‐for‐profit, and private for‐profit. Unionization status was derived from the Directory of Faculty Contracts and Bargaining Agents in Institutions of Higher Education. After private not‐for‐profit and private for‐profit classifications were collapsed into one category, governance and unionization information were combined to create the final governance categories of: private, public nonunionized, and public unionized. The study analyzed the following characteristics in terms of institution type, governance, and institution type and governance interaction: ratio of students to librarians, ratio of library expenditures to institutional budget expenditures, average librarian salary, percentage of staff who were librarians, librarian salaries as a

  12. Performance Evaluation of CRW Reef-Scale and Broad-Scale SST-Based Coral Monitoring Products in Fringing Reef Systems of Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaazia S. Mohammed


    Full Text Available Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST is used to monitor coral bleaching through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coral Reef Watch (CRW Decision Support System (DSS. Since 2000, a broad-scale 50 km SST was used to monitor thermal stress for coral reefs globally. However, some discrepancies were noted when applied to small-scale fringing coral reefs. To address this, CRW created a new DSS, specifically targeted at or near reef scales. Here, we evaluated the new reef-scale (5 km resolution products using in situ temperature data and coral bleaching surveys which were also compared with the heritage broad-scale (50 km for three reefs (Buccoo Reef, Culloden and Speyside of the southern Caribbean island of Tobago. Seasonal and annual biases indicated the new 5 km SST generally represents the conditions at these reefs more accurately and more consistently than the 50 km SST. Consistency between satellite and in situ temperature data influences the performance of anomaly-based predictions of bleaching: the 5 km DHW product showed better consistency with bleaching observations than the 50 km product. These results are the first to demonstrate the improvement of the 5 km products over the 50 km predecessors and support their use in monitoring thermal stress of reefs in the southern Caribbean.

  13. Improved zero-order fringe positioning algorithms in white light interference based atomic force microscopy (United States)

    Hu, Chi; Liu, Xiaojun; Yang, Wenjun; Lu, Wenlong; Yu, Nengguo; Chang, Suping


    In white light interference based atomic force microscopy (WLIAFM), the vertical displacement of the probe is obtained by zero-order fringe positioning on the probe cantilever, so the accuracy of zero-order fringe positioning will affect directly that of the WLIAFM. However, due to non-uniform distribution of light intensity and photoelectric noises, accurate zero-order fringe positioning becomes a problem. In this paper, two algorithms are proposed to improve the zero-order fringe positioning accuracy. In the first algorithm which is called improved maximum algorithm, multi-row maximum positions of the interference fringes are obtained and error theory is applied to eliminate erroneous maximum positions, then the average of remaining maximum positions is used as the zero-order fringe position. Another is called phase evaluation algorithm, in which wavelet transform is applied to eliminate effects from disturbances mentioned above and Hilbert transform is used for phase evaluation to obtain the zero-order fringe position. The practicability and accuracy of the two algorithms have been verified by series of experiments. The experiment results indicate that both two algorithms are suitable in this condition and the phase evaluation algorithm has higher accuracy while the improved maximum algorithm has higher processing speed.

  14. Image decomposition model Shearlet-Hilbert-L2with better performance for denoising in ESPI fringe patterns. (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun; Tang, Chen; Su, Yonggang; Li, Biyuan; Lei, Zhenkun


    In this paper, we propose an image decomposition model Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 with better performance for denoising in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringe patterns. In our model, the low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise are, respectively, described by shearlet smoothness spaces, adaptive Hilbert space, and L 2 space and processed individually. Because the shearlet transform has superior directional sensitivity, our proposed Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 model achieves commendable filtering results for various types of ESPI fringe patterns, including uniform density fringe patterns, moderately variable density fringe patterns, and greatly variable density fringe patterns. We evaluate the performance of our proposed Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 model via application to two computer-simulated and nine experimentally obtained ESPI fringe patterns with various densities and poor quality. Furthermore, we compare our proposed model with windowed Fourier filtering and coherence-enhancing diffusion, both of which are the state-of-the-art methods for ESPI fringe patterns denoising in transform domain and spatial domain, respectively. We also compare our proposed model with the previous image decomposition model BL-Hilbert-L 2 .

  15. Second-order oriented partial-differential equations for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringes. (United States)

    Tang, Chen; Han, Lin; Ren, Hongwei; Zhou, Dongjian; Chang, Yiming; Wang, Xiaohang; Cui, Xiaolong


    We derive the second-order oriented partial-differential equations (PDEs) for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringe patterns from two points of view. The first is based on variational methods, and the second is based on controlling diffusion direction. Our oriented PDE models make the diffusion along only the fringe orientation. The main advantage of our filtering method, based on oriented PDE models, is that it is very easy to implement compared with the published filtering methods along the fringe orientation. We demonstrate the performance of our oriented PDE models via application to two computer-simulated and experimentally obtained speckle fringes and compare with related PDE models.

  16. Ethics and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    The purpose of this research report is threefold. Firstly, the author traces the origins and justification of cost-benefit analysis in moral and political philosophy. Secondly, he explain some of the basic features of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool in a step-bystep presentation. Thirdly......, he presents and discusses some of the main ethical difficulties related to the use of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool....

  17. OASDI Beneficiaries and Benefits by State-2014 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual map focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population- people receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits- at the state...

  18. Learning to Read and Write on the Fringes of Schooling: Some Examples of Didactic Devices in Mexican Society in the Modern Era (United States)

    Castro, Josefina Granja


    This paper focuses on the analysis of certain didactic resources that proliferated on the fringes of schooling during the second half of the nineteenth century in Mexico. The first of these is a method that, according to its author, made it possible to teach a pupil how to read in only six lessons, dated 1830; the second is a writing method from…

  19. Nature of diffraction fringes originating in the core of core-shell nanoparticle Cu/SiO2 and formation mechanism of the structures (United States)

    Radnaev, A. R.; Kalashnikov, S. V.; Nomoev, A. V.


    This article is devoted to the analysis of the reasons for the occurrence of diffraction fringes in the cores of the core-shell nanoparticles Cu/SiO2. Moiré and diffraction fringes are observed while studying the nanoparticle cores under a transmission electron microscope. The formation of diffraction fringes is closely connected to the mechanism of nanoparticle formation under study and appears to be its consequence, letting us develop a hypothesis of metastable phase formation in nanoparticle cores. In our opinion, the emergence of diffraction fringes in cores of copper is connected to clasterisation in solid solution oversaturated with silicon α-Cu with the diffused interphase state. Only copper and oxygen (oxygen is presented as oxides in such types of copper as M0 - up to 0.01%; and M1 - up to 0.03%), Copper and silicon with oxygen in a stoichiometric proportion that is only sufficient for silicon dioxide formation (SiO2), Copper and silicon with oxygen in an amount that is sufficient not only for silicon dioxide formation, but also for the dissolution of silicon in the α-Cu solid solution, The amount of silicon in the alloy is not sufficient for the total fixation of oxygen contained in copper, Copper, oxygen and silicon whose contamination is greater than 8 wt.%. In the first case, the top-cut of oxygen in α-Cu solid solution is 0.03% at the temperature of 1066 °C. At slow cooling, secondary recrystallisation leads to the formation of equilibrium Cu2O on the line of the ultimate solubility (Figure 1a - line of maximum solubility of oxygen in copper). In the case of fast cooling fixation of oversaturated, single-phase, non-equilibrium α-Cu, solid solution (heat-treated) takes place, which contains saluted oxygen in an interstice crystal lattice of copper.Room temperature for nonferrous alloys (metals) is sufficient for the diffusive mobility of atoms, but insufficient for the formation of an equilibrium phase and stable phase of Cu2O. This is why

  20. 45 CFR 1336.50 - Financial and administrative requirements. (United States)


    ... basis of sex in education programs and activities receiving or benefiting from Federal financial... recipients to purchase real property. (f) Office of the Chief Executive. The costs of salaries and expenses... § 74.3 of this title) are allowable, provided that such costs exclude any portion of salaries and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CHIRILA


    Full Text Available The employment-productivity-salary correlation is essential towards setting up conditions for economic growth andlasting social stability. An influence exists from technological changes, current stage of economic development,peculiarities of labour offer, employers – trade-unions interaction, etc. The analysis covers long-term and short-termcycles. In keeping with specificity of development stages, national economy witnesses an interval of productivitygrowth facilitating maximized employment and a rise in salary too. A lower growth rate indicates difficulties inassimilating new technologies; a higher growth rate generates instability in employing labour. Thus, the exercise ofstrong pressure is shown to exist on economic and technological structures. Likewise, this is what happens whenproductivity goes ahead of the separate analyses of the correlations between employment and productivity, on theone hand, and productivity and salary, on the other.

  2. Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    First, the benefits of regional integration will not be realized if the transaction costs of economic activities among the member countries remain high. Second, while there are important benefits for poverty reduction, there are also possible negative impacts and inefficiencies that could result in imbalanced development.

  3. Caring burden and associated factors of care providers for senile dementia patients in an urban-rural fringe of Fuzhou City, China. (United States)

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Honghui; Huang, He; Wang, Yinzhou; Huang, Hualing


    Dementia is a serious disease that places undue burden on family care providers. This study aimed to investigate caring burden and associated factors of care providers for dementia patients in an urban-rural fringe area in China. A total of 197 dementia patients ≥65 years of age were identified from July-November 2007 in 22 villages of Gushan Town, Fuzhou City, China, and 152 care providers of the patients were recruited and analyzed. The Care Provider Burden Inventory was used to evaluate the main burdens including overall burden and time-dependent, developmental, physical, emotional and social burdens. Factors associating with caring burden were analyzed. The prevalence rate of dementia was 7.3% (197/2696) in study area. Four factors significantly increased overall care providers' burden score: daily hours of caring time, payment source for patients' medical expense, care providers' religion and care providers' role awareness (adjusted-R2 0.617). Patients with significantly impaired function of daily living (higher ADL scores) resulted in a higher caregivers' time-dependent burden. Increasing hour of caring per day increased care providers' time-dependent, physical and developmental burden. Care providers' view of their role awareness as obligation increased score of time-dependent, developmental, physical and emotional burdens. Patient with physical disability significantly increased developmental, physical, emotional and social burdens. The main influence factors of the caring burden of care providers' for dementia patients were length of daily caring hours, source of care receivers' medical expenses, patient with physical disability and care providers' role awareness (i.e., obligated vs willing).

  4. A Self-Powered and Autonomous Fringing Field Capacitive Sensor Integrated into a Micro Sprinkler Spinner to Measure Soil Water Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferreira da Costa


    Full Text Available We present here the design and fabrication of a self-powered and autonomous fringing field capacitive sensor to measure soil water content. The sensor is manufactured using a conventional printed circuit board and includes a porous ceramic. To read the sensor, we use a circuit that includes a 10 kHz triangle wave generator, an AC amplifier, a precision rectifier and a microcontroller. In terms of performance, the sensor’s capacitance (measured in a laboratory prototype increases up to 5% when the volumetric water content of the porous ceramic changed from 3% to 36%, resulting in a sensitivity of S = 15.5 pF per unity change. Repeatability tests for capacitance measurement showed that the θ v sensor’s root mean square error is 0.13%. The average current consumption of the system (sensor and signal conditioning circuit is less than 1.5 μ A, which demonstrates its suitability for being powered by energy harvesting systems. We developed a complete irrigation control system that integrates the sensor, an energy harvesting module composed of a microgenerator installed on the top of a micro sprinkler spinner, and a DC/DC converter circuit that charges a 1 F supercapacitor. The energy harvesting module operates only when the micro sprinkler spinner is irrigating the soil, and the supercapacitor is fully charged to 5 V in about 3 h during the first irrigation. After the first irrigation, with the supercap fully charged, the system can operate powered only by the supercapacitor for approximately 23 days, without any energy being harvested.

  5. Color fringe projection profilometry using geometric constraints (United States)

    Cheng, Teng; Du, Qingyu; Jiang, Yaxi


    A recently proposed phase unwrapping method using geometric constraints performs well without requiring additional camera, more patterns or global search. The major limitation of this technique is the confined measurement depth range (MDR) within 2π in phase domain. To enlarge the MDR, this paper proposes using color fringes for three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement. Each six fringe periods encoded with six different colors are treated as one group. The local order within one group can be identified with reference to the color distribution. Then the phase wrapped period-by-period is converted into the phase wrapped group-by-group. The geometric constraints of the fringe projection system are used to determine the group order. Such that the MDR is extended from 2π to 12π by six times. Experiment results demonstrate the success of the proposed method to measure two isolated objects with large MDR.

  6. The effects of different approaches to salary survey data analysis on pay curve midpoint values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Snelgar


    Full Text Available Despite the acceptance of salary survey market data as justification for salary differentials, the whole area of collection, analysis, and interpretation has not been subject to the same scrutiny as hiring practices and testing. Many aspects of surveys have been ignored by researchers. Little can be said about the effects of different formats in the accuracy of data obtained, about ensuring comparability of job matches, about how representative relevant markets surveys are, or about reliability of analysis of survey results. This study has revealed the extent to which individual survey position averages have been obscured by the inclusion of data from different position grades. As a result, different approaches to the analysis of data from the same salary survey have resulted in different pay lines/curves.

  7. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei


    The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

  8. Sex Differences in Faculty Salaries: A Cohort Analysis. (United States)

    Perna, Laura Walter

    This study examined sex differences in faculty salaries, exploring how lower salaries for women varied across different rank/experience cohorts. Data came from the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. Six cohorts were defined: assistant professors with 1-2 years experience, 3-6 years experience, 7-12 years experience, or 13-20 years…

  9. Measurement to radius of Newton’s ring fringes using polar coordinate transform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Ping; Bai, Fu-zhong; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Xiao-juan; Wang, Xiao-qiang


    Newton’s ring method is often used to measure many physical parameters. And some measured physical quantity can be extracted by calculating the radius parameter of circular fringes from Newton's ring...

  10. Observation of electron beam moiré fringes in an image conversion tube. (United States)

    Lei, Yunfei; Liao, Yubo; Long, Jing-Hua; Cai, Houzhi; Bai, Yanli; Liu, Jinyuan


    An image conversion tube with a magnetic lens was designed to observe electron beam moiré fringes. Electron beam moiré fringes result from the interference between the photocathode and the anode meshes. The photocathode had a strip line structure with a spatial frequency of 10L/mm. The anode mesh had a fixed spatial frequency of 10L/mm, and could be rotated around the axis of the image tube. The changes to the fringe direction and the spacing as a function of the rotation angle between the photocathode and the anode mesh were examined. The experimental results agreed with the theoretical analysis. Moiré fringes with a modulation of ~20% were obtained using a 3keV electron beam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  12. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki, E-mail: [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)


    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible.

  13. Beyond the Fringe: The Role of Recreation in Multi-Functional Urban Fringe Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the academic literature and policy documents that relate to and promote the need for urban design and the re-invigoration of the processes and practices of ‘masterplanning’. Specifically, this paper concerns the implications for recreation in areas that have been conceptualised in a number of ways including ‘urban fringe’ andfringe-belt’ and the ways in which these areas are being re-developed as multi-functional spaces in the planning process. The paper pays particular attention to the proposed development of the ‘North Plymouth Community Park’ examining the claims made for the sustainable characteristics of the development and questioning the absence of the cultural aspects of recreation.

  14. Single frame profilometry with rapid phase demodulation on colour-coded fringes (United States)

    Yee, Cong Kai; Yen, Kin Sam


    Digital fringe profilometry is a non-contact surface profiling technique with huge potential at real-time dynamic whole-field measurement. However, this technique is usually bottlenecked at the phase demodulation and unwrapping during fringe analysis. This paper proposes a single frame profilometry system that used direct arccosine function demodulation on colour-coded sinusoidal fringes to simplify the fringe analysis process. Since the range of arccosine function output is restricted from 0 to π, the intensity gradient was used along with arccosine function to demodulate the fringe intensity levels into wrapped phase map (0-2π). The projected fringes were coloured in red, green and blue according to the De Bruijn's sequence. The fringe order was identified directly from the colours of three consecutive fringes by matching to the De Bruijn's sequence to unwrap the wrapped phase map into continuous phase map. The phase differences between the continuous phase maps of reference plane and object surface were then obtained and related to the equipment setup position using trigonometry to rebuild the 3D model. The proposed method was tested experimentally by reconstructing three physical objects. Although the reconstructed surface contained phase errors due to gamma non-linearity, the geometrical shapes of the objects can be reconstructed with reasonable accuracy and consistency. The percentage deviations of dimensions in x, y and z-axis were 1.24%, -1.96% and -2.30% respectively. Meanwhile the uncertainties of dimensions in x, y and z-axis were ±0.15%, ±0.24% and ±1.07% respectively at 95% confidence level.

  15. Pulse-width modulation in defocused three-dimensional fringe projection. (United States)

    Ayubi, Gastón A; Ayubi, Jaime A; Di Martino, J Matías; Ferrari, José A


    Shape measurements by fringe projection methods require high-quality sinusoidal fringes. We present a sinusoidal fringe generation technique that utilizes slightly defocused binary fringe projection. The proposed method is a spatial version of the well-known pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique of electrical engineering. PWM is easy to implement using off-the-shelf projectors, and it allows us to overcome the gamma problem (i.e., the nonlinear projector response) in the output light intensity. We will demonstrate that, with a small defocusing level--lower than with other techniques proposed in the literature--a high-quality sinusoidal pattern is obtained. Validation experiments using a commercial video projector are presented.

  16. High-visibility interference fringes with femtosecond laser radiation. (United States)

    Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Martínez-León, Lluís; Lancis, Jesús; Mínguez-Vega, Gladys; Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Clemente, Pere; Andrés, Pedro


    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an interferometer for femtosecond pulses with spectral bandwidth about 100 nm. The scheme is based on a Michelson interferometer with a dispersion compensating module. A diffractive lens serves the purpose of equalizing the optical-path-length difference for a wide range of frequencies. In this way, it is possible to register high-contrast interference fringes with micrometric resolution over the whole area of a commercial CCD sensor for broadband femtosecond pulses.

  17. Prism coupler jig: interference fringes enable observation of the coupling gap. (United States)

    Chilwell, J T


    A prism coupler jig is described which enables a coupling region to be quickly and easily found when the waveguide is a thin film on a microscope slide. Interference fringes formed on reflection allow observation of the air gap. Consideration is given to the formation of white light and quasi-monochromatic interference fringes. A suitable choice of the refractive index of the right-angle prism enables the m lines to be observed in a convenient observation space.

  18. Iterated unscented Kalman filter for phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes. (United States)

    Xie, Xianming


    A fresh phase unwrapping algorithm based on iterated unscented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate unambiguous unwrapped phase of interferometric fringes. This method is the result of combining an iterated unscented Kalman filter with a robust phase gradient estimator based on amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heap sort. The iterated unscented Kalman filter that is one of the most robust methods under the Bayesian theorem frame in non-linear signal processing so far, is applied to perform simultaneously noise suppression and phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes for the first time, which can simplify the complexity and the difficulty of pre-filtering procedure followed by phase unwrapping procedure, and even can remove the pre-filtering procedure. The robust phase gradient estimator is used to efficiently and accurately obtain phase gradient information from interferometric fringes, which is needed for the iterated unscented Kalman filtering phase unwrapping model. The efficient quality-guided strategy is able to ensure that the proposed method fast unwraps wrapped pixels along the path from the high-quality area to the low-quality area of wrapped phase images, which can greatly improve the efficiency of phase unwrapping. Results obtained from synthetic data and real data show that the proposed method can obtain better solutions with an acceptable time consumption, with respect to some of the most used algorithms.

  19. Fringe—A Java-based finite fringe analysis package (United States)

    McIntyre, Timothy J.; Bishop, Alexis I.


    A package for analysing two-dimensional finite fringe interferograms is described. Through a combination of automatic and interactive routines, an interferogram can be processed to extract the phase shift imparted on the recording light by a transparent object. The package consists of routines to condition and pad the original image for Fourier transform analysis, to filter the image and obtain the phase, to unwrap the phase, and to remove the background phase ramp. A sample image recorded using holographic interferometry is successfully analysed. Program summary Program title: FRINGE Catalogue identifier: AEMM_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 134006 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4029801 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java. Computer: Personal Computers. Operating system: Mac OS X, Windows XP, Linux and any other system that can run Java Jar files. RAM: 1GB recommended Classification: 18. Nature of problem: A standalone multi-platform program to perform analysis of finite fringe interferograms. Solution method: Fourier filtering approach with phase unwrapping and background subtraction. Restrictions: Designed to analyse square images. Running time: Interactive processing takes several minutes. Minimal cpu time.

  20. Analysis of localized fringes in the holographic optical Schlieren system (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.


    The relation between localization of interference fringes in classical and holographic interferometry is reviewed and an application of holographic interferometry is considered for which the object is a transparent medium with nonhomogeneous refractive index. The technique is based on the analysis of the optical path length change of the object wave as it propagates through a transparent medium. Phase shifts due to variations of the speed of light within the medium give rise to an interference pattern. The resulting interferogram can be used to determine the physical properties of the medium or transparent object. Such properties include the mass density of fluids, electron densities of plasmas, the temperature of fluids, the chemical species concentration of fluids, and the state of stress in solids. The optical wave used can be either a simple plane or spherical wave, or it may be a complicated spatial wave scattered by a diffusing screen. The mathematical theory on the formation and analysis of localized fringes, the general theoretical concepts used, and a computer code for analysis are included along with the inversion of fringe order data.

  1. Leave and professional development benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martyniak, Cathleen; Keith, Brian


    ...; and professional development leaves such as dedicated research time and sabbaticals. Other professional development topics include financial support and relief from duties for conference attendance...

  2. Medicares Hospice Benefit - Analysis of Utilization and.. (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive analyses reported in Medicares Hospice Benefit - Analysis of Utilization and Resource Use, published in Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  3. Mindful Eating: Benefits, Challenges, and Strategies


    Nelson, Cindy; Cromwell, Shannon


    Mindful eating focuses on wellness and how we eat, not what we eat. This fact sheet describes the benefits of mindful eating, the challenges, and strategies for incorporating mindful eating into our daily lives.

  4. Uses and Benefits of Journal Writing. (United States)

    Hiemstra, Roger


    Describes various types of journals: learning journals, diaries, dream logs, autobiographies, spiritual journals, professional journals, interactive reading logs, theory logs, and electronic journals. Lists benefits of journal writing and ways to overcome writing blocks. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  5. Fringe-reflection photogrammetry based on poses calibration with planar mirror reflection (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Liang; Zhong, Jianxin; Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu; You, Zhisheng


    Since liquid crystal display (LCD) screen locates outside of the camera's field of view in fringe-reflection photogrammetry, fringes displayed on LCD screen are obtained through specular reflection by a fixed camera. Thus, the pose calibration between camera and LCD screen is one of the main challenges in fringe-reflection photogrammetry. A markerless planar mirror is used to reflect the LCD screen more than three times, and the fringes are mapped into the fixed camera. The geometrical calibration can be accomplished by estimating the pose between the camera and virtual image of fringes. With the help of the relation between their pose, incidence and reflection ray can be unified in the camera frame, forward triangulation intersection can be operated in the camera frame to measure 3D coordinate of specular surface. In the final optimization, constraint bundle adjustment is operated to refine simultaneously the camera intrinsic parameters including distortion coefficients, estimated geometrical pose between LCD screen and camera, 3D coordinate of specular surface, with the help of absolute phase collinear constraint. Results of simulations and experiments demonstrate that the pose calibration with planar mirror reflection is simple, feasible and constraint bundle adjustment can enhance the three-dimensional coordinate measurement accuracy in fringe-reflection photogrammetry.

  6. Alcohol consumption: risks and benefits. (United States)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B


    Alcohol has had a long and complicated role in human society and health. Excessive use of alcohol causes enormous morbidity and mortality worldwide, but the health effects of alcohol use within recommended guidelines are diverse and complex. Established effects include increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and antithrombotic activity, providing plausible mechanisms for the observed association of moderate drinking with lower risk of coronary heart disease but higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke. However, moderate drinking increases sex steroid hormone levels and may interfere with folate metabolism, both of which are potential mechanisms for the observed associations of moderate drinking with several forms of cancer, particularly breast and colorectal. Genetic susceptibility to the effects of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease also differs across the population. Recommendations regarding moderate drinking must be individualized to reflect the potentially competing effects of alcohol on several chronic diseases.

  7. Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management... (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management Practices on Spending for Prescription Drugs - Evidence from Medicares Part D...

  8. Marathon running for amateurs: Benefits and risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkule, Nitin


    ...) and all-cause mortality at the population level. There is growing participation in marathon running by amateur, middle-aged cases with a belief that more intense exercise will give incremental health benefits...

  9. OASDI Beneficiaries and Benefits by State- 2015 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This annual map focuses on the Social Security beneficiary population receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) benefits at the state level in...

  10. Undergraduate Research: Importance, Benefits, and Challenges. (United States)

    Petrella, John K; Jung, Alan P

    Developing and maintaining undergraduate research programs benefits students, faculty mentors, and the university. Incorporating a research component along with a sound academic foundation enables students to develop independent critical thinking skills along with oral and written communication skills. The research process impacts valuable learning objectives that have lasting influence as undergraduates prepare for professional service. Faculty members at teaching intensive institutions can enhance learning experiences for students while benefiting from a productive research agenda. The university in turn benefits from presentations and publications that serve to increase visibility in the scientific community. Whether projects are derived through student-generated or mentor-generated means, students benefit from completion of exposure to the hypothesis-driven scientific method.

  11. Nurse employment contracts in Chinese hospitals: impact of inequitable benefit structures on nurse and patient satisfaction (United States)


    Purpose Ongoing economic and health system reforms in China have transformed nurse employment in Chinese hospitals. Employment of ‘bianzhi’ nurses, a type of position with state-guaranteed lifetime employment that has been customary since 1949, is decreasing while there is an increase in the contract-based nurse employment with limited job security and reduced benefits. The consequences of inequities between the two types of nurses in terms of wages and job-related benefits are unknown. This study examined current rates of contract-based nurse employment and the effects of the new nurse contract employment strategy on nurse and patient outcomes in Chinese hospitals. Methods This cross-sectional study used geographically representative survey data collected from 2008 to 2010 from 181 hospitals in six provinces, two municipalities, and one autonomous region in China. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between contract-based nurse utilization, dissatisfaction among contract-based nurses, nurse intentions to leave their positions, and patient satisfaction, controlling for nurse, patient, and hospital characteristics. Principal Results Hospital-level utilization of contract-based nurses varies greatly from 0 to 91%, with an average of 51%. Contract-based nurses were significantly more dissatisfied with their remuneration and benefits than ‘bianzhi’ nurses who have more job security (P nurses who were dissatisfied with their salary and benefits were more likely to intend to leave their current positions (P nurses were rated lower and less likely to be recommended by patients (P nurses in Chinese hospitals, and that the inequities in benefits between contract-based nurses and ‘bianzhi’ nurses may adversely affect both nurse and patient satisfaction in hospitals. Our study provides empirical support for the ‘equal pay for equal work’ policy emphasized by the China Ministry of Health’s recent regulations, and calls for

  12. [Pacifier use: risks and benefits]. (United States)

    Martínez Sánchez, L; Díaz González, E; García-Tornel Florensa, S; Gaspà Martí, J


    The use of a dummy as a comforting object in childhood is widespread in civilized societies. The advisability of this practice, as well as the shape, material, or time of use of these objects, is controversial. Data on the possible beneficial effects of these objects are numerous, but there is also a long list of disorders which have been associated with their use. Their soothing effect is the most widely recognized beneficial effect and the possible relationship with a lower incidence of sudden infant death syndrome is the newest. The most important risks of this nonnutritive sucking habit are failure of breastfeeding, dental deformities, recurrent acute otitis media, and the risk of accidents. The development of latex allergy, tooth decay, oral ulcers and sleep disorders are other possible problems. The association with a lower intelligence quotient is disputed. Insufficient data are provided by a review of the pros and the cons of dummy use to encourage or discourage this habit. However, there are sufficient data on which to base firm recommendations such as not starting their use in the first days of life, restricting use after the age of 8 months and withdrawing these objects at the age of 1 year. Pediatricians should be aware of and recommend only dummies that meet safety requirements.

  13. Questions and answers on employee benefit issues. (United States)


    This Issue Brief addresses 19 topics in the areas of pensions, health insurance, and other benefits. In addition to the topics listed below, the report includes data on the prevalence of benefits, tax incentives associated with benefits, lump-sum distributions, number of private pension plans, pension coverage rates, 401(k) plans, employer spending on group health insurance, self-insured health plans, employer initiatives to reduce health care costs, and employers' response to the retiree health benefits accounting rule, and flexible benefits plans. In 1992, U.S. employers (public and private) spent $629 billion for noncash benefits, representing nearly 18 percent of total compensation, excluding paid time off. In 1992, 71 percent of the 50.1 million individuals aged 55 and over received retirement benefits, including distributions from private and public pensions, annuities, individual retirement accounts, Keoghs, 401(k)s, and Social Security. Among the 76 percent of all private pension plan participants who participated in a single plan, 30 percent named a defined benefit plan as their pension plan type, 58 percent named a defined contribution plan as their pension plan type, and 12 percent did not know their plan type. Private and public pension funds held more than $4.6 trillion in assets at the end of 1993. The 1993 year-end assets are more than triple the asset level of 1983 (nominal terms). According to the Congressional Budget Office, U.S. expenditures on health care were expected to have reached $898 billion in 1993, up from $751.8 billion in 1991, an increase of 19.4 percent in nominal terms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Climate change – between costs and benefits. At global and regional levels the effects of climate change start to show up. While some of the countries make efforts to alleviate these effects and to find solutions, others are facing economic or political restrains that prevent them in applying the principle of common responsibility. The complex social, economic, and environmental implications of climate change’s effects focused a growing part of research on the analysis of costs and benefits. Although controversial, one of the methods used – the cost-benefit analysis – revealed that in most of the cases the prevention costs are lower than the costs of inaction. Prevention measures bring benefits by anticipating the impact and minimizing the risks for ecosystems and economy. The paper presents in its first part the controversies regarding the cost-benefit analysis, and continues, in the second part, with estimations on costs and benefits of certain policy instruments that target emission reduction.

  15. Employee Benefits and Tax Reform


    Stephen A. Woodbury


    The current tax treatment of pensions and health insurance in the United States is a hybrid that lacks consistency under either an accrual income tax system or a consumption tax system. Under an accrual income tax, employer contributions to pension plans represent an addition to wealth that would be taxed at the time they are made. The interest earned on pension contributions also represents an addition to wealth that would be taxed annually. When a worker retires, all applicable taxes would ...

  16. Three-dimensional shape profiling by out-of-focus projection of colored pulse width modulation fringe patterns. (United States)

    Silva, Adriana; Flores, Jorge L; Muñoz, Antonio; Ayubi, Gastón A; Ferrari, José A


    Three-dimensional (3D) shape profiling by sinusoidal phase-shifting methods is affected by the non-linearity of the projector. To overcome this problem, the defocusing technique has become an important alternative to generate sinusoidal fringe patterns. The precision of this method depends on the binary pattern used and on the defocusing applied. To improve the defocusing technique, we propose the implementation of a color-based binary fringe patterns. The proposed technique involves the generation of colored pulse width modulation (PWM) fringe patterns, which are generated with different frequencies at the carrier signal. From an adequate selection of these frequencies, the colored PWM fringe patterns will lead to amplitude harmonics lower than the conventional PWM fringe patterns. Hence, the defocusing can decrease, and the 3D shape profiling can be more accurate. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented as validation.

  17. Motivation and benefits of implementation and certification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    The aim of the research is to analyze the different aspects associated with the motivation and benefits of certified ISO 9001 companies in Portugal. A total of 426 certified Portuguese companies were surveyed. The response rate was equal to 61.03 percent. Our results suggest that the main motivation for certification were ...

  18. High-quality octa-level fringe pattern generation for improving the noise characteristics of measured depth maps (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Xin; Chan, Yuk-Hee; Lun, Daniel P. K.


    Since the introduction of the binary defocusing technique, various algorithms have been proposed to optimize binary fringe patterns for reducing the phase root mean square (rms) error. Our recent study showed that octa-level fringe patterns can further reduce the phase rms error at no extra cost and patch-based fringe patterns can cause harmonic distortion to the measured depth map. This paper presents a novel method to produce patch-based octa-level fringe patterns of ideal noise characteristics by (1) formulating the optimization problem in a better way, (2) starting the optimization process with a better initial estimate and (3) adopting a necessity-oriented strategy to refine the fringe patterns during the optimization process.

  19. 29 CFR 1625.32 - Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits. (United States)


    ... order to maintain a competitive advantage in the marketplace—using these and other benefits to attract and retain the best talent available to work for their organizations. Further, retiree health benefits...

  20. Separating the unequal. New ACHE study shows racial, gender salary disparities still plague the C-suite, a problem the group is working to address. (United States)

    Carlson, Joe


    According to an American College of Healthcare Executives report, the salary gap between white male health executives' salaries and those of minorities is widening. "You're not very likely to run into someone who will be overtly discriminatory," said Daniel Jackson, left. "It will be more veiled. ... But it also dissipates quickly if you're effective.