WorldWideScience

Sample records for salamandridae amphibia caudata

  1. A Molecular Assessment of Phylogenetic Relationships and LineageDiversification Within the Family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisrock, David W.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Macey, J. Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H.; Zhao, Ermi; Larson, Allan

    2005-08-08

    Phylogenetic relationships among species of the salamanderfamily Salamandridae are investigated using nearly 3000 nucleotide basesof newly reported mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the mtDNA genicregion spanning the genes tRNALeu-COI. This study uses nearlycomprehensive species-level sampling to provide the first completephylogeny for the Salamandridae. Deep phylogenetic relationships amongthe three most divergent lineages in the family Salamandrina terdigitata,a clade comprising the "True" salamanders, and a clade comprising allnewts except S. terdigitata are difficult to resolve. However, mostrelationships within the latter two lineages are resolved with robustlevels of branch support. The genera Euproctus and Triturus arestatistically shown to be nonmonophyletic, instead each contains adiverse set of lineages positioned within the large newt clade. The genusParamesotriton is also resolve as a nonmonophyletic group, with the newlydescribed species P. laoensis constituting a divergent lineage placed ina sister position to clade containing all Pachytriton species and allremaining Paramesotriton species. Sequence divergences between P.laoensis and other Paramesotriton species are as great as those comparingP. laoensis and species of the genera Cynops and Pachytriton. Analyses oflineage diversification across the Salamandridae indicate that, despiteits exceptional diversity, lineage accumulation appears to have beenconstant across time, indicating that it does not represent a truespecies radiation.

  2. Comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the cloacae of salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata). IV. Salamandridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, D M

    1992-06-01

    Cloacae were examined from male and female salamanders representing 12 genera and 22 species in the Salamandridae. All female salamandrids possess numerous sperm storage glands, spermathecae, in the roof of the cloaca, but intergeneric variation exists in the occurrence of additional cloacal glands. Pleurodeles and Tylototriton possess both vent and anterior ventral glands, and secondary loss has occurred of vent glands in all other genera and anterior ventral glands in Chioglossa, Cynops, Paramesotriton, and Triturus The most highly derived cloaca occurs in Euproctus asper, in which the cloacal tube extends through a conical projection, and ventral glands secrete onto the dorsolateral surface of the projection rather than into the cloaca. Marked intergeneric variation occurs in males in conformation of the cloacal cavities and in extent of the dorsal gland. In Cynops, Euproctus, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton, Taricha, and Triturus, the pseudopenis (a broad, posteriorly projecting evagination of the dorsal roof) fills much of the cavity of the anterior cloacal chamber. In most salamandrids, distal ends of the dorsal glands occur lateral to pelvic glands in the anterior end of the cloaca, and dorsal gland tubules descend to secretory sites at the posterior end of the vent. Salamandra and Mertensiella possess a unique, bifurcated dorsal gland in which distal ends of tubules lie dorsal to the other cloacal glands, and proximal ends curve ventrally in the anterior end of the cloaca to secretory sites along the cloacal orifice. Cladistic analyses indicate that the variation in presence of anterior ventral glands is due to homoplasy. The occurrence of female vent glands, bifurcated dorsal glands, and the pseudopenis supports a phylogeny based upon non-cloacal characters.

  3. Phylogeny and biogeography of the family Salamandridae (Amphibia: Caudata) inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Wake, Marvalee H; Qu, Lianghu; Wake, David B

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of members of the salamander family Salamandridae were examined using complete mitochondrial genomes collected from 42 species representing all 20 salamandrid genera and five outgroup taxa. Weighted maximum parsimony, partitioned maximum likelihood, and partitioned Bayesian approaches all produce an identical, well-resolved phylogeny; most branches are strongly supported with greater than 90% bootstrap values and 1.0 Bayesian posterior probabilities. Our results support recent taxonomic changes in finding the traditional genera Mertensiella, Euproctus, and Triturus to be non-monophyletic species assemblages. We successfully resolved the current polytomy at the base of the salamandrid tree: the Italian newt genus Salamandrina is sister to all remaining salamandrids. Beyond Salamandrina, a clade comprising all remaining newts is separated from a clade containing the true salamanders. Among these newts, the branching orders of well-supported clades are: primitive newts (Echinotriton, Pleurodeles, and Tylototriton), New World newts (Notophthalmus-Taricha), Corsica-Sardinia newts (Euproctus), and modern European newts (Calotriton, Lissotriton, Mesotriton, Neurergus, Ommatotriton, and Triturus) plus modern Asian newts (Cynops, Pachytriton, and Paramesotriton).Two alternative sets of calibration points and two Bayesian dating methods (BEAST and MultiDivTime) were used to estimate timescales for salamandrid evolution. The estimation difference by dating methods is slight and we propose two sets of timescales based on different calibration choices. The two timescales suggest that the initial diversification of extant salamandrids took place in Europe about 97 or 69Ma. North American salamandrids were derived from their European ancestors by dispersal through North Atlantic Land Bridges in the Late Cretaceous ( approximately 69Ma) or Middle Eocene ( approximately 43Ma). Ancestors of Asian salamandrids most probably dispersed to the eastern Asia

  4. A molecular assessment of phylogenetic relationships and lineage accumulation rates within the family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisrock, David W; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Macey, J Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H; Zhao, Ermi; Jowkar, Houman; Larson, Allan

    2006-11-01

    We examine phylogenetic relationships among salamanders of the family Salamandridae using approximately 2700 bases of new mtDNA sequence data (the tRNALeu, ND1, tRNAIle, tRNAGln, tRNAMet, ND2, tRNATrp, tRNAAla, tRNAAsn, tRNACys, tRNATyr, and COI genes and the origin for light-strand replication) collected from 96 individuals representing 61 of the 66 recognized salamandrid species and outgroups. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis are performed on the new data alone and combined with previously reported sequences from other parts of the mitochondrial genome. The basal phylogenetic split is a polytomy of lineages ancestral to (1) the Italian newt Salamandrina terdigitata, (2) a strongly supported clade comprising the "true" salamanders (genera Chioglossa, Mertensiella, Lyciasalamandra, and Salamandra), and (3) a strongly supported clade comprising all newts except S. terdigitata. Strongly supported clades within the true salamanders include monophyly of each genus and grouping Chioglossa and Mertensiella as the sister taxon to a clade comprising Lyciasalamandra and Salamandra. Among newts, genera Echinotriton, Pleurodeles, and Tylototriton form a strongly supported clade whose sister taxon comprises the genera Calotriton, Cynops, Euproctus, Neurergus, Notophthalmus, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton, Taricha, and Triturus. Our results strongly support monophyly of all polytypic newt genera except Paramesotriton and Triturus, which appear paraphyletic, and Calotriton, for which only one of the two species is sampled. Other well-supported clades within newts include (1) Asian genera Cynops, Pachytriton, and Paramesotriton, (2) North American genera Notophthalmus and Taricha, (3) the Triturus vulgaris species group, and (4) the Triturus cristatus species group; some additional groupings appear strong in Bayesian but not parsimony analyses. Rates of lineage accumulation through time are evaluated using this nearly comprehensive sampling of

  5. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M F Kovtun; Ya V Stepanyuk

    2015-01-01

      The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata). Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris...

  6. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. F. Kovtun; Ya. V. Stepanyuk

    2015-01-01

    The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata). Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris...

  7. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovtun M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata. Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata was studied, during the developmental period starting with olfactory pit laying and finishing with definitive olfactory organ formation. Special attention is paid to vomeronasal organ and vomeronasal gland development. Reasoning from obtained data, we consider that vomeronasal organ emerged as the result of olfactory epithelium and nasal cavity differentiation.

  8. Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae) in Portugal: not all black and yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Davide M; Cunha, Regina L; Patrão, Cláudia; Rebelo, Rui; Castilho, Rita

    2011-09-01

    The fire salamander complex is quite diverse in the Iberian Peninsula where nine subspecies of Salamandra salamandra are currently recognized. Here, we analysed the geographical distribution of the subspecies S. s. gallaica and S. s. crespoi using partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 168 individuals from 12 locations in Portugal. Our results support the existence of a deep lineage divergence between the two subspecies, with non-overlapping geographical distributions except in two contact zones: one in Sesimbra on the western coast, and another in Alcoutim on the southeastern border with Spain. Moreover, S. s. crespoi displays signs of gene flow among the sampled locations whereas S. s. gallaica shows evidence of some restriction to gene flow. Present-day genetic make-up of S. s. gallaica and S. s. crespoi is a result of past historical events, fine-tuned by contemporary Iberian geoclimate. Humid mountain areas were found to harbour increased genetic diversity possibly acting as past refugia during drier interglacial periods. To analyse wider geographical patterns and lineage splitting events within S. salamandra we performed a Bayesian dating analysis completing our data set with previously published sequences. The observed divergences were associated to successive biogeographic scenarios, and to other Iberian species showing similar trends. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  9. Sexual size and shape dimorphism in Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia, Caudata, Salamandridae from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is one of the key evolutionary features that has been studied in many organisms. On the other hand, sexual shape dimorphism has not been examined as well despite being as important as size dimorphism. Therefore, we analyzed the sexual size and shape dimorphism (SSSD of Salamandra salamandra from the territory of the central Balkans. In addition, we wanted to reconsider if there is some regularity in the geographical distribution of SSSD in the investigated area. Significant differences in size and shape between the sexes were found for the whole sample and among the analyzed groups. Females were larger than males and had bigger heads, interlimb distances and a parotid gland, while males had bigger tails, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and forefoot and hindfoot length. Our results reveal a strong effect of locality on trait variation. This variation from the general pattern of SSSD is not substantial but still has to be considered.

  10. Updated distribution of hybrids between Lissotriton vulgaris and Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Gherghel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lissotriton montandoni is an endemic newt species found only in the Carpathian Mountains and lives in sympatry with Lissotriton vulgaris in many aquatic habitats from the entire range of the former species in the Carpathian and Sudetes Mountains or in the hilly areas from the Subcarpathians. These two species usually generate hybrids where their parapatric ranges meet, especially along rivers that flow from the inside of the Carpathians, where valleys are used as ecological corridors by L. vulgaris. We surveyed several regions of the Eastern Carpathian Mountains between 2008 and 2011 and found 11 new populations of newts where hybrids between the two mentioned species were present. All new records of L. montandoni x L. vulgaris were described in the eastern part of the Eastern Carpathians, in Neamț County, a region known also from previous literature to be a ‘hot spot’ for hybrids between these two species. The present paper also presents an updated review of the distribution of Lissotriton hybrids in Romania.

  11. Females Have Larger Ratio of Second-to-Fourth Digits Than Males in Four Species of Salamandridae, Caudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kubicka, Anna Maria; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Hromada, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. It is considered to be a suitable biomarker of the in utero balance of fetal sex hormones, which affect early development of individuaĺs behavioral and morphological characteristics. In recent decades, digit ratio attracted a great attention in biology and psychology. However, for unmasking the biological basis of the phenomenon, extensive studies on non-human animals are necessary. Despite it was hypothesized that digit ratio is well conserved in all Tetrapoda, and there exist studies on mammals, birds, and reptiles, there are only two such study on anuran amphibians. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the 2D:4D in the most basal salamanders, Caudata. We have studied digit ratio in four species of newts: Triturus cristatus, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton montandoni, and Lissotriton vulgaris, using museum collection. We used computerized measuring of each limbś photos. We have found out that, in M. alpestris, females 2D:4D of all four limbs were significantly larger than in males. In L. montandoni and L. vulgaris, only 2D:4D of rear limbs significantly differed, in females being larger. In T. cristatus, digit ratios of males and females did not statistically differ. Thus, the results confirmed our hypothesis that at least in M. alpestris, L. montandoni, and L. vulgaris, females seem to have larger 2D:4D comparing to males, the pattern known from most mammals and opposite to birds, reptiles and anuran amphibians. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Static osteogenesis does not precede dynamic osteogenesis in periosteal ossification of Pleurodeles (Caudata, Amphibia) and Pogona (Squamata, Lepidosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Jorge; Hui, Mylaine; Clarac, François; Quilhac, Alexandra

    2017-05-01

    Two successive mechanisms have been described in perichondral ossification: (1) in static osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into stationary osteoblasts oriented randomly, which differentiate into osteocytes in the same site; (2) in dynamic osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts that are all oriented in the same direction and move back as they secrete collagen fibers. This study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that the ontogenetic sequence static then dynamic osteogenesis observed in the chicken and in the rabbit is homologous and was acquired by the last common ancestor of amniotes or at a more inclusive node. For this we analyze the developmental patterns of Pleurodeles (Caudata, Amphibia) and those of the lizard Pogona (Squamata, Lepidosauria). We processed Pleurodeles larvae and Pogona embryos, prepared thin and ultrathin sections of appendicular bones, and analyzed them using light and transmission electron microscopy. We show that static osteogenesis does not precede dynamic osteogenesis in periosteal ossification of Pleurodeles and Pogona. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and according to the parsimony method the ontogenetic sequence observed in the chicken and in the rabbit are convergent. In Pleurodeles and Pogona dynamic osteogenesis occur without a previous rigid mineralized framework, whereas in the chicken and in the rabbit dynamic osteogenesis seems to take place over a mineralized support whether bone (in perichondral ossification) or calcified cartilage (in endochondral ossification). Interestingly, in typical dynamic osteogenesis, osteoblasts show an axis (basal nucleus-distal endoplasmic reticulum) perpendicular to the front of secreted unmineralized bone matrix, whereas in Pleurodeles and Pogona this axis is parallel to the bone matrix. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Liolope copulans (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae) parasitic in Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in Japan: Life cycle and systematic position inferred from morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takashi; Hosoi, Masatomi; Urabe, Misako; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tochimoto, Takeyoshi; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2011-06-01

    The life cycle of Liolope copulans Cohn, 1902 (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae), an intestinal parasite of the Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), was studied in the field and laboratory in Japan. This is the first description of mother sporocyst, daughter sporocyst and cercariae of a liolopid species. Non-oculate longifurcate pharyngeate cercariae were formed in lanceolate-cylindrical daughter sporocysts in Semisulcospira libertina (Gould) (Gastropoda: Sorbeoconcha: Pleuroceridae). They successfully developed to encapsulated metacercariae in cyprinid fishes, Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck and Schlegel) and Rhynchocypris lagowskii (Dybowski), by experimental infection. Cercariae had a V-shaped excretory vesicle with two looped arms, as in metacercariae and adults. Developmental stages from mother sporocyst to adult are described and illustrated. DNA sequencing was conducted for 28S and 18S rDNA of mother and daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and an adult. The result of molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. copulans may be one of the basal taxa of the order Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray, and Littlewood, 2003, but its systematic position is still unclear because of the topological inconsistence between the 28S and 18S trees. Therefore, we tentatively place the family Liolopidae in the superfamily Diplostomoidea, mainly based on the morphology of sporocysts and cercariae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Strong correlation between cross-amplification success and genetic distance across all members of 'True Salamanders' (Amphibia: Salamandridae) revealed by Salamandra salamandra-specific microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Ralf; Susanne Hauswaldt, J; Veith, Michael; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2010-11-01

    The unpredictable and low cross-amplification success of microsatellite loci tested for congeneric amphibian species has mainly been explained by the size and complexity of amphibian genomes, but also by taxonomy that is inconsistent with phylogenetic relationships among taxa. Here, we tested whether the cross-amplification success of nine new and 11 published microsatellite loci cloned for an amphibian source species, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), correlated with the genetic distance across all members of True Salamanders (genera Chioglossa, Lyciasalamandra, Mertensiella and Salamandra that form a monophyletic clade within the family of Salamandridae) serving as target species. Cross-amplification success varied strongly among the species and showed a highly significant negative relationship with genetic distance and amplification success. Even though lineages of S. salamandra and Lyciasalamndra have separated more than 30 Ma, a within genus amplification success rate of 65% was achieved for species of Lyciasalamandra thus demonstrating that an efficient cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci in amphibians is feasible even across large evolutionary distances. A decrease in genome size, on the other hand, paralleled also a decrease in amplified loci and therefore contradicted previous results and expectations that amplification success should increase with a decrease in genome size. However, in line with other studies, our comprehensive dataset clearly shows that cross-amplification success of microsatellite loci is well explained by phylogenetic divergence between species. As taxonomic classifications on the species and genus level do not necessarily mirror phylogenetic divergence between species, the pure belonging of species to the same taxonomic units (i.e. species or genus) might be less useful to predict cross-amplification success of microsatellite loci between such species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Two new species of Tylototriton from Thailand (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Khonsue, Wichase; Pomchote, Porrawee; Matsui, Masafumi

    2013-11-20

    Three morphological groups are found in a salamandrid newt Tylototriton shanjing from Thailand. We describe two of them as new species, one from northern and the other from northeastern Thailand, based on molecular and morphological data, however we could not make a taxonomic decision on the remaining one group because of the lack of voucher specimens and sufficient genetic data. The northern species differs morphologically from all known congeners by having the combination of orange to reddish brown markings, narrow and sharply protruding dorsolateral bony ridges on head, weakly segmented vertebral ridge, and long and high tail. The northeastern species is characterized by having the combination of yellow, orange, or reddish brown markings, wide and moderately protruding dorsolateral bony ridges on head, smooth vertebral ridge, black limbs, and black tail except for edges. Validity of taxonomic subdivision of the genus Tylototriton is discussed.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tylototriton taliangensis (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ye; Li, Ziyuan; Liu, Jiabin; Li, Yan; Ni, Qingyong; Yao, Yongfang; Xu, Huailiang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-07-01

    Tylototriton taliangensis was listed as a Near Threatened amphibian in IUCN red list. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of this species (GenBank: KP979646) and found it contains 16,265 base pairs, which encode 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) and 1 control region (CR). We also found that almost all PCGs and tRNA genes are located on the H-strand, except for ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes, which were distributed on the L-strand. The PCGs used "ATG" and "GTG" as the start codon, while used four types of stop codons. Almost all tRNA genes were folded into typical cloverleaf secondary structures. The L-strand replication origin (OL) and a non-coding region were also found. The new mitogenomic phylogenetic tree confirms the reciprocally monophyly of the genus Tylototriton, Echinotriton and Pleurodeles with high bootstrap value. The present study will provide information for future studies on the conservation genetics and phylogeny of this species and its relatives.

  17. A new species of the genus Paramesotriton (Caudata: Salamandridae) from Fujian, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhiyong; Wu, Yunke; Zhou, Jiajun; Che, Jing

    2016-12-12

    New amphibian species have been constantly discovered throughout southern China, including from areas close to heavily populated cities that remain poorly surveyed for amphibian diversity. We describe a new species of the newt genus Paramesotriton from Fujian, a developed province on the southeastern coast of mainland China. The mitochondrial genealogy suggests that the new species is the sister taxon to Paramesotriton hongkongensis, separated by an uncorrected pairwise distances of 5.8% at the ND2 gene fragment analyzed. In addition to the genetic divergence, the new species can be readily differentiated from its congeners by having: a very rough skin; a continuous, orange, vertebral ridge; few warts on each side of the vertebral ridge; numerous small irregular orange-red or yellow spots on the chin, venter, underside of axillae, flanks, lateral side of the tail, base of limbs and cloaca; a small groove at the base of the vomerine tooth series; relatively long tail, relatively flat cloaca in females; normally developed eyes, and the absence of vestigial gills and gill filaments in adults.

  18. The evolution of the adult body form of the crested newt (Triturus cristatus superspecies, Caudata, Salamandridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukov, T.D.; Sotiropoulos, K.; Wielstra, B.M.; Dzukic, G.; Kalezic, M.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the adult body form of the crested newt (Triturus cristatus superspecies) and explored its evolution. From seven morphometric traits, we determined that body size, interlimb distance and head width define the body form. None of the morphometric traits showed a phylogenetic signal.

  19. Metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Digenea) in European newts Triturus carnifex and Lissotriton vulgaris (Caudata: Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffara, M; Bruni, G; Paoletti, C; Gustinelli, A; Fioravanti, M L

    2014-09-01

    Adults of Clinostomum spp. are digenetic trematodes found in fish-eating birds, reptiles and occasionally mammals, including humans. Freshwater snails serve as first intermediate hosts and many fish species and amphibians as second intermediate hosts. To date, amphibian hosts of Clinostomum metacercariae include members of urodele and anuran families in North America, but no data are available on infections of European amphibians, including newts. In this study, we characterize infections of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae in four smooth (Lissotriton vulgaris) and 18 Italian crested newts (Triturus carnifex) from an artificial pond located in a protected area in Tuscany, Italy. Parasites were surgically removed from the infected newts and identified both morphologically and using sequences of a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I, and the ribosomal markers, internal transcribed spacers. This is the first record of C. complanatum in European newts and, more generally, in amphibians in Europe.

  20. Phylogeographic analysis reveals northerly refugia for the riverine amphibian Triturus dobrogicus (Caudata: Salamandridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vörös, J.; Mikulíček, Peter; Major, Á.; Recuero, E.; Arntzen, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 4 (2016), s. 974-991 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Danube River * microsatellites * mitochondrial DNA * newt * riverine barrier * riverine dispersal * Sava River Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  1. Morphological and molecular variation in Tylototriton (Caudata: Salamandridae) in Laos, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Aowphol, Anchalee; Stuart, Bryan L

    2015-08-24

    The salamandrid genus Tylototriton is poorly known in Laos, with one described species and unverified reports of two others. We undertook new fieldwork and obtained samples of Tylototriton at six localities across northern Laos during 2009-2013. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA, principal component analyses of 13 mensural characters, and qualitative morphological comparisons with samples from across the geographic range of Tylototriton were performed. Samples from Laos fell into four molecular and morphological groups, consisting of T. notialis, T. panhai, T. anguliceps, and a fourth lineage that is hypothesized here to be an undescribed species. Tylototriton podichthys sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having distinct mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and in characteristics of the glandular skin on the head and body, shape of the rib nodules, and coloration of the body and limbs. This study expands the number of confirmed Tylototriton species in Laos from one to four, with the description of one species and extension of the ranges of T. panhai and T. anguliceps to Laos. An improved understanding of the geographic ranges of T. podichthys sp. nov. and T. anguliceps within Laos is needed.

  2. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF COMMIPHORA CAUDATA (WIGHT & ARN) ENGL

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, S.; Selvamani, P.; Pal, T.K.; Gupta, J.K.; Ghosh, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn) is a potential medicinal plant used for its antispasmodic activity, cytotoxic activity and hypothermic activity. Owing to its medicinal importance, macroscopic and microscopic characters of leaves of Commiphora caudata were studied.

  3. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF COMMIPHORA CAUDATA (WIGHT & ARN) ENGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, S.; Selvamani, P.; Pal, T.K.; Gupta, J.K.; Ghosh, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn) is a potential medicinal plant used for its antispasmodic activity, cytotoxic activity and hypothermic activity. Owing to its medicinal importance, macroscopic and microscopic characters of leaves of Commiphora caudata were studied. PMID:22557220

  4. The Amphibia of Trinidad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenny, Julian S.

    1969-01-01

    Compared with the other vertebrate groups the Amphibia of the island of Trinidad are relatively poorly known. There have been four surveys of the group, one in the last century and the others in the earlier part of the present. The earliest is that of MOLE & URICH (1894) in which twelve species are

  5. Population Genetic Structure of the Endangered Kaiser's Mountain Newt, Neurergus kaiseri (Amphibia: Salamandridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Farasat

    Full Text Available Species often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in an endemic and critically endangered stream breeding mountain newt, Neurergus kaiseri, within its entire range in southwestern Iran. We identified two geographic regions based on phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of 779 bp mtDNA (D-loop in 111 individuals from ten of twelve known breeding populations. This analysis revealed a clear divergence between northern populations, located in more humid habitats at higher elevation, and southern populations, from drier habitats at lower elevations regions. From seven haplotypes found in these populations none was shared between the two regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA of N. kaiseri indicates that 94.03% of sequence variation is distributed among newt populations and 5.97% within them. Moreover, a high degree of genetic subdivision, mainly attributable to the existence of significant variance among the two regions is shown (θCT = 0.94, P = 0.002. The positive and significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (r = 0.61, P = 0.002 following controlling for environmental distance suggests an important influence of geographic divergence of the sites in shaping the genetic variation and may provide tools for a possible conservation based prioritization policy for the endangered species.

  6. A New Species of Tylototriton Anderson, 1871 (Amphibia: Salamandridae) from Northern Indochina

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Dzung Trung; Nguyen, Tao Thien; Nishikawa, Kanto; Nguyen, Son Lan Hung; Pham, Anh; MATSUI, MASAFUMI; Bernardes, Marta; Nguyen, Truong Quang

    2015-01-01

    We assessed taxonomic relationship of Tylototriton daweishanensis Zhao, Rao, Liu, Li and Yuan, 2012 and T. yangi Hou, Li and Lu, 2012 using mitochondrial DNA sequence data and found them to be as closely related as to be regarded as conspecific. This result, together with available morphological information, strongly indicates that T. daweishanensis is a junior synonym of T. yangi.

  7. A New Species of Tylototriton from Northern Vietnam (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, Kanto; MATSUI, MASAFUMI; Nguyen, Tao Thien

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the salamandrid genus Tylototriton is described from Ha Giang and Cao Bang provinces, northern Vietnam, based on molecular and morphological data. The new species differs morphologically from all known congeners in the combination of blackish body coloration; medium-sized body; distinctly rough skin; tubercular vertebral ridge; knob-like rib nodules; large eye; and low, narrow tail. The distribution pattern of species of Tylototriton in Vietnam is briefly discussed.

  8. Early ontogeny shows the same interspecific variation as natural history parameters in the crested newt (Triturus cristatus superspecies) (Caudata, Salamandridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvijanović, M.; Ivanović, A.; Kolarov, N.T.; Džukić, G.; Kalezić, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    When the phenotypic divergence within a monophyletic group is characterised by parallel variation of different phenotypic traits, it is very likely that the environment through constraints and/or selection has affected the developmental pathways simultaneously. Such patterns of phenotypic divergence

  9. A phylogeny of the Tylototriton asperrimus group (Caudata: Salamandridae) based on a mitochondrial study: suggestions for a taxonomic revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Jiang, Ke; Lü, Shun-Qing; Yang, Jun-Xiao; Nguyen, Quang Truong; Nguyen, Thien Tao; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Che, Jing

    2011-12-01

    A phylogenetic hypothesis for the Asian newts of the Tylototriton asperrimus group was generated using data from two mitochondrial fragments including COI and the ND1-ND2 regions. Four distinct clades (A, B, C, D) were resolved with high nodal support within this monophyletic group. Clade A included T. asperrimus, T. hainanensis, T. notialis, "T. vietnamensis", and two unnamed salamander populations from Vietnam. Clade A, constituted the sister group of clades B + C. Newly identified clade C likely represents a new cryptic species. Clade C was the sister group of T. wenxianensis. The true T. vietnamensis exclusively constituted clade D. Our results bring into question some previous taxonomic decisions, and a revision is required. This study illustrates the necessity to include samples from type localities in taxonomic studies, and highlights the importance of fine-grained geographical sampling.

  10. Provenance of Ichthyosaura alpestris (Caudata: Salamandridae) introductions to France and New Zealand assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, Jan W.; King, Tania M.; Denoël, Mathieu; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; Wallis, Graham P.

    2016-01-01

    The last century has seen an unparalleled movement of species around the planet as a direct result of human activity, which has been a major contributor to the biodiversity crisis. Amphibians represent a particularly vulnerable group, exacerbated by the devastating effects of chytrid fungi. We report the malicious translocation and establishment of the alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) to its virtual antipode in North Island of New Zealand. We use network analysis of mitochondrial DNA hapl...

  11. Cd, Cu, Zn, Se, and metallothioneins in two amphibians, Necturus maculosus (Amphibia, Caudata) and Bufo bufo (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovoljc, Katarina; Falnoga, Ingrid; Žnidarič, Magda Tušek; Mazej, Darja; Ščančar, Janez; Bulog, Boris

    2012-12-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, its affinity for metallothioneins (MTs), and its relation to copper, zinc, and selenium were investigated in the experimental mudpuppy Necturus maculosus and the common toad Bufo bufo captured in nature. Specimens of N. maculosus were exposed to waterborne Cd (85 μg/L) for up to 40 days. Exposure resulted in tissue-dependent accumulation of Cd in the order kidney, gills > intestine, liver, brain > pancreas, skin, spleen, and gonads. During the 40-day exposure, concentrations increased close to 1 μg/g in kidneys and gills (0.64-0.95 and 0.52-0.76; n = 4), whereas the levels stayed below 0.5 in liver (0.14-0.29; n = 4) and other organs. Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of Zn and Cu in kidneys and Zn in skin, while a decrease of Cu was observed in muscles and skin. Cytosol metallothioneins (MTs) were detected as Cu,Zn-thioneins in liver and Zn,Cu-thioneins in gills and kidney, with the presence of Se in all cases. After exposure, Cd binding to MTs was clearly observed in cytosol of gills as Zn,Cu,Cd-thionein and in pellet extract of kidneys as Zn,Cu,Cd-thioneins. The results indicate low Cd storage in liver with almost undetectable Cd in liver MT fractions. In field trapped Bufo bufo (spring and autumn animals), Cd levels were followed in four organs and found to be in the order kidney > liver (0.56-5.0 μg/g >0.03-0.72 μg/g; n = 11, spring and autumn animals), with no detectable Cd in muscle and skin. At the tissue level, high positive correlations between Cd, Cu, and Se were found in liver (all r > 0.80; α = 0.05, n = 5), and between Cd and Se in kidney (r = 0.76; n = 5) of autumn animals, possibly connected with the storage of excess elements in biologically inert forms. In the liver of spring animals, having higher tissue level of Cd than autumn ones, part of the Cd was identified as Cu,Zn,Cd-thioneins with traces of Se. As both species are special in having liver Cu levels higher than Zn, the observed highly preferential Cd load in kidney seems reasonable. The relatively low Cd found in liver can be attributed to its excretion through bile and its inability to displace Cu from MTs. The associations of selenium observed with Cd and/or Cu (on the tissue and cell level) point to selenium involvement in the detoxification of excessive cadmium and copper through immobilization.

  12. Two Records of large specimens of Fire Salamander Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Caudata in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDER PULEV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two particularly large specimens of Fire Salamander have been registered in southwestern Bulgaria in late winter/early spring. Both of them are adult females with total body length 231 mm, and 219 mm. The two specimens recorded are the largest ones found in Bulgaria so far. Their dimensions are impressive for the entire range of the species. Both specimens have been found during the day in a sunny and dry weather, which has not been registered by other researchers in the cold half of the year in Bulgaria. The winter activity of the species has been confirmed.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Wenxian Knobby Newt Tylototriton wenxianensis (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fuyao; Jiang, Ye; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-07-01

    We newly sequenced the mitochondrial genome of Tylototriton wenxianensis. The total length of the T. wenxianensis mitogenome is 16 265 bp, with GenBank accession number KR733683. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), and one control region (CR). Most of the genes are encoded on the H-strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6, which are encoded on the L-strand. Our mitogenomic phylogenetic tree showed that the relationships among the genera Tylototriton, Echinotriton, and Pleurodeles were well supported, and which is consistent with the previous molecular phylogeny.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Red knobby newt Tylototriton shanjing (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ye; Yang, Mingxian; Han, Fuyao; Li, Yan; Ni, Qingyong; Yao, Yongfang; Xu, Huailiang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome of Tylototriton shanjing is 16,661 bp in length with GenBank accession number KR154461, which contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), and 1 control region (CR). The overall base composition of this mitogenome is biased toward AT content at 59.45%. Most of the PCGs and tRNA genes are located on the H-strand, except for ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes, which were distributed on the L-strand. The PCGs used "ATG" and "GTG" as the start codons, while "TAA", "TAG", "AGA", and "T-" are used as stop codons. Almost all tRNA genes were folded into typical cloverleaf secondary structures. The T. shanjing genome had two tandem repeat sequences in the cob-noncoding region. The mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses shows that the genera Echinotriton and Tylototriton were clustered into a strong supported monophyletic clade, which is a sister clade to the genus Pleurodeles, this confirms the previous phylogenetic results.

  15. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  16. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PUNEET INDER TOOR

    Abstract. A pair of stripe rust and leaf rust resistance genes was introgressed from Aegilops caudata, a nonprogenitor diploid species with the CC genome, to cultivated wheat. Inheritance and genetic mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in backcross- recombinant inbred line (BC-RIL) population derived from the cross of a ...

  17. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inheritance and genetic mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in backcrossrecombinant inbred line (BC-RIL) population derived from the cross of a wheat–Ae. caudata introgression line (IL) T291-2(pau16060) with wheat cv. PBW343 is reported here. Segregation of BC-RILs for stripe rust resistance depicted a single major ...

  18. Selected emerging diseases of amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Klaphake, Eric

    2013-05-01

    This review summarizes the most recent updates on emerging infectious diseases of amphibia. A brief summary of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, life cycle, diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity is provided. Ambystoma tigrinum virus, common midwife toad virus, frog virus 3, Rana grylio virus, Rana catesbeiana ranavirus, Mahaffey Road virus, Rana esculenta virus, Bohle iridovirus, and tiger frog virus ranaviruses are extensively reviewed. Emerging bacterial pathogens are discussed, including Flavobacter sp, Aeromonas sp, Citrobacter freundii, Chlamydophila sp, Mycobacterium liflandii, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and Ochrobactrum anthropi. Rhabdias sp, Ribeiroia sp, and Spirometra erinacei are among several of the parasitic infections overviewed in this article. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Agronomic Traits and Molecular Marker Identification of Wheat–Aegilops caudata Addition Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Gong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aegilops caudata is an important gene source for wheat breeding. Intensive evaluation of its utilization value is an essential first step prior to its application in breeding. In this research, the agronomical and quality traits of Triticum aestivum-Ae. caudata additions B–G (homoeologous groups not identified were analyzed and evaluated. Disease resistance tests showed that chromosome D of Ae. caudata might possess leaf rust resistance, and chromosome E might carry stem rust and powdery mildew resistance genes. Investigations into agronomical traits suggested that the introduction of the Ae. caudata chromosome in addition line F could reduce plant height. Grain quality tests showed that the introduction of chromosomes E or F into wheat could increase its protein and wet gluten content. Therefore, wheat-Ae. caudata additions D–F are all potentially useful candidates for chromosome engineering activities to create useful wheat-alien chromosome introgressions. A total of 55 EST-based molecular markers were developed and then used to identify the chromosome homoeologous group of each of the Ae. caudata B–G chromosomes. Marker analysis indicated that the Ae. caudata chromosomes in addition lines B to G were structurally altered, therefore, a large population combined with intensive screening pressure should be taken into consideration when inducing and screening for wheat-Ae. caudata compensating translocations. Marker data also indicated that the Ae. caudata chromosomes in addition lines C–F were 5C, 6C, 7C, and 3C, respectively, while the homoeologous group of chromosomes B and G of Ae. caudata are as yet undetermined and need further research.

  20. AmphibiaChina: an online database of Chinese Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jing; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-18

    AmphibiaChina, an open-access, web-based database, is designed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date information on Chinese amphibians. It offers an integrated module with six major sections. Compared to other known databases including AmphibiaWeb and Amphibian Species of the World, AmphibiaChina has the following new functions: (1) online species identification based on DNA barcode sequences; (2) comparisons and discussions of different major taxonomic systems; and (3) phylogenetic progress on Chinese amphibians. This database offers a window for the world to access available information of Chinese amphibians. AmphibiaChina with its Chinese version can be accessed at http://www.amphibiachina.org.

  1. The Amphibia of Trinidad An addendum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenny, Julian S.

    1977-01-01

    Since publication of “The Amphibia of Trinidad” (KENNY 1969) some minor errors have been drawn to the attention of the author. Also, it has been possible to do some additional field observations which have resulted in a new record for Trinidad and the extension of the distribution of two species.

  2. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  3. Distinct Genetic Lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by COI and 16S DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I. Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The ‘p’ values are distinctly different from intraspecific ‘p’ distance (0–0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus – B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  4. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaik-Eem Lim

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%. Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  5. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  6. Effect of different restoration approaches on two species of newts (Amphibia: Caudata) in Central European lignite spoil heaps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Vojtěch; Tichánek, Filip; Tropek, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 99, FEB 05 (2017), s. 310-315 ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/2525 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 158/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibians * biodiversity conservation * freshwaters Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.914, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925857416306656

  7. A new species of salamander of the genus Hynobius (Amphibia, Caudata, Hynobiidae) from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Mi-Sook; Baek, Hae-Jun; Song, Jae-Young; Chang, Min Ho; Poyarkov, Nikolay A Jr

    2016-09-21

    We describe a new species of lentic-breeding Hynobius salamander from the Naro Islands, near the village of Bongrae-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do, South Korea, on the basis of results of morphological, ecological and genetic analyses. Hynobius unisacculus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) comparatively small size (adult SVL up to 61 mm; range 38.3-60.3 mm in males and 37.5-59.9 mm in females); (2) relatively slender short limbs; tips of fore- and hindlimbs adpressed on body never meeting, but separated by a large gap (gap of -3.0 to -1.5 costal folds in males and -3.5 to -1.5 in females); (3) comparatively short tail (TL/SVL ratio in adult males varying from 0.54-0.98, in adult females from 0.55 to 0.89), tail flattened and with a low dorsal fin extending to the posterior one-third of tail length; (4) usually 11 (occasionally 12) costal grooves; (5) in adults, dark brown dorsum with indistinct bronze or dark copper spots, lighter greyish-white or pinkish belly; (6) well developed fifth toe; (7) comparatively shallow vomerine tooth series with 13-23 vomerine teeth; (8) small, pigmented ova, located in one, occasionally two, strings in a small, curved egg sac with folded envelope, lacking distinct mucous stalks or whiptail-like structures on both ends. The molecular differentiation among Korean Hynobius is high; Hynobius unisacculus sp. nov. is genetically highly divergent from the morphologically similar H. leechii, H. yangi and H. quelpaertensis: pairwise distances are 9.7%, 9.1% and 8.0% of sequence divergence at the COI mtDNA gene respectively, and 10.9%, 10.9% and 9.4% of sequence divergence at the cyt b mtDNA gene, respectively. At present, the new species is known from coastal areas and offshore islands in southeastern part of Jeollanam-do in South Korea. We suggest the species should be considered as Vulnerable (Vu2a) in accordance with IUCN's Red List categories. Our study supports the presence of undiagnosed taxonomic diversity among Korean Hynobius.

  8. COI is better than 16S rRNA for DNA barcoding Asiatic salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata: Hynobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Gu, Hai-Feng; Peng, Rui; Chen, Qin; Zheng, Yu-Chi; Murphy, Robert W; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2012-01-01

    The 5' region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, because COI tends to be highly variable in amphibians, sequencing is often challenging. Consequently, another mtDNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, is often advocated for amphibian barcoding. Herein, we directly compare the usefulness of COI and 16S in discriminating species of hynobiid salamanders using 130 individuals. Species identification and classification of these animals, which are endemic to Asia, are often based on morphology only. Analysis of Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances (K2P) documents the mean intraspecific variation for COI and 16S rRNA genes to be 1.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Whereas COI can always identify species, sometimes 16S cannot. Intra- and interspecific genetic divergences occasionally overlap in both markers, thus reducing the value of a barcoding gap to identify genera. Regardless, COI is the better DNA barcoding marker for hynobiids. In addition to the comparison of two potential markers, high levels of intraspecific divergence in COI (>5%) suggest that both Onychodactylus fischeri and Salamandrella keyserlingii might be composites of cryptic species. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. A new species of Bolitoglossa (Amphibia, Caudata) from the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Sean M; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Lee, Dana; Wake, David B

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new species of Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) from the Sierra de Juárez and Sierra Mixe of Oaxaca, Mexico. Bolitoglossa chinantecasp. n. is distinguished from the three other species in the subgenus Nanotriton by its more robust body, by having substantial numbers of maxillary teeth and differences in relative head width, foot width, and limb length. The new species occurs in sympatry with Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) rufescens at the type locality. The description of another species of salamander from the Sierra de Juárez is noteworthy, given the already high plethodontid salamander species richness of the region.

  10. Extremely Low Genetic Diversity Indicating the Endangered Status of Ranodon sibiricus (Amphibia: Caudata) and Implications for Phylogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Ling; Sun, Jian-Yun; Xue, Yan; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Background The Siberian salamander (Ranodon sibiricus), distributed in geographically isolated areas of Central Asia, is an ideal alpine species for studies of conservation and phylogeography. However, there are few data regarding the genetic diversity in R. sibiricus populations. Methodology/Principal Findings We used two genetic markers (mtDNA and microsatellites) to survey all six populations of R. sibiricus in China. Both of the markers revealed extreme genetic uniformity among these populations. There were only three haplotypes in the mtDNA, and the overall nucleotide diversity in the mtDNA was 0.00064, ranging from 0.00000 to 0.00091 for the six populations. Although we recovered 70 sequences containing microsatellite repeats, there were only two loci that displayed polymorphism. We used the approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) method to study the demographic history of the populations. This analysis suggested that the extant populations diverged from the ancestral population approximately 120 years ago and that the historical population size was much larger than the present population size; i.e., R. sibiricus has experienced dramatic population declines. Conclusion/Significance Our findings suggest that the genetic diversity in the R. sibiricus populations is the lowest among all investigated amphibians. We conclude that the isolation of R. sibiricus populations occurred recently and was a result of recent human activity and/or climatic changes. The Pleistocene glaciation oscillations may have facilitated intraspecies genetic homogeneity rather than enhanced divergence. A low genomic evolutionary rate and elevated inbreeding frequency may have also contributed to the low genetic variation observed in this species. Our findings indicate the urgency of implementing a protection plan for this endangered species. PMID:22428037

  11. Extremely low genetic diversity indicating the endangered status of Ranodon sibiricus (Amphibia: Caudata and implications for phylogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Siberian salamander (Ranodon sibiricus, distributed in geographically isolated areas of Central Asia, is an ideal alpine species for studies of conservation and phylogeography. However, there are few data regarding the genetic diversity in R. sibiricus populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used two genetic markers (mtDNA and microsatellites to survey all six populations of R. sibiricus in China. Both of the markers revealed extreme genetic uniformity among these populations. There were only three haplotypes in the mtDNA, and the overall nucleotide diversity in the mtDNA was 0.00064, ranging from 0.00000 to 0.00091 for the six populations. Although we recovered 70 sequences containing microsatellite repeats, there were only two loci that displayed polymorphism. We used the approximate Bayesian computation (ABC method to study the demographic history of the populations. This analysis suggested that the extant populations diverged from the ancestral population approximately 120 years ago and that the historical population size was much larger than the present population size; i.e., R. sibiricus has experienced dramatic population declines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the genetic diversity in the R. sibiricus populations is the lowest among all investigated amphibians. We conclude that the isolation of R. sibiricus populations occurred recently and was a result of recent human activity and/or climatic changes. The Pleistocene glaciation oscillations may have facilitated intraspecies genetic homogeneity rather than enhanced divergence. A low genomic evolutionary rate and elevated inbreeding frequency may have also contributed to the low genetic variation observed in this species. Our findings indicate the urgency of implementing a protection plan for this endangered species.

  12. A Bayesian approach on molecules and behavior: reconsidering phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of the Salamandridae with emphasis on Triturus newts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfartz, Sebastian; Vicario, Saverio; Arntzen, J W; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2007-03-15

    The monophyly of European newts of the genus Triturus within the family Salamandridae has for decades rested on presumably homologous behavioral and morphological characters. Molecular data challenge this hypothesis, but the phylogenetic position of Triturus within the Salamandridae has not yet been convincingly resolved. We addressed this issue and the temporal divergence of Triturus within the Salamandridae with novel Bayesian approaches applied to DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S and cytb). We included 38 salamandrid species comprising all 13 recognized species of Triturus and 16 out of 17 salamandrid genera. A clade comprising all the "Newts" can be separated from the "True Salamanders" and Salamandrina clades. Within the "Newts" well-supported clades are: Tylototriton-Pleurodeles, the "New World Newts" (Notophthalmus-Taricha), and the "Modern Eurasian Newts" (Cynops, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton=together the "Modern Asian Newts", Calotriton, Euproctus, Neurergus and Triturus species). We found that Triturus is a non-monophyletic species assemblage, which includes four groups that are themselves monophyletic: (i) the "Large-Bodied Triturus" (six species), (ii) the "Small-Bodied Triturus" (five species), (iii) T. alpestris and (iv) T. vittatus. We estimated that the last common ancestor of Triturus existed around 64 million years ago (mya) while the root of the Salamandridae dates back to 95 mya. This was estimated using a fossil-based molecular dating approach and an explicit framework to select calibration points that least underestimated their corresponding nodes. Using the molecular phylogeny we mapped the evolution of life history and courtship traits in Triturus and found that several Triturus-specific courtship traits evolved independently. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of bark extracts from Commiphora berryi and Commiphora caudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Ramesh; Meyyappan, Arumugam; Nandi, Debkumar; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Chowdhury, Avik Acharya; Selvamani, Palanisamy; Latha, Subbaiah; Giri, Venkatachalam Sesha; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Jaisankar, Parasuraman

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of eight extracts obtained from the dried barks of Commiphora berryi and Commiphora caudata (Burseraceae). The radical scavenging activity was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide assays. The methanolic extracts of C. berryi and C. caudata showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC₅₀ values of 26.92 and 21.16 µg mL⁻¹, respectively, and low radical scavenging activity against the nitric oxide assay. The antimicrobial activity of the plants was tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of C. berryi showed good antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.26 mg mL⁻¹, whereas the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. caudata showed moderate antimicrobial activity with an MIC of more than 2.0 mg mL⁻¹ against P. aeruginosa compared to the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts, which showed an MIC of 1.1 mg mL⁻¹. The methanolic extracts of C. berryi and C. caudata also showed moderate cytotoxic activity against a human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7), with values IC₅₀ of 82.6 and 88.4 µg mL⁻¹, respectively.

  14. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. alien introgression; molecular mapping; leaf rust; Puccinia triticina; Triticum aestivum; Aegilops caudata. Abstract. Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat ...

  15. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  16. Characterisation of Kupffer cells in some Amphibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    CORSARO, CONCETTA; SCALIA, MARINA; LEOTTA, NICOLA; MONDIO, FILIPPO; SICHEL, GIOVANNI

    2000-01-01

    A study on the Kupffer cells (KCs) of Amphibia was undertaken in order to compare these cells with those of endothermic animals. Liver tissue and isolated and cultured KCs were studied by light microscopy and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. We have shown that amphibian KCs can be divided into 2 principal types: ‘small’ and ‘large’. Both cell types possess the distinctive KC morphology. They show nonspecific esterase activity, weak endogenous peroxidase activity in the nuclear envelope and in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and the ability to engulf naturally present cell debris or experimentally administered zymosan or latex particles. The principal difference between the small and the large cells consists in the substantial quantity of inclusion bodies that exist only in the latter. We conclude that amphibian KCs, apart from their ability to build melanosomes and synthesise melanins, are very similar to mammalian KCs. PMID:10739021

  17. Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae), with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena-Ureña, Emilio; Amat, Fèlix; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper), restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM), molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

  18. Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae, with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Valbuena-Ureña

    Full Text Available The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper, restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi, endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM, molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors to guarantee the long-term population viability.

  19. A new finding of Salamandra lanzai in the Upper Sangone Valley (NW Italy marks the species' most disjunct population (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Tessa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Salamandra lanzai was confirmed for the Upper Sangone Valley (Turin Province, NW Italy, within the Parco Naturale Orsiera Rocciavré. The species attribution was further supported by morphological and genetic (16S analysis and represents the north-eastern most limit of the species’ distribution. This salamander was so far known only for a few major alpine valleys of Italy (Po, Pellice, and Germanasca Valleys, and France (Guil Valley. The new finding is especially interesting since it is separated from its closest known locality by about 15 km. For such a reason this population needs to be carefully managed.

  20. Taxonomic Relationship between Tylototriton daweishanensis Zhao, Rao, Liu, Li and Yuan, 2012 and T. yangi Hou, Li and Lu, 2012 (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Rao, Ding-Qi; MATSUI, MASAFUMI; Eto, Koshiro

    2015-01-01

    We assessed taxonomic relationship of Tylototriton daweishanensis Zhao, Rao, Liu, Li and Yuan, 2012 and T. yangi Hou, Li and Lu, 2012 using mitochondrial DNA sequence data and found them to be as closely related as to be regarded as conspecific. This result, together with available morphological information, strongly indicates that T. daweishanensis is a junior synonym of T. Yangi.

  1. Love is blind: indiscriminate female mating responses to male courtship pheromones in newts (Salamandridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Treer

    Full Text Available Internal fertilization without copulation or prolonged physical contact is a rare reproductive mode among vertebrates. In many newts (Salamandridae, the male deposits a spermatophore on the substrate in the water, which the female subsequently takes up with her cloaca. Because such an insemination requires intense coordination of both sexes, male newts have evolved a courtship display, essentially consisting of sending pheromones under water by tail-fanning towards their potential partner. Behavioral experiments until now mostly focused on an attractant function, i.e. showing that olfactory cues are able to bring both sexes together. However, since males start their display only after an initial contact phase, courtship pheromones are expected to have an alternative function. Here we developed a series of intraspecific and interspecific two-female experiments with alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris and palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus females, comparing behavior in male courtship water and control water. We show that male olfactory cues emitted during tail-fanning are pheromones that can induce all typical features of natural female mating behavior. Interestingly, females exposed to male pheromones of their own species show indiscriminate mating responses to conspecific and heterospecific females, indicating that visual cues are subordinate to olfactory cues during courtship.

  2. A NEW TREE-FROG FROM MALAWI (HYPEROLIINAEt AMPHIBIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMPHIBIA). R. A. STEVENS. Chisambo Tea Estate, P.O. Box 60, Malosa-Mlanje, Malawi. ABSTRACT. Hyperolius spinigularis sp. nov. from Mlanje district of Malawi at ca. 6SS metres, characterised by presence of prominent black asperities on male venter and particularly on gular disc. Descriptions and variations of external ...

  3. L’hybride Rorippa amphibia x R. sylvestris en Belgique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawalrée, André

    1971-01-01

    The author briefly discusses and describes the hybrid Rorippa x anceps. Although its occurrence in Belgium was presumed, up till recently no localities were known. A key is given to facilitate distinction of the hybrid from its parents, R. amphibia and R. sylvestris.

  4. A new species of Cacosternum (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal. A.J.L. Larnbiris. Natal Parks Board, P.O. Box 662, Pietermaritzburg, 3200. Republic of South Africa. Received 29 March 1987; accepted 26 June 1987. A new species of Cacostemum from Pietermaritzburg, Natal, is described. It is a small, slender, smooth-skinned form, immediately ...

  5. The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martínez-Azorín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of A. caudata are described as a new related species: A. bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed.

  6. Development of a Standardized Approach for Assessing Potential Risks to Amphibians Exposed to Sediment and Hydric Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    of their life history. Amphibia Gymnophiona - caecilians Caudata - salamanders Anura - frogs and toads Batrachia Simplified Amphibian Phylogenic...Amphibian Trophic Status The class Amphibia is extremely diverse, with an enormous array of species-specific Amphibian Ecological Risk Assessment

  7. Mitochondrial evidence on the phylogenetic position of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    OpenAIRE

    Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence (17,005 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the caecilian Typhlonectes natans (Gymnophiona, Amphibia) was determined. This molecule is characterized by two distinctive genomic features: there are seven large 109-bp tandem repeats in the control region, and the sequence for the putative origin of replication of the L strand can potentially fold into two alternative secondary structures (one including part of the tRNA(Cys)). The new sequence data were used to ass...

  8. A review of the biology and conservation of the Cope's giant salamander Dicamptodon copei Nussbaum, 1970 (Amphibia: Caudata: Dicamptodontidae) in the Pacific northwestern region of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex D. Foster; Deanna H. Olson; Lawrence L.C. Jones

    2015-01-01

    The Cope’s Giant Salamander Dicamptodon copei is a stream dwelling amphibian reliant on cool streams, native to forested areas primarily west of the crest of the Cascade Range in the Pacific Northwest region, USA. Unlike other members of the genus, adult D. copei are most often found in a paedomorphic form, and rarely transforms to a terrestrial stage. As a result,...

  9. Phylogeny and phylogeography of the sword-tailed newt, Cynops ensicauda (Amphibia: Caudata), as revealed by nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Atsushi; Ota, Hidetoshi; Matsui, Masafumi

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography among individuals of the endemic newt (Cynops ensicauda) of the Central Ryukyus, Japan based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of remarkable differentiation between assemblages from the Amami and Okinawa Island Groups, supporting the validity of the subspecies C. e. popei described from the latter on morphological grounds. The group of individuals from Okinawa Island Group was further divided into two distinct subgroups unlike the results of previous morphological and allozyme studies. Geographic ranges of these subgroups overlapped in the northern part of Okinawajima Island. The phylogeographic pattern within the Okinawa Island Group suggests an initial division into two geographically isolated population lineages and subsequent secondary sympatry before formation of reproductive isolation. It is also likely that within the Okinawa Island Group emigration occurred from the central and northern parts of Okinawajima Island to its southern part, as well as to several small islets off its western coast. Within the Amami Island Group, recurring restricted gene flow with isolation by distance seems to have occurred around the southwestern region including three islets southwest of Amamioshima Island. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear and mitochondrial multilocus phylogeny and survey of alkaloid content in true salamanders of the genus Salamandra (Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, Miguel; Sanchez, Eugenia; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Eikelmann, Daniel; Rodríguez, Ariel; Carranza, Salvador; Donaire, David; Gehara, Marcelo; Helfer, Véronique; Lötters, Stefan; Werner, Philine; Schulz, Stefan; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2014-04-01

    The genus Salamandra represents a clade of six species of Palearctic salamanders of either contrasted black-yellow, or uniformly black coloration, known to contain steroidal alkaloid toxins in high concentrations in their skin secretions. This study reconstructs the phylogeny of the genus Salamandra based on DNA sequences of segments of 10 mitochondrial and 13 nuclear genes from 31 individual samples representing all Salamandra species and most of the commonly recognized subspecies. The concatenated analysis of the complete dataset produced a fully resolved tree with most nodes strongly supported, suggesting that a clade composed of the Alpine salamander (S. atra) and the Corsican fire salamander (S. corsica) is the sister taxon to a clade containing the remaining species, among which S. algira and S. salamandra are sister species. Separate analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear data partitions disagreed regarding basal nodes and in the position of the root but concordantly recovered the S. atra/S. corsica as well as the S. salamandra/S. algira relationship. A species-tree analysis suggested almost simultaneous temporal splits between these pairs of species, which we hypothesize was caused by vicariance events after the Messinian salinity crisis (from late Miocene to early Pliocene). A survey of toxins with combined gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy confirmed the presence of samandarine and/or samandarone steroidal alkaloids in all species of Salamandra as well as in representatives of their sister group, Lyciasalamandra. Samandarone was also detected in lower concentrations in other salamandrids including Calotriton, Euproctus, Lissotriton, and Triturus, suggesting that the presence and possible biosynthesis of this alkaloid is plesiomorphic within the Salamandridae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural characterization of polysaccharide obtained from red seaweed Gracilaria caudata (J Agardh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Francisco C N; da Silva, Draulio C; Sombra, Venicios G; Maciel, Jeanny S; Feitosa, Judith P A; Freitas, Ana L P; de Paula, Regina C M

    2013-01-30

    Seaweeds are considered an important source of bioactive molecules. In this work the marine red alga Gracilaria caudata was submitted to aqueous extraction of their polysaccharides for 2 h at 100 °C. The polysaccharide fraction (PGC) presented a recovery of 32.8%. The sulfate content of PGC, calculated by S%, is 1 ± 0.2% and the degree of sulfation accounts for 0.13 ± 0.2. High-Performance Size-Exclusion Chromatography demonstrated that PGC consists of a high molecular weight polysaccharide (2.5 × 10(5)gmol(-1)). Chemical analysis of PGC was performed by microanalysis, infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, 1 and 2D) spectroscopy. The structure of PGC is mainly constituted by the alternating residues 3-linked-β-D-galactopyranose and 4-linked-3,6-α-L-anhydrogalactose; however some hydroxyl groups were substituted by methyl groups and pyruvic acid acetal. The biological precursor of 3,6-α-L-anhydrogalactose (6-sulfate-α-l-galactose) was also detected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The authorships and dates of the specific nomina Megophrys shuichengensis and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Annemarie; Frétey, Thierry; Dubois, Alain

    2015-05-28

    Two amphibian species from China are designated by the specific nomen shuichengensis, which refers to the Shuicheng County (26°34'N, 104°51'E), south of the city of Liupanshui in the province of Guizhou: Megophrys shuichengensis (Amphibia, Anura) and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia, Urodela). The holotypes (holophoronts) of both species were deposited in Department of Biology of the Liupanshui Teachers Higher College (LTHC below). Both species share the particularity of having been described as new twice, at different dates, in different journals and with different authorships. Although this has been acknowledged for the salamander, it has not yet been so for the frog.

  13. Eunicidae (Annelida: Polychaeta associated with Phragmathopoma caudata Morch, 1863 and some coral reefs from Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ángel de León-González

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses species in the family Eunicidae obtained in the intertidal zones of Veracruz, Mexico. The specimens collected were associated with a sabellariid Phragmatopoma caudata Morch, 1863, and collected directly by scuba diving from some coral reefs in Veracruz. Twelve species were found, six of whish are reported for the first time in the area: Eunice mutilata Webster, 1884, Eunice panamena (Chamberlin, 1919, Eunice pellucida Kinberg, 1865, Eunice unifrons (Verrill, 1900, Marphysa aransensis Treadwell, 1939 and Nematonereis unicornis (Grube, 1840. Furthermore, the descriptions of two new species of the genera Eunice and Marphysa are included.

  14. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. The Herpetofauna of Lake Conway: Species Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22151. 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on toeee aide Iftneco.ser ind Identity by block number) Amphibia Reptiles...14 PART IV: SPECIES ACCOUNTS .............................................. 16 Amphibia : Caudata ............................................ 17...39 Siren lacertina .......................................... 39 Amphibia : Anura

  15. Phylogenetic relationships linking Duttaphrynus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) species based on 12S and 16S rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihar, Suman; Bhattacharya, Manojit; Deuti, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    Genus Duttaphrynus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) is endemic to southwestern and southern China and throughout southern Asia. Duttaphrynus phylogeny was also under debate for many years. 12S and 16S rDNAs help us to elucidate Duttaphrynus phylogeny.

  16. Pro-toxic 1,2-Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid esters, including unprecedented 10-membered macrocyclic diesters, in the medicinally-used Alafia cf. caudata and Amphineurion marginatum (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae: Nerieae and Apoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects indicated the presence of pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in Alafia cf. caudata Stapf (Nerieae: Alafinae) and Amphineurion marginatum (Roxb.) D.J. Middleton (Apocyneae: Amphineuriinae). Subsequently, monoesters of retronecine ...

  17. Wait or escape? Contrasting submergence tolerance strategies of Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris and their hybrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.V.; McLean, E.H.; Boonman, A.; Visser, E.J.W.; Schranz, M.E.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differential responses of closely related species to submergence can provide insight into the evolution and mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Several traits of two wetland species from habitats with contrasting flooding regimes, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, as well

  18. Mitochondrial evidence on the phylogenetic position of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence (17,005 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the caecilian Typhlonectes natans (Gymnophiona, Amphibia) was determined. This molecule is characterized by two distinctive genomic features: there are seven large 109-bp tandem repeats in the control region, and the sequence for the putative origin of replication of the L strand can potentially fold into two alternative secondary structures (one including part of the tRNA(Cys)). The new sequence data were used to assess the phylogenetic position of caecilians and to gain insights into the origin of living amphibians (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians). Phylogenetic analyses of two data sets-one combining protein-coding genes and the other combining tRNA genes-strongly supported a caecilian + frog clade and, hence, monophyly of modern amphibians. These two data sets could not further resolve relationships among the coelacanth, lungfishes, and tetrapods, but strongly supported diapsid affinities of turtles. Phylogenetic relationships among a larger set of species of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians were estimated with a mitochondrial rRNA data set. Maximum parsimony analysis of this latter data set also recovered monophyly of living amphibians and favored a frog + salamander (Batrachia) relationship. However, bootstrap support was only moderate at these nodes. This is likely due to an extensive among-site rate heterogeneity in the rRNA data set and the narrow window of time in which the three main groups of living amphibians were originated. PMID:10835397

  19. The different meanings of the nomen Amphibia: a correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alain

    2015-07-17

    I recently published a survey of the different meanings of the nomen Amphibia in taxonomic publications since 1758 (Dubois 2015). The 'meaning' of a nomen in zoological nomenclature depends on the system used for the allocation of nomina to taxa, and several such systems can be used (see e.g. Dubois 2006a-b). In the paper at stake, I used the 'orostensional nomenclatural system' (OONS) for class-series nomenclature. In this system, a class-series nomen-i.e., a nomen above the rank superfamily, therefore one whose taxonomic allocation is not regulated by the Code (Anonymous 1999)-applies, in a given classification, to the most inclusive class-series taxon that includes all its originally expressly included nominal genera (conucleogenera) and excludes all its originally expressly excluded nominal genera (alienogenera)-if such a taxon indeed exists in this classification. However, if one a least of the alienogenera is now part of the most inclusive taxon including all the conucleogenera, the nomen cannot be taxonomically allocated and qualifies as an anaptonym in the classification used as reference (Dubois 2006a-b, 2011), although it may not be so under another taxonomic frame.

  20. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  1. Fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus and orthopoxvirus in a group of Asian marmots (Marmota caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Sattler, U; Pilo, P; Waldvogel, A S

    2013-09-01

    A fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) and orthopoxvirus (OPXV) in Asian marmots (Marmota caudata) is reported in this article. A total of 7 Asian marmots from a small zoological garden in Switzerland were found dead in hibernation during a routine check in the winter of 2011. The marmots died in February 2011. No clinical signs of disease were observed at any time. The viruses were detected in all individuals for which the tissues were available (n = 3). Detection of the viruses was performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The most consistent gross lesion was a neck and thorax edema. A necrotizing pharyngitis and a multifocal necrotizing pneumonia were observed histologically. Numerous large intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions were seen in the epithelial cells of the pharynx, of the airways, and in the skin keratinocytes. Brain lesions were limited to mild multifocal gliosis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the marmot CDV strain was closely related to the clusters of CDVs detected in Switzerland in wild carnivores during a local outbreak in 2002 and the 2009-2010 nationwide epidemic, suggesting a spillover of this virus from wildlife. The OPXV was most closely related to a strain of cowpoxvirus, a poxvirus species considered endemic in Europe. This is the first reported instance of CDV infection in a rodent species and of a combined CDV and OPXV infection.

  2. Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Red Algae Gracilaria caudata Protects Mice Gut Against Ethanol-Induced Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Renan Oliveira; dos Santos, Geice Maria Pereira; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Lucetti, Larisse Tavares; Santana, Ana Paula Macedo; de Souza Chaves, Luciano; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the gastroprotective activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide (PLS) fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata and the mechanism underlying the gastroprotective activity. Male Swiss mice were treated with PLS (3, 10, 30 and 90 mg·kg−1, p.o.), and after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g−1, p.o.). One hour later, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. Samples of the stomach tissue were also obtained for histopathological assessment and for assays of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Other groups were pretreated with l-NAME (10 mg·kg−1, i.p.), dl-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg·kg−1, p.o.) or glibenclamide (5 mg·kg−1, i.p.). After 1 h, PLS (30 mg·kg−1, p.o.) was administered. After 30 min, ethanol 50% was administered (0.5 mL/25g−1, p.o.), followed by sacrifice after 60 min. PLS prevented-ethanol-induced macroscopic and microscopic gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with l-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of propargylglycine did not influence the effect of PLS. Our results suggest that PLS has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice via activation of the NO/KATP pathway. PMID:22163181

  3. An Extremely Peramorphic Newt (Urodela: Salamandridae: Pleurodelini from the Latest Oligocene of Germany, and a New Phylogenetic Analysis of Extant and Extinct Salamandrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marjanović

    Full Text Available We describe an Oligocene newt specimen from western Germany that has gone practically unnoticed in the literature despite having been housed in the Museum für Naturkunde (Berlin for a century. It is referable to the coeval Chelotriton, but is unusually peramorphic; for many characters it is more peramorphic than all other caudates or even all other lissamphibians. Most noticeable are the position of the jaw joints far caudal to the occiput, the honeycombed sculpture on the maxilla, and the possible presence of a septomaxilla (which would be unique among salamandrids. Referral to a species would require a revision of the genus, but the specimen likely does not belong to the type species. A phylogenetic analysis of nonmolecular characters of Salamandridae, far larger than all predecessors, confirms the referral to Chelotriton. It further loosely associates the Oligocene Archaeotriton and the Miocene Carpathotriton with the extant Lissotriton, though the former may alternatively lie outside Pleurodelinae altogether. The Miocene? I. randeckensis may not belong to the extant Ichthyosaura. The Miocene "Triturus" roehrsi is found neither with the extant Ommatotriton nor with Lissotriton, but inside an Asian/aquatic clade or, when geographic distribution is included as a character, as the sister-group to all other European molgins. The main cause for discrepancies between the results and the molecular consensus is not heterochrony, but adaptations to a life in mountain streams; this is the most likely reason why the Paleocene Koalliella from western Europe forms the sister-group to some or all of the most aquatic extant newts in different analyses. We would like to urge neontologists working on salamandrids to pay renewed attention to the skeleton, not limited to the skull, as a source of diagnostic and phylogenetically informative characters.

  4. Pectenotoxin-2 in single-cell isolates of Dinophysis caudata and Dinophysis acuta from the Galician Rías (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisa Fernández, M; Reguera, Beatriz; González-Gil, Sonsoles; Míguez, Aúrea

    2006-10-01

    Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis caudata are seasonal components of the dinoflagellate community in the Galician Rías Bajas (NW Spain). These species can be the main contributors to the occurrence of Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins (LST) in September-October, leading to prohibition of harvesting in an area of intensive mariculture (250 x 10(3)t of cultured mussels, 60 x 10(3)t of other shellfish in natural banks, per year). Previous analyses of okadaic acid (OA) and related toxins in these two species by HPLC revealed significant amounts of OA and DTX2 in D. acuta, but only trace amounts of OA in D. caudata cells, and led to the erroneous conclusion that the contribution of the latter species to autumn LST events was negligible. Recent analyses by LC-MS/MS of individually picked cells of D. acuta and D. caudata have shown that both species may have high levels of PTX2 (up to 30 pg and 130 pg cell(-1), respectively) and that this toxin can be the dominant toxin during toxic outbreaks associated with Dinophysis spp. Although the quick conversion of PTX2 to PTX-2SA in mussels may reduce the risks for human health, these results have important implications for monitoring programmes. The complex toxin profile of shellfish exposed to Dinophysis spp. populations should be taken into account when making decisions on the toxin control methods to be used as the basis of the programme. Conclusive toxicological studies are required to elucidate the public health relevance of the different PTXs derivatives and to provide the scientific basis for regulations.

  5. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazhigin, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo

  6. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davit Vasilyan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae

  7. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Zazhigin, Vladimir S; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo bufo, and a small part of this assemblage

  8. Population analysis of Hyla arborea and Hyla meridionalis (Amphibia, Anura) in Portugal:a molecular genetic and bioacoustic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Catarina Nascimento, 1978-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biodiversidade), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 The focus of this work is on the species of Hylids (Amphibia, Anura) present in Portugal, Hyla meridionalis and Hyla arborea (=H. molleri), to examine the geographic patterns of genetic and mating calls diversity. The aim is to determine the patterns of variation of genetic and bioacoustic markers between populations, exploring how the current distribution patterns were influenced by the or...

  9. TREMATODOFAUNA COMPLEXULUI PELOPHYLAX ESCULENTA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA DIN CODRII CENTRALI AI REPUBLICII MOLDOVA. 1. FAMILIILE PLAGIORCHIIDAE, CEPHALOGONIMIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ERHAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea conţine date cu privire la infestarea cu trematode a amfibienilor din familia Ranidae (Amphibia, Anura care populează ecosistemele naturale şi antropizate ale Codrilor centrali din Republica Moldova. Cercetări helmintologice ale amfibienilor au fost efectuate pentru prima dată în Republica Moldova. Rezultatele obţinute atestă infestarea ranidelor verzi (Rana ridibunda, R. lessonae, R. esculenta cu trematode din familiile Gorgoderidae (Gorgodera varsoviensis Sinitzin, 1905, Diplodiscidae (Diplodiscus subclavatus Pallas, 1760, Plagiorchiidae (Opisthioglyphe ranae Frohlich, 1791, Haematoloechus variegatus Rudolphi, 1819, Cephalogonimidae (Cephalogonimus retusus Dujardin, 1845 şi Lecithodendriidae (Pleurogenes claviger Rudolphi, 1819, Pleurogenoides medians,Olsson, 1876, Prosotocus confusus Looss, 1894, Candidotrema loossi, Africa, 1930. În lucrare sunt expuse rezultatele ce atestă nivelul de infestare a complexului Pelophylax esculenta cu specii de trematode din familiile Plagiorchiidae şi Cephalogonimidae. Pentru fiecare specie au fost stabilite: încadrarea sistema-tică, sinonimele, gazdele, localizarea organică, răspândirea geografică, etiologia şi ciclul biologic. De asemenea, este specificat volumul materialului colectat, este dată descrierea morfologică a speciilor, indicat nivelul de infestare în funcţie de vârstă, gen şi ecosistem, acestea fiind însoţite de fotografii şi figuri originale. FAUNA OF TREMATODES OF COMPLEX PELOPHYLAX ESCULENTA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA FROM CENTRAL CODRI FOREST OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA. 1. FAMILIES PLAGIORCHIIDAE, CEPHALOGONIMIDAEThe paper presents data on trematodes infestation in amphibians from family Ranidae (Amphibia, Anura in natural and anthropized ecosystems of Central Codri forest from the Republic of Moldova. The helminthological researches of amphibians were accomplished for the first time in the Republic of Moldova. As result the infestation of Ranidae family species

  10. A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophry-idae from the northwestern Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang MO, Youhui SHEN, Honghui LI, Xiushan WU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae, Megophrys tuberogranulatus Shen, Mo et Li, sp. nov. (Holotype HNUL 03080902, adult male, SVL: 38.2 mm, from Sangzhi County, Hunan Province, is described. Megophrys tuberogranulatus is closely related to both Megophrys kuatunensis and Megophrys minor. Characters of the new species that differentiate this species from close relatives are skin granulated with big tubercles on the dorsal sides of both thigh and tibia, the bigger inner metacarpal tubercle, upper eyelid wider than the interorbital space, hind limbs longer, overlapping of the left and right calcaneal parts. The type specimens are deposited in the Animal Museum of Life Sciences College of Hunan Normal University [Current Zoology 56 (4: 432–436, 2010].

  11. Pro-toxic 1,2-Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Esters, Including Unprecedented 10-Membered Macrocyclic Diesters, in the Medicinally-used Alafia cf. caudata and Amphineurion marginatum (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae: Nerieae and Apocyneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Betz, Joseph M; Fischer, Ottmar W; Liede-Schumann, Sigrid; Boppré, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Within the Apocynoideae (Apocynaceae) pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids have been reported only in Echiteae. However, attraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects suggested their presence in Alafia cf. caudata Stapf (Nerieae: Alafiinae) and Amphineurion marginatum (Roxb.) D.J. Middleton (Apocyneae: Amphineuriinae), both used as medicinal plants. To confirm the presence of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in Alafia cf. caudata and Amphineurion marginatum and identify their structures. Methanol extracts of air-dried roots, stems and leaves of non-flowering plants were analysed using HPLC-ESI(+)MS and MS/MS or collision-induced dissociation MS in low and/or high resolution modes. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tentatively identified based on the mass spectrometry data. Solid phase extraction combined with semi-preparative HPLC were used to isolate major alkaloids. Structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. Monoesters of retronecine with senecioic, hydroxysenecioic or syringic acids were identified in roots of Alafia cf. caudata. Two unprecedented 10-membered macrocyclic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid diesters were isolated from roots of Amphineurion marginatum. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected in root and leaf material of Alafia cf. caudata at 0.34 and 0.01% dry weight (DW), and 0.13, 0.02 and 0.09% DW in root, leaf and stem material of Amphineurion marginatum. The presence of pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids suggests that medical preparations of these plants pose potential health risks to consumers. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids are evidently more widespread in Apocynoideae than previously assumed, and it would seem rewarding to study other members of this family for the presence of pyrrolizidines, dehydropyrrolizidines and dihydropyrrolizines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Radiography atlas of domestic animals. Small mammals, birds, reptilia, and amphibia. Atlas der Roentgendiagnostik bei Heimtieren. Kleinsaeuger, Voegel, Reptilien und Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P. (eds.); Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE).

  13. A new species of Mesocoelium (Digenea: Mesocoeliidae) found in Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tássia F F; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-04-01

    Mesocoelium lanfrediae sp. nov. (Digenea: Mesocoeliidae) inhabits the small intestine of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) and is described here, with illustrations provided by light, scanning electron microscopy and molecular approachs. M. lanfrediae sp. nov. presents the typical characteristics of the genus, but is morphometrically and morphologically different from the species described previously. The main diagnostic characteristics of M. lanfrediae sp. nov. are (i) seven pairs of regularly-distributed spherical papillae on the oral sucker, (ii) ventral sucker outlined by four pairs of papillae distributed in a uniform pattern and interspersed with numerous spines, which are larger at the posterior margin and (iii) small, rounded tegumentary papillae around the opening of the oral sucker, which are morphologically different from those of the oral sucker itself, some of which are randomly disposed in the ventrolateral tegumentary region of the anterior third of the body. Addionally, based on SSU rDNA, a phylogenetic analysis including Brachycoeliidae and Mesocoeliidae taxa available on GenBank established the close relationship between M. lanfrediae sp. nov. and Mesocoelium sp.

  14. A new species of Mesocoelium (Digenea: Mesocoeliidae) found in Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tássia FF; Melo, Francisco TV; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-01-01

    Mesocoelium lanfrediaesp. nov. (Digenea: Mesocoeliidae) inhabits the small intestine of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) and is described here, with illustrations provided by light, scanning electron microscopy and molecular approachs. M. lanfrediae sp. nov. presents the typical characteristics of the genus, but is morphometrically and morphologically different from the species described previously. The main diagnostic characteristics of M. lanfrediae sp. nov. are (i) seven pairs of regularly-distributed spherical papillae on the oral sucker, (ii) ventral sucker outlined by four pairs of papillae distributed in a uniform pattern and interspersed with numerous spines, which are larger at the posterior margin and (iii) small, rounded tegumentary papillae around the opening of the oral sucker, which are morphologically different from those of the oral sucker itself, some of which are randomly disposed in the ventrolateral tegumentary region of the anterior third of the body. Addionally, based on SSU rDNA, a phylogenetic analysis including Brachycoeliidae and Mesocoeliidae taxa available on GenBank established the close relationship between M. lanfrediae sp. nov. and Mesocoelium sp. PMID:23579798

  15. Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Parameters of Pelophylax Esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broshko Ye. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Prameters of Pelophylax esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones. Broshko Ye. O. — Structural and biomechanical parameters of Edible Frog, Pelophylax esculentus (Linnaeus, 1758, limb bones, namely, mass, linear dimensions, parameters of the shaft’s cross-sectional shape (cross-sectional area, moments of inertia, radiuses of inertia were investigated. Some coefficients were also estimated: diameters ratio (df/ds, cross-sectional index (ik, principal moments of inertia ratio (Imax/Imin.. Coefficients of variation of linear dimensions (11.9-20.0 % anrelative bone mass (22-35 % were established. Moments of inertia of various bones are more variable (CV = 41.67-56.35 % in relation to radii of inertia (CV = 9.68-14.67 %. Shaft’s cross-sectional shape is invariable in all cases. However, there is high individual variability of structural and biomechanical parameters of P. esculentus limb bones. Variability of parameters was limited by the certain range. We suggest the presence of stable norm in bone structure. Stylopodium bones have the primary biomechanical function among the elements of limb skeleton, because their parameters most clearly responsive to changes in body mass.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae and evolutionary characteristics of the amphibian mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiying CHEN, Bin WANG, Jiongyu LIU, Feng XIE, Jianping JIANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was sequenced. It includes 17,660 base pairs, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and 23 tRNAs. A tandem duplication of tRNAMet gene was found in this mitochondrial genome, and the similarity between the two tRNAMet genes is 85.8%, being the highest in amphibian mitochondrial genomes sequenced thus far. Based on gene organization, 24 types were found from 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes. Type 1 was present in 108 species, type 11 in 11 species, types 5, 16, 17, and 20 each in two species, and the others each present in one species. Fifteen types were found in Anura, being the most diversity in three orders of the Lissamphibia. Our phylogenetic results using 11 protein-coding gene sequences of 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes strongly support the monophyly of the Lissamphibia, as well as its three orders, the Gymnophiona, Caudata, and Anura, among which the relationships were ((Gymnophiona (Caudata, Anura. Based on the phylogenetic trees, type 1 was recognized as the ancestral type for amphibians, and type 11 was the synapomorphic type for the Neobatrachia. Gene rearrangements among lineages provide meaningful phylogenetic information. The rearrangement of the LTPF tRNA gene cluster and the translocation of the ND5 gene only found in the Neobatrachia support the monophyly of this group; similarly, the tandem duplication of the tRNAMet genes only found in the Dicroglossidae support the monophyly of this family [Current Zoology 57 (6: 785–805, 2011].

  17. Estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueses-Cisneros Jonh Jairo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza el estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del Valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia; mediante la construcción del inventario de la fauna Amphibia, el mejoramiento en el conocimiento
    de la distribución en los Andes norecuatorianos y surcolombianos de las especies involucradas y la relación en cuanto a la composición de esta fauna con la de los estudios realizados en el transecto Napo en Ecuador y transecto Montañita-Alto Gabinete en Caquetá. El estudio se basó en: 1 tres salidas de campo al Valle de Sibundoy (localizado al suroccidente de Colombia, entre 1º 05’ y 1º 12’ N y 76º 53’ y 77º 00’ O entre 2.000-2.750 msnm, realizadas en diciembre 2000-enero 2001, julio 2002 y diciembre 2003-febrero 2004, con un esfuerzo de muestreo de 198 horas/hombre; 2 revisión bibliográfica; 3 revisión de especímenes depositados en la colección de anfibios del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá (ICN y en la revisión de la base de datos de la colección de Herpetología del Instituto de Investigaciones Alexander von Humboldt (IAvH de los anfibios colectados en los departamentos de Caquetá, Nariño, Putumayo y en Ecuador. La fauna consta de 32 especies (313 especímenes agrupadas en dos órdenes, cinco familias y siete géneros; para cada especie se presenta información
    sobre su historial taxonómico, reconocimiento, distribución geográfica (mapas de distribución y rangos altitudinales, coloración en vivo y en preservativo, abundancia y algunos aspectos relacionados con su historia natural; se realiza un análisis regional de esta fauna a nivel general
    (Valle de Sibundoy y por localidades muestreadas, se hace una comparación con las faunas realizadas en el transecto Napo en Ecuador y en el transecto Montañita-Alto Gabinete en Caquetá y se presenta una clave taxonómica y una serie de fotografías para facilitar su  reconocimiento. El estudio adem

  18. Montagnuphilones A-G, Azaphilones from Montagnulaceae sp. DM0194, a Fungal Endophyte of Submerged Roots of Persicaria amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Guang; Xu, Ya-Ming; Sandberg, Dustin C; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2017-01-27

    Seven azaphilones, montagnuphilones A-G (1-7), together with previously known azaphilones 8-11, were encountered in Montagnulaceae sp. DM0194, an endophytic fungus isolated from submerged roots of Persicaria amphibia. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of their MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Among these, none were found to be cytotoxic to RAW264.7 cells up to 100.0 μM, but 8, 5, and 2 showed NO inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 9.2 ± 0.9, 25.5 ± 1.1, and 39.6 ± 1.8 μM, respectively.

  19. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  20. Diets of tadpoles from a temporary pond in southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de C. Rossa-Feres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of tadpoles of 13 anuran species was determined to verify whether food resource partitioning occurs and whether the degree of diet similarity is related to taxonomic affinity. Tadpoles of all species studied were mainly herbivorous, except for these of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 which were mycophagous. Although some species had exclusive items in their diet, most tadpole species ingested the same items, but differed in the amount of each item consumed. Two guilds were found: tadpoles that feed on diatoms on the pond bottom, and tadpoles that feed on Oedogonium Link, 1820 algae in midwater. Diet similarity was related to the taxonomic relationship, microhabitat and feeding behavior of tadpoles indicating that the community organization is complex and resulting from the interaction of several parameters.Dieta dos girinos de um açude temporário no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura. Determinou-se a dieta dos girinos de 13 espécies de anuros, com o objetivo de verificar se ocorre partilha de recursos alimentares e se o grau de similaridade na dieta é relacionado ao parentesco, inferido pela proximidade taxonômica. Os girinos de todas as espécies estudadas foram preponderantemente herbívoros, exceto os de Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 que foram micófagos. Embora algumas espécies tenham apresentado itens exclusivos em sua dieta, os girinos da maioria das espécies ingeriram os mesmos itens, diferindo na quantidade consumida de cada item. Duas guildas foram encontradas: girinos que se alimentam de diatomáceas no fundo do corpo d'água e girinos que se alimentam de algas do gênero Oedogonium Link, 1820 à meia-água. A similaridade na dieta foi relacionada à proximidade taxonômica, ao microhabitat e ao comportamento de alimentação, indicando que a organização desta comunidade é complexa e resultante da interação entre vários fatores.

  1. Lankesterella alencari n. sp., a toxoplasma-like organism in the central nervous system of Amphibia (Protozoa, Sporozoa Lankesterella alencari n. sp., um toxoplasma-like no sistema nervoso central de Amphibia (Protozoa, Sporozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Celso Gonçalves da Costa

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella alencari n. sp. a Sporozoa that occur in the blood and CNS of the South American frog Leptodactylus acellatus is described. Since the tissue forms of this parasite have been previously reported as belonging to the genus Toxoplasma, we attempted in fection of 2 species of amphibia (Bufo marinus an dLeptodactylus ocellatus with a Toxoplasma strain of human origen; inoculation was by intraperitoneal injection of parasite-containing ascitic fluid from infected mice. Attempt of experimental inoculation of the parasite found in the CNS of L. ocellatus in a highly susceptible host (mice was unsuccessful. These results suggest that Toxoplasma does not occur naturally in the amphibia; be related to Toxoplasma is excluded. The following genera of haematozoa found in brazilian amphibia have been considered briedfly: Haemobartonella, Cytamoeba, Dactylosoma, Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma.Os autores descrevem uma espécie do gênero Lankesterella considerada nova para a ciência, que ocorre com certa freqüência parasitando a rã Leptodactylus ocellatus no Brasil. Como os cistos dêste parasito, encontrados no SNC, foram anteriormente relacionados ao gênero Toxoplasma por outro autor, realizamos uma série de inoculações experimentais para eliminar a hipótese. Tanto as inoculações com amostra de Toxoplasma gondii de origem humana em anfíbios, como as de mascerados de SNC de rã contendo cistos em camundongos, foram negativas. As inoculações de T. gondii em anfíbios foram realizadas em temperatura ambiente que no Rio de Janeiro, na época era 30º-39ºC. Não encontramos, por outro lado, cistos no SNC de anfíbios do gênero Bufo, fato assinalado por outros autores. Realizamos algumas técnicas citoquímicas para melhor caracterização do parasito. Tendo em vista o grande número de hemoparasitos encontrados nas rãs brasileiras e as infecções múltiplas ocorrerem com freqüência, apresentamos também a incidência dêstes parasitos

  2. TAXONOMIC REVISIONS OF MORPHOLOGICALLY SIMILAR SPECIES FROM TWO EUGLENOID GENERA: EUGLENA (E. GRANULATA AND E. VELATA) AND EUGLENARIA (EU. ANABAENA, EU. CAUDATA, AND EU. CLAVATA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnkowska-Ishikawa, Anna; Milanowski, Rafał; Triemer, Richard E; Zakryś, Bożena

    2012-06-01

    The establishment of epitypes (together with the emended diagnoses) for three species of Euglenaria Karnkowska, E. W. Linton et Kwiatowski [Eu. anabaena (Mainx) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton; Eu. caudata (Hübner) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton; and Eu. clavata (Skuja) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton] and two species of Euglena Ehrenberg [E. granulata (Klebs) Schmitz and E. velata Klebs] was achieved due to literature studies, verification of morphological diagnostic features (cell size, cell shape, number of chloroplasts, the presence of mucocysts), as well as molecular characters (SSU rDNA). Now all these species are easy to identify and distinguish, despite their high morphological similarity, that is, spindle-shaped (or cylindrically spindle-shaped) cells and parietal, lobed chloroplasts with a single pyrenoid, accompanied by bilateral paramylon caps located on both sides of the chloroplast. E. granulata is the only species in this group that has spherical mucocysts. E. velata is distinguished by the largest cells (90-150 μm) and has the highest number of chloroplasts (>30). Eu. anabaena has the fewest chloroplasts (usually 3-6), and its cells are always (whether the organism is swimming or not) spindle-shaped or cylindrically spindle-shaped, in contrast to the cells of Eu. clavata, which are club-shaped (clavate) while swimming and only after stopping change to resemble the shape of a spindle or a cylindrical spindle; Eu. clavata has numerous chloroplasts (15-20). Eu. caudata is characterized by asymmetrical spindle-shaped (fusiform) cells, that is, with an elongated rear section and a shorter front section; the number of chloroplasts normally ranges from 7 to 15. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Testicular Morphohistology of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Amphibia, Hylidae During the Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José CAREZZANO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data concerning to the morphological testicular features of Hypsiboas pulchel-lus during the breeding season is provided, in order to know aspects of their reproductive biology. The testis, ovoid and yellowish with 4.64 ± 0.48 mm length and 2.05 ± 0.23 mm wide, are surrounded by the tunica albuginea which measures 5.60 ± 0.82 µm. The seminif-erous locules, placed internally, measure 257.47 ± 58.25 µm in diameter, and cysts with spermatogenic cells associated with Sertoli cells are distinguished in them. The interstitial tissue is scarce. The biggest cells of the germinal series are the spermatogonia I (14.34 ± 1.74 µm, from which spermatogonia II (10.14 ± 1.33 µm originate. Spermatocytes I measure 9.34 ± 0.32 µm and have slightly condensed chromatin. The spermatocytes II are 8.12 ± 1.07 µm long. The spermatids I are spherical, grouped in rounded cysts, and measure 7.61 ± 1.45 µm. On the other hand, spermatids II are elongated (4.09 ± 0.51 µm and not within the cysts. Towards the center of the loculus, the free, lengthened and flagellated spermatozoids are located. The morphohistology of the analyzed testicles show similarities with those observed in other neotropical amphibians, being all the cells of the spermatogenic lineage in the same locule MORFOHISTOLOGÍA TESTICULAR DE Hypsiboas pulchellus (AMPHIBIA, HYLIDAE. En este estudio se aportan datos sobre la morfohistología testicular de Hypsiboas pulchellus para conocer aspectos de su biología reproductiva. Las gónadas se procesaron empleando técnicas histológicas básicas, cortándose a 8 µm y tiñéndose con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Los testículos, ovoides y amarillentos de 4,64 ± 0,48 mm de largo por 2,05 ± 0,23 mm de ancho, están rodeados por la túnica albugínea que mide 5,60 ± 0,82 µm. Internamente presentan lóculos seminíferos de 257,47 ± 58,25 µm de diámetro, distinguiéndose en ellos cistos con células espermatog

  4. Testicular Morphohistology of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Amphibia, Hylidae During the Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José CAREZZANO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data concerning to the morphological testicular features of Hypsiboas pulchel-lus during the breeding season is provided, in order to know aspects of their reproductive biology. The testis, ovoid and yellowish with 4.64 ± 0.48 mm length and 2.05 ± 0.23 mm wide, are surrounded by the tunica albuginea which measures 5.60 ± 0.82 µm. The seminif-erous locules, placed internally, measure 257.47 ± 58.25 µm in diameter, and cysts with spermatogenic cells associated with Sertoli cells are distinguished in them. The interstitial tissue is scarce. The biggest cells of the germinal series are the spermatogonia I (14.34 ± 1.74 µm, from which spermatogonia II (10.14 ± 1.33 µm originate. Spermatocytes I measure 9.34 ± 0.32 µm and have slightly condensed chromatin. The spermatocytes II are 8.12 ± 1.07 µm long. The spermatids I are spherical, grouped in rounded cysts, and measure 7.61 ± 1.45 µm. On the other hand, spermatids II are elongated (4.09 ± 0.51 µm and not within the cysts. Towards the center of the loculus, the free, lengthened and flagellated spermatozoids are located. The morphohistology of the analyzed testicles show similarities with those observed in other neotropical amphibians, being all the cells of the spermatogenic lineage in the same loculeMORFOHISTOLOGÍA TESTICULAR DE Hypsiboas pulchellus (AMPHIBIA, HYLIDAE.En este estudio se aportan datos sobre la morfohistología testicular de Hypsiboas pulchellus para conocer aspectos de su biología reproductiva. Las gónadas se procesaron empleando técnicas histológicas básicas, cortándose a 8 µm y tiñéndose con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Los testículos, ovoides y amarillentos de 4,64 ± 0,48 mm de largo por 2,05 ± 0,23 mm de ancho, están rodeados por la túnica albugínea que mide 5,60 ± 0,82 µm. Internamente presentan lóculos seminíferos de 257,47 ± 58,25 µm de diámetro, distinguiéndose en ellos cistos con células espermatog

  5. Variação sazonal no recrutamento de Phragmatopoma caudata (Polychaeta, Sabellariidae na costa sudeste do Brasil: biometria e validação de metodologia para categorização de classes etárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisse Faroni-Perez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo explora a maturação de gametas e biometria de Phragmatopoma caudata Krøyer in Mörch, 1863 para endossar uma metodologia e oferecer uma técnica adequada para estudos que objetivam avaliar a ecologia populacional. A análise de correlação de Pearson confirmou a relação positiva (r = 0,90, P <0,0001 entre o comprimento do corpo e o comprimento da coroa opercular. Indivíduos com opercular crown < 0,9 mm podem ser considerados como juvenil devido à ausência de gametas. Portanto, utilizando-se o método aprovado para separar as classes de tamanho, a população dos recifes de P. caudata no Parque Estadual Xixová-Japuí (PEJX na Baía de Santos, Estado de São Paulo, foi examinada durante dois anos, com o objetivo de analisar a densidade populacional e o padrão sazonal da classe juvenil. Em período de elevadas taxas de juvenis, a densidade populacional atingiu 128.115 ind./m², porém, a média foi 65.090±22.033 ind./m². As análises estatísticas (Kruskal-Wallis H = 18,475, p < 0,01 revelaram existir variação significativa na composição juvenil entre as estações chuvosa e seca. Apesar da presença de juvenis em meses de seca, as estações chuvosas contemplaram 92,1% dos juvenis amostrados. O padrão de juvenis observado pode estar relacionado com fatores biológicos (e.g. gametogênese e ciclo de vida e abióticos (e.g. suprimento alimentar e correntes marinhas. Estes resultados destacam a necessidade de programas de monitoramento de longo prazo que integrem elementos ecológicos e abióticos, a fim de obter uma compreensão mais completa da ecologia desse poliqueta e ajudar a gerenciar a biodiversidade marinha do PEJX.

  6. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  7. EXTRAÇÃO, HIDRO-ESTERIFICAÇÃO E METILAÇÃO DOS LIPIDIOS DA MACROALGA GRACILARIA CAUDATA, APLICANDO CATALISE HETEROGENEA NA PREPARAÇÃO DO BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Cristiny Nascimento Duarte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O biodiesel se enquadra perfeitamente nas exigências ambientais requeridas por ser um biocombustível renovável, biodegradável e não-tóxico apresentando-se como uma possível solução para amenizar os problemas atuais provocado pela dependência do petróleo pela sociedade, reduzindo alguns efeitos causadores do aquecimento global. O presente trabalho relata a extração dos lipídios da macroalga Gracilaria caudata e a utilização dos mesmos na preparação do biodiesel. A metodologia utilizada para extração dos lipídios foi extração à quente usando hexano como solvente e também o método de extração a frio, usando a mistura de solventes, clorofórmio/metanol numa proporção de 2:1. O método de conversão foi hidro-esterificação usando iodo sublimado na presença de álcool, etílico ou metílico. Com essa metodologia pode-se obter resultados interessantes para a aplicação do biodiesel feito a partir da matéria prima.

  8. A new species of Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Blommersia domerguei (Guibé) (Amphibia: Mantellidae) in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Junker, Kerstin; du Preez, Louis; Bain, Odile

    2013-11-01

    Rhabdias blommersiae sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) is described from the lungs of Domergue's Madagascar frog, Blommersia domerguei (Guibé) (Amphibia: Mantellidae), in Madagascar. The new species differs from congeners parasitizing amphibians in having a smaller body and buccal capsule, six equal lips, large excretory glands of unequal length and a posteriorly inflated body vesicle. A combination of characters distinguishes it from Afromalagasy species of Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905. Rhabdias blommersiae is the third species of the genus described from amphibians in Madagascar. Close similarities in the number and shape of circumoral structures in two Rhabdias species described from mantellid hosts in Madagascar suggest a close relationship and common origin of the two species, with subsequent adaptation to separate hosts within the Mantellidae.

  9. The Species Richness of Vascular Plants and Amphibia in Major Plant Communities in Temperate to Tropical Australia: Relationship with Annual Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Specht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and eco-morphological attributes of new leaves developed annually in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on vertical foliage shoots depends on available soil water and nutrients, also ambient temperature, during this short growth season. Stem density (number of stems per hectare and species richness (number of species per hectare in the overstorey of major Floristic Groups are correlated with annual shoot growth (ASG, t ha−1 in that stratum. Species richness in the overstorey increases in the climatic gradient from the arid to the humid zone as well as with increasing air temperatures (about 10oC from temperate to tropical Australia. Species richness in the understorey is highest in plant communities in temperate Australia, decreasing in the temperature gradient towards the tropics. As with other major plant and animal groups within an ecosystem, the species richness of Amphibia is correlated with the amount of solar energy fixed (per annum by the major plant formation in the region—a photosynthetic potential determined by the foliage shoots (ASG, t ha−1 produced annually in the overstorey.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the large-headed frog, Limnonectes bannaensis (Amphibia: Anura), and a novel gene organization in the vertebrate mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Feng; Nie, Liu-Wang; Wang, Yang; Hu, Li-Li

    2009-08-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the large-headed frog, Limnonectes bannaensis (Amphibia, Anura) by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The entire mtDNA sequence is 16,867 bp in length with a novel case of tRNAs in vertebrates. This mt genome is characterized by three distinctive features: (1) a tandem duplication of tRNA(Met) gene is observed, (2) the tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys) and tRNA(Glu) genes coded on the L-strand are absent from the L. bannaensis mtDNA, the tRNA(Cys) and tRNA(Glu) genes change into tRNA pseudogenes by reason of degenerative anticodon, and a noncoding sequence of 206 nt long (NC1) has replaced the original position of other two tRNAs, (3) besides NC1, another three noncoding spacers (NC2-4) longer than 50 bp are found in the broken WANCY region and the region NC3-ND5-NC4-ND6-PsiE-Cytb-CR of the new sequence. These features could be explained by a model of gene duplication and deletion. The new sequence data was used to assess the phylogenetic relationships among 25 species of Anura using neighbor-joining, Bayesian, and maximum likelihood methods, and the phylogenetic tree shows the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis is closest to L. bannaensis in the study.

  11. Polyploidy in Amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Evans, Ben J; Bogart, James P

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the current status of the known extant genuine polyploid anuran and urodelan species, as well as spontaneously originated and/or experimentally produced amphibian polyploids. The mechanisms by which polyploids can originate, the meiotic pairing configurations, the diploidization processes operating in polyploid genomes, the phenomenon of hybridogenesis, and the relationship between polyploidization and sex chromosome evolution are discussed. The polyploid systems in some important amphibian taxa are described in more detail.

  12. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A.; Spangl, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1) on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (−6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (−21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in

  13. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  14. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L -1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L -1 ) on larval development of Common toads ( Bufo bufo , L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (-8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (-6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (-21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in freshwater ecosystems. Although no clear dose

  15. Estratégias e modos reprodutivos de anuros (Amphibia em uma poça permanente na Serra de Paranapiacaba, Sudeste do Brasil Strategies and reproductive modes of anurans (Amphibia in a permanent pond in Serra de Paranapiacaba, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Pombal Jr.

    2005-01-01

    gases devido ao seu longo desenvolvimento e baixa relação superfície/volume.Strategies and reproductive modes of anurans (Amphibia in a permanent pond in Serra de Paranapiacaba, southeastern Brazil. This study describes the temporal patterns, behavioral strategies, reproductive modes, and fecundity of an anuran assemblage in a permanent pond in Serra de Paranapiacaba, municipality of Ribeirão Branco, south of São Paulo State (approximately 24º13'S; 48º46'W; ca. 800m above sea level. Field work was carried out between January and December 1993, totaling 40 nights of observation. Seven preliminary visits were made before this period and seven additional ones after December 1993. Naturalistic observations usually began before sunset and were concluded around 24:0001:00h. On three occasions the observations lasted the entire night. The commonest reproductive strategy among males of different species was that performed by calling male, but the satellite behavior was observed in some species. The calling temporal pattern was prolonged for the species of the assemblage; however, some species called only occasionally. Six different reproductive modes were observed in the pond or on its margins. The SVL of females of different species was positively correlated with egg clutch volume, irrespective of the reproductive mode. The SVL of females was also positively correlated with the number of eggs per clutch, although the correlation is stronger for species with a generalized reproductive mode. However, for species with specialized reproductive mode the number of eggs per clutch was not correlated with the SVL of females. A significant and positive correlation between female SVL and egg diameter was also detected for species with generalized reproductive mode. On the other hand, for species with specialized reproductive mode, female's SVL and egg diameter were negatively correlated. Terrestrial reproductive modes are possibly restricted to small-sized species. Large eggs may

  16. Comparative and phylogenetic perspectives of the cleavage process in tailed amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnitskiy, Alexey G; Litvinchuk, Spartak N

    2015-10-01

    The order Caudata includes about 660 species and displays a variety of important developmental traits such as cleavage pattern and egg size. However, the cleavage process of tailed amphibians has never been analyzed within a phylogenetic framework. We use published data on the embryos of 36 species concerning the character of the third cleavage furrow (latitudinal, longitudinal or variable) and the magnitude of synchronous cleavage period (up to 3-4 synchronous cell divisions in the animal hemisphere or a considerably longer series of synchronous divisions followed by midblastula transition). Several species from basal caudate families Cryptobranchidae (Andrias davidianus and Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) and Hynobiidae (Onychodactylus japonicus) as well as several representatives from derived families Plethodontidae (Desmognathus fuscus and Ensatina eschscholtzii) and Proteidae (Necturus maculosus) are characterized by longitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and the loss of synchrony as early as the 8-cell stage. By contrast, many representatives of derived families Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae have latitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and extensive period of synchronous divisions. Our analysis of these ontogenetic characters mapped onto a phylogenetic tree shows that the cleavage pattern of large, yolky eggs with short series of synchronous divisions is an ancestral trait for the tailed amphibians, while the data on the orientation of third cleavage furrows seem to be ambiguous with respect to phylogeny. Nevertheless, the midblastula transition, which is characteristic of the model species Ambystoma mexicanum (Caudata) and Xenopus laevis (Anura), might have evolved convergently in these two amphibian orders.

  17. Two new species of Chiropterotriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Sean M; Parra-Olea, Gabriela

    2015-11-24

    Species of the genus Chiropterotriton are distributed through much of northern and eastern Mexico. The genus has presented taxonomic difficulties, with a number of species waiting to be described. We describe two new species, Chiropterotriton cieloensis sp. nov. and Chiropterotriton infernalis sp. nov., from the Mexican state of Tamaulipas based on both molecular and morphological data. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis for the group, with emphasis on the taxa from northern Mexico, based on mitochondrial DNA, and discuss the other species of northern Mexico, especially the wider-ranging C. multidentatus, to which the new species were formerly assigned.

  18. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anonymous 2013 The package of practices for crops of Punjab, rabi. 2013–14. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Bansal M., Kaur S., Dhaliwal H., Chhuneja P., Bariana H. and. Bansal U. 2016 Introgression of linked rust resistance genes Lr76 and Yr70 from Aegilops umbellulata to wheat chromosome 5DS.

  19. Morphology of Bufo ictericus integument (Amphibia, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito-Gitirana, L; Azevedo, R A

    2005-01-01

    Bufo ictericus integument was investigated by stereoscopic, low vacuum scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The studies revealed, that the dorsal integument surface is rougher than ventral. Three types of projections are visualized: larger rounded verrucae, smaller conical cornified tubercles, and conical short spines. Prominent verrucae are observed on the dorsal surface, being flatter on the ventral surface. The tubercles are visualized only on the dorsal surface. The verrucae are separated by grooves that may contribute spreading and retention of the glandular secretion upon the integument. The pattern of the epidermal grooves is also important for water distribution, protecting the animal against desiccation. The epidermis is composed of a stratified epithelium with intraepithelial blood vessels, where keratinocytes predominate, but flask cells, and Merkel cells also occur. In the spongious dermis, cutaneous glands are visualized. The compact dermis is a series of alternating layers of bundles of collagenous fibers, and between spongious and compact dermis there are basophilic areas that correspond to Eberth-Katschenko layer. The dorsal and the ventral surfaces of B. ictericus are morphologically distinct. The integument structure is related to the physiology of each surface and represents an adaptation to habitat, reflecting a lifestyle of the animal.

  20. The phylogenetic problem of Huia (Amphibia: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bryan L

    2008-01-01

    A taxonomic consensus for the diverse and pan-global frog family Ranidae is lacking. A recently proposed classification of living amphibians [Frost, D.R., Grant, T., Faivovich, J., Bain, R. H., Haas, A., Haddad, C.F.B., de Sá, R.O., Channing, A., Wilkinson, M., Donnellan, S.C., Raxworthy, C.J., Campbell, J.A., Blotto, B.L., Moler, P., Drewes, R.C., Nussbaum, R.A., Lynch, J.D., Green, D.M., Wheeler, W.C., 2006. The amphibian tree of life. B. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 297, 1-370] included expansion of the Southeast Asian ranid frog genus Huia from seven to 47 species, but without having studied the type species of Huia. This study tested the monophyly of this concept of Huia by sampling the type species and putative members of Huia. Molecular phylogenetic analyses consistently recovered the type species H. cavitympanum as the sister taxon to other Bornean-endemic species in the genus Meristogenys, rendering all previously published concepts of Huia as polyphyletic. Members of Huia sensu [Frost, D.R., Grant, T., Faivovich, J., Bain, R. H., Haas, A., Haddad, C.F.B., de Sá, R.O., Channing, A., Wilkinson, M., Donnellan, S.C., Raxworthy, C.J., Campbell, J.A., Blotto, B.L., Moler, P., Drewes, R.C., Nussbaum, R.A., Lynch, J.D., Green, D.M., Wheeler, W.C., 2006. The amphibian tree of life. B. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 297, 1-370.] appear in four places within the family Ranidae. A clade containing the type species of Odorrana is phylogenetically unrelated to the type species of Huia, and Odorrana is removed from synonymy with Huia. These findings underscore the need to include relevant type species in phylogenetic studies before proposing sweeping taxonomic changes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a high degree of homoplasy in larval and adult morphology of Asian ranid frogs. Detailed studies are needed to identify morphological synapomorphies that unite members in these major clades of ranid frogs.

  1. Mertensiella luschani (Steindachner, 1891 (Amphibia: Urodela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel KOCA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stomach and small intestine structures of M. luschani and T. karelinii were evaluated in terms of histologically and histometrically.Thestomach and small intestine tissues of M. luschani and T. karelinii have similar characteristics.Mucosa consists of lamina propria/submucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa layers. Histometrical results shows that M. luschani’s fundus (t=0,003; p<0,05 and pylorus (t=0,000; p<0,05 epithelial thickness and mean lumen area (t=0,009; p<0,05 are larger than T. karelinii’s fundus-pylorusepithelial thickness and mean lumen area.  In intestine, M. luschani’s lamina epithelialis thickness mean (t=0,003; p<0,05 and mean lumen area (t=0,009; p<0,05 are also larger than T. karelinii’s epithelial thickness and mean lumen area.

  2. Integrative inference of population history in the Ibero-Maghrebian endemic Pleurodeles waltl (Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Jorge; Barbosa, A Márcia; Martínez-Solano, Íñigo

    2017-07-01

    Inference of population histories from the molecular signatures of past demographic processes is challenging, but recent methodological advances in species distribution models and their integration in time-calibrated phylogeographic studies allow detailed reconstruction of complex biogeographic scenarios. We apply an integrative approach to infer the evolutionary history of the Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl), an Ibero-Maghrebian endemic with populations north and south of the Strait of Gibraltar. We analyzed an extensive multilocus dataset (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci) and found a deep east-west phylogeographic break in Iberian populations dating back to the Plio-Pleistocene. This break is inferred to result from vicariance associated with the formation of the Guadalquivir river basin. In contrast with previous studies, North African populations showed exclusive mtDNA haplotypes, and formed a monophyletic clade within the Eastern Iberian lineage in the mtDNA genealogy. On the other hand, microsatellites failed to recover Moroccan populations as a differentiated genetic cluster. This is interpreted to result from post-divergence gene flow based on the results of IMA2 and Migrate analyses. Thus, Moroccan populations would have originated after overseas dispersal from the Iberian Peninsula in the Pleistocene, with subsequent gene flow in more recent times, implying at least two trans-marine dispersal events. We modeled the distribution of the species and of each lineage, and projected these models back in time to infer climatically favourable areas during the mid-Holocene, the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the last interglacial (LIG), to reconstruct more recent population dynamics. We found minor differences in climatic favourability across lineages, suggesting intraspecific niche conservatism. Genetic diversity was significantly correlated with the intersection of environmental favourability in the LIG and LGM, indicating that populations of P. waltl are genetically more diverse in regions that have remained environmentally favourable through the last glacial cycle, particularly southern Iberia and northern Morocco. This study provides novel insights into the relative roles of geology and climate on the biogeography of a biodiversity hotspot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physicochemical characterization and tissue distribution of esterases in two salamandridae species (Mertensiella luschani and Salamandra salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannetatou-Polymeni, R; Haritos, A A

    1989-01-01

    1. Tissue- and species-specificity of the electrophoretic patterns of the multiple molecular forms of esterases were observed in the urodele amphibians Mertensiella luschani luschani, M.l. helverseni and Salamandra salamandra. All esterases--distributed into two electrophoretic mobility areas in gonads, muscles and brain and into four areas in liver, stomach and intestine--were characterized as carboxylesterases. 2. M. l. luschani and S. salamandra liver esterases were electrofocused into nine and eleven major bands with pIs ranging from 4.60 to 5.65 and from 4.40 to 6.20, respectively. 3. Two size groups of esterases were observed in liver extracts of the above three subspecies by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. The mean values of their apparent molecular weights were 70,000 and 230,000 respectively.

  4. [Light and electron microscopic studies of oropharyngeal epithelium in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Urodela: Salamandridae) larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, G

    1984-01-01

    The oropharyngeal-epithelium of intrauterine and free swimming larvae of Salamandra salamandra has been investigated by electron microscopy. With the exception of the toothed areas, where it is multi-layered, the epithelium of intrauterine larvae consists of two cell layers, pavement and basal cells. In older larvae, however, the entire epithelium is multi-layered. The outermost layer contains nonciliated pavement cells, goblet cells and sporadically mitochondria-rich cells. Both, goblet cells and pavement cells synthesize mainly acid mucosubstances, which are localized in big confluent secretory granules in the former and in small granules immediately beneath the apical plasmalemm in the latter. In the second layer different developmental stages of goblet cells and pavement cells can be identified.

  5. No observable effect of a glyphosate-based herbicide on two top predators of temporal water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Mikó, Zsanett; Hettyey, Attila

    2015-02-01

    It has been implied that the application of pesticides is involved in the world-wide decline of biodiversity, but little is known about the influence of these chemicals on key predators of temporary wetlands. The direct impacts were examined of a frequently applied glyphosate-based herbicide on larval Aeshna cyanea (Müller, 1764; Odonata, Insecta) and adult male Lissotriton vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758; Caudata, Amphibia), 2 top predators of Central European ephemeral ponds. The effects of herbicide exposure were measured on survival, behavior, body mass change, and predatory activity in an outdoor mesocosm experiment lasting for 17 d. No significant effects of exposure were observed in either predator species. The results suggest that the herbicide has no immediate effect on the predators studied at environmentally relevant concentrations and that these predators can also fulfill their top-down regulatory role in contaminated ecosystems. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Una nueva especie colombiana de Atelopus (Amphibia: Bufonidae Una nueva especie colombiana de Atelopus (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruíz Carranza Pedro M.

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie del género Atelopus (loc. typ.: Río Carauta, Parque Nacional Natural de las Orquídeas, vertiente occidental de la Cordillera Occidental, Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, distinguible de sus congéneres principalmente por su elongación rostral con el complejo esfenoetmoidal osificado y muy alargado, la ausencia de tímpano y de la columella auris, y la notable exóstosis de las crestas supratimpánicas y de las espinas neurales de las vértebras presacras. Por el desarrollo del rostro, la ausencia de tímpano y de columella auris y sus caracteres cromáticos exhibe un notable paralelismo evolutivo con las especies del género Rhamphophryne. También la exóstosis craneal y vertebral hallada, indican paralelismo evolutivo con Bufo typhonius y con las especies del género Hemiphractus.A new species of Atelopus is described (loc. typ.: Río Carauta, Parque Nacional Natural de las Orquídeas, western slope of the Western Andes, Dept. of Antioquia, Colombia , it is recognizable among the remaining species of the genus mainly by the strikingly protruding snout, the ossification and elongation of the sphenoethmoidal complex, the absence of tympanum and columella auris, and the remarkable exostosis development of the supratympanic crests and the neural spines of the presacral vertebrae. The rostral development, the absence of tympanum and columella auris, and the chromatic characters reveal a noticeable evolutionary parallelism with the species of the genus Rhamphophryne. Also the cranial and vertebral exostosis found indicate a parallelism with Bufo typhonius and the species of the genus Hemiphractus.

  7. Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brum Zorrilla N.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.

  8. Cytogenetics of the Brazilian Bolitoglossa paraensis (Unterstein, 1930 salamanders (Caudata, Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Barata da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plethodontid salamanders of genus Bolitoglossa constitute the largest and most diverse group of salamanders, including around 20% of living caudate species. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of five recognized species in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. We present here the first cytogenetic data of a Brazilian salamander, which may prove to be a useful by contribution to the cytotaxonomy of the genus. Specimens were collected near the "type" locality (Utinga, Belém, PA, Brazil. Chromosomal preparations from duodenal epithelial cells and testes were subjected to Giemsa staining, C-banding and DAPI/CMA3 fluorochrome staining. All specimens showed a karyotype with 13 bi-armed chromosome pairs (2n = 26. Nucleolar Organizer Regions, evidenced by CMA3, were located distally on the long arm of pair 7 (7q. DAPI+ heterochromatin was predominantly centromeric, with some small pericentromeric bands. Although the C-banding patterns of other Bolitoglossa species are so far unknown, cytogenetic studies conducted in other Plethodontid salamanders have demonstrated that pericentromeric heterochromatin is a useful cytological marker for identifying interspecific homeologies. Species diversification is usually accompanied by chromosomal changes. Therefore, the cytogenetic characterization of Bolitoglossa populations from the middle and western Brazilian Amazon Basin could identify differences which may lead to the identification of new species.

  9. Una nueva especie de Bolitoglossa (Caudata: Plethodontidae de las selvas del Magdalena Medio en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Galvis Andrés R.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie del genero Bolitoglossa del grupo alfa (sensu Wake & Lynch, 1976 denominada Bolitoglossa lozanoi de las selvas húmedas relictuales del valle del Río Magdalena en La Cordillera Central de Colombia (loe. typ.: Río La Miel, Mpio. La Victoria, Departamento de Caldas, 500 m.s.n.m.; la nueva especie es reconocible por su cuerpo robusto, las palmeaduras manuales y pediales extensas, su patrón cromático ventral café con punteaduras café más oscuras y crema, ojos no protuberantes y la talla corporal relativamente grande entre las especies de salamandras del país. A new species of the genus Bolitoglossa, of the alpha group (sensu Wake & Lynch, 1976 named Bolitoglossa lozanoi from the relictual humid forest from the Magdalena Valley on the eastern slope ofthe central Andes Mountain range in Colombia (type locality: La Miel River, Mpio. La Victoria, Dept. of Caldas, 500 m.s.n.m.. The new species is mainly recognized by the presence of a robust body, extensively webbed hands and toes, a brownish ventral chromatic pattern with small darker brown and cream dots, non-protuberant eyes and a relatively large size.

  10. A new species of salamander (Caudata: Plethodontidae, Bolitoglossa) from Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, Javier; Escalona, Moisés; Mora, Andrés; Díaz De Pascual, Amelia; Fermin, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a new species of salamander of the genus Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) from the cloud forest near La Mucuy in Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuelan Andes, is described. Bolitoglossa mucuyensis sp. nov. differs from all Venezuelan salamanders, except B. orestes, by a larger SVL/TL ratio, and from La Culata salamander B. orestes by a reduced webbing extension of the front and hind limbs. Additionally, B. mucuyensis sp. nov. and B. orestes diverge 3.12% in terms of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, as previously reported, and in 8.1% for the cytb gene as shown in this study.

  11. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat these diseases. Identification and introgression of novel sources of resistance is a continuous process to combat the ...

  12. Phylogeography of the Alpine salamander, Salamandra atra (Salamandridae) and the influence of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations on population divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riberon, A; Miaud, C; Grossenbacher, K; Taberlet, P

    2001-10-01

    Fifty individuals of the endemic Alpine salamander, Salamandra atra, representing 13 populations throughout the range of the two currently recognized subspecies, atra and aurorae, were examined for sequence variation in a large portion (1050 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We revealed a large number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes (10). Interpopulation sequence divergence was very low, ranging from 0 to 3.1%. The relationships among haplotypes were poorly resolved. The divergence time estimate between several mtDNA haplotypes suggested a pre-Pleistocene differentiation approximately 3 million years ago. Moreover, the impact of the Pleistocene glaciations on the phylogeographical patterns appears to have been secondary, although a somewhat reduced genetic variability was found in populations living in areas that were directly affected by the glaciation.

  13. [Light and electron microscopy analysis of the differentiation of oropharyngeal epithelium in Salamandra salamandra (L.) during metamorphosis (Urodela:Salamandridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, G

    1985-01-01

    During metamorphosis the oropharyngeal-epithelium of Salamandra salamandra consists of cells partly with features typical for larvae partly with these characteristic for metamorphosed animals. In the stratum intermedium cells which in larvae develop to secreting non-ciliated pavement cells become precursors of ciliated cells. During this process mucus granulus were discharged and cells develop cilia. Cells of deepe layers stop the production of mucus granules; those granules, which are already present, disintegrate. Furthermore, new types of goblet cells (type 2 and 3 according to Clemen, 1984) arise. Goblet cells of older larvae (typ 1) are to be found nearly unchanged in metamorphosed animals. Older goblet cells degenerate. In the stratum superficiale during transformation of pavement cells to ciliated cells discharge of mucus and ciliogenesis run parallely. Some of the pavement cells, however, degenerate. The stratum basale remains unaltered.

  14. Vertebral number is highly evolvable in salamanders and newts (family Salamandridae) and variably associated with climatic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Beukema, W.; Galis, F.; Ivanović, A.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates, the relative proportion of the number of trunk and caudal vertebrae is an important determinant of body shape. While among amphibians frogs and toads show low variation in vertebrae numbers, in salamanders the numbers of trunk and caudal vertebrae vary widely, giving rise to

  15. Breeding site traits of European newts (Triturus macedonicus, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Mesotriton alpestris: Salamandridae in the Montenegrin karst region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Ruža

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We recorded the occurrence of three European newt species - the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris, the eastern alpine crested newt (Triturus macedonicus, and the alpine newt (Mesotriton alpestris - in the Montenegrin karst, as well as their breeding site characteristics. In terms of long-lasting breeding site numbers and occupation rate, the most common species is the smooth newt, followed by the alpine newt and the crested newt. The examined water bodies with­out newts showed no significant differences of aquatic habitat characteristics compared to water bodies with newts. The factors that explained most of the observed variation in newt breeding site traits were the habitat category and habitat origin. The alpine newt primarily inhabits natural lakes, while the crested newt inhabits artificial breeding sites such as lithotelma and ubao. The smooth newt is less choosy and occurs in different types of natural and artificial habitats. The aquatic requirements of Montenegrin newt species do not differ substantially in many respects from requirements of the core species range populations.

  16. The tadpole of Proceratophrys izecksohni (Amphibia: Anura: Odontophrynidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H. dos Santos Dias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the external morphology of the tadpole of Proceratophrys izecksohni Dias, Amaro, Carvalho-e-Silva & Rodrigues, 2013, its internal oral features, and chondrocranial anatomy, based on specimens collected at the type locality. The tadpole has short and oval body, spiracle with inner wall fused to the body, and oral formula 2/3(1. The oral cavity of P. izecksohni is typical of stream-dwelling tadpoles, with several papillae and pustulations. The chondrocranium is longer than wide and the suprarostral corpora are free ventromedially. The palatoquadrate has a well developed processus pseudopterygoideus. We also compare the tadpole of P. izecksohni with tadpoles those of other species of the genus, emphasizing the usage of larval morphology to assist in the systematic of the genus.

  17. EL GÉNERO OSORNOPHRYNE (AMPHIBIA: BUFONIDAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUESES-CISNEROS JONH JAIRO

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estado actual del género Osornophryne en Colombia, basado en elexamen del material depositado en la colección batracológica del Instituto de CienciasNaturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Se reporta la presenciapara Colombia de tres especies más del género. Se realiza una redescripción para O.antisana y O. talipes y se construye una nueva clave para las especies encontradas.

  18. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the

  19. Status of some populations of Mexican salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Parra-Olea

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Mexican plethodontid salamanders have been surveyed non-systematically over the last 25 years. In light of many reports of disappearance of amphibians around the world, we checked for persistence of reported species at ten of these sites. All of the commoner species persist (we observed individuals representing a total of 30 species. While observed densities of many species of Mexican plethodontids are lower to much lower than was the case 20 to 25 years ago, evidence for recent extinctions, such as has been reported for amphibian taxa elsewhere, is equivocal or lacking. Habitat modification has contributed to difficulties in finding certain species.Poblaciones de varias especies de salamandras pletodóntidas en México han sido monitoreadas de manera no sistemática durante los últimos 25 años. Diez de éstas poblaciones fueran visitadas recientemente con el propósito de verificar la persistencia de las especies reportadas para dichas localidades. Nuestras observaciones confirman la persistencia local de más de 30 especies cuyo estatus era desconocido, aunque la frecuencia de observación de estas especies es en general menor que en fechas anteriores. Estas observaciones son particularmente relevantes dada la situación actual de preocupación por la disminución mundial de anfibios.

  20. Cranial features of dendrobatid larvae (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, A

    1995-06-01

    The larval neurocranium and visceral arches of seven dendrobatid species representing four genera are described, based on cleared-and-stained and serially sectioned specimens. A variety of characters is shared by all seven species. Larval features do not substantiate the assumption of close ranoid affinities of the Dendrobatidae. Instead dendrobatid larvae share features such as the special quadripartite cartilago suprarostralis, the lack of the larval processus oticus, the presence of three foramina acustica, and the lack of a foramen perilymphaticum accessorius with many bufonoid larvae. The first of these characters is unique to bufonids, hylids, dendrobatids, and some New World leptodactylids; the other characters also occur in pelobatids and are presumably plesiomorphic for the Neobatrachia. The free proximal ends of Ceratobranchialia II and III are an autapomorphy of the Dendrobatidae supporting the monophyly of the family. Some features of the cranium are paedomorphic: low cartilago orbitalis, lack of connection between cartilage orbitalis and otic capsule (most species), and vestigal taeniae tecti. New anatomical terms are introduced.

  1. Phylogenetics, classification, and biogeography of the treefrogs (Amphibia: Anura: Arboranae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duellman, William E; Marion, Angela B; Hedges, S Blair

    2016-04-19

    A phylogenetic analysis of sequences from 503 species of hylid frogs and four outgroup taxa resulted in 16,128 aligned sites of 19 genes. The molecular data were subjected to a maximum likelihood analysis that resulted in a new phylogenetic tree of treefrogs. A conservative new classification based on the tree has (1) three families composing an unranked taxon, Arboranae, (2) nine subfamilies (five resurrected, one new), and (3) six resurrected generic names and five new generic names. Using the results of a maximum likelihood timetree, times of divergence were determined. For the most part these times of divergence correlated well with historical geologic events. The arboranan frogs originated in South America in the Late Mesozoic or Early Cenozoic. The family Pelodryadidae diverged from its South American relative, Phyllomedusidae, in the Eocene and invaded Australia via Antarctica. There were two dispersals from South America to North America in the Paleogene. One lineage was the ancestral stock of Acris and its relatives, whereas the other lineage, subfamily Hylinae, differentiated into a myriad of genera in Middle America.

  2. Evolution of erythrocyte morphology in amphibians (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We compared the morphology of the erythrocytes of five anurans, two toad species - Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799 and three frog species - Fejervarya limnocharis (Gravenhorst, 1829, Microhyla ornata (Duméril & Bibron, 1841, and Rana zhenhaiensis (Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995. We then reconstructed the ancestral state of erythrocyte size (ES and nuclear size (NS in amphibians based on a molecular tree. Nine morphological traits of erythrocytes were all significantly different among the five species. The results of principal component analysis showed that the first component (49.1% of variance explained had a high positive loading for erythrocyte length, nuclear length, NS and ratio of erythrocyte length/erythrocyte width; the second axis (28.5% of variance explained mainly represented erythrocyte width and ES. Phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis showed that the relationship between NS and ES was not affected by phylogenetic relationships although there was a significant linear relationship between these two variables. These results suggested that (1 the nine morphological traits of erythrocytes in the five anuran species were species-specific; (2 in amphibians, larger erythrocytes generally had larger nuclei.

  3. A New Tree-Frog from Malawi (Hyperoliinae, Amphibia) | Stevens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperolius spinigularis sp. nov. from Mlanje district of Malawi at ca. 6SS metres, characterised by presence of prominent black asperities on male venter and particularly on gular disc. Descriptions and variations of external morphology, colour patterning, sexual dimorphism and dimensions. Juveniles described and ...

  4. Introduction of Eleutherodactylus planirostris (Amphibia, Anura, Eleutherodactylidae to Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Ho Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified small frog species was first encountered in Hong Kong Special Administration Region (SAR, China, in 2000, where the local amphibian diversity is well-studied. We herein identified this unknown frog as Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog using DNA barcoding. We found that its distribution in Hong Kong is widespread (>18 localities, and breeding has been observed in multiple occasions. The populations in at least four localities persisted for over seven years. We discuss its potential negative impacts to terrestrial ecosystems in Hong Kong, with particular concern of its potential competition with the endemic Liuixalus romeri. We call for studies to investigate the impacts of the introduced E. planirostris on the local ecosystem. Screening for E. planirostris in exported plants from Hong Kong should be carried out.

  5. Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae, Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862: Distribution extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carezzano, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two adult males Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862 were collected when calling perched on the vegetation of the banksof a temporary pond near to extended soybean culture, in the surroundings of the town of Ucacha, province of Córdoba,Argentina. This new record confirms the presence of the species in this province, and extends 198 km to SW its range fromthe nearest previously known record.

  6. A new species of Cacosternum (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of Cacosternum from Pietermaritzburg, Natal, is described. It is a small, slender, smooth-skinned form, immediately distinguishable from all previously described taxa by the bold brown and yellow reticulations dorsally and ventrally.

  7. Extreme variation in the atrial septation of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Desiderius M; Wilkinson, Mark; Jensen, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    Caecilians (order Gymnophiona) are elongate, limbless, snake-like amphibians that are the sister-group (closest relatives) of all other recent amphibians (frogs and salamanders). Little is known of their cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, but one nearly century old study suggests that Hypogeophis (family Indotyphlidae), commonly relied upon as a representative caecilian species, has atrial septation in the frontal plane and more than one septum. In contrast, in other vertebrates there generally is one atrial septum in the sagittal plane. We studied the adult heart of Idiocranium (also Indotyphlidae) using immunohistochemistry and confirm that the interatrial septum is close to the frontal plane. Additionally, a parallel right atrial septum divides three-fourths of the right atrial cavity of this species. Idiocranium embryos in the Hill collection reveal that atrial septation initiates in the sagittal plane as in other tetrapods. Late developmental stages, however, see a left-ward shift of visceral organs and a concordant rotation of the atria that reorients the atrial septa towards the frontal plane. The gross anatomies of species from six other caecilian families reveal that (i) the right atrial septum developed early in caecilian evolution (only absent in Rhinatrematidae) and that (ii) rotation of the atria evolved later and its degree varies between families. In most vertebrates a prominent atrial trabeculation associates with the sinuatrial valve, the so-called septum spurium, and the right atrial septum seems homologous to this trabeculation but much more developed. The right atrial septum does not appear to be a consequence of body elongation because it is absent in some caecilians and in snakes. The interatrial septum of caecilians shares multiple characters with the atrial septum of lungfishes, salamanders and the embryonic septum primum of amniotes. In conclusion, atrial septation in caecilians is based on evolutionarily conserved structures but possibly exhibits greater variation than in any other vertebrate order. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  8. Water wave communication in the genus Bombina (amphibia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, B.; Yamashita, M.; Choi, I.-H.; Dittami, J.

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians were phylogenetically the first vertebrates to leave the aquatic environment and cope with terrestrial conditions including effects of gravity and substrate on movement and communication. Studies of extant primitive amphibians, which have conserved ancestral morphology and behavior, may help us to understand how gravitational adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial environments occurred. The anuran genus Bombina is a candidate for this type of investigation. In particular, a member of this genus, B. orientalis, is known for its low reaction threshold to minor changes of angular acceleration. We hypothesize that a heightened sensitivity to angular and mechanical accelerations evolved with wave communication. Comparisons of such behavior among B. variegata, B. bombina and B. orientalis may shed light on the evolution of reproductive systems based on water wave communication and relevant vestibular sensitivity. This may represent a transition to derived vocalization modes, which is seen in B. bombina to a certain degree.

  9. Article Syndactyly in Bufo maculatus Hallowell (Amphibia: Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syndactyly in five specimens of Bufo maculatus, all from a small area 25 km west of Harare, Zimbabwe, is described. In three cases only one pair of digits was involved (two of the hand, one of the foot); in a fourth, two pairs of digits on one foot were involved; and in the fifth case, all digits of one hand were involved together ...

  10. Diet and trophic niche of Lithobates catesbeianus (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson T. Leivas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 is an invasive anuran introduced in Brazil that is associated with the displacement and the decline of populations of native species worldwide. There is evidence that biological invasions are facilitated by certain attributes of the invading species, for instance niche breath, and that invasive species have a broader ecological niche with respect to native ones. We designed a study to ascertain the temporal, ontogenetic, and sex differences in the niche dynamics of the American bullfrog. We sampled monthly from June 2008 to May 2009 in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. For each individual, we gathered biometric and stomach content data. We then estimated the niche breath of the juveniles and adults, and compared it between the sexes. A total of 104 females and 77 males were sampled. Lithobates catesbeianus has a generalist diet, preying upon invertebrates and vertebrates. Even though the diet of the studied population varied seasonally, it did not differ between the sexes nor did it respond to biometric variables. Niche breadth was more restricted in the winter than in the autumn. The trophic niche of juveniles and adults did not overlap much when compared with the trophic niche overlap between males and females. Adult males and females had a considerable niche overlap, but females had a broader trophic niche than males in the winter and in the spring. These niche characteristics point to an opportunistic predation strategy that may have facilitated the process of invasion and establishment of this species in the study area.

  11. A new lungless caecilian (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) from Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Marvalee H.; Donnelly, Maureen A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a single specimen of a small, terrestrial, lungless caecilian, the second known taxon of lungless caecilians. It differs from all other caecilians in lacking open external nares, and from the large aquatic lungless species described by Nussbaum & Wilkinson (Nussbaum, R. A. & Wilkinson, M. 1995 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 261, 331–335) in having no significant skull modifications. All modifications are of ‘soft morphology’ (covered external nares and choanae, lung and pulmonary vessel loss, etc.). A new genus and species are described to accommodate this form. Aspects of its skull and visceral morphology are described and considered in terms of the possible life history and evolution of the species, and compared with those of other lungless amphibians. PMID:19923127

  12. Proton pump-driven cutaneous chloride uptake in anuran amphibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Amstrup, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Krogh introduced the concept of active ion uptake across surface epithelia of freshwater animals, and proved independent transports of Na(+) and Cl(-) in anuran skin and fish gill. He suggested that the fluxes of Na(+) and Cl(-) involve exchanges with ions of similar charge. In the so-called Krog...

  13. Miología pectoral de algunos Centrolenidae (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzano, Adriana S.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available El estudio comparativo de la miología pectoral en dos géneros de Centrolenidae (Centrolene e Hyalinobatrachium que incluyen a cuatro especies (C. geckoideum, C. grandisonae, C. robledal y H. aureoguttatum, brinda una visión más completa de la morfología de la cintura pectoral en los anuros, ampliando la información disponible. Este estudio incorpora caracteres nuevos para el tratado de la familia, antecedente de importancia ya que los caracteres frecuentemente utilizados para definir al grupo son homoplásicos (Lynch, 1973; Duellman & Trueb, 1986; Ford & Cannatella, 1993 y ponen en duda la monofilia del grupo. Los resultados muestran la escasa variabilidad de la musculatura pectoral en los géneros de Centrolenidae. Al mismo tiempo resaltan variaciones con el género Hyalinobatrachium en relación con los músculos depressor mandibulae y pectoralis abdominalis. En general existe una tendencia a la duplicación de algunos músculos como el serratus inferioris, dorsal scapulae y depressor mandibulae (característica observada también en Hylidae; Manzano, 1996. The comparative study of pectoral myology in two genera of Centrolenidae (Centrolene and Hyalinobatrachium, including four species (C. geckoideum, C. grandisonae, C. robledoi y H. aureoguttatum, adds to our understanding of the pectoral girdle morphology of anurans, enlarging the available information. This study examines new characters for the family. Study of new characters is important because the most frequently used characters to define the group are homoplastic (Lynch, 1973; Duellman & Trueb, 1986; Ford & Cannatella, 1993 which produces a dubious monophyly of group. The results of this study show us the little variability of the pectoral musculature in Centrolenid genera. At the same time some variations between Centrolene and Hyalinobatrachium (related to the depressor mandibulae and pectoralis abdominalis muscles, are significant. In addition, a tendency to duplicate some muscles like the serratus inferioris, dorsal scapulae and depressor mandibulae (also present in Hylidae; Manzano, 1996 can be observed.

  14. Miología pectoral de algunos centrolenidae (Amphibia: anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, Adriana S.

    2000-01-01

    El estudio comparativo de la miología pectoral en dos géneros de Centrolenidae (Centrolene e Hyalinobatrachium) que incluyen a cuatro especies (C. geckoideum, C. grandisonae, C. robledal y H. aureoguttatum), brinda una visión más completa de la morfología de la cintura pectoral en los anuros, ampliando la información disponible. Este estudio incorpora caracteres nuevos para el tratado de la familia, antecedente de importancia ya que los caracteres frecuentemente utilizados para definir al gru...

  15. Registro de Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae en una cueva de Tehuacán, Puebla Record of Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae in a cave of Tehuacán, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Windfield-Pérez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se encontraron organismos de Pseudoeurycea mixteca en el interior de una cueva a 80 metros de profundidad en una zona de vegetación xerófila en el Valle de Tehuacán, Puebla. Los ejemplares fueron hallados bajo piedras en la arena húmeda. Los registros previos de P. mixteca corresponden únicamente a vegetación de bosque de pino-encino en el noroeste de Oaxaca donde vive bajo la corteza de árboles caídos o en troncos podridos. Este nuevo registro incrementa el área de distribución y el tipo de hábitat para la especie.Adult organisms of Pseudoeurycea mixteca were found in a cave of about 80 meters deep at a xerophile vegetation in the Tehuacan Valley, Puebla. The specimens were located under stones in humid sand. Previous reports of this species were from pine-oak forest in northwestern Oaxaca, living under the bark of logs or inside rotten logs. This new record increases the known distribution of the species and habitat type.

  16. Notas sobre la distribución geográfica de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae Notes about the geographic distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovii and Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Solano-Zavaleta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En un análisis de la distribución de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y P. melanomolga, se registra por primera vez para Puebla la especie Pseudoeurycea melanomolga, además de ampliarse el rango de distribución conocido para ambas especies.Analyzing the distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovil and P. melanmolga, we report Pseudoeurycea melanmolga for the first time in Puebla, and the known distribution range for both species is increased.

  17. Notas sobre la distribución geográfica de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae) Notes about the geographic distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovii and Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Solano-Zavaleta; Uri Omar García-Vázquez; Andrés Alberto Mendoza-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    En un análisis de la distribución de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y P. melanomolga, se registra por primera vez para Puebla la especie Pseudoeurycea melanomolga, además de ampliarse el rango de distribución conocido para ambas especies.Analyzing the distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovil and P. melanmolga, we report Pseudoeurycea melanmolga for the first time in Puebla, and the known distribution range for both species is increased.

  18. A new Nototriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos in northeastern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H; Medina-flores, Melissa; Reyes-Calderón, Onán; Austin, James D

    2013-01-01

    The highlands of northeastern Honduras remain under-characterized in terms of biological diversity, as exemplified by the regularity of new amphibian and reptile taxa discoveries. Following the recent description of a new species of Nototriton from the Sierra de Agalta in northeastern Honduras, we report the discovery of a second new species of Nototriton from the nearby Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos. This new taxon, Nototriton mime sp. nov., is distinguished from other Nototriton by its distinctive pale brown dorsal coloration in adult males, relatively large nares, a relatively broad head, mitochondrial sequence divergence, and phylogenetic relationships, and is geographically isolated from other populations of Nototriton.

  19. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyan​, Davit; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and ...

  20. Dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi (Caudata, Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika X. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La temperatura ambiental es un factor determinante en los procesos fisiológicos y comportamentales de los anfibios ya que son ectotérmos y consecuentemente dependen de una fuente de calor externa para alcanzar su temperatura corporal óptima. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi Brame & Wake, 1972 con respecto a las temperaturas del aire y del sustrato. Para esto se realizaron diferentes muestreos en el municipio de Líbano, Tolima, Colombia, entre las 18:00 y las 24:00 horas, en Abril y Mayo de 2015. Allí se capturaron 34 individuos a los cuales se les registró directamente en campo: la temperatura corporal, la masa corporal y la longitud corporal. También, se midió la temperatura del sustrato y la temperatura del aire en el lugar donde fue encontrado el animal. La temperatura corporal de los individuos tuvo una media de 18.3±0.55°C, mostrando una relación positiva y significativa con la temperatura del sustrato y la temperatura del aire, lo que demuestra que la especie es termoconformadora. Además, la temperatura corporal mostró una dependencia térmica mayor con la temperatura del sustrato que con la del aire, indicando que B. ramosi presenta una regulación tigmotérmica. Finalmente, la temperatura corporal no se relacionó con la longitud corporal ni con la masa corporal. Esta información es importante para el conocimiento de la biología térmica de la especie y las posibles respuestas fisiológicas ante el incremento de las temperaturas ambientales.

  1. Diet of larval Ambystoma rivulare (Caudata: Ambystomatidae), a threatened salamander from the Volcán Nevado de Toluca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    JULIO A LEMOS-ESPINAL; Smith, Geoffrey R.; Guillermo A. Woolrich-Piña; Raymundo Montoya-Ayala

    2015-01-01

    Several species of salamander in the genus Ambystoma occur in the mountains surrounding Mexico City and are considered at risk of extinction. However, little is known about their ecology and natural history. The Toluca Stream Siredon (Ambystoma rivulare) is classified as “Data Deficient” by the IUCN, and considered “Threatened” under Mexican law. From October 2013 to September 2014, we examined the diet of larval A. rivulare from a stream on the Volcán Nevado de Toluca in Mexico to provide in...

  2. Diet of larval Ambystoma rivulare (Caudata: Ambystomatidae, a threatened salamander from the Volcán Nevado de Toluca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Lemos-Espinal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several species of salamander in the genus Ambystoma occur in the mountains surrounding Mexico City and are considered at risk of extinction. However, little is known about their ecology and natural history. The Toluca Stream Siredon (Ambystoma rivulare is classified as “Data Deficient” by the IUCN, and considered “Threatened” under Mexican law. From October 2013 to September 2014, we examined the diet of larval A. rivulare from a stream on the Volcán Nevado de Toluca in Mexico to provide insight into the suitability of the habitat to support this population of salamanders. Ostracods accounted for approximately 90% of all prey items consumed by larval A. rivulare. The number of ostracods found in stomachs increased with individual body size, but the proportion of ostracods in stomachs did not vary with body size. Nematodes were observed in approximately one third of the stomachs we examined. The diversity of prey in the diet of A. rivulare in the stream we studied is low and dominated by a single prey taxon, ostracods. Our results suggest that if environmental conditions in the stream change such that ostracods are negatively affected then the long-term persistence of this population of A. rivulare might be in jeopardy.

  3. Dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi (Caudata, Plethodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Erika X. Cruz; Galindo, Carlos A; Manuel H. Bernal

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN La temperatura ambiental es un factor determinante en los procesos fisiológicos y comportamentales de los anfibios ya que son ectotérmos y consecuentemente dependen de una fuente de calor externa para alcanzar su temperatura corporal óptima. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi Brame & Wake, 1972 con respecto a las temperaturas del aire y del sustrato. Para esto se realizaron diferentes muestreos en...

  4. Una nueva especie de Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae de la Cordillera Central de Colombia Una nueva especie de Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae de la Cordillera Central de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roa Trujillo Sonia H.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eleutherodactylus, unistrigatus Group from the Cordillera Central in central Colombia is named. Additional characters of cranial morphology for defining the unistrigatus Group are given. Se nomina y describe una nueva especie de Eleutherodactylus del Grupo unistrigatus de la región central de la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Se presenta una descripción detallada de los caracteres craneales como un aporte para la definición de este Grupo.

  5. Status Sistematico del Género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (amphibia: Anura Status Sistematico del Género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila Robayo María Cristina

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Se recopilan las diferentes asignaciones en cuanto a familia que han sido formuladas hasta la fecha para el género Geobatrachus. Mediante la recolección de una serie de topótipos virtuales de este género monotípico, endémico del sector noroeste del macizo de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia, se elaboró una descripción detallada y se procedió a un análisis de 67 características morfológicas, a las cuales se adicionó el numero cromosómico (2n = 20, seleccionadas conforme a las utilizadas por LYNCH y HEYER en sus estudios sobre clasificación y filogenia de los Leptodactylidae, las cuales, después de un examen inicial, se consideraron significativas, a fin de precisar las afinidades de este género, Simultáneamente con la recolección del material se adelantaron observaciones ecológicas que permitieron establecer que su distribución se opera en el área de bosques húmedos, frecuentemente nublados entre los 1.750 y 3.000 metros, y que la especie tolera situaciones paraclimácicas (plantaciones artificiales de Cupressus sp., Pinus sp. y piso cubierto de Pennisetum clandestinum y que sus hábitos son netamente terrestres y semifosoriales. De los caracteres externos cabe destacar una gran variabilidad cromática individual; el integumento desprovisto de adaptaciones xeromorfas y de complejos glandulares especializados, indica una adaptación hacia un hábitat higrófilo, añadidos a la extremada reducción del primer dedo pedial. Las características esqueléticas determinadas mediante disección y tinción diferencial, muestran un tipo generalizado sin reducción pronunciada de elementos craneales, con presencia de dientes no pedicelados en la arcada maxilar, sin evidencias de adaptaciones fragmóticas ni fosoriales ni ornamentación epicraneal o exóstosis, aparato hioideo generalizado, 8 vértebras presacras sin fusión ni imbricación y con procesos transversos especializados, sacro con diapófisis no dilatadas, astrágalo y calcáneo fusionados, tarsales reducidos a dos.  Es llamativa la presencia de falanges terminales en forma de T, lo cual podría sugerir una pre adaptación hacia un régimen arborícola (o bien la derivación a partir de un antecesor arborícola, Una condición firmisternal plena de la cintura escapular y la notable reducción de la clavícula insinuarían una aparente relación con los Microhylidae.  La musculatura muestra un M. intermandibularis con rafé medial, la inserción del M. adductor mandibularis subexternus de tipo "S", el tendón distal del M. semitendinosus con recorrido ventral a los Mm. graciles; el M. adductor longus con inserción en la rodilla, y la ausencia de una cabeza accesoria o tendón del M. glutaeus magnus (carácter único dentro de los Neobatrachia, pero verosímilmente debido a pérdida secundaria. Una de las características más llamativas (en contra de registros previos de renacuajos atribuidos tentativamente a esta especie es la confirmación de un desarrollo directo que a priori podría suponerse dada la reducida postura de huevos megalecitales en lugares protegidos y que corresponde a una adaptación hacia ambientes de montaña con escasa oportunidad para un desarrollo larvario acuático.  Los 68 caracteres utilizados fueron codificados numéricamente según sus condiciones primitivas o derivadas, según criterios aceptados en la literatura reciente, tanto para facilitar las comparaciones como para intentar reconstruir la filogenia según principios de taxonomía numérica.  Fácilmente por exclusión se descartó la posibilidad de que Geobatrachus representase conforme a la firmisternia un elemento de los Microhyloidea, y la ausencia de elementos esqueléticos interfalangeales, excluyen cualquier posible afinidad con los Centrolenidae, Hylidae y Pseudidae, aun cuando ninguna característica, salvo la ausencia del tendón accesorio del M. glutaeus magnus (interpretada como pérdida secundaria excluye la asignación de Geobatrachus a los Bufonoidea. Ninguna característica en particular permite referir el genero a los Myobatrachidae ni a los Heleophrynidae, la ausencia de órgano de Bidder (única característica diagnóstica entre Leptodactylidae y Bufonidae elimina, aparte de la afinidad mostrada por cladogramas experimentales, la familia Bufonidae de toda su consideración adicional. En cuanto a los Brachycephalidae (sensu McDIARMID 1969, si bien aparentemente derivados de los Leptodactylidae, diferencias tales como la estructura de la cintura escapular  y el desarrollo de osteodermos dorsales los excluyen de consideración.  El análisis combinatorial realizado mediante cladogramas confirma que los Phyllobatinae (= Dendrobatidae son derivados de los Elosiini, y que los acreditan mejor en el rango de subfamilia dentro de los Leptodactylidae que como familia separada. Aun cuando la firmisternia en particular puede sugerir afinidades con Geobatrachus, ciertamente este género al igual que Rhinoderma no pueden ser asignados a los Phyllobatinae. El análisis de los caracteres de Rhinoderma indica que este género se derivó del antecesor inmediato de los Leptodactylinae o de elementos antiguos de este grupo y que, al igual que en el caso de los Phyllobatinae, bien pueden involucrarse dentro de los Leptodactylidae como una sub familia, a menos que se recurra a dividir dicha familia en varios grupos de jerarquía familiar. No obstante Geobatrachus difiere ampliamente de los Rhinodermatinae y, como lo indican los cladogramas elaborados, muestra su máxima afinidad con los Eleutherodactylini, si bien representa un género bien diferenciado dentro de la tribu quizás como resultado de la evolución in situ de un "stock" antiguo de aislamiento desde el Terciario, que ha sobrevivido en condiciones favorecidas por la ecuabilidad climática, Hipótesis basadas en las evidencias paleogeográficas y paleoclimáticas  disponibles, así como con forme a la posible dicotomía fundamental de los llamados grupos ,.Alpha" y “Beta" de los Eleutherodactylus son discutidas.  Con exclusión de Euparkerella y Holoaden los Eleutherodactylini (cuya diferenciación inicial quizás tuvo lugar en el S. E. de Brasil, los restantes géneros del grupo se hallan estrechamente relacionados entre sí, aun cuando una revisión exhaustiva de Eleutherodactylus que eventualmente puede llegar a subdividir este género, puede llevar a conclusiones que si bien no se aparten substancialmente de las interpretaciones aquí ofrecidas, si conduzcan a una interpretación mejor fundada de la que las hipótesis planteadas o incluso a una reducción del número de géneros actualmente reconocidos.  Tanto la firmisternia como la pérdida del tendón accesorio del M. glutaeus magnus y el número comparativamente reducido de cromosomas con ausencia de acrocéntricos, sugieren que Geobatrachus represente una línea extrema de especialización dentro de los Eleutherodactylini.  La evidencia aportada por el análisis cladístico no favorece considerar a los Eleutherodactylinae como derivados de Adenomera o de un antecesor inmediato común con este género y, por tanto, la adquisición del desarrollo directo dentro de los Leptodactylidae parece haber ocurrido independientemente al menos en dos líneas filéticas. The different familial assignations proposed until now for Geobatracbus are compiled. Through the collection of a virtual topotypical series of this monotypic genus, which is endemic of the NW section of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia, a detailed description was made.  67 morphological characters were selected according to the criteria used by Lynch and Heyer in their studies on the philogeny and classification of the leptodactylid frogs, and such characters, compled with the chromosome number (2n =20 were analysed, after initial examination of their meaning in order to ascertain the affinities of the genus. Field work carried on in the region showed that its distribution cover the area of humid forest, with frequent mists, at. 1.750-3.000 m., and pointed also that the species tolerates paraclimacic situations (in plantations of Cupressus sp., and Pinus sp. , and their habits are exclusively terrestrial and semifossorial.  Among the external characters it can be emphasized the high degree of chromatic individual variation, the absence of xeromorphic adaptations and specialized glandular complexes in the skin, which point towards an adaptation towards a hygrophilic habitat, added to the extreme reduction of the first pedial digit. The skeleton characters, studied through dissection and differential staining, show a generalized type without pronounced reduction in the cranial elements, the occurrence of non-pedicellated teeth in the maxillary arch, the absence of either phragmotic or fossorial adaptations, or epicraneal ornamentation exostosis; a generalized hyoid apparatus; 8 presacral vertebrae without fusion or imbrication, and with specialized transverse processes; no expanded sacral diapophyses, fused talus and calcaneus and only two tarsalia. The T-shaped terminal phalanges might suggest a preadaptation towards an arboreal way of life (or, conversely, an arboreal ancestor; also the full firmisternal condition of the pectoral girdle and the striking clavicular reduction which would show an apparent relationship with the Microhylids. The following muscular characters are noteworthy: M. intermandibularis with medial raphe, the type "s" insertion of the M. adductor mandibularis subexternus, the distal tendon of M. semitendinosus passing ventral to the Mm. graciles, the insertion over the knee of the M. adductor longus, and the absence of an accessory head (or tendon in the M. glutaeus magnus (an unique condition among the Neobatrachia, presumably due to secondary loss.  In contrast with previous wrong assertions, a direct development (without free larval stages was confirmed, a condition expected a priori since the eggs are megalecythal and laid in reduced numbers in protected places, in accordance with the scare opportunities for aquatic larval development in mountain environments.  Each of the 68 used characters were codified according to their primitive or derived represented stages, following criteria adopted in the recent literature, with the aim of using principles of numeric taxonomy to at temp the reconstruction of the phylogeny. The possibility that Geobatrachus could belong to the Microhyloidea due to its firmisternal condition, was easily discarded, and the absence of intercalary skeletal pieces in the digits, prevent also any possible close relationship with the Centrolenidae, Hylidae and Pseudidae, although there are no characters (except for the absence of an accessory tendon in the M. glutaeus magnus, regarded as a secondary loss that might exclude the inclusion of Geobatrachus in the Bufonoidea. No particular characters allow the inclusion of the genus either in the Myobatrachidae or the Heleophrynidae.  The absence of Bidder's organ (which is the only diagnostic difference between the Leptodactylidae and the Bufonidae eliminate the family Bufonidae from any further consideration, a conclusion that is supported also by experimental cladograms. Distinctive features such as the morphology of the pectoral girdle and the presence of dorsal osteoderms, characteristic of the Brachycephalidae (sensu McDIARMID, 1969 also exclude this family from consideration.   The combinational analysis made through cladograms confirms the presumptive derivation of the Phyllobatinae (= Dendrobatidae from the Elosiini, and leads to the conclusion that this group might be better regarded as a subfamily of the Leptodactylidae than as a family of their own. Although, in particular the firmisternal condition might suggest affinities of Geobatrachus with the Phyllobatinae, neither this genus or Rhinoderma can be referred to this subfamily. The analysis of the characters of Rhinoderma shows rather conclusively that this genus was derived from the immediate anc estor of the Leptodactylinae or from early members of this group, and under such circumstances Rhinoderma can equally be included in the Leptodactylidae as a representative of a monotypic subfamily. Otherwise, the Leptodactylidae should be divided in several groups of familial hierarchy. However, Geobatrachus widely differs from the Rhinodermatinae, and, as its clearly shown by the cladograms, shows its greater affinity with the Eleutherodactylini, although Geobatrachus is rather outstandingly different from the other genera of this tribe. This condition might be due to the in situ evolution of an early stock, isolated since the Tertiary, that has survived in favored conditions due to climatic equability. Several hypothesis based on the available paleogeographic and paleoclimatic evidence are discussed, in conjunction with the possible fundamental dichotomy of the" Alpha" and" Beta" groups of the genus Eleutberodactylus. With the noticeable exceptions of the genera Euparkerella and Holoaden, the Eleutherodactylini (perhaps originally issued in S. E. Brazil represent a group of closely related genera, although an exhaustive review of Eleutherodactylus might eventually lead to the splitting of this genus, and to conclusions that agreeing essentially with the conclusions here offered, could otherwise provide basis for a better interpretation of the facts here presented, or even to a reduction of the currently recognized genera for this tribe.  Both, the firmisterny, the loss of the accessory tendon of the M. glutaeus magnus, and the caryotipe (with comparatively reduced number of chromosomes and the lack of acrocentrics, suggest that Geobatrachus represents an extreme line of specialization among the Eleutherodactylini. The evidence afforded by the cladistic analysis gives no support to regard the Eleutherodactylini are derived from Adenomera or an immediate common ancestor with this genus, and so the acquisition of the direct development among the Leptodactylidae seens to have occurred independently at least in two phyletic lines.

  6. Expresión de canales de potasio voltaje dependientes en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis (Amphibia Voltage gated potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis(AMPHIBIA oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavijo Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La expresión en sistemas heterólogos ha sido una herramienta ampliamente utilizada enlos últimos años para el estudio funcional y estructural de proteínas. Para la carac-terización de las propiedades biofísicas de canales, bombas y transportadores engeneral su expresión en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis, ha sido fundamental. Este estudioreporta la expresión de dos canales de potasio voltaje dependientes, Kv1.1y Shakerenovocitos de X. laevisusando un protocolo ajustado a las condiciones de latitud y altitudde Bogotá para la extracción, aislamiento, cultivo y microinyección de éstas células.Heterologous expression has been an important tool for structural and functionalcharacterization of proteins. The study of biophysical properties of ion channels,pumps and transporters has been possible thanks to their expression in Xenopuslaevisoocytes. Here we report the expression of two voltage gated channels, Kv1.1and Shaker, in X. laevisoocytes using a method for oocyte extraction, isolation, cul-ture, and microinjection adapted to the latitude and altitude conditions of Bogotá,Colombia.

  7. Two new species of Amazophrynella (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from Loreto, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rommel R; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W; Farias, Izeni Pires; Gordo, Marcelo; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-04-08

    Amazophrynella is a taxonomically poorly known bufonid genus with a pan-Amazonian distribution. A large part of this ambiguity comes from taxonomic uncertainties regarding the type species A. minuta. In this study we compare morphological and molecular data of topotypic specimens of A. minuta with all other nomical congeneric species. Based on these comparisons, we describe two new species. The first species, A. amazonicola sp. nov., differs from other recognized congeners by having a tip of snout with a small triangular protrusion (in dorsal and lateral view), spiculated body and basal webbing on fingers I and II. The second species, A. matses sp. nov., differs from congeners by the smallest snout to vent length of the genus, edges of nasal protrusion dilated and elliptical shape palmar tubercles. The two species are allopatric, where the first species is known to be associated with white sand forests (=campinaranas), while the second inhabits upland (=terra firme) forests. Both species are diagnosable by a series of substitutions in the 16S rDNA, and both species are highly divergent from their sister taxa (p-distances range from 7-14%).

  8. Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) Versus Rhabdias paraensis (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): Expanding the View on a Natural Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; da Silva, Djane Clarys Baia; Feitosa, Lucas Aristóteles das Neves; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; de Vasconcelos Melo, Francisco Tiago

    2016-06-01

    Amphibian and reptile lungs are frequently infected with Rhabdias parasites, and this condition ultimately leads to reduced survival, performance, and growth because of granulomatous inflammation, nodule formation, and nematodal pneumonia onset. Here we investigate the histopathological features of naturally infected Rhinella marina by the lung nematode Rhabdias paraensis. A total of 10 host animals were captured in peridomiciliar areas in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, and anatomic-histological analyses were performed on both the infected and non-infected lungs of these amphibians. Helminths were usually found within the secondary and primary septa of infected lungs whereas parasites were not detected within vessels or adhering to tissues. In addition, we observed discrete erythrocytes, diapedesis foci, few granulocytes and erythrocytes in the interseptal spaces, discrete cell infiltration, and a small number of melanomacrophages, and no granulomas or cysts were observed. New aspects related to changes in tissue and helminth-host interactions are discussed for the relationship of R. paraensis × Rhi. marina from the Amazon region.

  9. A new Ansonia from the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Khonsue, Wichase; Nabhitabhata, Jarujin

    2005-07-01

    A new species of torrent-dwelling bufonid frog of the genus Ansonia is described from the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Ansonia kraensis is morphologically similar to Malaysian A. malayana, but differs from it in ventral coloration and larval morphology. Occurrence of A. kraensis in this region suggests a heterogeneous nature of the anuran fauna between northern and southern regions of the Malay Peninsula.

  10. New Osornophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from the Atlantic Versant of the Andes in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two species of the little known genus Osornophryne are described from the Atlantic (Amazonian) versant of the Andes in Ecuador. O. guacamayo spec. nov. occurs at 2100 m, has well developed cranial ridges, rather peculiar feet with toes IV and V of about equal length and much longer than the others.

  11. A new species of nematode (Molineidae) from Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) in Guerrero, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Torres, Nallely; García-Prieto, Luis; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Violante-González, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Oswaldocruzia lamotheargumedoi n. sp., inhabiting the intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina (L.), in Laguna de Coyuca, Guerrero, México, is described here. The new species differs from 10 congeners infecting bufonid hosts because it has a type I bursa. In contrast, 7 of these species have type II bursa and 3 more a type III bursa. The species most similar to the species described herein is Oswaldocruzia pipiens Walton, 1929 . These 2 species share traits such as body size, bursa type, presence of cervical alae, and dorsal ray morphology. Nevertheless, both species can be distinguished based on the number of synlophe ridges at mid-body (54-56 for O. lamotheargumedoi vs. 45-48 for O. pipiens) and by the presence of a chitinous support in the long, and well developed, cervical alae of O. pipiens. In the new species, these structures are short, poorly developed, and lack chitinous support. Previous records of species of Oswaldocruzia in México include Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1917 in the Neotropical Realm and O. pipiens in the Nearctic.

  12. Morphological re-evaluation of the parotoid glands of Bufo ictericus (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de P.G.; Felsemburgh, F.A.; Azevedo, R.A.; Brito-Gitirana, de L.

    2007-01-01

    Multicellular glands in the amphibian integument represent a signifi cant evolutionary advance over those of fi shes. Bufonids have parotoid glands, symmetrically disposed in a post-orbital position. Their secretion may contribute to protection against predators and parasites. This study provides a

  13. Internal oral morphology in larvae of the genus Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Marianna Isabella Rosa Rodrigues; Weber, Luiz Norberto; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2013-12-09

    From the 86 species allocated in the genus Rhinella, 25 have their tadpoles described and only R. arenarum, R. chrysophora, R. icterica, R. ornata, R. schneideri and R. spinulosa have aspects of the internal oral morphology evidenced. Herein, the internal oral morphology from 12 species of Rhinella distributed between the morphological groups of R. crucifer, R. granulosa, R. marina and R margaritifera is described and compared. The internal oral morphology of Rhinella is little variable in many aspects. Despite the many similarities found between the tadpoles of Rhinella, the study showed that there are characteristics that exhibit interspecific variation that can be used in the taxonomy of the genus. Important features to distinguish species were: number of infrarrostral projections; number and shape of the infralabial papillae; size, arrangement, shape and apex of the lingual papillae; shape of the buccal floor arena papillae; number of projections of the ventral velum; shape of the prenarial ridge; choanae arrangement; number and apex of the postnarial papillae; number and shape of the secondary branches on the lateral ridge papilla; buccal roof arena papillae arrangement. 

  14. Cranial bone histology of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis (Amphibia, Temnospondyli from the Late Triassic of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Gruntmejer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 21 skull bones of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis from the Late Triassic of Poland were investigated histologically. Dermal bones show a diploë structure, with an ornamented external surface. The ridges consist of mostly well vascularized parallel-fibered bone; the valleys are built of an avascular layer of lamellar bone. The thick middle region consists of cancellous bone, with varying porosity. The thin and less vascularized internal cortex consists of parallel-fibered bone. The numerous Sharpey’s fibers and ISF are present in all bones. The cyclicity of growth is manifested as an alternation of thick, avascular annuli and high vascularized zones as well as a sequence of resting lines. The detailed histological framework of dermal bones varies even within a single bone; this seems to be related to the local biomechanical loading of the particular part of the skull. The dynamic processes observed during the ornamentation creation indicate that the positions of the ridges and grooves change during growth and could be a specific adaptation to changing biomechanical conditions and stress distribution during bone development. In the supratemporal, the cementing lines show that the remodeling process could be involved in the creations of sculpture. The common occurrence of ISF suggests that metaplastic ossification plays an important role during cranial development. Endochondral bones preserved the numerous remains of calcified cartilage. This indicates that ossification follows a pattern known for stereospondyl intercentra, with relatively slow ossification of the trabecular part and late development of the periosteal cortex. The large accumulation of Sharpey’s fibers in the occipital condyles indicates the presence of strong muscles and ligaments connecting the skull to the vertebral column.

  15. Morphology, Ecology and Biogeography of the South American Caecilian Chthonerpeton Indistinctum (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Typhlonectidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudynas, E.; Williams, J.D.; Mercedes Azpelicueta, de las M.

    1988-01-01

    This study of Chthonerpeton indistinctum (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1861) considers 25 morphometric characters, teeth-counts and sex, based on 96 specimens. A multivariate analysis of characters and comparisons of geographically arranged samples is carried out by graphic and statistical methods. No trends

  16. Morfohistología testicular de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell (Amphibia, Anura, Ceratophryidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carezzano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describen las características morfohistológicas del testículo de individuos adultos (n=5 de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell, 1843 provenientes de humedales del centro de Argentina. Los mismos se procesaron mediante técnicas histológicas de rutina, se cortaron a 8 µm y las láminas obtenidas se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Las gónadas son órganos pares, amarillentos, alargados y contorneados de 18,58 ± 0,23 mm de largo por 1,51 ± 0,13 mm de ancho. Histológicamente se observa una delgada túnica albugínea (6,29 ± 0,83 µm rodeando a los testículos. En su interior se hallan lóculos seminíferos que miden 240,64 ± 38,52 µm de diámetro, en ellos se distinguen cistos con células espermatogénicas en distintas etapas de desarrollo. El tejido intersticial es escaso y en él se destacan las células de Leydig y vasos sanguíneos. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (20,03 ± 2,27 µm; poseen la cromatina granular y de aspecto multilobular, hallándose comúnmente una por cisto, estas originan a las espermatogonias II, más pequeñas (12,06 ± 1,14 µm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada y son un poco más chicos que sus precedentes (11,64 ± 0,36 µm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,85 ± 0,54 µm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 5,95 ± 0,42 µm y se agrupan en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio son alargadas y no se hallan dentro de cistos, pero siguen organizadas en paquetes asociadas a células de Sertoli. Los espermatozoides son células libres hacia el centro del lóculo, alargadas, flageladas y con una notable compactación nuclear. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestran características macroscópicas e histológicas similares a las observadas en otras especies de anfibios anuros neotropicales, presentando todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo lóculo, lo que indicaría que presentan ciclos espermatogénicos continuos.

  17. Natural history and distribution of Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Cadle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of reproductive behaviour, calls, clutch sizes, and larval morphology are described for Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957). New distributional records extend the range of this species to southern Amazonian Peru. In most respects reproductive behaviour of A. craspedopus is similar to

  18. Species boundaries and taxonomy of the African river frogs (Amphibia: Pyxicephalidae: Amietia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channing, A; Dehling, J M; Lötters, S; Ernst, R

    2016-08-25

    A molecular phylogeny of the Afrotropical anuran genus Amietia based on 323 16S sequences indicates that there are 19 species, including four not yet described. No genetic material was available for the nominal A. inyangae. We consider them to represent full species, and define them based on 16S genetic distances, as well as differences in morphology, tadpoles and advertisement call where known. An analysis based on two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes (12S, 16S, 28S and tyrosinase exon 1), from 122 samples, confirmed the phylogenetic relationships suggested by the 16S tree. We recognise and (re-) describe the following species: Amietia angolensis (Bocage, 1866), A. chapini (Noble, 1924), A. delalandii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), A. desaegeri (Laurent, 1972), A. fuscigula (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), A. hymenopus (Boulenger, 1920), A. inyangae (Poynton, 1966), A. johnstoni (Günther, 1893), A. moyerorum sp. nov., A. nutti (Boulenger, 1896), A. poyntoni Channing & Baptista, 2013, A. ruwenzorica (Laurent, 1972), A. tenuoplicata (Pickersgill, 2007), A. vandijki (Visser & Channing, 1997), A. vertebralis (Hewitt, 1927), and A. wittei (Angel, 1924). Three further candidate species of Larson et al. (2016) await formal naming. We provisionally regard A. amieti (Laurent, 1976) as a junior synonym of A. chapini (Noble, 1924). Amietia lubrica (Pickersgill, 2007) is shown to be a junior synonym of A. nutti, while A. quecketti (Boulenger, 1895) is shown to be a junior synonym of A. delalandii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), and A. viridireticulata (Pickersgill, 2007) is placed as a junior synonym of A. tenuoplicata (Pickersgill, 2007). On the basis of similarity of 16S sequences, we assign A. sp. 1, A. sp. 3 and A. sp. 6 of Larson et al (2016) to the nomina A. chapini (Noble, 1924), A. desaegeri (Laurent, 1972), and A. nutti (Boulenger, 1896) respectively.

  19. Los renacuajos de los anuros (Amphibia altoandinos de Venezuela: morfología externa y claves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Mijares-Urrutia

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo una revisión de las referencias pertinentes y se examinaron una serie de lotes de renacuajos representativos (al menos una especie por cada género de los anuros altoandinos de Venezuela. Se presentan también una lista de 41 caracteres con algunas ilustraciones explicativas, intentando describir en detalle la morfología externa larvaria de esos anuros. Se propone emplear la medición de ángulos respecto al eje longitudinal del cuerpo para establecer la forma de la punta de la cola y la ubicación del aparato oral. Igualmente, se tomaron 19 medidas para determinar las proporciones morfológicas. Se incluye una clave para identificar a partir exclusi-vamente de caracteres morfológicos externos (presencia/ausencia, tamaño, forma, número, ubicación, etc., los cuales no se modifican (o apenas se modifican ligeramente a lo largo de los estadios de desarrollo larvario más jóvenes e intermedios. Esta clave sirve para identificar los renacuajos al nivel de familia y género de las ranas y sapos que habitan en la región antes mencionada. La clave abarca seis familias y 11 géneros. Adicionalmente, y como un modelo de este trabajo, se describe e ilustra por primera vez el renacuajo de Hyla pelidna, coincidiendo bastante bien con las características larvarias del grupo de H. labialis (fórmula de filas de queratodontes 1/2 o 2/2, papilas marginales en filas múltiples, diastema rostral presente, abertura cloacal diestra y abdominal [separado de la aleta ventral], aletas caudales más anchas que la musculatura caudal a la mitad de su longitud, abertura narinal con un anillo carnoso, liso, no protuberante. Este trabajo representa el primer esfuerzo para compilar en idioma español la morfología larvaria de los anfibios anuros.A literature review and examination of several lots of tadpoles representative of the high Venezuelan Andes species (at least one species per genus allowed identification of 41 useful characters. These are presented (with some illustrations in a detailed description of their external morphology. Angle measurements (related to body longitudinal axis are recommended to describe tail tip shape and location of oral apparatuses. Additionally, nineteen meristic data were used to assert morphological proportions. The identification key is based exclusively on external morphology (presence/absence, size, shape, number, location, etc., that remains mostly unmodified in larval early and intermediate development. The key allows identification to genus for frogs and toads that occur in the region (six families, 11 genera. As a model of this proposal, the tadpole of Hyla pelidna is described and illustrated for the first time; it fits the larval characteristics of the H. labialis group (keratodont rows formula 1/2 or 2/2, marginal papillae in multiple rows, rostral gap present, dextral cloacal opening abdominal [separated from the ventral fin], caudal fins widest than caudal musculature at tail midlength, narial opening with fleshy, smooth, not protuberant rim. This is a first effort to establish an anuran larval terminology in Spanish.

  20. Amphibia, Anura, Strabomantidae, Pristimantis palmeri Boulenger, 1912: Distribution extension for the Central Cordillera, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolivar-G, W.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a new locality record for Pristimantis palmeri, an endemic species to Colombia associated to forestand weeds in open areas of Choco, Risaralda, Quindío, Valle del Cauca, and Cauca (900 – 2,400 m.a.s.l.. This report expandsits geographical distribution in 177 km toward south and suggests the existence of a discontinuous distribution in thewestern slope of the Central Cordillera of Colombia.

  1. First parasitological study of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, Amphibia in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduced species can arrive into new territories with parasites; however, these species are expected to face lower parasite richness than in their original regions. Both introduced hosts and parasites can affect native fauna. Since their release into the wild in Chile following laboratory use, Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 has widely spread throughout central Chile. The only pathogen described on the host is the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier, Nichols, 1999; thus, this is the first parasitological study of this species in Chile. In 10 localities in central Chile, 179 specimens of X. laevis were captured and examined for parasites in the gastrointestinal tube, cavities, lungs, liver, and skin. Only nine specimens of the genus Contracaecum Railliet, Henry, 1912 were found in six specimens of X. laevis from a private dam in La Patagua. It is likely that these parasites originated from species of native birds. This is the first record of Contracaecum sp. in Chilean amphibians.

  2. Chronic exposure to cadmium disrupts the adrenal gland activity of the newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gay, Flaminia; Laforgia, Vincenza; Caputo, Ivana; Esposito, Carla; Lepretti, Marilena; Capaldo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L) and sewage waters (20 μg/L...

  3. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium Disrupts the Adrenal Gland Activity of the Newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaminia Gay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L and sewage waters (20 μg/L. Therefore, we chronically exposed the newt Triturus carnifex to 5 μg/L and 20 μg/L doses of cadmium, respectively, during 3 and 9 months and verified the effects on the adrenal gland. We evaluated the serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. During the 3-month exposure, both doses of cadmium decreased ACTH and corticosterone serum levels and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels. During the 9-month exposure, the 5 μg/L dose decreased ACTH and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels; the 20 μg/L dose decreased norepinephrine and epinephrine serum levels, without affecting the other hormones. It was concluded that (1 chronic exposure to the safety values established for cadmium disrupted the adrenal gland activity and (2 the effects of cadmium were related both to the length of exposure and the dose administered. Moreover, our results suggest probable risks to human health, due to the use of water contaminated by cadmium.

  4. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-08-03

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occurring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein.

  5. The 100th: An appealing new species of Dendropsophus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) from northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista; Argôlo, Antônio Jorge Suzart; Orrico, Victor Goyannes Dill

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus Group from the Atlantic Forest of the southern region of State of Bahia, Brazil. It can be distinguished from all species of the D. leucophyllatus Group on the basis of morphological characters (especially its unique dorsal pattern and snout in dorsal view), advertisement calls and divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. The inclusion of D. anceps on the group remains controversial but our phylogenetic analyses do not recover the new species as sister to syntopic species of the D. leucophyllatus Group (with or without D. anceps). These results also highlight the palimpsest that is past relation between the Atlantic and Amazon forests. PMID:28273092

  6. The agricultural impact of pesticides on Physalaemus cuvieri tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura ascertained by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macks W. Gonçalves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians inhabiting agricultural areas are constantly exposed to large amounts of chemicals, which reach the aquatic environment during the rainy season through runoff, drainage, and leaching. We performed a comet assay on the erythrocytes of tadpoles found in the surroundings of agricultural fields (soybean and corn crops, where there is an intense release of several kinds of pesticides in different quantities. We aimed to detect differences in the genotoxic parameters between populations collected from soybeans and cornfields, and between them and tadpoles sampled from non-agricultural areas (control group. Tadpoles collected from ponds located at soybean fields had significantly more DNA damage, followed by tadpoles collected from cornfields. In contrast, animals sampled from non-agricultural areas had the lowest incidence of DNA damage. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the parameters of the comet assay and the area of the ponds surrounding soybean. This correlation indicates a possible dilution effect in the concentration of pesticides. Finally, Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 seems to be a good bioindicator for detecting the genotoxic effects of field agricultural insecticides; therefore, we suggest that this species should be used in environmental biomonitoring studies, since it is common and abundant where it occurs.

  7. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaldo, Anna, E-mail: anna.capaldo@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Gay, Flaminia [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Laforgia, Vincenza [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Specimens of the newt Triturus carnifex were exposed to environmental Cd doses. • Newts exposed to Cd during 9 months accumulated Cd in their tissues. • Cd induced histological alterations in the skin, liver and kidneys. • Cd induced apoptosis only in the kidneys. • Cd did not increase metallothionein levels in the skin and the liver, nor MTs mRNA. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5 nM/L in drinking water and 178 nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5 nM/L and 178 nM/L as CdCl{sub 2}, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to be not protective of amphibians.

  8. The first record of albanerpetontid amphibians (Amphibia: Albanerpetontidae) from East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryoko; Evans, Susan E

    2018-01-01

    Albanerpetontids are an enigmatic fossil amphibian group known from deposits of Middle Jurassic to Pliocene age. The oldest and youngest records are from Europe, but the group appeared in North America in the late Early Cretaceous and radiated there during the Late Cretaceous. Until now, the Asian record has been limited to fragmentary specimens from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan. This led to speculation that albanerpetontids migrated into eastern Asia from North America in the Albian to Cenomanian interval via the Beringian land bridge. However, here we describe albanerpetontid specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Kuwajima Formation of Japan, a record that predates their first known occurrence in North America. One specimen, an association of skull and postcranial bones from a single small individual, permits the diagnosis of a new taxon. High Resolution X-ray Computed Microtomography has revealed previously unrecorded features of albanerpetontid skull morphology in three dimensions, including the presence of a supraoccipital and epipterygoids, neither of which occurs in any known lissamphibian. The placement of this new taxon within the current phylogenetic framework for Albanerpetontidae is complicated by a limited overlap of comparable elements, most notably the non-preservation of the premaxillae in the Japanese taxon. Nonetheless, phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon closer to Albanerpeton than to Anoualerpeton, Celtedens, or Wesserpeton, although Bootstrap support values are weak. The results also question the monophyly of Albanerpeton as currently defined.

  9. The first record of albanerpetontid amphibians (Amphibia: Albanerpetontidae from East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Albanerpetontids are an enigmatic fossil amphibian group known from deposits of Middle Jurassic to Pliocene age. The oldest and youngest records are from Europe, but the group appeared in North America in the late Early Cretaceous and radiated there during the Late Cretaceous. Until now, the Asian record has been limited to fragmentary specimens from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan. This led to speculation that albanerpetontids migrated into eastern Asia from North America in the Albian to Cenomanian interval via the Beringian land bridge. However, here we describe albanerpetontid specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Kuwajima Formation of Japan, a record that predates their first known occurrence in North America. One specimen, an association of skull and postcranial bones from a single small individual, permits the diagnosis of a new taxon. High Resolution X-ray Computed Microtomography has revealed previously unrecorded features of albanerpetontid skull morphology in three dimensions, including the presence of a supraoccipital and epipterygoids, neither of which occurs in any known lissamphibian. The placement of this new taxon within the current phylogenetic framework for Albanerpetontidae is complicated by a limited overlap of comparable elements, most notably the non-preservation of the premaxillae in the Japanese taxon. Nonetheless, phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon closer to Albanerpeton than to Anoualerpeton, Celtedens, or Wesserpeton, although Bootstrap support values are weak. The results also question the monophyly of Albanerpeton as currently defined.

  10. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  11. Choledocystus elegans (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) de Leptodactylus paraensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) da Amazônia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Tássia Fernanda Furo; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The trematodes are parasites of the several vertebrates including amphibians, however the knowledge about of the taxonomy these parasites is still confuse. The trematode Choledocystus elegans was found in the small intestine of the Leptodactylus paraensis in eastern Amazon and presents the following characteristics: several pointed tegumentary spines, papillae on the outer and inner edges of the oral and ventral suckers, a round, well-developed cirrus sac, a well-developed cirrus, ob...

  12. [Trematodes (trematoda) of amphibia from the Middle Volga region. 1. Orders Fasciolida, Hemiurida, Paramphistomida and Strigeida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhliaev, I V; Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu

    2012-01-01

    Data on trematodes of the orders Fasciolida, Hemiurida, Paramphistomida and Strigeida from 11 amphibian species of the Middle Volga region are given. Literature data for the last 30 years are reviewed for the first time; these data are supplemented by our own material. Reliable recordings are confirmed for 23 trematode species. Two of these species are new for amphibian trematode fauna of Russia. New hosts were revealed for 12 trematode species. Trematodes of the new for the region amphibian species, the edible frog Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758, are recorded for the first time. Two trematodes from freshwater fishes are shown to be temporary or occasional parasites of amphibians. The following characteristics are given for each parasite: it's systematic position, the spectrum of hosts, localization, collecting site, biology, geographical range, and the degree of host specificity. The morphological description and original figures are given for 9 species of parasites.

  13. Chromosome Banding in Amphibia. XXXV. Highly Mobile Nucleolus Organizing Regions in Craugastor fitzingeri (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus; Feichtinger, Wolfgang; Nanda, Indrajit

    2017-10-24

    A 7-year cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Craugastor fitzingeri from Costa Rica and Panama revealed the existence of highly mobile nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) in their genomes. Silver (Ag)-staining of the active NORs demonstrated an exceptional interindividual pattern of NOR distribution at the telomeres of the chromosomes. All individuals examined showed a different and specific NOR location in their karyotypes. Furthermore, intraindividual variation in the NOR sites was found. This observation suggested the existence of mobile NORs in C. fitzingeri. Confirmation of this phenomenon was possible by systematic FISH analysis using an 18S + 28S rDNA probe. The extremely variable number and position of the NORs in C. fitzingeri is best explained by highly mobile NORs that move freely between the telomeres of the chromosomes. These transpositions must occur preferentially in premeiotic, meiotic, or postmeiotic stages, but also at a lower incidence in the somatic tissues of the animals. It is hypothesized that transposable (mobile) elements are closely linked to the NORs or are inserted into the major 18S + 28S rDNA spacers of C. fitzingeri. When such transposable elements spread by transpositions, they can carry with them complete or partial NORs. The present study provides detailed information on various differential chromosome banding techniques, in situ hybridization experiments, chromosomal hypermethylation patterns, determination of the genome size, and analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the DNA. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Three new species of Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae from high elevations of the cordillera Central of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch John D.

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Eleutherodactylus orcesi group, the smallest member of the group, is described from the Páramo de los Valles (Tolima. It is very similar to E. slmoterus. From the same locality, a new species of dwarf Eleutherodactylus, lacking a tympanum, is described. It appears to be a member of the E. myersi group. Lastly, a new large black Eleutherodactylusis described from páramo and subpáramo habitats of the Cordillera Central. This species is distributed from Antioquia to Cauca. With these three species, fifteen species of Eleutherodactylus are known for páramo and subpáramo habitats of the Cordillera Central north of the Macizo de Pasto. These 15 species be long to tour species groups.Se describe una especie nueva del grupo de Eleutherodactylus orcesi del Páramo de los Valles (Tolima. Esta especie es muy parecida a E. simoterus pero se distingue por su tamaño (la especie nueva es la más pequeña del grupo. Se describe también una especie enanita del Páramo de los Valles que posiblemente es una especie del grupo de Eleutherodactylus myersl. La especie es muy distinta porque carece de tímpano. Finalmente, se describe una especie grande y negra que se encuentra desde Antioquia hacia Cauca en la Cordillera Central. Con estas especies, tenemos 15 especies de Eleutherodactylus conocidas de los páramos y subpáramos de la Cordillera Central al norte del Macizo de Pasto, que pertenecen a cuatro grupos de especies.

  15. Cytonuclear discordance and historical demography of two brown frogs, Rana tagoi and R. sakuraii (Amphibia: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies of mitochondrial genomic variation reveal that the Japanese brown frog Rana tagoi comprises a complex of cryptic species lineages, and that R. sakuraii arose from within this complex. Neither species forms a monophyletic group on the mitochondrial haplotype tree, precluding a simple explanation for the evolutionary origins of R. sakuraii. We present a more complete sampling of mitochondrial haplotypic variation (from the ND1 and 16S genes) plus DNA sequence variation for five nuclear loci (from the genes encoding NCX1, NFIA, POMC, SLC8A3, and TYR) to resolve the evolutionary histories of these species. We test hypotheses of population assignment (STRUCTURE) and isolation-with-migration (IM) using the more slowly evolving nuclear markers. These demographic analyses of nuclear genetic variation confirm species-level distinctness and integrity of R. sakuraii despite its apparent polyphyly on the mitochondrial haplotype tree. Divergence-time estimates from both the mitochondrial haplotypes and nuclear genomic markers suggest that R. sakuraii originated approximately one million years ago, and that incomplete sorting of mitochondrial haplotype lineages best explains non-monophyly of R. sakuraii mitochondrial haplotypes. Cytonuclear discordance elsewhere in R. tagoi reveals a case of mitochondrial introgression between two species lineages on Honshu. The earliest phylogenetic divergence within this species group occurred approximately four million years ago, followed by cladogenetic events in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene yielding 10-13 extant species lineages, including R. sakuraii as one of the youngest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heterochronies in the cranial development of Asian tree frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) with different life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilieva, A B

    2017-03-01

    The development of bony skull was studied in four species of Asian tree frogs (Rhacophoridae) with different life histories: biphasic development with free larval stage and direct development. In biphasic rhacophorids the sequence of the appearance of cranial bones generally followed the generalized pattern of craniogenesis, which was described for most studied anurans. In contrast, direct-developing species displayed some heterochronies in the formation of skull bones, namely, the accelerated formation of the anlagen of jaw and suspensorium bones. The obtained results support that the embryonization in amphibians is regularly accompanied by a heterochronic repatterning of craniogenesis, rather similar in different phyletic groups.

  17. A contribution to the intraspecific systematics of Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de L.

    1973-01-01

    A biometrical analysis of preserved specimens of Bufo bufo, supplemented by a detailed examination of the shape of the skin warts, was performed in order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the form described as B.b.spinosus. Indications of a N.-S. clinal variation in the formation of wart thorns

  18. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330–2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  19. Helminth parasites of the leopard frog Lithobates sp. Colima (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Colima, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Garrido-Olvera, Lorena; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2010-08-01

    The helminth fauna inhabiting Lithobates sp. Colima from Ticuizitán, Colima, Mexico, comprises 10 species: 4 digeneans ( Clinostomum sp., Glypthelmins quieta , Haematoloechus sp., and Langeronia macrocirra ), 5 nematodes ( Aplectana itzocanensis , Cosmocerca podicipinus , Foleyellides striatus , Oswaldocruzia subauricularis , and Rhabdias sp.), and 1 cestode (Cyclophyllidea). Glypthelmins quieta , L. macrocirra , and A. itzocanensis represent new host records. These observations, added to previous records from Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, indicate that the helminth fauna of Lithobates sp. from Colima comprises 25 taxa. Frogs are being parasitized by 3 infection routes: ingestion of intermediate host, skin penetration by larval forms, and transmission by vectors. Species of Aplectana , Cosmocerca , Foleyellides , and Oswaldocruzia occurred in high prevalence in Colima, similar to a previous study on the same frog species from Guerrero. In Colima, Glypthelmins , Haematoloechus , and Rhabdias also occurred in high prevalence. Haematoloechus species reached the highest mean intensity in both localities. The semiaquatic habits of this species of frog and the availability of particular feeding resources appear to determine the helminth composition and infection levels; however, co-speciation events also play an important role structuring these helminth communities.

  20. A new species of Phrynobatrachus (Amphibia: Anura: Phrynobatrachidae) from north-western Guinea, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillers, A.; Zimkus, B.; Rödel, M.-O.

    2008-01-01

    A new small Phrynobatrachus species from a gallery forest in north-western Guinea is described. Phrynobatrachus pintoi sp. nov. exhibits a combination of unique morphological characters and a distinctive color pattern, including: compact, oval body, short snout, warty dorsum and eyelid (although no

  1. A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.L.; Twomey, E.; Amézquita, A.; Souza, M.B.; Caldwell, J.P.; Lötters, S.; May, R.; Melo-Sampaio, P.R.; Mejía-Vargas, D.; Perez-Peña, P.; Pepper, M.; Poelman, E.H.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Summers, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya is revised, resulting in one new genus, one new species, five synonymies and one species classified as nomen dubium. We present an expanded molecular phylogeny that contains 235 terminals, 104 of which are new to this study. Notable additions to this

  2. MORFOHISTOLOGÍA TESTICULAR DE Hypsiboas pulchellus (AMPHIBIA, HYLIDAE DURANTE LA ESTACIÓN REPRODUCTIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José CAREZZANO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se aportan datos sobre la morfohistología testicular de Hypsiboas pulchellus durante el período reproductivo con el fin de conocer aspectos de su biología reproductiva. Los testículos, ovoides y amarillentos de 4,64 ± 0,48 mm de largo por 2,05 ± 0,23 mm de ancho, están rodeados por la túnica albugínea que mide 5,60 ± 0,82 μm. Internamente presentan lóculos seminíferos de 257,47 ± 58,25 μm de diámetro, distinguiéndose en ellos cistos con células espermatogénicas asociadas a células de Sertoli. Existe escaso tejido intersticial. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (14,34 ± 1,74 μm, estas originan a las espermatogonias II (10,14 ± 1,33 μm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada midiendo 9,34 ± 0,32 μm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,12 ± 1,07 μm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 7,61 ± 1,45 μm, y se agrupan en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio, son alargadas, no hallándoselas dentro de cistos (4,09 ± 0,51 μm. Los espermatozoides, alargados y flagelados, se hallan libres en el centro del lóculo. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestra características similares a las observadas en otros anfibios neotropicales, y presentan todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo lóculo.

  3. South American frogs of the Hyla rostrata group (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duellman, W.E.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Few groups of Neotropical anurans are so diverse and taxonomically puzzling as the Hyla rubra group (sensu lato). Within this complex which possibly is generically distinct from Hyla, there are several species groups: Hyla strigilata Spix and related taxa in eastern Brasil; Hyla parkeri

  4. Distribution, vocalization and taxonomic status of hypsiboas roraima and h. angelicus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the poorly known hylid frog Hypsiboas roraima Duellman & Hoogmoed, on the Guiana Shield is redefined, including new records from Venezuela. The advertisement call of this species is analyzed and Hypsiboas angelicus Myers & Donnelly is associated as a junior synonym of H. roraima.

  5. DNA barcoding and the identification of tree frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ning-Xin; Sun, Feng-Hui; Lv, Yun-Yun; Zhao, Bo-Han; Wang, Ji-Chao; Murphy, Robert W; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-07-01

    The DNA barcoding gene COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) effectively identifies many species. Herein, we barcoded 172 individuals from 37 species belonging to nine genera in Rhacophoridae to test if the gene serves equally well to identify species of tree frogs. Phenetic neighbor joining and phylogenetic Bayesian inference were used to construct phylogenetic trees, which resolved all nine genera as monophyletic taxa except for Rhacophorus, two new matrilines for Liuixalus, and Polypedates leucomystax species complex. Intraspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.000 to 0.119 and interspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.015 to 0.334. Within Rhacophorus and Kurixalus, the intra- and interspecific genetic distances did not reveal an obvious barcode gap. Notwithstanding, we found that COI sequences unambiguously identified rhacophorid species and helped to discover likely new cryptic species via the synthesis of genealogical relationships and divergence patterns. Our results supported that COI is an effective DNA barcoding marker for Rhacophoridae.

  6. A new species of tree frog genus Rhacophorus from Sumatra, Indonesia Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidy, Amir; Kurniati, Hellen

    2015-04-14

    A small-sized tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected from three different localities on Sumatra Island, Indonesia. Rhacophorus indonesiensis sp. nov. is divergent from all other Rhacophorus species genetically and morphologically. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of: the presence of black spots on the ventral surfaces of the hand and foot webbing, an absence of vomerine teeth, a venter with a white kite-shaped marking, raised white spots on the dorsum or on the head, and a reddish brown dorsum with irregular dark brown blotches and distinct black dots. With the addition of this new species, fifteen species of Rhacophorus are now known from Sumatra, the highest number of species of this genus in the Sundaland region. However, with the increasing conversion of forest to oil palm cultivation or mining, the possibility of the extinction of newly described or as yet undiscovered species is of great concern.

  7. A new tree frog of the genus Gracixalus from Thailand (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Khonsue, Wichase; Panha, Somsak; Eto, Koshiro

    2015-04-01

    We report a new tree frog of the genus Gracixalus from western Thailand and describe it as a new species Gracixalus seesom based on results of morphological and molecular analyses. The new species is a small-sized Gracixalus (male snout-vent length ca. 22 mm) and is morphologically similar to G. gracilipes, but is easily distinguished from it by its dorsal tan color in life, absence of white spot on lower lip, and black markings on its foot webbing. The new species also clearly differs from all the other members of the genus by the combination of small body size, triangular snout, and light yellowish brown dorsum without distinct tuberculations. Problems of phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gracixalus are briefly discussed.

  8. A new species of Andinobates (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from west central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Abel; Jaramillo, César A; Ponce, Marcos; Crawford, Andrew J

    2014-09-24

    Dendrobatid frogs are among the best known anurans in the world, mainly due to their toxicity and associated bright colors. A recently described dendrobatid genus, Andinobates, comprises frogs distributed among the Colombian Andes and Panama. During field work in the Distrito de Donoso, Colón province, Panama, we found a poison frog that we here describe as a new species. The new species belongs to the A. minutus species group and is described herein as Andinobates geminisae sp. nov. This new species differs from all other members of the group by having uniformly orange smooth skin over the entire body and a distinctive male advertisement call. The new species is smaller than other colorful dendrobatids present in the area, such as Oophaga pumilio and O. vicentei. We also provide molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences of dendrobatids and summarize genetic distances among Andinobates species. Andinobates geminisae occurs in Caribbean versant rainforest on the westernmost edge of the known distribution of A. minutus, and represents the fourth species within this genus in Panama. This is vulnerable to habitat loss and excessive harvesting and requires immediate conservation plans to preserve this species with a restricted geographic range.

  9. Oviduct modifications in foam-nesting frogs, with emphasis on the genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Heyer, W. Ronald; Zug, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Various species of frogs produce foam nests that hold their eggs during development. We examined the external morphology and histology of structures associated with foam nest production in frogs of the genus Leptodactylus and a few other taxa. We found that the posterior convolutions of the oviducts in all mature female foam-nesting frogs that we examined were enlarged and compressed into globular structures. This organ-like portion of the oviduct has been called a "foam gland" and these structures almost certainly produce the secretion that is beaten by rhythmic limb movements into foam that forms the nest. However, the label "foam gland" is a misnomer because the structures are simply enlarged and tightly folded regions of the pars convoluta of the oviduct, rather than a separate structure; we suggest the name pars convoluta dilata (PCD) for this feature. Although all the foam-nesters we examined had a pars convoluta dilata, its size and shape showed considerable interspecific variation. Some of this variation likely reflects differences in the breeding behaviors among species and in the size, type, and placement of their foam nests. Other variation, particularly in size, may be associated with the physiological periodicity and reproductive state of the female, her age, and/or the number of times she has laid eggs.

  10. Food Habits of the Endemic Long Legged Wood Frog, Rana Pseudodalmatina (Amphibia, Ranidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najibzadeh M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iranian long legged wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina Eiselt & Schmidtler, 1971 is a brown frog species endemic to the Hyrcanian forest. The objective of the present study is to collect detailed information on the feeding habits of 44 specimens of this species (24 ♂, 20 ♀ by analyzing the stomach contents of individuals from 10 populations inhabiting range. The food habit of R. pseudodalmatina generally varies by the availability of surrounding prey items, and it is a foraging predator, the food of which consists largely of Coleoptera (mainly Carabidae, Dytiscidae and Haliplidae, Diptera (Muscidae and Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and no difference was found between females and males in the stomach content.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of the oviduct of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Rüterbories, H J

    1984-01-01

    The oviduct of non-pregnant females of the ovoviviparous salamander, Salamandra salamandra, was examined using SEM-techniques. In the luminal epithelium polygonal ciliated cells were found along the entire surface of the oviduct, except the uterus, and non-ciliated cells with a varying number of short or long microvilli. The ciliated cells occur in the most anterior portion of the oviduct, the pars recta; they are sparsely distributed in the p. convoluta I, but abundant in the p. convoluta II and III. Non-ciliated cells comprise several small gland cells, restricted to the p. convoluta I, II, III, and undifferentiated cells both provided with microvilli, but difficult to be discerned from their surface appearance. The p. convoluta I, II, III is characterized by three types of secretory cells forming tubular glands, each type confined to a given zone. The secretory cells have slender microvilli at their surfaces. In freeze-cracked glands details of their secretory products can be visualized. The findings are compared to previously published TEM-investigations and discussed with regard to some functions of the oviduct during reproduction.

  12. Meiosis and spermiogenesis in the testis of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Greven, H; Bergmann, M

    1985-01-01

    Meiosis and spermiogenesis in the fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, take place in an intermediate zone of the testis between the cephal immature and the more caudal mature part. Primary spermatocytes in zytogene and pachytene are characterized by synaptonemal complexes, flattened vesicles at the periphery of the cytoplasm and mitochondria with dilated cristae. Mitochondria in primary spermatocytes during meiosis, in secondary spermatocytes and early spermatids are typically arranged beneath the plasmalemma. Secondary spermatocytes are provided with pro-acrosomal granules, nucleolus-like bodies and complexes of annulate lamellae. Cytoplasmic parts with numerous vesicles seem to become extruded from secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. In testicular lobules containing pachytene spermatocytes the normally fibroblast-like follicle cells transform into glandular Sertoli cells. Already after the second meiotic division of germ cells lobule boundary cells show morphological features of steroid hormone secreting cells.

  13. The immature part of the testis in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Greven, H; Bergmann, M

    1983-04-01

    The immature part of the testis in the European fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, consists of cephalo-caudally orientated zones of primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids associated with follicle cells. Germ cells and follicle cells are arranged in lobules separated from each other by a vascularized connective tissue. Primordial germ cells are dispersed throughout the testicular stroma, preferably near the efferent ductules. They possess a multilobated nucleus, irregularly arranged mitochondria, nuage material, and a few lipid droplets. Primary spermatogonia are characterized by a more spherical nucleus, a coronal distribution of cell organelles--mainly mitochondria--small amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid droplets. Secondary spermatogonia exhibit an irregular distribution of cell organelles with increased amounts of vesicular profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum; they are highly interdigitated and connected by intercellular bridges. In this stage degenerative processes may take place. Primary spermatocytes are provided with basal bodies and peripheral microtubules. Secondary spermatocytes and spermatids will be described elsewhere. Follicle cells and their projections surround each germinal cyst. Their nucleated parts are commonly localized in the central part of the lobule. Follicle cells and lobule boundary cells are very similar to fibrocytes. Already in the primary spermatocyte zone, both cell types show ultrastructural features indicating a setting in glandular activity.

  14. The innervation of the uterus in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela). A morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Schindelmeiser, J; Straub, H

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the uterus in the ovoviviparous urodele Salamandra salamandra was studied. In whole mount preparations of the thin-walled uterus of pregnant females, a dense adrenergic network was demonstrated using a modified glyoxylic acid fluorescence technique. Based on vesicle type and cytochemical reactivity after chromate/dichromate fixation for electron microscopy at least two types of neural process were distinguished and classified as adrenergic and cholinergic. Both types are preferentially situated above or between the smooth muscles of the uterine tissue. Adjacent to the muscles in the walls of arterioles mainly adrenergic fibers are seen. Using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in tissue homogenates of uterus a considerable amount of noradrenaline could be identified. The significance of the dense innervation is discussed with respect to the function of the uterus during pregnancy and birth.

  15. Morphological and biochemical studies on the innervation of the testis of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Bergmann, M; Straub, H; Greven, H

    1983-05-01

    The innervation of the male gonad of Salamandra salamandra was studied by fluorescence microscopy using the glyoxylic acid method, acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, electron microscopy using glutaraldehyde/osmium tetroxide and chromate/dichromate fixation, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection of biogenic amines in homogenates of the testicular tissue. Noradrenaline has been found to be the prevailing neurotransmitter in the testicular nerves; dopamine could be identified only in minor concentration. The relatively scarce noradrenergic innervation is mainly restricted to the connective tissue septa between the immature and the mature part of the testis and between the mature part and the glandular tissue. Most of the fluorescent fibers have a close connection to blood vessels. After chromate/dichromate fixation the nerve profiles contain in most cases small vesicles with electron-dense reaction products, indicating the presence of catecholamines. Varicosities are to be found near the capillaries, in the vicinity of vascular (in the wall of arterioles) and non-vascular (near the testicular surface) smooth muscle cells; no relationships were found between nerve fibers and glandular (steroid hormone-secreting) or germinal cells. Cholinergic fibers could not be identified, non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic fibers were present only in very small numbers.

  16. The distribution of monosaccharides and hexosamines in the oviduct of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Baldus, B B

    1984-01-01

    Biochemical analysis of the different segments of the oviduct in the ovoviviparous salamander, Salamandra salamandra, reveals the monosaccharides glucose, galactose, fucose, mannose, ribose and the hexosamines glucosamine and mannosamine. In segment 1 (pars recta) ribose and mannose are absent, and in segments 2 (p. convoluta I) and 5 (p. convoluta IV, uterus) mannose is not detectable; fucose is absent in the uterus. Segments 3 (p. convoluta II) and 4 (p. convoluta II) contain all sugars identified. The main hexoses present in the glandular segments are galactose, fucose and glucose.

  17. Chromosome banding in Amphibia. XXXI. The neotropical anuran families Centrolenidae and Allophrynidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus; Feichtinger, Wolfgang; Bogart, James P

    2014-01-01

    The mitotic chromosomes of 11 species from the anuran families Centrolenidae and Allophrynidae were analyzed by means of conventional staining, banding techniques, and in situ hybridization. The amount, location, and fluorochrome affinities of constitutive heterochromatin, the number and positions of nucleolus organizer regions, and the patterns of telomeric DNA sequences were determined for most of the species. The karyotypes were found to be highly conserved with a low diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20 and morphologically similar chromosomes. The sister group relationship between the Centrolenidae and Allophrynidae (unranked taxon Allocentroleniae) is clearly corroborated by the cytogenetic data. The existence of heteromorphic XY♂/XX♀ sex chromosomes in an initial stage of morphological differentiation was confirmed in Vitreorana antisthenesi. The genome sizes of 4 centrolenid species were determined using flow cytometry. For completeness and for comparative purposes, all previously published cytogenetic data on centrolenids are included. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Espadarana callistomma (Guayasamin and Trueb, 2007: First country records from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ospina-Sarria, J. J.

    Full Text Available The glassfrogs diversity in the Chocoan tropical rain forest in Colombia is far from being thoroughly documented.We report here, the first record of Espadarana callistomma for the lowlands of Colombia. Further work in this region canyield results of interest to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of this group.

  19. Notes on the taxonomy of some Glassfrogs from the Andes of Peru and Ecuador (Amphibia: Centrolenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new information on several species of centrolenid frogs from Ecuador and Peru that justify the placement of Centrolene fernandoi Duellman and Schulte as a junior synonym of Centrolenella audax Lynch and Duellman; Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid as a synonym of Centrolenella mariae Duellman & Toft; and Cochranella tangarana Duellman & Schulte as a synonym of Cochranella saxiscandens Duellman & Schulte.

  20. Amphibia, Centrolenidae, Centrolene antioquiense (Noble, 1920: New records and geographical distribution in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Correa, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work provides three new localities for Centrolene antioquiense (Noble, 1920, a small centrolenidendemic to Colombia and known for just four sites. An updated diagnosis and life pictures of this species are also presented.Centrolene antioquiense apparently inhabits the canopy of montane forest and its natural habitat has been severely reduceddue to deforestation.

  1. Sobre la presencia de Vitreorana oyampiensis (Lescure, 1975 (Amphibia: Centrolenidae en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Arturo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available República de Bolivia, departamento de Pando, provincia Federico Román, reserva de Vida Silvestre Bruno Racua, arroyo Tambaqui (9º 50' 15,3" S, 65º 33' 09,0" O. Fecha de colección: 16 y 17 noviembre, 2006. Colector: Arturo Muñoz. Colección de vertebrados Museo de Historia Natural Alcide d’Orbigny (MHNCA-1054, MHNCA-1057, MHNCA-1072, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Tres ejemplares adultos, machos (19,92; 20,56; 19,98 mm LHC respectivamente.

  2. Cell mediated immune response of Bufo arenarum and Leptodactylus ocellatus (Amphibia, Anura) to mycobacterial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, E L; Salibian, A

    1984-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test was applied to the study of cell mediated immune (CMI) response in vitro to mycobacterial antigens in Bufo arenarum and Leptodactylus ocellatus previously inoculated with a suspension of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The stimulated samples of blood both in B. arenarum and L. ocellatus showed a significant increase in the percent of blastic dedifferentiation (almost 100% with respect to controls) suggesting the presence of a positive CMI response to PPD. The differences were observed on the fifth day of incubation and lasted until the seventh day.

  3. Feeding biomechanics of Late Triassic metoposaurids (Amphibia: Temnospondyli): a 3D finite element analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, Josep; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Konietzko-Meier, Dorota

    2017-06-01

    The Late Triassic freshwater ecosystems were occupied by different tetrapod groups including large-sized anamniotes, such as metoposaurids. Most members of this group of temnospondyls acquired gigantic sizes (up to 5 m long) with a nearly worldwide distribution. The paleoecology of metoposaurids is controversial; they have been historically considered passive, bottom-dwelling animals, waiting for prey on the bottom of rivers and lakes, or they have been suggested to be active mid-water feeders. The present study aims to expand upon the paleoecological interpretations of these animals using 3D finite element analyses (FEA). Skulls from two taxa, Metoposaurus krasiejowensis, a gigantic taxon from Europe, and Apachesaurus gregorii, a non-gigantic taxon from North America, were analyzed under different biomechanical scenarios. Both 3D models of the skulls were scaled to allow comparisons between them and reveal that the general stress distribution pattern found in both taxa is clearly similar in all scenarios. In light of our results, both previous hypotheses about the paleoecology of these animals can be partly merged: metoposaurids probably were ambush and active predators, but not the top predators of these aquatic environments. The FEA results demonstrate that they were particularly efficient at bilateral biting, and together with their characteristically anteropositioned orbits, optimal for an ambush strategy. Nonetheless, the results also show that these animals were capable of lateral strikes of the head, suggesting active hunting of prey. Regarding the important skull size differences between the taxa analyzed, our results suggest that the size reduction in the North American taxon could be related to drastic environmental changes or the increase of competitors. The size reduction might have helped them expand into new ecological niches, but they likely remained fully aquatic, as are all other metoposaurids. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  4. Cranial bone histology of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis (Amphibia, Temnospondyli) from the Late Triassic of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konietzko-Meier, Dorota; Bodzioch, Adam

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 21 skull bones of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis from the Late Triassic of Poland were investigated histologically. Dermal bones show a diploë structure, with an ornamented external surface. The ridges consist of mostly well vascularized parallel-fibered bone; the valleys are built of an avascular layer of lamellar bone. The thick middle region consists of cancellous bone, with varying porosity. The thin and less vascularized internal cortex consists of parallel-fibered bone. The numerous Sharpey’s fibers and ISF are present in all bones. The cyclicity of growth is manifested as an alternation of thick, avascular annuli and high vascularized zones as well as a sequence of resting lines. The detailed histological framework of dermal bones varies even within a single bone; this seems to be related to the local biomechanical loading of the particular part of the skull. The dynamic processes observed during the ornamentation creation indicate that the positions of the ridges and grooves change during growth and could be a specific adaptation to changing biomechanical conditions and stress distribution during bone development. In the supratemporal, the cementing lines show that the remodeling process could be involved in the creations of sculpture. The common occurrence of ISF suggests that metaplastic ossification plays an important role during cranial development. Endochondral bones preserved the numerous remains of calcified cartilage. This indicates that ossification follows a pattern known for stereospondyl intercentra, with relatively slow ossification of the trabecular part and late development of the periosteal cortex. The large accumulation of Sharpey’s fibers in the occipital condyles indicates the presence of strong muscles and ligaments connecting the skull to the vertebral column. PMID:27843719

  5. Contribution to the knowledge of the herpetofauna of the Sălaj-region, Romania (amphibia, reptilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katona G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide 79 data of 53 collecting events originating from the Sălaj-region of western Transylvania, Romania between 22. April, 2014 and 10. September, 2015. Geographical, spatial and temporal records are documented for the better knowledge of nine amphibian and seven reptilian species. We remark that the number of roadkilled animals is very high despite the low traffic in the research areas.

  6. Chromosomal evolution in allopatric populations of the Odontophrynus occidentalis group (Amphibia, Anura) from western Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, I R; Ceis, J M; Beçak, W

    1982-01-01

    A karyological study of some populations of the Odontophrynus occidentalis group (2n = 22) from Argentina is reported. Ammoniacal silver (Ag-AS) and alkaline Giemsa (CBG) staining have been performed on specimens from La Rioja, Mendoza, Malargue, Tamelen, Tapiluque, Valcheta, and Meseta de Somuncura. All populations showed active ribosomal cistrons (NORs) on chromosome 11. Some metaphases of three specimens from Mendoza and five from La Rioja also showed bands on 9. Centromeric and telomeric C-bands were common to all populations, and a block of heterochromatin on both sides of the centromere of 2 was remarkable in all but the La Rioja populations. The specimens from La Rioja showed a similar block of heterochromatin on the short arm of 1. Taxonomic studies of several specimens from these localities revealed differences in larval development, glandular pattern, the size of specimens, etc. As a whole, biological as well as karyological features suggest that the isolated population at La Rioja is a separate entity, at the species level, as described elsewhere.

  7. OSTEOLOGÍA DE ELEUTHERODACTYLUS BOGOTENSIS (AMPHIBIA, ANURA, LEPTODACTYLIDAE DEL PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL CHINGAZA (CUNDINAMARCA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVILÁN PAOLA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción de las estructuras óseas de la rana Eleutherodactylusbogotensis (Leptodactylidae, Anura. Para este fin se estudiaron cuatro individuos(dos hembras y dos machos colectados en el Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza(Cundinamarca, Colombia, en el Sector de Piedras Gordas a 3250 m.s.n.m. Se confirmóla pertenencia al grupo unistrigatus (sensu Lynch con base en la osteología craneal.Se encontró variación en la disposición de algunas estructuras óseas a nivel del cráneo,variación interespecífica en el pubis y el esfenetmoide y la presencia de elementossesamoideos. Se discuten las diferencias que se encontraron entre las estructuras deesta especie y lo encontrado por otros autores en otras especies de anuros.

  8. Una nueva especie del grupo Hyloscirtus larinopygion (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) del suroccidente de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jonh Jairo Mueses-Cisneros; Marvin Alfredo Anganoy-Criollo

    2008-01-01

    Se describe una nueva especie del grupo Hyloscirtus larinopygion del Nudo de los Pastos en el departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Hyloscirtus tigrinus sp. nov. puede ser distinguida fácilmente de sus especies similares por la presencia de un tubérculo calcar carnoso y prominente, además de su distintivo patrón de coloración. Se realizan algunos comentarios sobre la coloración de la garganta y coloración ventral en Hyloscirtus caucanus, H. larinopygion, H. lindae y H. tigrinus. La coloración de ...

  9. Una nueva especie del grupo Hyloscirtus larinopygion (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae del suroccidente de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh Jairo Mueses-Cisneros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie del grupo Hyloscirtus larinopygion del Nudo de los Pastos en el departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Hyloscirtus tigrinus sp. nov. puede ser distinguida fácilmente de sus especies similares por la presencia de un tubérculo calcar carnoso y prominente, además de su distintivo patrón de coloración. Se realizan algunos comentarios sobre la coloración de la garganta y coloración ventral en Hyloscirtus caucanus, H. larinopygion, H. lindae y H. tigrinus. La coloración de la garganta es altamente variable, por lo tanto no puede ser utilizada para diagnosticar a estas especies.A new species of the Hyloscirtus larinopygion group from Nudo de los Pastos, Nariño department, Colombia is described. Hyloscirtus tigrinus sp. nov. can be distinguished easily from similar species by the presence of a fleshy and prominent calcar tubercle and by its distinctive color pattern. Some remarks on throat and ventral coloration in Hyloscirtus caucanus, H. larinopygion, H. lindae and H. tigrinus are presented. The throat coloration is highly variable and cannot be used to diagnose any of these species.

  10. Fluctuating asymmetry in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae as a response to anthropogenic pollution in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelev Zhivko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the integral indicator for developmental stability, the fluctuating asymmetry (FA, in the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus populations that inhabit biotopes of different types (running rivers and still, dam lakes, when exposed to different types of anthropogenic pollution (domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution in south Bulgaria. A total of 920 P. ridibundus individuals were used for FA analyses over three years (2009-2011. Fluctuating asymmetry was defined by 10 morphological traits, using the index frequency of asymmetric manifestation of an individual (FAMI. In closed water basins, regardless of the nature of toxicants, the FA values in P. ridibundus populations were statistically lower than those in river populations. The FA values were constantly the highest under conditions of sustained anthropogenic pollution, with high concentrations of toxicants in rivers with domestic sewage pollution and heavy-metal pollution. The results provide better opportunities to use FA in P. ridibundus populations for bioindication and biomonitoring, and for parallel and independent analyses of the physicochemical assessment of the environmental condition.

  11. A relict trematosauroid (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) from the Middle Jurassic of the Junggar Basin (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, Michael W.; Matzke, Andreas T.; Sun, Ge

    2004-12-01

    A temnospondyl ilium from the uppermost Toutunhe Formation (Middle Jurassic, Callovian) of the southern Junggar Basin is described. Among the known temnospondyls it is very unusual in morphology because of its very long and slender shaft. It compares closely only to the ilium of one of the latest known trematosaurids from the Ladinian of southern Germany. The Toutunhe Formation has also yielded vertebrae and skull fragments of temnospondyls which belong to the brachyopid Gobiops from the Upper Jurassic of Mongolia. Brachyopoid ilia do not, however, display a morphology similar to that of the new specimen. It is therefore concluded that this specimen represents a second taxon of temnospondyl from the Toutunhe Formation, which probably represents the latest surviving trematosauroid. The Trematosauroidea, which was hitherto exclusively known from the Lower to early Upper Triassic, therefore joins the Brachyopoidea and possibly the Capitosauroidea as another group of temnospondyls which survived the end-Triassic mass extinction.

  12. An Examination of Morphometric Variations in a Neotropical Toad Population (Proceratophrys cristiceps, Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Kleber S.; Arzabe, Cristina; Hernández, Malva I. M.; Vieira, Washington L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The species Proceratophrys cristiceps belongs to the genus Proceratophrys within the family Cycloramphidae. These amphibians are found exclusively in South America in the morphoclimatic domain of the semi-arid depression zones in northeastern Brazil known as the Caatinga. We examined intrapopulational variation using univariate and multivariate statistics with traditional and geometric morphometrics, which supported the existence of two morphotypes of this species. Our results indicated significant degrees of variation in skeletal characteristics between some natural populations of this species. Careful analyses of variability levels are fundamental to avoid taxonomic errors, principally in populations that demonstrate characteristics intimately associated with their area of occurrence, as is the case of Proceratophrys cristiceps. PMID:19088855

  13. Natural history of Holoaden luederwaldti (Amphibia: Strabomantidae: Holoadeninae in southeastern of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar A. Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the rediscovery of Holoaden luederwaldti Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 and provides information on the distribution, sexual dimorphism, reproduction and vocalization of a population of this species in Campos do Jordão, São Paulo (southeastern Brazil. Sampling was carried out in the Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão (PECJ from October 2005 through December 2008. Collecting was conducted using pitfall traps with a drift-fence on different altitudinal gradients (1,540 m, 1,780 m and 2,000 m a.s.l.. Fifty-two specimens of H. luederwaldti were collected in the PECJ. The mean snout-vent length (SVL was 36.17 mm for males and 42.61 mm for females, indicating sexual dimorphism in body size. Holoaden luederwaldti occurred during the warm-rainy months. The population was distributed between 1500 and 2000 m, and the greater abundance was registered in well preserved forest areas. Mature females contained from 36 to 41 oocytes and the mean of oocyte diameter was 3.72 mm. The advertisement call of H. luederwaldti consists of simple notes composed of three harmonics. The record of the population of H. luederwaldti in the PECJ has reinforced the importance of investigating different areas of the forest when conducting faunal surveys.

  14. Hydrophylax bahuvistara, a new species of fungoid frog (Amphibia: Ranidae from peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand D. Padhye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophylax bahuvistara, a new species of fungoid frog, is described from peninsular India. It can be separated from its congeners based on a combination of characters including wider head, outline of snout in dorsal view truncated, finger and toe tips without lateroventral groove, foot moderately webbed, metatarsals of 4th and 5th toes closely set, outer metatarsal tubercle small, foot length less than or equal to half of snout vent length, dorsal parts of shank without glandular folds and sparse horny spinules, and heels touch each other when the legs are folded at right angles to the body.  Genetically, H. bahuvistara forms a monophyletic group with H. malabaricus as a sister clade separated by a raw distance of 4.0 to 4.5% in the 16s rRNA gene.  Morphometrically, H. bahuvistara forms a significantly different cluster from H. malabaricus and H. gracilis in Discriminant Analysis.  

  15. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  16. Characterization and seasonal changes in LHβ and FSHβ mRNA of Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, M Clara; Regueira, Eleonora; Scaia, M Florencia; Ceballos, Nora R

    2013-06-15

    In anurans, two types of gonadotropins were described in several species of Ranidae and Pipidae families but only in one of the Bufonidae family. Rhinella arenarum is a bufonid that have the lowest concentration of plasma androgens during the breeding. The objective of this paper was to characterize the cDNA sequence of β subunit of LH and FSH from toad pituitary and study seasonal variation in gonadotropins mRNA using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The LHβ cDNA is a 636 bp sequence containing an open reading frame (ORF), 45 bp of 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and 174 bp of 3'-UTR. The ORF encodes for a signal peptide of 26 amino acids and a mature protein of 113 amino acids with one N-glycosylation site at the 34th position. The FSHβ cDNA sequence is a 535 bp fragment containing an ORF, 8 bp of 5'-UTR and 152 bp of 3'-UTR. The ORF encodes for a signal peptide of 20 amino acids and a mature protein of 104 amino acids with two N-glycosylation sites at 25th and 42nd positions. Multiple alignments of aminoacid deduced sequences of LHβ and FSHβ (teleosts, amphibians, birds, mammals) showed that all the tetrapods studied conserve 12 cysteins and one (LH) or two (FSH) N-Glycosylation sites. LHβ is closer to teleosts than to mammals and birds while FSHβ is closer to mammals. The analysis of seasonal changes in LHβ and FSHβ mRNA indicates that transcript levels have seasonal variations and that the profile of androgens is opposite to that of the gonadotropins mRNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Skull mechanics and the evolutionary patterns of the otic notch closure in capitosaurs (Amphibia: Temnospondyli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, Josep; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Gil, Lluis; Galobart, Angel

    2012-07-01

    Capitosaurs were among the largest amphibians that have ever lived. Their members displayed an amphibious lifestyle. We provide new information on functional morphology data, using finite element analysis (FEA) which has palaeoecological implications for the group. Our analyses included 17 taxa using (2D) plate models to test four loading cases (bilateral, unilateral and lateral bitings and skull raising system simulation). Our results demonstrates that, when feeding, capitosaurs concentrated the stress at the circumorbital region of the capitosaur skull and cranial sutures probably played a key role in dissipating and absorbing the stress generated during biting. Basal members (as Wetlugasaurus) were probably less specialized forms, while during Middle- and Late Triassic the group radiated into different ecomorphotypes with closed otic notch forms (as Cyclotosaurus) resulting in the strongest skulls during biting. Previous interpretations discussed a trend from an open to closed otic notch associated with lateral repositioning of the tabular horns, but the analysis of the skull-raising system reveals that taxa exhibiting posteriorly directed tabular horns display similar results during skull raising to those of closed otic notch taxa. Our results suggest that various constraints besides otic notch morphology, such as the elongation of the tabular horns, snout length, skull width and position, and size of the orbits affect the function of the skull. On the light of our results, capitosaur skull showed a trend to reduce the stresses and deformation during biting. Capitosaurs could be considered crocodilian analogues as they were top-level predators in fluvial and brackish Triassic ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. On the taxonomic status of Ichthyophis husaini Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Rachunliu G; Biju, S D

    2016-02-10

    Extensive surveys at and around the type locality of Ichthyophis husaini Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999 (an 'unstriped' Ichthyophis) in North East India between 2008 and 2014 yielded tens of striped but no unstriped specimens of Ichthyophis. Contrary to the original description, we observed a lateral stripe on the holotype of I. husaini. The holotype of I. husaini is very similar to the holotype of the striped species I. garoensis Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999, which was collected from a locality only 20 km away from the type locality of I. husaini. The holotypes of these two species are also very similar to 12 newly collected specimens of striped Ichthyophis from this area. We conclude that the holotypes of I. husaini and I. garoensis represent but a single species, and we designate Ichthyophis husaini Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999 as a junior subjective synonym of Ichthyophis garoensis Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999. This taxonomic action and newly reported material extends the known geographic range of I. garoensis. It also reduces the number of Ichthyophis species of North East India to eight, and restricts unstriped members of the genus within this region to a single species (I. sikkimensis Taylor, 1960) that is known only from the far west of the region.

  19. A new species of Microcaecilia Taylor, 1968 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria; Jared, Carlos

    2015-01-13

    A new species of siphonopid caecilian, Microcaecilia butantan sp. nov., is described based on four specimens from Belterra, in the State of Pará, Brazil. The new species differs from all other Microcaecilia in having a combination of more than 135 primary annuli and long premaxillary-maxillary tooth series that extend posteriorly beyond the choanae. Some specimens were dug from soil in a cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) plantation suggesting that this form of agriculture provides an environment suitable for at least some caecilians.

  20. A new species of striped Ichthyophis Fitzinger, 1826 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae) from Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Presswell, Bronwen; Sherratt, Emma; Papadopoulou, Anna; Gower, David J

    2014-04-02

    A new species of striped ichthyophiid caecilian, Ichthyophis multicolor sp. nov., is described on the basis of morphological and molecular data from a sample of 14 specimens from Ayeyarwady Region, Myanmar. The new species resembles superficially the Indian I. tricolor Annandale, 1909 in having both a pale lateral stripe and an adjacent dark ventrolateral stripe contrasting with a paler venter. It differs from I. tricolor in having many more annuli, and in many details of cranial osteology, and molecular data indicate that it is more closely related to other Southeast Asian Ichthyophis than to those of South Asia. The caecilian fauna of Myanmar is exceptionally poorly known but is likely to include chikilids as well as multiple species of Ichthyophis.

  1. Amphibia, Anura, Leiuperidae, Physalaemus soaresi Izecksohn, 1965: New record, distribution extension and geographic distribution map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes, J. A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a female Physalaemus soaresi Izecksohn, 1965 collected at the Atlantic rainforest of Serra doMendanha, municipality of Rio de Janeiro, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Known only from two localities (andprobably extinct in one, P. soaresi is considered a threatened species in Brazil and presumably threatened in the state ofRio de Janeiro. Despite the new record, P. soaresi still fits into the status of endangered and requires the full protection of allareas where it occurs.

  2. Toxins and pharmacologically active compounds from species of the family Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Candelario; Rollins-Smith, Louise; Ibáñez, Roberto; Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Gutiérrez, Marcelino

    2017-02-23

    Among amphibians, 15 of the 47 species reported to be used in traditional medicines belong to the family Bufonidae, which demonstrates their potential in pharmacological and natural products research. For example, Asian and American tribes use the skin and the parotoid gland secretions of some common toads in the treatment of hemorrhages, bites and stings from venomous animals, skin and stomach disorders, as well as several types of cancers. In addition to reviewing the occurrence of chemical constituents present in the family Bufonidae, the cytotoxic and biomedical potential of the active compounds produced by different taxa are presented. Available information on bioactive compounds isolated from species of the family Bufonidae was obtained from ACS Publications, Google, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sciendirect and Springer. Papers written in Chinese, English, German and Spanish were considered. Recent reports show more than 30% of amphibians are in decline and some of bufonid species are considered to be extinct. For centuries, bufonids have been used as traditional folk remedies to treat allergies, inflammation, cancer, infections and other ailments, highlighting their importance as a prolific source for novel drugs and therapies. Toxins and bioactive chemical constituents from skin and parotid gland secretions of bufonid species can be grouped in five families, the guanidine alkaloids isolated and characterized from Atelopus, the lipophilic alkaloids isolated from Melanophryniscus, the indole alkaloids and bufadienolides known to be synthesized by species of bufonids, and peptides and proteins isolated from the skin and gastrointestinal extracts of some common toads. Overall, the bioactive secretions of this family of anurans may have antimicrobial, protease inhibitor and anticancer properties, as well as being active at the neuromuscular level. In this article, the traditional uses, toxicity and pharmacological potential of chemical compounds from bufonids have been summarized. In spite of being reported to be used to treat several diseases, neither extracts nor metabolites from bufonids have been tested in such illness like acne, osteoporosis, arthritis and other illnesses. However, the cytotoxicity of these metabolites needs to be evaluated on adequate animal models due to the limited conditions of in vitro assays. Novel qualitative and quantitative tools based on MS spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is now available to study the complex secretions of bufonids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  4. Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae, Leptodactylus cupreus Caramaschi, Feio and Sao-Pedro, 2008: Distribution extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peres, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first record of Leptodactylus cupreus out of its type locality, as well the first record of this speciesin the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The record of Leptodactylus cupreus from municipality Santa Teresaextends in approximately 220 km to the northeastern of its geographic distribution and establishes the inferior limit of 800m in its altitudinal distribution in the Serra da Mantiqueira.

  5. Schellackia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of the brazilian tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa (Amphibia: Anura from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paperna

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous stages of a Schellackia species are described in histological sections of the intestine of the tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa, from North Brazil. Most oocysts sporulate within the epithelial cells of the gut, but a few were detected in the lamina propria.

  6. Morphology of the Kidney in the West African Caecilian, Geotrypetes seraphini (Amphibia, Gymnophiona, Caeciliidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Jespersen, Åse; Wilkinson, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with the morphology and ultrastructure of the mesonephros in adult caecilians of the species Geotrypetes seraphini. Based on serial sections in paraffin and araldite, nephrons are reconstructed and the cellular characteristics of different nephron segments described. The long and...

  7. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time.

  8. Molecular systematics of caeciliid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) of the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, David J; San Mauro, Diego; Giri, Varad; Bhatta, Gopalakrishna; Govindappa, Venu; Kotharambath, Ramachandran; Oommen, Oommen V; Fatih, Farrah A; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jacqueline A; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Biju, S D; Shouche, Yogesh S; Wilkinson, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Together, Indian plus Seychelles caeciliid caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) constitute approximately 10% of the extant species of this order. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of all but one (or two) nominal species (16, in five genera) is presented based on mitochondrial (12S, 16S, cytb, cox1) and nuclear (RAG1) sequence data. Results strongly support monophyly of both Seychelles and peninsular Indian caeciliids, and their sister-group status. Within the Indian caeciliids, Indotyphlus and Gegeneophis are monophyletic sister genera. The phylogenetic position of Gegeneophis ramaswamii, Gegeneophis seshachari, and Gegeneophis carnosus are not well resolved, but all lie outside a well-supported clade of most northern Western Ghats Gegeneophis (madhavai, mhadeiensis, goaensis, danieli/nadkarnii). Most nominal species of Indian caeciliid are diagnosed by robust haplotype clades, though the systematics of G. carnosus-like forms in northern Kerala and southern Karnataka requires substantial further investigation. For the most part, Indian caeciliid species comprise narrowly distributed, allopatric taxa with low genetic diversity. Much greater geographic genetic diversity exists among populations referred to G. seshachari, such that some populations likely represent undescribed species. This, the first phylogenetic analysis of Indian caeciliids, generally provides additional support for recent increases in described species (eight since 1999), and a framework for ongoing taxonomic revision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh Jairo Mueses-Cisneros

    2004-07-01

    (Valle de Sibundoy y por localidades muestreadas, se hace una comparación con las faunas realizadas en el transecto Napo en Ecuador y en el transecto Montañita-Alto Gabinete en Caquetá y se presenta una clave taxonómica y una serie de fotografías para facilitar su  reconocimiento. El estudio además aporta cinco especies nuevas para la ciencia, amplía el rango altitudinal de otras ocho y presenta tres más para ser incluidas al listado general de las especies de anfibios de Colombia, las cuales habían sido ya anteriormente reportadas para el país por otros autores, pero no habían sido tenidas en cuenta en el último listado.

  10. Three new species of the microhylid frog genus Choerophryne (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Günther

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of the microhylid frog genus Choerophryne from the mountains and foothills of southern and northeastern Papua New Guinea. All three species lack elongated snouts and all are arboreal calling from elevated perch sites between ~1 and 10 m above the forest floor. Advertisement calls and habitat preferences are described for each species. Descriptions of these three frogs brings the total number of Choerophryne recognized to 34 but numerous additional species undoubtedly remain to be discovered in poorly-surveyed mountainous regions of New Guinea.

  11. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the neotropical dart-poison frog genus Phyllobates (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, A.; Lötters, S.; Jungfer, K.-H.

    A phylogenetic analysis of the Neotropical dart-poison frogs, genus Phyllobates, was performed based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Members of Phyllobates from South and Central America were found to form each an evolutionary lineage. Among the South American lineage, species with uniform dorsal coloration as adults form a derived monophyletic clade.

  12. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldo, Anna; Gay, Flaminia; Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca; Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla; Laforgia, Vincenza

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5nM/L in drinking water and 178nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5nM/L and 178nM/L as CdCl2, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to be not protective of amphibians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ohler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems.

  14. On the taxonomic status of Gegeneophis nadkarnii Bhatta & Prashanth, 2004 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Indotyphlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, David J; Giri, Varad; Torsekar, Varun R; Gaikwad, Kshamata

    2013-01-29

    Examination of type material and new collections from Goa, southern Maharashtra and northern Karnataka, leads to the conclusion that Gegeneophis nadkarnii Bhatta & Prashanth, 2004 is a subjective junior synonym of Gegeneophis danieli Giri, Wilkinson & Gower, 2003. The purported differences between these species are very minor and attributable to nor-mal individual variation, except for some features of the dentition that are peculiar to the exceptionally abnormal paratype of G. nadkarnii. This taxonomic revision extends the known geographic range of G. danieli and suggests it could be trans-ferred from Data Deficient to Least Concern status in the IUCN Red List.

  15. A new species of Microcaecilia (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae) from the Guianan region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Adriano O; Hoogmoed, Marinus S

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of Microcaecilia from the Guianan region of Brazil, based on a series of eight specimens from the states of Pará and Amazonas. Microcaecilia marvaleewakeae sp. nov. is very similar to M. taylori, but differs from it in having more primary annuli, more secondary grooves, and more secondary grooves that completely encircle the body. The new species also seems to have a relatively shorter and thinner head than M. taylori, but additional specimens of the new species are necessary to check this. A brief discussion of the taxonomy of M. taylori is presented.

  16. [Trematodes (Trematoda) of amphibia from the Middle Volga region. Report 2. Order Plagiorchiida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhliaeva, I V; Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu

    2012-01-01

    Data on trematodes of the order Plagiorchiida from 11 species of amphibians from the Middle Volga region are given. Literary data of the last 30 years, combined with the results of our own research are presented together for the first time. Finds of 17 trematode species are reliable. From them, metacercaria of Astiotrema monticelli is recorded from amphibians of the fauna of Russia for the first time; Dolichosaccus rastellus and Paralepoderma cloacicola are recorded for the first time from amphibians of the Middle Volga region. New hosts are mentioned for 8 species of parasites. Trematodes of edible frog Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758, a new species to the region, are described for the first time. The following characteristics are given for each trematode species: its taxonomic position, set of hosts, localization, places of detection, biology, geographical distribution, and the degree of host specificity. Morphological descriptions and original figures are given for 12 trematode species.

  17. Descriptions and biological notes on three unusual mantellid tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura: Mantellidae) from southeastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altig, R.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The morphologies of three unusual tadpoles from slow-flowing, sandy-bottomed, rain forest streams in southeastern Madagascar are described. The large oral apparatus of the tadpole of Boophis picturatus Glaw, Vences, Andreone, and Vallan, 2001 lacks all keratinized structures and has an elaborately-folded lower labium with five, radially oriented, flattopped ridges. The tadpole of Mantidactylus guttulatus (Boulenger, 1881) lacks all keratinized mouthparts and has three immense papillae where the upper jaw normally occurs. The tadpole of Mantidactylus lugubris (Dumeril, 1853) has an ornate oral apparatus involving greatly hypertrophied derivatives of jaw serrations and unique structures on the lower labium that resemble labial teeth.

  18. Ultrastructure of previtellogene oocytes in the neotenic cave salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela, Proteidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Lilijana Bizjak; Bulog, Boris

    2010-10-01

    Oogenesis in the neotenic, cave dwelling salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus has not been studied yet, and this study provides a detailed description of the early growth of the oocytes. Early previtellogene oocytes ranging from 100 to 600 µm in diameter were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The oocytes were divided into two stages based on size, color, and histology. Stage I oocytes can be identified by their transparent cytoplasm and a homogenous juxtanuclear mass, composed of numerous lipid droplets and mitochondria. Stage II oocytes are no longer transparent and have increased in diameter to 300- 600 µm, and many cortical alveoli differing in size have appeared. The common and most predominant ultrastructural characteristics of both stages of previtellogene oocytes are extensive quantities of smooth membrane, numerous mitochondria, and lipid droplets, as well as abundant free ribosomes. Myeline-like structures and remarkable annulate lamellae of closely packed membrane stacks are also frequently observed. Previtellogenic oocytes are the most predominant oocytes in the ovaries of Proteus, and while they possess certain structural characteristics typical for other amphibians, some features are unique and could result from adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.

  20. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Uscapi, Vanessa; von May, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330-2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  1. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registered in a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographical distribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  2. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registeredin a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographicaldistribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  3. Light shines through the spindrift--phylogeny of African torrent frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Petropedetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Loader, Simon P; Menegon, Michele; Gonwouo, Nono L; Penner, Johannes; Gvoždík, Václav; Günther, Rainer; Bell, Rayna C; Nagel, Peter; Schmitz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Torrent frogs of the genus Petropedetes Reichenow, 1874 as currently understood have a disjunct distribution with species endemic to West, Central or East Africa. We herein present a phylogenetic analysis including all but one of the currently described 12 species of the genus. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined nuclear (rag1, SIA, BDNF) and mitochondrial (16S, 12S, cytb) genes of more than 3500 base pairs, revealed clades corresponding to the three sub-Saharan regions. Molecular results are confirmed by morphological differences. Surprisingly, the three geographic clades do not form a monophyletic group with respect to closely related families Pyxicephalidae and Conrauidae and therefore require taxonomic changes. We resurrect Arthroleptides Nieden, 1911 for the East African taxa. The Central African taxa remain in the genus Petropedetes. The West African members are placed in the new genus Odontobatrachus gen. nov. The taxonomic position of the new genus remains incertae sedis as it was not assigned to any of the four families included in our analyses. Potential new species have been detected within all three major clades, pointing to a still not fully clarified diversity within African torrent frogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. First report of satellite males during breeding in Leptodactylus latrans (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Laufer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of satellite males is a common behaviour across anuran taxa. Satellite males take peripheral positions to calling males and adopt tactics in an attempt to intercept females that are attracted to calling males to increase their own mating success. Satellite males could have an inexpensive form of mate-locating, avoiding predators, and saving energy. Furthermore, this strategy could play an important role in the genetic structure of populations. The genus Leptodactylus consists of approximately 70 described species that are widely distributed in South America. The literature on the biology of this genus is extensive; however, we found only two reports on the existence of multi-male mating behavior in the genus (L. chaquensis and L. podicipinus. Herein, we report intrasexual competition in the form of satellite behavior in Leptodactylus latrans, where multiple satellite males were observed in close vicinity to a calling male.

  5. Resurrection of Hyla wavrini Parker (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae), a gladiator frog from northern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    During field work in Venezuela and Brazil a difference in call was noticed between specimens of large hylids of the Hyla boans-group. Based on this and on morphological differences, it was concluded that Hyla wavrini Parker, 1936, up till now considered a synonym of Hyla boans (Linnaeus, 1758),

  6. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura from the late cretaceous of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Evans

    Full Text Available The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.

  7. A tiny new species of Platypelis from the Marojejy National Park in northeastern Madagascar (Amphibia: Microhylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Vences

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a tiny new frog species of the genus Platypelis (Anura: Microhylidae: Cophylinae from Marojejy National Park, northeastern Madagascar. Platypelis ravus sp. nov. differs from all other known Platypelis and Cophyla species by its small size (17-19 mm snout-vent length and a combination of other morphological and bioacoustic characters. The new species seems to be most closely related to P. milloti with which it shares the principal colour pattern, but exhibits a yellow rather than red posterior venter. Uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence in a 16S rRNA gene fragment to all other known species of the genus (except P. cowanii for which no genetic data is available is greater than 6%. We suggest the inclusion of the new species in the IUCN threat category “Data Deficient”.

  8. Thyroid hormone receptor actions on transcription in amphibia: The roles of histone modification and chromatin disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yun-Bo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thyroid hormone (T3 plays diverse roles in adult organ function and during vertebrate development. The most important stage of mammalian development affected by T3 is the perinatal period when plasma T3 level peaks. Amphibian metamorphosis resembles this mammalian postembryonic period and is absolutely dependent on T3. The ability to easily manipulate this process makes it an ideal model to study the molecular mechanisms governing T3 action during vertebrate development. T3 functions mostly by regulating gene expression through T3 receptors (TRs. Studies in vitro, in cell cultures and reconstituted frog oocyte transcription system have revealed that TRs can both activate and repress gene transcription in a T3-dependent manner and involve chromatin disruption and histone modifications. These changes are accompanied by the recruitment of diverse cofactor complexes. More recently, genetic studies in mouse and frog have provided strong evidence for a role of cofactor complexes in T3 signaling in vivo. Molecular studies on amphibian metamorphosis have also revealed that developmental gene regulation by T3 involves histone modifications and the disruption of chromatin structure at the target genes as evidenced by the loss of core histones, arguing that chromatin remodeling is an important mechanism for gene activation by liganded TR during vertebrate development.

  9. Breeding biology and advertisement call of the horned leaf-frog, Proceratophrys appendiculata (Amphibia: Anura: Odontophrynidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique dos Santos Dias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the breeding biology and the advertisement call of the horned leaf-frog, Proceratophrys appendiculata (Günther, 1873 in the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, municipality of Teresópolis. The reproductive period of P. appendiculata is short and is associated with the end of the winter and the beginning of the spring, when males call night and day under large rocks in sandy bottom rock streams. The amplexus is axillary and one female laid about 656 viscous eggs. The advertisement call of P. appendiculata is unique among congeners. The call lasts approximately two seconds, with about 85 pulses/call at a rate of 45 pulses/s and frequency around 0.620 kHz. It is one of the longest calls and lowest in dominant frequency. Moreover, the call of P. appendiculata is characterized by the greatest number of pulses so far registered, reaching 129 pulses in a single call.

  10. Aspects of gene regulation in the diploid and tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianciarullo Aurora M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietic and hemoglobin DNA transcriptional activities were analyzed in the diploid and the tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus. Flow cytometric analyses of DNA, RNA and mitochondrial contents showed increased genic activity in both diploid and tetraploid animals during erythropoiesis in vivo elicited by pretreatment phenylhydrazine. Generally, higher values were seen in immature tetraploid erythroid cells. On the 10th day of recovery from anemia, large amounts of messenger RNA were found in both specimens. Based on the mitochondrial content, the tetraploid cells had more intense energy metabolism than the diploid cells. Diploid O. americanus had about three times more erythroid cells than tetraploid specimens, indicating that there were differences in the regulatory mechanisms of erythroid cells. Hematological parameters showed that tetraploid cells had 30% more hemoglobin than the diploid, suggesting a regulatory mechanism of hemoglobin synthesis at the transcriptional level. Cytoplasmic inclusions resembling Heinz bodies were found in both types of cells. In the tetraploid cells they were previously found associated with RNA or RNP, suggesting that other regulatory system which controls the accumulation of nontranslated RNA transcribed in excess must be present. These differences at the physiological and molecular levels during erythropoiesis reinforce the hypothesis that speciation is occurring between diploid and tetraploid O. americanus.

  11. Temporal changes in cutaneous bacterial communities of terrestrial- and aquatic-phase newts (Amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Galán, Pedro; Rodríguez, Silvia; Bletz, Molly C; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Vences, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Animal-associated bacterial communities play essential roles for their host's ecology, physiology and health. Temporal dynamics of these communities are poorly understood, but might be of high relevance for amphibians with a well-expressed biphasic biology of adults where the structure of their skin changes drastically between the aquatic and terrestrial phases. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of cutaneous bacterial communities of Lissotriton boscai and Triturus marmoratus by monthly sampling populations from a pond and surrounding terrestrial habitats near A Coruña, Spain. These communities were characterized by 16S rRNA gene amplicons from DNA isolated from skin swabs. Newt bacterial communities displayed variation at three levels: between larvae and aquatic adults, between adult life phases (terrestrial versus aquatic), and temporally within life phases. The skin bacterial communities tended to differ to a lesser extent temporally and between larvae and adults, and more strongly between life phases. Larvae had a higher proportion of reads associated with antifungal taxa compared with adults, while no differences were found among adult life phases. Terrestrial specimens exhibited the highest community diversity. The regular transitions of adult newts between aquatic and terrestrial environments might contribute to the diversity of their skin microbiota and could increase disease resistance. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Taxonomic revision of the moss salamander Nototriton barbouri (Schmidt (Caudata: Plethodontidae), with description of two new species from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H

    2016-11-24

    Moss salamanders (genus Nototriton) are represented in northern Central America by nine putative species: N. barbouri, N. brodiei, N. lignicola, N. limnospectator, N. mime, N. picucha, N. saslaya, N. stuarti, and N. tomamorum. I estimate the phylogenetic relationships for these species based on data from three mitochondrial gene fragments (16S, cytochrome b, and COI), and compare morphological variation among putative taxa. As evidenced here and in previous studies, the taxon N. barbouri is paraphyletic with respect to populations from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios in northern Honduras. I restrict this taxon to populations from the Sierra de Sulaco in central Yoro, Honduras, and describe two new species from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios.

  13. Electromagnetic Fields and Human Health: Fundamental and Applied Research. Proceeding of the International Conference (3rd) Held in Moscow and St. Petersburg, Russia, September 17-25 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-28

    304 EFFECTS OF MOBILE PHONE RADIATION AND DAR PROTECTIVE UNITS ON EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ANOUROUS AMPHIBIA V. Pichugin, E... AMPHIBIA V. Pichugin, E. Ahmatova, S. Padalka, E. Suprunenko ............................................ 306 EFFECTS OF MOBILE PHONE RADIATION AND DAR...AND DAR PROTECTIVE UNITS ON EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ANOUROUS AMPHIBIA V. Pichugin, E. Ahmatova, S. Padalka, E. Suprunenko State Scientific Center of

  14. A quantitative analysis of the marked asymmetry existing between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-04-17

    Apr 17, 1990 ... POYNTON, J.C. 1964a. The amphibia of Southern Africa: a faunal study. Ann. NaJal Mus. 17: 1-334. POYNTON, J.C. 1964b. Amphibia of the Nyasa-Luangwa region of Africa. Senck. bioi. 45: 193-225. POYNTON, J.C. & BROADLEY, D.G. 1988. Amphibia. Zambesiaca 4. Bufonidae. Ann. Natal Mus.

  15. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Angiostomatidae from the intestine of Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae in central Mexico Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Angiostomatidae del intestino de Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae en la región central de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Falcón-Ordaz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Angiostoma (Angiostomatidae is described from the intestine of the plethodontid salamander, Pseudoeurycea mixteca from Puebla State, in central Mexico. The new species closely resembles Angiostoma limancis, Angiostoma kimmeriensis, Angiostoma spiridonovi, Angiostoma stammeri, and Angiostoma carettae, because they all possess 8 pairs of pedunculate papillae in the caudal region; however, the new species can be distinguished by the unique arrangement of papillae, with 1 pre-cloacal pair, and 7 post-cloacal pairs. Among the 12 congeneric species of Angiostoma described so far, 2 have been described as parasites of salamanders, Angiostoma plethodontis from Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon richmondi in Virginia, USA, and Angiostoma onychodactyla from Onychodactylus japonicus in Japan. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. is readily distinguished from these 2 species by the presence of lateral alae and by the number of pre-cloacal papillae.En este trabajo se describe una especie nueva del género Angiostoma (Angiostomatidae como parásito del intestino de la salamandra pletodóntida Pseudoeurycea mixteca en el estado de Puebla, en el centro de México. La nueva especie es morfológicamente similar a Angiostoma limancis, Angiostoma kimmeriensis, Angiostoma spiridonovi, Angiostoma stammeri y Angiostoma carettae, porque todas ellas poseen 8 pares de papilas pedunculadas en la región caudal; sin embargo, se puede distinguir de éstas por el arreglo característico de dichas papilas: 1 par en posición precloacal y 7 pares postcloacales. Dos de las 12 especies congenéricas de Angiostoma fueron descritas de salamandras, Angiostoma plethodontis de Plethodon cinereus y Plethodon richmondi en Virginia, EUA y Angiostoma onychodactyla de Onychodactylus japonicus en Japón. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. se distingue fácilmente de estas 2 especies por la presencia de alas laterales y por el número de papilas precloacales.

  16. Una nueva especie de Atelopus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae del Páramo de Tama, Estado Apure, Venezuela Una nueva especie de Atelopus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae del Páramo de Tama, Estado Apure, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Marca Enrique

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una especie nueva de rana, Atelopus tamaense, del páramo el Tama, en el Estado Apure, Venezuela. El taxon se distingue de todos los demás miembros del género por la combinación de extensivo ''webbing" y coloración distintiva. Se suministran datos sobre su morfología externa, piel, coloración, variación intraespecífica, dimorfismo sexual y ecología. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de las especies venezolanas de Atelopus y se hacen algunas comparaciones para diferenciar la especie nueva de las especies de Atelopus colombianas y venezolanas del grupo de A. ignescens al cual pertenece A. tamaense. A new species of frog, Atelopus tamaense, is described from Páramo El Tamá, Estado Apure, Venezuela. The taxon is distinguished from all other members of the genus by the combination of extensive webbing and distinctive coloration. Data are provided for external morphology, skin, coloration, intraspecific variation, sexual dimorphism, and ecology. A key is included to identify Venezuelan Atelopus and some comparisons are given to distinguish the new species from Colombian and Venezuelan species of Atelopus of the A. ignescens group, to which A. tamaense belongs.

  17. Infestação de Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae em sapos Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: novo registro de hospedeiro Infestation of Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae ticks on Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: new host record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Woehl Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 toad population (N = 125 foraging in lighted areas in the Corupá Municipality, Santa Catarina State, was surveyed to evaluate the prevalence (percentage of infestation and the mean infestation intensity of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae ticks. The prevalence was of 19.2% and the mean infestation intensity was 7.4 ticks per infested toad. For the first time B. ictericus as host of A. rotundatum is reported.

  18. Una nueva especie de Hyla del grupo Bogotensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia Una nueva especie de Hyla del grupo Bogotensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruíz Carranza Pedro M.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Hyla is nomined from occidental slopes, northern Cordillera Oriental, Colombia; Hyla Iynchi differs from other hylid frogs of the H. bogotensis Group in having a rostral keel and a uniform black brown with a lavander dorsal color. Additional notes about systematics of hylid groups restricted to northern Andes, are given. Se nomina y describe una nueva especie de Hyla de la vertiente occidental, norte, de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia. Hyla lynchi, es distinguible de todas las especies del Grupo H. bogotensis por su colorido dorsal café obscuro con tinte lavanda y la presencia de una carina medial en el extremo rostral. Se incluyen comentarios sobre la sistemática de grupos de Hyla restringidos al N de los Andes.

  19. Características histológicas de la tumefacción frontal de Melanophryniscus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae Histological features of the frontal tumefaction in Melanophryniscus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL E. NAYA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la histología tegumentaria de la región cefálica en seis especies del género Melanophryniscus, pertenecientes a los grupos stelzneri (4 y tumifrons (2, con el objetivo de esclarecer la estructura de la tumefacción frontal y su posible función. Las características generales de la histología del grupo stelzneri, coincidieron con las descripciones tegumentarias existentes para el género. Sin embargo, la región cefálica frontal en las dos especies del grupo tumifrons muestran cambios histológicos correlacionados a la tumefacción frontal. Esta estructura presenta una organización similar a otras macroglándulas presentes en la dermis de anuros (e.g., parotoides, paracnémicas, y por tanto se propone el nombre de macroglándula frontal para la misma. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren un rol defensivo para esta macroglándulaWe analyzed the histology of skin from the head region of six species of Melanophryniscus, belonging to the stelzneri (4 and tumifrons (2 groups, to understand the frontal tumefaction structure and function. The histological features of the skin in the stelzneri group are in agreement with the current description for the genus Melanophryniscus. However, the features of the skin on the anterior head region of M. tumifrons shows several changes associated with the frontal tumefaction. This structure consists of a macrogland of similar organization to that of other dermic glands (e.g., parotoid, paracnemid of amphibians. We propose the name frontal macrogland for this structure. Our results suggest a possible defense role for this macrogland

  20. Modificaciones tegumentarias de larvas y adultos durante el cuidado parental en Minyobates virolinensis (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae Modificaciones tegumentarias de larvas y adultos durante el cuidado parental en Minyobates virolinensis (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Gloria R. de

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the histology and cytology of the adult and tadpole skin during the transport of tadpoles by adult males of Minyobates virolinensis.  Integumentary modifications associated with this transport are seen in cells of the ventral larval epithelium. Of the four cellular types observed in the outer layer of the larval epidermis, two are associated with the attachment to the adult: type I cells have a complex of long microvilli anchored in an intertegumentary matrix, and type II cells have several secretory granules at the apical cellular surface and their secretion contributes to form this matrix. The other two types are found throughout the surface of the larval epidermis. The intertegumentary matrix (acid glycoproteins attach the tadpole to the nurse frog's back. The epidermis of the nurse frog is similar to that of adult males and females without tadpoles on the back; however, several corneal layers are accumulated on the skin surface of nurse frogs and two types of mucous glands secrete acid glycoproteins to the matrix. The intertegumentary matrix may originate from the tegument of both tadpole and adult. Se realiza el estudio histológico y citológico del tegumento de la larva y del adulto durante el transporte del renacuajo por el macho de Minyobates virolinensis. Se observan modificaciones tegumentarias asociadas a este transporte en células del epitelio ventral del renacuajo. Se describen cuatro tipos celulares en la capa más externa de la epidermis de la larva; dos de éstos están asociados con la adhesión al adulto: el tipo celular I tiene un complejo de microvellosidades largas ancladas en la matriz intertegumentaria, el tipo II contiene gránulos de secreción en la superficie apical de las células y su secreción contribuye a formar esta matriz. Los otros dos tipos celulares son comunes en toda la superficie de la epidermis larval. La matriz intertegumentaria (glicoproteínas ácidas prende al renacuajo sobre el dorso de la rana-nodriza. La epidermis de la rana-nodriza es similar a la de machos y hembras adultos sin renacuajos en el dorso; sin embargo, sobre la superficie de  la piel de la rana-nodriza se acumulan varias capas córneas y dos tipos de glándulas mucosas secretan glicoproteínas ácidas a la matriz. Así, la matriz intertegumentaria posiblemente se origina tanto en el tegumento de la larva como en el del adulto.

  1. Contribuição à herpetologia da Argentina e do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil por William Wright Milstead (Amphibia, Reptilia Contribution to the herpetology of Argentina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by William Wright Milstead (Amphibia, Reptilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales de Lema

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are presenting the list of the specimens and the taxa obtained; there are 73 names of species belonging to 40 genera, of which 32 species and 13 genera are amphibians, and 42 species and 27 genera are reptiles. There are several field notes of Milstead and many data on the snakes studied by Lema with Milstead. The collection was widespread by Milstead to several institutions, but mainly to Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  2. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : III. A new species of Dendrobates (Amphibia salientia, Dendrobatidae) from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1969-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During a recent collecting trip, financed by grant W 956-2 from WOTRO (Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research), I spent 47 days (22 August-7 October 1968) on the Sipaliwini savannah in southern Surinam. The Sipaliwini savannah is part of an extensive savannah

  3. Advertisement call of Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae, with notes on the reproductive activity of S. littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel V. Garey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis are poorly known Atlantic forest endemic species from the Scinax catharinae group, which is known from southern and southeastern Brazil. Herein, we describe the advertisement calls of these two species and compare them to other species within the S. catharinae group. Additionally, we provide information on breeding sites, and calling activity in S. littoralis. Advertisement calls of S. angrensis and S. littoralis are composed of multi-pulsed notes with multiple frequency bands and frequency modulation. Scinax littoralis has a higher minimum and maximum frequency, and lower dominant frequency than S. angrensis, while Scinax littoralis has a longer call. Scinax littoralis appears to be a habitat generalist, occurring from secondary to mature forests, and breeding both in temporary and in permanent ponds. Male S. littoralis were usually observed calling perched on shrub stems, and displayed satellite behavior when the male density was high.

  4. Climate and land-use changes effects on the distribution of a regional endemism: Melanophryniscus sanmartini (Amphibia, Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Rosenstock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrate group according to the IUCN. Land-use and land cover change (LULCC and climate change (CC are two of the main factors related to declining amphibian populations. Given the vulnerability of threatened and rare species, the study of their response to these impacts is a conservation priority. The aim of this work was to analyze the combined impact of LULCC and CC on the regionally endemic species Melanophryniscus sanmartini Klappenbach, 1968. This species is currently categorized as near threatened by the IUCN, and previous studies suggest negative effects of projected changes in climate. Using maximum entropy methods we modeled the effects of CC on the current and mid-century distribution of M. sanmartini under two IPCC scenarios - A2 (severe and B2 (moderate. The effects of LULCC were studied by superimposing the potential distribution with current land use, while future distribution models were evaluated under the scenario of maximum expansion of soybean and afforestation in Uruguay. The results suggest that M. sanmartini is distributed in eastern Uruguay and the south of Brazil, mainly related to hilly and grasslands systems. Currently more than 10% of this species' distribution is superimposed by agricultural crops and exotic forest plantations. Contrasting with a recent modelling study our models suggest an expansion of the distribution of M. sanmartini by mid-century under both climate scenarios. However, despite the rise in climatically suitable areas for the species in the future, LULCC projections indicate that the proportion of modified habitats will occupy up to 25% of the distribution of M. sanmartini. Future change in climate conditions could represent an opportunity for M. sanmartini, but management measures are needed to mitigate the effects of habitat modification in order to ensure its survival and allow the eventual expansion of its distribution.

  5. ONTOGENY OF THE DIET IN ANURANS (AMPHIBIA COLLECTED AT LA VIEJA RIVER BASIN IN THE DEPARMENTO OF QUINDIO (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ENRIQUE MORENO-BARBOSA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of three anuran species, Rhinella marina (Bufonidae, Pristimantis achatinus (Strabomantidae and Dendropsophus columbianus (Hylidae, that inhabit agroecosystems at the Rio La Vieja Basin (Quindio, Colombia was examined. The goal of this study was to establish if there is an ontogenetic change in the diet of all species. Gastrointestinal contents were preserved in 70% ethanol and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Identified prey portions were classified into 20 types. Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Hemiptera were the most frequent preys. Considerable dietary overlap among three different body-size classes of all species show some differences. However the ANOVA analysis showed that there was no significant difference (P=0.05 in diets at different ontogenetic sizes.

  6. Liver histopathology in the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), induced by Ortleppascaris sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascarididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina .

  7. Rhabdias paraensis sp. nov.: a parasite of the lungs of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Nascimento, Daisy Esther Batista do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha

    2011-06-01

    The nematode parasites of Rhinella marina include species of the genus Rhabdias (Rhabdiasidae: Rhabditoidea). The present study describes Rhabdias paraensis sp. nov., which parasitizes the lungs of R. marina in Brazilian Amazonia. Of the more than 70 known species of this genus, 18 are parasites of bufonids, of which, eight are Neotropical. The new species described here is similar to Rhabdias alabialis in the absence of lips is different by the presence of conspicuous cephalic papillae. We describe details of the four rows of pores, which are distributed equally along the whole of the length of the body and connected with hypodermal cells, using histology and scanning electron microscopy. Other histological aspects of the internal structure of this nematode are also described.

  8. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Soares, Maurílio José; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos

    2011-09-01

    The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  9. Genetic structure of the Asian Grass Frog, Fejevarya limnocharis (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae) of Peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hurzaid, Amirah; Jaafar, Ibrahim; Awang, Zalina; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    .... We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to evaluate the genetic variability and population structure of this species, based on 106 individuals from 14 populations in the west coast...

  10. Rediscovery of the Endangered frog Phrynopus montium (Shreve, 1938) Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) in the cloud forest of central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Rudolf VON

    2017-10-24

    Phrynopus montium (Shreve, 1938) was described from Cascas, Junín Department, Peru, at an undetermined elevation between 3000 and 4000 m a.s.l. in the Cordillera Central. With the exception of the type specimens used in the original description, no additional sightings of P. montium had been reported for 76 years. Additionally, its coloration in life, microhabitat use, and precise elevational distribution remained unknown. During a field expedition conducted in 2014, two individuals of P. montium were found at an upper cloud forest site in central Peru, 8.7 km south from Hacienda Cascas. Here, I describe the coloration in life, microhabitat use, and elevation of these individuals.

  11. The Euro-American genus Eopelobates, and a re-definition of the family Pelobatidae (Amphibia, Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Wuttke, M.; Gardner, J. D.; Bhullar, B.-A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 4 (2014), s. 529-567 ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Eopelobates * fossoriality * Green River * formation * palaeobiogeography * Pelobates * Pelobatidae Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Una nueva especie de Atelopus A.M.C. Dumeril & Bibron 1841 (Amphibia: Bulonidae de la cordillera Occidental, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Carranza Pedro M.

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Atelopus of the longirostris Group (A.negreti is nomined and described from the Eastern slope of the Cordillera Occidental, S. P.N.N. Munchique, Cauca, at 1470-1580m.Se nomina y describe una nueva especie de atelopus del grupo longirostris: A.negreti del flanco occidental de la Cordillera Occidental, límite S. del Parque Nacional Natural Munchique, Cauca, 1470-1580m.

  13. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prehn Lea R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three kidney systems appear during vertebrate development: the pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. The pronephric duct is the first or primary ureter of these kidney systems. Its role as a key player in the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme is well established. Here we investigate whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light and transmission electron microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy on fixed tissue and applying the microperfusion technique on isolated pronephric ducts in combination with single cell microelectrode impalements. Our data show that the fully differentiated pronephric duct is composed of a single layered epithelium consisting of one cell type comparable to the principal cell of the renal collecting duct system. The cells are characterized by a prominent basolateral labyrinth and a relatively smooth apical surface with one central cilium. Cellular impalements demonstrate the presence of apical Na+ and K+ conductances, as well as a large K+ conductance in the basolateral cell membrane. Immunolabeling experiments indicate heavy expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the basolateral labyrinth. Conclusions We propose that the pronephric duct is important for the subsequent modification of urine produced by the pronephros. Our results indicate that it reabsorbs sodium and secretes potassium via channels present in the apical cell membrane with the driving force for ion movement provided by the Na+/K+ pump. This is to our knowledge the first characterization of the pronephric duct, the precursor of the collecting duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding the evolution of vertebrate kidney systems and human diseases associated with congenital malformations.

  14. Histology and ultrastructure of the caudal courtship glands of the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus (Amphibia: Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Siegel, Dustin S

    2015-03-01

    Caudal courtship glands (CCGs) are sexually dimorphic glands described in the skin of the dorsal tail base of some male salamanders in the genera Desmognathus, Eurycea, and Plethodon in the family Plethodontidae. These glands are believed to deliver pheromones to females during courtship, when the female rests her chin on the dorsal tail base during the stereotypic tail straddling walk unique to plethodontids. Although CCGs have been studied histologically, no investigations of their ultrastructure have been made. This article presents the first study on the fine structure and seasonal variation of CCGs, using the plethodontid Plethodon cinereus. The CCGs vary seasonally in height and secretory activity. The mature secretory granules observed in males collected in October and April consist of oval, biphasic granules that are eosinophilic and give positive reactions to periodic acid-Schiff for neutral carbohydrates but do not stain for acidic mucosusbtances or proteins with alcian blue and bromphenol blue, respectively. Granular glands, some of which contain mucous demilunes, are twice as large as CCGs, are syncytial (unlike CCGs), and stain for proteins. Mucous glands are similar in size to CCGs, but are basophilic, show no seasonal variation in secretory activity, and stain positive for acidic mucosubstances. CCGs do not resemble cytologically the sexually dimorphic mental glands of some plethodontids, which contain round or oval granules filled with an electron-dense amorphous substance. The CCGs are similar histologically to sexually dimorphic skin glands described in some anurans, but more comparative work is needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Observações anatômicas sôbre a larva de Thoropa miliaris (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Die kaulquappe von Thoropa miliaris lebt in mittleren Lagen des Itatiáia-Gebirges (Staat Rio de Janeiro, in etwa 1650 m Hoebe, auf fast senkracht stehenden Felsplatten, ueber die staendig eine sehr duenne Schicht Wasser herablaeuft. Die Tiere haben keinen Flossensaum; der zwei- bis dreimal koerperlange Schwanz ist fast drehrund und besitzt an Stelle eines Flossensaumes nur einen ventralen Kiel, der die Schlaengelbewegung gegen den Wasserstrom unterstuetzt. Auch die juengsten Stadien haben keine aeusseren kiemen, sondern innere in einer Atemhoehle, deren Ausgang sich auf der linken Seite in der Mitte des Koerpers befindet. Die Tiere heften sich an den Steinen vermittels ihres sehr grossen Mundapparates fest. Die Lippen tragen zwei oder drei Reihen starker Keratin-Haken, die durch laufende Neubildung ersetzt werden. Die arbeitenden Spitzenzaehne des Hornschnabels in der Mundhoehle werden ebenfalls durch fortgesetztes Wachstum erneuert. Die Saugscheibenwirkung des Mundes wird durch ein Muskelpaar bedingt, das einerseits am Parasphenoid- und am Sphenethmoidknorpel, andererseits mit seinen unteren Buendeln am Prodentale (Spitze des Meckel'schen Knorpels, mit seinem oberen vermittels je zweier Sehnen am Promaxillare ansetzt. Durch die kontraktion dieser Muskeln wird das Prodentale nach oben und dann nach hinten, das Promaxillare (mit Gelenkstellen am Prointermaxillare und Pronasale nach oben und dann nach vorne gedreht. Hierdurch treten die beiden Kegel des Hornschnabels in die Mundhoehle, da sie den beiden Knorpeln fest aufsitzen. Bei starker Kontraktion werden die Knorpel auseinander gedrueckt und vergroessern die Mundhoehle. Wenn die Lippen, unterstuetzt von den Hakenreihen, fest dem Stein aufliegen, ergibt sich ein Unterdruck in der Mundhoehle, der genuegt, um die Larven auf der Unterlage festzuhalten. Das Loesen des Saugnapfes erfolgt durch die kontraktion einer Gruppe kleiner Muskelbuendel, die einerseits am Unterrand des Prodentale, andererseits an den falten der Unterlippe ansetzen.

  16. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea, a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  17. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae from Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae: Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Darda

    Full Text Available Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes. Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1 phylogeny, 2 adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms, 3 size-free shape, and 4 size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work.

  19. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darda, David M; Wake, David B

    2015-01-01

    Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes). Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1) phylogeny, 2) adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms), 3) size-free shape, and 4) size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work.

  20. [Various effects of prostaglandin E2 on reabsorption of water and urea in the amphibia osmosis-regulating epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnova, R G; Bakhteeva, V T; Lavrova, E A

    2001-12-01

    Principal similarities between molecular pathways providing the enhancement of water and urea reabsorption under the action of argininvasotocin (AVT) in amphibian urinary bladder suggest that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) could be a negative regulator of urea transport. To analyse this hypothesis, the role of PGE2 in regulation of urea transport was studied in isolated frog (Rana temporaria L.) urinary bladder. The urea permeability (Pu) was determined from the rate of efflux of (14) Curea from mucosal to serosal solution in isoosmotic conditions. The water permeability was measured in separate experiments in presence of an osmotic gradient. In contrast to water permeability, we were unable to demonstrate any inhibitory effect of 10-1000 nM PGE2 on AVT-stimulated urea transport using a variety of protocols. It was found that basolateral PGE2 exposure (10 nM-1 microM) caused an increase in Pu with no effect on osmotic water flow. The PGE2 effect was markedly inhibited by phloretin, a specific inhibitor of urea transporter. Sulprostone, an EP1/EP3 prostaglandin E2 receptor agonist, had no effect on Pu suggesting the contribution of EP2/EP4 receptor subtypes. In presence of osmotic water flow, the AVT-induced urea transport was significantly higher. This water flow-dependent urea permeability was inhibited by PGE2 although the inhibitory effect was less pronounced in comparison to the action of PGE2 on osmotic water flow. On the basis of these results we can make a conclusion that PGE2 has different role in regulation of water and urea transport in the frog urinary bladder. PGE2 could be considered as a stimulator of urea transport and an inhibitor of osmotic water flow activated by the AVT. The ability of PGE2 to regulate various types of cAMP-dependent transport by different mechanisms seems to be based on the presence of multiple basolateral PGE2 receptor subtypes in amphibian osmosis-regulatory epithelium.

  1. Phyllomedusa: Posição taxonômica, hábitos e biologia (Amphibia, anura, hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Caramaschi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis for the Hylidae family of tree-frogs, and diagnosis and included genera for the four subfamilies currently in this family, Hemiphractinae, Hylinae, Pelodryadinae, and Phyllomedusinae, are provided. The genera of the Phyllomedusinae subfamily, Agalychnis, Hylomantis, Pachymedusa, Phasmahyla, Phrynomedusa, and Phyllomedusa are diagnosed and the species included and their geographical distribution are referred. Notes on the habits and biology of members of the genus Phyllomedusa are presented.

  2. Supplementary studies of Pleurogenoides medians (Digenea: Lecithodendriidae infecting the Marsh frog Rana Ridibunda (Amphibia: Ranidae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewaida Abdel-Gaber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurogenoides medians, a digenean lecithodendriid trematode, parasitize numerous aquatic vertebrate species including frogs, freshwater fish, urodeles and anurans. In the present study, a total of 190 out of 300 (63.33% marsh frogs Rana Ridibunda were found to be infected with this digenean parasite. The highest percentage of infection was recorded in winter reaching 93.33%, and the lowest value was recorded to be 6.66% during summer. Prevalence and intensity of infection were positively correlated with the host size. Host sex showed no effect in this respect. Morphological studies based on light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the adult worms characterized by small body size measured 1.980–2.430 (2.205 ± 0.1 mm long and 0.870–1.20 (9.87 ± 0.01 mm wide with spines of similar size distributed all over the body surface; oral sucker is sub-terminal and measured 0.180–0.230 (0.203 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.120–0.180 (0.150 ± 0.01 mm wide; ventral sucker is smaller than the oral sucker, post-ovarian located at 1/3 level from the anterior end and measured 0.080–0.102 (0.090 ± 0.001 mm long and 0.100–0140 (0.120 ± 0.001 mm wide; two symmetrical testes were located near the cecal termination on both sides of the ventral sucker, measured 0.153–0.193 (0.176 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.160–0.192 (0.175 ± 0.01 mm wide; pre-acetabular ovary was present and measured 0.130–0.150 (0.140 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.100–0.130 (0.120 ± 0.01 mm wide; vitellaria are extra-caecal and extended from the level of the pharynx to a level slightly beyond the ovary. By comparing the recovered parasite with different species of the same genus from different hosts having different localities, it was found that the present species morphometrically more or less different from the comparable species and the only similar species was P. medians described previously from the common toad Bufo bufo by having all similar characteristic features. In addition, the present study was considered as the first report for the occurrence of this lecithodendriid species infecting the marsh frog in Egypt.

  3. A new species of the Pristimantis orestes group (Amphibia: Strabomantidae) from the high Andes of Ecuador, Reserva Mazar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Arteaga, Alejandro F

    2013-02-21

    We describe a new Pristimantis from La Libertad and Rumiloma, Reserva Mazar, Andes of Southeastern Ecuador, at elevations between 2895-3415 m. This species is assigned to the P. orestes group, from whose members it differs by its small body size (adult males ≤ 18.1 mm; adult females ≤ 23.7 mm), usually reticulated ventral pattern, and visible tympanum. The vocalization of the new species consists of a series of calls; each call is composed by a pulsed, non-modulated note in frequency, and with a dominant frequency of 3122-3171 Hz. A molecular phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S shows that the new species is sister to Pristimantis simonbolivari.

  4. Nueva especie de rana del género Pristimantis del grupo lacrimosus (Amphibia: Craugastoridae del Parque Nacional Sangay, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Batallas R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una nueva especie de rana terrestre del genero Pristimantis de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 22.18 a 25.13 mm descubierta en los bosques nublados de las estribaciones orientales del Parque Nacional Sangay, al centro oriente de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 2750 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis latericius sp. nov., al grupo Pristimantis lacrimosus, el cual se diferencia del resto de miembros de este grupo por presentar tubérculos prominentes en el parpado superior y una coloración rojo anaranjado en el dorso. Las llamadas son cortas, conformadas por una sola nota y dos bandas armónicas. Importantes levantamientos de información faunística se han venido generando en los últimos años en el Parque Nacional Sangay, sin embargo es necesario incrementar estudios que ayuden a documentar la ecología e historia natural de los anfibios, ya que sin lugar a dudas ayudaran a comprender procesos ecológicos. El descubrimiento de esta y otras nuevas especies en este sector, demuestra su importancia biológica confortando al desarrollo de planes de conservación en este importante Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad.

  5. Diversification in a biodiversity hotspot--the evolution of Southeast Asian rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Stefan T; Schweizer, Manuel; Das, Indraneil; Haas, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The tree-frog family Rhacophoridae is a major group contributing to the high pecies richness and reproductive diversity among vertebrates of Sundaland. Nonetheless, rhacophorid evolution, specially on Borneo, has not been studied within a phylogenetic context. In this study, we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 38 (out of 41) Bornean species of Rhacophoridae, in combination with data from previous phylogenetic studies. In the final super matrix of 91 species, we analyse sequence data from two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. The resulting trees show the genus Rhacophorus as a paraphyletic assemblage. As a consequence, we transfer Rhacophorus appendiculatus and R. kajau to two other genera and propose the new phylogeny-based combinations--Kurixalus appendiculatus and Feihyla kajau, respectively. Furthermore, we use our phylogenetic hypotheses to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive modes in rhacophorid tree frogs. Direct development to the exclusion of a free larval stage evolved twice independently, once in an ancestor of the Pseudophilautus+Raorchestes clade in India and Sri Lanka, and once within Philautus in Southeast Asia. The deposition of egg clutches covered by a layer of jelly in Feihyla is also present in F. kajau and thus confirms our generic reassignment. The remarkably high diversity of rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo is the outcome of a complex pattern of repeated vicariance and dispersal events caused by past changes in the climatic and geological history of the Sunda shelf. We identified geographic clades of closely related endemic species within Rhacophorus and Philautus, which result from local island radiations on Borneo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Combat and acoustics of the endangered Little Tree Frog (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae: Rhacophorus lateralis from the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sachi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhacophorus lateralis is a endangered tree frog found distributed in the hill ranges of Wayanad, Coorg and Chikkamagaluru, and is well known for its unique leaf nesting behavior.  Here we present male-male combat and acoustics for R. lateralis. 

  7. Distribution and present numbers of the Tree Frog Hyla arborea in Zealand Flanders, The Netherlands (Amphibia, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumpel, Anton H.P.

    1987-01-01

    A distribution survey of Hyla arborea has been carried out in the western part of Zealand Flanders over a period of six years. Additional data on the eastern part and the neighbouring Belgian area have been collected. The relationship between the maximum number of males calling on one evening/night

  8. Ultrahistochemical and autoradiographic evidence of epithelial transport in the uterus of the ovoviviparous salamander, Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H

    1980-01-01

    The uterine epithelium of pregnant females of the terrestrial ovoviviparous Salamandra salamandra is characterized by a considerable enlargement of its basolateral surface. Chloride and cations (among others sodium), preferentially within the intercellular spaces, can be demonstrated ultrahistochemically. There is indirect evidence of Na+ --K+ -ATPase activity along the basolateral plasma membranes of the epithelial cells using the Sr-technique for demonstration of a K+ -NPPase and 3H-ouabain autoradiography. Preliminary measurements reveal a potential difference across the uterine wall of 15--25 mV, the lumenal (mucosal) surface being negative with respect to the coelomic (serosal) surface, and a short circuit current of 200--300 microA. The possible electrogenic ion transport is ouabain-sensitive. The results are in agreement with the model of a "forward" transporting, i.e. absorptive epithelium. An active transport of solute out of the uterine lumen across the epithelium to the subjacent connective tissue and the blood vessels may be involved in the regulation of an intrauterine milieu appropriate for the development of the offspring.

  9. Hepatic arginase activity in intra- and extrauterine larvae of the ovoviviparous salamander. Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Schindelmeiser, I; Greven, H

    1983-01-01

    The hepatic arginase activity of Salamandra salamandra was determined at three different stages of intra- and extrauterine larval development and at fully metamorphosed juveniles. The highest enzymatic activity was found in intrauterine larvae in November, the lowest in intrauterine larvae in June of the following year. These data can be correlated with the ureotelism of intrauterine larvae previously described and are discussed with respect to the metabolism of larval and juvenile fire salamanders.

  10. Origins of descending projections to the medulla oblongata and rostral medulla spinalis in the urodele Salamandra salamandra (amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks-Manteuffel, C; Manteuffel, G

    1988-07-08

    Descending projections to the medulla oblongata and rostral medulla spinalis have been examined in the urodele Salamandra salamandra with retrograde horseradish peroxidase tracing. Ipsilateral projections originate from the striatum and the nucleus ventrolateralis thalami and reach the medulla oblongata. The ipsilateral nucleus praeopticus magnocellularis reaches the medulla spinalis. The rostral part of the nucleus tuberculi posterioris projects to the ipsilateral medulla oblongata; its caudal part projects further caudally. Tectal efferents and the efferents of the nucleus praetectalis profundus project bilaterally, the nucleus praetectalis superficialis, nucleus mesencephalicus nervi trigemini, torus semicircularis, nucleus Darkschewitsch, and nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis project ipsilaterally to the medulla oblongata. The nucleus mesencephalicus nervi trigemini, nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis, and tectal efferents reach the rostral medulla spinalis. The nucleus ruber projects mainly via the contralateral dorsolateral funiculus to the medulla spinalis. A largely crossed medullary projection arises in the nucleus dorsalis tegmenti pars anterior, a bilateral projection arises in the nucleus dorsalis tegmenti pars posterior, and an ipsilateral projection arises in the nucleus ventralis tegmenti pars anterior. Cerebellar and statoacoustic efferents descend to the medulla spinalis. The nucleus reticularis isthmi, superior, medius and inferior as well as the nucleus raphes exhibit spinal trajectories. The nucleus vestibularis magnocellularis projects bilaterally, the nucleus vestibularis medialis projects ipsilaterally spinalward. The supposed nucleus descendens nervi trigemini descends mainly contralaterally. A small spinal projection arises in the nucleus tractus solitarii. The results indicate that salamander brains display elaborate descending connections which are similar to those in other vertebrates despite their scarcely differentiated neuronal cytoarchitecture.

  11. Light and electron microscopic study on complex carbohydrates in the testis of Salamandra salamandra L. (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of complex carbohydrates was studied in the testis of the European fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, by light- and electron-microscopic methods. The basal laminae and fibrous structures in the connective tissue between the lobules are PAS-positive. After alcianblue staining (at pH = 2.8), acid mucopolysaccharides could be demonstrated in steroid hormone-producing cells in the interstitial tissue between lobules containing spermatids, spermatozoa, and lobules after spermiation, as well as in most of the Sertoli cells in lobules after spermiation. In all spermatogenic stages from secondary spermatocytes to mature sperms, dictyosome-like structures and flat vesicles showed a distinct contrast enhancement, as did parts of the acrosome after treatment with the phosphotungstic acid-chromic acid method for electron microscopy.

  12. Ultrastructural investigations of the epidermis and the gill epithelium in the intrauterine larvae of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H

    1980-01-01

    The epidermis and the gill epithelium of larval intrauterine Salamandra salamandra were studied by the electron microscope. Both epithelia are bilayered. In the epidermis of the skin three cell types occur: pavement cells containing apical mucous granules, basal cells, Leydig cells and sporadically pea-shaped cells which obviously correspond to the Langerhans cells described by previous authors. The epithelium of the gills is composed of pavement-, basal-, pea-shaped, and ciliated cells. In the primary gill bar there are additional mitochondria-rich cells and single Leydig cells. In the secondary gill filament the thickness of the epithelium is reduced. There is no morphological evidence for the uptake of material by endocytosis in the apical plasmalemm of the pavement cells.

  13. Further freeze-fracture studies on the uterine epithelium of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela) using the antibiotic filipin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Robenek, H

    1982-01-01

    The apical portion of the uterine lining of the ovoviviparous fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, was studied by the freeze-fracture technique in conjunction with the polyene antibiotic filipin. Filipin-sterol complexes were found in the luminal plasmalemma and in the membranes limiting the mucous secretory granules typical of this epithelium. In all females, but particularly in non-pregnant females, more or less discrete clusters of filipin-sterol complexes were occasionally found overlying heavily affected secretory granules. The findings are discussed with regard to comparable results (Orci et al. 1980) based on the examination of collapsed and stretched urinary bladders of toads.

  14. Intercellular junctions in the uterine epithelium of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela). A freeze-fracture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Robenek, H

    1980-01-01

    Intercellular junctions in the uterine epithelium of the ovoviviparous urodele Salamandra salamandra were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant females by freeze-fracture technique. Junctional complexes consist of zonulae occludentes (tight junctions) and numerous maculae adhaerentes (desmosomes); z. adhaerentes and nexuses (gap junctions) could not be identified. Tight junctions are of the "flexible" type exhibiting loosely interconnected fibrils. The fibrillary network appears stretched more often in pregnant females possibly due to the mechanical stress of pregnancy. The structure and occurrence of the junctions identified, especially that of the tight junctions, is discussed with regard to the functions of the uterus during pregnancy.

  15. Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium crurifasciatum Myers and Donnelly, 1997: First record from Brazil and geographic distribution map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current note reports the presence of Hyalinobatrachium crurifasciatum at municipality of Cotriguaçu, stateof Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. This is the first occurrence of this species in Brazil.

  16. Amphibia, Anura, Parque Natural Municipal da Taquara, municipality of Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles, R. O. L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein is presented a list of the amphibians from the Parque Natural Municipal da Taquara (22°35'S,43°14'W, an area of Atlantic Rainforest at municipality of Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeasternBrazil. The work was carried out from September 2006 to October 2008. Expeditions were made three times a weekduring the day, and once a month at night. We recorded 50 species of anuran amphibians distributed in 13 families:Amphignathodontidae (1 species, Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Craugastoridae (1,Cycloramphidae (3, Hylidae (29, Hylodidae (3, Leiuperidae (1, Leptodactylidae (4, Microhylidae (1,Strabomantidae (1, and Ranidae (1. Some species had their range extended. The present study demonstrates that theParque Natural Municipal da Taquara is a conservation area of huge importance to the preservation of the amphibiancommunities that inhabit this Atlantic Rainforest lowland environment.

  17. Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Vitreorana uranoscopa (Muller, 1924: Distribution extension in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado, I. F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The glass frog Vitreorana uranoscopa (Müller, 1924 has been considered a vulnerable species for the state ofRio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This note recorded the presence of the species for São Marcos municipality, extendingthe species distribution towards eastern region of the state.

  18. Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium carlesvilai Castroviejo-Fisher, Padial, Chaparro, Aguayo and de la Riva, 2009: First country record, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D. F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first Brazilian record of the recently-described glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium carlesvilaiCastroviejo-Fisher, Padial, Chaparro, Aguayo and de la Riva, 2009. This species, previously known in Peru and Bolivia, wascollected at two localities at the municipality of Aripuanã, northern state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

  19. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : II. On the occurrence of Allophryne ruthveni Gaige (Amphibia, Salientia, Hylidae) in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1969-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In a recent paper, Lynch & Freeman (1966) discussed the systematic position of a small hylid frog, Allophryne ruthveni, described in 1926 by Gaige from British Guiana. They tentatively placed it in the family Hylidae, because it shows a better agreement with that family than with any

  20. Pseudophilautus dilmah, a new species of shrub frog (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from a threatened habitat Loolkandura in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Mendis Wickramasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Pseudophilautus dilmah is described from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka.  This unique species is distinguished from all the other congeners from a combination of characters; snout rounded in lateral aspect, bluntly pointed in dorsal and ventral aspect, canthus rostralis rounded, vomerine teeth, lingual papilla and nuptial pads absent, dermal fringe distinct on inside of fingers III and IV, small blunt tubercles on metacarpal and ulnar folds, toes basally webbed, interorbital area smooth, upper eyelid prominent tubercles present, anterior and posterior dorsum without horny spinules but tubercles present, upper part of flank weakly granular, supratympanic fold distinct, prominent small calcar present at the distal end of the tibia, throat granular, chest and belly coarsely granular.  Based on comparison of 16s rRNA gene we also show that the species is genetically distinct from other members of Pseudophilautus for which gene sequences are available.  The high rate of deforestation and anthropogenic activities threaten this population in its natural habitat. 

  1. A striking new genus and species of cave-dwelling frog (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatmongkon Suwannapoom

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA–16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning. Phylogenetic analyses place the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Gastrophrynoides, the only member of the subfamily known from Sundaland. The new genus markedly differs from all other Asterophryinae members by a number of diagnostic morphological characters and demonstrates significant mtDNA sequence divergence. We provide a preliminary description of a tadpole of the new genus. Thus, it represents the only asterophryine taxon with documented free-living larval stage and troglophilous life style. Our work demonstrates that S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. represents an old lineage of the initial radiation of Asterophryinae which took place in the mainland Southeast Asia. Our results strongly support the “out of Indo-Eurasia” biogeographic scenario for this group of frogs. To date, the new frog is only known from a single limestone cave system in Sai Yok District of Kanchanaburi Province of Thailand; its habitat is affected by illegal bat guano mining and other human activities. As such, S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. is likely to be at high risk of habitat loss. Considering high ecological specialization and a small known range of the new taxon, we propose a IUCN Red List status of endangered for it.

  2. New site record of Ichthyophis kodaguensis Wilkinson et al., 2007 (Amphibia: Ichthyophiidae in the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bhatta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Western Ghats, caecilian diversity is known by 23 species with the latest inclusion of Ichthyophis kodaguensis Wilkinson et al., from Coorg in 2007. Subsequently another new site was recorded 30km north of type locality. In the present paper the species was recorded from one more new locality further 125km north of type locality and two more specimens are added to the National Depository of Zoological Survey of India, WGRC, Calicut.

  3. Surinam Caecilians, with notes on Rhinatrema Bivittatum and the description of a new species of Microcaecilia (Amphibia, Gymnophiona)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nussbaum, R.A.; Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper we list seven species of caecilians known to occur in Surinam. An eighth species, the aquatic Typhlonectes compressicaudus, is likely to be found in Surinam, but there are no voucher specimens. We report the rediscovery of the rare Rhinatrema bivittatum, now known from four specimens,

  4. The type localities of Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 (Sauria: Iguania: Dactyloidae) and Pristimantis appendiculatus (Werner, 1894) (Amphibia: Anura: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F

    2017-01-04

    The eminent Austrian zoologist Franz Werner described several new species of amphibians and reptiles from America, including Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 and Hylodes appendiculatus Werner, 1894. Both species were described based on single specimens, with no more specific type localities than "Ecuador" (Werner 1894a,b). After its description, A. aequatorialis remained unreported until Peters (1967) and Fitch et al. (1976) published information on its distribution and natural history. Anolis aequatorialis is currently known to inhabit low montane and cloud forest on the western slopes of the Andes from extreme southern Colombia to central Ecuador, between 1300 and 2300 m elevation (Ayala-Varela & Velasco 2010; Ayala-Varela et al. 2014; Lynch et al. 2014; D.F. Cisneros-Heredia pers. obs.). Likewise, Hylodes appendiculatus (now Pristimantis appendiculatus) remained only known from its type description until Lynch (1971) and Miyata (1980) provided certain localities and information on its natural history. Pristimantis appendiculatus is currently known to occur in low montane, cloud, and high montane forests on the western slopes of the Andes from extreme southern Colombia to northern Ecuador between 1460 and 2800 m elevation (Lynch 1971; Miyata 1980; Lynch & Burrowes 1990; Lynch & Duellman 1997; Frost 2016). To this date, the type localities of both species remain obscure. The purpose of this paper is to restrict the type localities of Hylodes appendiculatus Werner, 1894 and Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 based on analyses of the travel journals of their original collector.

  5. A new species of the highland frog genus Holoaden (Amphibia, Strabomantidae) from cloud forests of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Itamar A; Zaher, Hussam

    2013-01-04

    A new species of the genus Holoaden is described from the Atlantic forest of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, being restricted to primary or slightly disturbed high altitude cloud forests along the northeastern portion of the Serra do Mar. The typelocality is determined as Estação Ecológica de Bananal, in the Municipality of Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The new species is characterized by its moderate body size (female 42.6-44.2 mm SVL; male 37.2-38.5 mm SVL) with long and slender limbs, a head wider than long, a highly glandular dorsum, covered by well developed macroglands that extend to the internasal region, thigh and tibia, and an intense dark brown dorsal coloration and dark grey ventral surface.

  6. Distribution and morphological variation of Eleutherodactylus mercedesae Lynch & McDiarmid, 1987 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae) with first record for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, J.M.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    We report new distributional information for Eleutherodactylus mercedesae in Bolivia, and provide the first record for Peru based on an adult female. This species, previously endemic to Bolivia, now ranges across about 1000 km in cloud forests on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes from southern Peru to central Bolivia. We provide the first morphological description of females based on two specimens, compare them with the male type and paratype, add some observations to the original description, and comment on variation in the species.

  7. The first teresomatan caecilian (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) from the Eastern Ghats of India--a new species of Gegeneophis Peters, 1880.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ishan; Wilkinson, Mark; Mohapatra, Pratyush P; Dutta, Sushil K; Giri, Varad B; Gower, David J

    2013-01-01

    A new species of caecilian amphibian, Gegeneophis orientalis sp. nov., is described based on a series of nine specimens from high elevation (ca. 1,200 m) habitats in the Eastern Ghats in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha, India. This species differs from all other congeners in having only bicuspid teeth in the outer as well as inner rows. The new species is the first caecilian reported from the state of Odisha, the first teresomatan caecilian from the Eastern Ghats, and is the only Indian indotyphlid known from outside the Western Ghats region.

  8. Morphology, Molecular Genetics, and Bioacoustics Support Two New Sympatric Xenophrys Toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingyong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Jianhuan; Zhou, Zhixin; Chen, Guoling; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we discovered two undescribed Xenophrys species, namely Xenophrys lini sp. nov. and Xenophrys cheni sp. nov. from the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains, southeast China. These two new species can be reliably distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and morphometric differences, distinctness in male advertisement calls, and substantial genetic distances (>3.6%) based on the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rRNA genes. The two new species, together with X. jinggangensis, are sympatric in the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains but may be isolated altitudinally and ecologically. Our study provides a first step to help resolve previously unrecognized cryptic biodiversity and provides insights into the understanding of Xenophrys diversification in the mountain complexes of southeast China. PMID:24714161

  9. A new species of skin-feeding caecilian and the first report of reproductive mode in Microcaecilia (amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wilkinson

    Full Text Available A new species of siphonopid caecilian, Microcaecilia dermatophagasp. nov., is described based on nine specimens from French Guiana. The new species is the first new caecilian to be described from French Guiana for more than 150 years. It differs from all other Microcaecilia in having fewer secondary annular grooves and/or in lacking a transverse groove on the dorsum of the first collar. Observations of oviparity and of extended parental care in M. dermatophaga are the first reproductive mode data for any species of the genus. Microcaecilia dermatophaga is the third species, and represents the third genus, for which there has been direct observation of young animals feeding on the skin of their attending mother. The species is named for this maternal dermatophagy, which is hypothesised to be characteristic of the Siphonopidae.

  10. A new species of skin-feeding caecilian and the first report of reproductive mode in Microcaecilia (amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Sherratt, Emma; Starace, Fausto; Gower, David J

    2013-01-01

    A new species of siphonopid caecilian, Microcaecilia dermatophagasp. nov., is described based on nine specimens from French Guiana. The new species is the first new caecilian to be described from French Guiana for more than 150 years. It differs from all other Microcaecilia in having fewer secondary annular grooves and/or in lacking a transverse groove on the dorsum of the first collar. Observations of oviparity and of extended parental care in M. dermatophaga are the first reproductive mode data for any species of the genus. Microcaecilia dermatophaga is the third species, and represents the third genus, for which there has been direct observation of young animals feeding on the skin of their attending mother. The species is named for this maternal dermatophagy, which is hypothesised to be characteristic of the Siphonopidae.

  11. Conservation genetics of evolutionary lineages of the endangered mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa (Amphibia: Ranidae), in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Sean D.; Tustall, Tate S.; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Severe population declines led to the listing of southern California Rana muscosa (Ranidae) as endangered in 2002. Nine small populations inhabit watersheds in three isolated mountain ranges, the San Gabriel, San Bernardino and San Jacinto. One population from the Dark Canyon tributary in the San Jacinto Mountains has been used to establish a captive breeding population at the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. Because these populations may still be declining, it is critical to gather information on how genetic variation is structured in these populations and what historical inter-population connectivity existed between populations. Additionally, it is not clear whether these populations are rapidly losing genetic diversity due to population bottlenecks. Using mitochondrial and microsatellite data, we examine patterns of genetic variation in southern California and one of the last remaining populations of R. muscosa in the southern Sierra Nevada. We find low levels of genetic variation within each population and evidence of genetic bottlenecks. Additionally, substantial population structure is evident, suggesting a high degree of historical isolation within and between mountain ranges. Based on estimates from a multi-population isolation with migration analysis, these populations diversified during glacial episodes of the Pleistocene, with little gene flow during population divergence. Our data demonstrate that unique evolutionary lineages of R. muscosa occupy each mountain range in southern California and should be managed separately. The captive breeding program at Dark Canyon is promising, although mitigating the loss of neutral genetic diversity relative to the natural population might require additional breeding frogs.

  12. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Birgitte M; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jespersen, Åse

    2010-01-01

    Background Three kidney systems appear during vertebrate development: the pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. The pronephric duct is the first or primary ureter of these kidney systems. Its role as a key player in the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme is well established. Here we investiga...

  13. Distribution of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the caecilian Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona): comparative aspects in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jesús M; Moreno, Nerea; Morona, Ruth; Muñoz, Margarita; Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín

    2007-03-20

    The organization of the somatostatin-like-immunoreactive (SOM-ir) structures in the brain of anuran and urodele amphibians has been well documented, and significant differences were noted between the two amphibian orders. However, comparable data are not available for the third order of amphibians, the gymnophionans (caecilians). In the present study, we analyzed the anatomical distribution of SOM-ir cells and fibers in the brain of the gymnophionan Dermophis mexicanus. In addition, because of its known relationship with catecholamines in other vertebrates, double immunostaining for SOM and tyrosine hydroxylase was used to investigate this situation in the gymnophionan. Abundant SOM-ir cell bodies and fibers were widely distributed throughout the brain. In the telencephalon, pallial and subpallial cells were labeled, being most numerous in the medial pallium and amygdaloid region. Most of the SOM-ir neurons were found in the preoptic area and hypothalamus and showed a clear projection to the median eminence. Less conspicuously, SOM-ir structures were found in the thalamus, tectum, tegmentum, and reticular formation. Both SOM-ir cells and fibers were demonstrated in the spinal cord. The double-immunohistofluorescence technique revealed that catecholaminergic neurons and SOM-ir cells are largely intermingled in many brain regions but form totally separated populations. Many differences were found between the distribution of SOM-ir structures in Dermophis and that in anurans or urodeles. Some features were shared only with anurans, such as the abundant pallial SOM-ir cells, whereas others were common only to urodeles, such as the organization of the hypothalamohypophysial SOM-ir system. In addition, some characteristics were found only in Dermophis, such as the localization of the SOM-ir spinal cells and the lack of colocalization of catecholamines and SOM throughout the brain. Therefore, any conclusions concerning the SOM system in amphibians are incomplete without considering evidence for gymnophionans. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Systematics of the caecilian family Chikilidae (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) with the description of three new species of Chikila from northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Rachunliu G; Gower, David J; Wilkinson, Mark; Biju, S D

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic review of the monogeneric northeast Indian caecilian family Chikilidae is presented based on 64 specimens. Chikila fuilleri (Alcock, 1904), known previously only from a single specimen collected more than 100 years ago, is rediagnosed and characterised based on recent collections. We describe three additional species new to science, Chikila alcocki sp. nov., Chikila darlong sp. nov., and Chikila gaiduwani sp. nov. This species-level taxonomy is consistent with mitochondrial DNA sequence data. A key to the species of Chikila is presented.

  15. The effects of low-dose irradiation on the development of amphibia. Auswirkungen schwacher Strahlendosen auf die Entwicklung von Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloft, W.J.; Giannetti, M.; Gruschwitz, M.; Strick, H.; Urmetz, S.

    1990-01-01

    During the first phase of the study, which lasted from 1983 until 1985, attention was focused on changes in the the general development of Bufo bufo and, to permit more detailed appraisal, those in the formation of the visual and nervous systems that occurred as a result of exposure to cobalt-60. Starting out from the observations and experiences made during the initial study period further research work was carried out between 1986 and 1989 to develop a bioindicator model in Xenopus laevis that leads to reliable, rapid and specific results in the detection of harmful radioactive substances. These are obtained on the basis of biochemical, haematologic and serologic methods of investigation. (orig./MG).

  16. First record of the tree-frog genus Chiromantis from Borneo with the description of a new species (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Shimada, Tomohiko; Sudin, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    We record a tree frog of the genus Chiromantis for the first time from outside the Southeast Asian continent and describe it as a new species, Chiromantis inexpectatus. The new species from the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo, is a small-sized Chiromantis (male snout-vent length ca. 22 mm), and is distinguished from all other members of the genus by the combination of the following morphological characteristics: dark stripes absent, but dark spots present on dorsum; a dark-brown lateral band present from snout tip to half of body, bordered ventrally by white stripe; third and fourth fingers less than half webbed; third finger disk wider than tympanum diameter; and inner metatarsal tubercle present. Significance of findings of this species from Borneo Island, as well as phylogeny and breeding habit of the genus Chiromantis, are briefly discussed.

  17. Paulanoblella , nomen novum (Radiolaria) replaces Noblella Kozur, Mostler & Repetski, 1996, a homonym of Noblella Barbour, 1930 (Amphibia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozur, H.W.; Repetski, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Kozur et al . (1996) reported and described some well-preserved Lower Ordovician (Tremadocian) Radiolariafrom central Nevada and established several new taxa, among them a new genus Noblella , assigned to the Family Protoentactiniidae Kozur, Mostler & Repetski, 1996. Dr J. K. Page kindly informed us that the genus Noblella already was established for an amphibian genus, Family Brachycephalidae, type species N. peruviana (Noble), byBarbour (1930; p. 81). Therefore, the genus name Noblella Kozur, Mostler & Repetski, 1996 non! NoblellaBarbour, 1930, is invalid because of homonymy. We here replace this junior homonym with Paulanoblella Kozur & Repetski, nomennovum.

  18. Apoptosis, proliferation and presence of estradiol receptors in the testes and Bidder's organ of the toad Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaia, María Florencia; Czuchlej, Silvia Cristina; Cervino, Nadia; Ceballos, Nora Raquel

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic equilibrium between spermatogonial proliferation and testicular apoptosis determines the progression of spermatogenesis in amphibians. Estrogens and their receptors play a central role in regulating spermatogenesis in vertebrates, and in some species of anurans, estradiol (E2 ) is involved in the regulation of spermatogonial proliferation and apoptosis of germ cells. Bidder's organ (BO) is a structure characteristic of Bufonidae that has historically been compared to an undeveloped ovary. In adult Rhinella arenarum males, BO is one of the main sources of plasma E2 . The aim of this study was 1) to describe the seasonal variations in testicular apoptosis, spermatogonial proliferation, and cellular proliferation in BO; and 2) to analyze the presence and localization of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in the testes and BO of R. arenarum. Testicular fragments and BOs from animals collected during the year were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and BrdU incorporation was determined using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis in testicular sections was detected using the TUNEL method, and ERβ localization was assessed using immunohistochemistry in testes and BOs. The results indicate that spermatogonial proliferation is highest during the reproductive season and that cysts of spermatocytes and spermatids undergo apoptosis during the postreproductive season. Furthermore, the proliferation of follicular cells is highest during the reproductive and postreproductive seasons. ERβ was primarily detected by immunolocalization in Sertoli cells, follicular cells, and oocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that cysts that do not form spermatozoa are removed from testes by apoptosis and that estrogens regulate both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in adult males of R. arenarum. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Patterns of Apoptosis and Proliferation throughout the Biennial Reproductive Cycle of Viviparous Female Typhlonectes compressicauda (Amphibia, Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raquet, Michel; Brun, Claire; Exbrayat, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-22

    Typhlonectes compressicauda is an aquatic gymnophionan amphibian living in South America. Its breeding cycle is linked to seasons, characterized by a regular alternation of rainy and dry seasons. During a complex biennial cycle, the female genital tract undergoes a series of alternations of increasing and decreasing, governed by equilibrium of proliferation and apoptotic phenomena. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize cell proliferation with the detection of Ki67 antibody, a protein present in proliferative cells; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Apostain were performed to detect apoptotic cells on sections of ovaries and oviducts. In ovaries, both phenomena affect the germinal nests and follicles according to the cycle period. In the oviduct, the balance was in favor of proliferation during preparation for reproduction, and in favor of apoptosis when genital ducts regress. Apoptosis and proliferation are narrowly implicated in the remodeling of the genital tract and they are accompanied by the differentiation of tissues according to the phase of the breeding cycle. These variations permit the capture of oocytes at ovulation, always at the same period, and the parturition after 6-7 months of gestation, at a period in which the newborns live with their mother, protected in burrows in the mud. During the intervening year of sexual inactivity, the female reconstitutes body reserves.

  20. Body size, reproduction and feeding ecology of Pleurodema diplolister (Amphibia: Anura: Leiuperidae from Caatinga, Pernambuco state, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme G. Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present data about body size, sexual dimorphism, reproductive traits and diet ecology of Pleurodoma diplolister. This species is sexually dimorphic with females larger than males, corroborating others Leiuperidae species. The number of eggs varied from 62 to 1241 and we found a positive relationship between SVL of females and number of mature ovarian eggs but there is no relationship between SVL and volume of eggs. The diet of P. diplolister was composed by 11 categories of which Formicidae, Coleoptera and Orthopterans were the most important items and showed generalist and oportunistic predator habits. Data presented here should be considered in the development of future conservation strategies of anurans from Caatinga biome and other semiarid/arid environments.

  1. A new species of Indian caecilian highlights challenges for species delimitation within Gegeneophis Peters, 1879 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Indotyphlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotharambath, Ramachandran; Wilkinson, Mark; Oommen, Oommen V; Gower, David J

    2015-04-20

    A new species of indotyphlid caecilian amphibian, Gegeneophis tejaswini sp. nov., is described based on eight specimens from lowlands of the most northerly district of the state of Kerala in the southern part of the Western Ghats region, India. This species is distinguished from all other Gegeneophis in annulation characters and genetics (> 6% different from most similar nominal species for 883 base pairs of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA gene sequence data). The high degree of morphological similarity of G. krishni, G. mhadeiensis and the new species underlines that, for some Gegeneophis, larger samples and/or new characters will be needed to further advance the taxonomy of this genus.

  2. Confocal imaging of autonomic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord of the caecilian Typhlonectes natans (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Daniele; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Capillo, Gioele; Zuwała, Krystyna; Budzik, Karolina Agata; Kuciel, Michał; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the spinal sympathetic organization in the caecilian amphibians. We examined for the first time the location of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the spinal cord using a panel of specific markers expressed in SPNs. The SPNs of anuran amphibians form two cell columns segregated mainly in the lateral and medial marginal areas of the central gray matter. In the caecilian Typhlonectes natans immunoreactivity for galanin and ChAT is found in most laterally arranged neurons lying in spinal segments 2-7. They are encircled by TH- and nNOS-immunoreactive nerve fibers. These neurons might project specifically to a population of adrenergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons in paravertebral ganglia and/or non-adrenergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the celiac ganglia. However the segmental restriction and target specificity of the neurons of the species studied are not known. As mucous and granular glands in the dermis may represent one of the peripheral targets of the adrenergic ganglion cells and reflect the prominent preganglionic cell columns, an immunohistochemical study was done also on these glands. Retrograde-tracing studies are, however, needed to study the segmental localization of the preganglionic neurons and their projections to the postganglionic neurons in sympathetic ganglia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8-26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female.

  4. Hyperossification in miniaturized toadlets of the genus Brachycephalus (Amphibia: Anura: Brachycephalidae): Microscopic structure and macroscopic patterns of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Carvalho, Rute B G; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Carlos; Haddad, Célio F B; Alves, Ana C R; Rocha, Henrique S; Pereira, Gabriela R; Oliveira, Davi F; Lopes, Ricardo T; Dos Reis, Sergio F

    2009-11-01

    Species of the genus Brachycephalus, have a snout-vent length of less than 18 mm and are believed to have evolved through miniaturization. Brachycephalus ephippium, is particularly interesting; because its entire skull is hyperossified, and the presacral vertebrae and transverse processes are covered by a dorsal shield. We demonstrate in this paper that, at the macroscopic level, a completely hyperossified skull and dorsal shield occur only in B. ephippium, but not in B. ferruginus, B. izechsohni, B. pernix, B. pombali, B. brunneus, B. didactylus, and B. hermogenesi. An intermediate condition, in which the skull is hyperossified but a dorsal shield is absent, occurs in B. vertebralis, B. nodoterga, B. pitanga, and B. alipioi. The microscopic structure of hyperossification was examined in skulls of B. ephippium and B. pitanga, revealing a complex organization involving the presence of Sharpey fibers, which in humans are characteristic of periodontal connections.

  5. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registeredin a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographicaldistribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  6. Mollusca, Hirudinea, and Amphibia biogeography and paleobiology in Tule Valley and adjacent regions of Bonneville Basin, western USA [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mollusk, leeches (Hirudinea), and amphibian distribution are described for Tule Valley and adjacent Snake Valley and Fish Springs Flat, Tule Valley aquatic resources...

  7. First fossil evidence of Connaraceae R. Br. from Indian Cenozoic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the first authentic record of the occurrence of leaflet comparable to R. caudata of Connaraceae from the Cenozoic sediments of India and abroad. At present R. caudata does not grow in India and is restricted only in southeast Asia especially in China and Myanmar. This taxon probably migrated to these southeast ...

  8. How the Brain Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    olfactory lobe in amphibia and fits like a cap over the thalamus. The inner part, the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus. and some...afferent To the receiving neuron, the synapse is afferent. amphibia A class of vertebrates, intermediate between fishes and reptiles. amygdala Nucleus...Posterior lobe of cerebral hemisphere. olfaction Sense of smell. olfactory lobe The internet for smell in amphibia ; becomes the olfactory bulb and the

  9. The fossil vertebrates of Ksâr'akil, a palaeolithic rock shelter in the Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1961-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 4 Systematic part.................. 5 Pisces.................... 5 Amphibia................... 6 Hyla arborea (L.) subsp............... 6 Reptilia................... 6 Testudo spec.................. 6 Ophisaurus apodus (Pallas).............. 8 Chamaeleo

  10. A new genus and species of Brachycoeliidae (Digenea) from Chiropterotriton sp. (Caudata: Plethodontidae) in Mexico and its phylogenetic position within the Plagiorchiida based on partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, G Pérez-Ponce; Mendoza-Garfias, B; Razo-Mendivil, U; Parra-Olea, G

    2011-02-01

    Parabrachycoelium longicaecum n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Brachycoeliidae) is described from the intestine of a plethodontid salamander Chiropterotriton sp. Hosts were collected in bromeliads at the cloud forest of Tlaquilpa, Veracruz, Mexico. Members of the Brachycoeliidae Looss, 1899 (sensu Yamaguti, 1971) are characterized by having a spined tegument; ceca usually short, not passing level of gonads, but longer in some species; gonads posterior to, or in region of, acetabulum, with ovary anterior to testes; a well developed cirrus pouch containing a bipartite seminal vesicle; and uterus occupying entire hind-body posterior to testes. However, this combination of morphological traits prevents the inclusion of the new taxon in any of the genera in that family; a new genus was, therefore, erected to accommodate the new species. The new taxon is readily distinguished from members belonging to Brachycoelium Dujardin, 1845, Mesocoelium Odhner, 1910, and Tremiorchis Mehra and Negi, 1925, by having long ceca extending into the posterior third of the body, slightly surpassing the testes, and vitellaria extending along the body. The new species morphologically resembles Caudouterina rhyacotritoni Martin, 1966, a digenean parasitizing a plethodontid salamander; however, the latter species lacks spines in the tegument and is actually placed within the Allocreadiidae. To demonstrate further the phylogenetic position of the new taxon, we sequenced the D1-D3 regions of 28S rRNA gene and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of available sequences for the order to which brachycoeliids belong (Plagiorchiida). Sequence divergence of the partial 28S rRNA gene confirms its distinction from the aforementioned brachycoeliids, and the phylogenetic position within the Plagiorchiida places the new species as closely related to a clade formed by Brachycoelium + Mesocoelium. Divergence levels and phylogenetic position within the Plagiorchiida verifies the validity of the new genus and its inclusion in Brachycoeliidae.

  11. A Study on the Feasibility of Creating a Web-Accessible Marine Mammal Sound Library Based upon the Collections at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    caused by a nearby ship. Some Physeter clicking throughout recording. 64119 Ambient; Amphibia 12/9/1964 Bligh Sound, New Zealand S45 E167 2 08...are visible. Much reverb. 60024 Amphibia ; Fish, sensu lato; Insecta //1960 Various unknown unknown 1 24:02.884 7 Low ambient recording

  12. Studies on the Effects of Anticholinesterase Compounds on Functions of Neuroglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    central nervous system of amphibia . J. Neurophysiol. 29:768-787. 7. Orkand. R.K.. Nicholls,. J.G. and Kuffler. S.W. (1966) Effect of nerve impulses...on the membrane potential of glial cells in the central nervous system of Amphibia . J. Neurophysiol. 29t788-806. 8. Paulson, O.B. and Newman. S.A

  13. Polystomatidae (Monogenea) parasitic in the anuran genus Kassina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHANNING, A. 1976. Pre-mating isolation in the genus Kassina. (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae) in southern Africa. J. Herpetol. 10: 19-23. CHINA, W.E. & MELVILLE, K.V. 1968. Kassina Girard 1853. (Amphibia) grant under plenary powers of precedence over. Hylambates. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 25: 20-21.

  14. Economics of Landmines and Demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Country of Operation 1 AMPHIBIA IO Awareness Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia 2 European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO) IO Humanitarian Coordination...Algeria, Angola 2 Albanian Development Fund Other Awareness Albania 3 AMPHIBIA Ltd. Other Awareness Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia 4 Disaster Reduction

  15. Psychophysical, Biochemical and Histological Studies of Spectrally Selective Photic Damage to Primate Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-25

    opponent type neural inhibition exists in rhesus, as in fish and amphibia , in the outer-plexiform layer of the retina, since it is detectable in the late... amphibia , are found in the cones themselves, because the a-wave is produced in the photoreceptors (see Brown, 1968). They undoubtedly result from cone to

  16. Plant tissues in 3D via X-ray tomography: simple contrasting methods allow high resolution imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Staedler, Yannick M; Masson, David; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    .... More efficient protocols to study plant material are therefore needed. Flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana and Marcgravia caudata were immersed in a selection of contrasting agents used to treat samples for transmission electron microscopy...

  17. Resurrection and re-description of Plethodontohyla laevis (Boettger, 1913 and transfer of Rhombophryne alluaudi (Mocquard, 1901 to the genus Plethodontohyla (Amphibia, Microhylidae, Cophylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bellati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The systematics of the cophyline microhylid frog genera Plethodontohyla and Rhombophryne have long been intertwined, and their relationships have only recently started to become clear. While Rhombophryne has received a lot of recent taxonomic attention, Plethodontohyla has been largely neglected. Our study is a showcase of just how complex the taxonomic situation between these two genera is, and the care that must be taken to resolve taxonomic conundrums where old material, multiple genus transitions, and misattribution of new material obfuscate the picture. We assessed the identity of the historic names Dyscophus alluaudi (currently in the genus Rhombophryne, Phrynocara laeve and Plethodontohyla laevis tsianovohensis (both synonyms of Rhombophryne alluaudi based on an integrative taxonomic approach harnessing genetics, external morphology, osteological data obtained via micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT and bioacoustics. We show that (1 the holotype of Dyscophus alluaudi is a member of the genus Plethodontohyla; (2 the Rhombophryne specimens from central Madagascar currently assigned to Rhombophryne alluaudi have no affinity with that species, and are instead an undescribed species; and (3 Phrynocara laeve and Dyscophus alluaudi are not synonymous, but represent closely related species, whereas Plethodontohyla laevis tsianovohensis is tentatively confirmed as synonym of D. alluaudi. We resurrect and re-describe Plethodontohyla laevis, and re-allocate and re-describe Plethodontohyla alluaudi on the basis of new and historic material.

  18. REPARTICIÓN DE MICROHABITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGION CARIBE-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gómez Maria Argenis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la repartición de microhabitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe Colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhabitats. Los más usado fueron charco de agua Permanente de potreros con arboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhabitats usó fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhabitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existe repartición de microhabitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca. En el periodo de lluvias este mecanismo no se aplicó.

  19. A new genus of Toads (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from the Pacific Slopes of the Andes in Northern Ecuador and Southern Colombia, with the description of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The genus Andinophryne, characterized by the presence of an omosternum, an externally visible tympanum, elongate parotoids and extensively webbed hands and feet is described from the Pacific versant of the Andes in northwestern Ecuador and southwestern Colombia. Two new species, Andinophryne colomai

  20. New fossil record of Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura in the Late Pleistocene-early Holocene of northeastern Brazil and its paleoenvironmental significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Ismael de Araújo-Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the first occurrence of anurans in the Quaternary fossil record of Rio Grande do Norte State. The specimen UERN PV-50 was assigned to the bufonid Rhinella jimi. This finding extends the geographic distribution of this species in the northeastern Brazil during the Late Pleistocene-early Holocene. In paleoenvironmental terms, the occurrence of R. jimi in Riacho Verde paleontological site suggests an arid climate with marked seasonality in that area during the Late Pleistocene-early Holocene and that the paleobiodiversity in that region was higher than the observed in the fossil record. Furthermore, the tanks seem to have been areas of aggregating anurans during raining periods. Finally, based on sedimentological and biostratinomic data, we interpret that Riacho Verde paleontological site preserved a peripheral assemblage.

  1. Chloromyxum aegypticus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Chloromyxidae) infecting the testicular tissue of the Egyptian toad, Bufo regularis (Amphibia: Bufonidae), and its pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Enayat Salem Ahmed

    2010-11-01

    A new myxosporean, Chloromyxum aegypticus n. sp., is described from the testes of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis, captured from El Mansoura locality. C. aegypticus is identified on the basis of cytology, electron microscopy and histopathology. It is distinguished from all previously reported Chloromyxum spp. by its shape, dimensions of the mature spore (9.1 ± 0.1 (9.0-9.2) μm in length  × 7.9 ± 0.1 (7.8-8.0) μm in width), polar capsules, external ridge, sporoplasm nuclei, undulating suture, locality and host. Accumulation of several hundreds of plasmodia (0.8 ± 0.3 (0.5-1.1) mm in length × 0.5 ± 0.3 (0.2-0.7) mm in width) in the testes causes their enlargement. Parasites cause destruction of the seminiferous tubule cells and complete loss of spermatozoa. Since spermatogenesis stops, this seems to be a form of "parasitic castration". This is the first known record of the genus Chloromyxum in amphibian testes.

  2. Tres nuevas especies del género Atelopus a.m.c. Dumeril & bibron 1841 (Amphibia: Bufonidae de las partes altas de la Cordillera Oriental Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorno Muñoz Mariela

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se nominan y describen tres nuevas especies de Atelopus del grupo ignescens (sensu Lynch 1993 de las partes altas, en páramos y bosques nublados, de la Cordillera Oriental colombiana.Tree new species of the genus Atelopus ignescens (sensu Lynch 1993 group are named and described from the high altitudes ofthe cloud forest and paramos of the colombian Cordillera Oriental.

  3. Designation and description of a neotype of Sclerophrys maculata (Hallowell, 1854), and reinstatement of S. pusilla (Mertens, 1937) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, John C; Loader, Simon P; Conradie, Werner; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Liedtke, H Christoph

    2016-04-05

    Molecular analysis indicates that African material previously referred to Amietophrynus maculatus (Hallowell, 1854; now Sclerophrys maculata), is divisible into two distinct clades: a Western Clade from Cameroon westwards and an Eastern Clade from Central African Republic eastwards, and Uganda southwards to South Africa, extending to Angola-Namibia. Preliminary morphological and bioacoustic data support this division. The two clades are recognised here as two separate species. The Western species retains the name S. maculata, with Hallowell's designated type locality of Liberia. The Eastern Clade retains the name published by Mertens (1937), S. pusilla. It is noted that a type specimen of S. maculata cannot be traced and is presumed lost; the so-called syntypes in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences are not the material described by Hallowell. None of these have been designated as a neotype, consequently a specimen from Liberia in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London, is designated here as the neotype of S. maculata.

  4. Taxonomic relationships of Ansonia anotis Inger, Tan, and Yambun, 2001 and Pedostibes maculatus (Mocquard, 1890), with a description of a new genus (Amphibia, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Yambun, Paul; Sudin, Ahmad

    2007-11-01

    Examination of types and recently collected specimens revealed that Ansonia anotis Inger, Tan, and Yambun, 2001 and Pedostibes maculatus (Mocquard, 1890), both described from Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, are hardly differentiated morphologically. Analyses of a total of 2,427 bp of the 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S mitochondrial rRNA genes revealed that the two species are very close genetically. Thus A. anotis is regarded as conspecific and is synonymized with P. maculatus. Genetically, this species proved to form a lineage distinct from other bufonids from Southeast Asia, including species of Ansonia and Pedostibes. Because the species has also some unique morphological traits different from known bufonid genera, we propose to establish a new genus for Nectophryne maculata Mocquard, 1890.

  5. Adaptations of the reed frog Hyperolius viridiflavus (Amphibia: Anura: Hyperoliidae) to its arid environment. VI. The iridophores in the skin as radiation reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, F; Linsenmair, K E

    1992-01-01

    Hyperolius viridiflavus possesses one complete layer of iridophores in the stratum spongiosum of its skin at about 8 days after metamorphosis. The high reflectance of this thin layer is almost certainly the result of multilayer interference reflection. In order to reflect a mean of about 35% of the incident radiation across a spectrum of 300-2900 nm only 30 layers of well-arranged crystals are required, resulting in a layer 10.5 microns thick. These theoretical values are in good agreement with the actual mean diameter of single iridophores (15.0 +/- 3.0 microns), the number of stacked platelets (40-100) and the measured reflectance of one complete layer of these cells (32.2 +/- 2.3%). Iridescence colours typical of multilayer interference reflectors were seen after severe dehydration. The skin colour turned from white (0-10% weight loss) through a copper-like iridescence (10-25% weight loss) to green iridescence (25-42%). In dry season state, H. viridiflavus needs a much higher reflectance to cope with the problems of high solar radiation load during long periods with severe dehydration stress. Dry-adapted skin contains about 4-6 layers of iridophores. The measured reflectance (up to 60% across the solar spectrum) of this thick layer (over 60 microns) is not in keeping with the results obtained by applying the multilayer interference theory. Light, scattered independently of wavelength from disordered crystals, superimposes on the multilayer-induced spectral reflectance. The initial parallel shift of the multilayer curves with increasing thickness and the almost constant ("white") reflectance of layers exceeding 60 microns clearly point to a changing physical basis with increasing layer thickness.

  6. Cytogenetic analyses of eight species in the genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), including a new diploid number and a karyotype with multiple translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The karyotypes of Leptodactylus species usually consist of 22 bi-armed chromosomes, but morphological variations in some chromosomes and even differences in the 2n have been reported. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences, eight species were analysed using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including replication banding with BrdU incorporation. Results Distinct chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 22 in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. labyrinthicus, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, L. podicipinus, and L. rhodomystax; 2n = 20 in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus); and 2n = 24 in L. marmoratus. Among the species with 2n = 22, only three had the same basic karyotype. Leptodactylus pentadactylus presented multiple translocations, L. petersii displayed chromosome morphological discrepancy, and L. podicipinus had four pairs of telocentric chromosomes. Replication banding was crucial for characterising this variability and for explaining the reduced 2n in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus). Leptodactylus marmoratus had few chromosomes with a similar banding patterns to the 2n = 22 karyotypes. The majority of the species presented a single NOR-bearing pair, which was confirmed using Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe. In general, the NOR-bearing chromosomes corresponded to chromosome 8, but NORs were found on chromosome 3 or 4 in some species. Leptodactylus marmoratus had NORs on chromosome pairs 6 and 8. The data from C-banding, fluorochrome staining, and FISH using the telomeric probe helped in characterising the repetitive sequences. Even though hybridisation did occur on the chromosome ends, telomere-like repetitive sequences outside of the telomere region were identified. Metaphase I cells from L. pentadactylus confirmed its complex karyotype constitution because 12 chromosomes appeared as ring-shaped chain in addition to five bivalents. Conclusions Species of Leptodactylus exhibited both major and minor karyotypic differences which were identified by classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Replication banding, which is a unique procedure that has been used to obtain longitudinal multiple band patterns in amphibian chromosomes, allowed us to outline the general mechanisms responsible for these karyotype differences. The findings also suggested that L. marmoratus, which was formerly included in the genus Adenomera, may have undergone great chromosomal repatterning. PMID:23268622

  7. The choice of external morphological characters and developmental stages for tadpole-based anuran taxonomy: a case study in Rana (Sylvirana) nigrovittata (Blyth, 1855) (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grosjean, S.

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of tadpoles has long received too little attention in taxonomic and phylogenetic contexts, beyond the use of Orton’s general tadpole types, despite the potential of larval characters for resolving problems in systematics. A possible explanation for this neglect is the ontogenetic

  8. First evidence of the effects of agricultural activities on gonadal form and function in Rhinella fernandezae and Dendropsophus sanborni (Amphibia: Anura from Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Sanchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between male gonadal abnormalities and habitats with different degrees of agricultural activities was quantified in two anuran species, Rhinella fernandezae and Dendropsophus sanborni. The study sites were selected along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use in south-western Entre Ríos province (Argentina: an agroecosystem, a natural wetland (a non-agricultural site adjacent to monoculture zones, and a natural forest (not associated with agriculture. Rhinella fernandezae and D. sanborni were manually captured from each environment during field surveys. A scaled mass index (MI was evaluated for each animal. Specimens of R. fernandezae from the agroecosystem and the natural wetland site presented poorly developed seminiferous tubules, lower testicular volume, and a lower number of seminiferous tubules, primary spermatogonia, and spermatids than specimens from the natural forest site. Additionally, we observed fewer primary spermatocytes in the agroecosystem group than in the natural forest group. Individuals of D. sanborni from the agroecosystem and the natural wetland site presented poorly developed tubules, higher proportions of irregularly shaped testes, and a reduced number of primary and secondary spermatogonia compared with specimens from natural forest sites. Consequently, the affected anurans are likely to have reduced reproductive success. We suggest that agrochemical use may be associated with decreased testicular development and function in both R. fernandezae and D. sanborni occurring in agroecosystems and nearby environments. Buffer zones are needed to prevent contamination, preserve wildlife, and enhance the conservation value of pristine natural forests.

  9. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia) in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragno, Franciéle P; Santos, Tiago G; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  10. Amphibia, Anura, Strabomantidae, Strabomantis aramunha Cassimiro, Verdade and Rodrigues, 2008: Distribution extension with notes on natural history, color patterns, and morphometric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoli, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During surveys of anurans in the Chapada Diamantina, a semiarid region in central Bahia, Brazil, we obtainednew records of Strabomantis aramunha Cassimiro, Verdade and Rodrigues. The new records extend the geographicdistribution of S. aramunha in about 200 km north and 75 km south in relation to the type locality (municipality of Mucugê,state of Bahia, Brazil. We observed males calling at night at the Morro do Pai Inácio, municipality of Palmeiras. This newdata is important, as in the original description the authors suggested the possibility of absence of advertisement call in thespecies. We also provide additions on color and morphometric data.

  11. Observações sobre história natural de Zachaenus carvalhoi Izecksohn, 1983“1982” (Amphibia: Anura: Cycloramphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Zandomenico Zocca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos a densidade populacional, o comportamento parental e de defesa, aspectos da biologia reprodutiva e a estrutura do sítio de oviposição de Zachaenus carvalhoi. Amostramos 168 parcelas de 5x5 m, estabelecidas no interior florestal e nos três tipos de matrizes circundantes da Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi em Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo. A densidade populacional foi de 0,07 indivíduos/100 m2, representados por dois machos e uma fêmea, todos encontrados no interior da floresta. Um macho estava em repouso acima e o outro abaixo da camada de serrapilheira, enquanto a fêmea foi encontrada junto a 20 ovos em uma cavidade em meio a radículas e coberta por serrapilheira. A fêmea defendeu os ovos quando incomodada. Um macho encontrado inflou o corpo e exibiu reflexo parcial de Bombina como comportamentos defensivos. Essa espécie possui girinos endotróficos que completam o desenvolvimento dentro no ninho. Suspeitamos que Z. carvalhoi pode estar seriamente ameaçado em fragmentos florestais por possivelmente estar restrito às áreas florestais e pela baixa densidade populacional.

  12. Predator-prey interactions between Synbranchus marmoratus (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) and Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles (Amphibia: Hylidae): importance of lateral line in nocturnal predation and effects of fenitrothion exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junges, Celina M; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Peltzer, Paola M; Attademo, Andres M; Bassó, Agustín

    2010-11-01

    Environmental contaminants can disrupt interactions between aquatic species by altering community structure. We explored predator-prey interactions between marbled swamp juvenile eels (Synbranchus marmoratus; predator) and anuran tadpoles (Hypsiboas pulchellus; prey) in relation to two aspects: the importance of lateral line in the predator and whether the absence of light modifies predation rates; and the effect of a sub-lethal concentration of fenitrothion on both predator and prey. Eels were tested under two sensory conditions (lateral line intact and lateral line blocked by cobalt chloride) in dark conditions. Predation rates were evaluated using different treatments that combined predator and prey exposed or not to insecticide. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were also measured in muscle samples of eels and tadpoles to explore whether fenitrothion affects predator and prey differentially. Marbled swamp eels were more efficient in feeding on tadpoles during the night than during the day, showing that lateral line makes an important contribution to prey detection and capture. Regarding pesticide effects, short-term (6 h) exposure to an ecologically relevant fenitrothion dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) altered the predator-prey relationship by changing prey behaviour, reducing prey detection and therefore increasing tadpole survival. At this concentration, the outcome of the predator-prey relationship appears biased in favor of the exposed tadpoles, which were released from predation risk, despite their altered behaviour and the higher inhibition percentages of tail BChE (70%) and AChE (51%) than in control individuals. Our study involving these model species and agrochemicals demonstrates that fenitrothion affected the outcome of a predator-prey relationship. Further studies are needed, in these species and other native amphibians, to investigate the nature of the mechanisms responsible for the adverse effects of pesticides on antipredator behaviour and predation efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The advertisement call and comments on the distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus Bokermann, 1975, an endemic frog of Bahia State, Brazil (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; de Mira-Mendes, Caio Vinicius; Souza-Costa, Carlos Augusto; Juncá, Flora Acuña; Solé, Mirco

    2017-01-01

    Advertisement calls can be used to aid solving taxonomic problems and understanding the evolution of certain groups. In this study, the advertisement call of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus is described. It is composed by two different notes with a total duration of 0.529-4.241 seconds and dominant frequency of 1.72-3.45 kHz. Additionally, new data is provided on the geographical distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus and the most inland record for this species.

  14. REPARTICIÓN DE MICROHABITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGION CARIBE-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelina Blanco Torres

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la repartición de microhabitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe Colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhabitats. Los más usado fueron charco de agua Permanente de potreros con arboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhabitats usó fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhabitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existe repartición de microhabitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca. En el periodo de lluvias este mecanismo no se aplicó.

  15. Description of two new species of the genus Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) from Heishiding Nature Reserve, Fengkai, Guangdong, China, based on molecular and morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Long; Jin, Meng-Jie; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Zu-Yao; Wang, Ying-Yong; Pang, Hong

    2014-05-14

    Two new species, Megophrys acuta sp. nov. and Megophrys obesa sp. nov., are described based on a series of specimens collected from Heishiding Nature Reserve, Fengkai County, Guangdong Province, China. They can be distinguished from other known congeners occurred in southern and eastern China by morphological characters and molecular divergence in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. M. acuta is characterized by small and slender body with adult females measuring 28.1-33.6 mm and adult males measuring 27.1-33.0 mm in snout-vent length; snout pointed, strongly protruding well beyond margin of lower jaw; canthus rostralis well developed and sharp; hindlimbs short, the heels not meeting, tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward the pupil of eye. M. obesa is characterized by stout and slightly small body with adult females measuring 37.5-41.2 mm, adult male measuring 35.6 mm in snout-vent length; snout round in dorsal view; canthus rostralis developed; hindlimbs short, the heels not meeting, tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward the posterior margin of eye. The discovery of these two new species further confirms that the diversity of this genus has been significantly underestimated. At present the genus Megophrys contains 56 species of which 35 species are distributed in China.

  16. A new species of terrestrial-breeding frog (Amphibia, Craugastoridae, Pristimantis) from high elevations of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Edgar; von May, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings, Región Junín, central Peru. The description of the new species is based on 34 specimens found at elevations between 3400 and 3936 m a.s.l. Pristimantis attenboroughisp. n. is characterized by a snout-vent length of 14.6-19.2 mm in adult males (n = 21), 19.2-23.0 mm in adult females (n = 10), and is compared morphologically and genetically with other taxonomically and biogeographically relevant species of Pristimantis. The new species is characterized by having narrow digits that lack circumferential grooves, irregularly shaped, discontinuous dorsolateral folds, and absence of both tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. The high similarity in morphology between P. attenboroughisp. n. and members of the Andean genera Phrynopus and Bryophryne provides an example for convergent evolution, and highlights the importance of using molecular data to justify generic assignment. Pristimantis attenboroughisp. n. is most similar to Phrynopus chaparroi from the Región Junín, suggesting that the generic placement of this species needs to be revised. Phylogenetically the new species belongs to the Pristimantis danae species Group, a clade that includes several Pristimantis species distributed in the montane forests of central Peru, including P. albertus, P. aniptopalmatus, P. ornatus, and P. stictogaster.

  17. A new species of terrestrial-breeding frog (Amphibia, Craugastoridae, Pristimantis from high elevations of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Lehr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Pristimantis from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings, Región Junín, central Peru. The description of the new species is based on 34 specimens found at elevations between 3400 and 3936 m a.s.l. Pristimantis attenboroughi sp. n. is characterized by a snout–vent length of 14.6–19.2 mm in adult males (n = 21, 19.2–23.0 mm in adult females (n = 10, and is compared morphologically and genetically with other taxonomically and biogeographically relevant species of Pristimantis. The new species is characterized by having narrow digits that lack circumferential grooves, irregularly shaped, discontinuous dorsolateral folds, and absence of both tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. The high similarity in morphology between P. attenboroughi sp. n. and members of the Andean genera Phrynopus and Bryophryne provides an example for convergent evolution, and highlights the importance of using molecular data to justify generic assignment. Pristimantis attenboroughi sp. n. is most similar to Phrynopus chaparroi from the Región Junín, suggesting that the generic placement of this species needs to be revised. Phylogenetically the new species belongs to the Pristimantis danae species Group, a clade that includes several Pristimantis species distributed in the montane forests of central Peru, including P. albertus, P. aniptopalmatus, P. ornatus, and P. stictogaster.

  18. 3D bite modeling and feeding mechanics of the largest living amphibian, the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Fortuny

    Full Text Available Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their "conservative" morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints.

  19. Nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, meseta de la Dordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brito M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva, de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 21.7-24.9 mm; en machos 15.2-17.8 mm, de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis proveniente de la meseta de arenisca de la Cordillera del Cóndor, del sureste de Ecuador, con una elevacion de 2300 m. La nueva especie difiere de sus congéneres presentes en Ecuador por su patrón distintivo de coloración, superficie dorsal pardo ocráceo con numerosas manchas amarillentas, membrana timpánica presente, dedos pediales y manuales cortos y microhábitat exclusivo en bromelias terrestres. Las llamadas son largas, de frecuencia modulada, conformada por 6-8 notas y un armónico. La descripción de Pristimantis paquishae sp. nov., es el resultado de un levantamiento de información de la herpetofauna, en una de las mesetas de arenisca remotas y menos conocidas, en la Cordillera del Cóndor.

  20. The advertisement call and comments on the distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus Bokermann, 1975, an endemic frog of Bahia State, Brazil (Amphibia, Anura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; de Mira-Mendes, Caio Vinicius; Souza-Costa, Carlos Augusto; Juncá, Flora Acuña; Solé, Mirco

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Advertisement calls can be used to aid solving taxonomic problems and understanding the evolution of certain groups. In this study, the advertisement call of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus is described. It is composed by two different notes with a total duration of 0.529–4.241 seconds and dominant frequency of 1.72–3.45 kHz. Additionally, new data is provided on the geographical distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus and the most inland record for this species. PMID:28769692

  1. [Hematology and blood cell cytochemistry of Rhinella fernandezae (Amphibia: Anura) from Espinal and Delta-Islands of Paraná River, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabagna Zenklusen, Mariana C; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Junges, Celina M; Fiorenza Biancucci, Gabriela; Bassó, Agustín

    2011-03-01

    The description of amphibian hematology is scarce and most of these studies have been done in species from North America, Asia and Europe. With the purpose to obtain basic hematological information of Rhinella fernandezae, 23 blood samples from Santa Fe and Entre Rios natural reserves were studied. Blood of each individual was extracted by cardiac puncture and hemograms were carried out. Morphological and cytochemical description of blood cells were analyzed in slides and were inspected for extra and intra cellular parasites. Five leucocytes types were observed, being lymphocytes the predominant ones followed by basophiles. Heterophils and eosinophils were positive to PAS, Sudan B and peroxidase. The erythrocytes and its precursors were negative for cytochemical reactions. Micronuclei and nuclear alterations frequencies were scarce. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between sexes neither in hemograms nor in blood cells morphology. Microfilarias were the only hemoparasites found with a relative low prevalence and infection intensity. The hematological characteristics studied were similar to those reported for other amphibians, suggesting that R. fernandezae individuals present optimal nutritional and immunological status.

  2. New locality record of the Travancore Bush Frog Raorchestes travancoricus Boulenger, 1891 (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pratap Rajkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raorchestes travancoricus is a rare and endemic rhacophorid from southern Western Ghats. The frog was listed in the Extinct category of the IUCN Red List until June 2015, even after its rediscovery in 2004.  In June 2015, the R. travancoricus was reassessed to Endangered category. All published reports of the species are restricted to disturbed habitats outside protected areas and the current study report the presence of the species from eight different localities from a protected area the Periyar Tiger Reserve. 

  3. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : VI. Resurrection of Hyla ornatissima Noble (Amphibia, Hylidae) and remarks on related species of green tree frogs from the Guiana area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper Hyla ornatissima Noble is removed from the synonymy of Hyla granosa Boulenger, and resurrected as a separate species on the basis of morphological, ecological and acoustical differences. Another relative of this group occurring in Guiana is Hyla sibleszi Rivero. Because of its

  4. Endemic ranid (Amphibia: Anura) genera in southern mountain ranges of the Indian subcontinent represent ancient frog lineages: evidence from molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Kim; Jiang, Jianping; Bossuyt, Franky

    2004-05-01

    The geological history of the Indian subcontinent is marked by successive episodes of extensive isolation, which have provided ideal settings for the development of a unique floral and faunal diversity. By molecular phylogenetic analysis of a large set of ranid frog taxa from the Oriental realm, we show that four genera, now restricted to torrential habitats in the Western Ghats of India and the central highlands of Sri Lanka, represent remnants of ancient divergences. None of three other biodiversity hotspots in the Oriental mainland were found to harbour an equivalent level of long-term evolutionary history in this frog group. By unceasingly providing favourable humid conditions, the subcontinent's southern mountain ranges have served as refugia for old lineages, and hence constitute a unique reservoir of ancient ranid endemism.

  5. On The Identity Of Some Toads Of The Genus Bufo From Ecuador, With Additional Remarks On Andinophryne Colomai Hoogmoed, 1985 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Study of the type specimens of B. caeruleostictus Günther, 1859 and B. chanchanensis Fowler, 1913, and of fresh material showed that B. chanchanensis is a junior subjective synonym of B. caeruleostictus. Probably it is a member of the B. guttatus group. B. caeruleocellatus Fowler, 1913 is a junior

  6. A biosystematic study of new records of the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771 (Amphibia: Ranidae from the southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinolabedin Mohammadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The marsh frog, Pelophylax ridibundus, is reported from all over Iran except from the southeast and central deserts. This study provides records of 12 specimens of Pelophylax ridibundus from the easternmost extent of its range in Iran, Zabol, Sistan, and Baluchestan Province. Morphological, morphometric, and karyological characteristics of the specimens were investigated and compared with populations from other parts of Iran. Zabol specimens demonstrated 2n = 26, comprising one pair of metacentric, six pairs of submetacentric, and six pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Karyological results indicated Zabol specimens are the same as specimens from the central north of Iran. In addition, specimens from the southeast of Iran demonstrated a lower than average size except for tympanum and inter naris length compared with that of specimens from the north, and the northeast of Iran which may be the result of implications of Bergmann's rule due to the higher temperatures of the region.

  7. Una especie nueva de rana arbórea del género Hyloscirtus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almendáriz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ranas ecuatorianas del género Hyloscirtus incluyen 16 especies descritas, de las cuales 11 pertenecen al grupo H. larinopygion. Su distribución se limita a los flancos de la Cordillera de los Andes, tanto al oriente como al occidente. Una evaluación de la herpetofauna en el sector meridional de la Cordillera del Cóndor (bosques montanos sobre mesetas de arenisca en la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, condujo al descubrimiento de una especie nueva del grupo que describimos aquí como Hyloscirtus condor sp. nov.; se analizan los renacuajos, las llamadas de anuncio y se estima las relaciones filogenéticas de la especie nueva y de las especies relacionadas en base a nuevas secuencias de los genes mitocondriales 12S, tRNA Val y 16S, con un total de hasta 2508 bp. Los resultados muestran que el grupo H. larinopygion está conformado por dos clados, uno distribuido en los Andes norte y centro de Ecuador y el otro al sur. La nueva especie pertenece al clado sur y es hermana de H. tapichalaca y de una especie aparentemente no descrita de la Provincia Morona Santiago. La especie nueva difiere de sus congéneres por su patrón de coloración dorsal, que consiste de puntos amarillo obscuro en un fondo canela. Es la especie más grande del grupo H. larinopygion y comparte con H. tapichalaca la presencia de una espina prepólica grande y curvada y brazos hipertrofiados. La especie nueva habita un área remota y bien conservada de la Cordillera del Cóndor. El descubrimiento de ésta y otras especies nuevas del mismo lugar denota la importancia biológica del área y motivan al desarrollo de planes de conservación.

  8. Una nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, de la Cordillera de Kutukú, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brito M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 38.7 mm; en machos de 23.8 a 26.4 mm de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis de los bosques sub-tropicales de la Cordillera de Kutukú, del sureste de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 1581-1820 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis almendariz sp. nov., al subgénero Hypodictyon, serie de especies ridens. La nueva especie difiere de otros miembros de la serie ridens por su patrón distintivo con manchas dorsales, membrana timpánica ausente, presencia de tubérculos cónicos agrandados en el párpado, tubérculo inter-orbital prominente, e iris plateado con reticulaciones negras.

  9. A unique case of mating behaviour in a Malagasy tree frog, Gephyromantis liber (Peracca, 1893), with observations on the larval development (Amphibia, Ranidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers-Schlösser, Rose M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The mating act in Gephyromantis liber and in other species of this genus differs from all other mating behaviour patterns known in Anura. The male settles with the ventral side of his thighs on the shoulders of the female, and oviposition starts without delay. The assumption is made that the femoral

  10. DNA barcoding revises a misidentification on mossy frog: new record and distribution extension of Theloderma corticale Boulenger, 1903 (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huayuan; Chen, Zening; Wei, Zhonghui; Bu, Rongping; Wu, Zhengjun

    2018-03-01

    As an endangered animal group, mossy frog (genus Theloderma) has attracted the attention of biologists and wildlife conservationists. Clarifying the taxonomic status and distribution of each species in Theloderma is important to determine the conservation status for each species, establish appropriate conservation strategies and probe the speciation process. Recently, we discovered a medium-sized species of mossy frog of the genus Theloderma in April 2015 during municipal surveys of amphibians in Dayao Mountain of Jinxiu. It was collected from the water-filled tree cavities. However, there remains some uncertainty about the species determination of the mossy frog in the Yinshan station of Dayao Mountain in Guangxi Province, China. Previously, the mossy frog in Guangxi Province was recognized as Th. kwangsiense. In order to clarify the species status of the mossy frog obtained from Guangxi, we sequenced 2414 bp of the 12S and 16S genes in the sample collected from the Dayao Mountain. Combining all the sequence in NCBI, genetic analyses from the data suggest that the sample from the Dayao Mountain is Th. corticale rather than Th. kwangsiense. It is most likely that the most previous studies had wrong species identification. And, it is the first time we use DNA barcoding to prove that the species obtained from Guangxi is a new distribution of Th. corticale.

  11. Evolutionary history and population genetic structure of the endemic tree frog Hyla tsinlingensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) inferred from mitochondrial gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Yu; Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Xiao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    The influence of topography and Pleistocenic climatic fluctuations on the population genetic structure of amphibians in the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains of China is poorly investigated. Hyla tsinlingensis is a tree frog endemic to the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains, with a restricted and patchy distribution that is currently shrinking. We speculated on the evolutionary history of amphibians in this region by studying the population genetic structure of H. tsinlingensis. Using a total of 212 samples, 32 haplotypes and four haplogroups were found in the present study. Population genetic structure showed significant differentiation (F(ST)) between most populations of H. tsinlingensis in the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that most of the observed genetic variation occurs between the two regions (the Tsinling and Dabieshan Mountains). Mantel tests indicated that the genetic divergence was induced through isolation by distance. Using Monmonier's maximum difference algorithm to predict the genetic barrier, two putative barriers in gene flow that separate lineages of H. tsinlingensis were identified. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests found a sudden population expansion in all haplogroups except the Tsinling population and total population. This population expansion was identified between 0.5 Myr to 0.1 Myr (Quaternary) by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP). Divergence dating indicated the divergence time between the Tsinling population and Dabieshan population to be 3.26 MYA (Pliocene). In conclusion, the topography of the Tsinling and Dabieshan Mountains exerts a significant impact on the population genetic structure of H. tsinlingensis, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary affected the distribution of H. tsinlingensis.

  12. Comparative ultrastructural investigations of the uterine epithelium in the viviparous Salamandra atra Laur. and the ovoviviparous Salamandra salamandra (l.) (amphibia, urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H

    1977-07-11

    The uterine epithelium of the viviparous Salamandra atra and the ovoviviparous Salamandra salamandra was studied in non pregnant and ovulating females and in females during different stages of pregnancy. The epithelium of both species is organized in a monolayer. The epithelial cells are characterized by a moderate secretory activity, a variable amount of apical granules which include PAS-positive material and by some apical and basal exo- or endocytotic vesicles. Adjacent cells are joined by junctional complexes. The lateral surfaces form a tortuous boundary with adjoining cells which suggest that the epithelium is involved in transport. Sporadic light cells possess highly variable cytoplasmic inclusions and are not joined with neighbouring cells. Possibly they represent migratory cells. The entire epithelium, except for a small cranial portion of the uterus in S. atra, undergoes no remarkable morphological changes during the different physiological stages examined except that flattened cells seem to be more numerous in pregnant females. The results are discussed with regard to the possible supply of the developing young by the mother.

  13. Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Centrolene daidaleum (Ruiz-Carranza and Lynch, 1991: First record for Venezuela, new altitudinal record, and distribution map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Runjaic, F. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The glassfrog Centrolene daidaleum is considered endemic to the Cordillera Oriental of the Colombian Andes,and is known only from eight localities between 1,600 and 2,060 m, on the western slope of this mountain system. Hereinwe report the first record of this species from Venezuela based on specimens coming from the Sierra de Perijá, Zulia state.The species’ altitudinal range is extended, and some ecological information is provided.

  14. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivankovi?, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Br?hl, Carsten A.; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae ar...

  15. Bryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n., a new species of Cusco Andes frog from the cloud forest of the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Ttito, Alex; Diaz, M. Isabel; Shepack, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Bryophryne from the humid montane forest of the Department of Cusco, Peru, is described. Specimens were collected at 2795–2850 m a.s.l. in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llaqta, Quispillomayo valley, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Bryophryne by having green coloration on dorsum, and blue flecks on flanks and ventral parts. Specimens are characterized by lacking a distinct tympanic annulus, tympanic membrane, and dentigerous processes of vomers, and by having dorsal skin shagreen, discontinuous dorsolateral folds, skin tuberculate on flanks, skin areolate on ventral surfaces of the body, and fingers and toes without lateral fringes or webbing. The new species has a snout–vent length of 14.2–16.9 mm in three males and 22.2–22.6 mm in two females, and is smaller than all other congeneric species except for B. abramalagae. Generic allocation is supported by low genetic distances of the 16S mitochondrial gene and morphological similarity with other species of Bryophryne, and geographic distribution. Bryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n. is only known from the type locality, a cloud forest along the Quispillomayo River in the upper Nusiniscato watershed. PMID:29089838

  16. Temporada e turno de vocalização de Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930 (Amphibia, Anura na mata atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Oliveira de Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de vocalização de uma população de Leptodactylus natalensis foi monitorada em uma poça temporária entre novembro/2002 e outubro/2004. A poça está situada em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica conhecido como Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentaram-se ativos na maioria dos meses, apresentando picos na estação seca. A atividade de vocalização foi registrada durante o dia e a noite. Houve influência negativa e significativa entre a atividade vocal e a temperatura. O número de indivíduos vocalizando não foi significantemente afetado pela precipitação pluviométrica, mas o foi pelo número de fêmeas no ambiente. Verificou-se uma grande plasticidade na atividade de vocalização de L. natalensis durante a temporada e turno.Vocalizations of a population of Leptodactylus natalensis were monitored in a temporary pond from November 2002 to October 2004. This pond is located in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest belonging to the private Ecologic Refuge Charles Darwin, in the city of Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Individuals were active during most of the studied months, with peaks of activity during dry season. Vocal activity was recorded both in day and nighttime. There was a significant negative effect of temperature on vocal activity. The number of individuals vocalizing was not affected significantly by rainfall, but it was by the number of females on the environment. A great plasticity of vocal activities of L. natalensis was verified, both in season and turn.

  17. Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia : Anura : Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.

  18. Phyllomedusa ecuatoriana Cannatella (Amphibia: Hylidae: variación, descripción del renacuajo, vocalización y anotaciones sobre la historia natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brito M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta información sobre la variación morfológica de la rana Phyllomedusa ecuatoriana, con la descripción del renacuajo, vocalizaciones, anotaciones sobre la historia natural y distribución, basada en material recientemente recolectado en la Cordillera del Cóndor, Provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador. Phyllomedusa ecuatoriana es de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 46.1 hasta 55.4 y en la hembra 72.2 mm. El renacuajo (estadio 26 Gosner presenta la fórmula dentaria 2 (2/3(1, la fila de dientes P3 es menor que P1 y P2; los renacuajos se desarrollan en pozas de diferente tamaño, con aguas oscuras similares a un "te" debido a la presencia de taninos. Las vocalizaciones son de frecuencia modulada, con frecuencia dominante promedio de 1.53 kHz; las llamadas se componen de una nota y de 2-3 pulsos. La dieta de las ranas adultas se basa principalmente en arañas (20% de la familia Argiopidae.

  19. Not Good, but Not All Bad: Dehydration Effects on Body Fluids, Organ Masses, and Water Flux through the Skin of Rhinella schneideri (Amphibia, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodolfo C O; Bovo, Rafael P; Eismann, Carlos E; Menegario, Amauri A; Andrade, Denis V

    Because of their permeable skin, terrestrial amphibians are constantly challenged by the potential risk of dehydration. However, some of the physiological consequences associated with dehydration may affect aspects that are themselves relevant to the regulation of water balance. Accordingly, we examined the effects of graded levels of dehydration on the rates of evaporative water loss and water absorption through the skin in the terrestrial Neotropical toad, Rhinella schneideri. Concomitantly, we monitored the effects of dehydration on the mass of visceral organs; hematocrit and hemoglobin content; plasma osmolality; and plasma concentration of urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium. We found that dehydration caused an increase in the concentration of body fluids, as indicated by virtually all the parameters examined. There was a proportional change in the relative masses of visceral organs, except for the liver and kidneys, which exhibited a decrease in their relative masses greater than the whole-body level of dehydration. Changes-or the preservation-of relative organ masses during dehydration may be explained by organ-specific physiological adjustments in response to the functional stress introduced by the dehydration itself. As dehydration progressed, evaporative water loss diminished and water reabsorption increased. In both cases, the increase in body fluid concentration associated with the dehydration provided the osmotic driver for these changes in water flux. Additionally, dehydration-induced alterations on the cutaneous barrier may also have contributed to the decrease in water flux. Dehydration, therefore, while posing a considerable challenge on the water balance regulation of anurans, paradoxically facilitates water conservation and absorption.

  20. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of caecilians from Southeast Asia (Amphibia, Gymnophiona, Ichthyophiidae), with special reference to high cryptic species diversity in Sundaland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Matsui, Masafumi; Yong, Hoi-Sen; Ahmad, Norhayati; Yambun, Paul; Belabut, Daicus M; Sudin, Ahmad; Hamidy, Amir; Orlov, Nikolai L; Ota, Hidetoshi; Yoshikawa, Natsuhiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Shimada, Tomohiko

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and estimated the history of species diversification and character evolution in two ichthyophiid genera: Caudacaecilia and Ichthyophis. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships of 67 samples from 33 localities in Southeast Asia from 3840-bp sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cyt b genes using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods. The Southeast Asian samples formed a well-supported clade differentiated from a South Asian sample. The Southeast Asian clade was divided into two subclades, one containing samples from South China, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, and Java. The other consisted of samples from Borneo and the Philippines. Neither Caudacaecilia nor Ichthyophis was monophyletic, nor did samples with or without light stripes lateral to the body form clades. We found several distinct sympatric lineages and undescribed species, especially from Sundaland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A new species of the genus Centrolene (Amphibia : Anura : Centrolenidae) from Ecuador with comments on the taxonomy and biogeography of Glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new species of Glassfrog, Centrolene mariaelenae n. sp., from the Contrafuerte de Tzunantza, southeastern Ecuador. The new species is assigned to the Centrolene gorzulai species group, a clade previously known only from the Guayana Shield region, because the parietal peritoneum is transparent and the hepatic peritoneum is covered by guanophores. We analyze the diversity patterns of Glassfrogs from eastern Ecuador. The distribution of the new species herein described supports previous hypothesis of a biogeographical connection between the Andes and the Guayana Shield for various groups of plants and animals; particularly a relationship between the Guayana Shield and the sandstone outcrops mountain ranges of southeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. We also comment on the infrageneric and generic classification of Glassfrogs, and propose the new combinations Centrolene balionotum n. comb., Cochranella antisthenesi n. comb., and Cochranella pulverata n. comb.

  2. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikanth, G.; Vidisha, M. K.; Saurabh, S.; Pratik, M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013–2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Microhyla laterite sp. nov. appears to be restricted to areas of the West coast of India dominated by laterite rock formations. The laterite rock formations date as far back as the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and are considered to be wastelands in-spite of their intriguing geological history. We identify knowledge gaps in our understanding of the genus Microhyla from the Indian subcontinent and suggest ways to bridge them. PMID:26960208

  3. Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae, Sphaenorhynchus botocudo Caramaschi, Almeida and Gasparini, 2009: First state record and first record out of the type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda, J. V. A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first record of the recently-described Lime Treefrog Sphaenorhynchus botocudoCaramaschi, Almeida, and Gasparini, 2009 in the state of Bahia, and the first record out of its type locality.

  4. Morphological description of Cosmocerca sp. (Nematoda: Cosmocerdidae) from the Mascarene grass frog Ptychadena cf. mascareniensis (Amphibia: Ptychadenidae). A light and scanning electron microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Kamel, Reem; Maher, Sherein; El Deeb, Nashwa; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2017-06-01

    The Mascarene grass frog Ptychadena cf. mascareniensis is a species of frog with a vast area of distribution in Africa. A total of 300 frog specimens were collected from different localities at El-Giza province, Egypt; then dissected and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Only eighty six (28.66%) specimens were found to be naturally infected with nematode parasite. Seasonally, the prevalence of infection was reached its maximum value of 74.66% during summer and minimum values of 26.66% (20/75), 13.33% (10/75) during spring and autumn, respectively; while no records were observed during winter season. The morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by using light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worm characterized by anterior extremity with small mouth opening being surrounded by three lips provided with four sub-median cephalic papillae and one pair of lateral amphids. Body measurements showed that male worms were smaller than females measuring 1.22-2.43 (2.21 ± 0.1) mm in length and 0.21-0.34 (0.29 ± 0.01) mm in width. Females measured 1.9-3.7 (2.8 ± 0.1) mm in length and 0.24-0.42 (0.38 ± 0.01) mm in width. Comparing the present parasite with other species of the same genus described previously, several similarities were observed. However, peculiar new characteristics such as the arrangement of plectanes and somatic papillae, the presence of gubernaculum, the position of nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening make it reasonable belongs to the family Cosmocercidae and identified as Cosmocerca sp. In addition, the present study was the first report for occurrence of cosmocercid species from the Mascarene grass frog in Egypt.

  5. Amphibia, Anura, Hemiphractidae, Hemiphractus helioi Sheil and Mendelson, 2001: distribution extension in the state of Acre and second record for Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarde, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the second records of Hemiphractus helioi from Brazil based on specimens collected during fieldstudies in forest of Môa River, Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre. These new records extended the range of this species about 100 km tothe east from the nearest collection site known in Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor.

  6. Caecilita Wake & Donnelly, 2010 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) is not lungless: implications for taxonomy and for understanding the evolution of lunglessness .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Kok, Philippe J R; Ahmed, Farah; Gower, David J

    2014-03-17

    According to current understanding, five lineages of amphibians, but no other tetrapods, are secondarily lungless and are believed to rely exclusively on cutaneous gas exchange. One explanation of the evolutionary loss of lungs interprets lunglessness as an adaptation to reduce buoyancy in fast-flowing aquatic environments, reasoning that excessive buoyancy in such an environment would cause organisms being swept away. While not uncontroversial, this hypothesis provides a plausible potential explanation of the evolution of lunglessness in four of the five lungless amphibian lineages. The exception is the most recently reported lungless lineage, the newly described Guyanan caecilian genus and species Caecilita iwokramae Wake & Donnelly, 2010, which is inconsistent with the reduced disadvantageous buoyancy hypothesis by virtue of it seemingly being terrestrial and having a terrestrial ancestry. Re-examination of the previously only known specimen of C. iwokramae and of recently collected additional material reveal that this species possesses a reasonably well-developed right lung and is a species of the pre-existing caecilian genus Microcaecilia Taylor, 1968. We therefore place Caecilita in the synonymy of Microcaecilia, and re-evaluate the plausibility of the reduced disadvantageous buoyancy hypothesis as a general explanation of the evolution of lunglessness.

  7. Riqueza e distribuição temporal de anuros (Amphibia: Anura em um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do Brasil abrigar uma riqueza elevada de anfíbios anuros, muitas regiões ainda são consideradas subamostradas, incluindo ecossistemas que estão degradados e ameaçados. Esse é o caso da Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM, formação que possui apenas 3% de sua distribuição original, sendo que apenas uma porcentagem menor ainda constitui florestas em estágio primário ou avançado. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a estrutura de uma taxocenose de anuros em um remanescente de FOM, avaliar a variação de riqueza e abundância em função de variáveis climáticas, comparar a taxocenose com outras oito inseridas na mesma formação e verificar se a riqueza registrada nas localidades varia em função da área total, da quantidade ou dos tipos de ambientes presentes. Foram realizadas 12 campanhas entre setembro de 2008 e agosto de 2009, totalizando 72 horas de amostragem. Por meio dos métodos de amostragem em sítio de reprodução em sete corpos d'água e de busca aural em quatro transecções no interior da floresta, foi registrada a ocorrência de 24 espécies de sete famílias, correspondendo a 96% da riqueza estimada para a área. Tanto a riqueza quanto a abundância foram registradas no período com maior volume de chuva. O número de espécies nos ambientes amostrados variou de um a 15, e quase metade (41% delas foram exclusivas de ambientes florestais. Para os inventários de anuros em FOM, o que explica a maior riqueza de espécies é a quantidade de tipos de ambientes amostrados, indicando que amostragens em localidades mais heterogêneas, que podem satisfazer os requisitos reprodutivos de um maior número de espécies, aumentam o registro da riqueza local. Mesmo sendo um fragmento pequeno e alterado, a riqueza registrada foi alta se comparada com outras áreas cuja anurofauna foi inventariada, e que estão inseridas na FOM e apresentam esforço amostral semelhante. Devido à ocorrência de muitas espécies dependentes da integridade da floresta a minimização de atividades antrópicas e estudos mais detalhados devem ser as principais diretrizes para a manutenção e conservação local.

  8. The taxonomic status of two West African Leptopelis species: L. macrotis Schiøtz, 1967 and L. spiritusnoctis Rödel, 2007 (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark-Oliver Roedel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We herein examine the taxonomic status of two West African forest-dwelling Leptopelis species. The small L. spiritusnoctis, described from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa, was recently synonymized with L. aubryi, described from Gabon. The large L. macrotis, known from Ghana to Sierra Leone, was downgraded to a subspecies of L. millsoni, ranging from the Niger Delta to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. These taxonomic decisions are in contrast to the general biogeographic pattern of African forest anurans and we consequently tested if the morphologically similar taxon pairs are indeed conspecifics by applying acoustic and molecular techniques. Both techniques confirmed that populations from West Africa differ significantly from their Central African morphological equivalents. Consequently, we herein resurrect L. spiritusnoctis as a valid species. The acoustic data indicate that L. aubryi may comprise a complex of cryptic species. We further advocate using the name L. macrotis for West African and L. millsoni for Central African populations of these larger arboreal frogs. However, we had neither genetic nor acoustic data from the type locality of L. millsoni available and could not clarify if these frogs belong to the more western or eastern taxon or even represent a Nigerian endemic. Thus, it is possible that West African populations need to be termed L. millsoni in the future. For populations east of the Cross River, Nigeria, the name L. guineensis would be available.

  9. 3D Bite Modeling and Feeding Mechanics of the Largest Living Amphibian, the Chinese Giant Salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, Josep; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Heiss, Egon; Sanchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluis; Galobart, Àngel

    2015-01-01

    Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their “conservative” morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints. PMID:25853557

  10. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  11. Cryptic diversity in Amazonian frogs: Integrative taxonomy of the genus Anomaloglossus (Amphibia: Anura: Aromobatidae) reveals a unique case of diversification within the Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Jean-Pierre; Kok, Philippe J R; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lorenzini, Andy; Martinez, Quentin; Fallet, Manon; Courtois, Elodie A; Blanc, Michel; Gaucher, Philippe; Dewynter, Maël; Jairam, Rawien; Ouboter, Paul; Thébaud, Christophe; Fouquet, Antoine

    2017-07-01

    Lack of resolution on species boundaries and distribution can hamper inferences in many fields of biology, notably biogeography and conservation biology. This is particularly true in megadiverse and under-surveyed regions such as Amazonia, where species richness remains vastly underestimated. Integrative approaches using a combination of phenotypic and molecular evidence have proved extremely successful in reducing knowledge gaps in species boundaries, especially in animal groups displaying high levels of cryptic diversity like amphibians. Here we combine molecular data (mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear TYR, POMC, and RAG1) from 522 specimens of Anomaloglossus, a frog genus endemic to the Guiana Shield, including 16 of the 26 nominal species, with morphometrics, bioacoustics, tadpole development mode, and habitat use to evaluate species delineation in two lowlands species groups. Molecular data reveal the existence of 18 major mtDNA lineages among which only six correspond to described species. Combined with other lines of evidence, we confirm the existence of at least 12 Anomaloglossus species in the Guiana Shield lowlands. Anomaloglossus appears to be the only amphibian genus to have largely diversified within the eastern part of the Guiana Shield. Our results also reveal strikingly different phenotypic evolution among lineages. Within the A. degranvillei group, one subclade displays acoustic and morphological conservatism, while the second subclade displays less molecular divergence but clear phenotypic divergence. In the A. stepheni species group, a complex evolutionary diversification in tadpole development is observed, notably with two closely related lineages each displaying exotrophic and endotrophic tadpoles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cryptic diversity in the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group (Amphibia, Anura) with the description of a new species from the eastern Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Martinez, Quentin; Zeidler, Lauren; Courtois, Elodie A; Gaucher, Philippe; Blanc, Michel; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Souza, Sergio Marques; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Souza, Sergio Marques; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Kok, Philippe J R

    2016-02-24

    We used molecular and morphological data to investigate the hidden diversity within the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group, and more specifically within H. geographicus, an allegedly widespread species in northern South America. As a result, the identity of H. geographicus was clarified, several candidate species were detected and one of them, from the eastern Guiana Shield, is described herein as a preliminary step to resolve the taxonomy of the group. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is mainly distinguished from closely-related species by an acuminate snout in lateral view, well-developed webbing between fingers and toes, and unspotted carmine/crimson colouration on the concealed surfaces of legs, feet and hands in life. The tadpole of the new species is described and is characterized by a large A-2 gap, a mostly single row of large marginal papillae, and a dark brown to black colouration. We also describe the advertisement call of the new species, which is defined as a soft call consisting of short clusters of 2-3 chuckles with a dominant frequency ranging between 1.11-1.19 kHz. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is currently known only from the eastern Guiana Shield, and is probably endemic to that region. The new species' range overlaps broadly with another candidate species referred to as H. aff. semilineatus 1. Our preliminary results stress out a high cryptic diversity in that species group and the need for a formal redescription of Hypsiboas geographicus based on more topotypic material than what is currently available  to properly sort out the taxonomic status of several lineages in that clade.

  13. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Ttito, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670-3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta) or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1-24.1 mm in males and 23.3-27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  14. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670–3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1–24.1 mm in males and 23.3–27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  15. Bryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n., a new species of Cusco Andes frog from the cloud forest of the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Ttito, Alex; Diaz, M Isabel; Shepack, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A new species of Bryophryne from the humid montane forest of the Department of Cusco, Peru, is described. Specimens were collected at 2795-2850 m a.s.l. in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llaqta, Quispillomayo valley, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Bryophryne by having green coloration on dorsum, and blue flecks on flanks and ventral parts. Specimens are characterized by lacking a distinct tympanic annulus, tympanic membrane, and dentigerous processes of vomers, and by having dorsal skin shagreen, discontinuous dorsolateral folds, skin tuberculate on flanks, skin areolate on ventral surfaces of the body, and fingers and toes without lateral fringes or webbing. The new species has a snout-vent length of 14.2-16.9 mm in three males and 22.2-22.6 mm in two females, and is smaller than all other congeneric species except for B. abramalagae. Generic allocation is supported by low genetic distances of the 16S mitochondrial gene and morphological similarity with other species of Bryophryne, and geographic distribution. Bryophryne phuyuhampatusp. n. is only known from the type locality, a cloud forest along the Quispillomayo River in the upper Nusiniscato watershed.

  16. A new species of Phrynopus (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Edgar; von May, Rudolf; Moravec, Jiří; Cusi, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna) of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru) and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus. Phrynopus intisp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2-35.2 mm in males (n = 6), and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis. For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum, P. miroslawae, P. tautzorum, and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  17. Bryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n., a new species of Cusco Andes frog from the cloud forest of the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Bryophryne from the humid montane forest of the Department of Cusco, Peru, is described. Specimens were collected at 2795–2850 m a.s.l. in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llaqta, Quispillomayo valley, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Bryophryne by having green coloration on dorsum, and blue flecks on flanks and ventral parts. Specimens are characterized by lacking a distinct tympanic annulus, tympanic membrane, and dentigerous processes of vomers, and by having dorsal skin shagreen, discontinuous dorsolateral folds, skin tuberculate on flanks, skin areolate on ventral surfaces of the body, and fingers and toes without lateral fringes or webbing. The new species has a snout–vent length of 14.2–16.9 mm in three males and 22.2–22.6 mm in two females, and is smaller than all other congeneric species except for B. abramalagae. Generic allocation is supported by low genetic distances of the 16S mitochondrial gene and morphological similarity with other species of Bryophryne, and geographic distribution. Bryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n. is only known from the type locality, a cloud forest along the Quispillomayo River in the upper Nusiniscato watershed.

  18. Does advertisement call variation coincide with genetic variation in the genetically diverse frog taxon currently known as Leptodactylus fuscus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. RONALD HEYER

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The frog Leptodactylus fuscus is found throughout much of South America in open and disturbed habitats. Previous study of genetic differentiation in L. fuscus demonstrated that there was lack of genetic exchange among population units consistent with multiple species, rather than a single species. We examine advertisement vocalizations of L. fuscus to determine whether call variation coincides with genetic differentiation. Calls were analyzed for 32 individual frogs from 25 localities throughout the distributional range of L. fuscus. Although there is variation in calls among geographic samples, call variation is not concordant with genetic variation or geographic distance and the call variation observed is less than that typically found among other closely related species of Leptodactylus. This study is an example of the rare pattern of strong genetic differentiation unaccompanied by salient differences in advertisement calls. The relative infrequency of this pattern as currently understood may only reflect the lack of detailed analyses of genetic and acoustic differentiation within population systems currently understood as single species with substantial geographic distributions.A rã Leptodactylus fuscus é encontrada na maior parte da América do Sul em formações abertas ou em ambientes perturbados. Estudos anteriores de diferenciação genética mostraram ausência de fluxo gênico entre unidades populacionais, o que é compatível com a existência de diversas espécies em vez de uma única. Examinamos a vocalização de anúncio de L. fuscus com a finalidade de verificar se variações na vocalização coincidiam com a diferenciação genética. Foram analisadas vocalizações de 32 indivíduos provenientes de 25 localidades distribuídas em toda a área de distribuição da espécie. Embora exista variação geográfica na vocalização, essa diversificação não corresponde à diferenciação genética ou à distância geográfica; as diferenças observadas são menores que aquelas tipicamente encontradas entre espécies aparentadas de Leptodactylus. O presente estudo é um exemplo de um padrão evolutivo raro, em que acentuada diferenciação genética não é acompanhada por diferenças marcantes nas vocalizações específicas. A freqüência relativamente baixa deste padrão, como usualmente entendido, pode refletir apenas falta de análises detalhadas de diferenciação acústica e genética dentro de sistemas populacionais correntemente considerados como espécies únicas de ampla distribuição geográfica.

  19. Which frog's legs do froggies eat? The use of DNA barcoding for identification of deep frozen frog legs (Dicroglossidae, Amphibia commercialized in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ohler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several millions frogs captured in the wild in Indonesia are sold for food yearly in French supermarkets, as deep frozen frog legs. They are commercialized as Rana macrodon, but up to 15 look-alike species might also be concerned by this trade. From December 2012 to May 2013, we bought 209 specimens of deep frozen frog legs, and identified them through a barcoding approach based on the 16S gene. Our results show that 206 out of the 209 specimens belong to Fejervarya cancrivora, two to Limnonectes macrodon and one to F. moodiei. Thus only 0.96 % of the frogs were correctly identified. Unless misclassification was intentional, it seems that Indonesian frog leg exporters are not able to discriminate between the species. The quasi absence of L. macrodon in our samples might be an indication of its rarity, confirming that its natural populations are declining rapidly, in agreement with its “vulnerable” status according to the IUCN Red List. Our results show that the genetic and morphological diversity of the frogs in trade is much higher than the genetic and morphological diversity measured so far by scientific studies. These results underline the need for large scale studies to assess the status of wild populations.

  20. Estructura y composición de la comunidad de Anuros (Amphibia en tres bosques en El Santuario De Fauna y Flora Otún Quimbaya, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez E. David

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la estructura y composición de la comunidad de anuros en tres bosques reforestados con roble, urapán y urapán-roble, en el SFF Otún Quimbaya. Un total de seis especies pertenecientes a dos familias (Leptodactylidae y Dendrobatidae fueron encontradas. A partir de tres parcelas ubicadas en cada uno de los bosques, se determinó que la riqueza y diversidad de especies fue mayor en el bosque de roble seguido por urapán-roble y por último urapán. Las
    especies registradas entre urapán y urapán-roble presentan alta similaridad. A partir de la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis se determinó que las variables microclimáticas y de hábitat no presentan
    diferencias significativas entre los tres bosques, a excepción de la altura del mantillo, la cual fue mayor para el bosque de roble, seguida por el de urapán-roble y de urapán. Los valores arrojados por los índices de Margalef y Shannon se  correlacionaron con la altura del mantillo, por lo cual se atribuye a esta variable el patrón de diversidad presentado por los tres bosques.

  1. Nova espécie de Hyla Laurenti do grupo de H. microcephala Cope (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae do nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho-e-Silva Sergio Potsch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species, attributed to the group of Hyla microcephala Cope, 1886, is described. The new species is close to H. bipunctata Spix, 1824, and it is found in Quebrangulo, State of Alagoas, in Northeastern Brazil. The eggs and larvae are also described and some ecological information is added. The new species is compared with other species of the same group, and with species of closely related groups that occur in syntopy. With H. bipunctata, it shares the general form of the body, the yellow ventral coloration and the orange color of the thighs, but it is distinguished by the dorsal Paris-green coloration (beige in H. bipunctata, absence of a dorsal pattern, light red thighs, and ornamentation of the upper lip with two or three yellow stains instead of the characteristic aureolate of H. bipunctata. With H. elegans Wied-Neuwied, 1824, it also shares the general form of the body and the ventral and the thighs coloration, but it is distinguished by the smaller size, absence of a dorsal pattern and light red thighs. From H. oliveirai Bokermann, 1963, the new species is distinguished by the dorsal coloration, the ornamentation of the upper lip and larger size. From H. branneri Cochran, 1948, it differs by the presence of the stains in the upper lip (just one in H. branneri, absence of the dorsal pattern and green dorsal coloration, which is more intense. The tadpole of the new species is provided.

  2. A new species of Phrynopus (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Lehr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus. Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2–35.2 mm in males (n = 6, and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis. For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum, P. miroslawae, P. tautzorum, and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  3. Pigmentação testicular em Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner (Amphibia, Anura com observações anatômicas sobre o sistema pigmentar extracutâneo Testicular pigmentation in Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner (Amphibia, Anura with anatomical observations on the extracutaneous pigmentary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Classius de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o intuito de relatar a ocorrência e morfologia de células pigmentares viscerais constituintes do "sistema pigmentar extracutâneo" em Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 (Leptodactylidae. Foram utilizados dez exemplares machos para a análise macroscópica e obtenção de fragmentos testiculares incluídos em resina e corados com H/E. Os anuros, dentre outros animais exotérmicos, possuem células especiais, os melanócitos, que se caracteriza por intensa pigmentação e sintetiza melanina, além de melanomacrófagos, que se caracteriza por atividade fagocítica e muitas vezes apresentam intensa pigmentação. A nomenclatura destas células não é consensual e, por isso, várias denominações são apresentadas, principalmente nos seguintes órgãos: fígado (como sinônimo de células de Kupffer, rins, baço e menos freqüentemente em outras localizações, com os termos - células pigmentares, células pigmentares extracutâneas, macrófagos pigmentados, melanomacrófagos, melanófagos, melanóforos e melanócitos. Para os anuros os estudos são recentes e relatam células pigmentares em poucas espécies. Em Physalaemus nattereri e alguns anuros, os pigmentos melânicos são encontrados, além da cútis, em outros órgãos constituindo um sistema pigmentar extracutâneo, com diferentes ocorrências, tipos e quantidade em distintas espécies. Associados ao aparelho reprodutor de P. nattereri, os melanócitos foram observados nas gônadas, na albugínea e no interstício, especialmente associado com vasos sangüíneos. A notória presença de numerosas células com pigmento distribuídas no testículo confere uma coloração que varia do preto mesclado com branco ao preto intenso. Trata-se de uma rara peculiaridade e não há informações sobre seu significado funcional ou valor biológico.The testes in the anurans are paired ovoid organs constituted by seminiferous structures surrounded by the fibrous connective tissue, commonly unprovided of pigments. This study tried to analyze the morphological characteristics of rare and conspicuous pigment-containing cells and their relationship with other structures. The pigment cells are variously and indistinctly also termed Kuppfer cells in the liver, pigment cells, extracutaneous pigment cells, pigmented macrophages, melanomacrophages, melanophage, melanophores and melanocytes in the liver, spleen and kidney and other visceral structures of exothermic vertebrates. Ten male samples of Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 (Leptodactylidae were used. After macroscopic analyses, the testicular fragments were submitted to the histological routine, fixed with karnovisky, embedded Historesin and coloration with Haematoxylin/Eosin. A rare peculiarity was the presence of numerous pigment-containing cells (melanocytes randomly distributed in the albuginea tunic and testicular interstitium, giving the testes a dark brown coloration. This unusual characteristic has been rarely described and in other lower vertebrates, the pigment cells can be found in different organs, constituting an extracutaneous pigmentary system of unknown function. Further, it was identified a conspicuous variation, as to presence and distribution pattern due to possible species-specific aspects. However, histologically there is no difference in the germ epithelium arrangement. Between the seminiferous locules, there is an inter-locular tissue composed by Leydig interstitial cells, fibroblasts, efferent ductules, melanocytes and blood vessels. This inter-locular tissue is relatively scarce, presenting melanocytes in all specimens analyzed intimate associated with blood vessels. They are irregular cells with numerous melanosomes and long cytoplasmic processes.

  4. PARTICIÓN DE MICROHÁBITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGIÓN CARIBE-COLOMBIA Microhábitat Partitioning Between Leiuperidae and Bufonidae Species (Amphibia: Anura in Tropical Dry Forest Areas in Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARGELINA BLANCO TORRES

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se analizó la partición de microhábitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhábitats. Los más usados fueron charco de agua permanente de potreros con árboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhábitats utilizó, fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhábitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existió partición de microhábitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca y no ocurre en época de lluvias.ABSTRACT We analyzed partitioning of microhábitats by five species of frogs in the families Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla in six different localities of the Colombian Caribean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhábitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA and flooded pastures without trees (PISA were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhábitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhábitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhábitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  5. Efeitos da sucessão florestal sobre a anurofauna (Amphibia: Anura da Reserva Catuaba e seu entorno, Acre, Amazônia sul-ocidental Effect of the forest succession on the anurans (Amphibia: Anura of the Reserve Catuaba and its periphery, Acre, southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. de Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a abundância, riqueza e a composição da anurofauna em diferentes estágios sucessionais em uma floresta do Acre (10º04'S, 67º37'W e seu entorno. Os dados foram obtidos entre agosto de 2005 a abril de 2006 em doze parcelas, localizadas em três áreas diferentes da floresta. Em cada área foram escolhidos quatro tipos de ambientes: floresta primária (mata, floresta secundária (capoeira, entorno (matriz e floresta secundária (sucessão. Observou-se a presença de 27 espécies distribuídas em sete famílias. Maior abundância foi constatada na matriz dois e capoeira três, e a menor na sucessão um. A maior riqueza foi constatada na matriz dois, com o maior número de espécies exclusivas. A abundância de anuros correlacionou-se significativamente com a circunferência das árvores e lianas. A riqueza de anuros correlacionou-se marginalmente com a circunferência das árvores. A maior riqueza em ambientes de capoeiras e matriz pode ser explicada em grande parte pela existência nesses locais de poças d'água, maior heterogeneidade estrutural e poderem constituir estágios intermediários de perturbação. Esses estágios têm sido apontados como fatores que promovem e mantêm níveis elevados de biodiversidade. Ambientes com níveis intermediários de perturbação são importantes para a conservação da anurofauna.The objective of this work it was verify the abundance, richness, and the anuran composition in plots of vegetation of different succession stages in a forest and the matrix that surrounds it, of Acre (10º04'S, 67º37'W. The sampling was carried out between August 2005 and April 2006 in twelve plots located in three different sites in the forest. In each site four kinds of environments were chosen: primary forest (wood, secondary forest (capoeira, periphery (matrix and secondary forest (succession. A total of twenty-seven species distributed in seven families was found. Greater abundance was registered in the plots of matrix two and capoeira three and the least in succession one. The richness was greater in matrix two, with the greater number of exclusive species. The abundance of anurans correlated significantly, with the average circumference at the breast height of the trees of the plots. The richness however correlated only marginally, with this structural feature. The larger richness in plots of capoeira and matrix can be explained partially by the existence of temporary ponds and more structural heterogeneity is able constitute intermediary stages in a gradient of perturbation and this can increase the biodiversity. Thus environments with intermediary levels of disturbance are important for the conservation of the diversity of anuran amphibians.

  6. Habitat use by a tree frog species of Scinax (Amphibia, Hylidae at an urban forest fragment from south-eastern Brazil Uso do hábitat por uma espécie de Scinax (Amphibia, Hylidae em um fragmento florestal urbano no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado A. B. Galdino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the pattern of habitat use by the tree frog Scinax aff. perereca. Fieldworks were performed from August 1996 to August 1997 at Parque das Mangabeiras, Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Calling males were observed in September, October and December 1996, February to April and June 1997. Females were found only in October 1996. Specimens were found perched on vegetation, on the ground or on stones near waterfall. At Parque das Mangabeiras, S. aff. perereca occupied nine types of substrata. The most frequently used substrata were shrubs, stones at the stream edges, and fallen trunks. The pattern of spatial occupation varied among months. Males were found calling in aggregations on the vegetation and spatial niche breadth was related to species abundance.No presente estudo é tratado o uso do hábitat por Scinax aff. perereca, durante o período de agosto de 1996 a agosto de 1997 em uma área de mata urbana em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. Machos em atividade de vocalização foram encontrados em setembro, outubro e dezembro de 1996 e de fevereiro a abril e junho de 1997. As fêmeas foram capturadas apenas em outubro de 1996. Os indivíduos foram encontrados em galhos da vegetação no solo ou em pedras próximas a quedas de água. Na área estudada, S. aff. perereca usa nove tipos de substratos, sendo os mais freqüentes a vegetação herbácea, pedras na margem do riacho e troncos caídos. O padrão de ocupação espacial variou ao longo dos meses. Os machos foram encontrados vocalizando em agregados e a largura de nicho espacial foi diretamente relacionada a abundância da espécie.

  7. Descrição da larva de Scinax similis (Cochran com notas comparativas sobre o grupo "ruber" no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Description of the larva of Scinax similis (Cochran with comparative notes on the Scinax ruber group in Southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.R Alves

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Scinax similis (Cochran, 1952 is described from Ilha do Fundão (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Comparisons with other species of the group that occur in Southeastern Brazil are added. The larva of S. similis can be distinguished by the following diagnostic features: (1 eyes large in relation to body length (17,3%, body height (26,8%, and body width (29,7%, interocular distance three times larger than eye diameter; (2 lower beak with two transverse stripes, proximal half white and distal half black.

  8. Una nueva especie colombiana del género Centrolene Jiménez de la Espada 1872 (Amphibia: Anura y redefinición del género Una nueva especie colombiana del género Centrolene Jiménez de la Espada 1872 (Amphibia: Anura y redefinición del género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Carranza Pedro M.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the taxonomic history of the genus is provided, and a new definition is given for it, including several characters not previously used.  Centrolene paezorum, new species, is described as the second species for this genus from the subhygrophytic cloud Andean forest, above Inzá, in the eastern slope of the Central Cordillera, Cauca, Colombia. This species is characterized by its smaller size, slenderer body and extremities, narrower head, sloping and flaring snout, absence of vomerine teeth, reduced finger webbing, distinctive dermal ornamentation, green bones, three-lobed liver, white pericardial sac and parietal peritoneum, clear hepatic and visceral peritoneum, black eggs, and the absence of externatly perceptible humeral deltoid ridge in the holotype (female. Besides a review of the generic concept is provided, with the addition of characters not used until now. Se presenta una redefinición de Centrolene mediante el uso de nuevos caracteres, basada en una revisión del historial taxonómico del género y en el examen de una serie de ejemplares de C. geckoideum: Se describe la segunda especie del género Centrolene de la selva andina subhigrofítica nebulosa de la vertiente oriental de la Cordillera Central, arriba de Inzá, Cauca, Colombia. La nueva especie se caracteriza por su menor tamaño, cuerpo y extremidades menos robustos, anchura cefálica proporcionalmente menor, rostro dilatado anteriormente y con el extremo oblicuo en perfil lateral, carencia de dientes vomerinos, palmeadura manual comparativamente reducida, relieve cutáneo distintivo, huesos verdes, hígado trilobulado, saco pericardial y peritoneo parietal blancos, peritoneo hepático y visceral translúcidos e incoloros, huevos fuertemente pigmentados de negro y la espina de la cresta deltoidea del húmero no detectable exteriormente en el holótipo (hembra.

  9. African Zoology - Vol 47, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rediscovery of Boulengerula denhardti Nieden 1912 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae) in Meru County, Kenya · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G. John Measey, Vincent Muchai, Stephen Spawls, 187-191 ...

  10. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 93 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rediscovery after two decades: the Changamwe lowland caecilian Boulengerula changamwensis Loveridge, 1932 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caecilidae) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Patrick K Malonza, Hendrik Müller, 57-61 ...

  11. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 8 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning and analysis of the HMG domains of ten Sox genes from Bombina maxima (Amphibia: Anura) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J Wang, N Wang, L Nie ...

  12. Ecological Relationships between Arboviruses, Ectoparasites, and Vertebrates in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    amplifying hosts of Group B arboviruses. Among other groups there is a high incidence of Group B antibody in a monkey, a baboon, two fruit bats and a lizard. Rodents and amphibia are of little or not importance.

  13. Esparganose em alguns vertebrados do Brasil: dificuldades na identificaçao das espécies de Luheella (Spirometra Sparganum in some brazilian vertebrates: problems in the identification of species of Luheella (Spirometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arandas Rego

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of Amphibia and Reptilia are listed as new hosts of spargana, from material deposited in the Helminthological Collection of Oswaldo Cruz Institute. It is discussed the difficulties in identifying the larvae (Sparganum and also the identification of adults of Luheella species from South America. The histopathology induced by spargana in the liver of a species of Amphibia is briefly described.

  14. Assessment System for Aircraft Noise (ASAN) Citation Database. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Ammospermophilus 01.04.00.00.00.00 Amphibia 01.04.00.00.00.00 Amphibians 04.02.01.01.01.01 * Amphipod, Hay’s Spring 04.02.01.00.00.00 Amphipoda 04.02.01.00.00.00...01.03.03.02.02.00 .... Caiman 01.03.04.00.00.00 . Aznphisbaenidae Worm-lizards 01.04.00.00.00.00 Amphibia *Amphibians 01.04.01.00.00.00 . Anura Anurans

  15. The advertisement call, breeding biology, description of the tadpole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-07-27

    Jul 27, 1998 ... The Amphibia of Southern Africa: a faunal study. Ann. Natal Mus. 17: 1-334. POYNTON, J.e. & BROADLEY, D.G. 1988. AmphibiaZambesi- aca 4. Bufonidae. Ann. Natal Mus. 29(2): 447-490. TANDY, M. & KEITH, R. 1972. Chapter 9. Bufo of Africa. In: Evo- lution in the genus Bufo. Blair, W.F. (ed). University of ...

  16. Road mortality of amphibians and reptiles in the Anatolian part of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    TOK, CEMAL VAROL; Ayaz, Dinçer; Kerim ÇİÇEK

    2014-01-01

    The amphibian and reptile specimens, crushed due to vehicle traffic, were recorded during herpetological trips to various regions of Anatolia between 2005 and 2009. In total, 183 individuals were detected, representing 28 species from 4 amphibian [Salamandridae (1), Ranidae (3), Bufonidae (2), and Hylidae (2)], 3 turtle [Testudinidae (1), Emydidae (1), and Geoemydidae (2)], 3 lizard [Agamidae (1), Anguidae (2), and Lacertidae (5)] and 2 snake [Colubridae (6) and Viperidae (2)] families. The m...

  17. Riqueza de espécies, ambientes de reproduçáo e temporada da vocalizaçao da anurofauna em Três Barras do Paraná, Brasil (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento de espécies de anuros na região do Parque Estadual do Rio Guarani (25º25'S; 53º15'W, Município de Três Barras do Paraná, sudoeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Os ambientes de reprodução e o período de vocalização foram registrados para a maioria das espécies. Foram encontradas 23 espécies pertencentes às seguintes famílias: Bufonidae (1, Centrolenidae (1, Hylidae (9, Leptodactylidae (10, Microhylidae (1 e Ranidae (1. A riqueza de espécies desta localidade foi mais similar com a anurofauna do Município de Londrina (Coeficiente de Semelhança Biogeográfica = 0,8, possivelmente porque ambas regiões apresentam o mesmo tipo de formação vegetal (Floresta Estacional Semidecídua e estão localizadas no terceiro planalto paranaense. A survey of anurans species were realized in the region of State Park Guarani River (25º25'S; 53º15'W, Municipality of Três Barras do Paraná, southwestern of Paraná State, Brazil. The breeding sites and vocalization period were registered from mostly of the species. Anuran fauna of the region is composed by 23 species, distributed in 6 families, namely: Bufonidae (1, Centrolenidae (1, Hylidae (9, Leptodactylidae (10, Microhylidae (1 and Ranidae (1. The species richness of this locality was more similar to the anuran fauna of Londrina Municipality (Coeficient of Biogeographic Resemblance = 0,8, possibly because both regions share the same vegetation composition (seasonal semi-deciduous forests and they are located in the third Paraná plateau.

  18. Inclusión de Physalaemus riograndensis Milstead, 1960 en la batracofauna de Misiones, Argentina, y otros aportes para el conocimiento de su distribución (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebez, Juan C.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Physalaemus riograndensis Milstead, 1960. Rep. ARGENTINA, PROV.DE MISIONES, Dpto. Candelaria, Campo San Juan, 27° 25' S, 55° 40' W. 1 ejemplar. MACN número 34.646. Colector: E. Krauczuck.

  19. A new minute species of Pristimantis (Amphibia: Anura: Craugastoridae) with a large head from the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park in central Peru, with comments on the phylogenetic diversity of Pristimantis occurring in the Cordillera Yanachaga

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehr, E.; Moravec, J.; Cusi, J. C.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 325, June (2017), s. 1-22 ISSN 2118-9773 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Andes * DNA barcoding * frogs * molecular phylogeny * new species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2016

  20. Adaptations of the reed frog Hyperolius viridiflavus (Amphibia, Anura, Hyperoliidae) to its arid environment : III. Aspects of nitrogen metabolism and osmoregulation in the reed frog, Hyperolius viridiflavus taeniatus, with special reference to the role of iridophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, R; Linsenmair, K E

    1988-04-01

    Reed frogs of the superspecies Hyperolius viridiflavus occur throughout the seasonally very dry and hot African savannas. Despite their small size (300-700 mg), estivating reed frogs do not avoid stressful conditions above ground by burrowing into the soil, but endure the inhospitable climate relatively unprotected, clinging to mostly dry grass stems. They must have efficient mechanisms to enable them to survive e.g. very high temperatures, low relative humidities, and high solar radiation loads. Mechanisms must also have developed to prevent poisoning by the nitrogenous wastes that inevitably result from protein and nucleotide turnover. In contrast to fossorial amphibians, estivating reed frogs do not become torpid. Reduction in metabolism is therefore rather limited so that nitrogenous wastes accumulate faster in these frogs than in fossorial amphibians. This severely aggravates the osmotic problems caused by dehydration. During dry periods total plasma osmolarity greatly increases, mainly due to urea accumulation. Of the total urea accumulated over 42 days of experimental water deprivation, 30% was produced during the first 7 days. In the next 7 days rise in plasma urea content was negligible. This strong initial increase of urea is seen as a byproduct of elevated amino acid catabolism following the onset of dry conditions. The rise in total plasma osmolarity due to urea accumulation, however, is not totally disadvantageous, but enables fast rehydration when water is available for very short periods only. Voiding of urine and feces ceases once evaporative water loss exceeds 10% of body weight. Therefore, during continuous water deprivation, nitrogenous end products are not excreted. After 42 days of water deprivation, bladder fluid was substantially depleted, and urea concentration in the remaining urine (up to 447 mM) was never greater than in plasma fluid. Feces voided at the end of the dry period after water uptake contained only small amounts of nitrogenous end products. DSF (dry season frogs) seemed no to be uricotelic. Instead, up to 35% of the total nitrogenous wastes produced over 42 days of water deprivation were deposited in an osmotically inert and nontoxic form in iridophore crystals. The increase in skin purine content averaged 150 μg/mg dry weight. If urea had been the only nitrogenous waste product during an estimation period of 42 days, lethal limits of total osmolarity (about 700 mOsm) would have been reached 10-14 days earlier. Thus iridophores are not only involved in colour change and in reducing heat load by radiation remission, but are also important in osmoregulation during dry periods. The selective advantages of deposition of guanine rather than uric acid are discussed.

  1. Miniaturization and its effects on cranial morphology in plethodontid salamanders, genus Thorius (Amphibia, Plethodontidae): II. The fate of the brain and sense organs and their role in skull morphogenesis and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, J

    1983-09-01

    Relative size and arrangement of the brain and paired sense organs are examined in three species of Thorius, a genus of minute, terrestrial salamanders that are among the smallest extant tailed tetrapods. Analogous measurements of representative species of three related genera of larger tropical (Pseudoeurycea, Chiropterotriton) and temperate (Plethodon) salamanders are used to identify changes in gross morphology of the brain and sense organs that have accompanied the evolution of decreased head size in Thorius and their relation to associated changes in skull morphology. In adult Thorius, relative size (area measured in frontal plane, and length) of the eyes, otic capsules, and brain each is greater than in adults of all of the larger genera; relative size of the nasal capsules is unchanged or slightly smaller. Interspecific scaling phenomena--negative allometry of otic capsule, eye and brain size, isometry or slight positive allometry of nasal capsule size, all with respect to skull length--also are characteristic of intraspecific (ontogenetic) comparisons in both T. narisovalis and Pseudoeurycea goebeli. Predominance of the brain and eyes in Thorius results in greater contact and overlap among these structures and the nasal capsules in the anterior portion of the head. This is associated with anterior displacement of both the eyes and nasal capsules, which now protrude anterior to the skull proper; a change in eye shape; and medial deformation of anterior braincase walls. Posteriorly, predominance of the otic capsules has effected a reorientation of the jaw suspensorium to a fully vertical position that is correlated with the novel presence of a posteriorly directed squamosal process and shift in origin of the quadropectoralis muscle. Many of these changes in cranial morphology may be explained simply as results of mechanical (physical) interactions among the skeletal, nervous, and sensory components during head development at reduced size. This provides further evidence of the role of nervous, sensory, and other "soft" tissues in cranial skeletal morphogenesis, and reinforces the need to consider these tissues in analyses of skull evolution.

  2. Connexins in the early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Amphibia: The role of the connexin43 carboxyl terminal tail in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cofre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Connexins are a family of related proteins identified in vertebrate forming gap junctions, which mediate cell-to-cell communication in early embryos, with an important role in establishing embryonic asymmetry and ‘communication compartments’. By in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting we show that a Cx43-like molecule is present in oocytes and embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, with specific localization in the animal-vegetal axis. This specific distribution is suggestive for an important role for this protein in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis. Antisense RNA and antibodies directed against rat carboxyl terminal tail of the Cx43 (CT-Cx43 and injected in 1-cell stage Xenopus embryos, induced pronounced alterations in nervous system development, with a severe ventralization phenotype. Coherently, the overexpression of CT-Cx43 produced a dorsalization of the embryos. In antisense treated embryos, the expression of the beta-catenin gene is eliminated from the Nieuwkoop center, the pattern expression of the Chordin, Xnot and Xbra is modified, with no effect in expression of the Goosecoid gene. In CT-Cx43 mRNA treated embryos the pattern of expression of the beta-catenin, Chordin, Goosecoid, Xnot and engrailed-2 genes is modified. The expression of beta-catenin is increased in the Nieuwkoop center, the expression pattern of Chordin and Goosecoid is expanded to the posterior neural plate and engrailed-2 presents ectopic expression in the ventral region. Taken together our data suggest a role for CT-Cx43 as a maternal determinant with a critical function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis in Xenopus laevis. The Cx43 may be one of the earliest markers of the dorso-ventral axis in these embryos and could possibly be acting through regionalization of factors responsible for the establishment of this axis.

  3. Novos registros geográficos e variação na coloração de Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Lima Silveira

    2011-06-01

    No presente trabalho são apresentados novos registros de Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, obtidos através de amostragens em campo em diversas áreas de Mata Atlântica no estado. Também são apresentadas variações na coloração da espécie. Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus foi coletada em localidades da baixada litorânea no norte do Rio de Janeiro e na região metropolitana da capital, em localidades mais interioranas no noroeste do estado, na Serra do Desengano e no vale do Paraíba do Sul na divisa com Minas Gerais. A espécie foi encontrada em brejos em áreas de floresta estacional semidecidual e floresta ombrófila densa. Os novos registros fornecem uma ampliação significativa da distribuição geográfica conhecida de D. pseudomeridianus, preenchem lacunas dessa distribuição e evidenciam que a espécie é amplamente distribuída pelo estado. Os espécimes coletados exibiram variação na coloração, com dorso apresentando apenas pontuações e pequenas manchas marrons, barras oblíquas e mancha interocular ou extensa mancha em forma de “X”, e o lábio superior ornamentado com pontuações, barras ou manchas circulares de cor branca.

  4. Medindo os impactos do glifosato e do estresse ambiental com uma régua: assimetria flutuante e mortalidade em girinos (Amphibia: Anura) de Physalaemus cuvieri (Leptodactylidae) e Scinax fuscomarginatus (Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Renan Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Há um consenso entre os pesquisadores do mundo de que a redução do número de espécies de anfíbios e o aumento da frequência de anormalidades nos atributos individuais estão associados à redução e à contaminação de hábitats. Com o avanço dos cultivos agrícolas, o aumento da aplicação de produtos químicos e a fragilidade das leis de proteção de ambientes aquáticos, os níveis de estresse ambiental aumentam significativamente. Dessa forma, as respostas biológicas podem favorecer as avaliações de ...

  5. Altitudinal distribution and advertisement call of Colostethus latinasus (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae), endemic species from eastern Panama and type species of Colostethus , with a molecular assessment of similar sympatric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Roberto D; Griffith, Edgardo J; Lips, Karen R; Crawford, Andrew J

    2017-04-12

    We conducted a molecular assessment of Colostethus-like frogs along an elevational gradient in the Serranía de Pirre, above Santa Cruz de Cana, eastern Panama, aiming to establish their species identity and to determine the altitudinal distribution of C. latinasus. Our findings confirm the view of C. latinasus as an endemic species restricted to the highlands of this mountain range, i.e., 1350-1475 m.a.s.l., considered to be type locality of this species. We described the advertisement call of C. latinasus that consists of a series of 4-18 single, short and relatively loud "peep"-like notes given in rapid succession, and its spectral and temporal features were compared with calls of congeneric species. For the first time, DNA sequences from C. latinasus were obtained, since previously reported sequences were based on misidentified specimens. This is particularly important because C. latinasus is the type species of Colostethus, a genus considered paraphyletic according to recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data.

  6. [Light and electron microscopic studies of the structure and histochemistry of the oviduct epithelial cells (pars recta and pars convoluta I, II, III) in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H

    1980-01-01

    The oviduct of the ovoviviparous Salamandra salamandra is differentiated into five readily distinguishable regions (1. pars recta, 2. p. convoluta I, 3. p. convoluta II, 4. p. convoluta III, 5. p. convoluta IV or uterus) due to the structure of its epithelial cells and the carbohydrate histochemistry of their secretory products. The epithelium of region 1-4 is mono-layered and exhibits ciliated and rather undifferentiated cells which both may contain small amounts of secretory material. Large amounts, however, are present in different gland cells restricted to discrete regions of the oviduct: microgranulocytes occur in the p. convoluta I, II, III, microspongiocytes in the p. convoluta II, III, groups of voluminous spongiocytes and granulocytes which form crypts are found in the p. convoluta I (spongiocytes I), in the p. convoluta II (granulocytes), and in the p. convoluta III (spongiocytes II). The uterine epithelium consists of a uniform cell type described elsewhere. All secretory cells contain neutral mucosubstances (in particular the granulocytes and microgranulocytes) and acid mucosubstances with carboxyl- and sulphate-groups. Sulphate ester groups are common in the mucigen globules of the spongiocytes and the microgranulocytes, whereas carboxylgroups and a demonstrable protein component seem to be predominant in the seromucous granulocytes. The secretory product of the microspongiocytes could not be characterized clearly. The ultrastructural features of the gland cells resemble those of other mucus secreting cells. The Golgi apparatus is the most prominent cell organelle of the spongiocytes and granulocytes. In the latter cells granular endoplasmic reticulum is invariable abundant. The secretory granules of all epithelial cells including the content of the vacuoles of the microspongiocytes as well as substances within the dictyosomes and associated vesicles are stained with the periodic acid--chromic acid--methenamine silver (PACAMS) technique suggesting periodic acid-reactive carbohydrate components. The oviducal gland cells of all pregnant and non-pregnant females investigated--specimens immediately after deposition of the jelly envelopes of the eggs could not be examined during this study--are filled with secretory material. It appears to be discharged at least by the spongiocytes and granulocytes into the lumen of the oviduct also beyond the time of secreting the jelly layers.

  7. Adaptations of the reed frog Hyperolius viridiflavus (Amphibia, Anura, Hyperoliidae) to its arid environment. VII. The heat budget of Hyperolius viridiflavus nitidulus and the evolution of an optimized body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, F; Linsenmair, K E

    1995-01-01

    Estivating reed frogs of the superspecies Hyperolius viridiflavus are extraordinarily resistant to the highly adverse climatic conditions prevailing in their African savanna habitats during dry season (air temperature up to 45 degrees C, solar radiation load up to 1000 W.m-2, no water replenishment possible for up to 3 months). They are able to withstand such climatic stress at their exposed estivation sites on dry plants without evaporative cooling. We developed a heat budget model to understand the mechanisms of how an anuran can achieve this unique tolerance, and which allows us to predict the anuran's core and surface temperature for a given set of environmental parameters, to within 4% of the measured values. The model makes it possible to quantify some of the adaptive mechanisms for survival in semiarid habitats by comparing H. viridiflavus with anurans (H. tuberilinguis and Rana pipiens) of less stressful habitats. To minimize heat gain and maximize heat loss from the frog, the following points were important with regard to avoiding lethal heat stress during estivation: 1) solar heat load is reduced by an extraordinarily high skin reflectivity for solar radiation of up to 0.65 under laboratory and even higher in the field under dry season conditions. 2) The half-cylindrical body shape of H. viridiflavus seems to be optimized for estivation compared to the hemispheroidal shape usually found for anurans in moist habitats. A half-cylinder can be positioned relative to the sun so that large surface areas for conductive and convective heat loss are shielded by a small area exposed to direct solar radiation. 3) Another important contribution of body shape is a high body surface area to body mass ratio, as found in the estivating subadult H. viridiflavus (snout-vent lengths of 14-20 mm and body weights of 350-750 mg) compared to adult frogs (24-30 mm, 1000-2500 mg) which have never been observed to survive a dry season. 4) These mechanisms strongly couple core temperature to air temperature. The time constant of the core temperature is 29 +/- 10 s. Since air temperature can be 43-45 degrees C, H. viridiflavus must have a very unusual tolerance to transient core temperatures of 43-45 degrees C. 5) If air temperature rises above this lethal limit, the estivating frog would die despite all its optimizations, but moving from an unsuited to a more favorable site during estivation can be extremely costly in terms of unavoidably high evaporative water loss. Therefore, H. viridiflavus must have developed behavioral strategies for reliably choosing estivation sites with air temperature staying on average within the vital range during the whole dry season.

  8. Un nouveau discoglossidé (Amphibia, Anura)dans le Miocène supérieur du gisement marocain «Oued Zra»A new discoglossid frog from the Upper Miocene of 'Oued Zra', Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossini, Saïda

    2000-11-01

    The fossil anurans of Morocco remain rare and poorly known. The study of the anuran remains from the Upper Miocene (Vallesian) of Oued Zra has revealed a new discoglossid described as Latoglossus zraus n. gen., n. sp. It is morphologically close to the Neogene European genus Latonia. It differs from the latter and from all other discoglossids by the morphology of its angular s.l. The Miocene discoglossid of Beni-Mellal, previously identified as Discoglossus[11], assigned to Latonia[8, 10], and then to Discoglossus[9], might belong to this new taxon.

  9. Utilização de habitats reprodutivos e micro-habitats de vocalização em uma taxocenose de anuros (Amphibia da Mata Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bertoluci

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a utilização de sítios reprodutivos e de vocalização em uma taxocenose de anuros do Parque Estadual Intervales, uma reserva de Mata Atlântica localizada no sudeste do Brasil (24°12' - 24°25' S, 48°03' - 48°30' W. Os trabalhos de campo foram desenvolvidos entre abril de 1990 e março de 1991. Na área de estudo, foram registradas 47 espécies pertencentes a quatro famílias: Bufonidae (4, Hylidae (24, Leptodactylidae (18 e Microhylidae (1. Foram obtidos dados sobre a distribuição dos hábitats reprodutivos e dos micro-habitats de vocalização para 26 espécies por meio do monitoramento mensal de seis corpos d'água ao longo de um ciclo anual. O número de espécies que utilizaram um determinado hábitat variou de 7 a 22. As espécies foram classificadas como generalistas ou especialistas. A maioria das espécies mostrou preferência por determinados sítios de vocalização. Para algumas espécies, a especificidade por sítios de vocalização pareceu depender da densidade de machos emitindo canto nupcial e não da composição de espécies das agregações reprodutivas.Breeding and calling site utilization were studied for an anuran community of the Parque Estadual Intervales, an Atlantic Rainforest reserve located in Southeastern Brazil (24°12'-24°25'S, 48°03'-48°30'W. Field work was carried out between April 1990 and March 1991. Forty-seven species from four families were recorded in the study site: Bufonidae (4, Hylidae (24, Leptodactylidae (18, and Microhylidae (1. We were able to obtain data on breeding habitat and microhabitat distribution for 26 species by monitoring six breeding sites year-round on a monthly basis. The number of species in the sites varied from 7 to 22. Species were classified as habitat generalists and specialists based on breeding site utilization. Most species showed preferences for certain calling sites. For some species calling site specificity seemed to depend on the density of the male aggregations rather than on the species composition of the assemblages.

  10. Phylogentic Relationship among Limnonectes (Ranidae: Amphibia found in West Sumatra with Other Species from South East Asia based on the based on the 16S rRNA Gen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko T. Iskandar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research to study the phylogenetic relationship among Limnonectes species found in West Sumatra and with other species from South East Asia based on the partial DNA sequences16S rRNA sequences. DNA sequences were aligned using ClustalX version 1.64b, and the phylogenetic relationship within samples were analyzed using PHYLIP version 3.5c program. The alignment showed that, from 805 sites, there are 250 parsimony informative polymorphism sites. The phylogenetic tree showed that all of the Limnonectes spesies were divided in two clusters, the L. blythii complex and L. kuhlii complex. L. kuhlii and L. sp1 clustered into L. kuhlii complex and L. shomponerum and L. macrodon were clustered to L. blythii complex.. This result showed that L. kuhlii and L. blythii are species complexes that are actually constituted of several species.

  11. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M. [Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  12. Sentetik piretroit alfa-sipermetrinin değişken desenli gece kurbağası, Bufotes variabilis iribaşlarındaki akut toksisitesi (Amphibia: Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Mert Gürkan; Seda Serbest; Sibel Hayretdağ

    2016-01-01

    In this study, acute toxic effects of alpha-cypermethrin wereinvestigated in the tadpoles of Bufotesvariabilis (Pallas, 1769). Tadpoles at Gosner stage 19 were exposed to 0,0.1, 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations for 96 hours.  Mortality, the changes in some morphologicalmeasurements (snout-vent length, body width, tail length, and wet weight),morphological anomalies and behavioral changes were evaluated at the end of theexperiment. The 96 hours LC50 value was calculated as 1...

  13. New insights into the taxonomy of the skittering frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis complex (Schneider, 1799 (Amphibia: Dicroglossidae based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences in southern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Khajeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Skittering frog (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis is considered to be a species complex distributed in southern and southeastern Asia. Genetic diversity and taxonomic status of populations across their ranges is unclear and existence of several cryptic species is expected. In this study we used sequence variation in the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene to elucidate the taxonomic status of Iranian populations of E. cyanophlyctis and compare their genetic diversity and divergence to populations from the Indian subcontinent. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the populations of E. cyanophlyctis from Iran, Bangladesh-Assam (northeastern India, southern India, and Sri Lanka are partitioned into different clades. At least four different haplogroups were detected which are here proposed to be considered as allopatric cryptic species. The sedimentation of the Helmand River into the Sistan depression during the Neogene and subsequent formation of dry land barriers are proposed to have caused the Iranian populations of skittering frogs to be disconnected from those of the Indian subcontinent, resulting in differentiation of these lineages. In addition, some populations from southern India and those from Sri Lanka that were previously recognized as E. cyanophlyctis belong to E. mudigere. A preliminary investigation on the genetic diversity of the populations from southeastern Iran highlights the low genetic diversity among these populations.

  14. Antioxidant studies on the ethanolic extract of Commiphora spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation elucidated the presence of phytochemical constituents and in vitro free radicals scavenging activity for nitric oxide, total reducing power, superoxide, lipid peroxidation and DPPH in the ethanolic leaves extract of Commiphora species; Commiphora caudata (CC) and Commiphora var pubescens (CP).

  15. The occurrence of taste buds in adults of the terrestrial ceacilian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two generations of gustatory organs occur during amphibian ontogeny in frogs and salamanders (Anura and Caudata), and are classified as taste buds or taste discs. Taste buds are present in larval forms, whereas taste discs are typical for adults. The little research done on Gymnophiona suggests that only taste buds are ...

  16. Research@ARL: Network Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Lancet Neurol. 1, 22—30. Lopes da Silva, F., Blanes, W., Kalitzin, S.N., Parra, J., Suffczyn- ski , P., Velis, D.N., 2003. Epilepsies as dynamical...aidphylogen- etically controlled evolutionary analyses in this taxon. golden M. caudata black-capped M. camtschatica alpine M. marmota hoary M. caligata Olympic

  17. On the origin of and phylogenetic relationships among living amphibians

    OpenAIRE

    Zardoya, Rafael; Meyer, Axel

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among the three orders of modern amphibians (Caudata, Gymnophiona, and Anura) have been estimated based on both morphological and molecular evidence. Most morphological and paleontological studies of living and fossil amphibians support the hypothesis that salamanders and frogs are sister lineages (the Batrachia hypothesis) and that caecilians are more distantly related. Previous interpretations of molecular data based on nuclear and ...

  18. Contribution of chloroplast DNA in the biodiversity of some Aegilops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Aegilops species (Aegilops longissima, Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops searsii and Aegilops caudata) belonging to the family Poaceae were used in this study. Nucleotides of 1651 bp from 5.8 S rRNA gene and the intergenic spacers trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF from the chloroplast DNA were combined together in order to ...

  19. Kunci identifikasi lalat buah (Diptera: Tephritidae) di Kabupaten Bogor dan sekitarnya

    OpenAIRE

    Anik Larasati; Purnama Hidayat; Damayanti Buchori

    2016-01-01

    Identification key was developed for 18 species of fruit flies (Bactocera spp.) found in Bogor district. Morphological characters were used as background information for key development: 2 genus and 4 subgenus were identified in the process. Fruit fly species in this identification was Bactrocera (Bactrocera) albistrigata de meijere, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) caudata Fabricus, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) latifrons White & Liquido, Bactrocer...

  20. Kunci Identifikasi Lalat Buah (Diptera: Tephritidae) Di Kabupaten Bogor Dan Sekitarnya

    OpenAIRE

    Larasati, Anik; Hidayat, Purnama; Buchori, Damayanti

    2016-01-01

    Identification key was developed for 18 species of fruit flies (Bactocera spp.) found in Bogor district. Morphological characters were used as background information for key development: 2 genus and 4 subgenus were identified in the process. Fruit fly species in this identification was Bactrocera (Bactrocera) albistrigata de meijere, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) caudata Fabricus, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) latifrons White & Liquido, Bactrocer...

  1. New species and notes on genera of the Celastraceae (incl. Hippocrateaceae). III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, A.M.W.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of two new species in the genus Pristimera, P. dariense from Panama and P. caudata from Suriname. P. dariense differs by its flattened disk from the other New World species of the genus, but would fit in the subgenus Trochantha N. Hallé known from Africa. Cuervea crenulata sp.

  2. Contribution of chloroplast DNA in the biodiversity of some Aegilops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... Four Aegilops species (Aegilops longissima, Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops searsii and Aegilops caudata) belonging to the family Poaceae were used in this study. Nucleotides of 1651 bp from 5.8 S. rRNA gene and the intergenic spacers trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF from the chloroplast DNA were combined.

  3. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. PARVEEN CHHUNEJA. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 91 Issue 2 August 2012 pp 155-161 Research Article. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to bread wheat · Amandeep Kaur Riar Satinder Kaur H. S. Dhaliwal Kuldeep Singh Parveen ...

  4. A new name and a new synonym in Miconia (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Goldenberg

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The name Miconia densiflora Cogniaux is a later homonym of M. densiflora (Gardner Naudin, but since we propose it as a taxonomic synoym of M. caudata (Bonpl. DC., we do not provide a new name. The name Miconia longicuspis Herzog is a later homonym of M. longicuspis Cogn. and we here propose its replacement by M. longicuspidata Renner & R.Goldenb.

  5. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. AMANDEEP KAUR. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 91 Issue 2 August 2012 pp 155-161 Research Article. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to bread wheat · Amandeep Kaur Riar Satinder Kaur H. S. Dhaliwal Kuldeep Singh Parveen ...

  6. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 5. Synthesis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    24.29 29.13 90.25 29.03 19.78 Amphibia .. .. .. .. .. 0.13 .......- -. Total insects 79.01 30.37 15.56 63.31 60.03 72.89 51.03 8.55 61.24 56.44 Eggs...Total . Crustaceae 45.92 9.81 67.02 72.98 41.78 11.87 27.7 23.72 72.95 38.66 Amphibia .. .. ................ Total insects 50.61 84.61 27.98 32.8...3.94 24.28 26.32 Fish remains 22.52 11.74 4.99 44.19 56.62 .. .. .. .. Total insects 0.02 ............ 5.81 0.26 • Total Amphibia .......... 9.88

  7. Ontogenesis peculiarities species of genus Rorippa Scopoli (Cruciferae in the subzone of the southern taiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Shabalkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Latent, pregenerative and generative periods in the ontogeny of Rorippa amphibia (L. Bess., R. palustris (L. Bess. and R. ×anceps (Wahlenb. Reichenb. were described. Skipping of a postgenerative stage, and some of ontogenetic states demonstrates the dynamic multiplicity of individual development; while the combination of seed and vegetative reproductions – multiplicity of the ways of reproduction and generation. The ontogeny of R. palustris individuals corresponds to A-type, R. amphibia and R. ×anceps – to G-type, and R. ×anceps – to D-type.

  8. Herpetofauna de la estrella fluvial de Inírida (ríos Inírida, Guaviare, Atabapo y Orinoco), Orinoquia colombiana lista preliminar de especies

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Betancourt, Mónica A.; Lasso, Carlos A.; Renjifo, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Con base en una evaluación rápida de campo realizada durante la estación seca (febrero 2008) en la Estrella Fluvial de Inírida (confluencia de los ríos Guaviare, Inírida, Atabapo y Orinoco), revisión de los decomisos faunísticos de las corporaciones regionales y análisis bibliográfico, se consolida un listado herpetológico preliminar. Fueron identificadas 62 especies, 31 para la clase Amphibia y 31 para Reptilia. La clase Amphibia está representada por el orden Anura y seis familias, siendo H...

  9. Aquatic Studies of the Main Channel Border Habitat of Pool 5A on the Upper Mississippi River,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Navic-ula tr-punctata 272 45 193 522 136 45 272 272 Navicula -smalI unidentified 2,993 2,143 5,204 2,154 3,809 2,358 3,764 1,519 N-itzsca amphibia 45 23...ripunctata 68 0 45 0 0 23 0 91 .avIcua - small unidentified 7,324 6,190 5,102 1,315 10,567 10,771 8,480 3,583 N-_zschia amphibia 680 1,134 363 45 862 1,451

  10. Oncology of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John E

    2004-09-01

    In this article, "Invertebrates" are considered to be all those animals that are not in the five main groups of vertebrates (Mammalia,Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, and three classes of fish), and the term neoplasm is used in its traditional sense of "new, uncontrolled, growth". The history of study of such lesions is reviewed and methods of investigation and control are outlined.

  11. Archaeological Investigations at Site 45-DO-285, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    carapace or plastron. ea ’W’ 82 AMPHIBIA (NlSP=167) Ranidae/ Bufonidae (frogs, toads) -- 167 elements. Both frogs and toads inhabit the project area...Ranidae/ Bufonidae Zone 1: 1 skull fragment, 2 lnncoinate fragments, 1 femur fragment. Zone 2: 1 radloulna, 1 tiblofibula Zone 3: 29 humerus fragments, 18

  12. Study of the soluble lens proteins from different amphibian species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brahma, S.K.; Doorenmaalen, W.J. van

    Soluble lens proteins from five species of amphibia have been studied by zone electrophoresis and other immunochemical methods. Their patterns, as revealed by electrophoresis, do not differ markedly though the numbers of bands and subunits vary. The γ-crystallin appears to be the predominant lens

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 26, No 4 (1991), New southern geographical records of intertidal sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea), with notes on abundance, Abstract PDF. D.J. Marshall, A.N. Hodgson, R.A. Pretorius. Vol 35, No 2 (2000), new species of Heterixalus (Amphibia: Hyperoliidae) from western Madagascar, Abstract. Miguel Vences ...

  14. Cell fate establishment during early development of cyprinid fishes, with special emphasis on the formation of the primordial germ cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, P.

    1992-01-01

    Cell fates can be established either by preformation or by epigenesis. With respect to primordial germ cells (PGCs) it has been shown that the Amphibia exhibit both types of cell fate establishment. Therefore, it is important to study the germ cell origin of the evolutionary lower class of

  15. Some aspects of the morphology, population structure and larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-26

    Jun 26, 1987 ... Dissection of the Spiny Dogfish and the Platanna. Maskew Miller Ltd., Cape Town. 103 pp. 123. NOBLE, G.K. 1924. Contributions to the herpetology of the. Belgian 'Congo based on the collection of the American. Museum Congo Expedition 1909-1915. Part 3 Amphibia. Bull. Am. Mus. nat. Hist. 49: 147-347.

  16. On the presence of nucleus ruber in the urodele Salamandra salamandra and the caecilian Ichthyophis kohtaoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks-Manteuffel, C; Manteuffel, G; Himstedt, W

    1988-01-01

    The presence of nucleus ruber in urodeles and caecilians (amphibia) was investigated. For that purpose, horseradish peroxidase was applied to the rostral spinal cord, the medulla oblongata at various levels and the dorsolateral funiculus. Whereas Salamandra salamandra possesses a rubrospinal tract, it is absent in the limbless caecilian Ichthyophis kohtaoensis.

  17. Growth hormone in the eye: A comparative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Comparative studies have previously established that the eye is an extrapituitary site of growth hormone (GH) production and action in fish, amphibia, birds and mammals. In this review more recent literature and original data in this field are considered. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Documentation for the CETACEA Database of Marine Mammal Literature References. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    lato --------- G other mammals------------------H VERTEBRATES Ayes---------------------------- I Reptilia ----------------------- J Amphibia...Group 18. Availability Statement 19. Security Class (This Report) 21. No. of Pages Approved for publication; distribution unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED 11...20. Security Class (This Page) 22. Price (See ANSI-Z39.18) See Instructions on Reverse OPTIONAL FORM 272 (4-77) (Formerly NTIS-35)Deparment of Commerce

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 275 of 1840 ... Vol 17, No 3 (1982), Article Syndactyly in Bufo maculatus Hallowell (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae), Abstract PDF. A.J.L. Lambiris. Vol 39, No 1 (2004), Aseasonal reproduction in the Hottentot golden mole, Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida: Chrysochloridae) from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ...

  20. Anura: Bufonidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syndactyly in Bufo maculatus Hallowell (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae). A.J.L. Lambiris. Harare, Zimbabwe. Syndactyly in five specimens of Buto maculatus, all from a small area 25 km west of Harare, Zimbabwe, is described. In three cases only one pair of digits was involved (two of the hand, one of the foot); in a fourth, two ...

  1. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. Frank Blair. Austin & London: Univ. of. Texas Press. PASSMORE, N. 1.1972. Intergrading between mem- bers of the 'regularis group' of toads in. South Africa. J. Zool., Lond., 167: 143-151. POYNTON, J. c. 1964. The Amphibia 0/ Southern. Africa. Cape Town: Purnell & Sons. TANDY, M. & KI!lTH, R. 1972. 'Bu/o of Africa. In.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 17, No 1 (1982), The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments on their possible functional value in microhylids (Amphibia: Anura), Abstract PDF. J Visser, J.M. Cei, L.S. Gutierrez. Vol 26, No 4 (1991), The histology of the adrenal gland of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana, Abstract PDF.

  3. INAUGURAL ADDRESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    not many species of reptiles, amphibia and freshwater fishes in southern Africa today which could be placed in this category. On the other hand, there are many species which, by the very restricted and local nature of their range of distribution, or the close proximity thereof to rapidly developing areas or urban complexes, are ...

  4. THE BEHAVIOUR AND BRAIN FUNCTION OF THE CICHLID FISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    telencephalon begins in the amphibia, and that this has been the basis of telencephalic development in the vertebrates. In view of the involvement of the teleost forebrain in behavioural responses to visual and tactile stimuli, it would appear that sensations, even if modified by the tectum, are transferred to the telencephalon.

  5. Molecular and bioacoustic divergence in Mantidactylus granulatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... connected in Pliocene Pleistocene times. By contrast, the presence of endemic species at higher altitudes of the Tsaratanana Massif may be seen as evidence for a longer isolation of the habitats at these elevational levels. Key words: Amphibia, Mantidactylus granulatus, M. zavona n.sp., advertisement calls, 16S rRNA.

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 243 ... Vol 93 (2004), A rediscovery after two decades: the Changamwe lowland caecilian Boulengerula changamwensis Loveridge, 1932 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caecilidae), Abstract. Patrick K Malonza, Hendrik Müller. Vol 103, No 1 (2014), A roadside survey of the invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus ...

  7. SENSU STRICTO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Class Amphibia. Grahamstown: Albany Museum. WAGRa, V. A. 1965. The frogs 0/ South Africa. Cape Town: Purnell & Sons. VAN DUK, D. B. 1966. Systematic and field keys to the families, genera and described species of southern African anuran tadpoles. Ann. Natal. Mus. 18: 231-286. capture (Wedemeyer 1972; Hattingh ...

  8. A diatom record of recent environmental change in Lake Duluti, northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, Helena; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Westerberg, Lars-Ove

    2012-01-01

    ) Simonsen, Gomphonema parvulum (Kützing) Grunow and Nitzschia amphibia Grunow. All three cores display similar stratigraphic succession, but the relative ratio of habitats represented by the diatoms varies substantially between cores. Diatoms indicate that the oldest part of the record is characterized...

  9. Short communications: Calls of three species of arthroleptid frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also provide numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the calls. The calls are compared with previously published descriptions from other parts of their distribution. A new call type is described for Leptodactylodon albiventris. Key words: Amphibia, Arthroleptidae, audiospectrograms.

  10. fish Barbus aeneus (Burchell)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by the larger fish. Animal prey items offer a high-energy food resource but, with the exception of fishes, crabs, molluscs, amphibia and some of the larger insects, the bulk of those available in the aquatic environment are small forms such as chironomid larvae, copepod, ostracod and cladoceran crustacea and oligochaetes.

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nie, L. Vol 8, No 8 (2009) - Articles Cloning and analysis of the HMG domains of ten Sox genes from Bombina maxima (Amphibia: Anura) Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 35 (2011) - Articles Interspecific hybridization between Mauremys reevesii and Mauremys sinensis: Evidence from morphology and DNA sequence data

  12. ANURA: RANIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Amphibia of southern Africa. Ann. Natal Mus. 17: 1-334. SCHl0TZ, A. 1967. The treefrogs (Rhacophoridae) of West Africa. Spolia zool. Mus. haun. 25: 1-346. SCIDSTZ, A. 1971. The superspecies Hyperolius viridiflavus (Anura). Vidensk. Meddr. dansk naturh. Foren. 134:21-76. SCIDSTZ, A. 1975. The treefrogs of eastern ...

  13. Cloning and analysis of the HMG domains of ten Sox genes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Cloning and analysis of the HMG domains of ten Sox genes from Bombina maxima (Amphibia: Anura). Jingjing Wang, Ning Wang and Liu-wang Nie*. The Provincial Key Lab. of the Conservation and Exploitation Research of Biological Resources in Anhui, College of Life.

  14. Going back to rovuma: the frog fauna of a coastal Dry forest, and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dendrogram of occurrence data investigating faunal relationships between provinces illustrates Cabo Delgado is closest to Nampula in the number of shared species, reflecting the distribution of East African coastal dry forest frog fauna. Keywords: Amphibia, faunistic study, taxonomy, live colouration, species list ...

  15. Molecular characterization and gene expression of the channel catfish Ferritin H subunit after bacterial infection and iron treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferritins are the major iron storage protein in the cytoplasm of cells, responsible for regulating levels of intracellular iron. Ferritin genes are widely distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In mammals, ferritin molecules are composed of heavy- (H) and light- (L) chain subunits; amphibia...

  16. African Zoology - Vol 17, No 1 (1982)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments on their possible functional value in microhylids (Amphibia: Anura) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J Visser, J.M. Cei, L.S. Gutierrez, 24-27 ...

  17. Short Communications Collections of freshwater shrimps along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-13

    Mar 13, 1987 ... (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal. A.J.L. Larnbiris. Natal Parks Board, P.O. Box 662, Pietermaritzburg, 3200. Republic of South Africa. Received 29 March 1987; accepted 26 June 1987. A new species of Cacostemum from Pietermaritzburg, Natal, is described. It is a small, slender, smooth-skinned ...

  18. Epilithic and aerophilic diatoms in the artificial environment of Kungsträdgården metro station, Stockholm, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Magnus, Ivarsson; Lundberg, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    found growing on the rock walls of Kungsträdgården metro station. The results show the diatom flora in Kungsträdgården to be dominated by e.g. Diadesmis contenta, Diadesmis perpusilla, Pinnularia appendiculata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia sinuata and Diploneis ovalis. One species, Caloneis cf...

  19. THE ROLE OF MAMMALIAN DATA IN DETERMINING PHARMACEUTICAL RESPONSES IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The limitations surrounding application of pharmaceutical data are restricted to extrapolation of the animal and human data across phyla. Experience dictates that mammalian data are most likely to extrapolate predictably to fish and other aquatic vertebrates (e.g. Amphibia), and ...

  20. Physiology, University o/the Witwatersrand Zool. afro 4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RBPBRBNCBS. BALINSKY, B. I. 1969. The reproductive ecology of amphibians of the Transvaal highveld. Zool. afro 4: 37-93. HBWITT, 1. 1937. A guide to the vertebrate /aU1llJ o/the eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Part II. - Reptiles, amphibians, and /resh- water fishes. Class Amphibia. Grahamstown: Albany Museum.