WorldWideScience

Sample records for salaam united republic

  1. Institutional evolution of a community-based programme for malaria control through larval source management in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular. Case description The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales. Discussion and evaluation The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme. Conclusions The UMCP was based on the principle of an integrated operational research project that evolved over time as the City Council gradually took more responsibility for management. The central role of Dar es Salaam’s City Council in coordinating LSM implementation enabled that flexibility; the institutionalization of management and planning in local administrative structures enhanced community-mobilization and funding possibilities at national and international levels. Ultimately, the high degree of program ownership by the City Council and three municipalities, coupled with catalytic donor funding and technical support from expert overseas partners have enabled establishment of a sustainable, internally-funded programme implemented by the National Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and supported by national research and training institutes. PMID

  2. Wrong schools or wrong students? The potential role of medical education in regional imbalances of the health workforce in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Beatus K; Riise Kolstad, Julie

    2010-02-26

    The United Republic of Tanzania, like many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, faces a human resources crisis in its health sector, with a small and inequitably distributed health workforce. Rural areas and other poor regions are characterised by a high burden of disease compared to other regions of the country. At the same time, these areas are poorly supplied with human resources compared to urban areas, a reflection of the situation in the whole of Sub-Saharan Africa, where 1.3% of the world's health workforce shoulders 25% of the world's burden of disease. Medical schools select candidates for training and form these candidates' professional morale. It is therefore likely that medical schools can play an important role in the problem of geographical imbalance of doctors in the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper reviews available research evidence that links medical students' characteristics with human resource imbalances and the contribution of medical schools in perpetuating an inequitable distribution of the health workforce.Existing literature on the determinants of the geographical imbalance of clinicians, with a special focus on the role of medical schools, is reviewed. In addition, structured questionnaires collecting data on demographics, rural experience, working preferences and motivational aspects were administered to 130 fifth-year medical students at the medical faculties of MUCHS (University of Dar es Salaam), HKMU (Dar es Salaam) and KCMC (Tumaini University, Moshi campus) in the United Republic of Tanzania. The 130 students represented 95.6% of the Tanzanian finalists in 2005. Finally, we apply probit regressions in STATA to analyse the cross-sectional data coming from the aforementioned survey. The lack of a primary interest in medicine among medical school entrants, biases in recruitment, the absence of rural related clinical curricula in medical schools, and a preference for specialisation not available in rural areas are among the

  3. 77 FR 57072 - Uncovered Innerspring Units from the People's Republic of China; Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... International Trade Administration Uncovered Innerspring Units from the People's Republic of China; Antidumping... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on uncovered innerspring units from the People's Republic of... the Order The merchandise subject to the order is uncovered innerspring units composed of a series of...

  4. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  5. A comparative study of clinical supervision in the Republic of Ireland and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael V; Creaner, Mary; Hutman, Heidi; Timulak, Ladislav

    2015-10-01

    We replicated Son, Ellis, and Yoo (2013) and extended Ellis et al.'s (2014) taxonomy of harmful and inadequate supervision by providing and testing cross-national comparative descriptive data about clinical supervision practices in the Republic of Ireland versus the United States. Participants were 149 Republic of Ireland and 151 U.S. mental health supervisees currently receiving clinical supervision. The results suggested that characteristics of supervision in the Republic of Ireland and United States evidenced both similarities and differences. The dissimilar credentialing systems appeared to account for the observed differences, suggesting that Ellis et al.'s (2014) criteria for inadequate supervision need to be modified to account for country-specific standards for supervision. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were observed between the Republic of Ireland and United States in the high occurrence of inadequate, harmful, or exceptional supervision. The results suggested that 79.2% (Republic of Ireland) and 69.5% (United States) of the supervisees were categorized as currently receiving inadequate supervision, and 40.3% (Republic of Ireland) and 25.2% (United States) of the supervisees as receiving harmful supervision. At some point in their careers, 92.4% (Republic of Ireland) and 86.4% (United States) of the supervisees received inadequate supervision--51.7% (Republic of Ireland) and 39.7% (United States) received harmful supervision. On the positive side, 51.0% (Republic of Ireland) and 55.0% (United States) of the supervisees reported receiving exceptional supervision from their current supervisors. Substantial discrepancies were observed between supervisees' perceptions versus more objective criteria of the inadequate or harmful supervision they received. Implications for cross-national supervision research and training are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Pulmonary aspergilloma: A 15 years experience in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a paucity of literature on the prevalence and surgical treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma in African countries. This was a retrospective review of cases managed at the Thoracic Surgical Unit of Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, over a 15-year period from June 1986 to May 2000. Ten patients ...

  7. Attitudes toward domestic violence in the Czech Republic and in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Soudková, Šárka

    2008-01-01

    violence in the Czech Republic and the United States of America. It surveys professional and public approaches to the domestic violence - the theoretic conceptions, reflection of this topic by the legal system, by nongovernmental organizations and by the public opinion. Consequently it brings the comparison of the perception of the domestic violence in the Czech Republic and the USA. Although domestic violence is not a new phenomenon at all, it was explicitly first labeled by the women's move...

  8. 77 FR 13618 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Dominican Republic- Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). This is a proposed extension of an...

  9. 76 FR 75893 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Dominican Republic- Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... paperwork and respondent burden, CBP invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on an...

  10. Determination of voting results and procedure presidential inauguration republic of Azerbaijan and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Багирли, Вугар Давид оглы

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with determining the voting results and the procedure inauguration of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic and the United States. It’s considered in the article presidential elections in political terms that are essential, as a question of the head of state - government institutions, has a special place in the mechanism of government different of countries. This is especially true with regard to the presidential elections in the republics: the Republic of Azerbaijan and...

  11. AUDIT OF MUNICIPALITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS - THE CASE STUDY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Public economics examines the influence of the state on economic equality and efficiency, and on conduction of business entities in connection with the various tax systems and individual behavior in private consumption. To manage the public economy is thorough knowledge of the real decision-making and allocation mechanisms. From a budgetary perspective, the public economy in the Czech Republic is characterized mainly by the state budget, 6,249 municipal budgets and 14 budgets of local government units. These all units are together subject to annual statutory audit, which mainly represents the analysis of the system of the Audit informative and monitoring indicators (ASIMI. The paper analyzes the outcome of the audit with the use of absolute and relative indicators and suggests possible changes and consolidation of municipal and local government budgets in the Czech Republic.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Kara; Kikumbih, Nassor; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Mponda, Haji; Nathan, Rose; Lake, Sally; Mills, Anne; Tanner, Marcel; Lengeler, Christian

    2003-01-01

    To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use...

  13. Citizen or Subordinate: Permutations of Belonging in the United States and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina Aber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dominican Republic and the United States have both experienced tensions arising from migratory flows from poorer, less stable neighbors. Until recently, both countries had constitutions which conferred citizenship by birth with very limited exceptions. Despite these similarities, their respective discourses around jus soli citizenship, particularly for the children of unauthorized migrants from the poorer neighboring countries, have manifested in different ways. The identity of the United States as a nation of immigrants has limited the success of campaigns to revoke jus soli citizenship for the children of unauthorized immigrants, but the persistent articulation of this idea as a response to illegal migration has shifted the parameters of the immigration debate. In the Dominican Republic, the historical construction of national identity and anti-Haitian discourse has led to an evolution in Dominican law which codifies already established practices that deny citizenship to children of Haitian migrants. In both cases, movements that support more inclusive understandings of societal belonging, like the DREAMers in the United States and youth movements in the Dominican Republic, may offer the most effective way of protecting universal jus soli citizenship regimes. 

  14. His Excellency Mr Juraj Podhorsky Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Slovak Republic to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Juraj Podhorsky Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Slovak Republic to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  15. Green vegetable supply in Dar es Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerif, M.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article constructs a picture of green vegetable growing and supply in Dar es Salaam by looking at the lives and work of a small trader and an urban farmer. It reveals the importance of a range of distribution and trade networks and the integration of a wider city region, alongside urban and

  16. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal publishes articles on all aspects of Library and Information Science. These include organization and dissemination of information, library education and training, information technology and its application in libraries, book reviews and short communications. Authors are in ...

  17. Excreta Disposal in Dar-es-salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.; Mashouri, D.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    The sociocultural and socioeconomic situation of sanitation in Dar-es-Salaam (Dsm), Tanzania, was studied with explicit emphasis on pit-latrines. Without considering the sociocultural conditions, the so-called best solution might not be the right one. Therefore, in order to achieve the intended

  18. oils marketed in dar es salaam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). ... METHODS. Seven brands of locally produced edible vegetable oils (Table 1) were randomly collected off the shelf around Dar es Salaam. Table 1: Edible oils, their brand and manufacturer names, ... in the Sealed bottles Were similarly analyzed for peroxide value over 60 days. 50 ...

  19. Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Engineering geological mapping of Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania has been carried out using desk studies supplemented by field reconnaissance as well as limited laboratory tests. Desk studies involved interpretation of medium to large-scale topographical maps,. Landsat imagery and sequential aerial ...

  20. Acquisition and ecological characterization of Lactuca serriola L. germplasm collected in the Czech Republic, , Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebeda, A.; Dolezalova, I.; Kristkova, E.; Dehmer, K.J.; Astley, D.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Treuren, van R.

    2007-01-01

    Expeditions were conducted in the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom in 2001 (partly 1998) to study Lactuca serriola L. (prickly lettuce, compass plant) geographic distribution, ecology, habitat characteristics and occurrence of diseases and pests on this species. During

  1. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  2. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  3. Manpower Procurement Policies, Ground Force Structures, and Registration Systems: Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    planning to trdvel abroad, emmigrate or take a job on a merchant ship sailing only on foreign ports, they must apply to their units for permission. 1 In...to introduce conscription possibly by 1982 (the earlier decision to introduce conscription in 1979 was delayed). Malaysia and the Republic of South

  4. 31 july 2014 - H. WU Ambassador Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations

    CERN Multimedia

    Egli, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Hailong WU Ambassador Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organizations in Switzerland visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Spokesperson D. Charlton and the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  5. IINFORMAL LABOUR MARKET IN TANZANIA : A case of Kinondoni district in Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Setebe, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Juliet Manzala Setebe. Informal Labor Market in Tanzania: A case of Kinondoni District in Dar es Salaam. Jarvenpaa Autumn 2011, 48p., 2 appendices . Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree Program in Social Services (DSS). Informal Labor Market is a concept that has been researched for more than twenty years, but no one has come up with a concrete definition. Many researchers referred to it as activities which are done outside the governm...

  6. Design challenges facing urban development in Dar es Salaam City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at discussing building design challenges facing the city of Dar es Salaam. Information and data used for this paper were drawn from the study conducted in the city of Dar es Salaam and literature survey. The major concern is the negative effects associated with designs, construction activities and ...

  7. Clinical assessment and treatment in paediatric wards in the north-east of the United Republic of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyburn, Hugh; Mwakasungula, Emmanuel; Chonya, Semkini

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed paediatric care in the 13 public hospitals in the north-east of the United Republic of Tanzania to determine if diagnoses and treatments were consistent with current guidelines for care. METHODS: Data were collected over a five-day period in each site where paediatric...... and associated with missed diagnoses and inappropriate treatments. Improved assessment and records are essential to initiate change, but achieving this will be a challenging task....

  8. His Excellency Mr Zbigniew Czech, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2018-01-01

    Visit of His Excellency Mr Zbigniew Czech, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  9. Insecticide-treated nets and treatment service: a trial using public and private sector channels in rural United Republic of Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fraser-Hurt, N; Lyimo, E O

    1998-01-01

    The Rotary Net Initiative, implemented in Kilombero District, southern United Republic of Tanzania, allowed us to explore different sales channels for the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs...

  10. Mapping malaria risk and vulnerability in the United Republic of Tanzania: a spatial explicit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenlocher, Michael; Castro, Marcia C

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) impose a heavy burden on vulnerable populations. Despite recent progress in eradication and control, malaria remains the most prevalent VBD. Integrative approaches that take into account environmental, socioeconomic, demographic, biological, cultural, and political factors contributing to malaria risk and vulnerability are needed to effectively reduce malaria burden. Although the focus on malaria risk has increasingly gained ground, little emphasis has been given to develop quantitative methods for assessing malaria risk including malaria vulnerability in a spatial explicit manner. Building on a conceptual risk and vulnerability framework, we propose a spatial explicit approach for modeling relative levels of malaria risk - as a function of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability - in the United Republic of Tanzania. A logistic regression model was employed to identify a final set of risk factors and their contribution to malaria endemicity based on multidisciplinary geospatial information. We utilized a Geographic Information System for the construction and visualization of a malaria vulnerability index and its integration into a spatially explicit malaria risk map. The spatial pattern of malaria risk was very heterogeneous across the country. Malaria risk was higher in Mainland areas than in Zanzibar, which is a result of differences in both malaria entomological inoculation rate and prevailing vulnerabilities. Areas of high malaria risk were identified in the southeastern part of the country, as well as in two distinct "hotspots" in the northwestern part of the country bordering Lake Victoria, while concentrations of high malaria vulnerability seem to occur in the northwestern, western, and southeastern parts of the mainland. Results were visualized using both 10×10 km(2) grids and subnational administrative units. The presented approach makes an important contribution toward a decision support tool. By decomposing malaria

  11. 78 FR 41784 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. Preliminary Determination The Department has... Malaysia by Reztec Industries Sdn Bhd (``Reztec'') using components from the People's Republic of China...

  12. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct

  13. Dar es Salaam Land Use and Informal Settlement Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dar es Salaam Land Use and Informal Settlement Data Set represents urban land use and consolidation of informal settlements for the years 1982, 1992, 1998, and...

  14. Entrepreneurial Management Education Needs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabic, Marina; Vlajcic, Davor; Novak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to take the emergence of the knowledge mobilization as an opportunity to develop an understanding of needs for catching up appropriate knowledge application in SMEs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the UK. It draws upon the "frame mobilization" literature, which illuminates the role that acts…

  15. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: United States/Federal Republic of Germany nuclear licensing comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    In order to compare US and FRG Nuclear Licensing, a summary description of United States Nuclear Licensing is provided as a basis. This is followed by detailed information on the participants in the Nuclear Licensing process in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). FRG licensing procedures are described and the rules and regulations imposed are summarized. The status of gas reactor licensing in both the U.S. and the FRG is outlined and overall conclusions are drawn as to the major licensing differences. An appendix describes the most important technical differences between US and FRG criteria.

  16. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  17. Trait Predictors of Aggression and Crash-Related Behaviors Across Drivers from the United Kingdom and the Irish Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Amanda N; Sullman, Mark J M

    2015-09-01

    Aggressive driving is acknowledged as a contributor to motor vehicle crashes. This study explored a theoretical model of aggressive expression and crash-related outcomes using self-report data collected, using an online questionnaire, from drivers in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. The proposed model tested whether the personality traits of boredom proneness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, coupled with trait driving anger, predicted aggressive driving; and whether aggressive driving predicted crash-related outcomes (loss of concentration and control, near misses, and moving violations). The structural model was confirmed, with aggressive expressions of anger being found to mediate the relationships driving anger and impulsivity had with the crash-related outcomes. Multigroup invariance analysis showed that the model remained invariant across drivers from the United Kingdom and Ireland, suggesting that the contributing factors for aggressive expression and crash involvement are similar across both countries. When self-reported crash-related conditions were compared between drivers in the United Kingdom and Ireland, drivers in the United Kingdom reported more aggressive driving, more minor crashes, more incidents of road rage, and more frequent losses of concentration and vehicle control. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kara; Kikumbih, Nassor; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Mponda, Haji; Nathan, Rose; Lake, Sally; Mills, Anne; Tanner, Marcel; Lengeler, Christian

    2003-01-01

    To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. The social marketing approach to the distribution of insecticide-treated nets was estimated to cost 1560 US dollars per death averted and 57 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year averted. These figures fell to 1018 US dollars and 37 US dollars, respectively, when the costs and consequences of untreated nets were taken into account. The social marketing of insecticide-treated nets is an attractive intervention for preventing childhood deaths from malaria.

  19. Does the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness cost more than routine care? Results from the United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Taghreed; Manzi, Fatuma; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Mgalula, Leslie; de Savigny, Don; Evans, David B.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy is designed to address the five leading causes of childhood mortality, which together account for 70% of the 10 million deaths occurring among children worldwide annually. Although IMCI is associated with improved quality of care, which is a key determinant of better health outcomes, it has not yet been widely adopted, partly because it is assumed to be more expensive than routine care. Here we report the cost of IMCI compared with routine care in four districts in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Total district costs of child care were estimated from the societal perspective as the sum of child health-care costs incurred in a district at the household level, primary health-facility level and hospital level. We also included administrative and support costs incurred by national and district administrations. The incremental cost of IMCI is the difference in costs of child health-care between districts with and without IMCI, after standardization for population size. FINDINGS: The annual cost per child of caring for children less than five years old in districts with IMCI was USD 11.19, 44% lower than the cost in the districts without IMCI (USD 16.09). Much of the difference was due to higher rates of hospitalization of children less than 5 years old in the districts without IMCI. Not all of this difference can be attributed to IMCI but even when differences in hospitalization rates are excluded, the cost per child was still 6% lower in IMCI districts. CONCLUSION:IMCI was not associated with higher costs than routine child health-care in the four study districts in the United Republic of Tanzania. Given the evidence of improved quality of care in the IMCI districts, the results suggest that cost should not be a barrier to the adoption and scaling up of IMCI. PMID:15976878

  20. Adolescent Girls with illegally Induced Abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Mchumvu, Y

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14-19) were asked...... that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among...

  1. Modelling local government unit credit risk in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Posedel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine possible indicators that affect local unit credit risk and investigate their effect on default (credit risk of local government units in Croatia. No system for the estimation of local unit credit risk has been established in Croatia so far causing many practical problems in local unit borrowing. Because of the specific nature of the operations of local government units and legislation that does not allow local government units to go into bankruptcy, conventional methods for estimating credit risk are not applicable, and the set of standard potential determinants of credit risk has to be expanded with new indicators. Thus in the paper, in addition to the usual determinants of credit risk, the hypothesis of the influence of political factors on local unit credit risk in Croatia is also tested out, with the use of a Tobit model. Results of econometric analysis show that credit risk of local government units in Croatia is affected by the political structure of local government, the proportion of income tax and surtax in operating revenue, the ratio of net operating balance, net financial liabilities and direct debt to operating revenue, as well as the ratio of debt repayment and cash, and direct debt and operating revenue.

  2. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of microbial pollution in urban coastal waters off Dar es Salaam were excessive, indicating that water within the port channel was not safe for contact recreation. Seafood from areas adjacent to Msimbazi Creek and the Ocean Road sewer outfall was unfit for human consumption. Conversely, the water quality of Ras ...

  3. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal publishes articles on all aspects of library and information science. These include organization and dissemination of information, library education and training, information technology and its application in libraries, book reviews and short communications.

  4. The Pattern of Mortality in Dar es Salaam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    compared to females but gradually the situation has reversed with time despite the constant general population ratio in Dar es Salaam. Conclusion: Mortality was found to be high in underfives and people aged 20 to 49 years. The distribution pattern of deaths tally with the distribution pattern of deaths caused by Malaria and ...

  5. (IMTU) PO BOX 77594, Dar es salaam Tan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-06

    Jul 6, 2015 ... HEALTH SERVICES PROVISION TO ELDERLY PEOPLE AT TANDALE DISPENSARY,. KINONDONI MUNICIPALITY, DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA. 1Rose Temu, 2Dr. Richard K, Arap Towett , 3Fariji Mtango. The majority (84%) were unemployed, while 96% had no pension. A majority of health workers.

  6. Abeeb olufemi Salaam Community Reintegration Oyo, Oyo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    orientation; some parents may decide to enroll their children in Islamic education, called alm- ajiri (Abdulmalik, Omigbodun, Beida, & Ad- edokun, 2009; Salaam, 2011). Almajiri is a cor- rupt spelling of the Arabic word, al-muhajirin, which describes someone who leaves home in search of knowledge or for the sake of ...

  7. Dar es Salaam City and Challenges in Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on challenges facing solid waste management in. Manzese and Sinza wards, in Dar es Salaam city. In this paper different ways of generating, disposing waste and the associated problems are surveyed. About 102 people were interviewed. Different methods were employed in data collection which ...

  8. Assessment on Vulnerable Youths Integration to Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment on Vulnerable Youths Integration to Dar es Salaam Solid Waste Management for Improvement: Kinondoni Municipality Case. ... Thus, questionnaires and in-depth study were interchangeably employed to probe different stakeholder institutions involved in decentralized MSWM system on general performance in ...

  9. Scientific Review: Morning After Pill | Nuhu | Dar Es Salaam Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Scientific Review: Morning After Pill. Z Nuhu. Abstract.

  10. Aloe; Beyond use as cosmetics | Pili | Dar Es Salaam Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  11. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of sufficient wastewater treatment facilities is the main cause of current levels of some pollution in the coastal marine environment off Dar es Salaam. The implementation of industrial and municipal wastewater management would greatly improve this situation. The results ..... (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides.

  12. Accessibility, Congestion and Travel Delays in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, Dea Christine; Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Andreasen, Manja Hoppe

    2015-01-01

    on to present a review of research into travel speed levels and congestion in Dar es Salaam. A set of city-wide maps of accessibility and delay levels are constructed based on available speed data and road network data obtained from the OpenStreetMap project and the findings are discussed with respect...

  13. Aloe; Beyond use as cosmetics | Pili | Dar Es Salaam Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Aloe; Beyond use as cosmetics. K Pili. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  14. The United States-Republic of Korea Alliance: The Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    large tourist flows and increasing trade between the two countries. Younger generations of South Koreans are not as affected by the history of...Engineer Conference),” briefing slides with scripted commentary, Seoul, ROK, United States Forces Korea, Feb 16, 2011. 5 James I. Matray, “ Dean

  15. 76 FR 4290 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of First...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... innerspring. Pocketed and non-pocketed innerspring units are included in this definition. Non-pocketed innersprings are typically joined together with helical wire and border rods. Non-pocketed innersprings are... synthetic material or woven material and then glued together in a linear fashion. Uncovered innersprings are...

  16. Conflicts and natural disaster management: a comparative study of flood control in the Republic of Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jibum

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the conflicts that arise among major stakeholders during the process of disaster management and to suggest policy recommendations for improving disaster management systems. It describes several important conflict cases that have occurred among major stakeholders, such as governments, private-sector entities, and non-governmental organisations, during natural disaster management. In addition, it probes the similarities and the differences between such conflicts in the Republic of Korea and the United States. The differences between them may originate from a range of factors, such as the disaster itself, cultural features, management practices, and government organisation. However, the conflicts also are very similar in some ways, as the motivations and the behaviour of stakeholders during a disaster are alike in both countries. Based on this comparison, the study presents some common and important implications for successful disaster management practices in Korea and the US, as well as in many other nations around the world. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  17. United States - Republic of Korea Security Relations: Policy/Strategy for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    October 1989, p. 31. 5Ahn Seung -Chul, "A New Perspective on U.S.-Korean Economic Relations," Robert A. Scalapino and Han Sung-joo, eds., United States...Sheryl W. "Debt is Squeezing Hotels in China." The New York Times, 28 May 1990, p. 29. Yang, Yun Kil. "The U.S.-Korean Relationship." The Washington Post, 29 January 1990, p. 12. 100

  18. Republic of the Philippines - United States of America Visiting Forces Agreement: Balikatan Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    military bases as need be, negotiated with President Manuel Roxas for a new military agreement. Thus, on 14 March 1947, President Roxas and US Ambassador...MDAA], and the Serrano -Bohlen Memorandum of Agreement of 1958 [MOA]. These agreements, being separate and independent from the Military Bases...Filipinos, Americans, and other foreigners were taken as hostages. The presence of American hostages Martin and Gracia Burnham made the United States

  19. Insecticide-treated nets and treatment service: a trial using public and private sector channels in rural United Republic of Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser-Hurt, N.; Lyimo, E. O.

    1998-01-01

    The Rotary Net Initiative, implemented in Kilombero District, southern United Republic of Tanzania, allowed us to explore different sales channels for the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and the insecticide treatment service in a rural area of very high malaria transmission. Several types of ITNs were promoted and sold through different channels in the public and private sector, i.e. hospital pharmacy, mother and child health (MCH) clinic, net committee, village health workers...

  20. United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland renal physicians' experiences of patients undergoing renal transplants abroad: a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odedra, Anand; Green, Stephen T; Bazaz, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Due to ongoing poor availability of organs, increasingly patients from developed countries are reported to be travelling abroad for renal transplants. We aimed to assess the extent and characteristics of this trend across the UK and Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey; 397 renal consultants from 33 hospitals with renal units across the UK and the Republic of Ireland were contacted through email and 62 replied (16%). Fifty-seven out of 62 (93%) renal consultants managed transplant patients, and of these 36/57 (63%) had managed at least one patient who had undergone a transplant abroad. The most popular reason reported for doing this was being on the UK or Republic of Ireland transplant list but seeking a shorter wait. Respondents reported commencement by overseas doctors of appropriate routine post-transplant prophylaxis with the following medications in all cases they had encountered as follows: co-trimoxazole 12%, isoniazid 3%, anti-fungals 0%, and Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis or treatment 0%. Fourty-four percent of renal consultants reported having some prior warning of a patient undergoing a renal transplant abroad. Renal transplant tourism has become widely established in the UK and the Republic of Ireland, and care for these patients is often suboptimal. Furthermore, the opportunity exists for pre-transplant counselling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. His Excellency Mr Shanker Das Bairagi, Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2012-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Shanker Das Bairagi, Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  2. His Excellency Mr Deepak Dhital Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Deepak Dhital Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  3. 9 JUne 2016 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva Ambassador P. Stachańczyk signing the guest book with CERN Director for International Relations C. Warakaulle.

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Piotr Stachańczyk Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  4. Bypassing primary care clinics for childbirth: a cross-sectional study in the Pwani region, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Larson, Elysia; Mbaruku, Godfrey M

    2014-04-01

    To measure the extent, determinants and results of bypassing local primary care clinics for childbirth among women in rural parts of the United Republic of Tanzania. Women were selected in 2012 to complete a structured interview from a full census of all 30076 households in clinic catchment areas in Pwani region. Eligibility was limited to those who had delivered between 6 weeks and 1 year before the interview, were at least 15 years old and lived within the catchment areas. Demographic and delivery care information and opinions on the quality of obstetric care were collected through interviews. Clinic characteristics were collected from staff via questionnaires. Determinants of bypassing (i.e. delivery of the youngest child at a health centre or hospital without provider referral) were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Bypasser and non-bypasser birth experiences were compared in bivariate analyses. Of 3019 eligible women interviewed (93% response rate), 71.0% (2144) delivered in a health facility; 41.8% (794) were bypassers. Bypassing likelihood increased with primiparity (odds ratio, OR: 2.5; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.9-3.3) and perceived poor quality at clinics (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0-1.7) and decreased if clinics recently underwent renovations (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.84) and/or performed ≥ 4 obstetric signal functions (OR: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.08-0.41). Bypassers reported better quality of care on six of seven quality of care measures. Many pregnant women, especially first-time mothers, choose to bypass local primary care clinics for childbirth. Perceived poor quality of care at clinics was an important reason for bypassing. Primary care is failing to meet the obstetric needs of many women in this rural, low-income setting.

  5. Community Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices Associated with Urogenital Schistosomiasis among School-Aged Children in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbie Person

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On the Zanzibar islands, United Republic of Tanzania, elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis is strived for in the coming years. This qualitative study aimed to better understand community knowledge, perceptions, and practices associated with schistosomiasis among school-aged children on Unguja and Pemba islands, in order to inform the development of behavior change interventions contributing to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis.In 2011, we conducted 35 children's discussion groups, 41 in-depth interviews with parents and teachers, and 5 focus group discussions with community members in Zanzibar. Using a modified-grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes.Urogenital schistosomiasis is a common experience among children in Zanzibar and typically considered a boys' disease. Children engage in multiple high-risk behaviors for acquiring schistosomiasis because of poor knowledge on disease transmission, lack of understanding on severity of disease-associated consequences, and lack of alternative options for water related activities of daily living and recreational play. Local primary school teachers had little to no training about the disease and no teaching tools or materials for students.Conducting activities in open natural freshwater contaminated by S. haematobium larvae compromises the health of school-aged children in Zanzibar. The perception of urogenital schistosomiasis as a minor illness rather than a serious threat to a child's well-being contributes to the spread of disease. Understanding community perceptions of disease along with the barriers and facilitators to risk reduction behaviors among children can inform health promotion activities, campaigns, and programs for the prevention, control, and elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar.

  6. Derivation of greenhouse gas emission factors for peatlands managed for extraction in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D.; Dixon, S. D.; Artz, R. R. E.; Smith, T. E. L.; Evans, C. D.; Owen, H. J. F.; Archer, E.; Renou-Wilson, F.

    2015-09-01

    Drained peatlands are significant hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and may also be more vulnerable to fire with its associated gaseous emissions. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands managed for extraction are reported on an annual basis. However, the Tier 1 (default) emission factors (EFs) provided in the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement for this land use category may not be representative in all cases and countries are encouraged to move to higher-tier reporting levels with reduced uncertainty levels based on country- or regional-specific data. In this study, we quantified (1) CO2-C emissions from nine peat extraction sites in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, which were initially disaggregated by land use type (industrial versus domestic peat extraction), and (2) a range of GHGs that are released to the atmosphere with the burning of peat. Drainage-related methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions as well as CO2-C emissions associated with the off-site decomposition of horticultural peat were not included here. Our results show that net CO2-C emissions were strongly controlled by soil temperature at the industrial sites (bare peat) and by soil temperature and leaf area index at the vegetated domestic sites. Our derived EFs of 1.70 (±0.47) and 1.64 (±0.44) t CO2-C ha-1 yr-1 for the industrial and domestic sites respectively are considerably lower than the Tier 1 EF (2.8 ± 1.7 t CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) provided in the Wetlands Supplement. We propose that the difference between our derived values and the Wetlands Supplement value is due to differences in peat quality and, consequently, decomposition rates. Emissions from burning of the peat (g kg-1 dry fuel burned) were estimated to be approximately 1346 CO2, 8.35 methane (CH4), 218 carbon monoxide (CO), 1.53 ethane (C2H6), 1.74 ethylene (C2H4), 0.60 methanol (CH3OH), 2.21 hydrogen

  7. Microbial quality of drinking water in Dar es Salaam and use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Water borne diseases are alarmingly high in urban areas like Dar es Salaam. Hence the importance of chlorine-based water disinfectant solutions such as Waterguard® that consists of 0.75% sodium hypochlorite. Waterguard® has been in the market in Dar es Salaam for about 4 years. Despite this, prevalence of ...

  8. Anti-diabetic drugs in the private and public sector in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare availability, cost, affordability and sources of anti-diabetic drugs between private and public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Diabetic clinics in private and public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: Eighty patients ...

  9. 75 FR 62455 - Importation of Fresh Unshu Oranges From the Republic of Korea Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... sweet orange scab has been endemic in production areas, producers have been able to control the pest and... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD14 Importation of Fresh Unshu Oranges From the... fruit to remove certain restrictions on the importation of Unshu oranges from the Republic of Korea that...

  10. Mapping intra-urban malaria risk using high resolution satellite imagery: a case study of Dar es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaria, Caroline W; Molteni, Fabrizio; Mandike, Renata; Chacky, Frank; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Linard, Catherine

    2016-07-30

    With more than half of Africa's population expected to live in urban settlements by 2030, the burden of malaria among urban populations in Africa continues to rise with an increasing number of people at risk of infection. However, malaria intervention across Africa remains focused on rural, highly endemic communities with far fewer strategic policy directions for the control of malaria in rapidly growing African urban settlements. The complex and heterogeneous nature of urban malaria requires a better understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of urban malaria risk in order to design effective urban malaria control programs. In this study, we use remotely sensed variables and other environmental covariates to examine the predictability of intra-urban variations of malaria infection risk across the rapidly growing city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between 2006 and 2014. High resolution SPOT satellite imagery was used to identify urban environmental factors associated malaria prevalence in Dar es Salaam. Supervised classification with a random forest classifier was used to develop high resolution land cover classes that were combined with malaria parasite prevalence data to identify environmental factors that influence localized heterogeneity of malaria transmission and develop a high resolution predictive malaria risk map of Dar es Salaam. Results indicate that the risk of malaria infection varied across the city. The risk of infection increased away from the city centre with lower parasite prevalence predicted in administrative units in the city centre compared to administrative units in the peri-urban suburbs. The variation in malaria risk within Dar es Salaam was shown to be influenced by varying environmental factors. Higher malaria risks were associated with proximity to dense vegetation, inland water and wet/swampy areas while lower risk of infection was predicted in densely built-up areas. The predictive maps produced can serve as valuable resources for

  11. 13 May 2016 - Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva V. Sadiqov signing the guest book with Head of Associate Member and Non-Member State Relations E. Tsesmelis and Adviser C. Schäfer. Permanent Mission First Secretary H. Huseynov is also present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Vaqif Sadiqov Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  12. 4 July 2016 - S. Dalil Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the Guest Book with Director-General F. Gianotti. P. Fassnacht present throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    Her Excellency Dr Suraya Dalil Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  13. Water matters: An assessment of opinion on water management and community engagement in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Alec; Jennings, Eleanor; Linnane, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, water management is moving from the traditional top-down approach to more integrated initiatives focussing on community-led action. With inadequacies in previous engagement initiatives undertaken through the first cycle of River Basin Management Planning for the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), the Republic of Ireland has only recently embraced this bottom-up approach. The attempted introduction of national charging for domestic water use in 2015 has resulted in significant public disquiet and protest movements against the national government. In April 2015 we undertook a survey of current opinion on water management and community engagement initiatives in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. A total of 520 survey responses identified that although freshwater bodies are important in peoples' lives, respondents were typically unaware of global initiatives such as Integrated Water Resources Management and Integrated Catchment Management. Overall, 81% of respondents did not feel included in decisions about their water environment despite an overwhelming 95% believing that local communities should have a say in how the water environment is managed. However, only 35.1% of respondents stated that they would be willing to attend local water management engagement initiatives. Rather than supporting individual gain, respondents identified social gains for the local community as avenues for increasing local involvement in water initiatives. In the Republic of Ireland, a water engagement initiative that implements the national framework local delivery model should be developed and implemented. This would 1) contribute to the second round of WFD River Basin Management Planning; 2) facilitate stronger connections between local communities and their water environment; and 3) foster bottom-up initiatives that empower communities regarding local water management issues.

  14. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dongus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2 was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92. Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  15. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  16. Proceedings of the US/FRG research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollutants on the spruce-fir forests of the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, tech. coord. Hertel; Gerard Hertel

    1988-01-01

    Includes 66 papers presented at the US/FRG research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollutants on the spruce-fir forests of the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, which was held October 19-23, 1987, in Burlington, Vermont.

  17. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome--Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have impaired immunologic responses to combat infections. Infection and ulceration of the hand is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in certain populations in Africa; however, the condition is less well recognized than foot infections and is not classified generally as a specific diabetes complication. Hand ulceration and infection in diabetic patients was first described in the United States in 1977 and in Africa in 1984. Subsequently, the majority of reported cases have been from various parts of the African continent. The term "tropical diabetic hand syndrome" (TDHS) has been used to describe diabetes among patients who have progressive, fulminant hand sepsis. More recently, TDHS has been reported among patients in India. These data suggest that TDHS occurs primarily in diabetic patients who live in tropical or coastal areas and might result in loss of hand function, amputation, or death. This report describes the characteristics of 72 patients with TDHS examined at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Early recognition by patients, prompt medical attention, and improved glycemic control might reduce the incidence of disability or death.

  18. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... the United States while continuing to provide protection against the introduction of plant pests... prevent the introduction and dissemination of plant pests within the United States. The national plant... Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs...

  19. Specific features of acute stroke in the Russian Federation and in the People’s Republic of China (according to the data of some big stroke units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on comparison and analysis of the work of big stroke units in the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China specialized in the medical care for patients with acute stroke. 522 patients were surveyed in Russia’s and China’s regional stroke units. In the Russian Federation, patients being treated in the «City Hospital No.26» (SaintPetersburg took part in the study. In China patients of the First Affiliated Hospital of the Chongqing Medical University, Central Hospital Jiang jin, Regional People’s Hospital Yubei district, Regional People’s Hospital Bishan (Chongqing Province. The analysis of differences was performed by the following parameters: personality traits, age, gender, level of education, income, health insurance category, profession, employment, professional activities over the last year, place of residence of the patient, features of the stroke, time during the first symptoms of stroke to hospitalization, kinds of medical services, the main risk factors and value of prevention before stroke.

  20. 75 FR 32310 - Importation of Fresh Unshu Oranges from the Republic of Korea into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... USDA. Because we have determined that the use of a post-harvest disinfectant in accordance with 7 CFR... in the groves prior to and during harvest, and in the packinghouses during packing operations... continental United States and Alaska. The conditions include surface treatment of the fruit in accordance with...

  1. Comparing the Security Strategies of the United States and the Republic of the Philippines Regarding Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Zone GWOT Global War on Terrorism. The military campaign undertaken by the United States since the attacks of 9/11/2001. KALAHI Kapit-Bisig Laban sa...however, the NSP appears to consider China as a potential threat, stemming mainly from China’s excursions and provocative movements in the South

  2. Building a genomic framework for prospective MRSA surveillance in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuter, Sandra; Toeroek, M. Estee; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Reynolds, Rosy; Raven, Kathy E.; Blane, Beth; Donker, Tjibbe; Bentley, Stephen D.; Aanensen, David M.; Grundmann, Hajo; Feil, Edward J.; Spratt, Brian G.; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    The correct interpretation of microbial sequencing data applied to surveillance and outbreak investigation depends on accessible genomic databases to provide vital genetic context. Our aim was to construct and describe a United Kingdom MRSA database containing over 1000 methicillin-resistant

  3. 76 FR 44455 - Importation of Shepherd's Purse With Roots From the Republic of Korea Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... introduction of plant pests into the United States. DATES: Effective Date: July 26, 2011. FOR FURTHER... parts of the world to prevent the introduction and dissemination of plant pests that are new to or not... Collection Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports...

  4. Experience of the Air Medical Evacuation Team of Serbian Armed Forces in the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo--Deployment stress and psychological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joković, Danilo B; Krstić, Dragan; Stojanović, Zvezdana; Spirić, Zeljko

    2016-02-01

    Wars of the nineties in former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda imposed new tasks to the United Nations (UN) forces, such as providing humanitarian aid, protection of civilians, peacekeeping, and in many instances providing armed enforcement of peace. The aim of this study was an observational analysis of Serbian participation in the UNs Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with the emphasis on stress and coping techniques. Serbian contribution in this mission dates back to April 2003 till the present days with a military contingent consisting of six members as a part of Air Medical Evacuation Team. The observed stressogenous factors acted before arrival to the mission area and in the mission area. In this paper we analysed ways to overcome them. The productive ways of overwhelming stress used in this mission were: honesty and openness in interpersonal communications, dedication to work, maintaining discipline and order, strict following of appropriate regime of work, diet, rest and recreation; regular communication with family and organizing and participation in various social, cultural and sports manifestations. This analysis indicates that out of all the observed factors, the most important is appropriate selection of personnel.

  5. Experience of the air medical evacuation team of Serbian armed forces in the united nations mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo - deployment stress and psychological adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joković Danilo B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Wars of the nineties in former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda imposed new tasks to the United Nations (UN forces, such as providing humanitarian aid, protection of civilians, peacekeeping, and in many instances providing armed enforcement of peace. The aim of this study was an observational analysis of Serbian participation in the UNs Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with the emphasis on stress and coping techniques. Methods. Serbian contribution in this mission dates back to April 2003 till the present days with a military contingent consisting of six members as a part of Air Medical Evacuation Team. The observed stressogenous factors acted before arrival to the mission area and in the mission area. In this paper we analysed ways to overcome them. Results. The productive ways of overwhelming stress used in this mission were: honesty and openness in interpersonal communications, dedication to work, maintaining discipline and order, strict following of appropriate regime of work, diet, rest and recreation; regular communication with family and organizing and participation in various social, cultural and sports manifestations. Conclusion. This analysis indicates that out of all the observed factors, the most important is appropriate selection of personnel.

  6. Insecticide-treated nets and treatment service: a trial using public and private sector channels in rural United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Hurt, N.; Lyimo, E. O.

    1998-01-01

    The Rotary Net Initiative, implemented in Kilombero District, southern United Republic of Tanzania, allowed us to explore different sales channels for the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and the insecticide treatment service in a rural area of very high malaria transmission. Several types of ITNs were promoted and sold through different channels in the public and private sector, i.e. hospital pharmacy, mother and child health (MCH) clinic, net committee, village health workers and retail shops. The ITNs were sold for US$ 5.0-9.2, with profit margins of 9-16%. Net treatment cost US$ 0.33, with commission fees of 75%. Net transport and treatment were partially subsidized. Some outlets established their own fund by ITN sales. Sales of nets and treatments were seasonal, and certain net types were preferred. Demand for insecticide treatment was generally low. Changes in net coverage were assessed in two villages. A range of outlet features were compared qualitatively. Our experience supports suggestions that ITN technology should be delivered through MCH care services and demonstrates that specific promotion and innovation are necessary to achieve substantial net treatment levels. A large-scale ITN project in the same area and other ITN studies should lead to better understanding of ITN implementation at the population level. PMID:10191557

  7. Differences in Attributions for Public and Private Face-to-face and Cyber Victimization Among Adolescents in China, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, India, Japan, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F; Yanagida, Takuya; Aoyama, Ikuko; Dědková, Lenka; Li, Zheng; Kamble, Shanmukh V; Bayraktar, Fatih; Ševčíková, Anna; Soudi, Shruti; Macháčková, Hana; Lei, Li; Shu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate gender and cultural differences in the attributions used to determine causality for hypothetical public and private face-to-face and cyber victimization scenarios among 3,432 adolescents (age range = 11-15 years; 49% girls) from China, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, India, Japan, and the United States, while accounting for their individualism and collectivism. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on cultural values and read four hypothetical victimization scenarios, including public face-to-face victimization, public cyber victimization, private face-to-face victimization, and private cyber victimization. After reading the scenarios, they rated different attributions (i.e., self-blame, aggressor-blame, joking, normative, conflict) according to how strongly they believed the attributions explained why victimization occurred. Overall, adolescents reported that they would utilize the attributions of self-blame, aggressor-blame, and normative more for public forms of victimization and face-to-face victimization than for private forms of victimization and cyber victimization. Differences were found according to gender and country of origin as well. Such findings underscore the importance of delineating between different forms of victimization when examining adolescents' attributions.

  8. Risk management in inpatient units in the Czech Republic from the point of view of nurses in leadership positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokešová, Radka; Brabcová, Iva; Pokojová, Radka; Bártlová, Sylva

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to assess specific features of risk management from the point of view of nurses in leadership positions in inpatient units in Czech hospitals. The study was performed using a quantitative research strategy, i.e., a questionnaire. The data sample was analyzed using SPSS v. 23.0. Pearson's chi-square and analysis of adjusted residues were used for identifying the existence associations of nominal and/or ordinal quantities. 315 nurses in leadership positions working in inpatient units of Czech hospitals were included in the sample. The sample was created using random selection by means of quotas. Based on the study results, statistically significant relations between the respondents' education and the utilization of methods to identify risks were identified. Furthermore, statistically significant relationships were found between a nurse's functional role within the system and regular analysis and evaluation of risks and between the type of the healthcare facility and the degree of patient involvement in risk management. The study found statistically significant correlations that can be used to increase the effectiveness of risk management in inpatient units of Czech hospitals. From this perspective, the fact that patient involvement in risk management was only reported by 37.8% of respondents seems to be the most notable problem.

  9. Security cooperation as a way to stop the spread of nuclear weapons? : Nuclear nonproliferation policies of the United States towards the Federal Republic of Germany and Israel, 1945-1968

    OpenAIRE

    Lahti, Makreeta

    2009-01-01

    In my dissertation on 'Security Cooperation as a Way to Stop the Spread of Nu-clear Weapons? Nuclear Nonproliferation Policies of the United States towards the Federal Republic of Germany and Israel, 1945-1968', I study the use of security assistance as nonproliferation policy. I use insights of the Structural Realist and the Rational Institutionalist theories of International Relations to explain, respectively, important foreign policy goals and the basic orientation of policies, on the one ...

  10. The Black Death | Matemu | Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    occurred in Vietnam, India, Algeria, Madagascar, and the northeastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. [2] During 2000-2001, 95% of the world's cases occurred in Africa. Bubonic plague has a 1-15% mortality rate in treated cases and a 40-60% mortality rate in untreated cases. Conclusions Bubonic plague is ...

  11. Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition: Cross-cultural comparison between 11–15 year old children from the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Psotta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the exception of specific clinical methods, no widely used diagnostic tool for motor development assessment of children exists in the Czech Republic. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children – second edition (MABC-2 seems to be one the most developed instruments for children's motor coordination assessment. However, to use it in the Czech population of children in educational and psychological practice including physical education, the cross-validity of the test battery needs to be examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to make a comparative analysis of performance in motor tasks of the MABC-2 measured in a Czech sample of 11–15 year old children and the United Kingdom (UK normative sample from which the norms of the MABC-2 were established. METHODS: The Czech sample of 11–15 year old children (total n = 589; 310 boys, 279 girls formed from a random selection of schools from all the geographical regions of the Czech Republic and all size categories of municipalities, was tested by the MABC-2. The results were compared to the performance of the UK normative sample of the same age (n = 344 reported in the MABC-2 Examiner's Manual by Henderson et al. (2007. For this comparative analysis, the effects size coefficient (d and the z-test were used. RESULTS: From three manual dexterity tests of the MABC-2, mean performance of the Czech sample in the Drawing trail test was shown to be significantly higher than the mean performance of the UK sample in all the age groups of both genders (d = 0.68–1.32; p CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the MABC-2 is valid only for assessment of gross motor coordination in Czech children, but not for assessment of manual dexterity and balance. Before the use of this test battery for Czech children for both practical and research purposes, an adjustment of the norms is needed for the Drawing trail test, Two-board balance test and Zig-zag hopping test.

  12. 14 November 2016 - Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary H. M. Cima, Permanent Representative of the Argentine Republic to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with CERN Director-General F. Gianotti, Director for International Relations C. Warakaulle; Adviser J. Salicio Diez and V. Perez-Reale, CERN HR Department, are also present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Héctor Marcelo Cima Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Argentine Republic to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  13. Solar energy alternatives for the United States Embassy and for rural development projects within the Republic of Upper Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1978-03-07

    This report is organized in three sections/: solar cooling options for the new Embassy office building, electrification of Fada N' Gourma using solar photovolatic versus conventional energy systems and an overview of the potential for village solar photovoltaic energy utilization in Upper Volta. The analysis indicates that the least-cost alternative for cooling the new offices is to modify existing plans, which call for standard electric room air conditioning units, and to incorporate energy conservation measures in the building construction and operation.

  14. Childhood Burn Injuries in Children in Dar es Salaam: Patterns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in the three city hospitals of Dar es Salaam and two national referral hospitals to describe the pattern of burn injuries and to determine victims\\' and guardians\\' perceptions of the causes and prevention of burns. The study included all injured children younger than 18 years attending Mwananyamala, ...

  15. How Children Living in Poor Areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Perceive Their Own Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Pauline; Humble, Steve; Chan, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out with 1,857 poor children from 17 schools, living in low-income areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. All children took the "Student Multiple Intelligences Profile" (SMIP) questionnaire as part of a bigger project that gathered data around concepts and beliefs of talent. This paper sets out two aims, first to…

  16. Lead pollution in urban roadside environments of Dar es Salaam city

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead is among the most toxic elements in nature. It is non-biodegradable and its toxicity does not change with time. Use of leaded gasoline in motor vehicles is known as the major source of lead pollution in cities in the world. Dar es Salaam, the main city of Tanzania, has thousands of cars traveling along its roads. The lead ...

  17. HIV-1 infection and fertility in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania | Sedgh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of HIV-1 infection with rates of pregnancy and pregnancy loss in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A retrospective cohort study of 1,006 HIV-infected women and 485 uninfected women was employed. In multivariate analyses controlling for other predictors of pregnancy, the ...

  18. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal - Vol 12, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Smart-phones Usage on Third-Year Undergraduates in Tanzania: A Case of the University of Dar es Salaam · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Elias Mwabungulu, Hosea Mungwabi, 87-105 ...

  19. Cannabis use among young people in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with initiation and continued use of cannabis among youths in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The study employed an explorative qualitative design, using in-depth interviews. Purposive sampling and snowball techniques were used to obtain the study participants.

  20. Child Labour in Urban Agriculture: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlozi, Malongo R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam was found to use child labor of both children with parents of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES). Discusses policy implications and calls for the education of parents of lower SES not to expect an economic contribution from their children's labor, and the education of children about their rights. (LZ)

  1. Key events and their effects on cycling behaviour in Dar-es-Salaam : abstract + powerpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores key events and investigates their effects on cycling behaviour in the city of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the study is to identify specific key events during a person’s life course with a significant effect on change of travel behaviour towards cycling in relation to

  2. planning for the automation of the university of dar es salaam library

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the planning process for the automation of the University of Dar es Salaam Library. The planning phases described include the preparation phase, planning for implementation and database construction. The major issues during the preparation phase are the discussion on the context of automation, ...

  3. Modeling commuter preferences for the proposed bus rapid transit in Dar-es-Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes individual commuter preferences towards the proposed bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the survey was to identify how commuters perceive and value the proposed BRT service quality attributes. A stated preference survey of potential users

  4. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Mastitis in Smallholder Dairy Herds in the Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivaria, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the number of milking cows has increased substantially in the Dar es Salaam region due to an increasing demand for fresh milk in this densely populated urban centre. It is estimated that there are 1,765 smallholder dairy herds with 8,233 improved dairy animals in and around the Dar es

  5. Challenges in diagnosing paediatric malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Gro E A; Haanshuus, Christel G; Fataki, Maulidi; Langeland, Nina; Blomberg, Bjørn

    2013-07-03

    Malaria is a major cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality. As no clinical features clearly differentiate malaria from other febrile illnesses, and malaria diagnosis is challenged by often lacking laboratory equipment and expertise, overdiagnosis and overtreatment is common. Children admitted with fever at the general paediatric wards at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from January to June 2009 were recruited consecutively and prospectively. Demographic and clinical features were registered. Routine thick blood smear microscopy at MNH was compared to results of subsequent thin blood smear microscopy, and rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs). Genus-specific PCR of Plasmodium mitochondrial DNA was performed on DNA extracted from whole blood and species-specific PCR was done on positive samples. Among 304 included children, 62.6% had received anti-malarials during the last four weeks prior to admission and 65.1% during the hospital stay. Routine thick blood smears, research blood smears, PCR and RDT detected malaria in 13.2%, 6.6%, 25.0% and 13.5%, respectively. Positive routine microscopy was confirmed in only 43% (17/40), 45% (18/40) and 53% (21/40), by research microscopy, RDTs and PCR, respectively. Eighteen percent (56/304) had positive PCR but negative research microscopy. Reported low parasitaemia on routine microscopy was associated with negative research blood slide and PCR. RDT-positive cases were associated with signs of severe malaria. Palmar pallor, low haemoglobin and low platelet count were significantly associated with positive PCR, research microscopy and RDT. The true morbidity attributable to malaria in the study population remains uncertain due to the discrepancies in results among the diagnostic methods. The current routine microscopy appears to result in overdiagnosis of malaria and, consequently, overuse of anti-malarials. Conversely, children with a false positive malaria diagnosis may die because they do not receive

  6. Determinants of acceptance of cervical cancer screening in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne; Mwaiselage, Julius

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe how demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer influence screening acceptance among women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling was carried out in 45 randomly selected streets in Dar es Salaam. Women between...... the ages of 25--59 who lived in the sampled streets were invited to a cervical cancer screening; 804 women accepted and 313 rejected the invitation. Information on demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer were obtained through structured questionnaire interviews. RESULTS: Women aged 35...... to accept screening in comparison with women who had five or more children (ORs 3.21). Finally, knowledge of cervical cancer and awareness of the existing screening program were also associated with increased acceptance rates (ORs of 5.90 and 4.20). CONCLUSION: There are identifiable subgroups where...

  7. Governance challenges and coalition building among urban environmental stakeholders in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtani, Anna

    2004-06-01

    Rapid urbanization is arguably one of the most complex and important socioeconomic phenomena of the new millennium. It represents major and irreversible changes in production and consumption patterns and the way people interact with nature. The impact of urbanization will continue to bring about major changes especially in many countries in the developing world that are experiencing rapid urbanization. The serious environmental and development challenges facing Dar es Salaam, the largest commercial center of Tanzania, are highlighted in this report.

  8. Risk factors associated with pre-term birth in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... p-value 0.004), cervical incompetence (AOR = 11.6; 95%CI 1.1-121.5; p-value 0.04), polyhydramnios (AOR = 8.3; 95%CI 1.7-40.2; p-value 0.008), and lack of antenatal visits (AOR = 5.1; 95%CI 1.4-17.8; p-value 0.042).Conclusion: This study has identified several risk factors for preterm birth in the city of Dar es Salaam.

  9. Sociocultural factors that reduce risks of homicide in Dar es Salaam: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibusi, Stephen Matthew; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Outwater, Anne; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to examine the potential contributions of sociocultural activities to reduce risks of death by homicide. This study was designed as a case control study. Relatives of 90 adult homicide victims in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania, in 2005 were interviewed. As controls, 211 participants matched for sex and 5-year age group were randomly selected from the same region and interviewed regarding the same contents. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between victims and controls regarding educational status, occupation, family structure, frequent heavy drinking, hard drug use and religious attendance. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly related to not becoming victims of homicide: being in employment (unskilled labour: OR=0.04, skilled labour: OR=0.07, others: OR=0.04), higher educational status (OR=0.02), residence in Dar es Salaam after becoming an adult (compared with those who have resided in Dar es Salaam since birth: OR=3.95), living with another person (OR=0.07), not drinking alcohol frequently (OR=0.15) and frequent religious service attendance (OR=0.12). Frequent religious service attendance, living in the same place for a long time and living with another person were shown to be factors that contribute to preventing death by homicide, regardless of place of residence and neighbourhood environment. Existing non-structural community resources and social cohesive networks strengthen individual and community resilience against violence.

  10. Sociocultural factors that reduce risks of homicide in Dar es Salaam: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibusi, Stephen Matthew; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Outwater, Anne; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to examine the potential contributions of sociocultural activities to reduce risks of death by homicide. Methods This study was designed as a case control study. Relatives of 90 adult homicide victims in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania, in 2005 were interviewed. As controls, 211 participants matched for sex and 5-year age group were randomly selected from the same region and interviewed regarding the same contents. Results Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between victims and controls regarding educational status, occupation, family structure, frequent heavy drinking, hard drug use and religious attendance. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly related to not becoming victims of homicide: being in employment (unskilled labour: OR=0.04, skilled labour: OR=0.07, others: OR=0.04), higher educational status (OR=0.02), residence in Dar es Salaam after becoming an adult (compared with those who have resided in Dar es Salaam since birth: OR=3.95), living with another person (OR=0.07), not drinking alcohol frequently (OR=0.15) and frequent religious service attendance (OR=0.12). Conclusions Frequent religious service attendance, living in the same place for a long time and living with another person were shown to be factors that contribute to preventing death by homicide, regardless of place of residence and neighbourhood environment. Existing non-structural community resources and social cohesive networks strengthen individual and community resilience against violence. PMID:23322260

  11. Assessment of human thermal perception in the hot-humid climate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetto, Emmanuel L.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, is a typical African city along the Indian Ocean coast, and therefore an important urban area to examine human thermal perception in the hot-humid tropical climate. Earlier research on human bioclimate at Dar es Salaam indicated that heat stress prevails during the hot season from October to March, peaking between December and February, particularly the early afternoons. In order to assess the human thermal perception and adaptation, two popular places, one at an urban park and another at a beach environment, were selected and questionnaire surveys were conducted in August-September 2013 and January 2014, concurrently with local micro-meteorological measurements at survey locations. The thermal conditions were quantified in terms of the thermal index of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the micro-scale climate model RayMan. The thermal comfort range of human thermal comfort and the local thermal adaptive capacity were determined in respect to the thermal index by binning thermal sensation votes. The thermal comfort range was found to be well above that in temperate climates at about 23-31 °C of PET. The study could significantly contribute to urban planning in Dar es Salaam and other coastal cities in the tropics.

  12. 4 September 2015 - Signature of the guest book by Ambassador Oh Joon, Seventy-first President, United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations in New York with Director for Administration and General infrastructure S. Lettow.

    CERN Multimedia

    Gadmer, Jean-Claude Robert

    2015-01-01

    4 September 2015 - Signature of the guest book by Ambassador Oh Joon, Seventy-first President, United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations in New York with Director for Administration and General infrastructure S. Lettow. Also present: Head of IT Department F. Hemmer with E. Bjorgo and F. Pisano visiting the UNITAR’s operational satellite applications programme on CERN site in building 597. The delegation is accompanied throughout by Adviser to the Director-General, in charge of Relations with International Organisations M. Bona.

  13. Rencontres urbaines : les leçons de Dar Es-Salaam, Port Louis et Saint-Denis

    OpenAIRE

    Cauna, Alexandra De; Roy, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Historiquement marquées par l’échange, Port Louis (île Maurice), Saint-Denis (Réunion) et Dar es-Salaam (Tanzanie) sont des villes de la rencontre. Au delà de l’intérêt qu’une analyse sur les similitudes apporterait (ex-villes coloniales, espaces portuaires, capitales de l’océan Indien…), une mise en perspective des différents aspects des contacts intra-urbains semble intéressante. Elle seule peut mettre à jour la complexité des processus à l’œuvre. Dar es-Salaam, produit de rencontres urbain...

  14. Residents’ perceptions of institutional performance in water supply in Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    This paper addresses the performance of institutions in water supply systems for improving social and economic benefits of people living in Dar es Salaam city. The methods employed in field data and information collection included interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussions and participatory observation. Kinondoni and Ilala Districts were used as case study. The study revealed that, the main water sources in the study areas are boreholes, shallow wells, rain water and water vendors. Other minor sources are piped water and natural water sources, such as rivers and streams. The supply of piped water by Dar es Salaam Water Sewerage and Sanitation Company (DAWASA/DAWASCO) meets only 45% of the total water demands. Individuals own and sell water from boreholes, shallow wells, piped water connected to their individual houses and natural wells located in their individual plots. The price of one 20 l bucket of water from a water vendor depends on the availability of water and the distance walked from the water source to the customer. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) indicated that individual water delivery systems provide sufficient water as compared to five years ago in the study areas. Few of the respondents (6.3%) said individual water delivery systems have no capacity to provide sufficient water while 16.3% indicate that individual water delivery systems provide moderate water supply but are important in supplementing other water providers in the study areas. The study reveals that a majority of the local population are satisfied with the capacity of individual water delivery systems in providing water for household uses. This paper recommends some improvements to be done to water supply systems in the Dar es Salaam city.

  15. The United States’ Overseas Contingency Operations/Global War on Terror: A Military Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    they detonated two massive bombs at United States embassies in Dar es Salaam , Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. In those attacks, 224 people lost their......solidified the United States’ long-term commitment to combat terroristic threats. Various supporting literature including reports prepared for congress

  16. Green infrastructure for flood risk management in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mguni, Patience; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    The risk of flooding in urban areas could be better approached by complementing conventional sewer systems with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) for storm-water management. This may be the case for developing world cities like Dar es Salaam with incomplete sewer services, as well as cities...... like Copenhagen with fully developed sewer systems. This paper explores some theories relevant to understanding how the implementation of SUDS may be one option for supporting a transition towards sustainable urban water management (SUWM). Using interviews, document analysis and observation...

  17. Acceptance of contraceptives among women who had an unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel; Yambesi, Fortunata

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for post-abortion contraception and to determine if women who had an unsafe abortion will use a contraceptive method to avoid repeated unwanted pregnancies and STDs/HIV. METHOD: Women attending Temeke Municipal Hospital, Dar es Salaam, after an unsafe abortion...... or an induced abortion performed at the hospital (n=788) were counselled about contraception and the risk of contracting STDs/HIV. A free ward-based contraceptive service was offered and the women were asked to return for follow-up. RESULTS: Participants (90%) accepted the post-abortion contraceptive service...

  18. Storage, Collection and Disposal of Kariakoo Market Wastes in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yhdego, Michael

    1992-01-01

    waste management in Kariakoo market, Dar es Salaam. The main problems identified were poor market design and lack of a well organized waste storage, collection and disposal systems. Two-thirds of the waste consists of vegetable matter. Proposals for improved design of storage and collection facilities...... are described. Experiments revealed wastes from the market are readily decomposable by composting. A change in the design of covered markets and improvements in waste handling are essential to reduce the potential health hazards in developing countries....

  19. 22. August 2013 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary S. Choi signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer; visiting the LHC tunnel with P. Fessia and the CMS experimental cavern with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    22. August 2013 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary S. Choi signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer; visiting the LHC tunnel with P. Fessia and the CMS experimental cavern with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

  20. 10 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of India to the Conference on Disarmament, United Nations Office at Geneva Ambassador Mehta signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser R. Voss;in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and ALICE underground experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    10 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of India to the Conference on Disarmament, United Nations Office at Geneva Ambassador Mehta signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser R. Voss;in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and ALICE underground experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz.

  1. 11 July 2012 - Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador M. Alemu Getahun, Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    11 July 2012 - Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador M. Alemu Getahun, Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss.

  2. 3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.

  3. Incipient resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine among a semi-immune population of the United Republic of Tanzania. 2. The impact of chloroquine used as a chemosuppressant on the immune status of the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onori, E; Grab, B; Ambroise-Thomas, P; Thelu, J

    1982-01-01

    Decreased sensitivity and incipient resistance of Plasmodium falciparum strains to chloroquine have been reported from Mto-wa-Mbu, in the north-east of the United Republic of Tanzania. In this locality the population had been exposed to chloroquine pressure for about two decades, in the form of medicated salt and through easy availability of the drug itself. In an attempt to find out whether such chemosuppression had influenced the immune response of the population, two seroepidemiological surveys were carried out in March 1981 and March 1982; the second survey was performed to confirm the results obtained in the first one. The humoral immunological response was measured by the immunofluorescent antibody technique. In the absence of information on the immunological profile that existed in the area prior to the introduction of chloroquine in 1960, the results of the present surveys were compared with those obtained in another locality in the north-east of the United Republic of Tanzania in 1967, and in the West Kiang district of Gambia in 1965. The two areas used for comparison exhibited a malaria endemicity similar to that prevailing in Mto-wa-Mbu prior to the introduction of the medicated salt. The results from Mto-wa-Mbu showed a significantly lower proportion of subjects with positive titres and a lower geometric mean titre in all age groups.A reduction in the humoral immunological response might be explained by the drug pressure that has been exerted in the area for many years. The depressed immune response found at Mto-wa-Mbu, however, was so marked that other factors may have contributed to its establishment.In view of the importance of these findings, it is recommended that further, longitudinal serological studies be conducted in the field to assess the effects of chemosuppression on the immune response of the protected populations.

  4. Comparison of availability and offer of controlled physical activities for pupils with disability in selected regions of Czech Republic and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kornatovská

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The European Union and other countries of the world need quality research data, without which it cannot assess how the overall situation of persons with disabilities develops. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare the availability of controlled physical activities for pupils with mental disabilities, hearing or visual disabilities in selected regions of the Czech Republic and Great Britain (region of South Bohemia and the region West Midlands. Partial aim is to analyse an offer of the controlled physical activities for this population of pupils. Methods: We used analytical investigative methods (Investigative pentagram. The survey was based on explanation, exploration and direct observation. Another method was a tool "ArcGIS" evaluating the distance of polygons and "packaging zones" by driving times for the EU - Index of availability. After that it was determined the availability of controlled physical activities for pupils with the observed types of disability and evaluated the hypothesis H1. In surveyed regions were also examined ways of organizing a range of offers of controlled physical activities for pupils with disabilities. Results: The range of controlled physical activities was verified higher in the West Midlands region compared to the South Bohemian region. It was found that the British region unlike the South Bohemian region accentuated non-confrontational character of the controlled physical activities with health preventive impact (yoga, swimming and social integration (dancing, walking and hiking. Conclusions: It was verified the hypothesis H1, assuming that the availability of controlled physical activities for pupils with mental disabilities, hearing, visual is significantly higher in the surveyed region of the UK compared to the surveyed region in the Czech Republic.

  5. 31 CFR 585.218 - Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade in United Nations Protected... HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 585.218 Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia... importation from, exportation to, or transshipment of goods through the United Nations Protected Areas in the...

  6. Knowledge of AIDS among secondary school pupils in Bagamoyo and Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiga, S H; Nachtigal, G; Hunter, D J

    1991-03-01

    We assessed knowledge of AIDS among pupils in selected schools in Tanzania in August 1989. Four hundred and eight-one pupils from four randomly selected secondary schools, two from Dar-Es-Salaam (a city) and two from Bagamoyo (a semi-rural town), were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Of these, 476 (99.0%) had heard of AIDS, and 447 (92.9%) were able to mention spontaneously at least one sexually transmitted disease (STD), of whom 374 (83.7%) mentioned AIDS. Knowledge was found to increase with age and tended to be higher among women in Dar-Es-Salaam than in Bagamoyo. These data suggest that communication channels directed at women in rural areas should be strengthened. While knowledge of sexual transmission of HIV was generally high, and prevalence of reported misconceptions about modes of transmission was very low, knowledge of non-sexual means of transmission (transfusions, injections, vertical) was lacking. Although 80% of pupils mentioned reduction of number of sexual partners as a means of AIDS prevention, only 22% mentioned condom use, and less than 5% reported that they had ever used a condom. Future research should concentrate on means of promoting sexual behavior change, the ultimate aim of any AIDS prevention strategy.

  7. Body-art practices among undergraduate medical university students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacha Emmanuel Chacha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include "a mark of beauty," 24%, "just wanted one," 18% and "a mark of femininity or masculinity," 17%. The majority (98% of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52% reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.

  8. The use of social media among adolescents in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Kleeb, Matthis; Mbelwa, Alice; Ahorlu, Collins

    2014-05-01

    Social media form part of the rapid worldwide digital development that is re-shaping the life of many young people. While the use of social media by youths is increasingly researched in the North, studies about youth in the South are missing. It therefore remains unclear how social media can be included in interventions that aim at informing young people in many countries of the global South about sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents findings of a mixed-methods study of young people's user behaviour on the internet and specifically of social media as a platform for sexual health promotion in Tanzania. The study used questionnaires with 60 adolescents and in-depth interviews with eight students aged 15 to 19 years in Dar es Salaam, and in Mtwara, Southern Tanzania. Findings show that youth in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara access the internet mainly through mobile phones. Facebook is by far the most popular internet site. Adolescents highlighted their interest in reproductive and sexual health messages and updates being delivered through humorous posts, links and clips, as well as by youth role models like music stars and actors that are entertaining and reflect up-to-date trends of modern youth culture. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Family perceptions of intellectual disability: Understanding and support in Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    When attempting to understand the construct of intellectual disability in different contexts, speaking to family members in addition to the individual with the disability may provide new insight about understandings of and responses to intellectual disability in society and may help to identify the forms of support that are available or needed to ensure the quality of life of people with disabilities. This article outlines and discusses interviews that were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, with family members of children and adults with intellectual disabilities. These interviews explore how families came to understand that their child had an intellectual disability; the availability of family support; and family hopes and dreams for the future, and were a part of a wider exploratory study that gathered insight from individuals with disabilities, families, and other providers of support to explore understandings and perceptions of disability in Dar es Salaam. Understanding family experiences will help researchers, policy makers, non-governmental organisations, and others to identify family strengths and family support needs which can ultimately improve family quality of life and the quality of life of the member with a disability. PMID:28729979

  10. Basic analysis of climate and urban bioclimate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetto, Emmanuel L.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Better understanding of urban microclimate and bioclimate of any city is imperative today when the world is constrained by both urbanisation and global climate change. Urbanisation generally triggers changes in land cover and hence influencing the urban local climate. Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania is one of the fast growing cities. Assessment of its urban climate and the human biometeorological conditions was done using the easily available synoptic meteorological data covering the period 2001-2011. In particular, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated using the RayMan software and results reveal that the afternoon period from December to February (DJF season) is relatively the most thermal stressful period to human beings in Dar es Salaam where PET values of above 35 °C were found. Additionally, the diurnal cycle of the individual meteorological elements that influence the PET index were analysed and found that air temperature of 30-35 °C dominate the afternoon period from 12:00 to 15:00 hours local standard time at about 60 % of occurrence. The current results, though considered as preliminary to the ongoing urban climate study in the city, provide an insight on how urban climate research is of significant importance in providing useful climatic information for ensuring quality of life and wellbeing of city dwellers.

  11. Relocate GTMO Detainees to Stand Trial in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    the 1998 terrorist bombings of the United States Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam , Tanzania. Expect...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t RELOCATE GTMO DETAINEES TO STAND TRIAL IN THE UNITED STATES BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL REX D. LYNNE...options for the disposition of Guantanamo detainees and others captured by the United States.2 On 20 May 2009, in a bi-partisan vote, Congress denied the

  12. Occupational exposure and health problems in small-scale industry workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a situation analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Msamanga, G.I.; Heederik, D.; Dolmans, W.M.V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workers in informal small-scale industries (SSI) in developing countries involved in welding, spray painting, woodwork and metalwork are exposed to various hazards with consequent risk to health. Aim To assess occupational exposure and health problems in SSI in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  13. Report of the African Regional Seminar on Educational Evaluation (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, April 7-May 2, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC.

    The Regional Seminar on Educational Evaluation held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from 7 April to 2 May 1975, was organized as a follow-up activity to a study carried out by the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP, Paris) in 1973-1974. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development had in 1973 requested the IIEP to…

  14. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other

  15. Predictors of poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending public hospitals in Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuhabwa AR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary R Kamuhabwa, Emmanuel CharlesUnit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: Tanzania has recently experienced a significant rise in the burden of diabetes, and it is estimated that more than 400,000 people are living with diabetes. A major concern in the management of diabetes is the occurrence of diabetic complications that occur as a result of poor glycemic control. Identification of the factors associated with poor glycemic control is important in order to institute appropriate interventions for the purpose of improving glycemic control and prevention of chronic complications.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the level of glycemic control and explore the factors associated with poor glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the diabetic clinics for T2DM patients at the national and municipal hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A total of 469 patients were enrolled over a period of 8 weeks from March 2013 to May 2013. Patients' information such as sociodemographic characteristics, self-care management behaviors, and medication adherence were obtained through interviews. Blood pressure, weight, and height were measured during the day of the interview. All available last readings for fasting blood glucose (FBG measurements, lipid profile, and other clinical characteristics were obtained from patients' records.Results: The mean age of patients was 54.93 years. The majority (63.5% of patients were females and only eight patients had records of lipid profile measurements. Out of 469 patients, 69.7% had FBG of ≥7.2 mmol/L, indicating poor glycemic control. Females aged between 40 years and 59 years had significantly higher poor glycemic control (76.1% as compared with their male counterparts. Thirty-eight percent of patients had poor medication adherence

  16. The United States of America and the People`s Republic of China experts report on integrated gasification combined-cycle technology (IGCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    A report written by the leading US and Chinese experts in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, intended for high level decision makers, may greatly accelerate the development of an IGCC demonstration project in the People`s Republic of China (PRC). The potential market for IGCC systems in China and the competitiveness of IGCC technology with other clean coal options for China have been analyzed in the report. Such information will be useful not only to the Chinese government but also to US vendors and companies. The goal of this report is to analyze the energy supply structure of China, China`s energy and environmental protection demand, and the potential market in China in order to make a justified and reasonable assessment on feasibility of the transfer of US Clean Coal Technologies to China. The Expert Report was developed and written by the joint US/PRC IGCC experts and will be presented to the State Planning Commission (SPC) by the President of the CAS to ensure consideration of the importance of IGCC for future PRC power production.

  17. Risk factors for VIA positivity and determinants of screening attendances in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Ngoma, Twalib

    2012-01-01

    of describing risk factors for VIA positivity and determinants of screening attendances in Tanzania, this paper present the results from a comparative analysis performed among women who are reached and not reached by the screening program". METHODS: 14 107 women aged 25--59 enrolled in a cervical cancer...... screening program in Dar es Salaam in the period 2002 -- 2008. The women underwent VIA examination and took part in a structured questionnaire interview. Socioeconomic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV status and high-risk (HR) HPV infection were determined in a subpopulation of 890 who participated....... CONCLUSION: Women who are widowed/separated, of high parity, of low education and married at a young age are more likely to be VIA positive and thus at risk of developing cervical cancer. The study further documents that a referral linkage between the HIV care and treatment program and the cervical cancer...

  18. Nutritional status of HIV-infected women with tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, M; Wamsele, J; MacKenzie, T; Maro, I; Kimario, J; Ali, S; Dowla, S; Hendricks, K; Lukmanji, Z; Neke, N M; Waddell, R; Matee, M; Pallangyo, K; von Reyn, C F

    2013-09-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. To quantify anthropometrics and intake of en-ergy and protein among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women with TB. HIV-positive women with newly diagnosed TB were assessed on their anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake. Energy and protein intake were determined using Tanzania food composition tables and compared with standard recommendations. Patients were re-evaluated after 4-6 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Among 43 women, the baseline median CD4 count was 209 cells/µl (range 8-721); 19 (44%) had a CD4 count of HIV-positive women with TB have substantial 24-h deficits in energy and protein intake, report significant food insecurity and gain minimal weight on anti-tuberculosis treatment. Enhanced dietary education together with daily supplementation of 1000 kcal with 40 g protein may be required.

  19. Dar es Salaam city temporal growth and its influence on transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Cosmas Mkalawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at using spatial data to investigate and analyze the temporal spatial growth of the city of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania and quantify its relationship to transportation growth. The study will focus on the period from 1945 to 2012 and will use population and economic growth as parameters. The findings of this study show that there is a mutual relationship between Dar es Salaam’s urban growth, population, economy, and transportation. It found that transportation demand and infrastructure growth coincided with population growth; however, Dar es Salaam’s urban spatial expansion and residential area growth have been affected by transportation demand and infrastructure growth. It also found that enormous spatial expansion has caused dramatic changes in the daily share of travel modes and that these disparities have occurred in relation to urban growth and transport. Development initiatives and policies over time have not successfully solved this problem.

  20. Heavy and light money in the Netherlands Indies and the Dutch Republic: dilemmas of monetary management with unit of account systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, W.G.

    2008-01-01

    In its Asian operations the Dutch United East Indies Company (VOC) (1602–1798) acted both as a territorial ruler and as a trading company. The company shipped large amounts of precious metals to Asia, both in the form of bullion and as coins, to pay for its trade and to provide currency for the

  1. The Republic of Mexico and the United States of America: The Mexican-American War -- In Retrospect. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Pablo Hill

    The unit is intended as part of a world cultures curriculum taught at the 10th grade level. The lessons include: (1) "Mexico in Brief"; (2) "The Mexican American War 1846-1848"; and (3) "History and Educational Status of Americans of Mexican Descent (Chicanos) in the Southwest." Additional resources and a 32-item…

  2. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  3. The Phenomenon of Paradiplomacy in the Czech Republic: Representative Difficulties in the Concept of Paradiplomacy in the Subnational Unit of the Znojmo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkéta Sanalla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main findings which are focusing interdisciplinary on contemporary trends in the regional policy in Central Europe. These findings are illustrated on regional policy activities in Znojmo region which is a pioneer in so called paradiplomacy activities. These deal consequents upon geographical emplacement on the border of the former Eastern Bloc which constitute area of renewed relations in united central Europe nowadays. These results are obtained by using classical theory of paradiplomacy from Ivo Duchacek and Panayotis Soldatos. Thesis from broader research in paradiplomacy is emphasised on the example of region Znojmo and its paradiplomacy policy. The work is based on case study, which tried to gain the most important facts about followed issues. Through an analysis of selected aspects in these sub-state units is shown its success in researched area which lies not only in a wide range of cultural and tourist industry activities but also in economic area. Management of Znojmo municipality use cross-border co-operation to reduce unemployment rate in region which is one of the key tasks. Negotiation in region is facilitated by creating ad-hoc region to overcome one of the fundamental difficulties of paradiplomacy concept which is the unclear definition of the term sub-state unit and the variety of participants in paradiplomatic negotiation.

  4. Physical partner violence, women?s economic status and help-seeking behaviour in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Seema; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women?s responses to partner violence are influenced by a complex constellation of factors including: psychological attachment to the partner; context of the abuse; and structural factors, all of which shape available options for women outside of the relationship. Objective: To describe women?s responses to physical partner violence; and to understand the role of women?s economic resources on their responses. Methods: Cross-sectional data from Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tan...

  5. Air pollution by motor traffic in Dar-es-Salaam. Measurements and state of the art description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricson, Daniel

    1999-06-01

    Dar-es-Salaam was the capital of Tanzania until 1973, when it was moved to Dodoma. The city is still the largest and holds about 1.6 million inhabitants. The aim of the project is to measure air pollution from traffic close to people and set a foundation for future studies. Besides that finding ways to reduce air pollution and improve traffic situation in Dar-es-Salaam with an emphasis on the central city parts. Previous studies on air pollution in Dar-es-Salaam have all been rather rushed and mostly with old and not very precise equipment. For that reason you could say this project is like a pilot study. Measurements were made on NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and VOC (hydrocarbons) during two different measuring weeks. Average temperature, wind velocity and traffic flow was measured on both weeks. Traffic flow was 12 000 vehicles/day. The percentage of accelerating/retarding vehicles and average speed was also studied. Average speed was 20 km/h. The result above show levels somewhat exceeding the guidelines. The levels can not be said to be alarmingly high, but bearing the rapid increase in the number of vehicles in mind, air pollution will soon be a major problem. It would have been preferred to also measure lead, particles and carbon monoxide, especially particles since previous reports indicates very high levels. To create a better air quality in Dar-es-Salaam there has to be an improvement of public transport and at the same time increased parking fees and fuel prices. Finally, fuel quality has to improve and unleaded petrol has to be introduced as soon as possible 10 refs, 4 figs, 15 tabs

  6. 9 September 2016 - A. Krivas, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Lithuania to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva meeting CERN Director-General F. Gianotti and signing the Guest Book with Director for International Relations C. Warakaulle and Adviser for Relations with the Republic of Lithuania C. Schäfer

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    His Excellency Mr. Andrius Krivas Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Republic of Lithuania signing the CERN Guest book with Director for International Relations C. Warakaulle and advisor C. Schaefer

  7. Physical partner violence, women's economic status and help-seeking behaviour in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Seema; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2017-01-01

    Women's responses to partner violence are influenced by a complex constellation of factors including: psychological attachment to the partner; context of the abuse; and structural factors, all of which shape available options for women outside of the relationship. To describe women's responses to physical partner violence; and to understand the role of women's economic resources on their responses. Cross-sectional data from Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between women's economic resources and their responses to violence. In both sites, among physically abused women, over one-half experienced severe violence; approximately two-thirds had disclosed the violence; and approximately 40% had sought help. Abused women were more likely to have sought help from health services, the police and religious leaders in Dar es Salaam, and from local leaders in Mbeya. Economic resources did not facilitate women's ability to leave violent partners in Dar es Salaam. In Mbeya, women who jointly owned capital assets were less likely to have left. In both sites, women's sole ownership of capital assets facilitated help-seeking. Although support services are being scaled-up in Tanzania, efforts are needed to increase the acceptability of accessing such services.

  8. Phenological response of five wild plant shrubs and assessment its sums of effective units in region of the Czech Republic during 1961-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosova, L.; Bauer, Z.; Trnka, M.; Balek, J.; Kucera, J.; Stepanek, P.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Presented study is focused on 50 years of phenological observations (1961-2010) of five wild plant shrubs and its phenological phases that create a continuous phenological sequence covering the whole spring aspect of floodplain forest. The phases were observed for Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas), English hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha), Midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata), Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) and Common dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). The study was conducted at nature reserve at Vranovice (170 m a.s.l., 48°56´ N, 16°35´ E) with additional data available from three observational sites in the region (15-60 km apart). For each shrub the date of first flower and the date of full flowering were determined. The collected phenological data were analysed together with local meteorological observations for trends and periodicity by software AnClim and PhenoClim developed by Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Mendel University respectively. For each shrub and its phenological phases the sum of effective units above the given threshold were calculate by means of PhenoClim. The values of sum of effective units for weather variables parameters (e. g. mean temperature, maximum temperature) and above given threshold (e. g. range of baseline mean temperature values from 1 to 10°C with step of 0.1°C) were assess. Observations of these five wild plant shrubs have been since season 2009 modernized by extremely detail air temperature measurements and phenocameras (taking multiple series of 12 photos during a single day) for three individuals of Common dogwood at three different habitats (insolated, shaded and half-shaded habitat) at plot Vranovice. This detailed observation provide unusual level of detail about the role of particular location of the given species within the particular site and provides a method allowing for precise determination of the individual phenological stages. The mean annual temperature showed a significant increase of 0.33°C per decade, with

  9. Genetic aspects of barite mineralization related to rocks of the teschenite association in the Silesian Unit, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirásek Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Barite is a relatively uncommon phase in vein and amygdule mineralizations hosted by igneous rocks of the teschenite association in the Silesian Unit (Western Carpathians. In macroscopically observable sizes, it has been reported from 10 sites situated only in the Czech part of the Silesian Unit. Microscopic barite produced by the hydrothermal alteration of rock matrix and also by the supergene processes is more abundant. We examined four samples of barite by mineralogical and geochemical methods. Electron microprobe analyses proved pure barites with up to 0.038 apfu Sr and without remarkable internal zonation. Fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope data suggests that multiple sources of fluid components have been involved during barite crystallization. Barite contains primary and secondary aqueous all-liquid (L or less frequent two-phase (L+V aqueous fluid inclusions with variable salinity (0.4-2.9 wt. % NaCl eq. and homogenization temperatures between 77 and 152 °C. The higher-salinity fluid endmember was probably Cretaceous seawater and the lower-salinity one was probably diagenetic water derived from surrounding flysch sediments during compaction and thermal alteration of clay minerals. The δ34S values of barite samples range between -1.0 ‰ and +16.4 ‰ CDT suggesting participation of two sources of sulphate, one with a near-zero δ34S values probably derived from wall rocks and another with high δ34S values being most probably sulphate from the Cretaceous seawater. All results underline the role of externally derived fluids during post-magmatic alteration of bodies of rock of the teschenite association.

  10. Overweight, obesity and perceptions about body weight among primary schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpembeni, Rose N M; Muhihi, Alfa J; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu; Ngarashi, Davis; Lujani, Benjamin; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Anaeli, Amani; Njelekela, Marina A

    2014-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of overweight and obesity and assessed perception about body weight among primary schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this cross sectional study, nine schools were selected randomly from a list of all primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle information including perception about body weight. Height and weight were measured following standard procedures. Chi- square tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to determine factors which influence perceptions about body weight. A total of 446 children were included into the study. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2 (16.1 ± 4.0 for males and 17.0 ± 4.0 for females). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher among girls, 13.1% and 6.3% compared to boys with 6.3% and 3.8% overweight and obese respectively (P=0.0314). Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.0% (10.1% among boys and 19.4% among girls). One-third (33.3%) of the children perceived their body weight as overweight or obese. Among overweight and obese children, 35.4% had unfavourable perception of their body weights. There was a statistically significant difference between perceived body weight and actual body weight as indicated by BMI for both boys and girls (P body weight. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is not very high in this population. However over a third of overweight and obese children, had unfavourable perception of their body weights. We recommend targeted educational programmes about

  11. An assessment of dispensing practices in private pharmacies in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagashe, Godeliver A B; Minzi, Omary; Matowe, Lloyd

    2011-02-01

    To assess medicine dispensing practices in private pharmacies in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania and recommend interventions to improve practice. A cross-sectional survey and observational study of dispensing practices among 70 pharmacies in metropolitan Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. There were 1479 dispensing encounters recorded across the 70 pharmacies. This translated to 1573 medicines dispensed. Of the medicines dispensed, 16% were anti-infectives; 45% of the dispensed medicines were requested by the client, 32% were recommended by the dispenser and only 23% were on prescriptions. The main reasons for pharmacy consultations were coughs (62%), general pain (62%) and 'flu and colds. Malaria constituted 21% of the private pharmacy visits. Of the cough encounters, 30% received antibiotics. In addition, oral antibiotics were given to 81% of the clients with diarrhoea and to 95% of those with eye and ear problems. Of the 628 clients who requested specific medicines without a prescription, only 29% were asked questions on why the medicines were required. Of the clients who bought antibiotics, 20% bought incomplete doses. In total, 1180 clients were interviewed. Of these, 35% could not repeat the instructions given to them by the dispenser. Of the 70 dispensers who gave dosage instructions, only 20% gave them according to guidelines. In Tanzania, an overwhelming proportion of medicines sold in pharmacies are dispensed without a prescription. The majority of medicines dispensed without a prescription are either requested by the client or recommended by the dispenser. When dispensing medicines, dispensers seldom give dosage instructions; when they do, the instructions are often not consistent with guidelines. A high proportion of clients seeking management of coughs and colds or for diarrhoea from private pharmacies receive antibiotics. Interventions that build the capacity of dispensers, improve the rational use of antibiotics and the management of diarrhoea in private pharmacies in

  12. Informal urban settlements and cholera risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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    Katherine Penrose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living conditions can have a significant impact on the spread of infectious diseases, analyses relating these diseases to ongoing global urbanization, especially at the neighborhood and household level in informal settlements, have been infrequent. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyzed urban environmental data and the burden of cholera in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Cholera incidence was examined in relation to the percentage of a ward's residents who were informal, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without an improved water source, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without improved sanitation, distance to the nearest cholera treatment facility, population density, median asset index score in informal areas, and presence or absence of major roads. We found that cholera incidence was most closely associated with informal housing, population density, and the income level of informal residents. Using data available in this study, our model would suggest nearly a one percent increase in cholera incidence for every percentage point increase in informal residents, approximately a two percent increase in cholera incidence for every increase in population density of 1000 people per km(2 in Dar es Salaam in 2006, and close to a fifty percent decrease in cholera incidence in wards where informal residents had minimally improved income levels, as measured by ownership of a radio or CD player on average, in comparison to wards where informal residents did not own any items about which they were asked. In this study, the range of access to

  13. Is malaria illness among young children a cause or a consequence of low socioeconomic status? evidence from the united Republic of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria is commonly considered a disease of the poor, but there is very little evidence of a possible two-way causality in the association between malaria and poverty. Until now, limitations to examine that dual relationship were the availability of representative data on confirmed malaria cases, the use of a good proxy for poverty, and accounting for endogeneity in regression models. Methods A simultaneous equation model was estimated with nationally representative data for Tanzania that included malaria parasite testing with RDTs for young children (six-59 months), and accounted for environmental variables assembled with the aid of GIS. A wealth index based on assets, access to utilities/infrastructure, and housing characteristics was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Model estimation was done with instrumental variables regression. Results Results show that households with a child who tested positive for malaria at the time of the survey had a wealth index that was, on average, 1.9 units lower (p-value malaria. Conclusion If malaria is indeed a cause of poverty, as the findings of this study suggest, then malaria control activities, and particularly the current efforts to eliminate/eradicate malaria, are much more than just a public health policy, but also a poverty alleviation strategy. However, if poverty has no causal effect on malaria, then poverty alleviation policies should not be advertised as having the potential additional effect of reducing the prevalence of malaria. PMID:22571516

  14. Is malaria illness among young children a cause or a consequence of low socioeconomic status? evidence from the united Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Fisher, Monica G

    2012-05-09

    Malaria is commonly considered a disease of the poor, but there is very little evidence of a possible two-way causality in the association between malaria and poverty. Until now, limitations to examine that dual relationship were the availability of representative data on confirmed malaria cases, the use of a good proxy for poverty, and accounting for endogeneity in regression models. A simultaneous equation model was estimated with nationally representative data for Tanzania that included malaria parasite testing with RDTs for young children (six-59 months), and accounted for environmental variables assembled with the aid of GIS. A wealth index based on assets, access to utilities/infrastructure, and housing characteristics was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Model estimation was done with instrumental variables regression. Results show that households with a child who tested positive for malaria at the time of the survey had a wealth index that was, on average, 1.9 units lower (p-value effects on malaria. If malaria is indeed a cause of poverty, as the findings of this study suggest, then malaria control activities, and particularly the current efforts to eliminate/eradicate malaria, are much more than just a public health policy, but also a poverty alleviation strategy. However, if poverty has no causal effect on malaria, then poverty alleviation policies should not be advertised as having the potential additional effect of reducing the prevalence of malaria.

  15. Nutrient and Phytoplankton Dynamics along the Ocean Road Sewage Discharge Channel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Mariam I. Hamisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Road shoreline is situated close to Dar es Salaam largest fish market and is subjected to sewage discharge. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton were studied in five stations along the Ocean Road Coast. Phytoplankton composition, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, salinity, water clarity, pH, and dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN including nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate were measured. Results revealed that DIN were significantly higher in the station close to the discharge point than other stations (P<0.0001. There were no significant temporal variations in DIN except nitrate that was significantly higher during Northeast Monsoon than Southeast Monsoon (P<0.001. Other environmental parameters showed no significant differences except clarity, conductivity, and DO. Occurrence of potential harmful species such as Trichodesmium, Microcystis, and Pseudo-nitzschia was observed. The phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a ranged from 3.2 to 56.5 mg m−3 and 18 to 113 mg m−3 for Mjimwema (MJ and Ocean Road (OR stations, respectively. There was significant difference (P=0.0033 in chlorophyll a among the stations being higher in OR II. The phytoplankton biomass was positively correlated with nutrient concentration in all stations except OR I. This study suggests an alarming level of DIN at OR that may alter phytoplankton biomass, abundance, and composition.

  16. Impact of Incidents on Traffic Congestion in Dar es Salaam City

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    David Mfinanga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poorly managed traffic incidents have largely contributed to congestion and delay in the city of Dar es Salaam. A thorough understanding of travel delays caused by incidents is therefore essential for effective countermeasures against the increasing congestion. The method used to determine delays in this research is based on the deterministic queuing theory. Information on incidents was obtained from traffic surveys, traffic police and road users. Counting of the number of vehicles passing the incident location was done on incident and incident-free days. The cumulative traffic counts on incident and incident-free days were then calculated and used to plot the queuing diagram used to determine incident induced delay. This method turned out to be a useful tool for estimating incident induced delay in areas with less sophisticated equipment i.e. where there are no sensors, CCTV cameras, etc. The method provided good estimates of incident induced delay which may help planners and transportation officials in better understanding incident related congestion and in selecting more effective countermeasures against incident related traffic congestion in the city. It was found out that the effects of incidents were different for the different zones, types of incidents and the periods the incident occurred. In addition to the incident duration and the number of vehicles affected, the impact of incidents also depended on availability of alternative routes, number of lanes on the road, discipline of the driver in manoeuvring at incident location and traffic control at the scene.

  17. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Marion W.; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:25734790

  18. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  19. Mr. Eduard Zeman, Minister of Education, Youth and Sport, Czech Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Mr Eduard Zeman (third from left), Minister of Education, Youth and Sport, Czech Republic, visiting CERN's permanent exhibition, Microcosm, with (from left to right) Dr Rupert Leitner, ATLAS Tile Calorimetry Project Leader; Mr P. Cink, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport; Dr Ivan Lehraus, Committee for Collaboration of the Czech Republic with CERN; and H.E. Mr Milan Hovorka, Ambassador, permanent representative of the Czech Republic to the United Nations in Geneva.

  20. Czech Republic [2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnáč, Aleš; Petrúšek, Ivan; Linek, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2016), s. 69-75 ISSN 2047-8852 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29032S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Czech politics * political parties * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/2047-8852.12130/full

  1. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

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    Metaj-Stojanova Albana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-37 Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the...

  3. Frontiers Of Change And Governance In Contractual Agreements: The Possible Role Of Exploitation - Uniting Reformed Church De Doorns V President Of The Republic Of South Africa 2013 5 Sa 205 (Wcc

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    Luanda Hawthorne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the South African common law of contract there appears to be support for the open norm of public policy as a general clause to ameliorate the effects of unfair contracts and terms which are contrary to public policy. The courts have on several occasions held that contracts or terms would be regarded as contrary to public policy had they come about where the parties were in an unequal bargaining relationship and this inequality was linked with another factor(s. In this case note it is argued that the element of unequal bargaining position may be contrary to public policy if it is linked with exploitation as the other factor. The element of exploitation was highlighted in the recent court decision of Uniting Reformed Church, De Doorns v President of the Republic of South Africa 2013 5 SA 205 (WCC. In this case the applicant church owned three properties on which were three schools under the control of the State. The church and the State had concluded 20-year notarial leases in respect of each of the properties. A term in the contract provided that after the expiration of the lease period the church would transfer the properties to the State free of charge. After the expiration of the leases the State demanded the transfer of the properties. The church disputed the claim, averring that the term was unenforceable because the parties had been in an unequal bargaining position and that the enforcement of the term constituted expropriation in contravention of the property clause of the Constitution. It is submitted that expropriation without compensation is not only contrary to section 25 of the Constitution but constitutes exploitation. It is suggested that where exploitation results from an unequal bargaining relationship it provides the "further factor" that, together with the inequality in bargaining power, is sufficient to establish that the term or contract is in conflict with public policy. This contributes to giving meaning to the term

  4. Factors for change in maternal and perinatal audit systems in Dar es Salaam hospitals, Tanzania

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    Kisanga Felix

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective maternal and perinatal audits are associated with improved quality of care and reduction of severe adverse outcome. Although audits at the level of care were formally introduced in Tanzania around 25 years ago, little information is available about their existence, performance, and practical barriers to their implementation. This study assessed the structure, process and impacts of maternal and perinatal death audit systems in clinical practice and presents a detailed account on how they could be improved. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in eight major hospitals in Dar es Salaam in January 2009. An in-depth interview guide was used for 29 health managers and members of the audit committees to investigate the existence, structure, process and outcome of such audits in clinical practice. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 30 health care providers in the maternity wards to assess their awareness, attitude and practice towards audit systems. The 2007 institutional pregnancy outcome records were reviewed. Results Overall hospital based maternal mortality ratio was 218/100,000 live births (range: 0 - 385 and perinatal mortality rate was 44/1000 births (range: 17 - 147. Maternal and perinatal audit systems existed only in 4 and 3 hospitals respectively, and key decision makers did not take part in audit committees. Sixty percent of care providers were not aware of even a single action which had ever been implemented in their hospitals because of audit recommendations. There were neither records of the key decision points, action plan, nor regular analysis of the audit reports in any of the facilities where such audit systems existed. Conclusions Maternal and perinatal audit systems in these institutions are poorly established in structure and process; and are less effective to improve the quality of care. Fundamental changes are urgently needed for successful audit systems in

  5. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM WATER BODIES IN DAR-ES-SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

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    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  7. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determinants of immunological failure among clients on the first line treatment with highly active antiretroviral drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Anthony Kapesa

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: HAART-IF in Dar es Salaam is associated with ART programmatic and patients' centered challenges. There is a need to review the approaches on ensuring ART adherence, clients follow up and referral system so as to reduce the incidence of IF as we move to a more decentralized peripheral drug picks clinical initiative.

  9. President of the Slovak Republic visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2012-01-01

    On 11 September 2012, the President of the Slovak Republic, Ivan Gašparovič, visited CERN accompanied by the First Lady and a delegation of 67, including the Deputy Prime Minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Economy and the Ambassadors of the Slovak Republic to Switzerland, France and the Office of the United Nations. The visit by representatives of the Slovak Republic follows the Slovak Republic’s hosting of the CERN Accelerator School in the region of Bratislava. After being welcomed to CERN in the morning by CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer, the members of the Slovak government were given the opportunity to get a glimpse of the LHC and to visit the ALICE experiment at Point 2. The President and other members of the Slovak delegation then met representatives of Slovak universities and industries at an exhibition of their work in the hall of Building 500. The President then briefly spoke to Slovak journalists and signed the VIP visitors book. The visit last...

  10. 30th August 2010 - Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations Office at Geneva, Ambassador Y. He visiting the CMS underground experimental area and LHC tunnel with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    CERN-HI-1008197 01: in the LHC tunnel at Point 5: CMS Collaboaration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Mrs L. Jianping (Ambassador's spouse), Mrs B. Heuer, Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations Office at Geneva, Ambassador Y. He, CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Adviser R. Voss; CERN-HI-1008197 57: in front of the CMS experiment at LHC point 5: CMS technical Coordinator A. Ball, Mrs L. Jianping (Ambassador's spouse), Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations Office at Geneva, Ambassador Y. He; Mrs B. Heuer, CERN Director-General R. Heuer, CMS Collaboaration Spokesperson G. Tonelli and Adviser R. Voss. CERN-HI-1008197 02 - 14: Welcome in front of building 3562 at CMS. Head of International relations F: Pauss gives the introduction talk to the delegation. CERN-HI-1008197 15 - 25: visiting CMS control room at Point 5 with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli; CERN-HI-1008197 26 - 29: visiting the service cavern in the CMS underground ar...

  11. The spectrum of dermatological disorders among primary school children in Dar es Salaam

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    Mgonda Yassin M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years. The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05. Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor being the commonest (20%. Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420; the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41 and higher (21.8% in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045. Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%. All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4% with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420 followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1% whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7% followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%. Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%. Thirty six children (8.6% had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2% in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004. The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4% and pediculosis capitis (3.6%. Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%, non

  12. Food cravings, aversions and pica among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaruhucha, C N M

    2009-01-01

    Food cravings, aversions and pica are common during pregnancy and may have a significant input on pregnancy progress and outcome. A study was carried out to determine the frequency and duration of pronounced dietary cravings, aversions and pica during pregnancy among 204 pregnant and lactating women attending two health facilities in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Nausea and vomiting were reported by 82.8% of all women of which 43.2% experienced severe nausea alone, 9.5% severe vomiting alone and 35.5% experienced severe vomiting and nausea. Mild cases of each of the symptoms either occurring alone or both of them occurring together were also reported. Both behaviours were observed more in pica were 73.5%, 70.1% and 63.7% of all women respectively. More women (70.1%) experienced both food cravings and aversions than either symptom alone. Foods craved most were meat (23.3%), mangoes (22.7%), yoghurt (20.0%) oranges (20.0%), plantain (15.3%) and soft drinks (13.3%). Foods avoided most were rice (36.4%), meat (36.4%) and fish (30.8%). Eggs, beans, tea and stiff porridge were also avoided. Reasons given for avoiding foods were unpleasant smell/taste (10.3%), to reduce nausea (11.8%), no particular reason (58.3%) and dislike by foetus (belief) (3.9%). Pica was experienced by 63.7%% of the women and soil, ice and ash were the most commonly non-food substances eaten. The frequency of nausea and vomiting was highest in the early months of pregnancy and most women experienced the symptoms during morning hours. Craving in most women was more intense in the first trimesters. Most women craved for meat and sour and savoury foods, and avoided rice, meat and fish. Soil consumption was the pica observed in most women. Since aversions and cravings are closely linked to dietary intake of pregnant woman understanding these behaviours is important in addressing maternal nutrition.

  13. Masculine attitudes of superiority deter men from accessing antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Tumaini M. Nyamhanga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article presents part of the findings from a larger study that sought to assess the role that gender relations play in influencing equity regarding access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Review of the literature has indicated that, in Southern and Eastern Africa, fewer men than women have been accessing ART, and the former start using ART late, after HIV has already been allowed to advance. The main causes for this gender gap have not yet been fully explained. Objective: To explore how masculinity norms limit men's access to ART in Dar es Salaam. Design: This article is based on a qualitative study that involved the use of focus group discussions (FGDs. The study employed a stratified purposive sampling technique to recruit respondents. The study also employed a thematic analysis approach. Results: Overall, the study's findings revealed that men's hesitation to visit the care and treatment clinics signifies the superiority norm of masculinity that requires men to avoid displaying weakness. Since men are the heads of families and have higher social status, they reported feeling embarrassed at having to visit the care and treatment clinics. Specifically, male respondents indicated that going to a care and treatment clinic may raise suspicion about their status of living with HIV, which in turn may compromise their leadership position and cause family instability. Because of this tendency towards ‘hiding’, the few men who register at the public care and treatment clinics do so late, when HIV-related signs and symptoms are already far advanced. Conclusion: This study suggests that the superiority norm of masculinity affects men's access to ART. Societal expectations of a ‘real man’ to be fearless, resilient, and emotionally stable are in direct conflict with expectations of the treatment programme that one has to demonstrate health-promoting behaviour, such as promptness in attending the care and treatment

  14. Gender differences in diet and nutrition among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Ajibola I; Isanaka, Sheila; Liu, Enju; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Noor, Ramadhani A; Spiegelman, Donna; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected males have poor treatment outcomes after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared to HIV-infected women. Dietary factors might mediate the association between sex and disease progression. However, the gender difference in diet among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine differences in dietary intake among HIV-infected men and women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of dietary questionnaire data from 2038 adults initiating ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to assess whether nutrient adequacy differed by sex. We dichotomized participants' nutrient intakes by whether recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) were met and estimated the relative risk (RR) of meeting RDAs in males using binomial regression models. We also estimated the mean difference in intake of foods and food groups by gender. We found poorer dietary practices among men compared to women. Males were less likely to meet the RDAs for micronutrients critical for slowing disease progression among HIV patients: niacin (RR = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.55), riboflavin (RR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91), vitamin C (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.00), and zinc (RR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.24). Intake of thiamine, pantothenate, vitamins B6, B12, and E did not vary by gender. Males were less likely to eat cereals (mean difference [servings per day] = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.44 to 0.001) and vegetables (mean difference = -0.47, 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.07) in their diet, but more likely to have meat (mean difference = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.21). We conclude that male HIV patients have poorer dietary practices than females, and this may contribute to faster progression of the disease in males.

  15. Effect of urban design on microclimate and thermal comfort outdoors in warm-humid Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Johansson, Erik; Thorsson, Sofia; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rasmussen, Maria Isabel

    2017-06-01

    Due to the complexity of built environment, urban design patterns considerably affect the microclimate and outdoor thermal comfort in a given urban morphology. Variables such as building heights and orientations, spaces between buildings, plot coverage alter solar access, wind speed and direction at street level. To improve microclimate and comfort conditions urban design elements including vegetation and shading devices can be used. In warm-humid Dar es Salaam, the climate consideration in urban design has received little attention although the urban planning authorities try to develop the quality of planning and design. The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between urban design, urban microclimate, and outdoor comfort in four built-up areas with different morphologies including low-, medium-, and high-rise buildings. The study mainly concentrates on the warm season but a comparison with the thermal comfort conditions in the cool season is made for one of the areas. Air temperature, wind speed, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) are simulated using ENVI-met to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the existing urban design. An analysis of the distribution of MRT in the areas showed that the area with low-rise buildings had the highest frequency of high MRTs and the lowest frequency of low MRTs. The study illustrates that areas with low-rise buildings lead to more stressful urban spaces than areas with high-rise buildings. It is also shown that the use of dense trees helps to enhance the thermal comfort conditions, i.e., reduce heat stress. However, vegetation might negatively affect the wind ventilation. Nevertheless, a sensitivity analysis shows that the provision of shade is a more efficient way to reduce PET than increases in wind speed, given the prevailing sun and wind conditions in Dar es Salaam. To mitigate heat stress in Dar es Salaam, a set of recommendations and guidelines on

  16. A call for parental monitoring to improve condom use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlunde Linda B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been decreasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but prevalence of the infection remains unacceptably high among young people. Despite the alarming pervasiveness of the virus, young people in this region continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors including unprotected sexual intercourse. In developed countries, parents can play important roles in protecting young people from such behaviors, but evidence regarding the impact of parental involvement is still limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional study among 2,217 male and female students aged 15 to 24 years from 12 secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. From October to November 2011, we collected data using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse, adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 665 (30.3% secondary school students reported being sexually active within the year prior to data collection. Among them, 41.7% had multiple sexual partners, 10.5% had concurrent sexual partners, and 41.1% did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse. A higher level of parental monitoring was associated with increased likelihood of condom use at last sexual intercourse among male students (AOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32; p = 0.03 but not among female students (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.71-3.37; p = 0.28. The association between parental communication and condom use at last sexual intercourse among both male and female students was not statistically

  17. 78 FR 68412 - Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Korea, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States on the Countervailing Duty... Investigation Initiation Checklist: Non-Oriented Electrical Steel from the People's Republic of China (PRC CVD...

  18. Implementation of a goal programming model for solid waste management: a case study of Dar es Salaam – Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyeme Halidi Ally

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research article, the multi-objective optimization model for solid waste management problem is solved by the goal programming method. The model has three objectives: total cost minimization, minimization of final waste disposal to the landfill, and environmental impact minimization. First, the model is solved for the higher priority goal, and then its value is never allowed to deteriorate. The model is solved for the next priority goal and so on until the problem is solved. The model was tested with real data for solid waste management system from Dar es Salaam city. The results determine the best locations for recycling plants, separating plants, composting plants, incinerating plants, landfill and waste flow allocation between them. Furthermore, the solution shows a high reduction of the amount of waste to the landfill and greenhouse gas emissions by 78% and 57.5% respectively if fully implemented compared to the current system.

  19. Astronomy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Hadrava, Petr

    -, č. 128 (2007), s. 3-3 ISSN 0722-6691 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomy * astropohysics * Czech republic Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  20. Conditions and opportunities for green infrastructure – Aiming for green, water-resilient cities in Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Backhaus, Antje; Fryd, Ole

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we examine the conditions and opportunities for establishing a functional green infrastructure under the pressure of urbanization in Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam. Inspired by transition theory, we look for regimes and niches which support retainment of green space and their adaptive...... are vague, outdated before finalised and inefficient for coping with the fast pace of urbanization. In Addis Ababa, despite an emergent recognition of the role of the green infrastructure in the city plan, informal encroachment and planned large scale land-conversions to housing takes place. In Dar es...... Salaam, that subscribes to, but lacks a functional master plan, the regime seems paralysed and is too fragmented and engrossed with the pressing urbanization problems to prioritize a green infrastructure. For establishing a functional green infrastructure coalition partners from housing, road and urban...

  1. Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion in Dar es Salaam: the discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Mchumvu, Y

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14-19) were asked...... for socio-economic details, contraceptive knowledge/use, age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners. In the qualitative part, 51 teenage girls were interviewed in-depth about their relationships with their partners, sexual behaviour, contraceptive use and reasons for non-use, and why they became...... that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among...

  2. 78 FR 34984 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... International Trade Administration Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court... aluminum extrusions,\\1\\ pursuant to the CIT's remand order in The Rowley Company v. United States Court No... Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 30650 (May 26, 2011...

  3. 77 FR 9724 - Request for Petitions To Modify the Rules of Origin Under the Dominican Republic-Central America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Rules of Origin.'' In order to be assured of consideration, comments should be submitted by noon, [60... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Petitions To Modify the Rules of Origin Under the Dominican Republic...-apparel products rules of origin under the Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade...

  4. 77 FR 38583 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review of November 1, 2007.... Coalition v. United States, 626 F.3d 1374 (Fed. Cir. 2010) (Diamond Sawblades). \\6\\ See Fresh Garlic from...

  5. Structural seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M. [DAVID Consulting, Engineering and Design Office, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-03-01

    Several Nuclear Power Plants of the VVER type has been constructed during the past years in former Czechoslovak Republic. Some of them has been already put in operation and some of them are under construction. Nuclear Power Plants V1(2 units of VVER 440/230), V2(2 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Dukovany (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Czech republic are in operation. NPP Mochovce (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Temelin (4 units reduced now to 2 units VVER 1000) have been already almost completed, but still under construction. All above cited NPPs have not been either explicitly designed against earthquake or the design against earthquake or its input data must be upgraded to be compatible with present requirements. The upgrading of seismic input as well the seismic upgrading of all structures and technological equipments for so many NPPs has involved a lot of comprehensive work in Czech as well as in Slovak republics. The upgrading cannot be completed in a short time and as a rule the seismic upgrading has been usually performed in several steps, beginning with the most important arrangements against seismic hazard. The basic principles and requirements for seismic upgrading has been defined in accordance with the international and particularly with the IAEA recommendations. About the requirements for seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics will be reported in other contribution. This contribution is dealing with the problems of seismic upgrading of NNPs civil engineering structures. The aim of this contribution is to point out some specific problems connected firstly with very complicated concept of Versa structures and secondly with the difficult task to increase the structural capacity to the required seismic level. (J.P.N.)

  6. Undernutrition among HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: antiretroviral therapy alone is not enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunguya Bruno F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS has exacerbated the impact of childhood undernutrition in many developing countries, including Tanzania. Even with the provision of antiretroviral therapy, undernutrition among HIV-positive children remains a serious problem. Most studies to examine risk factors for undernutrition have been limited to the general population and ART-naive HIV-positive children, making it difficult to generalize findings to ART-treated HIV-positive children. The objectives of this study were thus to compare the proportions of undernutrition among ART-treated HIV-positive and HIV-negative children and to examine factors associated with undernutrition among ART-treated HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods From September to October 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 213 ART-treated HIV-positive and 202 HIV-negative children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We measured the children's anthropometrics, socio-demographic factors, food security, dietary habits, diarrhea episodes, economic status, and HIV clinical stage. Data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate methods. Results ART-treated HIV-positive children had higher rates of undernutrition than their HIV-negative counterparts. Among the ART-treated HIV-positive children, 78 (36.6% were stunted, 47 (22.1% were underweight, and 29 (13.6% were wasted. Households of ART-treated HIV-positive children exhibited lower economic status, lower levels of education, and higher percentages of unmarried caregivers with higher unemployment rates. Food insecurity was prevalent in over half of ART-treated HIV-positive children's households. Furthermore, ART-treated HIV-positive children were more likely to be orphaned, to be fed less frequently, and to have lower body weight at birth compared to HIV-negative children. In the multivariate analysis, child's HIV-positive status was associated with being underweight (AOR = 4.61, 95% CI 1

  7. Stock Market Co-Movement and Exchange Rate Flexibility : Experience of the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yung Chul; Park, Hail

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that for countries where equity investments dominate cross-border capital flows, the proper framework for analyzing the role of a flexible exchange rate system as a buffer against external shocks is the uncovered stock return parity condition, rather than the uncovered interest parity condition. Estimation of the stock return parity condition shows that it fails to hold in the Republic of Korea largely because of co-movement in the Republic of Korea and United States stock m...

  8. A Military Strategy for the People’s Republic of China as a Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    front endeavor was to be a vehicle for expanding Comunist influence in China . 9Lin Piao, "Long Live the Victory of the People’s War," Daily Re2ort...USAWC RESEARCH ELDIENT (Thesis) A Military Strategy for the Peoplets Republic of China As a Nuclear Power by Colonel James L. Skelley Artillery UalS...strength ...... 23 United States opposition to The People’s Republic of China . . .. . . . . . . . 26 Projection of Lnited States Opposition to the

  9. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  10. Gypsum karst of the Baltic Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paukstys B.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have karst areas developed in both carbonate and gypsiferous rocks. In the north, within the Republic of Estonia, Ordovician and Silurian limestones and dolomites crop out, or are covered by glacial Quaternary sediments. To the south, in Latvia and Lithuania, gypsum karst is actively developing in evaporites of Late Devonian (Frasnian age. Although gypsum and mixed sulphate-carbonate karst only occupy small areas in the Baltic countries, they have important engineering and geo-ecological consequences. Due to the rapid dissolution of gypsum, the evolution of gypsum karst causes not only geological hazards such as subsidence, but it also has a highly adverse effect on groundwater quality. The karst territory of the Baltic states lies along the western side of the area, called the Great Devonian Field that form part of the Russian Plain. Within southern Latvia and northern Lithuania there is an area, exceeding 1000 sq. km, where mature gypsum karst occurs at the land surface and in the subsurface. This karst area is referred to here as the Gypsum Karst Region of the Baltic States. Here the surface karst forms include sinkholes, karst shafts, land subsidence, lakes and dolines. In Lithuania the maximum density of sinkholes is 200 per sq. km; in Latvia they reach 138 units per sq. km. Caves, enlarged dissolution voids and cavities are uncommon in both areas.

  11. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the

  12. Does Personalized Water and Hand Quality Information Affect Attitudes, Behavior, and Health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study

  13. Motivations to participate in a Phase I/II HIV vaccine trial: A descriptive study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. M. Tarimo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for an efficacious HIV vaccine is a global priority. To date only one HIV vaccine trial (RV144 has shown modest efficacy in a phase III trial. With existing different HIV-1 subtypes and frequent mutations, multiple trials are needed from different geographical sites particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where most HIV infections occur. Thus, motivations to participate in HIV vaccine trials among Tanzanians need to be assessed. This paper describes the motives of Police Officers who showed great interest to volunteer in HIVIS-03 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among Police Officers who showed interest to participate in the HIVIS-03, a phase I/II HIV vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam. Prior to detailed training sessions about HIV vaccine trials, the potential participants narrated their individual motives to participate in the trial on a piece of paper. Descriptive analysis using content approach and frequency distributions were performed. Results Of the 265 respondents, 242 (91.3 % provided their socio-demographic characteristics as well as reasons that would make them take part in the proposed trial. Majority, (39.7 %, cited altruism as the main motive. Women were more likely to volunteer due to altruism compared to men (P < 0.01. Researchers’ explanations about HIV/AIDS vaccine studies motivated 15.3 %. More men (19.6 % than women (1.7 % were motivated to volunteer due to researchers’ explanations (P < 0.001. Also, compared to other groups, those unmarried and educated up to secondary level of education were motivated to volunteer due to researchers’ explanation (P < 0.05. Other reasons were: desire to become a role model (18.6 %; to get knowledge for educating others (14.0 %; to cooperate with researchers in developing an HIV vaccine (9.5 %; to get protection against HIV infection (7.0 %, and severity of the disease within families (6.2

  14. Prevalence of enteropathogenic viruses and molecular characterization of group A rotavirus among children with diarrhea in Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maselle Samwel Y

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different groups of viruses have been shown to be responsible for acute diarrhea among children during their first few years of life. Epidemiological knowledge of viral agents is critical for the development of effective preventive measures, including vaccines. Methods In this study we determined the prevalence of the four major enteropathogenic viruses – rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus – was determined in 270 stool samples collected from children aged 0 – 60 months who were admitted with diarrhea in four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, using commercially available ELISA kits. In addition, the molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus was investigated using reverse transcriptase multiplex polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results At least one viral agent was detected in 87/270 (32.2% of the children. The prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus was 18.1%, 13.7%, 2.6% and 0.4%, respectively. In most cases (62.1% of viruses were detected in children aged 7–12 months. The G and P types (VP7 and VP4 genotypes respectively were further investigated in 49 rotavirus ELISA positive samples. G9 was the predominant G type (81.6%, followed by G1 (10.2% and G3 (0.2%. P[8] was the predominant P type (83.7%, followed by P[6] (0.4% and P[4] (0.2%. The following G and P types were not detected in this study population; G2, G4, G8 G10, P[9], P[10] and P[11]. The dominating G/P combination was G9P[8], accounting for 39 (90.7% of the 43 fully characterized strains. Three (6.1% of the 49 rotavirus strains could not be typed. Conclusion Nearly one third of children with diarrhea admitted to hospitals in Dar es Salaam had one of the four viral agents. The predominance of rotavirus serotype G9 may have implication for rotavirus vaccination in Tanzania.

  15. 20 CFR 404.463 - Nonpayment of benefits of aliens outside the United States; “foreign social insurance system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... force between the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, and Japan, respectively, create treaty obligations precluding the application of § 404.460...

  16. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  17. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  18. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  19. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  20. The Prolonged Downfall of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas AY 2014-01 i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB...research, writing and rewriting this document . The energy and creativity of my four boys, Derek, Colten, Jake, and Travis, kept me active and grounded...Government DRA Democratic Republic of Afghanistan ISI Inter-Service Intelligence (Pakistani intelligence agency) KGB Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti

  1. Forward Deployed Naval Forces in the Republic of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson...Spanish American War. Today the United States has naval ships stationed in forward bases in Japan, Spain , Italy, and Bahrain. The aim of this...States naval force in the Republic of the Philippines. The results should provide an overview of the social aspects, political climate, and military

  2. Patients' level of satisfaction on quality of health care at Mwananyamala hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Kudra; Njau, Bernard

    2014-09-18

    Enhancing quality of health care delivered in public health facilities in developing countries is a key prerequisite to increase utilization and sustainability of health care services in the population. The aim of the study was to determine patients' level of satisfaction on the quality of health care delivered at the out-patient department (OPD) in Mwananyamala hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study design was conducted from April to May, 2012. A systematic sampling method was employed to select 422 study subjects. A pre-tested SERVQUAL questionnaire was used to collect data and one-sample t-test was employed to identify patients' level of satisfaction and principal component analysis to identify key items that measure quality of care. Patients' level of satisfaction mean gap score was (-2.88 ± 3.1) indicating overall dissatisfaction with the quality of care. The level of dissatisfaction in the five service dimensions were as follows: assurance (-0.47), reliability (-0.49), tangible (-0.52), empathy (-0.55), and responsiveness (-0.72). Patients attending OPD at Mwananyamala hospital demonstrates an overall dissatisfaction on quality of care. Hospital management should focus on: improvement on communication skills among OPD staff in showing compassion, politeness and active listening, ensure availability of essential drugs, and improvement on clinicians' prescription skills.

  3. Mapping the Gap of Water and Erosion Control Measures in the Rapidly Urbanizing Mbezi River Catchment of Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhina Given Justin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In rapidly urbanizing catchments, increase in stormwater runoff may cause serious erosion and frequent floods if stormwater management systems are improper and dysfunctional. Through GIS-based modelling, field investigations, resident’s questionnaire survey, and interviews with officials, the study set out to assesses the coverage and efficiency of drainage infrastructure in Mbezi River catchment basin in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Between 2003 and 2016, the catchment imperviousness increased by 41%, causing flood incidents, massive erosion, and numerous pollution sources. Residents strive to address stormwater hazards using terraces, hedges, and physical barriers; however, the problems persist, indicating lack of coordination and poor causality understanding between land-use changes and catchment impacts. Small-scale stormwater harvesting was exercised by 75% of the households, pointing to water supply challenges. Municipal stormwater management efforts was limited to roadside drains covering 17% of road lengths in the catchment, and 65% of those did not meet their design standards. Interviews with officials revealed a need for improved co-understanding and collaborative initiatives to bolster integrated water management. The study suggests a need to adopt a new urban stormwater management paradigm, appropriate for both residents and authorities. Without this new discourse, the urbanization led stormwater increase might jeopardize the liveability of the entire catchment.

  4. Pesticide residues in raw and processed maize grains and flour from selected areas in Dar es Salaam and Ruvuma, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahugija, John Andrew Marco; Kayombo, Auguster; Peter, Regina

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the levels of pesticide residues in maize grains and flour and the effects of processing methods on their levels in maize products in samples collected in Dar es Salaam and Ruvuma regions. Analysis of cleaned-up extracts was done using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twelve pesticides were detected in maize grains and their highest concentrations were up to 676.1, 11200 and 14 μg/kg for organochlorines, organophosphorous and pyrethroid pesticides, respectively. In maize flour, eight pesticides were detected and the concentrations for organochlorines, organophosphorous and pyrethroid pesticides were up to 333.3, 2220 and 2 μg/kg, respectively. Only dieldrin was detected in cooked samples at a concentration of 2 μg/kg. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD, aldrin, dieldrin, chlorpyrifos and pirimiphos methyl in some grains and flour samples exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRLs). The findings indicate risks and concerns for public health. Processing methods were found to cause transformation and reduction of the pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with alcohol drinking among HIV and tuberculosis co-infected patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwiru, Ramadhani Stephano; Nagu, Tumaini Joseph; Kaduri, Pamela; Fawzi, Wafaie; Mugusi, Ferdinand

    2017-07-03

    There is scarcity of information on the burden of alcohol use among people living with HIV in Tanzania despite the high burden of HIV. We examined the prevalence and factors associated with alcohol use among HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients in fourteen clinics with highest notification of TB in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between October 2010 and December 2011. Proportions were used to describe the prevalence and pattern of alcohol use. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of various participant characteristics with alcohol use. Out of the 515 participants, 38 (7.4%) were current alcohol drinkers, 183 (35.5%) were ex-drinkers and the rest, 294 (57.1%) denied ever drinking alcohol. Approximately, 15% of past and current drinkers were classified as heavy drinkers. Patients with normal BMI, cigarette smokers, and those with higher income were more likely to be drinkers. Similarly, compared to civil servants, those in petty trade and other occupations were more likely to be drinkers. We concluded that, the level of current alcohol use among HIV positive people receiving pulmonary TB treatment in this population was low. Nevertheless, alcohol use screening and assessment should be added as an integral part of service provision in HIV clinics given the effect of alcohol on health outcomes among HIV positive patients.

  6. Meanings of care by bereaved relatives of homicide victims in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outwater, Anne H; Tarimo, Edith A M; Miller, June E; Campbell, Jacqueline C

    2012-10-01

    The purpose was to describe the meanings of care, kutunza, for the deceased and the relatives of homicide victims. The secondary aim was to identify ways in which nurses could best console the families. An ethnonursing method was employed. Relatives of homicide victims in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were interviewed at a mortuary, using an interview guide constructed with Leininger's enablers as major elements. Content analysis was performed according to Leininger's phases of ethnonursing analysis of qualitative data. Families of 30 homicide victims were studied. The mean age of the victims was 30.7 years, range 17 to 47 years. All victims, except 1, were male. The informants included 29 relatives and two close friends. The following four themes were identified: (a) providing basic needs, (b) paying attention as if one were kin, (c) consoling through gathering, and (d) caring for each other. Care is manifested by respectful attention to the preparation of the deceased and by providing an environment by which the community can gather to console the bereaved family. Respectful preparation of the deceased's body is essential. Nurses can provide emotional support to the families and find an area where the extended family can grieve and console each other.

  7. Criteria-based audit on management of eclampsia patients at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidanto, Hussein Lesio; Mogren, Ingrid; Massawe, Siriel N; Lindmark, Gunilla; Nystrom, Lennarth

    2009-03-27

    Criteria-based audits have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the introduction of a criteria-based audit in a tertiary hospital in an African setting, assesses the quality of care among eclampsia patients and discusses possible interventions in order to improve the quality of care. We conducted a criteria based audit of 389 eclampsia patients admitted to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam Tanzania between April 14, 2006 and December 31, 2006. Cases were assessed using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. Antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum eclampsia constituted 47%, 41% and 12% of the eclampsia cases respectively. Antepartum eclampsia was mostly (73%) preterm whereas the majority (71%) of postpartum eclampsia cases ware at term. The case fatality rate for eclampsia was 7.7%. Medical histories were incomplete, the majority (75%) of management plans were not reviewed by specialists in obstetrics, specialist doctors live far from the hospital and do not spend nights in hospital even when they are on duty, monitoring of patients on magnesium sulphate was inadequate, and important biochemical tests were not routinely done. Two thirds of the patient scheduled for caesarean section did not undergo surgery within agreed time. Potential areas for further improvement in quality of emergency care for eclampsia relate to standardizing management guidelines, greater involvement of specialists in the management of eclampsia and continued medical education on current management of eclampsia for junior staff.

  8. Pollution of water sources due to poor waste management--the case of Dar-es-Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makule, D E

    2000-01-01

    Pollution of water sources for the city of Dar-es-Salaam originates from haphazard disposal of solid wastes, discharge of untreated or inadequately treated wastewater to water sources, lack of standard sanitary facilities and poor hygienic practices. Contaminated water used for human consumption can lead to serious health problems e.g. cholera, typhoid, skin diseases, etc., which, in turn, leads to reduced working hours/manpower. This has a direct effect to production output which can lead to a deterioration of local community welfare. Having realised this as a problem, the Government of Tanzania stipulated, in its water policy of 1991, the need for protection of water sources. In achieving this goal, proper waste management was singled out to be of vital importance. Due to economic hardships, however, budget allocation by the central Government could not cover the costs needed for proper handling of waste. This left Tanzania with no alternative other than heavy reliance on donor and bilateral organisations for financial support of programmes. Nevertheless, these sources of funds proved to be unreliable for many different reasons. To deal with these problems, the Government currently emphasises involving local community and NGOs, the formation of stakeholder funds and organisations, and involvement of the private sector. Other efforts are intensification of education programmes to create more awareness to the local communities on the need for protection of water sources. Although at its infancy level, the system is showing some signs of improvement.

  9. Desulphurisation of waste gases in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svrèek Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of the decreasing sulphur dioxide emission in the Czech Republic. In 1991 a new Cean Air Act has been accepted. Emission limit values based on the best available technology not entailing cost. All sources of pollution will have to comply the emission limit values up to December 31, 1998 at the latest. At the present time the last units in the power plants and heating plants are under construction, many of them are on the scale. The prevailing system is the wet limestone technology producing gypsum. Differences in the installed systems, in particular power plants, are described. In a lesser extent the wet dry lime technology will be used. Old boilers are replaced by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. At the end of the paper the proposal of the amendment to the Europe Union Directive 608/87 EEC, is discussed. Differences in the systems in the particular power plants are described.

  10. 77 FR 47596 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... International Trade Administration Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China... Department'') continues to determine that certain small diameter graphite electrodes (``SDGE'') are being exported from the United Kingdom (``U.K.'') to the United States by UK Carbon and Graphite Co., Ltd...

  11. Republic of Botswana. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, J

    1985-08-01

    A summary of Botswana's population characteristics, population distribution, labor force characteristics, health situation, and transportation and communication facilities is provided. 87% of the country's 941,027 inhabitants live in the catchment area of the Limpopo River in the eastern region of the country. Much of the remaining area is covered by the Kalahari Desert. The population is growing at an annual rate of 3.6%, the birth rate is 50 and the total fertility rate is 6.6. The government has no official population policy. Major ethnic groups are the cattle raising Tswanas, which make up 50% of the population, the Herero, and the Basarwa, or Bushmen, of the Kalahri Desert. Urban areas are officially defined as population centers which contain 5000 or more residents and in which at least 75% of the inhabitants are engaged in nonagricultural work. According to this classification, 84% of the population is rural; however, most rural inhabitants live in agrotowns and temporarily move to outlying cattle and land posts during part of the year. Some of the agrotowns have almost 25,000 inhabitants. Major urban centers include 1) Gaborone, the capital and major administrative center, with a popualtion of 59,657; 2) Francistown, a large commercial center, with a population of 31,065; 3) Selebi-Phikwe, a mining center, populated by 29,469; and 4) Lobatse, a livestock marketing and processing center, with 19,034 residents. The urban population increased from 54,416 to 150,021 between 1971-81. The population has a young age structure. A large number of working aged males migrate temporarily to the Republic of South Africa to work in the gold mines. 37% of the economically active population is engaged in government services, 26% in mining, manufacturing, and construction, 21% in trade and finance, 6% in transportation, utilities, and communication, and 4.5% in agriculture. Only 1.3% of the land is cultivatable. The working age population is expected to double by the end of

  12. I Pulmonary aspergilloma: A 15 years experience in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thoracic surgical operations performed by the unit during the period of study. There were eight males and two females. The surgical treatment offered included left .... In general, surgery should be offered for symptomatic disease and not prophylactic for asymptomatic radiological. l e ~ i o n s ' ~ ~ ~ ~ . Surgery should not be ...

  13. The problem of illegally induced abortion: results from a hospital-based study conducted at district level in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E

    2000-01-01

    Illegal abortion is known to be a major contributor to maternal mortality. The objective of the study was firstly to identify women with illegally induced abortion, (IA) and to compare them with women admitted with a spontaneous abortion (SA) or receiving antenatal care (AC), and secondly...... to describe the circumstances which characterized the abortion. The population of this cross-sectional questionnaire study comprised patients from Temeke District Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. After an in-depth confidential interview, 603 women with incomplete abortion were divided into two groups: 362...

  14. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannady Khadija

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. Methods A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR, logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Results Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05–0.3, p Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Conclusion Although environmental management was historically coordinated by authoritarian/colonial regimes or by industries/corporations, its successful implementation as part of an integrated vector management framework for malaria control under democratic governments can be possible if four conditions are observed: political will and commitment, community sensitization and participation, provision of financial resources for initial cleaning and structural repairs, and inter

  15. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcia C; Tsuruta, Atsuko; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sixbert

    2009-04-08

    Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR), logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05-0.3, p authoritarian/colonial regimes or by industries/corporations, its successful implementation as part of an integrated vector management framework for malaria control under democratic governments can be possible if four conditions are observed: political will and commitment, community sensitization and participation, provision of financial resources for initial cleaning and structural repairs, and inter-sectoral collaboration. Such effort not only is expected to reduce malaria transmission, but has the potential to empower communities, improve health and environmental conditions, and ultimately contribute to poverty alleviation and sustainable development.

  16. Identifying programmatic gaps: inequities in harm reduction service utilization among male and female drug users in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrot H Lambdin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Current estimates suggest an HIV prevalence of 42% among people who inject drugs (PWIDs in Dar es Salaam, while HIV prevalence is estimated to be 8.8% among the general population in the city. To address the HIV epidemic in this population, the government of Tanzania began establishing HIV prevention, treatment and care services including outreach and medication assisted treatment (MAT for PWIDs in 2010. We assessed gender inequities in utilization of outreach and MAT services and evaluated differences in HIV risk behaviors between female and male PWIDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Routine outreach data between December 2010 to mid-August 2012 and baseline data on clients enrolling in methadone from February 2011 to August 2012 were utilized. Binomial regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk estimates comparing females to males. RESULTS: From December 2010 to August 2012, 8,578 contacts were made to drug users; among them 1,898 were injectors. A total of 453 injectors were eligible and referred to MAT, of which, 443 enrolled in treatment. However, regarding total outreach contacts, outreach to PWID, referral to MAT and enrollment in MAT, 8% or less of drug users accessing services were women. In contrast, weighted estimations from surveys suggest that 34% of PWIDs are female, and this approximation is similar to recent population size estimations. Overall, 43% of traditional outreach workers conducting outreach with drug users were female. Though reporting higher levels of condom usage, female PWID were more likely to report multiple sex partners, anal sex, commercial sex work and struggle under a higher burden of addiction, mental disorders and abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Services have not been mobilized adequately to address the clear needs of females who inject drugs. A clear and urgent need exists for women-centered strategies that effectively engage female PWID into HIV prevention services.

  17. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  18. Sampling Migrants from their Social Networks: The Demography and Social Organization of Chinese Migrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, M Giovanna; Verdery, Ashton; Mouw, Ted; Li, Jing

    2016-07-01

    The streams of Chinese migration to Africa are growing in tandem with rising Chinese investments and trade flows in and to the African continent. In spite of the high profile of this phenomenon in the media, there are few rich and broad descriptions of Chinese communities in Africa. Reasons for this include the rarity of official statistics on foreign-born populations in African censuses, the absence of predefined sampling frames required to draw representative samples with conventional survey methods and difficulties to reach certain segments of this population. Here, we use a novel network-based approach, Network Sampling with Memory, which overcomes the challenges of sampling 'hidden' populations in the absence of a sampling frame, to recruit a sample of recent Chinese immigrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and collect information on the demographic characteristics, migration histories and social ties of members of this sample. These data reveal a heterogeneous Chinese community composed of "state-led" migrants who come to Africa to work on projects undertaken by large Chinese state-owned enterprises and "independent" migrants who come on their own accord to engage in various types of business ventures. They offer a rich description of the demographic profile and social organization of this community, highlight key differences between the two categories of migrants and map the structure of the social ties linking them. We highlight needs for future research on inter-group differences in individual motivations for migration, economic activities, migration outcomes, expectations about future residence in Africa, social integration and relations with local communities.

  19. Criteria-based audit on management of eclampsia patients at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindmark Gunilla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Criteria-based audits have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the introduction of a criteria-based audit in a tertiary hospital in an African setting, assesses the quality of care among eclampsia patients and discusses possible interventions in order to improve the quality of care. Methods We conducted a criteria based audit of 389 eclampsia patients admitted to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam Tanzania between April 14, 2006 and December 31, 2006. Cases were assessed using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. Results Antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum eclampsia constituted 47%, 41% and 12% of the eclampsia cases respectively. Antepartum eclampsia was mostly (73% preterm whereas the majority (71% of postpartum eclampsia cases ware at term. The case fatality rate for eclampsia was 7.7%. Medical histories were incomplete, the majority (75% of management plans were not reviewed by specialists in obstetrics, specialist doctors live far from the hospital and do not spend nights in hospital even when they are on duty, monitoring of patients on magnesium sulphate was inadequate, and important biochemical tests were not routinely done. Two thirds of the patient scheduled for caesarean section did not undergo surgery within agreed time. Conclusion Potential areas for further improvement in quality of emergency care for eclampsia relate to standardizing management guidelines, greater involvement of specialists in the management of eclampsia and continued medical education on current management of eclampsia for junior staff.

  20. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Intra-Cluster Correlation Estimates for HIV-related Outcomes from Care and Treatment Clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Dale; Hertzmark, Ellen; Liu, Enju; Mungure, Ester; Muya, Aisa N; Sando, David; Chalamilla, Guerino; Ulenga, Nzovu; Bärnighausen, Till; Fawzi, Wafaie; Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-12-15

    Researchers planning cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) require estimates of the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) from previous studies for sample size calculations. This paper fills a persistent gap in the literature by providing estimates of ICCs for many key HIV-related clinical outcomes. Data from HIV-positive patients from 47 HIV care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were used to calculate ICCs by site of enrollment or site of ART initiation for various clinical outcomes using cross-sectional and longitudinal data. ICCs were estimated using linear mixed models where either clinic of enrollment or clinic of ART initiation served as the random effect. ICCs ranged from 0 to 0.0706 (95% CI: 0.0447, 0.1098). For most outcomes, the ICCs were large enough to meaningfully affect sample size calculations. For binary outcomes, the ICCs for event prevalence at baseline tended to be larger than the ICCs for later cumulative incidences. For continuous outcomes, the ICCs for baseline values tended to be larger than the ICCs for the change in values from baseline. The ICCs for HIV-related outcomes cannot be ignored when calculating sample sizes for future cluster-randomized trials. The differences between ICCs calculated from baseline data alone and ICCs calculated using longitudinal data demonstrate the importance of selecting an ICC that reflects a study's intended design and duration for sample size calculations. While not generalizable to all contexts, these estimates provide guidance for future researchers seeking to design adequately powered cRCTs in Sub-Saharan African HIV treatment and care clinics.

  2. Knowledge Globalization within and across the People's Republic of China and the United States: A Cross-National Study of Internationalization of Educational Research in the Early 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Robert J.; Kan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The study examines globalization within and across China and the United States in conjunction with a portrayal of the nature of the scholarly endeavors over the past 10 years in the two preeminent educational research journals of these countries. By extensive analyses of topics, methodology, and citations the research clarifies the global and…

  3. A Política Externa da Primeira República e os Estados Unidos: a atuação de Joaquim Nabuco em Washigton (1905-1910 Foreign Policy during the Brazilian First Republic Period and the United States: the Role of Joaquim Nabuco in Washington (1905-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José dos Reis Pereira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Rio Branco, com a criação da embaixada brasileira em Washington em 1905, deu um novo fôlego para o movimento de aproximação com os Estados Unidos que já se verificava na política externa desde o advento da República. Nesse contexto, o objetivo da nossa pesquisa é, por meio de um trabalho de análise histórica, tendo como base, essencialmente, documentação primária, entender as concepções políticas e a influência que o primeiro ocupante do cargo de embaixador, Joaquim Nabuco, teve na condução desse relacionamento.Rio Branco, with the creation of the brazilian embassy in Washington in 1905, gave a new breath for the movement of approach with the United States that already was verified in the foreing policy since the advent of the Republic. In this context, the objective of our research are, by means of a work of historical analysis, having as base, primary documentation, understand the politic conceptions and the influence that the first occupant of the position of ambassador, Joaquim Nabuco, had in the conduction of this relationship.

  4. 78 FR 74115 - Monosodium Glutamate From the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Monosodium Glutamate From the People's Republic of China and the Republic of... investigations of monosodium glutamate from Indonesia and the PRC.\\1\\ Currently, the preliminary determinations are due no later than December 27, 2013. \\1\\ See Monosodium Glutamate from the People's Republic of...

  5. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Drescher, Axel W; Tanner, Marcel; Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

    2007-09-04

    Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1) community-based development of sketch maps and (2) verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa.

  6. Predictors of poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending public hospitals in Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R; Charles, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Tanzania has recently experienced a significant rise in the burden of diabetes, and it is estimated that more than 400,000 people are living with diabetes. A major concern in the management of diabetes is the occurrence of diabetic complications that occur as a result of poor glycemic control. Identification of the factors associated with poor glycemic control is important in order to institute appropriate interventions for the purpose of improving glycemic control and prevention of chronic complications. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the level of glycemic control and explore the factors associated with poor glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methodology A cross-sectional study was carried out at the diabetic clinics for T2DM patients at the national and municipal hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A total of 469 patients were enrolled over a period of 8 weeks from March 2013 to May 2013. Patients’ information such as sociodemographic characteristics, self-care management behaviors, and medication adherence were obtained through interviews. Blood pressure, weight, and height were measured during the day of the interview. All available last readings for fasting blood glucose (FBG) measurements, lipid profile, and other clinical characteristics were obtained from patients’ records. Results The mean age of patients was 54.93 years. The majority (63.5%) of patients were females and only eight patients had records of lipid profile measurements. Out of 469 patients, 69.7% had FBG of ≥7.2 mmol/L, indicating poor glycemic control. Females aged between 40 years and 59 years had significantly higher poor glycemic control (76.1%) as compared with their male counterparts. Thirty-eight percent of patients had poor medication adherence, which was associated with poor glycemic control. The proportion of poor glycemic control increased with age. A significantly high proportion of poor glycemic control was observed in

  7. Understanding resilience of female adolescents towards teenage pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Ahorlu, Collins K; Alba, Sandra; Obrist, Brigit

    2017-06-26

    In Tanzania, teenage pregnancy rates are still high despite the efforts being made to reduce them. Not enough is known about how adolescents experience and cope with sexuality and teenage pregnancy. Over the past few decades, most studies have focused on vulnerability and risk among youth. The concept of 'reproductive resilience' is a new way of looking at teenage pregnancy. It shifts the perspective from a deficit-based to a strength-based approach. The study presented here aimed to identify factors that could contribute to strengthening the reproductive resilience of girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Using a cross-sectional cluster sampling approach, 750 female adolescents aged 15-19 years were interviewed about how they mobilize resources to avoid or deal with teenage pregnancy. The main focus of the study was to examine how social capital (relations with significant others), economic capital (command over economic resources), cultural capital (personal dispositions and habits), and symbolic capital (recognition and prestige) contribute to the development of adolescent competencies for avoiding or dealing with teenage pregnancy and childbirth. A cumulative competence scale was developed to assess reproductive resilience. The cumulative score was computed based on 10 competence indicators that refer to the re- and pro-active mobilization of resources. About half of the women who had never been pregnant fell into the category, 'high competence' (50.9%), meaning they could get the information and support needed to avoid pregnancies. Among pregnant women and young mothers, most were categorized as 'high competence' (70.5%) and stated that they know how to avoid or deal with health problems that might affect them or their babies, and could get the information and support required to do so. Cultural capital, in particular, contributed to the competence of never-pregnant girls [OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.06 to 3.07, p = 0.029], pregnant adolescents and young mothers

  8. Microalbuminuria among Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients of African origin in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thordarson Hrafnkell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalences and risk factors of microalbuminuria are not full described among black African diabetic patients. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of microalbuminuria among African diabetes patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and relate to socio-demographic features as well as clinical parameters. Methods Cross sectional study on 91 Type 1 and 153 Type 2 diabetic patients. Two overnight urine samples per patient were analysed. Albumin concentration was measured by an automated immunoturbidity assay. Average albumin excretion rate (AER was used and were categorised as normalbuminuria (AER 200 ug/min. Information obtained also included age, diabetes duration, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, serum creatinine, and glycated hemoglobin A1c. Results Overall prevalence of microalbuminuria was 10.7% and macroalbuminuria 4.9%. In Type 1 patients microalbuminuria was 12% and macroalbuminuria 1%. Among Type 2 patients, 9.8% had microalbuminuria, and 7.2% had macroalbuminuria. Type 2 patients with abnormal albumin excretion rate had significantly longer diabetes duration 7.5 (0.2–24 yrs than those with normal albumin excretion rate 3 (0–25 yrs, p No significant differences in body mass index, glycaemic control, and cholesterol levels was found among patients with normal compared with those with elevated albumin excretion rate either in Type 1 or Type 2 patients. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis among Type 2 patients, revealed AER (natural log AER as the dependent variable to be predicted by [odds ratio (95% confidence interval] diabetes duration 0.090 (0.049, 0.131, p Conclusion The prevalence of micro and macroalbuminuria is higher among African Type 1 patients with relatively short diabetes duration compared with prevalences among Caucasians. In Type 2 patients, the prevalence is in accordance with

  9. Nutritional status and birth outcomes of adolescent pregnant girls in Morogoro, Coast, and Dar es Salaam regions, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Candida P; Kinabo, Joyce L

    2005-01-01

    Studies that link adolescence pregnancies, nutritional status, and birth outcomes in Tanzania are scarce. We examined the nutritional status and birth outcomes of pregnant adolescent girls from rural and urban areas of three regions in Tanzania. The study was carried out in the regions of Dar es Salaam (Chamazi and Gezaulole dispensaries and Round Table Maternity Home), Coast (Tumbi Regional Hospital and Mlandizi Health Center), and Morogoro (Regional Hospital, Uhuru Clinic, and Mlali Health Center). One hundred eighty pregnant adolescent girls ages 15 to 19 y were recruited and interviewed, and their nutritional status measurements were taken at the seven health facilities. Information concerning date of birth, marital status, educational status, sex education, and income status was collected with a structured questionnaire. Height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured according to standard techniques. Hemoglobin concentration was measured with a hemoglobinometer and the HemoCue technique. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, and hemoglobin concentration was determined by cutoff points of the World Health Organization. Suitable statistical analysis was done with SPSS 9.0. Weekly weight gain during pregnancy was measured in 123 subjects who kept their appointments and reported back after 2 wk. Fifty-seven subjects did not keep their appointments and were lost to follow-up. Records of infants' birth weights and mode of delivery were obtained from 50 subjects who delivered at the study sites. The height of about 54% of the subjects was shorter than 151 cm, suggestive of short maternal height. Severe wasting was observed in 27% of subjects. Mean weekly weight gain during pregnancy was 317 +/-110 g (-500 to 500 g). No significant differences were observed between rural and urban settings. Mean infant birth weight was 2600 +/- 480 g. About 48% of infants had low birth weight (pregnant adolescent girls were anemic. A hemoglobin

  10. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-age children in an endemic area of Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samwel Bushukatale Ng`weng`weta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the magnitude of Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium infection and the factors associated with exposure of preschool children in Kigogo Ward, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey of Class I pupils (preschool-age in 2015 was carried out from May to June 2016 to examine the prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection and associated factors. Urine samples were examined for haematuria, S. haematobium eggs and intensity. Parents or guardians were interviewed on their awareness and level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis disease (symptoms, mode of transmission, treatment and prevention, as well as their perceived risk of infection to young children. Potential sites of transmission were identified and searched for Bulinus spp., snails and the activities that exposed young children to infection were recorded. Results: A total of 424 pupils and 408 female parents or guardians were recruited. Haematuria was detected in 51 (12.0% pupils, S. haematobium eggs were observed in 8 (1.9% pupils and all were light infection. Bulinus spp., snails were identified mostly at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (91.7% of parents or guardians were aware of urinary schistosomiasis disease, but three quarter (76% did not consider it as a health problem. More than two thirds (71.3% reported that anybody could get urinary schistosomiasis; two thirds (65.9% reported that infection was likely to be acquired at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (> 90% had the notion that young children could be exposed; and all the activities that might lead a child to come into contact with potentially infested waters were judged to be risk factors. The larger majority (83.6% had a high level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis (transmission, symptoms, availability of modern treatment and the preventive measures, reflecting the ongoing advocacy campaigns. Conclusions: Young children left

  11. National politics and ethnic identity in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Paulino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Struggle of Democratie Politics in the Dominican Republic. JONATHAN HARTLYN. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. xxi + 371 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 17.95 Holocaust in the Caribbean: The Slaughter of 25,000 Haitians by Trujillo in One Week. MIGUEL AQUINO. Waterbury CT: Emancipation Press, 1997. xxii +184 pp. (Paper n.p. Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii +161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95 Azücar, Arabes, cocolos y haitianos. ORLANDO INOA. Santo Domingo: Ed. Cole and FLACSO, 1999. 219 pp. (Paper n.p. Over the last few years there has been an increase in the publication of books about the Dominican Republic and Dominicans in the United States. This can be partly attributed to the increase of Dominican communities.1 Moreover, Dominican and Dominican-American writers who underscore the trials and tribulations of the immigrant experience are becoming more visible in the mainstream print.2

  12. 1998 Inventory of Endangered Species and Wildlife Resources at the US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands (NODC Accession 0000631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report summarizes the results of the second United States Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (UES) inventory of...

  13. 1996 Inventory of Endangered Species and Wildlife Resources on US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands (NODC Accession 0000251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report summarizes the results of the first United States Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (UES) inventory of...

  14. 75 FR 22109 - Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Aluminum Extrusions Fair Trade Committee,\\1\\ and the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber... 15, 2010 (``Second Supplement to the AD Petition''). \\1\\ The Aluminum Extrusions fair Trade Committee... International Trade Administration Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

  15. 75 FR 22114 - Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...'') filed in proper form by the Aluminum Extrusions Fair Trade Committee\\1\\ and the United Steel, Paper and...''). \\1\\ The individual members of the Aluminum Extrusions Fair Trade Committee are Aerolite Extrusion... International Trade Administration (C-570-968) Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China...

  16. 75 FR 69403 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... the Aluminum Extrusions Fair Trade Committee,\\1\\ and the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber... Aluminum Extrusions Fair Trade Committee is comprised of Aerolite Extrusion Company, Alexandria Extrusion... International Trade Administration Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

  17. New estimates of labour productivity in the manufacturing sectors of Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnikhof, Erik; Ark, Bart van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide benchmark comparisons of manufacturing unit value ratios and productivity levels for the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland relative to Germany in 1996. On average, manufacturing prices were about half of those in Germany for all three countries. Hungary was characterised by

  18. 75 FR 17902 - Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Postponement of... 1117 of the Central Records Unit (CRU) of the main Commerce Building. ] Postponement of Due Date for...

  19. 77 FR 5484 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Amended Antidumping and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is issuing amended antidumping (``AD'') and countervailing duty (``CVD'') orders on multilayered wood flooring from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') to remove an incorrect Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``HTSUS'') number from the scope of the orders.

  20. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  1. Trace metal pollution and its influence on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Elskens, Marc; Leermakers, Martine; Kochzius, Marc

    2012-03-01

    The influence of trace metal pollution on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs was investigated in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast. Significant enrichment of As, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Zn in sediments was recorded. Redundancy analysis indicated that trace metal pollution contributed 68% of the variation in community structure. Monte Carlo permutation test showed that As and Sb contributed significantly to variation in species composition. T-value biplots and van Dobben circles showed that the gastropods Acteon fortis, Assiminea ovata, and Littoraria aberrans, were negatively affected by As and Sb, while the bivalve Semele radiata and the gastropod Conus litteratus were only negatively affected by As. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Mo and Zn occurred in the bivalve Mactra ovalina and the gastropod Polinices mammilla. This calls for regular monitoring and management measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin D Levels in Malnourished Children under 5 Years in a Tertiary Care Center at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walli, Nahida Z; Munubhi, Emmanuel K; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P

    2017-06-01

    : To evaluate vitamin D levels/deficiency among malnourished children <5 years admitted at a tertiary care center, the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Children with malnutrition may have co-existing vitamin D deficiency (VDD), which may be severe. : Serum vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase were evaluated, and X-ray of the wrist was carried out on 134 children. : VDD was found in 41 of 134 children (30.6%). The mean vitamin D level was 74.8 nmol/l. The mean alkaline phosphatase level was 176.6 U/l. Sixty-four (48%) children were found to have severe stunting, of whom 20 (31.2%) were vitamin D deficient. Marasmic children had higher odds of VDD compared with other forms of malnutrition. : The high prevalence of VDD in malnourished children underlines the need for active surveillance and aggressive management.

  3. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongus Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1 community-based development of sketch maps and (2 verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa.

  4. 1946 Dominican Republic Tsunami: Field Survey based on Eyewitness Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Martinez, Claudio; Salado, Juan; Rivera, Wagner; Duarte, Leoncio

    2017-04-01

    On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the north-eastern shore of Hispaniola Island resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field, tsunami waves were recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States of America. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes reported in the Caribbean since colonial times. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from the eastern most tip at Punta Cana to La Isabela some 70 km from the border with Haiti. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, sea-level drawdown, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field

  5. Hydrogeology of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.; Finn, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogeologic maps were constructed for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. The ground-water flow system in the country can best be described as two interconnected regional systems: the porous Continental Terminal coastal system and the interior, fractured sedimentary Taoudeni Basin system. In these systems, ground-water flow occurs in fill deposits and carbonate, clastic, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks. Based on an evaluation of the potentiometric surface, there are three areas of ground-water recharge in the Taoudeni Basin system. One region occurs in the northwest at the edge of the Shield, one occurs to the south overlying the Tillites, and one is centered at the city of Tidjikdja. In contrast to the flow system in the Taoudeni Basin, the potentiometric surfaces reveal two areas of discharge in the Continental Terminal system but no localized recharge areas; the recharge is more likely to be areal. In addition to these recharge and discharge areas, ground water flows across the country's borders. Specifically, ground water from the Atlantic Ocean flows into Mauritania, transporting dissolved sodium from the west as a salt water intrusion, whereas fresh ground water discharges from the east into Mali. To the north, there is a relatively low gradient with inflow of fresh water to Mauritania, whereas ground-water flow discharges to the Senegal River to the south. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to digitize, manage, store, and analyze geologic data used to develop the hydrogeologic map. The data acquired for map development included existing digital GIS files, published maps, tabulated data in reports and public-access files, and the SIPPE2 Access database. Once in digital formats, regional geologic and hydrologic features were converted to a common coordinate system and combined into one map. The 42 regional geologic map units were then reclassified into 13 hydrogeologic units, each having considerable lateral extent and distinct

  6. DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Othman-Specialion of Cadmium, Copper , Lead and Zinc in Msimbazi river ... Samples of water were taken from river Msimbazi that runs through the city of Dar es ... immediately subjected to laboratory analysis and when necessary stored in a.

  7. English in the Czech Republic: Linguists’ perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaderka, Petr; Prošek, Martin

    -, č. 28 (2014), s. 173-198 ISSN 0933-1883 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : language situation * English as a global language * attitudes towards English * national language institution * sociolinguistics * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  8. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  9. United States National Security Interests and the Republic of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    February 24, 1981, p. A8 New York Times, March 10, 1982, p. A7. 102 Olga Pellicer , "Mexico’s Position," Foreign Policy, Summer 1981, No. 43, p. 88...Pergamon Press Inc., 1981. Carlos Fuentes, Three Debates of Change in Latin America; El Salvador: Central America In The New Cold War, (Grove...6186, August 1978. Fuentes, Carlos , "Three Debates of Change in Latin America," El Salvador: Central America In The New Cold War, Grove Press, New

  10. The United Republic of Tanzania : Public Expenditure Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This public expenditure review (PER) examines the budget performance for FY00- and the first eight months of FY01, when domestic revenue remained at the same low level as in the previous year (1.15 percent of GDP), while expenditures increased in FY00 by one percentage point, i.e., 15.9 percent of GDP. Some progress has been made in enhancing funding for priority activities in the areas or...

  11. Democracy Related Units in Social Studies Curriculums Based on Self-Regulation Strategies: A Comparison of Turkey and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Cevat; Incirci, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the units related to democracy concept of Social Studies Curriculums applied in Federal Republic of Germany and Republic of Turkey. The goals of the study indicated in Democracy related unit in Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey is examined comparatively with North Rhine-Westphalia State of Germany based on the…

  12. 20 September 2013 - Ambassador Z. Akram , Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva (3rd) with Mechanical and Materials Engineering Group Leader F. Bertinelli, Head of International Relations R. Voss, CMS Collaboration, Quaid-i-Azam University H. Hoorani, Permanent Mission First Secretary U. Iqbal Jadoon and LHC Consolidation, Industrial Services, Technology Department JP. Tock in front of the lift to the LHC tunnel at Point 1. Site Manager M. Décombaz on the back.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    20 September 2013 - Ambassador Z. Akram , Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva (3rd) with Mechanical and Materials Engineering Group Leader F. Bertinelli, Head of International Relations R. Voss, CMS Collaboration, Quaid-i-Azam University H. Hoorani, Permanent Mission First Secretary U. Iqbal Jadoon and LHC Consolidation, Industrial Services, Technology Department JP. Tock in front of the lift to the LHC tunnel at Point 1. Site Manager M. Décombaz on the back.

  13. eGovernment readiness assessment of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Andrýsková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern information technologies has entered all spheres of human activities, public administration authorities are not exceptions. There has been significantly increasing tendency in using information and communication technologies since beginning of the century in public administration. Despite of some indicators, progress of public administration information systems is too slow. Several organizations are engaged of eGovernment assessment at the international level. We can find some variations in the methodologies that cause different ranking of some countries in international comparison. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and assess the present state of Czech Republic eGo­vern­ment with using both external indicators and internal indicators. eGovernment index, developed by United Nations, will be the main external indicator of eGovernment quality of the Czech Republic. It includes both potential for eGovernment development and its implementation, and it‘s the most complete international ranking at present. It is defined as average of the telecommunication infrastructure index, the human capital index and the web measure index. It represents overall country ability to engage and implement eGovernment. Internal ranking of the Czech Republic eGovernment will be based upon eGovernment level coefficient, that is defined as multi-dimensional model based on technology and communication facility index, Internet using index, using of public administration services by persons and companies, poviding obligatory information, existence of electronic re­gis­try on web pages, web pages accessability and language mutations. Selected statistic data are related to information society and using information technologies in public administration and were published on Czech Statistical Office or evaluated on the bases of previous years‘ development.

  14. Demands for business activities in Chinese people’s Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Tvrdoň

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the possibilities of doing business on Chinese market typical for its geographical spaciousness and populousness. There is also included an overview of China’s position in relation to 12 selected EU-countries. It is shown that four of 12 selected countries (Hungary, Slovakia, United Kingdom and Poland do not export to China while People’s Republic of China exports into all 12 countries. Dividing the exports to China between the counties, Netherlands stands on the top with the share of 11.54% while Austria participates on the total exports only by 2.47%. In relation to the Czech Republic, China’s share on its imports is 10.05%, and only 0.74% on the export. Although the passive balance decreased by 16 232 bill. CZK, in 2009, the balance remains negative. This article looks in detail on the specific standards required by Chinese authorities when Czech company wants to open a representative office there. Also the costs for exhibiting on a machinery-specialized trade fair are calculated. The paper specifies the total time needed to deal with formalities concerning establishing a joint venture and receiving a building permit to build a new plant or reconstruct existing facilities. The financial expenses for a trade fair participation and opening a representative office are average values received from discussion with the top managers of Czech machinery companies exporting their goods or running a production-focused joint venture in the People’s Republic of China.

  15. Organic liquids storage tanks volatile organic compounds (VOCS) emissions dispersion and risk assessment in developing countries: the case of Dar-es-Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Msafiri M

    2006-05-01

    The emission estimation of nine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from eight organic liquids storage tanks companies in Dar-es-Salaam City Tanzania has been done by using US EPA standard regulatory storage tanks emission model (TANKS 4.9b). Total VOCs atmospheric emission has been established to be 853.20 metric tones/yr. It has been established further that petrol storage tanks contribute about 87% of total VOCs emitted, while tanks for other refined products and crude oil were emitting 10% and 3% of VOCs respectively. Of the eight sources (companies), the highest emission value from a single source was 233,222.94 kg/yr and the lowest single source emission value was 6881.87 kg/yr. The total VOCs emissions estimated for each of the eight sources were found to be higher than the standard level of 40,000 kg/yr per source for minor source according to US EPA except for two sources, which were emitting VOCs below the standard level. The annual emissions per single source for each of the VOCs were found to be below the US EPA emissions standard which is 2,000 kg/yr in all companies except the emission of hexane from company F1 which was slightly higher than the standard. The type of tanks used seems to significantly influence the emission rate. Vertical fixed roof tanks (VFRT) emit a lot more than externally floating roof tanks (EFRT) and internally floating roof tanks (IFRT). The use of IFRT and EFRT should be encouraged especially for storage of petrol which had highest atmospheric emission contribution. Model predicted atmospheric emissions are less than annual losses measured by companies in all the eight sources. It is possible that there are other routes for losses beside atmospheric emissions. It is therefore important that waste reduction efforts in these companies are directed not only to reducing atmospheric emissions, but also prevention of the spillage and leakage of stored liquid and curbing of the frequently reported illegal siphoning of stored products

  16. Race and nation in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. DAVID HOWARD. Oxford: Signal; Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001. x + 227 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii + 161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Peasants and Religion: A Socioeconomic Study of Dios Olivorio and the Palma Sola Movement in the Dominican Republic. JAN LUNDIUS & MATS LUNDAHL. London: Routledge, 2000. xxvi + 774 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 The social and political relations between the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and especially their racial and ethnic contents, are extremely difficult to approach in an even- handed and unbiased way. Much ink has been spilled over the conflictive relations between these two countries, and on race relations in the Dominican Republic. Much of what has been said must be considered unfounded or biased, not to mention sensationalist. The books under review try to pro vide new insights into the issue and at the same time to steer clear of these problems.

  17. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates' students of Muhimbili and Dar es Salaam Universities, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somba, Magreat J; Mbonile, Milline; Obure, Joseph; Mahande, Michael J

    2014-08-07

    The rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies and illegal abortions remain higher among university students. This calls for understanding the knowledge on contraceptive use and sexual behaviours among this high risk group if the incidence of unintended pregnancy, illegal abortions and high sexual risky behaviour are to be minimized. This study aimed to assess ssexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates' students of Muhimbili and Dar es Salaam Universities in Tanzania. A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among undergraduate female students in the two Universities located in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania. The study period was from June 2013 to October 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 281 students. Of these, 253 were retrieved, giving a response rate of 90%. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows version 17.0. Descriptive statistics were summarized. The chi square test was used to examine relationship between various sociodemographic and sexual behaviours variables with contraceptive use. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results showed that majority (70.4%) of the students have had sexual intercourse. All participants had knowledge of contraception. More than half, 148 (58.5%) of sexually active women reported ever used contraception before while 105 (41.5%) were current contraceptive users. Majority (74.7%) of the sexually active group started sexual activity at young age (19-24 years). Condom, 221(24.3%) and pills, 153 (16.8%) were the known contraceptive methods. The most popular method of contraception used were condoms, withdrawal and periodic abstinence. The main sources of information about contraception were from friends, radio and school (39.5%, 36% and 24%) respectively. Forty (15.8%) women had pregnancies. Of these, 11 (27%) have had unwanted pregnancies among which 54.6% have had induced abortion

  18. A Mismatch between High-Risk Behaviors and Screening of Infectious Diseases among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beatrice Mlunde

    Full Text Available People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.We conducted a baseline cross-sectional study as part of a prospective cohort study of people who inject drugs. We included 578 participants comprising of new enrollees of the integrated methadone-assisted treatment program and those who were selected from the communities but not enrolled in the program. We interviewed new enrollees preceding their enrollment and receipt of services from the program. We measured participants' high-risk behaviors and their utilization of screening services. We analyzed the data descriptively and used multiple logistic regressions to identify the factors associated with ever being screened for infectious diseases.Of 578 participants, 14.2% shared injection needles. Of 547 sexually active participants, 37.5% had multiple sexual partners and only 17.4% used a condom. Of all participants, however, only 36.0% had ever been screened for HIV infection, 18.5% for tuberculosis, 11.8% for any other sexually transmitted infection, and 11.6% for hepatitis B/C. They were more likely to have ever been screened for HIV infection if they had education levels above primary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.54-4.20, had a history of transactional sex (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.01-6.84, and were new enrollees of the program (AOR: 7.41, 95% CI: 4.41-12.86.People who inject drugs practice high-risk behaviors but their utilization of screening services for infectious diseases is poor in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is crucial to increase the coverage of screening

  19. Implementation and Operational Research: Risk Factors of Loss to Follow-up Among HIV-Positive Pediatric Patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Nora M; Li, Nan; Sando, David; Muya, Aisa; Manji, Karim P; Kisenge, Rodrick; Duggan, Christopher; Chalamilla, Guerino; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Spiegelman, Donna

    2015-11-01

    To identify risk factors for loss to follow-up (LTFU) in an HIV-infected pediatric population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 2004 and 2011. Longitudinal analysis of 6236 HIV-infected children. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6236 pediatric patients enrolled in care and treatment in Dar es Salaam from October 2004 to September 2011. LTFU was defined as missing a clinic visit for >90 days for patients on ART and for >180 days for patients in care and monitoring. The relationship of baseline and time-varying characteristics to the risk of LTFU was examined using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 2130 children (34%) were LTFU over a median follow-up of 16.7 months (interquartile range, 3.4-36.9). Factors independently associated with a higher risk of LTFU were age ≤2 years (relative risk [RR] = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.40 to 1.80), diarrhea at enrollment (RR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.41), a low mid-upper arm circumference for age (RR = 1.20, CI: 1.05 to 1.37), eating protein-rich foods ≤3 times a week (RR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.90), taking cotrimoxazole (RR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.81), initiating onto antiretrovirals (RR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.61), receiving treatment at a hospital instead of a local facility (RR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.41), and starting treatment in 2006 or later (RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.16). Health workers should be aware of pediatric patients who are at a greatest risk of LTFU, such as younger and undernourished patients, so that they can proactively counsel families about the importance of visit adherence. Findings support decentralization of HIV care to local facilities as opposed to hospitals.

  20. Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF improves undernutrition among ART-treated, HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunguya Bruno F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is associated with an increased burden of undernutrition among children even under antiretroviral therapy (ART. To treat undernutrition, WHO endorsed the use of Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF that can reduce case fatality and undernutrition among ART-naïve HIV-positive children. However, its effects are not studied among ART-treated, HIV-positive children. Therefore, we examined the association between RUTF use with underweight, wasting, and stunting statuses among ART-treated HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from September-October 2010. The target population was 219 ART-treated, HIV-positive children and the same number of their caregivers. We used questionnaires to measure socio-economic factors, food security, RUTF-use, and ART-duration. Our outcome variables were underweight, wasting, and stunting statuses. Results Of 219 ART-treated, HIV-positive children, 140 (63.9% had received RUTF intervention prior to the interview. The percentages of underweight and wasting among non-RUTF-receivers were 12.4% and 16.5%; whereas those of RUTF-receivers were 3.0% (P = 0.006 and 2.8% (P = 0.001, respectively. RUTF-receivers were less likely to have underweight (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR =0.19, CI: 0.04, 0.78, and wasting (AOR = 0.24, CI: 0.07, 0.81, compared to non RUTF-receivers. Among RUTF receivers, children treated for at least four months (n = 84 were less likely to have underweight (P = 0.049, wasting (P = 0.049 and stunting (P  Conclusions Among HIV-positive children under ART, the provision of RUTF for at least four months was associated with low proportions of undernutrition status. RUTF has a potential to improve undernutrition among HIV-positive children under ART in the clinical settings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  1. A Mismatch between High-Risk Behaviors and Screening of Infectious Diseases among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlunde, Linda Beatrice; Sunguya, Bruno Fokas; Mbwambo, Jessie Kazeni; Ubuguyu, Omary Said; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted a baseline cross-sectional study as part of a prospective cohort study of people who inject drugs. We included 578 participants comprising of new enrollees of the integrated methadone-assisted treatment program and those who were selected from the communities but not enrolled in the program. We interviewed new enrollees preceding their enrollment and receipt of services from the program. We measured participants' high-risk behaviors and their utilization of screening services. We analyzed the data descriptively and used multiple logistic regressions to identify the factors associated with ever being screened for infectious diseases. Of 578 participants, 14.2% shared injection needles. Of 547 sexually active participants, 37.5% had multiple sexual partners and only 17.4% used a condom. Of all participants, however, only 36.0% had ever been screened for HIV infection, 18.5% for tuberculosis, 11.8% for any other sexually transmitted infection, and 11.6% for hepatitis B/C. They were more likely to have ever been screened for HIV infection if they had education levels above primary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.54-4.20), had a history of transactional sex (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.01-6.84), and were new enrollees of the program (AOR: 7.41, 95% CI: 4.41-12.86). People who inject drugs practice high-risk behaviors but their utilization of screening services for infectious diseases is poor in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is crucial to increase the coverage of screening services for

  2. Improved quality of management of eclampsia patients through criteria based audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Bridging the quality gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidanto Hussein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Criteria-based audits (CBA have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the use of a CBA to improve quality of care among eclampsia patients admitted at a University teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Objective The prevalence of eclampsia in MNH is high (≈6% with the majority of cases arriving after start of convulsions. In 2004–2005 the case-fatality rate in eclampsia was 5.1% of all pregnant women admitted for delivery (MNH obstetric data base. A criteria-based audit (CBA was used to evaluate the quality of care for eclamptic mothers admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania after implementation of recommendations of a previous audit. Methods A CBA of eclampsia cases was conducted at MNH. Management practices were evaluated using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. The Ministry of Health (MOH guidelines, local management guidelines, the WHO manual supplemented by the WHO Reproductive Health Library, standard textbooks, the Cochrane database and reviews in peer reviewed journals were adopted. At the initial audit in 2006, 389 case notes were assessed and compared with the standards, gaps were identified, recommendations made followed by implementation. A re-audit of 88 cases was conducted in 2009 and compared with the initial audit. Results There was significant improvement in quality of patient management and outcome between the initial and re-audit: Review of management plan by senior staff (76% vs. 99%; P=0.001, urine for albumin test (61% vs. 99%; P=0.001, proper use of partogram to monitor labour (75% vs. 95%; P=0.003, treatment with steroids for lung maturity (2.0% vs. 24%; P=0.001, Caesarean section within 2 hours of decision (33% vs. 61%; P=0.005, full blood count (28% vs. 93%; P=0.001, serum urea and creatinine (44% vs. 86%; P=0.001, liver enzymes (4.0% vs

  3. 23 May 2016 - Signature of a MoU between the National Nuclear Research Center, Republic of Azerbaijan, and the ALICE Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    From left to right: Head of the Nuclear Physics Department, National Nuclear Research Center A. Rustamov; Chairman, National Nuclear Research Center A. Garibov; Deputy Minister for Communication and High Technology of the Republic of Azerbaijan E. Velizadeh; CERN Director for Research and Computing E. Elsen; ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino. Are also attending: Permanent Representative of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva Ambassador V. Sadiqov and Director for International Relations C. Warakaulle.

  4. Returning HEU Fuel from the Czech Republic to Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky

    2010-09-01

    In December 1999, representatives from the United States, Russian Federation, and International Atomic Energy Agency began working on a program to return Russian supplied, highly enriched, uranium fuel stored at foreign research reactors to Russia. Now, under the Global Threat Reduction Initiative’s Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program, this effort has repatriated over 800 kg of highly enriched uranium to Russia from over 10 countries. In May 2004, the “Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation Concerning Cooperation for the Transfer of Russian Produced Research Reactor Nuclear Fuel to the Russian Federation” was signed. This agreement provides legal authority for the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program and establishes parameters whereby eligible countries may return highly enriched uranium spent and fresh fuel assemblies and other fissile materials to Russia. On December 8, 2007, one of the largest shipments of highly enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together. In February 2003, Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their highly enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This article discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  5. Reforming the Welfare System in the People's Republic of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mai Lu; Mingliang Feng

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in welfare system reforms in the People's Republic of China and looks at the experiences of Japan and Republic of Korea in establishing their modern welfare systems...

  6. Psychology Publication Issues in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEF ŠVANCARA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the current situation and the view of psychology publication policy in Czech Republic. The presentation provided a platform for discussion. It summarized sixth-century progress in the development of scientific language. The current publication situation in Psychology in the Czech Republic was described. The present article reports on the journals: Czechoslovak Psychology (Prague in comparison with the journal Studia psychologica (Bratislava, about their impact factors and citation indexes; Psychology in Economical Practice; E-Psychologie; Psychology Today; two proceedings: Annales Psychologici (Brno and Varia psychologica (Olomouc; News of the Czech-Moravian Psychological Society. In the Czech Republic, there seems to be a wish for the enlargement of the publication policy tailored to European perspectives; this is the challenge.

  7. Highly qualified in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Čuhlová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the current situation of the highly qualified in the Czech Republic applying the ISCO qualification. Previous studies suggest that educational attainment has an important impact on labour market performance and national competitiveness. Data analyses approved that highly qualified workforce positively influences economic situation of the EU–15 Member States they work in. However, this hypothesis was disapproved for the EU–10+3 Member States joining the EU after 2004. The difference can be explained by the various stage in convergence process since some New Member States are still in transformation period. We positively appraise the significant growth of fraction of the highly qualified in the Czech Republic since 2004, especially in the major group Professionals involving the most qualified workforce. The same trend happened also for the highly qualified foreigners in the Czech Republic, however their attracting still remains a challenge.

  8. [Cancer incidence in the Altai Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, I N; Pisareva, L F; Ananina, O A; Khriapenkov, A V; Cherdyntseva, N V

    2014-01-01

    From all regions of the Siberian Federal District (SFD), the Altai Republic is the least urbanized territory, more than third of its population is Altai. The Altai Republic ranks the 11th for cancer incidence among 12 territories of SFD. Cancer incidence rate is 1.4 times less in females than in males. There is a tendency toward increased cancer incidence in the Republic. The two most common cancer sites in males are digestive and respiratory organs. In females, the most common cancer sites are reproductive and digestive organs. Prostate cancer has the highest incidence rate in males and kidney cancer in females. Increase in the cancer incidence rate was observed among male patients who are younger and older than able-bodied age and in female patients who were younger than able-bodied age. Problems related to the improvement of methods for cancer prevention, early detection and treatment are of great importance.

  9. Vocational Education and Training for the Hotel and Catering Industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. Report of a Visiting Party. Studies in Vocational Education and Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. Number Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripper, Chris, Ed.; Russell, Russ, Ed.

    A party of vocational educators from the United Kingdom (UK) traveled to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to examine West German vocational education and training for the hotel and catering industry. During the study, the investigators examined the training with respect to regulations, the content of training, and the structure of the…

  10. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and health care workers at Muhimbili national hospital, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geofrey, Alfred; Abade, Ahmed; Aboud, Said

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. S aureus may induce clinically manifested diseases, or the host may remain completely asymptomatic. A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013 in two ICUs at MNH. Admitted patients and health care workers were enrolled in the study. Interviewer administered questionnaires; patient history forms, observation charts and case report forms were used to collect data. Swabs (nostrils, axillary or wounds) were collected. MRSA were screened and confirmed using cefoxitin, oxacillin discs and oxacillin screen agar. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The risk factors for MRSA were determined using the logistic regression analysis and a p - value of MRSA colonization among patients and health care workers was 11.83% and 2.1% respectively. All (21) MRSA isolates were highly resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, and 17 (85.7%) were highly sensitive to vancomycin. Being male (AOR 6.74, 95% CI 1.31-34.76), history of sickness in past year (AOR 4.89, 95% CI 1.82- 13.12), being sick for more 3 times (AOR 8.91, 95% CI 2.32-34.20), being diabetic (AOR 4.87, 95% CI 1.55-15.36) and illicit drug use (AOR 10.18, 95%CI 1.36-76.52) were found to be independently associated with MRSA colonization. A study identified a high prevalence of MRSA colonization among patients admitted in the ICU. MRSA isolates were highly resistant to penicillin and erythromycin. History of illegal drug use was highly associated with MRSA colonization.

  11. Accreditation processes in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgas, M; West, D J; Rusnakova, V; Krcmery, V; Aaronson, W E

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework for understanding changes occurring in the accreditation process for institutions of higher learning in the Slovak Republic. Health sector transformation is occurring rapidly throughout the Central and Eastern European region as former socialist states are experimenting with market-oriented approaches. Educators and universities are playing an important role in the development of knowledge, skills and abilities of current and future health practitioners. Accreditation is viewed as an important process in the continuing development of quality health service management curricula and preparing competent practitioners for the health care field. Historical considerations are examined as well as future directions for accreditation in the Slovak Republic.

  12. The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the socialist system at the beginning of the 1990s, the health situation in the Czech Republic has improved more rapidly than in other CEE countries. Mortality from circulatory diseases decreased significantly at higher ages. The recent decline in mortality is likely to be attributable to technical progress in medical treatment and less affected by the change in lifestyle. While the use of cardiovascular drugs and the number of operations of invasive heart-surgery considerably improved, smoking and alcohol consumption have somewhat augmented at the same time. The recent favourable turnover has currently brought the Czech Republic a little closer to the European average.

  13. UKRAINIAN LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Wadim STRIELKOWSKI; Hryshova, Inna Yuriivna

    2017-01-01

    Our paper sheds the new light on the existence of structural channels in pushing Ukrainian  migration along occupational lines to the Czech Republic. We argue that the integration of the Czech and Ukrainian construction sectors has generated international „channels‟ that enhance the process of labour migration from Ukraine to the Czech Republic. Our novel analysis is based on a unique dataset obtained via questionnaire surveys in Zakarpat‟ye region of Ukraine and multivariate models linking p...

  14. ACLED Country Report: Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    unarmed civilians in CAR surpasses even that of the Democratic Republic of Congo . A contributing factor to the levels of violence is the weak...apparent effect, a second ceasefire agreement was signed in Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo , on 23rd July 2014 between the Séléka, the Anti-Balaka and...Rights Watch, 2014). This has led to reprisal attacks on the part of the Séléka, and targeting by both groups now frequent- ly focuses on the religion

  15. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and... materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of grain-oriented electrical steel (``GOES''), provided... United States, that are alleged to be subsidized by the Government of China and imports from China, Czech...

  16. 78 FR 17183 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... International Trade Administration Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court... construed that the scope of the order \\1\\ excludes Legacy Classic Furniture, Inc.'s (``Legacy'') Heritage Court Bench pursuant to the CIT's remand order in Legacy Classic Furniture v. United States, Court No...

  17. 76 FR 52636 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Partial... the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``circular welded pipe..., Wheatland Tube Company (``Wheatland'') and United States Steel Corporation (``U.S. Steel''), manufacturers...

  18. 78 FR 48706 - Expansion of Global Entry Eligibility to Certain Citizens of the Republic Of Korea, the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... who is inadmissible to the United States under U.S. immigration law is ineligible to participate in... individual has ever been found in violation of customs or immigration laws, or of any criminal law... Republic of Korea-Ministry of Justice, Korea Immigration Service (KIS) signed a Joint Statement regarding...

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F. [Department of Aquatic Environment and Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 60091, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Mdachi, S.J.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Streck, Georg [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brack, Werner [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de

    2009-01-15

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans.

  20. Social cognitive determinants of HIV voluntary counselling and testing uptake among married individuals in Dar es Salaam Tanzania: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtenga, Sally M; Exavery, Amon; Kakoko, Deodatus; Geubbels, Eveline

    2015-03-04

    Cumulative evidence indicates increasing HIV infection among married individuals. Voluntary Counselling and Testing for HIV (HCT) is known to be an effective intervention to induce safer sex behaviour and access to early treatment, care and support among married individuals, which are important for HIV prevention. In this context, knowledge of factors associated with HCT uptake among married individuals is critical in promoting the use of the services. This study therefore intended to identify the social cognitive factors associated with acceptance of HCT among married individuals. In a cross-sectional analytical study face to face questionnaires were administered among 200 randomly selected married individuals in Kinondoni district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The questionnaire included self-reported HCT, socio-demographic variables and social cognitive variables (attitude, subjective norms, perceived control and perceived risk). Logistic regression was used to identify the independent association of social cognitive predictors of HCT among married individuals. Nearly half (42%) of the respondents had never had HCT. Of the social cognitive constructs, the strongest predictor of HCT uptake was attitude (OR per additional score point = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10) followed by perceived behavioural control (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06). Subjective norm and perceived risk were not associated with HCT uptake. Public health interventions targeting married individuals should be designed to enhance their positive attitude towards HCT and empower them to overcome barriers to the use of the services.

  1. The contribution of ineffective urban planning practices to disaster and disaster risks accumulation in urban areas: the case of former Kunduchi quarry site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict F. Malele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the link between urban planning practices and disaster risks. The study used the former Kunduchi Quarry Site within the City of Dar es Salaam to demonstrate how laxity in enforcing the laid down planning rules, regulations and procedures facilitates the accumulation and occurrence of disaster risks and disasters in urban areas. This undermines one of the central roles of urban planning, which is to protect the lives of people from disaster risks and disasters. In exploring this, the study specifically focused on understanding the rules, regulations and procedures of planning in Tanzania; the extent to which they are followed and, where they are not followed, their implications for disaster risks and disasters; the coping initiatives adopted by local communities to reduce risks and their level of success or failure; and finally the drawing of lessons and recommendations for disaster risk reduction in urban areas. Strongly emerging from this study is the finding that although planning rules and regulations do exist, they are not enforced. As a result urban communities suffer from disaster risks and disasters caused by unregulated activities. The study analyzed the coping initiatives that urban communities apply to reduce disaster risks in their areas. It noted that, while a range of “coping” responses could be observed, these are not lasting solutions to the disaster risks being faced. Sustainable solutions seem to be known by the local community but they are not adopted for fear of compromising or undermining their existing livelihood strategies.

  2. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans: A case of Dar-es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massila Mariam

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were involved in taking care of orphans were visited at their "vilinge" (traditional clinics. In total they had 72 orphans, 31 being boys and 41 being girls with age range from 3 years to 19. It was learned that traditional healers, besides providing remedies for illnesses/diseases of orphans, they also provided other basic needs. Further, they even provided psychosocial support allowing children to cope with orphan hood life with ease. Traditional healers are living within communities at the grass roots level; and appear unnoticed hidden forces, which are involved in taking care of orphans. This role of traditional healers in taking care of orphans needs to be recognised and even scaling it up by empowering them both in financial terms and training in basic skills of psychosocial techniques in how to handle orphans, in order to reduce discrimination and stigmatisation in the communities where they live.

  3. Leveraging strong social ties among young men in Dar es Salaam: A pilot intervention of microfinance and peer leadership for HIV and gender-based violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Suzanne; Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema; Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina

    2016-12-01

    Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analysed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection, and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention.

  4. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans: a case of Dar-es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayombo, Edmund J; Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Massila, Mariam

    2005-07-29

    Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were involved in taking care of orphans were visited at their "vilinge" (traditional clinics). In total they had 72 orphans, 31 being boys and 41 being girls with age range from 3 years to 19. It was learned that traditional healers, besides providing remedies for illnesses/diseases of orphans, they also provided other basic needs. Further, they even provided psychosocial support allowing children to cope with orphan hood life with ease. Traditional healers are living within communities at the grass roots level; and appear unnoticed hidden forces, which are involved in taking care of orphans. This role of traditional healers in taking care of orphans needs to be recognised and even scaling it up by empowering them both in financial terms and training in basic skills of psychosocial techniques in how to handle orphans, in order to reduce discrimination and stigmatisation in the communities where they live.

  5. Regions and media from quantitative and qualitative perspectives: the case of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sucháček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Media become increasingly important in co-creating the image of spatial units at various scales. The situation is even more intriguing in transition/post-transitions countries, which were exposed to modernization trends in rather short, almost compressed periods. The article aims at showing how media shape the image of NUTS III regions in the Czech Republic. Comparisons show TV coverage embodies media agenda in a satisfactory manner as it has one of the highest impacts on the public on the one hand and is representative enough on the other. That is why TV coverage at the national level with contributions related to individual NUTS III in the Czech Republic was chosen as a point of departure. Thus, the objective of the paper is to analyze and interpret TV news related to NUTS III regions in the Czech Republic. This will be accomplished from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. Quantitative analysis is focusing on the number of contributions related to the size of the region in question. Nonetheless, self-governing regions in the Czech Republic will be evaluated also from qualitative perspective when the composition of TV news will be accentuated. Although it is stated only seldom media analysis is of utmost importance in relation to regional development. In order to quantify and evaluate afore mentioned dependencies the methods of regression and correlation analysis will be utilized. Moreover, correspondence analysis and analysis of contingency tables will be used in the qualitative part of our research.

  6. The Migration Phenomenon in Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Neacsu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a phenomenon which experienced an unprecedented scale in the last twenty years. The socio-geo-political and economic changes which took place in Europe after 1990 led to an influx of people from east to west. Most often those who left their countries came from among the former socialist countries. This paper is a continuation of a study published last year entitled “Employment of Labor Force in Albania and Moldova - Evolution and Trends” in which was made a” snapshot “of the labor situation in the two countries aspiring to accede to the European Union. In this paper, we focused on the Republic of Moldova as Romania’s neighbor, followed by a future study to address the phenomenon of migration in Albania. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the phenomenon of migration from the Republic of Moldova and its immediate consequences upon Romania and the European Union. The hypothesis from which we started this study is that: Romania, as a friend and neighbor country of the Republic of Moldova, attracts a large number of Moldovan citizens who become full citizens, Romanian or of other nationalities in the EU. The study was conducted during 2001-2010 and was based on: the census in Moldova in 2004 (last done in this country, information from the National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova, the statistical database respectively, and information processed from the Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2008.

  7. African Journals Online: Syrian Arab Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Self-Pay, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain ...

  8. African Journals Online: Central African Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Self-Pay, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain ...

  9. African Journals Online: Slovakia (Slovak Republic)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Self-Pay, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain ...

  10. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra; Pfeiferová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Contribution summarizes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. Contribution describes relationships between systems/projects collecting grey literature and position grey literature in the Czech Digital Library. Contribution is especially focused on a project “The Digital Library for Grey Literature –Functional Model and Pilot Implementation”, which solves the State Technical Library.

  11. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  12. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  13. Education and the Arts in Plato's "Republic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, J. David

    1996-01-01

    The principles that underlie the education in music and painting described in Plato's "Republic" constitute a theory of the role of the arts in moral education that can be applied in other contexts, including contemporary education. Also explored is Plato's view of the influence of poetry on those not educated in Socrates' system. (SLD)

  14. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Slovak Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paulo; Halász, Gábor; Levacic, Rosalind; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for the Slovak Republic forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in…

  15. [Selenium content in human in Sakha Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkina, N A; Senkevich, O A; Kekina, E G

    2009-01-01

    Sakha Republic is considered to be endemic selenium deficient and poorly investigated region. Analysis of selenium in human sera, hair and nails revealed strongly decreased values. Low selenium concentrations were registered also in meat of domestic animals, fresh-water fish, mushrooms weight, agaricus campester. The possibility of the human selenium content improvement is discussed via import of grain with high selenium concentration.

  16. Organic food market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Živělová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution provides partial results of the research focused on organic food, a product from organic farming. The total area of ecologically farmed areas in the Czech Republic permanently increases, however the offer of organic food is insufficient, in particular in view of their structure. Deficiency in organic food is being solved by imports. Distributors play an important role in the organic food market. In the Czech Republic the largest share from them is occupied by retail chains. Their share continues to grow to the detriment of other sales channels. One of the main factors affecting consumers’ interest in organic food is its price. The comparison of organic food prices and prices of conventional food in the selected retail chains, Globus Czech Republic, limited partnership, SPAR Czech business company Pte., Tesco Stores CZ JSC, AHOLD Czech Republic JSC, BILLA Pte., and in organic food and healthy nutrition stores showed significantly higher prices. The smallest difference in prices can be monitored in the milk and milk products. On the contrary, the largest difference is in fruits, vegetables, eggs and jams. However, the consumers’ awareness of organic food quality is at the same time increasing and the consumers are willing to pay for them a higher price.

  17. Working in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnulle, Linda

    Primarily the result of observations made during an eighteen-day tour of the People's Republic of China (conducted by Professor Eugene Gilliom at Ohio State University), this paper examines working conditions and attitudes toward work in China. Focus in the first half of the paper is on motivation to work in China and how it differs from U.S.…

  18. Compliance and quality control monitoring of diagnostic X-ray facilities in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkuba, Leonid L.; Nyanda, Pendo B., E-mail: leonid.nkuba@taec.or.tz [Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Control Directorate, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    The compliance evaluation and quality control measurements on 60 diagnostic X-ray units were performed. The results on legal compliance show that 25 % of X-ray facilities operated without or with an expired license. The rest of the centers were new and had already applied for license and others had valid licenses. For basic requirements compliance, 47 % of X-ray facilities did not have the changing cubicles, 37 % of X-ray facilities did not post radiation warning sign and symbols also 46 % of units were found either without protective gear or operated by unqualified personnel. The QC test results showed that 93 % had X-ray tube voltage within the tolerance limit of 10 % and HVL ≥ 2.3 mmAl, at 80 kV was observed in 98.2 % of the units, whereas 98 % of exposure had acceptable kV reproducibility within the tolerance limit of 5 %. Of the X-ray generators assessed, 93 % had tolerable mAs linearity. 93 % and 97 % had acceptable beam alignment and light beam diaphragm. Of the assessed units, 13 (93 %) had tube leakage < 1000 μGy/hr at 1m. For shielding tests, 47 % of units had radiation levels above 0.5 μSv/hr at the main door leading to the X-ray rooms and the registration area. The dose rates > 10 μSv/hr were recorded at viewing windows, walls and doors of control cubicles and behind the doors of changing cubicles. These dose rates indicating higher health risk to workers and member of public. (author)

  19. Materials flow analysis of neodymium, status of rare earth metal in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Kang, Leeseung; Mishra, Chinmayee; Ahn, JoongWoo; Hong, Hyun Seon

    2015-11-01

    Materials flow analysis of neodymium, status of rare earth elements (REEs) in the Republic of Korea has been investigated. Information from various resources like the Korean Ministry of Environment, Korea international trade association, United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database and from individual industry were collected and analyzed for materials flow analysis of neodymium. Demand of neodymium in the Republic of Korea for the year 2010 was 409.5 tons out of which the majority of neodymium, i.e., 68.41% was consumed by domestic electronics industry followed by medical appliances manufacturing (13.36%). The Republic Korea is one of the biggest consumer and leading exporter of these industrial products, absolutely depends on import of neodymium, as the country is lacking natural resources. The Republic of Korea has imported 325.9 tons of neodymium permanent magnet and 79.5 tons of neodymium containing equipment parts mainly for electronics, medical appliances, and heavy/light vehicles manufacturing industry. Out of which 95.4 tons of neodymium permanent magnet get exported as an intermediate product and 140.6 tons of neodymium in the form of consumable products get exported. Worldwide the neodymium is at the high end of supply chain critical metal because of increasing demand, scarcity and irreplaceable for technological application. To bring back the neodymium to supply stream the recycling of end of life neodymium-bearing waste can be a feasible option. Out of total domestic consumption, only 21.9 tons of neodymium have been collected and subsequently recycled. From material flow analysis, the requirement for an efficient recycling system and element-wise material flow management for these REEs in the Republic of Korea were realized and recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diabetes in tropical Africa: a prospective study, 1981-7. I. Characteristics of newly presenting patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1981-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, A B; Lutale, J; McLarty, D G

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed diabetic patients in tropical Africa. DESIGN--Prospective study of all newly diagnosed diabetic patients registered at a major urban hospital between 1 June 1981 and 31 May 1987. SETTING--Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PATIENTS--1250 Patients: 874 men, 376 women. RESULTS--272 (21.8%) Patients had diabetes requiring insulin, 825 (66.0%) had diabetes not requiring insulin, and 153 (12.2%) had diabetes of uncertain type. Most patients (1103, 88.2%) presented with the classic symptoms of diabetes. The peak time of presentation of diabetic patients requiring insulin was at age 15 to 19 years. Male manual workers and peasant farmers with diabetes not requiring insulin presented at a significantly older age and had a lower body mass index than sedentary office workers. Forty six (18.1%) of the patients requiring insulin diabetes and 111 (14.4%) not requiring insulin had first degree relative with diabetes. Twenty seven per cent of patients were underweight (body mass index less than 20 kg/m2) and 14.6% were obese (body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2). Hypertension was diagnosed in 211 (26.7%) of 791 patients not requiring insulin. Nine (3.3%) of those requiring insulin may have had the protein deficient type of diabetes related to malnutrition. The fibrocalculous variety of diabetes related to malnutrition was not observed. CONCLUSIONS--Newly presenting diabetic patients in Tanzania with diabetes requiring insulin are older at presentation than those in Britain; most diabetic patients present with diabetes not requiring insulin and a smaller proportion of Tanzanian patients are obese. Most have a lower socioeconomic state than diabetic patients in Britain. There are often delays in diagnosis in Tanzania, and there is a higher incidence of death shortly after presentation. PMID:2344535

  1. Determination of Levels of Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Vegetables from Markets in Dar es Salaam by GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Farhat A.; Lugwisha, Esther H. J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of pesticides and metabolites in vegetables from major markets in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. Samples of fresh cabbage, spinach, and onions from the markets were analysed for pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane : cyclohexane mixture and the extracts were cleaned up using Florisil. The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pesticides and metabolites were detected in 72.2% of the samples. The detected pesticide residues and their highest mean concentrations were p,p′-DDT 4.00 × 10−3 mg/kg, p,p′-DDD 6.40 × 10−1 mg/kg, o,p′-DDD 1.00 × 10−2 mg/kg, α-endosulfan 6.00 × 10−1 mg/kg, β-endosulfan 2.10 × 10−1 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos 3.00 mg/kg, and cypermethrin 4.00 × 10−2 mg/kg. The most frequently detected compounds were p,p′-DDD and chlorpyrifos. The order of contamination was spinach > cabbage > onions. Generally, there were no significant variations in concentrations of pesticide residues among samples and sampling sites, which indicated similarities in contamination patterns. The concentrations of contaminants were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in 33.3–50% of the samples. The findings indicated risks and concerns for public health. PMID:28280510

  2. Assessing acceptability of parents/guardians of adolescents towards introduction of sex and reproductive health education in schools at Kinondoni Municipal in Dar es Salaam city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonile, Lumuli; Kayombo, Edmund J

    2008-04-01

    To assess acceptability of parents/guardians of adolescents towards the introduction of sex and reproductive health education in the community and schools. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to get 150 participants for this study. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the sampled participants and was supplemented with guided focus group discussion in Kinondoni Municipality of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The analysis of the findings shows that there is a mixed feeling on the introduction of sex and reproductive health education in schools. Participants strongly supported that they should talk with their adolescents about sexuality and reproductive health (88.6%) but their culture prohibits them from doing so (76.7%). Also supported that condoms could protect against HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (82%), but strongly opposed the use of condoms to their adolescents because it would encourage promiscuity (78%). When the data were analysed by faith of the religions of the participants, 64% were in favour of introducing sex education and reproductive health, but were opposed to use of condoms to their adolescents. All participants were against vijiweni, which were recreation centres for the youths because they taught bad manners to their adolescents. The preferred source of information about sex education and reproductive health should be from the parents/guardians (86%), religious leaders (70%), media (62%), health workers (61%) and school teachers (59%). All in all the will of introduction of sex education and reproductive health in the community is there but the approach need to be worked out carefully by taking into account of the cultural and religious factors. Parents/guardians, religious leaders and traditional charismatic leaders should take part in designing the programme and even being involved in teaching it. The other option is to lump together sex education and reproductive health education in science especially in biology

  3. Microbial larvicide application by a large-scale, community-based program reduces malaria infection prevalence in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Geissbühler

    Full Text Available Malaria control in Africa is most tractable in urban settlements yet most research has focused on rural settings. Elimination of malaria transmission from urban areas may require larval control strategies that complement adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets or houses, particularly where vectors feed outdoors.Microbial larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti was applied weekly through programmatic, non-randomized community-based, but vertically managed, delivery systems in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Continuous, randomized cluster sampling of malaria infection prevalence and non-random programmatic surveillance of entomological inoculation rate (EIR respectively constituted the primary and secondary outcomes surveyed within a population of approximately 612,000 residents in 15 fully urban wards covering 55 km(2. Bti application for one year in 3 of those wards (17 km(2 with 128,000 residents reduced crude annual transmission estimates (Relative EIR [95% Confidence Interval] = 0.683 [0.491-0.952], P = 0.024 but program effectiveness peaked between July and September (Relative EIR [CI] = 0.354 [0.193 to 0.650], P = 0.001 when 45% (9/20 of directly observed transmission events occurred. Larviciding reduced malaria infection risk among children < or =5 years of age (OR [CI] = 0.284 [0.101 to 0.801], P = 0.017 and provided protection at least as good as personal use of an insecticide treated net (OR [CI] = 0.764 [0.614-0.951], P = 0.016.In this context, larviciding reduced malaria prevalence and complemented existing protection provided by insecticide-treated nets. Larviciding may represent a useful option for integrated vector management in Africa, particularly in its rapidly growing urban centres.

  4. Mosquito control in Dar es Salaam. II. Impact of expanded polystyrene beads and pyriproxyfen treatment of breeding sites on Culex quinquefasciatus densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasse, D C; Lines, J D; Ichimori, K; Majala, A R; Minjas, J N; Marijani, J

    1995-04-01

    In two contrasting areas of Dar es Salaam (Ilala and Mikocheni) all enclosed breeding sites of Culex quinquefasciatus, such as latrines and septic tanks, were treated with a floating layer of expanded polystyrene beads. 7 months later checks in both study areas revealed only one site (from which the polystyrene had been removed during emptying) containing immature stages of Cx quinquefasciatus. Open breeding sites such as areas of flooded land and blocked drains were treated with pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator) at a concentration of 0.1 ppm. Emergence of Cx quinquefasciatus adults from these sites was inhibited for 4 weeks during the rainy season and for up to 11 weeks during the dry season. The problem of mosquito breeding sites caused by bathroom sullage water was addressed through a combination of health education and indirect pressure from the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP) via local community leaders. Households responsible for these sites were encouraged to eliminate them by diverting the water into an enclosed drainage structure, usually a pit latrine. After two weekly visits 64.7% of households had complied and 93.4% had complied after five visits. 5 months later, only 15.7% had reverted to allowing sullage water to collect into puddles. Densities of Cx quinquefasciatus adults dropped by 76.7% in Mikocheni and by 46.2% in Ilala following intervention, but increased by 84.9% and 25.6% in two untreated comparison areas. The reasons for differential success of the combined interventions in the two treated areas are discussed.

  5. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govella Nico J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs. New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.6–37.6%; p = 0.04. Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience.

  6. Determination of Levels of Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Vegetables from Markets in Dar es Salaam by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. M. Mahugija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels of pesticides and metabolites in vegetables from major markets in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. Samples of fresh cabbage, spinach, and onions from the markets were analysed for pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane : cyclohexane mixture and the extracts were cleaned up using Florisil. The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Pesticides and metabolites were detected in 72.2% of the samples. The detected pesticide residues and their highest mean concentrations were p,p′-DDT 4.00 × 10−3 mg/kg, p,p′-DDD 6.40 × 10−1 mg/kg, o,p′-DDD 1.00 × 10−2 mg/kg, α-endosulfan 6.00 × 10−1 mg/kg, β-endosulfan 2.10 × 10−1 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos 3.00 mg/kg, and cypermethrin 4.00 × 10−2 mg/kg. The most frequently detected compounds were p,p′-DDD and chlorpyrifos. The order of contamination was spinach > cabbage > onions. Generally, there were no significant variations in concentrations of pesticide residues among samples and sampling sites, which indicated similarities in contamination patterns. The concentrations of contaminants were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs in 33.3–50% of the samples. The findings indicated risks and concerns for public health.

  7. Microbial Larvicide Application by a Large-Scale, Community-Based Program Reduces Malaria Infection Prevalence in Urban Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissbühler, Yvonne; Kannady, Khadija; Chaki, Prosper Pius; Emidi, Basiliana; Govella, Nicodem James; Mayagaya, Valeliana; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Lindsay, Steven William; Tanner, Marcel; Fillinger, Ulrike; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Killeen, Gerry Francis

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria control in Africa is most tractable in urban settlements yet most research has focused on rural settings. Elimination of malaria transmission from urban areas may require larval control strategies that complement adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets or houses, particularly where vectors feed outdoors. Methods and Findings Microbial larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti)) was applied weekly through programmatic, non-randomized community-based, but vertically managed, delivery systems in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Continuous, randomized cluster sampling of malaria infection prevalence and non-random programmatic surveillance of entomological inoculation rate (EIR) respectively constituted the primary and secondary outcomes surveyed within a population of approximately 612,000 residents in 15 fully urban wards covering 55 km2. Bti application for one year in 3 of those wards (17 km2 with 128,000 residents) reduced crude annual transmission estimates (Relative EIR [95% Confidence Interval] = 0.683 [0.491–0.952], P = 0.024) but program effectiveness peaked between July and September (Relative EIR [CI] = 0.354 [0.193 to 0.650], P = 0.001) when 45% (9/20) of directly observed transmission events occurred. Larviciding reduced malaria infection risk among children ≤5 years of age (OR [CI] = 0.284 [0.101 to 0.801], P = 0.017) and provided protection at least as good as personal use of an insecticide treated net (OR [CI] = 0.764 [0.614–0.951], P = 0.016). Conclusions In this context, larviciding reduced malaria prevalence and complemented existing protection provided by insecticide-treated nets. Larviciding may represent a useful option for integrated vector management in Africa, particularly in its rapidly growing urban centres. PMID:19333402

  8. Low utilization of health care services following screening for hypertension in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania): a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Gervasoni, Jean-Pierre; Mkamba, Mashombo; Balampama, Marianna; Lengeler, Christian; Paccaud, Fred

    2008-12-16

    Drug therapy in high-risk individuals has been advocated as an important strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease in low income countries. We determined, in a low-income urban population, the proportion of persons who utilized health services after having been diagnosed as hypertensive and advised to seek health care for further hypertension management. A population-based survey of 9254 persons aged 25-64 years was conducted in Dar es Salaam. Among the 540 persons with high blood pressure (defined here as BP >or= 160/95 mmHg) at the initial contact, 253 (47%) had high BP on a 4th visit 45 days later. Among them, 208 were untreated and advised to attend health care in a health center of their choice for further management of their hypertension. One year later, 161 were seen again and asked about their use of health services during the interval. Among the 161 hypertensive persons advised to seek health care, 34% reported to have attended a formal health care provider during the 12-month interval (63% public facility; 30% private; 7% both). Antihypertensive treatment was taken by 34% at some point of time (suggesting poor uptake of health services) and 3% at the end of the 12-month follow-up (suggesting poor long-term compliance). Health services utilization tended to be associated with older age, previous history of high BP, being overweight and non-smoking, but not with education or wealth. Lack of symptoms and cost of treatment were the reasons reported most often for not attending health care. Low utilization of health services after hypertension screening suggests a small impact of a patient-centered screen-and-treat strategy in this low-income population. These findings emphasize the need to identify and address barriers to health care utilization for non-communicable diseases in this setting and, indirectly, the importance of public health measures for primary prevention of these diseases.

  9. Maternal and neonatal colonisation of group B streptococcus at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group B streptococcus (GBS, which asymptomatically colonises the vaginal and rectal areas of women, is the leading cause of septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in neonates. In Tanzania no studies have been done on GBS colonisation of pregnant women and neonates. This study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to determine the prevalence of GBS colonisation among pregnant women, the neonatal colonisation rate and the antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for treatment and prevention regarding perinatal GBS diseases. Methods This cross sectional study involved 300 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic and their newborns delivered at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH between October 2008 and March 2009. High vaginal, rectal, nasal, ear and umbilical swabs were cultured on Todd Hewitt Broth and in 5% sheep blood agar followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer method. Results GBS colonisation was confirmed in 23% of pregnant women and 8.9% of neonates. A higher proportion of GBS were isolated from the vagina (12.3% as compared to the rectum (5%. Prolonged duration of labour (>12 hrs was significantly shown to influence GBS colonisation in neonates P Conclusion Our findings seem to suggest that a quarter of pregnant women attending ANC clinic at MNH and approximately 10% of their newborns are colonised with GBS. All isolates were found to be sensitive to vancomycin and ampicillin which seem to be the most effective antibiotics for the time being. However there is a need for continuous antibiotics surveillance of GBS to monitor trend of resistance. The high isolation frequency of GBS among pregnant women suggests routine antenatal screening at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation in order to provide antibiotic prophylaxis to GBS carrier.

  10. Microbial larvicide application by a large-scale, community-based program reduces malaria infection prevalence in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissbühler, Yvonne; Kannady, Khadija; Chaki, Prosper Pius; Emidi, Basiliana; Govella, Nicodem James; Mayagaya, Valeliana; Kiama, Michael; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Lindsay, Steven William; Tanner, Marcel; Fillinger, Ulrike; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Killeen, Gerry Francis

    2009-01-01

    Malaria control in Africa is most tractable in urban settlements yet most research has focused on rural settings. Elimination of malaria transmission from urban areas may require larval control strategies that complement adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets or houses, particularly where vectors feed outdoors. Microbial larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti)) was applied weekly through programmatic, non-randomized community-based, but vertically managed, delivery systems in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Continuous, randomized cluster sampling of malaria infection prevalence and non-random programmatic surveillance of entomological inoculation rate (EIR) respectively constituted the primary and secondary outcomes surveyed within a population of approximately 612,000 residents in 15 fully urban wards covering 55 km(2). Bti application for one year in 3 of those wards (17 km(2) with 128,000 residents) reduced crude annual transmission estimates (Relative EIR [95% Confidence Interval] = 0.683 [0.491-0.952], P = 0.024) but program effectiveness peaked between July and September (Relative EIR [CI] = 0.354 [0.193 to 0.650], P = 0.001) when 45% (9/20) of directly observed transmission events occurred. Larviciding reduced malaria infection risk among children < or =5 years of age (OR [CI] = 0.284 [0.101 to 0.801], P = 0.017) and provided protection at least as good as personal use of an insecticide treated net (OR [CI] = 0.764 [0.614-0.951], P = 0.016). In this context, larviciding reduced malaria prevalence and complemented existing protection provided by insecticide-treated nets. Larviciding may represent a useful option for integrated vector management in Africa, particularly in its rapidly growing urban centres.

  11. High prevalence of ESBL-Producing E. coli in private and shared latrines in an informal urban settlement in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Erb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data about the burden of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing microorganisms in Africa are limited. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of human faecal ESBL carriage in the community of an informal urban settlement in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, East Africa by using environmental contamination of household latrines with ESBL as a surrogate marker. Methods Within the context of a large survey in February 2014 assessing 636 randomly selected household latrines for faecal contamination by the detection of growth of E. coli and total faecal coliform bacteria, a randomly selected subset of the samples were screened for ESBL. Results Seventy latrines were screened for ESBL. An average of 11.4 persons (SD ±6.5 were sharing one latrine. Only three (4.3% latrines had hand-washing facilities and 50 showed faeces on the floor. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were confirmed in 17 (24.3% of the 70 latrine samples: 16 E. coli and 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae. Five ESBL E. coli strains were detected on door handles. The most prevalent ESBL type was CTX-M-1 group (76.5%. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of a subset of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates revealed both diverse singular types and a cluster of 3 identical isolates. There was no significant difference of the latrine and household characteristics between the group with ESBL (n = 17 and the group with non-ESBL E. coli (n = 53 (p > 0.05. Conclusions Almost a quarter of private and shared latrines in an informal urban settlement in Tanzania are contaminated with ESBL-producing microorganisms, suggesting a high prevalence of human ESBL faecal carriage in the community. Shared latrines may serve as a reservoir for transmission in urban community settings in Tanzania.

  12. Social factors and lifestyle attributes associated with nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS attending care and treatment clinics in Ilala District, Dar Es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritte, S A; Kessy, A T

    2012-03-01

    Tanzania is one of the countries that suffer huge burden of malnutrition and food poverty with over two million people living with HIV/AIDS. Despite ongoing nutritional interventions in care and treatment clinics for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), a high proportion of them still face nutritional problems, with about 29% being underweight. This study therefore aimed assessing social factors and lifestyle attributes associated with nutritional status among adults living with HIV/AIDS and attending care and treatment clinics (CTCs) in an urban district in Tanzania. An interview schedule was administered to 412 randomly selected adult male and female clients attending different CTCs in Ilala district. Their anthropometric measurements i.e. body weights and heights were also taken. Findings revealed that 18.4% of males and females were underweight according to their body mass indices. The risk of being underweight was higher among respondents who were young; who had never married; had no formal education as well as those who reported to be living with their families or friends, although these associations were not statistically significant. On the other hand, factors which had statistically significant association with nutritional status included the type of persons the client was living with and the habit of drinking alcohol. From the findings we conclude that PLWHA attending Care and Treatment Clinics in Ilala district, Dar es Salaam have problems with their nutrition with underweight being common among them. This suggests that the existing care and treatment clinics that provide nutritional support to PLWHA do not appear to address these issues in their totality. There is therefore, need to ensure that more efforts are geared towards providing nutritional counseling, support and encouragement of these clients within social contexts of their lives so in order for the current efforts to give best results.

  13. Putting the genie back in the bottle? Availability and presentation of oral artemisinin compounds at retail pharmacies in urban Dar-es-Salaam

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    Black Carolyn

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently global health advocates have called for the introduction of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies to help curb the impact of drug-resistant malaria in Africa. Retail trade in artemisinin monotherapies could undermine efforts to restrict this class of medicines to more theoretically sound combination treatments. Methods This paper describes a systematic search for artemisinin-containing products at a random sample of licensed pharmacies in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in July 2005. Results Nineteen different artemisinin-containing oral pharmaceutical products, including one co-formulated product, one co-packaged product, and 17 monotherapies were identified. All but one of the products were legally registered and samples of each product were obtained without a prescription. Packaging and labeling of the products seldom included local language or illustrated instructions for low-literate clients. Packaging and inserts compared reasonably well with standards recommended by the national regulatory authority with some important exceptions. Dosing instructions were inconsistent, and most recommended inadequate doses based on international standards. None of the monotherapy products mentioned potential benefits of combining the treatment with another antimalarial drug. Conclusion The findings confirm the widespread availability of artemisinin monotherapies that led the World Health Organization to call for the voluntary withdrawal of these drugs in malaria-endemic countries. As the global public health community gathers resources to deploy artemisinin-containing combination therapies in Africa, planners should be mindful that these drugs will coexist with artemisinin monotherapies in an already well-established market place. In particular, regulatory authorities should be incorporated urgently into the process of planning for rational deployment of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies.

  14. Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Associated Risk Factors among 34,111 HAART Naïve HIV-Infected Adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Marina Njelekela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elevated blood pressure has been reported among treatment naïve HIV-infected patients. We investigated prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in a HAART naïve HIV-infected population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among HAART naïve HIV-infected patients. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI between 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. We used relative risks to examine factors associated with hypertension. Results. Prevalence of hypertension was found to be 12.5%. After adjusting for possible confounders, risk of hypertension was 10% more in male than female patients. Patients aged ≥50 years had more than 2-fold increased risk for hypertension compared to 30–39-years-old patients. Overweight and obesity were associated with 51% and 94% increased risk for hypertension compared to normal weight patients. Low CD4+ T-cell count, advanced WHO clinical disease stage, and history of TB were associated with 10%, 42%, and 14% decreased risk for hypertension. Conclusions. Older age, male gender, and overweight/obesity were associated with hypertension. Immune suppression and history of TB were associated with lower risk for hypertension. HIV treatment programs should screen and manage hypertension even in HAART naïve individuals.

  15. Homeland Security Lessons for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farr, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    ... world. The People's Republic of China and Singapore are the focus of this thesis in order to determine what if any homeland security policies developed by their governments could be used to better protect citizens of the United States. Several policies such as legislation, education and internal security measures were evaluated for the United States to institute. Each chosen policy is followed by a brief description of how these laws might come into being within the U.S. governmental system.

  16. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  17. Legal nature of the agency in legal system of the Republic of Serbia

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    Martinović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The roots of the agency as a public law, go back to the nineteenth century, when the first independent regulatory agency - Interstate Trade Commission was formed by the United States. In the legal system of the Republic of Serbia, agencies have the right to acquire citizenship since 2001. In the past ten years, a very large number of agencies were formed in different areas of social life, with their different legal nature. Disparity in legal character agency in the Republic of Serbia in general raises no small problems. The economic and financial characteristics of agencies are expressed especially in situations when a same social area 'covered' simultaneously by the relevant ministry and its counterpart - the agency.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIALTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: TENDENCIES AND PROSPECTS

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    O. A. Oleks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present publication short data on the system of specialties and qualifications functioning in Republic of Belarus, her features, scope of application are given. The purpose and problems of the revision of the National classifier of the Republic of Belarus «Specialties and qualifications», its orientation to reduce the gap between the content of education and content of activity of graduates of establishments of education are described. The main tendencies of change of the operating classification – on the basis of types of economic activity and international standard classification of education taking into account requirements of employers, minimization of economic expenses for education, including due to minimization of classification units, rapprochement of positions with educational systems of other states are revealed. Prospects of development of national system of specialties and qualifications are disclosed. Tendencies and prospects of the expected changes are shown on the examples of the certain specialties offered by BNTU (Belarusian National Technical University.

  19. Experience of cyclone Gonu in the Islamic Republic of Iran: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, F; Asadollahi, R; Asadollahi, M; Hasani-Bafarani, A

    2012-12-04

    Gonu, the second tropical cyclone of the 2007 northern Indian ocean cyclone season, affected Oman, Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates and the Islamic Republic of Iran. This report examines the effects of cyclone Gonu in the Islamic Republic of Iran where it approached on its path on 6 June 2007 and reviews the actions taken before, during and after the cyclone. The incident highlighted the need for a special protocol to be prepared for all types of natural disasters. Responsible organizations should train their personnel according to the prepared protocols and service packages. Among the important lessons learned were the need for early warning, proper community involvement, access to essential data for risk analysis, special attention to safety of infrastructures, coordination and command integrity.

  20. Forest Strategy in Republic of Macedonia: Barriers to Effective Implementation

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    Jana Baumgartner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In recent years, implementation of forest strategies and programs has been acknowledged as an important phase of the forest policy process. Forest policies such as conflict management concepts between deferent interests of stakeholders, are a dynamic route that needs to be managed carefully to achieve its goals. Creation of the forest policy document entitled “Strategy for sustainable development of forestry in Republic of Macedonia” was introduced for the first time in 2005 as cooperation between the Government and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. Action Plan was brought in the same year including the strategy and validity until the end of the year 2009 now is out of date for undetermined reasons, due to lack of analysis of the level of implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Materials and Methods: Through exploratory qualitative method using a case study, this paper attempts to explore different stakeholders perception of the most common barriers for implementation of the Strategy for sustainable development of forests in Republic of Macedonia and ascertain if implementation variables are identified as barriers in the implementation stage. Results: The research showed that environmental and organisational barriers such as legal restrictions, political willingness, social change, control, leadership and clear responsibility are the most common barriers impeding forest strategy implementation in Macedonia. Conclusions: The paper concluded that the three year action plan was too ambitious, given the existing human and technical capacities in the forestry sector, recommending participation of all included stakeholders in the implementation as an important fact in overcoming the current barriers and moving forward the process.

  1. Transparency of Shareholders in the Czech Republic

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    Jindřiška Šedová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recodification of commercial and civil law in the Czech Republic has resulted in a new concept for the legislation relating to securities. Significant changes have also been made to the legislation covering shares. The new legislation concerns not only the actual form of shares, but also their circulation. The aim of this article is to highlight the most important changes in the legislation relating to bearer shares, especially bearer shares in paper form, and to assess these changes from the viewpoint of their impact on the transparency of joint stock companies and uncontrolled circulation of shares. This assessment will be based on an appraisal of the importance of bearer shares for capital business in the Czech Republic and the effects the new legislation is expected to bring about. The article will also consider possible alternatives in the behavior of shareholders (investors who prefer to remain anonymous.

  2. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS... (j)(1)) (the ``6(j) list''). The government of the Republic of Sudan is designated on the ``6(j) list.'' Thus, Global Fund expenditures to the Government of the Republic of Sudan trigger a withholding...

  3. TAX EXPENDITURES IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes a broad approach in the sense that only the fundamental structure elements of each tax system are considered as part of the benchmark tax system. Moreover, this paper will go beyond the traditional tax expenditure reporting by taking into account an ideal tax system with minor distortions as part of the benchmark. Because of having an ideal tax system as a norm, the report makes some judgments about the appropriateness of the ideal tax structure in the Dominican Republic and ...

  4. Online Buying Behaviour In The Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pilík, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the Internet and its impact on online shopping behaviour of customers in the Czech Republic. A large part of Czech population has already shopped online. Customers view it as a quick and convenient shopping where they can save money. But what are the other factors that influence their shopping behaviour? This paper tries to find the answer to this question. Each customer is an individual therefore models of customer behaviour often cannot be generalized, particularly not ...

  5. Floods and migration in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov, R.; Kelman, I.; Duží, B. (Barbora)

    2015-01-01

    Residents’ strategies are generally aimed at either protection from or adaptation to flooding. Large-scale migration from the floodplains of rivers has not been seriously considered, even in high-risk zones. The Czech Republic is of particular interest in the European context due to several recent flooding disasters which were national emergencies, including in 1997, 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2013. Weather extremes and climate variability are not the sole causes of floods in Central Europe. Ot...

  6. Fournier'S gangrene in cotonou, benin republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avakoudjo, Dgj; Natchagandé, G; Hounnasso, Pp; Gandaho, Ki; Hodonou, F; Tore-Sanni, R; Agounkpé, Mm; Paré, Ak

    2013-01-01

    Gangrene of the male genitalia called Fournier's gangrene is not an uncommon surgical condition in the urological service at Cotonou, Benin Republic; it is associated with high mortality and morbidity. This is a retrospective, descriptive study conducted at the Teaching Clinic of Urology and Andrology at the National and Hospitable Center CNHU- Hubert Koutoukou MAGA in Cotonou, Benin Republic. The study is on patients managed for Fournier's gangrene from January 2002 to December 2012. The demographics, clinical presentation, management and outcome were recorded in a proforma and the data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 10.0 software. Fournier's gangrene represented 1.8% of hospitalizations with an annual average of 5 cases. The mean age was 52 years with range of 21 - 85 years. 77.7% of patients were 40 - 59 years and; while 22.3% were 60 years and above. About 28% had a predisposing factor (diabetis, HIV, leukaemia, high blood pressure). Etiological factors were urogenital (42.5%), anorectal (22.5%), and cutaneous (17.5%). In 17.5% of cases, no etiologic factor was found. The diagnosis was clinically obvious because of late presentation, 95% of patients were admitted in the acute phase. Fournier's gangrene mostly affects young males and the diagnosis was clinical. It is a disease with high morbidity and mortality in Benin Republic.

  7. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, M. [Ministry of Industry and Trade, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  8. "If really we are committed things can change, starting from us": Healthcare providers' perceptions of postpartum care and its potential for improvement in low-income suburbs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallangyo, Eunice N; Mbekenga, Columba; Källestål, Carina; Rubertsson, Christine; Olsson, Pia

    2017-03-01

    To explore healthcare providers' perceptions of the current postpartum care (PPC) practice and its potential for improvement at governmental health institutions in low-resource suburbs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Qualitative design, using focus group discussions (8) and qualitative content analysis. Healthcare institutions (8) at three levels of governmental healthcare in Ilala and Temeke suburbs, Dar es Salaam. Registered, enrolled and trained nurse-midwives (42); and medical and clinical officers (13). The healthcare providers perceived that PPC was suboptimal and that they could have prevented maternal deaths. PPC was fragmented at understaffed institutions, lacked guidelines and was organized in a top-down structure of leadership. The participants called for improvement of: organization of space, time, resources, communication and referral system; providers' knowledge; and supervision and feedback. Their motivation to enhance PPC quality was high. The HCP awareness of the suboptimal quality of PPC, its potential for promoting health and their willingness to engage in improving care are promising for the implementation of interventions to improve quality of care. Provision of guidelines, sensitization of providers to innovate and maximize utilization of existing resources, and supportive supervision and feedback are likely to contribute to the sustainability of any improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Migration, ethnicity and environment: HIV risk factors for women on the sugar cane plantations of the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, T H; Hasbun, J; Ryan, C A; Hawes, S E; Martinez, S; Sanchez, J; Butler de Lister, M; Constanzo, J; Lopez, J; Holmes, K K

    1998-10-01

    To determine risk factors for HIV infection among women living in the sugar cane plantation communities (bateyes) of a large private sugar cane company in the Dominican Republic. Cross-sectional study of sexually active female volunteers living in the bateyes. Of 98 bateyes, 23 were randomly selected and visited by a mobile medical unit, to interview, examine and test volunteers for seroreactivity to HIV and syphilis. The 490 subjects ranged in age from 16 to 72 years (median, 37 years); 53% were born in Haiti, 36% in Dominican Republic bateyes, and 12% elsewhere in the Dominican Republic; 58% had no formal education; and 87% had no income. HIV seropositivity was found in 28 women (5.7%), including 8.8% of those aged < 35 years. By logistic regression analysis, HIV infection was independently associated with age < 35 years [odds ratio (OR), 4.5; P < 0.01), being single with children (OR, 4.3; P < 0.01), more than one lifetime sex partners (OR, 3.4; P = 0.06), engaging in sex during menses (OR, 3.2; P = 0.02), and self-description as a prostitute (OR, 4.4; P = 0.05)1. For Haitian women, those coming to the Dominican Republic alone were more likely to have HIV infection than those coming with a male partner. Less than 4% of women reported condom use at last intercourse. Women in the bateyes have a much higher rate of HIV infection than that estimated for women in the general population of Dominican Republic and a rate comparable to that of female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. AIDS prevention in the bateyes should address condom education and distribution as well as employment opportunities and education for women.

  10. Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swai Ndeniria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. Methods The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and cross-sectional surveys before and after intervention in randomly selected health facilities (HF in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants were all clinicians and their patients in the above health facilities. The intervention consisted of training and introduction of mRDTs in all three hospitals and in six HF. Three HF without mRDTs were selected as matched controls. The use of routine mRDT and treatment upon result was advised for all patients complaining of fever, including children under five years of age. The main outcome measures were: (1 anti-malarial consumption recorded from routine statistics in ledger books of all HF before and after intervention; (2 anti-malarial prescription recorded during observed consultations in cross-sectional surveys conducted in all HF before and 18 months after mRDT implementation. Results Based on routine statistics, the amount of artemether-lumefantrine blisters used post-intervention was reduced by 68% (95%CI 57-80 in intervention and 32% (9-54 in control HF. For quinine vials, the reduction was 63% (54-72 in intervention and an increase of 2.49 times (1.62-3.35 in control HF. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys showed a similar decrease from 75% to 20% in the proportion of patients receiving anti-malarial treatment (Risk ratio 0.23, 95%CI 0.20-0.26. The cluster randomized analysis showed a considerable difference of anti-malarial prescription between intervention HF (22% and control HF (60% (Risk ratio 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.70. Adherence to test result was excellent since only 7% of negative patients received an anti-malarial. However, antibiotic

  11. Informal support to first-parents after childbirth: a qualitative study in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbekenga Columba K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care

  12. Low utilization of health care services following screening for hypertension in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania: a prospective population-based study

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    Lengeler Christian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy in high-risk individuals has been advocated as an important strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease in low income countries. We determined, in a low-income urban population, the proportion of persons who utilized health services after having been diagnosed as hypertensive and advised to seek health care for further hypertension management. Methods A population-based survey of 9254 persons aged 25–64 years was conducted in Dar es Salaam. Among the 540 persons with high blood pressure (defined here as BP ≥ 160/95 mmHg at the initial contact, 253 (47% had high BP on a 4th visit 45 days later. Among them, 208 were untreated and advised to attend health care in a health center of their choice for further management of their hypertension. One year later, 161 were seen again and asked about their use of health services during the interval. Results Among the 161 hypertensive persons advised to seek health care, 34% reported to have attended a formal health care provider during the 12-month interval (63% public facility; 30% private; 7% both. Antihypertensive treatment was taken by 34% at some point of time (suggesting poor uptake of health services and 3% at the end of the 12-month follow-up (suggesting poor long-term compliance. Health services utilization tended to be associated with older age, previous history of high BP, being overweight and non-smoking, but not with education or wealth. Lack of symptoms and cost of treatment were the reasons reported most often for not attending health care. Conclusion Low utilization of health services after hypertension screening suggests a small impact of a patient-centered screen-and-treat strategy in this low-income population. These findings emphasize the need to identify and address barriers to health care utilization for non-communicable diseases in this setting and, indirectly, the importance of public health measures for primary prevention of these diseases.

  13. “Experiences with disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child”: Perspectives of healthcare providers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Adellah Sariah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The specific age to which an HIV infected child can be disclosed to is stipulated to begin between ages 4 and 6 years. It has also been documented that before disclosure of HIV positive status to the infected child. Health care providers should consider children’s cognitive-developmental ability. However, observation and situation analysis show that, health care providers still feel uncomfortable disclosing the HIV positive status to the infected child. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare providers’ experiences in disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child. Methods A qualitative study involving 20 health care providers who attend HIV-positive children was conducted in September, 2014 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants were selected from ten HIV care and treatment clinics (CTC by purposive sampling. An interview guide, translated into participants’ national language (Kiswahili was used during in-depth interviews. Sampling followed the principle of data saturation. The interviews focused on perspectives of health-care providers regarding their experience with paediatric HIV disclosure. Data from in-depth interviews were transcribed into text; data analysis followed qualitative content analysis. Results The results show how complex the process of disclosure to children living with HIV can be to healthcare providers. Confusion was noted among healthcare providers about their role and responsibility in the process of disclosing to the HIV infected child. This was reported to be largely due to unclear guidelines and lack of standardized training in paediatric HIV disclosure. Furthermore, healthcare providers were concerned about parental hesitancy to disclose early to the child due to lack of disclosure skills and fear of stigma. In order to improve the disclosure process in HIV infected children, healthcare providers recommended further standardized training on paediatric HIV disclosure with

  14. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines

  15. Effects of seasonal change and seawater intrusion on water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes, in coastal aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia; Sweya, Lukuba Ngalya; Luciani, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    Groundwater is the major source to meet domestic, industrial and agricultural needs in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, population growth, increasing urbanization, industrialization and tourism, and climatic changes have caused an intensive exploitation of groundwater resources leading the aquifers become more vulnerable to seawater intrusion. The aim of this study is to examine the variations of groundwater chemistry (as resulting from natural and anthropogenic inputs) depending on seasonal changes, in order to evaluate water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. Physical and chemical data come from the analysis of groundwater samples, collected from 72 wells, used for the evaluation of water quality parameters, during a year of monitoring. Pattern diagrams, geochemical modeling techniques and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been used to identify the main factors influencing groundwater composition. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: (a) Na-Cl, (b) Ca-Cl, (c) mixed Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl (d) mixed Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4. The geochemical modeling results show that groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by evaporation process, as it is suggested by the increase of Na and Cl ions concentrations. According to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA, most water samples from dry and rainy seasons, distributed in category C2-S1, C3-S1, C3-S2, C4-S2 highlighting medium to very high salinity hazard and low to medium sodium content class. PCA evidenced the role of seawater intrusion, evaporation process and anthropogenic pollution (i.e. high NO3 levels due to agricultural activities), as the major factors that influenced the water chemistry, and hence the water quality. Based on Pearson correlation matrix, the presence of high correlations (>0.8) among Na, Cl, Mg and SO4, in association with EC, were interpreted as the seawater intrusion effects. In this area groundwater quality is generally low, and

  16. Oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS in HIV-seropositive patients attending a counselling and treatment centre in Dar es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangosi, Ibrahim E A T; Tillya, Jackline

    2012-08-01

     To assess the prevalences and patterns of oral lesions occurring in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).  A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 people living with HIV/AIDS (PlwHA) who regularly attended a counselling and treatment centre in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A questionnaire-guided interview and clinical oral assessment were used. Strict confidentiality and adherence to ethical codes were observed. The mean age of participants was 38.91 years (standard deviation: 10.424; mode: 35 years; median: 37.0 years; range: 15-76 years). Most participants (58.5%) were aware of predispositions towards the occurrence of oral lesions such as oral candidiasis (60.0%) in HIV/AIDS and most of these (72.0%) were aware that the lesions are treatable. Some participants reported occurrences of oral thrush (22.5%) and lip ulcerations (28.5%), although only 47.0% of these had sought medical advice. Examinations revealed that 29.0% of participants had at least one oral lesion associated with HIV/AIDS. Prevalences of the various types of lesion were: 11.5% for herpes simplex; 7.5% for oral candidiasis; 4.0% for oral hairy leukoplakia; 3.5% for Kaposi's sarcoma; 1.5% for dry mouth; 0.5% for angular cheilitis, and 0.5% for acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis. Herpes simplex and Kaposi's sarcoma were more frequently observed in males (56.5% and 71.4%, respectively), whereas oral candidiasis and dry mouth were observed more often in females (86.7% and 66.7%, respectively) (χ(2) = 16.692, P = 0.016).   Prevalences of oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS in PlwHA and using antiretroviral therapy are persistent, of moderate intensity and vary according to individual immune status. These patients' level of awareness about oral lesions was satisfactory, but formal medicodental lines of management were not prioritised. Contemporary protocol for the management of oral lesions should be understood and disseminated to the

  17. The Doctor of Medicine curriculum review at the School of Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a tracer study report from 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakigonja, Amos Rodger

    2016-08-25

    The School of Medicine (SoM) is one among five at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS). It currently houses eight undergraduate and many post-graduate programmes. The Doctor of Medicine (MD) programme reported herein is the oldest having ten semesters (5 years) followed by a 1 year compulsory rotatory internship at a hospital approved by the Medical Council of Tanganyika (MCT). However, this training was largely knowledge-based and thus the need to shift towards competency-based education (CBE) and full modularization necessitated this study. A cross-sectional tracer study of MUHAS MD graduates from SoM who completed training between 2006 and 2008 was conducted using quantitative (structured interviewer-administered questionnaires) as well as qualitative methods [In-depth questionnaire (IDI) and Focus group discussions (FGDs)]. A total of 147 MD graduates were traced and interviewed, representing 29 % of the 510 students who graduated from the SoM between 2006 and 2008. Majority (70.1 %, n = 103/147) were males. About 70 % graduated in 2008 and majority (68 %, n = 100/147) were doing internship. Majority (60.5 % n = 89/147) were based in/near Dar es Salaam at district, regional or referral hospitals. With reasonable concordance, most competencies ranked low except on four aspects. Teaching, System-based Practice and Good Practice had the lowest. Seminars/Tutorials, Laboratory Skills/Practicals, Theatre Skills, Outpatients clinics, Family Case Studies, Visits/Excursions and Self Reflection were rated less useful teaching methods compared to Lectures, Teaching Ward Rounds, Elective Studies, Field Work, Presentations, Continuous Assessments Tests, Final Examinations, Short Answers, Clinical/Practical Examinations. ICT and Library facilities were not considered to meet the students learning needs and Clinical Logbooks also ranked low. Teachers were generally ranked less favorably including in professional role-modelling and

  18. Results of analysis of organisational culture in organisations in the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with issues concerning organisational culture and its maintenance in existing conditions in organisations in the Czech Republic. The importance of the topic lies in the fact that organisational culture is a reflection of human dispositions in work activities and strengthens one’s attitude to work and regulates relationships between employees and the management of the organisation. The aim of the article is to identify the importance of organisational culture and to determine the process of its development and its maintaining in organisations in the Czech Republic. Data has been obtained through a questionnaire survey carried out in organisations in the Czech Republic and evaluated using the tools of descriptive statistics. Primary data was evaluated using the tools of descriptive statistics and also the methods of comparison, induction, deduction and synthesis were applied. The results have been compared with the outcomes of a similar survey which took place in the Slovak Republic. At present, the theme of development and maintenance of a suitable organisational culture for the purpose of ensuring the required level of organisations’ performance and gaining a competitive advantage is highly relevant and significant in terms of its possible application in both scientific and practical activities.

  19. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    countries in the region. In 1981, 1 million of the countrys, residents were foreign born. The oil industry attracted many immigrants, and illegal immigration is a serious problem. 41% of the population is under 15 years of age, the birth rate is 33-37, the death rate is 5, the infant mortality rate is 39, and life expectancy is 69 years. Average household size is 5.28. Family life is highly unstable. 32% of the couples are in informal unions, and these couples account for 52% of all births. 20% of the households are headed by low income women. The total fertility rate was 6.7 in 1961 and is currently 4.3. There are 3.2 million housing units, and 800,000 of these are classified as inadequate. 65% of the population is mestizo, 20% is European, and the remaining 15% are from various other countries or members of indigenous groups. The population is predominantly Catholic. The literacy rate is 83%; however, 71% of the males and 84% of the females in rural areas are illiterate. 31.5% of the population is in the labor force, and 27.5% of the labor force is female. 20% of the labor force is in the service sector and many of these work in the overgrown government bureaucracy. Only 15% of the labor force is engaged in the primary sector. 37% of the residents of Caracas and 80% of the country's rural residents live below the poverty level.

  20. Tuberculosis among dislocated North Koreans entering Republic of Korea since 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang Min; June, Jung Hee; Kang, Cheol In; Park, Jung Tak; Oh, Soo Yon; Lee, Jin Beom; Lee, Chang Hoon; Yim, Jae Joon; Kim, Hee Jin

    2007-12-01

    The collapse of North Korea's public health system has increased the development of tuberculosis (TB) in its populace. This study investigated the prevalence of active and latent TB infection (LTBI) in such people who have settled in the Republic of Korea since 1999. From 1999 to August 2006, 7,722 dislocated North Koreans entered the Republic of Korea and all were screened immediately for active TB. Demographic and clinical characteristics were reviewed from the official records of the Settlement Support Office for Dislocated North Koreans, based in the Ministry of Unification. Of 7,722 participants, 87 (1.13%) were diagnosed with active TB from 1999 to August 2006. Of these, 78 (90%) had pulmonary TB. Checking for the presence of a Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) scar and tuberculin skin test has been performed in all dislocated North Koreans since November 2005. Of 1,112 participants, BCG vaccination scars were found in 67.4%. The tuberculin-positive rate using two tuberculin unit doses of the purified protein derivative RT23 (> or =10mm in diameter) was 81.5%. The prevalence of active TB and LTBI in dislocated North Koreans was high. Because this group bears a disproportionate burden of TB, we need to initiate a specific control programme and to plan for the impact of this disease in the Republic of Korea.

  1. Seismic Risk Assessment for the Kyrgyz Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittore, Massimiliano; Sousa, Luis; Grant, Damian; Fleming, Kevin; Parolai, Stefano; Fourniadis, Yannis; Free, Matthew; Moldobekov, Bolot; Takeuchi, Ko

    2017-04-01

    The Kyrgyz Republic is one of the most socially and economically dynamic countries in Central Asia, and one of the most endangered by earthquake hazard in the region. In order to support the government of the Kyrgyz Republic in the development of a country-level Disaster Risk Reduction strategy, a comprehensive seismic risk study has been developed with the support of the World Bank. As part of this project, state-of-the-art hazard, exposure and vulnerability models have been developed and combined into the assessment of direct physical and economic risk on residential, educational and transportation infrastructure. The seismic hazard has been modelled with three different approaches, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of the possible consequences. A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) approach has been used to quantitatively evaluate the distribution of expected ground shaking intensity, as constrained by the compiled earthquake catalogue and associated seismic source model. A set of specific seismic scenarios based on events generated from known fault systems have been also considered, in order to provide insight on the expected consequences in case of strong events in proximity of densely inhabited areas. Furthermore, long-span catalogues of events have been generated stochastically and employed in the probabilistic analysis of expected losses over the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic. Damage and risk estimates have been computed by using an exposure model recently developed for the country, combined with the assignment of suitable fragility/vulnerability models. The risk estimation has been carried out with spatial aggregation at the district (rayon) level. The obtained results confirm the high level of seismic risk throughout the country, also pinpointing the location of several risk hotspots, particularly in the southern districts, in correspondence with the Ferghana valley. The outcome of this project will further support the local

  2. REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE TYVA REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. B. Kuular

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of research on long-term variability of anomalies of annual temperatures in the Tyva Republic. The climate in the region is sharp continental, characterized by large temperature variability, both in diurnal and annual course. Anticyclone dry and clear weather dominates over the territory of the region. Multi-year temperature trends calculated for each month served as a basis for analysis of annual cycle of temperature trends at each station for the period of 1961-2016. The average annual temperature amounted to -3.4 ± 1.1 °С (1961-1990. Precipitation distribution is varied, for warm period precipitation is higher 80-87 % (annual precipitation is 180-325 mm, and for cold period precipitation is very low, about 20-13 %. Global warming is accompanied by changes in regional climate and seasonal features. The average annual air temperatures during 1975-2005 represent the warmest years. This is also reflected in the trends of the average monthly, seasonal and annual air temperatures. When comparing the longterm average air temperature in the period of 1975-2016 with the 1961-1990 period, from November to March increased by 1.3 °С and from April to October – by 1°С. The first years of the 21st century were the warmest years in the history of meteorological measurements in republic. During the period of 2000-2016 was one of, in the cold season the temperature increased by 1.9 °С and in the warmer time of the year – by 1.3 °С. However, it was frosty during January. This trend indicates an increased risk of higher fluctuations of the air temperature in the republic.

  3. The competitiveness of rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitdikova, L.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ophem, van J.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the main factors influencing the regional competitiveness of rural areas in the Tatarstan Republic. Firstly, 19 variables related to the socio-economic situation in the Tatarstan Republic were analysed, these having been taken from the Statistics Committee of the Tatarstan

  4. Marital status behavior of women in the former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherbov, S; Darsky, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses the most recent data and life table analysis to describe the marital behaviour of women in the republics of the former USSR. For the first time a multistate life table analysis was used to describe the marital careers of women from all the 15 republics. In the near future, such a

  5. SOME FISCAL ASPECTS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available European integration of Republic of Moldova requires solvation of many issues, including those relating to fiscal aspects. The main of them are related to the harmonization of tax legislation of the Republic of Moldova to the European and the operation of the shadow economy and tax fraud. This article will be devoted to reflection problems and some ways of resolving them.

  6. Internet Backbone in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Feasibility ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Internet Backbone in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Feasibility Study and Advocacy. During 7-10 February 2005, representatives of five francophone African countries (Cameroon, Morocco, Niger, Sénégal, and the Democratic Republic of Congo - DRC) met to consider ways and means of galvanizing the appropriation ...

  7. Informatization of Financial Administration of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Myslikovjan, David

    2013-01-01

    Informatization in Financial administration of Czech Republic Thesis deals with informatization in Financial administration of Czech Republic. Especially, it is focused on informatization of internal processes of the organization: Payments, invoicing, asset management, electronic document and record management system, circulation of accounting documents and the advantages and disadvantages consequent informatization of these areas. Informatization evaluation is conducted by a questionnaire su...

  8. Teaching Wisdom to Interest: Book Five of Plato's "Republic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Timothy J.; Scudder, Mary F.

    2009-01-01

    We suggest that Book Five of the "Republic", where Plato discusses the status of women in the guardian class, is a superb source of Platonic insight. For it is precisely the discussion of women that is most vulnerable to co-optation by the modern vernacular of interest, a vernacular to which the "Republic" is vehemently opposed. If students come…

  9. Tax policy in Tourism in the Republic of Abkhazia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona D. Kviraya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the current state of tourism industry in the republic of Abkhazia, which is regarded as critical, caused by poor material recourses, inappropriate networking system. There is a vivid growth of tourist enterprises in the republic to increase the local budget through tax revenues paid by recreation facilities

  10. ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chrenek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Importance of preservation (cryopreservation and use of the farm animals’ gene pool emerge from biological, economic, landscaping and cultural needs of each country that are realized using national gene banks. Availability of the animal genetic resources has an impact on the present and also future life quality and important effect on the food safety. Ratification of the Convention on the Biodiversity oblige Slovak Republic to protect biodiversity, to guarantee sustainable use of its components and fair and equal access to benefit sharing from genetic resources.

  11. Renewable energy projects in the Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, B.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a US/Dominican Republic program to develop renewable energy projects in the country. The objective is to demonstrate the commercial viability of renewable energy generation projects, primarily small-scale wind and hydropower. Preliminary studies are completed for three micro-hydro projects with a total capacity of 262 kWe, and two small wind power projects for water pumping. In addition wind resource assessment is ongoing, and professional training and technical assistance to potential investors is ongoing. Projects goals include not less than ten small firms actively involved in installation of such systems by September 1998.

  12. The Journal Illustrada educating for Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vasconcellos Modenesi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the educational possibilities contained in press materials in the early years of the Republic of Brazil, from the rise of the Conservative Party, with the end of the Empire and slave regime. Our analysis starts from the hypothesis that the Revista Illustrada collaborated in the way of historicizing the facts to non-literate population, creating a kind of method of transmitting the events with a new look, from the change of habits and of body care benchmarks, good manners and civility.

  13. Research of causes of low IPO number in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meluzín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding development of the company through the “Initial Public Offering” has a high representation globally, the Czech Republic unlike, and belongs to traditional methods of raising funds necessary for development of business in the developed capital markets. In the United States of America, Japan and in the Western Europe countries the method of company funding through IPO has been ap­p­lying for several decades already. The first public stock offerings began to be applied in these markets in higher volumes from the beginning of the 60th of the last century. From that period importance of IPO goes up globally and the initial public stock offerings begin to be applied more and more even in the Central and Eastern European countries. Under the conditions of the Czech capital market this way funding of development of the company, connected with its entering into the capital market, is not very usual. The Strategy of Sustainable Development of the Czech Republic considers this situation the weakness of the Czech economy, and its resolving has to be paid a due care. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis identifying the causes of the low numbers of IPOs in the Czech Republic. These causes were analyzed in a comprehensive way covering the period of time from the beginnings of the modern-day capital market in the Czech Republic until the present times. In order to reach the objective, the secondary research of the literature sources, focused on the issue in question and the primary research in the Czech companies was carried out.

  14. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  15. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  16. The “Turkish crisis” of the Cold War period and the south Caucasian republics

    OpenAIRE

    Gasanly, Jamil

    2009-01-01

    The author traces the ups and downs of Soviet-Turkish relations during World War II and immediately after it and concentrates on the most important points along this far from easy road. He amply draws on declassified archive documents from the United States, Russia, Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, and Azerbaijan to recreate a true picture of the time when the Turkish crisis was developing into another seat of the Cold War while the leaders of the Armenian and Georgian Soviet republics acted as obed...

  17. The abortion debate in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Faced with a situation in which an estimated 60,000 illegal abortions (a major cause of maternal mortality) were performed annually, the Dominican Republic has adopted a new Health Code which contains a chapter dedicated to maternal health. Included in the new code are cases in which abortion is allowed: 1) when 2 specialists affirm that the pregnancy or childbirth constitutes a risk to the mother's health or life; 2) if the medical history of the parents and 2 doctors confirm the likelihood of the baby being born seriously disabled or deformed; or 3) if the mother's mental health is put in jeopardy by continuing the pregnancy. Despite the disapproval of church representatives, the legalization of abortion was unanimously approved by the Congress. The debate which surrounded the process was increased by a petition signed by more than 260 women decrying the lack of input that women had in the decision-making process. Women's action groups have been trying to widen the context in which the political discussion is taking place to stress the importance of viewing abortion from a reproductive rights perspective. The women's groups wish to prevent a situation in which the discussion surrounding the issue will be limited to legislators and church leaders. The women have pointed out that women should make the decisions about their lives and their bodies. In the meantime, the president of the Congress predicts that illegal abortion will continue in the Dominican Republic regardless of the current provisions for legal abortion.

  18. Family therapy in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvala, Vladislav; Trapkova, Ludmila; Novak, Tomas; Lattova, Zuzana

    2012-04-01

    Political, economic and cultural transformations in the Czech Republic after 1989 were reflected in a number of demographic indicators, including those that characterize family behaviour. The main features of these changes are declining birth and marriage rates, postponement of first marriage and first birth ages, and a growing proportion of children born outside of marriage. These changes are comparable to those that have taken place in western Europe since the 1960s; however, some of them are abrupt and cause rapid shift in the family structure. Over the last two decades, significant changes have also occurred in the organization of family therapy. Earlier less coordinated activities underwent institutionalization, and guidelines for training and supervision were established. Family therapy in the Czech Republic is covered by a national organization, the Society of Family Therapy (SOFT). Standards of training and supervision correspond to European standards. The problem remains the lack of support for family therapy from state institutions, especially in the health service. There are only a few healthcare facilities providing family therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders or chronic somatic diseases. The capacity of these centres is substantially inadequate.

  19. The republic in crisis and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, José Maurício

    2017-06-01

    This text gives a brief reconstruction of the process of impeachment of Brazil's President Dilma Rousseff, which was a 'coup' effected through parliament, and situates it at the end of three periods of politics in the Brazilian republic: the first, broader, and democratizing; the second, the age of the PT (Workers' Party) as the force with the hegemony on the left; and the third, shorter, the cycle of its governments. Together, these phases constitute a crisis of the republic, although not a rupture of the country's institutional structure, nor a 'State of Exception'. The paper puts forward three main issues: the developmentalist project implemented by the governments of the PT, in alliance with Brazil's construction companies; the role of the judiciary, and in particular of 'Operation Carwash'; and the conflict-beset relationship between the new evangelical churches and the LGBT social movements. The essay concludes with an assessment of the defeat and isolation of the left at this moment, and also suggests that democracy, in particular, could be the kernel of a renewed project of the left.

  20. The business environment in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a comparison of the business environment in 2004 and 2010. The aim of this paper is to compare opinions of managers of small and medium – sized enterprises on opportunities and threats of external environment and on strengths and weaknesses of internal environment after the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union, in 2004 and now in 2010.The basic sources of information were 70 SWOT analyses of small and medium – sized enterprises which have been made in 2004 by students of combined form of study, who work in management functions on medium or basic managerial levels and 228 SWOT analyses of small and medium – sized enterprises which have been made in 2010. 77 % of managers from analyzed enterprises identified the integration of the Czech Republic into the EU as an opportunity in 2004 and only 33 % of managers from analyzed enterprises in 2010. The competition as the most important threat was reported in both groups of respondents. Namely 64 % of managers in 2004 and even 82 % of managers in 2010.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan of the FBE MUAF in Brno, MSM 6215648904.

  1. Translations on North Korea, Number 531.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    courageous and resourceful Ethiopian people will attain greater success in the struggle for building a new society and a new life under the banner of...sacrifice, Refering to the successes the Guinea-Bissau people have made in building a new life under the correct guidance of President Luiz Cabral... life . Julius K. Nyerere President United Republic of Tanzania Dar es Salaam, 25th April, 1977. 17 His Excellency Kim Il-song General Secretary

  2. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall be accompanied by a certificate issued or endorsed by a salaried veterinarian of the Republic of Ireland showing...

  3. 31 CFR 586.308 - Government of the Republic of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of the Republic of Serbia... (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.308 Government of the Republic of Serbia. The term Government of the Republic of Serbia means the government of the Republic of...

  4. Studies on bluetongue disease in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N; Li, Z; Zhang, F; Zhu, J

    2004-01-01

    same strains of prototype and field strains of BTV from the United States of America and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the genetic relationships between these viruses correspond to their geographic origins or their serotype. The National Standards for Bluetongue Diagnosis, People's Republic of China has also been enacted. Remarkable social and economic benefits have been obtained through the application and dissemination of these achievements in China. This paper reviews the progress of studies and control of BT in China since 1995.

  5. The Development of Mental Health Policies in the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic since 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobiášová Karolína

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the key events in the development of mental health care policies after 1990 in the two countries and identify the main reasons for stagnation or incremental changes to the institutional setting in the field of mental health care. The process of mental health care reform is explained using the framework of historical institutionalism. The explanation shows that the lack of political interest in combination with the tradition of institutional care resulted in poor availability of psychiatric care, outdated network of inpatient facilities and critical lack of community care facilities in both countries. Even though Slovak Republic adopted national programme at the governmental level, it still struggles with its implementation. The ongoing reform attempt in the Czech Republic may bring some change, thanks to a new approach towards strategic governance of the mental health care system and the mechanism of layering that the promoters of the reform use.

  6. The Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parliament of the Republic of Moldova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available THE PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA, constituted after free and democratic elections, PROCLAIMS SOLEMNLY, in the virtue of the right of self-determination of peoples, in the name of the entire population of the Republic of Moldova, and in front of the whole world, that: THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IS A SOVEREIGN, INDEPENDENT AND DEMOCRATIC STATE, FREE TO DECIDE ITS PRESENT AND FUTURE, WITHOUT ANY EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE, KEEPING WITH THE IDEALS AND ASPIRATIONS OF THE PEOPLE WITHIN ITS HISTORICAL AND ETHNIC AREA OF ITS NATIONAL MAKING.

  7. Validity of COPD diagnoses reported through nationwide health insurance systems in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmi OP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Om P Kurmi,1 Julien Vaucher,1 Dan Xiao,2 Michael V Holmes,1 Yu Guo,3 Kourtney J Davis,4 Chen Wang,5 Haiyan Qin,6 Iain Turnbull,1 Peng Peng,7 Zheng Bian,3 Robert Clarke,1 Liming Li,8 Yiping Chen,1 Zhengming Chen1 On behalf of the China Kadoorie Biobank collaborative group 1Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2Tobacco Medicine and Tobacco Cessation Center, China–Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3National Coordinating Centre for China Kadoorie Biobank Study, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Collegeville, PA, USA; 5National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 6Medical Research Center, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 7Radiology Department, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, with particularly high rates in the People’s Republic of China, even among never smokers. Large population-based cohort studies should allow for reliable assessment of the determinants of diseases, which is dependent on the quality of disease diagnoses. We assessed the validity of COPD diagnoses collected through electronic health records in the People’s Republic of China. Methods: The CKB study recruited 0.5 million adults aged 30–79 years from ten diverse regions in the People’s Republic of China during the period 2004–2008. During 7 years of follow-up, 11,800 COPD cases were identified by linkage with mortality registries and the national

  8. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF REPUBLIC OF TURKEY WITHIN EUROPEAN UNION NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan GÜZEL

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Republic of Turkey’s relationships with Western world in general, and with EU in special. Putting forth the relationship betweeen EU and Republic of Turkey in a clear manner, underlying factors of Republic of Turkey’s accession to the EU has been discussed in accordance with the main problem of Republic of Turkey, including overpopulation and unemployment rate. However, it is essential for EU to consider geostrategical position of Republic of Turkey bringing Europe and Asi...

  9. FRANCHISING AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRIAM JANKALOVÁ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focus on characteristic of franchising as the opportunity for firms to start the business. Franchising is an agreement in which franchisees receive the right to operate a business under the franchisor’s trade name in exchange for paying a fee and operating according to a specific plan (Flităr, 2003. In other words, this method of distribution is based on a contract in which the franchisor gives franchisees the right to operate a business under its trade name. In exchange, the franchisees pay a specific amount and operate the business according to a plan specified by the franchisor (Flităr, 2003. We also analyse the situation in Slovak republic where franchising is still used not so often as in the other EU countries.

  10. [Palliative care in Czech Republic in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláma, Ondřej; Kabelka, Ladislav; Loučka, Martin

    In the Czech Republic more than 70,000 patients with chronic incurable diseases need palliative care each year. In 50,000 this need is manageable in the context of general palliative care, 20,000 patients would greatly benefited from specialized palliative care. Most chronically ill patients (> 60 %) died in acute or post acute inpatient health care facilities. Here s the availability and quality of palliative care varies substantially. Inpatient hospices provide end of life palliative care to less than 3000 patients each year. Outpatient and mobile specialized palliative care services are available only to a few hundreds of patients.In the year 2016 palliative care at the appropriate professional level ("state of art") is not a generally available and guaranteed within Czech health care and social system. We perceive an urgent need for the systematic development of general and specialized palliative care at the level of education, healthcare organization and the development of new health and social services.

  11. Field survey of the 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami based on eyewitness interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Martinez, C.; Salado, J.; Rivera, W.

    2016-12-01

    On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the northeastern shore of Hispaniola resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field the tsunami was recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes ever reported in the Caribbean. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from La Isabela to Punta Cana. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field data points measured in 2014 and 2016 were corrected for predicted astronomical tide levels at the time of tsunami arrival

  12. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ..., Morocco, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Bahrain, Oman... importer fails to comply with any of the requirements under Subpart T, Part 10, CBP regulations. Export... of a person who completes and issues a certification for a good exported from the United States to...

  13. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ..., Chile, Morocco, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Bahrain... with any of the requirements under Subpart S, Part 10, CBP regulations. Export Requirements Section 10... who completes and issues a certification for a good exported from the United States to Panama...

  14. The challenges of preventive diplomacy: The United Nations' post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nuclear weapons, and human rights action focused on the strengthening of respect for human rights while addressing the issues of human rights violations. 2 This has taken place about three times in the last three decades: UNPREDEP in the former. Republic of Macedonia, the United Nations Mission in the Central African ...

  15. from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    References. BROWN, A.C. & JARMAN, N. 1978. Coastal marine habitats. In: Biogeography and ecology of Southern Africa. (ed.) Werger, M.J.A.. Junk, The Hague. DAHL, E. 1952. Some aspects of the ecology and zonation of the fauna on sandy beaches. Oikos 4: 1-27. DAY, J.H. 1969. A guide to marine life on South African ...

  16. AGRICULTURAL BUDGET AND AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boris Kuzman; Katarina Djuric; Ljubomir Mitrović; Radivoj Prodanovic

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of paper is to depict the state of agriculture in the Republic of Serbia and agricultural budget, as an instrument of agricultural politics in function of agricultural sector development...

  17. THE BASHKORTOSTAMN REPUBLIC: CONTROVERCIES ON SOCIAL-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Galiev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The author interpretation of economy conditions of the Bashkortostan Republic is offered for reader. Consequences of economic reformation are estimated. Ideas about its improvement are considered.

  18. Asylum for persecuted homosexuals in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wolman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two recent successful claims for asylum suggest that the Republic of Korea may be prepared to serve in the future as an important country of asylum for those suffering persecution due to their sexual orientation.

  19. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamid Khudaybergenovich ABDURAMANOV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For the role of the population of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Commonwealth of Independent State (CIS countries was given an assessment. In the years of independence (1991-2014, growth dynamics were formed of the population of the country and was identified influences to the demographic, social and economic factors. It was divided into groups of growth rate of territorial population of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Any geo-demographic news on the territory of Uzbekistan can be finding in Tashkent city and Tashkent region and in two directions: the extension to the south-west and east were based. It was analyzed the structure of population in the republic and it was scientifically based that the rate urban population was increased; on the other hand, the rate of rural population has been decreased. Urbanization rate of the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan is divided into low, medium and high.

  20. Contesting discrimination and statelessness in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Wooding

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Many decades of unregulated migration of Haitians whohave come to live and work in the Dominican Republic haveresulted in a significant population whose status is uncertainand who are vulnerable to widespread discrimination andabuses of human rights.

  1. [Migration in the German Democratic Republic: rural flight and urbanization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwe, K

    1987-05-01

    Patterns of internal migration in the German Democratic Republic since the 1950s are examined. The emphasis is on rural-urban migration. The side effects and later consequences of planned migration are discussed.

  2. [Tuberculosis among foreigners in the Czech Republic 2003-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, J; Krejbich, F

    2008-01-01

    Authors compared the situation in tuberculosis among foreigners in the Czech Republic during the years 2003-2006. Foreigners participated in 13.0-14.2% of total notified tuberculosis cases during this period. Proportion of smear positive cases among foreigners in this period grew up from 32.8% to 40.8%. The proportion of active case finding of tuberculosis cases among foreigners declined from 36.0% to 15.4%. At the same time foreigners formed an important part in drug resistance of TB-strains in the Czech Republic. 50% of MDR-TB cases were detected in foreigners. In 20 MDR-TB cases notified in the years 2003-2006 10 were detected in foreigners. If the number of immigrants from countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis to the Czech Republic increases the control of TB in the Czech Republic could be negatively influenced.

  3. Arion alpinus Pollonera, 1887 in the Czech Republic (Gastropoda: Arionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Dvořák

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The first records of the pulmonate land snail Arion alpinus in the Czech Republic are presented and the European distribution and ecology of this species are discussed. A. alpinus occurs in forest ecosystems in the southern part of the Czech Republic at the margin of its continuous distribution range. Both externally and anatomically the Czech Republican specimens strongly resemble A. alpinus from neighbouring countries. Identification was confirmed by DNA analysis.

  4. FUGITIVE EMISSONS FROM ENERGY SECTOR IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicova E.V

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of the process of inventorying the fugitive emissions from energy sector of the Republic of Moldova. It is described the applied methodology, activity data used, there were analyzed the trends of methane emissions during the 1990-2005 period, as well as additional information is presented for evaluating CO2 and N2O fugitive emissions from natural gas transmission and distribution in the Republic of Moldova.

  5. The skills road : skills for employability in the Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan; De Laat, Joost; Hut, Stefan; Larrison, Jennica; Abdulloev, Ilhom; Audy, Robin; Nikoloski, Zlatko; Torracchi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This report is about education, skills, and labor market outcomes in the Kyrgyz Republic. The report shows that skills are valued in the Kyrgyz Republic labor market, yet skills gaps persist. Three findings are particularly noteworthy. First, higher skilled youth have better employment outcomes, meaning that youth with more cognitive and non-cognitive skills are more likely to be employed than inactive or discouraged youth. Second, workers with higher cognitive and non-cognitive skills are mo...

  6. Indicators of Democratic Awareness in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasov, Petar; Cvetanova, Ganka

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Macedonia, as a relatively young democratic country, gained its independence in the year 1991 following the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In this sense, the Macedonian society is regarded as a society in democratic transition. Therefore, the discussions concerning the relevance and significance of democracy, as a precondition for the global development of the society, represent an integral part of the current political and academic debates in the...

  7. Taxation of Non-profit Organizations in the Selected European Countries: the Proposal of the Changes for the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of taxation of income of non-profit organizations, especially to associations (clubs in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the United Kingdom. This paper is part of research, where the main emphasis is placed on the comparison of the tax benefits which are provided to non-profit organizations in different countries. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic where despite the changes that have occurred in connection with the new Civil Code, there is still missing clear legislation that would regulate the activities of the monitored organizations. Changes in the taxation of income of non-profit organizations are designed with regard to the elimination of deficiencies in order to prevent the abuse of the benefits and the speculative behavior of tax entities.

  8. Municipalities as the subjects of tax administration in the Republic of Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.5+347.73The subject. Article deals with problem of the participation of the municipalities in tax administration in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is clarify how municipalities may participate in tax administration in the Republic of LithuaniaThe methodology of the research includes the analysis of Constitution and legislation of Republic of Lithuania, system analysis, logical-analytical method.Results, scope of it’s application. The existence of a unified state tax system, does not mean that the administrative-territorial unit (municipality do not possess certain powers upon the introduction of taxes and (or in the regulation of their collection. So, municipalities obtain part of the revenue by taxes, which rates are established by the councils of municipalities, not exceeding statutory dimensions, etc. Participation of municipalities in tax administration bases on the provisions of the Constitution on the law of the administrative territorial units to self-government and to have their own budget.Elements of centralization and decentralization, based on the recognition of the single state tax system, are combined in Lithuania in the determination of tax competence.The tax legislation of the Republic of Lithuania almost does not provide for local governments to participate in the tax collection process or in monitoring their collection.Tax laws provide the right to local authorities to refine (adjust the individual elements of taxes, although the establishment of these elements remain the exclusive right of bodies of the state (central authorities. Besides, local authorities have the right to establishment and the provision of common and individual tax benefits, the right to use the incomes received in the form of taxes, etc.Conclusions. Local authorities are involved in the process of tax regulation and possess a certain autonomy in this area – the Council of the municipality has the right to adjust tax

  9. 78 FR 65268 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-857, A-580-870, A-565-802, A-517-804, A-583-850, A-549-832, A- 489-816, A-823-815, A-552-817] Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of the Philippines, Saudi Arabia,...

  10. European integration and transatlantic relations as the cornerstone of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of this paper is to determine the main factors of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as to predict in which direction its foreign policy will move in the upcoming period. The consolidation and rise of the Federal Republic of Germany after World War II are based on its Westbindung policy (policy of binding for the West, which, basically, relied on a firm integration of Germany into Euro-Atlantic structures. By joining the euro-integration processes, whose prerequisite was a historic reconciliation with the powerful neighbor, France, Germany was no longer a disruptive factor in the European scene, and the NATO as a security “umbrella”, in which the United States of America had the most important role, provided it with adequate framework within which Germany could devote itself to the further development of society and economy. The preservation and further development of the European Union, as well as the transatlantic partnership, whose core consists of partnership relations with the United States of America, for Germany represents one of the key preconditions for maintaining global order, providing a mechanism within which the Federal Republic of Germany achieves the stability and prosperity of its society. As a country whose share in 2015 amounted to over 7% of the world trade (world’s third largest exporter and importer, there is no doubt that modern Germany “harvests” the fruits of globalization in an effective manner. Accordingly, the Federal Republic of Germany has every reason to defend the existing global order, whose leaders are the countries which are its main foreign policy partners.

  11. Discovering China: A Three Week Teaching/Learning Unit for Upper Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Toni Fuss

    The purpose of this three-week teaching unit on China is to promote interest in the People's Republic of China, to investigate China's role in world politics, and to promote cultural awareness. Chinese culture and geography are covered while research skills, group work, and oral presentations are stressed through assignments. The unit contains:…

  12. Developing and Implementing a Mobile Conservation Education Unit for Rural Primary School Children in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Troy; Phimmavong, Somvang; Phengsopha, Kaisone; Phompila, Chitana; Homduangpachan, Khiaosaphan

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the implementation and success of a mobile conservation education unit targeting primary schools in central Lao PDR (People's Democratic Republic). The mobile unit conducted 3-hour interactive programs for school children focused on the importance of wildlife and biodiversity around the primary schools in rural…

  13. Not Just an Infantryman’s War: United States Armored Cavalry of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    Operations APC Armored Personnel Carrier ARVN Army of the Republic of Vietnam COSN Central Office of South Vietnam CTZ Corps Tactical Zone FA...Missions Conducted in II CTZ in 1966 Using Armor and Mechanized Units, by Battalion Days......................................................46 Figure...11. Missions Conducted in II CTZ in 1966 Using Armor and Mechanized Units, by Battalion Days......................................................46

  14. Dominican Migration to the United States, 1970-1997: An Annotated Bibliography. Dominican Research Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Sarah

    This annotated bibliography provides an overview of the history, development, and representation of the process of Dominican migration to the United States. It examines the causes and consequences of this massive exodus in connection with the economic and political rapport between the Dominican Republic and the United States. It also offers an…

  15. Canadian tourist and Dominican Republic sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S

    1992-01-01

    The Dominican Republic is a popular tourist destination for Canadians. The country's sex industry for tourists developed markedly in the 1980s. The Puerto Plata/Sosua area is currently one of the most popular tourist sites and claimed the highest incidence of AIDS in 1989 at 23.2 cases/100,000 people. Two pilot phases of the Dominican Sex Workers and Canadian Tourists Study have been conducted to obtain methodological and empirical data to use in developing a major study of sex and tourism. First phase interviews were held only with beachboys who make money by having relations with female tourists, while phase two interviews were held with beachboys, female sex workers, and female and male tourists. Results indicate that female tourists consider their relations with male sex workers to be primarily social, while male tourists see their relations with female sex workers as more casual, sexual, and monetarily based. Further, women are more likely than men to continue their relationships with sex workers after returning to Canada; many help their men to immigrate and some get married. To learn more about the dynamics of tourism, sex, and AIDS prevention, the author proposes individual studies exploring the characteristics of each of the following four populations: male and female sex workers and male and female tourists.

  16. ORCONECTES LIMOSUS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURIS Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of epibiosis by macro-invertebrates on Orconectes limosus were recorded during our research on the biology of populations of this invasive crayfish species in the Czech Republic. (1 In 2001, we observed a high infestation of O. limosus by native species of branchiobdellidan worms (Annelida: Branchiobdellidae in the river Elbe at Obríství (Central Bohemia. Four European Branchiobdella species were collected and identified from three crayfish specimens: B. pentodonta (52%, B. balcanica (24%, B. parasita (18% and B. hexodonta (6%. In 2003, only a single crayfish was found bearing branchiobdellidans (5 specimens of B. parasita only in the same locality. No branchiobdellidans on O. limosus have been confirmed since. (2 A flooded sandpit Lhota near Brandýs nad Labem is the only Czech locality where the settlement of Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca, Bivalvia on an O. limosus body was recorded. The crayfish lost the bivalves by moulting in summer; new mussels had settled by late summer and early autumn. (3 Females of the fish louse Argulus cf. foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura lay egg-strings on any hard substrate, including the crayfish exoskeleton. Such egg-masses were found on up to 65% of O. limosus specimens in the above-mentioned sandpit. (4 Bryozoan colonies of Plumatella repens were found twice on crayfish in the rivers Elbe (Labe and Cidlina.

  17. THE INVASIVE COLEOPTEROFAUNA FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive coleopterofauna for Republic of Moldova consists of the 100 species. After correlation local database with Fauna Europaea for our country registered are 31 of species, but for 69 mentioned with the „absent” and 38 „no date”. In the meantime 24 species were recorded for our country: Acanthoscelides abtectus, A.pallidipennis, Alphitobius diaperinus, Alphitophagus bifasciatus, Bruchus pisorum, B.rufimanus, Caulophilus latinasus, Diabrotica virgifera, Gnathocerus cornutus, Harmonia axyridis, Lasioderma serricorne, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Lignyodes bischoffi, Lithocharis nigriceps, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, S. zeamais, Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrioides mauritanicus, Tribolium castaneum, T. destructor, Trogoderma granarium. According periods penetration the invasive beetles it was found that 2 species have entered the XVIII century, 16 species in the XIX, 53 species in the XX and 29 species in the XXI century. The registration invasive beetles in countries of interest to the our country is in: Bulgaria – 54 species; Poland – 39; România – 3; other countries- 4.

  18. Influencing youth entrepreneuship in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fantová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the possible solutions to the pan-European problem of youth unemployment. The objective of the research was to identify differences between male and female entrepreneurs in their opinions of entrepreneurship of young people. We wanted to find out whether male and female entrepreneurs would recommend young people to do business and what factors in their opinion can influence the fact whether young people start business. To collect data, we used a questionnaire sent to entrepreneurs from the whole Czech Republic. The most important barrier identified by entrepreneurs was frequently amended legislation, complexity of administration, poor enforceability of law and a lack of funds. The most important incentives of young people according to entrepreneurs is particularly the vision of opportunities in business. Another important incentive is becoming more independent. Statistically significant differences in the responses of men and women were found in the barrier related to the personal knowledge of an unsuccessful entrepreneur and in the incentive of the necessity to start business due to the lack of a job. Sufficient funding and possessing business premises were factors in which statistically significant differences in the responses of men and women were found, too. This research emphasises factors which women and men can find important in making a decision on starting business or being employed.

  19. Family medicine in Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Račić Maja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Family Medicine Development Project in Republic of Srpska was an initiative funded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA. The project introduced family medicine into undergraduate curricula, established three-years long program of residency in family medicine in 1999, created departments of family medicine in both medical schools, helped with the process of establishing a professional association of family physicians, worked with Ministries of health and social welfare to establish supportive policies for these activities, and regularly provided continuing medical education programs for family practitioners during the 13 years of the project. Today, three family medicine teaching centers exist in RS (Primary health care centers Banja Luka, Foča and Bijeljina where more than 600 physicians were educated either through residency or additional training program in family medicine. Almost 1000 primary care nurses completed additional training. Family medicine centered primary health care reform was a complex innovation, involving organizational, financial, clinical and relational changes. An important factor influencing the adoption of this complex innovation in RS was the perceived benefits of the innovation: benefits which accrue to the users, family physicians, nurses and policy makers. With political commitment, an enabling economic environment and equitable distribution of resources, comprehensive primary health has proved to be a better strategy in achieving the goal of health for all. However, although family medicine passed through long journey from imposition to partnership, there is still large place for the improvement.

  20. Experiences of social harm and changes in sexual practices among volunteers who had completed a phase I/II HIV vaccine trial employing HIV-1 DNA priming and HIV-1 MVA boosting in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith A M Tarimo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Volunteers in phase I/II HIV vaccine trials are assumed to be at low risk of acquiring HIV infection and are expected to have normal lives in the community. However, during participation in the trials, volunteers may encounter social harm and changes in their sexual behaviours. The current study aimed to study persistence of social harm and changes in sexual practices over time among phase I/II HIV vaccine immunogenicity (HIVIS03 trial volunteers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS AND RESULTS: A descriptive prospective cohort study was conducted among 33 out of 60 volunteers of HIVIS03 trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who had received three HIV-1 DNA injections boosted with two HIV-1 MVA doses. A structured interview was administered to collect data. Analysis was carried out using SPSS and McNemars' chi-square (χ2 was used to test the association within-subjects. Participants reported experiencing negative comments from their colleagues about the trial; but such comments were less severe during the second follow up visits (χ2 = 8.72; P<0.001. Most of the comments were associated with discrimination (χ2 = 26.72; P<0.001, stigma (χ2 = 6.06; P<0.05, and mistrust towards the HIV vaccine trial (χ2 = 4.9; P<0.05. Having a regular sexual partner other than spouse or cohabitant declined over the two follow-up periods (χ2 = 4.45; P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Participants in the phase I/II HIV vaccine trial were likely to face negative comments from relatives and colleagues after the end of the trial, but those comments decreased over time. In this study, the inherent sexual practice of having extra sexual partners other than spouse declined over time. Therefore, prolonged counselling and support appears important to minimize risky sexual behaviour among volunteers after participation in HIV Vaccine trials.

  1. Vijana Vijiweni II: a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of a microfinance and peer health leadership intervention for HIV and intimate partner violence prevention among social networks of young men in Dar es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema Noel; Mwikoko, Gema; Yamanis, Thespina; Mulawa, Marta; Kajuna, Deus; Hill, Lauren; Conserve, Donaldson; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Leatherman, Sheila; Singh, Basant; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-02-03

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, remain important public health problems with devastating health effects for men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. There have been calls to engage men in prevention efforts, however, we lack effective approaches to reach and engage them. Social network approaches have demonstrated effective and sustained outcomes on changing risk behaviors in the U.S. Our team has identified and engaged naturally occurring social networks comprised mostly of young men in Dar es Salaam in an intervention designed to jointly reduce STI incidence and the perpetration of IPV. These stable networks are locally referred to as "camps." In a pilot study we demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of a combined microfinance and peer health leadership intervention within these camp-based peer networks. We are implementing a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention combining microfinance with health leadership training in 60 camps in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Half of the camps have been randomized to the intervention arm, and half to a control arm. The camps in the intervention arm will receive a combined microfinance and health leadership intervention for a period of two years. The camps in the control arm will receive a delayed intervention. We have enrolled 1,258 men across the 60 study camps. Behavioral surveys will be conducted at baseline, 12-months post intervention launch and 30-month post intervention launch and biological samples will be drawn to test for Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) at baseline and 30-months. The primary endpoints for assessing intervention impact are IPV perpetration and STI incidence. This is the first cluster-randomized trial targeting social networks of men in sub-Saharan Africa that jointly addresses HIV and IPV perpetration and has both biological and behavioral endpoints. Effective

  2. Informing new or improved vector control tools for reducing the malaria burden in Tanzania: a qualitative exploration of perceptions of mosquitoes and methods for their control among the residents of Dar es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Christina; Stephen, Stephania; Kumburu, Salome; Govella, Nicodem J; Dongus, Stefan; Hildon, Zoe Jane-Lara; Killeen, Gerry F; Jones, Caroline

    2017-10-11

    The effectiveness of malaria prevention with long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying is limited by emerging insecticide resistance, evasive mosquito behaviours that include outdoor biting, sub-optimal implementation and inappropriate use. New vector control interventions are required and their potential effectiveness will be enhanced if existing household perceptions and practices are integrated into intervention design. This qualitative descriptive study used focus groups discussions, in-depth interviews and photovoice methods to explore mosquito control perceptions and practices among residents in four study sites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Mosquitoes were perceived as a growing problem, directly attributed to widespread environmental deterioration and lack of effective mosquito control interventions. Malaria and nuisance biting were perceived as the main problem caused by mosquitoes. Breeding sites were clearly distinguished from resting sites but residents did not differentiate between habitats producing malaria vector mosquitoes and others producing mostly nuisance mosquitoes. The most frequently mentioned protection methods in the wealthiest locations were bed nets, aerosol insecticide sprays, window screens, and fumigation, while bed nets were most frequently mentioned and described as 'part of the culture' in the least wealthy locations. Mosquito-proofed housing was consistently viewed as desirable, but considered unaffordable outside wealthiest locations. Slapping and covering up with clothing were most commonly used to prevent biting outdoors. Despite their utility outdoors, topical repellents applied to the skin were considered expensive, and viewed with suspicion due to perceived side effects. Improving the local environment was the preferred method for preventing outdoor biting. Affordability, effectiveness, availability, practicality, as well as social influences, such as government recommendations, socialization and

  3. Real estate valuation in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Branko S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no complete and systemized infrastructure for efficient and reliable evaluation of real estates in the Republic of Serbia. This is confirmed by analysis of the applicable regulations which treat valuation of real estates in different ways. This practice contradicting numerous standards and applicable directives (INSPIRE directive, Strategy of the development of geospatial data infrastructure in the Republic of Serbia etc., as well as numerous other examples of good practice governing the activities of collecting and maintaining spatial data infrastructure. By the Law on State Survey and Cadaster of the 2009, the Republic Geodetic Authority is ensured to the jurisdiction of the development of mass appraisal, which should provide real estate market value for all real estates in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. In contrast, the position and the role of local government being increasable stronger in creating the budget, which is closely associated with the values of resources and capital which local government have. Determing the property tax is the responsibility of the local government and therefore its role in the process of valuation of immovable property is of great importance. In addition to local governments, the Tax Administration traditionally determines real estate values. This paper analyzes the current situation and initiate further activities on the development of the system of evaluation of real estates in the Republic of Serbia.

  4. Considerations on forest ecosystems evolution in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru COCÎRȚĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain statistical data on forest ecosystems evolution in Republic of Moldova’s territory in 200 years period are analyzed in the article.  The history of forest fund and ecosystems’ development on the territory between Prut andNistru Rivers and of data presentation methods during different periods of territories’social economical development is summarized. Forest ecosystems development issues instudy and specifically those of forests’ continuity and conservation are extremely important for Republic of Moldova, which is a country with high population density, oldtraditions in agricultural branch and with a major negative attitude towards biological diversity maintaining and forest ecosystems’ viable development. Goals and objectives of the present work are to analyze forest evolution and to identifyhigher priority issues in order to rectify the situation in forest sector in Republic of Moldova. Basic characteristics of forest ecosystems are presented and causes of differences in datainterpretation were described on the basis of statistical data study and analysis during different periods and from different sources, as well as maps dated 1910 and 2004. Certainbasic elements of ecological management in forestry that exist in Republic of Moldova in present are described, such as legal normative base, infrastructure and others. The final part of work contains conclusions and some suggestions on forest ecosystems’viable development in Republic of Moldova according to European and internationalrequirements.

  5. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  6. The Emerging Role of the Republic of South Africa as a Regional Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabek, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994 the Republic of South Africa has emerged from the limited role of an isolated government, governed by apartheid programs, to a democracy where apartheid has been rejected and a new republic...

  7. 76 FR 62765 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Determination of Critical Circumstances: Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China... Monohydrate From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 71104-71105 (December 20, 1999) (where the respondent...

  8. 76 FR 66903 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... of Critical Circumstances: Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China... Republic of China, 64 FR 71104, 71104-05 (December 20, 1999) (where the respondent was wholly foreign-owned...

  9. Decision making by auxiliary nurses to assess postpartum bleeding in a Dominican Republic maternity ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Regueira, Yadira; Heath, AnneMarie

    2006-01-01

    To understand the process of decision making by auxiliary nurses regarding postpartum bleeding among women in the Dominican Republic. An ethnographic qualitative design of semistructured interviews and participant observation. Twenty four auxiliary nurses on a maternity unit of a referral hospital in the Dominican Republic. Auxiliary nurses use specific criteria and logic to decide if postpartum maternal bleeding is excessive. However, systematic postpartum assessments are not routinely conducted on every woman. A decision tree that traces how auxiliary nurses evaluate postpartum bleeding indicates that they have knowledge of contemporary obstetric nursing care, but the organization of care delivery is not structured for them to apply it routinely. A collaboration of U.S. midwives and Dominican nurses will build on the assets of the auxiliary nurses. Rather than focusing the content of educational conferences on current knowledge of labor and delivery, an important next step is modeling woman- and family-centered care. The U.S. midwives and Dominican nurses are committed to finding empowering and effective ways to improve maternity care.

  10. Detection of human monkeypox in the Republic of the Congo following intensive community education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mary G; Emerson, Ginny L; Pukuta, Elisabeth; Karhemere, Stomy; Muyembe, Jean J; Bikindou, Alain; McCollum, Andrea M; Moses, Cynthia; Wilkins, Kimberly; Zhao, Hui; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Li, Yu; Carroll, Darin S; Mombouli, Jean V

    2013-05-01

    Monkeypox is an acute viral infection with a clinical course resembling smallpox. It is endemic in northern and central Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but it is reported only sporadically in neighboring Republic of the Congo (ROC). In October 2009, interethnic violence in northwestern DRC precipitated the movement of refugees across the Ubangi River into ROC. The influx of refugees into ROC heightened concerns about monkeypox in the area, because of the possibility that the virus could be imported, or that incidence could increase caused by food insecurity and over reliance on bush meat. As part of a broad-based campaign to improve health standards in refugee settlement areas, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) sponsored a program of intensive community education that included modules on monkeypox recognition and prevention. In the 6 months immediately following the outreach, 10 suspected cases of monkeypox were reported to health authorities. Laboratory testing confirmed monkeypox virus infection in two individuals, one of whom was part of a cluster of four suspected cases identified retrospectively. Anecdotes collected at the time of case reporting suggest that the outreach campaign contributed to detection of suspected cases of monkeypox.

  11. Aviation Demand and Economic Growth in the Czech Republic: Cointegration Estimation and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mehmood

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to empirically examine the aviation-led growth hypothesis for the Czech Republic by testing causality between aviation and economic growth. We resort to econometric tests such as unit root tests and test of cointegration purposed by Johansen (1988. Fully Modified OLS, Dynamic OLS and Conical Cointegration Regression are used to estimate the cointegration equation for time span of 42 years from 1970 to 2012. Empirical results reveal the existence of cointegration between aviation demand and economic growth. Graphic methods such as Cholesky impulse response function (both accumulated and non-accumulated and variance decomposition have also been applied to render the analysis rigorous. The positive contribution of aviation demand to economic growth is similar in all three estimation techniques of cointegration equation. Finally, Granger causality test is also applied to find the direction of causal relationship. Findings help in lime-lighting the importance of aviation industry in economic growth for a developing country like the Czech Republic.

  12. Principles of environmental legislation in UN, EU and Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A key turning point regarding to environmental protection was the United Nations Conference on the Human environment held in Stockholm, in1972. On the Conference was adopted the UN Declaration on the Human environment. On that occasion established fundamental principles of environmental protection. At the Conference, UNEP, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. has adopted the UN Declaration on the Environmental protection and sustainable development.. The Council of Europe has adopted a number of documents in which the central part is the protection of the environment. The Council of Europe adopted the following conventions: Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural habitats in 1979; Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Resulting from Activities Dangerous to the Environment in 1993; Convention on the protection of Environment trough Criminal Law, in 1998; and European Landscape Convention in 2000. The Constitution of Republic of Serbia proclaims the right to a healthy environment, but also establishes the obligation of all, to conserve and improve it. The fundamental principles of environmental protection system in our county are regulated by the following. The Law on Environmental Protection, The Law on Environment Impact, The Law on Environment Strategic Impact and The Law on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. These Laws are aimed towards establishing an environmental management system and providing protection from natural balance degradation. With a great number of Laws in particular sectors of environmental protection, Republic of Serbia received modern legislation, which formed, a good basis for economic and social activities involved in environmental protection.

  13. Differences in financial statements of business entities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ministry of Finance in the Czech Republic identifies and defines four types of accounting entities that are engaged in business activities. These are the “normal” business entities, business entities as banks, commercial insurance companies and health insurance companies. For each of these types of entities the Ministry of Finance issued relevant regulations that contain specific accounting policies arising mainly from the specifics of the scope of business activities of these entities. The effects of these specifics are ultimately shown also in the individual parts of the financial statement closing. In contrast the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and also generally accepted accounting principles of the United States (U.S. GAAP are valid for all listed entities regardless of their size and scope of activities. The ongoing globalization of the world, transnational mergers and acquisitions of various companies brings the requirements for unification of accounting policies in order to achieve comparability of financial statements closing of companies from different countries, their transparency and completeness of published information in the individual countries. This paper deals with the definition of significant differences in the items of financial statement closing of different types of business entities in the Czech Republic and with the formulation of proposals for individual types of entities, which would contribute to easier orientation and grater comparability for the needs of different users of accounting information.

  14. Current distribution and habitat preferences of red deer and eurasian elk in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Romportl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we determine the distribution, numbers and habitat preferences of two of the largest species in the family Cervidae present in the Czech Republic, red deer and Eurasian elk. Red deer occurs predominantly in vast areas of forest, i.e. mainly in the mountains bordering this country and several large forest units in the interior. The range of this species has been increasing along with the size of its population. Areas of its permanent occurrence may be generally characterized as regions largely covered with deciduous and coniferous forests and pastures, and regions with a more diverse landscape. Red deer does not occur in areas that are mainly arable or urban, or in areas covered with extensive water bodies and wetlands. As these animals prefer large forests, they occur mainly at high altitudes where the terrain is rugged. The Eurasian elk permanently occurs in the Czech Republic in a single area located between the state border and the right bank of the Lipno Dam. Its home range has been diminishing, presumably along with its numbers. The area of its permanent occurrence is characterized by an abundance of coniferous trees, some pastures and water bodies. The Eurasian elk does not occur in areas covered with arable and urban land but also surprisingly in areas with mainly deciduous forest. Both species prefer high altitudes, but Eurasian elk prefers areas with little difference in the terrain vertically.

  15. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Ngbokoto, Francois A.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflict concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in the Central African Republic (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in the Central African Republic and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, two different methodologies were used: the volume and grade approach and the content per kilometer approach. Estimates are that approximately 39,000,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remain in the eastern and western zones of the CAR combined. This amount is roughly twice the total amount of diamonds reportedly exported from the Central African Republic since 1931. Production capacity is

  16. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sssa

    power will control the decentralised units. In this second ... autonomy and federal structures are incorporated in the decentralisation process. Decentralisation is ... The motivation for taking personal responsibility makes a crucial difference.

  17. An Analysis of the Mineral Industries of the Republics of China, the Philippines, and Korea, the Kingdom of Thailand, and New Zealand. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Stat.s Malaysia Chromium 2,518 Republic of South Africa Copper 325,971 Philippines Canada Chile Gold (Troy Ounces) 1,166,85,1 Switzerland United States...Metric Tons) Metals Quantity Trading Partner(s) Aluminum 187,582 Japan United States Canada Copper 454,977 Philippines Chile Canada United States...76 72 74 i7 76 0 82 fLmre 4-30: Anal Frodotlee. borta, and aiports ot Fotwlla (A3L1 Tipo ) in the Republie t Zoea, 1061-1982. I MSrcos WinOr-48

  18. Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic Of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dorny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium eggs, is a zoonotic disease whose consequences can be severe especially in the cerebral localisation (neuorcysticercosis. Indeed, neurocysticercosis is the first cause of epilepsy amongst the infectious etiology group. Following the increase of epilepsy cases in Kinshasa and Bas-Congo, it was important to assess the fraction attributable to neurocysticercosis especially as data on cysticercosis in Democratic Republic Of Congo (DRC dating from 1970.A joint study between veterinary and human doctors was conducted in the provinces of Bas-Congo and Kinshasa between 2008 and 2010. Blood samples were collected from the general population, patients with epilepsy and pigs. These samples were analysed using ELISA antigen in the laboratory of the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp. Patients positive to ELISA antigen took the CT scan exam for the confirmation of neurocysticercosis. In the province of Kinshasa, of 530 epileptic patients, 6.3% were identified as neurocysticercosis cases. Out of a total of 498 pigs, 38.9% were positive for cysticercosis. In the province of Bas- Congo, of 943 inhabitants from Malanga village, 21.6% were positive with predominance in males (26.4% versus 17.5%. A total of 145 pigs from 5 villages were examined and 41.2% found positive.We can conclude that cysticercosis in the DRC has been neglected for a long time and cysticercosis could be a real major public health problem. Prospective studies addressing the consequences of cysticercosis in communities are needed in order to prevent epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis.

  19. Regional Development Planning in the Slovak Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentková, Katarína

    2017-10-01

    Regional development is very closely related to a region and its competitive advantages which affect the competitiveness of the region. The regional development is influenced by many factors that act differently depending on the region. To ensure the effective and harmonized regional development, the systematic approach is needed. Every region is unique and differs from the other by the level of economic development, living standards of its inhabitants, unemployment rate and by employment possibilities. Regional policy is a strategic investment policy which focuses on all regions and cities in the European Union. The aim is to boost economic growth and to improve the quality of people’s lives. Solidarity is the main feature of the policy, because policy focuses on support for less developed regions. A fundamental aspect of regional development is to reduce disparities between the regions and cities. The paper focuses on the analysis of regional development of Slovakia. The intention is to follow the logical continuity of the article’s parts, the correctness and the adequacy of information and data. First part is focused on the definition of the regional policy and regional development. Important task is to identify the differences between European policies – regional, structural and cohesion policy. This section is prepared by using the analytical methods – the analysis, the casual and historical analysis. This part is based on literature review. The empirical part is based on statistics and secondary analysis which were aimed to analyse the regional development and effectiveness of its planning in the Slovak Republic. The question of this article is whether it is possible to plan the regional development by application of the plan for economic and social development, called the Municipal Development Plan.

  20. Standards of yellow fever vaccination and travel medicine practice in the Republic of Ireland: A questionnaire-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Peter; Hamza, Mohammed; Tang, John; Flaherty, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Health regulates the designation of yellow fever vaccination centres (YFVCs) in the Republic of Ireland to ensure appropriate standards in the safe, effective use of yellow fever vaccine for overseas travellers. The process of designation of YFVCs is delegated to Directors of Public Health who direct Principal Medical Officers. Variation in implementation of specific criteria for designation exists and no formal follow up inspection is carried out. This survey of all designated YFVCs in the Republic of Ireland aimed to assess compliance with standards to ensure the objectives of the national yellow fever vaccination programme were met. A piloted questionnaire devised from a United Kingdom (UK) YFVC survey was developed and tested in five YFVCs. The questionnaire was adapted for the postal survey and captured data on professional training, reference sources, services provided, physical facilities and supplies, and was distributed to 655 YFVCs in a stamped addressed envelope. During the period 2010-2011, there were 655 designated YFVCs in the Republic of Ireland. Responses were received from 246 centres (38% response rate), 91% of which were in general practice. Deficiencies were identified in respect of vaccine refrigeration protocols, record keeping, attendance at YFVC training sessions, and clinical protocols for adverse events. Specific deficiencies in relation to training, vaccine storage, administration and documentation should be addressed to ensure standardised YFVC practices and thus align them with best international practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Possibilities and Conditions for water tourism-development in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Němečková, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on water tourism in the Czech Republic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibilities and conditions for the development of water tourism in the Czech Republic. There were conducted analyses of water tours, water tourism development opportunities, own research, which focuses on the behavior of water tourism in the Czech Republic.Water tourism in the Czech Republic lags behind its potential and has potential for the future development.

  2. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    Standard theoretical arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820-2000 to explore whether regime types and institutional reforms have differential growth effects...... in monarchies and republics. A set of Barro-type regressions show that there are no significant growth differences between the two regime types and that the effects of incremental reforms do not differ between them, but that those of large-scale reforms do. Specifically, we find a strong "valley......-of-tears" effect of large reforms in republics while monarchies benefit from such reforms in the ten-year perspective adopted here. We offer some tentative thoughts on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the results....

  3. Religion, Culture, and Tax Evasion: Evidence from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the impact of culture and religion on tax evasions in the Czech Republic, which represents one of the most atheistic countries in Europe, and a very interesting example of attitudes to the church and religion, as well as the influence of religion on the social and economic aspects of everyday life. Our results suggest that, in the Czech Republic, religion plays the role of tax compliance, but only through a positive effect of visiting the church. National pride supports tax morality while trust in government institutions and attitudes towards government are not associated with tax compliance. These results suggest that the Czech Republic is no different from other countries regarding the relationship between religion and tax compliance. Moreover, the role of government as the authority for improving tax compliance is different from what is observed in other countries.

  4. The ‘Philosophical paintings’ of the Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharoula A. Petraki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine Plato’s appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato’s adaptation of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy’s response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato’s hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans’ place in it.

  5. 76 FR 67142 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of...\\ See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Third...

  6. 75 FR 70208 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of the...

  7. 76 FR 47551 - Certain Tissue Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Tissue Paper Products From the People's Republic of China... Administrative Review of Certain Tissue Paper Products from the People's Republic of China,'' dated March 31...) (Quijiang Prelim) (unchanged in Certain Tissue Paper Products From the People's Republic of China...

  8. 78 FR 40101 - Certain Tissue Paper Products from the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Tissue Paper Products from the People's Republic of China... Tissue Paper Products from the People's Republic of China Involving AR Printing and Packaging India Pvt... Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Tissue Paper Products from the People's Republic of China, 70...

  9. 78 FR 34640 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... certain lined paper products (``CLPP'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of... the People's Republic of China; Notice of Antidumping Duty Orders: Certain Lined Paper Products from...

  10. 76 FR 19043 - Certain Tissue Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Tissue Paper Products From the People's Republic of China... Duty Administrative Review of Certain Tissue Paper Products from the People's Republic of China...-Circumvention Inquiry on Certain Tissue Paper Products from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Final...

  11. 75 FR 26919 - Certain Crepe Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Crepe Paper Products From the People's Republic of China... revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain crepe paper products from the People's Republic of China.... See Certain Crepe Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited...

  12. 76 FR 70112 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended... results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...

  13. 76 FR 56732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... preliminary results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

  14. 76 FR 67146 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for Guangxi...., Ltd. (Co.) (Hongda).\\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...

  15. 77 FR 55808 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of...'' section below. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  16. 76 FR 16604 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for Shandong Fengyu Edible Fungus Corporation... Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews...

  17. Making Meaning on the Screen: Digital Video Production about the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranker, Jason

    2008-01-01

    As part of an inquiry and digital documentary video project, two 12-year-old students studied the Dominican Republic. Over the course of their research, the boys (one of whose parents moved from the Dominican Republic) focused their project on two aspects of the culture of the Dominican Republic: contemporary music (bachata and merengue) and…

  18. 38 CFR 17.367 - Republic of the Philippines to print forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Republic of the Philippines to print forms. 17.367 Section 17.367 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.367 Republic of the Philippines to...

  19. 78 FR 21596 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China... duty order on drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC....\\2\\ \\1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

  20. 77 FR 18211 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...'') petition concerning imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Against Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of China...

  1. 77 FR 65361 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... International Trade Administration Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of...: Karine Gziryan (Austria) or Brandon Farlander (People's Republic of China), AD/CVD Operations, Office 4... xanthan gum from Austria and the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The notice of initiation stated that the...

  2. 31 CFR 586.304 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 586.304 Section 586.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.304 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of Yugoslavia...

  3. 31 CFR 585.313 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 585.313 Section 585.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... accordance with all other applicable provisions of this subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the...

  5. 76 FR 6762 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination... Federal Register the final determination in the antidumping duty ] investigation of drill pipe from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ \\1\\ See Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final...

  6. 76 FR 73589 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended... than fair value in the antidumping investigation of galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of... Determination: Galvanized Steel Wire from the People's Republic of China, 76 FR 68407 (November 4, 2011...

  7. 11 CFR 109.23 - Dissemination, distribution, or republication of candidate campaign materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination, distribution, or republication... SEC. 214(c)) Coordination § 109.23 Dissemination, distribution, or republication of candidate campaign materials. (a) General rule. The financing of the dissemination, distribution, or republication, in whole or...

  8. 76 FR 49439 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... from the ] Republic of Korea (``Checklist''), at Attachment II, Analysis of Industry Support for the... International Trade Administration Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of... power transformers (``large power transformers'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''), filed in...

  9. 78 FR 36168 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2010...'' section below. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

  10. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... administrative review (AR) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC... withdrawn. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the 2010-2011...

  11. 78 FR 56864 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... International Trade Administration Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China... from the People's Republic of China (PRC) of graphite electrodes, produced and/or exported by Sinosteel...\\ \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of...

  12. Economic growth and institutional reform in modern monarchies and republics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Conventional arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820 to 2000 to estimate these differences. Results show no significant growth differences between the two...... regime types. Effects of incremental reforms do not differ between them, but those of large-scale reforms do. Specifically, we find a strong valley-of-tears effect of large reforms in republics, and monarchies benefit from such reforms in the ten-year perspective adopted here. We offer some tentative...

  13. Republication of: The geometry of free fall and light propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Jürgen; Pirani, Felix A. E.; Schild, Alfred

    2012-06-01

    This is a reprinting of the paper by Jürgen Ehlers, Felix Pirani and Alfred Schild, first published in 1972 in a separate volume containing articles written in hounour of J. L. Synge. The original book is long out of print and almost forgotten by today. The authors present a method of deriving the Lorentzian geometry from compatible conformal and projective structures on a four dimensional manifold. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Andrzej Trautman.

  14. Legal Support for Ecological Safety in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhazira A. Ilyasova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article features the analysis of Kazakhstan’ National Legislation, international conventions (agreements in the area of Ecological Sustainability ratified by the Republic of Kazakhstan. The agreements have been endorsed by Resolutions of Inter-Parliament Assembly of States Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Recommended legal act dated November 2, 1996, “Law on Ecological Safety” dated November 15, 2003. The analysis of Kazakhstan’s legislation demonstrates partially effective laws on ecological safety. In this regard, there is a need to systemize the current legislature and adopt legal instrument regulating sustainability of ecological safety in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  15. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; Kline, J.

    2001-10-01

    The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Dominican Republic identifies the wind characteristics and the distribution of the wind resource in this country. This major project is the first of its kind undertaken for the Dominican Republic. The information contained in the atlas is necessary to facilitate the use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. A computerized wind mapping system developed by NREL generated detailed wind resource maps for the entire country. This technique uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to produce high-resolution (1-square kilometer) annual average wind resource maps.

  16. Media education in primary schools in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junová Iva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with realization of Media Education in Primary schools in the Czech Republic. The study introduction addresses the mass media influence on children’s and the youth’s socialization and gives reasons for the necessity of media education. There is a development of media education, mentioned in the text, followed by the description of an actual situation of media education in the Czech Republic. Another chapter depicts challenges that accompany the media education’s execution at schools. The contribution presents the output of the media education survey in schools that was done by analysing documents and interviewing primary school teachers.

  17. Republication of: On the gravitational stability of the expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, E.

    2017-02-01

    This is the republished English edition of a paper by E. Lifshitz, first published in 1946, in which the author investigates the gravitational stability of the non-stationary isotropic models of the universe. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by George F. R. Ellis, and by a brief biography of Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz, written by Andrzej Krasiński.

  18. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  19. Helicopter Emergency Medical Service in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Vidović

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Current situation of emergency medical assistance indicatesthe need to organize faster and more efficient system oflinking all the parts of the Republic of Croatia. The solutioncan be found in the implementation of aviation as the fastestand therefore the best method of transporting the injured, diseasedand other persons who need urgent transpmt. The use ofmilitary helicopters for the purposes of emergency aviation doesnot satisfy the needs of the Republic of Croatia from the organizationaland legal aspect. There were 597 fatalities on the Croatianroads in 2005 and with the establishment of emergencyhelicopter medical service, the number of fatalities may be reducedby one third.

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Generators in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Lapčík

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes author´s experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of wind generators. The introductorypart of paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic in frame of fulfilling the European Union´s limits in branch ofrenewable energy resources utilization. Next part of paper deals with analysis of impacts of wind generators on the environment.The final part of paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process (pursuant to the ActNo. 100/2001 Coll. in the field of wind power in the Czech Republic.

  1. Study of the Contribution of Population Education to Educational Renewal and Innovation in El Salvador, The Republic of Korea, Philippines and Tunisia. Co-ordinated Action Programme for the Advancement of Population Education (CAPAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Population Education Section.

    Presented are four national case studies carried out by the Population Education Section of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (Unesco). Designed to assess the effects of population education programs on the educational process, these research projects focused on El Salvador, The Republic of Korea, Philippines,…

  2. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viral co-infections among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus attending the paediatric HIV care and treatment center at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munubhi Emmanuel K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased availability of antibiotics and antifungal agents hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are becoming a cause for significant concern in HIV infected children. We determined the seroprevalence and risk factors for HBV and HCV among HIV infected children aged 18 months to 17 years, attending the Paediatric HIV Care and Treatment Center (CTC at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Investigations included; interviews, physical examination and serology for HBsAg, IgG antibodies to HCV and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels. HIV serostatus and CD4 counts were obtained from patient records. Results 167 HIV infected children, 88(52.7% males and 79(47.3% females were enrolled. The overall prevalence of hepatitis co-infection was 15%, with the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV being 1.2% and 13.8%, respectively. Hepatitis virus co-infection was not associated with any of the investigated risk factors and there was no association between HBV and HCV. Elevated ALT was associated with hepatitis viral co-infection but not with ART usage or immune status. Conclusion The high seroprevalence (15% of hepatitis co-infection in HIV infected children attending the Paediatrics HIV CTC at the MNH calls for routine screening of hepatitis viral co-infection and modification in the management of HIV infected children.

  3. Prevalence of STI symptoms and high levels of stigma in STI healthcare among men who have sex with men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a respondent-driven sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael W; Larsson, Markus; Nyoni, Joyce E; Agardh, Anette

    2017-08-01

    Symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), whether they are presented for treatment or diagnosis, and how they are received by the clinician where they are presented, may be concomitants of stigma associated with homosexuality in homophobic climates. We analyzed respondent-driven sampling data from a study on 200 young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to examine sample prevalence, treatment and clinician response to 10 symptoms potentially associated with STIs. Survey measures included 10 self-reported STI symptoms, further specified according to location (genital, anal, oral), further specified according to place of diagnosis, place of, treatment whether there was pharmacy treatment or self-medication, healthcare worker (HCW) inquiries about source of infection and whether the HCW was polite. Most common symptoms reported were genital pain, burning urination, genital itching/burning, penile discharge, and groin swelling. Anal symptoms had the lowest proportion of treatment at public clinics and among the highest proportion of pharmacy treatment; anal sores had the highest proportion of self-medication. HCWs were reported as not being polite in response to 71-90% of the symptoms, (median = 82%). The findings suggest that stigma and negative HCW response are barriers to public clinic treatment for MSM in Tanzania and that these may have implications for both STI treatment and the HIV cascade.

  4. 31 CFR 585.524 - Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of...-by-case basis to permit exportation to, or transshipment through, the United Nations Protected Areas... permit importation from, exportation to, or transshipment through the United Nations Protected Areas in...

  5. Exploring the Causality and Co-integration Relationship between FDI, GDP and Employment: A Case of Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Yousafzai, Arshad Hayat

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate long term relationship between FDI, GDP and host country employment by using sector-wise panel data from 1993-2011 for the Czech Republic. IPS test is applied for panel data unit root testing and Johansen Fisher Panel Co-integration test is used to test for the presence of co-integration relationship between the variables. A vector error correction model (VECM) is estimated to find out the short run and long run causality between the variables. In the end, Impulse respon...

  6. Genome-wide differential gene expression in children exposed to air pollution in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, D M; van Herwijnen, M H M; Pedersen, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The Teplice area in the Czech Republic is a mining district where elevated levels of air pollution including airborne carcinogens, have been demonstrated, especially during winter time. This environmental exposure can impact human health; in particular children may be more vulnerable. To study....... This suggests an effect of air pollution on the primary structural unit of the condensed DNA. In addition, several other pathways were modulated. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that transcriptomic analysis represents a promising biomarker for environmental carcinogenesis....... the impact of air pollution in children at the transcriptional level, peripheral blood cells were subjected to whole genome response analysis, in order to identify significantly modulated biological pathways and processes as a result of exposure. Using genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated...

  7. Optimal set of agri-environmental indicators for the agricultural sector of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřebíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trends of agri-environmental indicators evaluation (i.e., the measurement of environmental performance and farm reporting are discussed in the paper focusing on the agriculture sector. From the perspective of agricultural policy, there are two broad decisions to make: which indicators to recommend and promote to farmers, and which indicators to collect to assist in agriculture policy-making. We introduce several general approaches for indicators to collect to assist in policy-making (European Union, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in the first part of our paper and given the differences in decision-making problems faced by these sets of decision makers. We continue in the second part of the paper with a proposal of indicators to recommend and promote to farmers in the Czech Republic.

  8. Dr. Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    L. to. r.:Dr Henrik Foeth, Team Leader, CMS experiment; Dr Daniel Denegri, Physics Coordinator, CMS experiment; Prof. Tejinder Virdee, Deputy Spokesman, CMS experiment; Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General (signing); Mr Jean-Marie Dufour, Head of the Legal Service, Mr Ghodratollah Habibpour Gharakol (back); Dr Abdolali Sharghi, Advisor to the Minister and Director General, Office of International Scientific Cooperation, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; Dr Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran (signing); Dr Reza Mansouri, Director, International Scientific Meetings Office, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; H. E. Dr Ali Khorram, Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva and Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer & for Scientific Computing. _

  9. Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti`nde Okutulan Kıbrıs Tarihi Ders Kitaplarındaki “Tarih Öncesi Çağlar” Ünitelerinin İçerik Analizi / Content Analysis of Units on "Prehistoric Ages" of Cyprus History Course Books in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Efdal Özkul

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is based on the content analysis of the units on pre-historic periods of Cyprus History, Book 1 used in secondary schools between 2004 and 2009 and of Turkish Cypriot History, 6th Grade Books used for the secondary schools between 2009 and 2016. Mixed research methods, which compromises qualitative and quantitative research method, was used in this study. The qualitative part of the study includes the examination of the units on prehistoric ages in the textbooks according to criteria such as concepts, skills and visuals. In the quantitative part of the study, it has been consulted 67 teachers who are able to give a history lesson in secondary schools. According to the findings obtained from the study, it is possible to say that the opinions of the teachers with regard to the Cyprus History, Book I between 2004-2009 are more positive than 6th Grade Books of Cyprus History between 2009-2016. Additionally, it was seen that there were missing points in the units on pre-historic periods of the said course books in terms of concepts, skills and visuals.  Öz Çalışmada 2004-2009 yılları arasında orta dereceli okullarda okutulan Kıbrıs Tarihi 1. Kitap ile 2009-2016 yılları arasında orta dereceli okullarda okutulan Kıbrıs Türk Tarihi 6. Sınıf ders kitaplarının tarih öncesi devirlerini içeren ünitelerinin içerik açısından değerlendirilmesi esas alınmıştır. Çalışmada nitel ve nicel araştırma yöntemlerini içerisine alan karma araştırma modeli kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın nitel bölümünde ders kitapları içerisinde yer alan tarih öncesi çağları içeren ünitelerin kavramlar, beceriler ve görseller gibi kriterler doğrultusunda incelenmesi yer almaktadır. Araştırmanın nicel bölümünde ise orta dereceli okullarda tarih dersi verebilecek niteliklere sahip 67 öğretmenin görüşüne başvurulmuştur. Çalışmanın sonucunda elde edilen bulgulara göre 2004-2009 Kıbrıs Tarihi 1

  10. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, P. [CEZ, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  11. 15th December 2010 - Legislative Leadership Institute Academy of Foreign Affairs Wisconsin, United States of America visiting the CMS undergorund area and LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Deputy Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Delegation list: Kenneth V. Cockrel, Jr, President, Detroit City Council, United States of America Mr Tim Day, Chairman, Board of Trustees, LLIAFA Christopher Heaton Harris, House of Commons, Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Senator W. Briggs Hopson, III, Mississippi State Senate, United States of America Senator Aloisea Inyumba, Republic of Rwanda Deputy Francis Kaboneka, Parliament, Republic of Rwanda Raymond O'Dwyer, County Manager, Waterford, Republic of Ireland Senator John Pippy,Pennsylvania State Legislature, United States of America Senator Jim Walsh, Seanad Éireann, Republic of Ireland Senator Roderick D. Wright, Chairman, Governmental Organization Committee, California State Senate, United States of America Mrs Amy Polasky,President, LLIAFA Mrs Cate Zeuske, Vice President, LLIAFA Mr David Steffen, Staff, LLIAFA Dr Sybille Ambühl Switzerland Official Guide Mr Doug Jenkins Security Detail (US)

  12. Trend of Terrorism in Republic of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Fatos HAZIRI; Enver BUÇAJ

    2017-01-01

    The effect of terrorism today has much more international impact because of the interconnectedness of markets, the mobility and the advanced technological capabilities of individuals and terrorist groups. The international community must act as a united front against all forms of terrorism and that there can be no justification for terrorism and the war against terrorism cannot be selective.

  13. 76 FR 23288 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice of... Republic of China (``PRC''). See Certain Lined Paper Products from the People's Republic of China: Notice... Robinson, Case Analyst, titled ``Certain Lined Paper Products from the People's Republic of China,'' dated...

  14. 76 FR 78615 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman... India, the Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''), The United Arab Emirates (``the UAE''), and the Socialist... of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of...

  15. 77 FR 15718 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman... and tube from India, the Sultanate of Oman (Oman), the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist... Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  16. Identifying and Developing Inventive Talent in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungmo

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, the need to develop creative potential through education is more critical than ever. Invention-gifted education is one approach that can both foster creativity and develop inventive talent. Invention-gifted education in the Republic of Korea is distinctive in its systematic approach to talent identification and talent…

  17. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    regime types. Ef- fects of incremental reforms do not differ between them, but those of large-scale reforms do. Specifically, we find a strong valley-of-tears effect of large reforms in republics, and monarchies benefit from such reforms in the ten-year perspective adopted here. We offer some tentative...

  18. Seaside Resorts in the Dominican Republic: A Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Arendt, Klaus J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the beachfront urbanization of the Dominican Republic's coastline resulting from domestic and international tourism. Explains that the distribution of beach resorts reflects both quality and quantity of natural resources, proximity of urban centers, and intensity of development efforts. Describes five discrete types of coastal resorts.…

  19. GUINE TR NSITION ZONE OF BENIN REPUBLIC JOSEPH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-07-13

    Jul 13, 2017 ... Abstract. The paper assesses land cover dynamics and its associated drivers in the soudano-guinea transition zone of Benin Republic, using both spatial and non-spatial data. Multispectral and multi temporal Landsat imageries (Landsat TM of 1986, ETM+ of 2000 and OLI-TIRS of. 2013) were used for the ...

  20. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  1. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an overall…

  2. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia : Options for Strengthening Land Administration

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Over the coming decades, land policy and administration, for urban as well as rural areas, will be critical for Ethiopia's development. The vast majority of people making up the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia's (FDRE) predominantly agricultural economy live in rural areas. Finally, land policies and administration can contribute significantly to the objectives of promoting gender ...

  3. Education - Key to the People's Republic of China's Industrial Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavich, Lawrence L.

    The work-education goals of the People's Republic of China, which are to expand educational opportunity, economic development, and value transformations, are presented first in a 1982 paper and then in a literature update of the paper. Since the death of Mao Tse-tung in 1976, educational policy has focused less on revolutionary committees and…

  4. Khomeini's Argument for His Islamic Republic: A Relationist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matelski, Marilyn J.

    Noting that the terms used by the Western media in describing the establishment of the Islamic Republic in Iran by the Ayatollah Khomeini have created the impression that the Ayatollah is both irrational and inhumane, this paper argues from contemporary eclectic rhetorical theory--that "rationality" is a function of perspective--to…

  5. History of the statistics in the Republic of Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara N. Lamochenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An article about the history of Tuvan statistics service is prepared basing on the archival materials and memoirs of T.I. Baykara, a head of Statistics Department of the Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR in 1975-1987.

  6. Administrator Preparation in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasher, James M.; Frasher, Ramona S.

    This document presents a comprehensive collage-style description of educational administration preparation programs in the People's Republic of China, covering a time span from Mao Zedong's normal college days to the present. The evolution of the current institutional specialization system, the basic composition of the programs, and some…

  7. Monetary transmission and the financial sector in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havránek, T.; Horváth, R.; Matějů, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2012), s. 135-155 ISSN 1573-9414 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : transmission mechanism * monetary policy * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  8. Health status of Russian minorities in former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health

  9. Bathymetry of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Wong, Florence L.; Mosier, Dan L.

    1999-01-01

    The bathymetric map of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and vicinity is bounded by a window of latitude 3 to 17 degrees North, longitude 153 to 175 degrees East. The map was compiled from surveys conducted by the USGS, Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, and published gridded data. In addition to national jurisdictions, island and atoll coastlines are indicated on the map.

  10. Risk Assessment: Democratic Republic of Congo Post-Laurent Kabila

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal and external conflicts, as well as renewed peace initiatives, in the Democratic Republic of Congo after the death of former President Laurent Kabila are used as a frame of reference for a domestic and an international risk assessment. The roles of various actors are discussed, and the volatile situation is viewed from ...

  11. On the problem of interethnic situation in the Udmurt Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Uvarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the current state of interethnic relations in the Republic of Udmurtia. Considering the population perception of labor migrants from other ethnic groups, the authors identify the key problems in the sphere of interethnic communication and reasons for intolerant behavior, suggest some ways to reduce tensions in everyday social interaction.

  12. Increased mining activities in the eastern Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-20

    Oct 20, 2009 ... enormous mineral resource wealth has attracted mining companies to invest in the eastern provinces of the country, presenting an opportunity to improve the nutritional and overall ..... Hayes K, Burge R. Coltan mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How tantalum-using industries can commit to the ...

  13. Tax laws harmonisation between Lesotho and the Republic of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lesotho is geographically landlocked within the Republic of South Africa. Research has been done at border gates whereat Basotho shoppers are able to claim and gain reimbursement of the value-added tax amounts paid against shopping in South Africa. Basotho have to pay 10% general sales tax due on sales at the ...

  14. NIGERIA'S FOURTH REPUBLIC IN SEARCH OF IDENTITY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through the methodology of Content Analysis and application of relevant theories of Mass Communication, backed up by contributions of leading political scholars, the paper attempts a heuristic approach which will help in the placement of the current republic in its appropriate position in the country's political history.

  15. Jesuits, propaganda and faith healing in the Dutch Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waardt, J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1570s the structure of the Catholic Church had collapsed in the Dutch Republic, but soon after 1580 a process of reconstruction set in. At first exorcism and other types of faith healing were deployed by both secular and regular Catholic clergy. In time the secular clergy became less willing

  16. Relationship of reverse logistics and marketing communication in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Milichovský

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The paper deals with question if the final customers are interested in reverse logistics in marketing campaigns, acceptable in the market of Czech Republic. methodology/methods: Paper is based on primary research, on which participated final consumers in Czech Republic through the questionnaire survey. Results of the paper are based on testing of dependence between individual variables by Pearson chi-square test. Scientific aim: The aim of the article is to show relationship of marketing communication and reverse logistics, and their correlation. Findings: Main result of research provide relationship between marketing communication tools and reverse activity. The research was aimed at random chosen group of 585 people in the Czech Republic. The result of the research can be used for the companies that operate in the Czech or Central European market. conclusions: The primary research provides possible approaches for companies in communication green services to final consumers. Limitation for this research because of the chosen sample. Own data for primary research was gained only in Czech Republic.

  17. Mycena sect. Hygrocyboideae in the mountains of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean Lodge; B.A. Perry; D.E. Desjardin

    2004-01-01

    A collection of Mycena epipterygia from montane cloud forest in the Dominican Republic was found to have one-fourth to one-half monosporous basidia mixed with bisporous basidia. It is described as a new variety, M. epipterygia var. domingensis Lodge, differing from M. epipterygia var. epipterygioides and other two-spored varieties in having smaller dimensions of spores...

  18. Increased mining activities in the eastern Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased mining activities in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: an opportunity to improve the nutritional status of children under five-years-old. ... Household poverty and poor access to health and other social amenities are key drivers of malnutrition and poor child health in most low-resources settings.

  19. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  20. Status of the protected areas of the Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Yamindou, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) has made an impressive commitment to biodiversity conservation, with a total of 15 protected areas covering about 10.9% of the country. This study critically examines the status of these protected areas in light of their potential for long-term protection of