WorldWideScience

Sample records for sakazakii advice policy

  1. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii): advice, policy and research in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Franco J; Farber, Jeffrey M

    2009-12-31

    Although the number of reported cases of Cronobacter infection in Canada is low, Health Canada has been actively studying this organism since 1991. After reviewing the situation at the national level and due to health concerns with powdered formulae and its international trade, in 2003, Health Canada raised this issue at the international level by proposing to revise the Code of Practice for Powdered Formulae for Infants and Young Children at the Codex Alimentarius Committee of Food Hygiene. Canada volunteered to chair the Working Group that would be developing the Code, and the Code was completed in four years. The Code contributed to an improvement in the hygienic conditions in plants manufacturing Powdered Infant Formula (PIF), resulting in a lower level of product contamination with Cronobacter species. Canada has produced a document detailing Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for Infant Formula in Canada. Health Canada uses the GMPs as a basis for assessing the manufacturing information received in pre-market notifications for new or changed infant formulas. Health Canada does not have microbiological criteria for Cronobacter spp. in PIF; however, we are currently working on developing these criteria. At present, there are no active or passive surveillance systems for Cronobacter spp. in Canada, although this has been discussed. Health Canada has recently adapted and condensed FAO/WHO guidelines to develop a draft guidance document for the hygienic preparation and handling of PIF in home and hospitals/care settings, which outline requirements for parents, caregivers, and staff in hospitals and day-care centres. Health Canada's Bureau of Microbial Hazards conducts research on the ecology, biology and pathogenesis of Cronobacter spp. Some of the research projects include specific aspects of molecular typing, virulence studies involving animal models, as well as in vitro tissue culture work to examine adhesion and invasion. Collaborative research is also being done with the Canadian National Research Council, using NMR and mass spectroscopy to reveal the structure of the O-polysaccharide of the various Cronobacter species. This review summarizes and discusses current activities that are being undertaken in Canada with respect to Cronobacter spp.

  2. Occurrence of Enterobacter sakazakii in food production environments and households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.; Reij, M.W.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Guillaume-Gentil, O.; Schothorst, van M.

    2004-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii occasionally causes illness in premature babies and neonates. Contamination of infant formulae during factory production or bottle preparation is implicated. Advice to health-care professionals focuses on bottle preparation, but the effectiveness of prevention depends on the

  3. BIOTIPE ISOLAT LOKAL ENTEROBACTER SAKAZAKII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Ayu Saufani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacter sakazakii telah diklasifikasikan ke dalam 16 biogrup berdasarkan sifat biokimianya dan menjadi 3 biogrup berdasarkan 20 reaksi biokimia dengan perangkat cepat API 20E. Pada tahun 2007, Iversen mengklasifikasi ulang Enterobacter sakazakii menjadi Cronobacter spp. berdasarkan sifat genotip dan biokimia seperti uji indol, pemanfaatan malonat, dan kemampuannya memproduksi asam dari dulsitol serta metil-α-D-glukosida. Pengelompokan berdasarkan sifat biokimia terhadap genus dan spesies ini belum banyak dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengelompokkan Enterobacter sakazakii yang telah diisolasi dan terkonfirmasi menggunakan PCR berdasarkan gen penyandi 16S rRNA-nya pada penelitian sebelumnya. Pengelompokan dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat cepat RapID ONE® dan 4 reaksi biokimia Iversen. Hasil klasifikasi menggunakan RapID ONE® kemudian dibandingkan dengan hasil klasifikasi menggunakan API 20E yang telah dilaporkan sebelumnya. Dengan menggunakan RapID ONE diperoleh 9 isolat Enterobacter sakazakii, 9 isolat Enterobacter cloacae dan 1 isolat Enterobacter cancerogenus dari 19 isolat yang diteliti. Kesembilan belas isolat uji tersebut dapat dikelompokkan menjadi 16 biotipe. Jika dibandingkan dengan menggunakan API 20E, terdapat 8 isolat yang juga teridentifikasi sebagai Enterobacter sakazakii. Berdasarkan 4 reaksi biokimia Iversen, 15 dari 19 isolat di atas dapat diklasifikasikan ke dalam Cronobacter spp. Uji pirolidonil disarankan untuk mengklasifikasikan 4 isolat yang tidak terklasifikasi dengan 4 reaksi biokimia Iversen.

  4. Scientific advice and public policy: expert advisers' and policymakers' discourses on boundary work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Robertus

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on considerable variety and diversity among discourses on their own jobs of boundary workers of several major Dutch institutes for science-based policy advice. Except for enlightenment, all types of boundary arrangements/work in the Wittrock-typology (Social knowledge and public

  5. Scientific advice and public policy: expert advisers' and policymakers' discourses on boundary work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Robert

    2009-08-01

    This article reports on considerable variety and diversity among discourses on their own jobs of boundary workers of several major Dutch institutes for science-based policy advice. Except for enlightenment, all types of boundary arrangements/work in the Wittrock-typology (Social knowledge and public policy: eight models of interaction. In: Wagner P (ed) Social sciences and modern states: national experiences and theoretical crossroads. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991) do occur. 'Divergers' experience a gap between science and politics/policymaking; and it is their self-evident task to act as a bridge. They spread over four discourses: 'rational facilitators', 'knowledge brokers', 'megapolicy strategists', and 'policy analysts'. Others aspire to 'convergence'; they believe science and politics ought to be natural allies in preparing collective decisions. But 'policy advisors' excepted, 'postnormalists' and 'deliberative proceduralists' find this very hard to achieve.

  6. [The role of science in policy making--EuSANH-ISA project, framework for science advice for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Piotrowicz, Maria; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2012-01-01

    Governments and other authorities (including MPs) should be well informed on issues of science and technology. This is particularly important in the era of evidence-based practice. This implies the need to get expert advice. The process by which scientific knowledge is transmitted, along with proposals how to solve the problem, is called science advice. The main aim of the article is to discuss the issue of science advice--definitions, interaction between science and policymaking, and its position in contemporary policies. The second aim is to present European Science Advisory Network for Health (EuSANH), EuSANH-ISA project, and framework for science advice for health which was developed by participants. Furthermore, the role of civil society in decision-making process and science advice is also discussed. Interaction between scientists and policy-makers are described in terms of science-push approach (technocratic model), policy-pull (decisionistic) and simultaneous push-pull approach (pragmatic). The position of science advice is described in historical perspective from the 50s, especially in the last two decades. Description relies to USA, Canada and UK. Principles of scientific advice to government (Government Office for Science, UK) are quoted. Some important documents related to science advice in EU and UN are mentioned. EuSANH network is described as well as EuSANH-ISA project, with its objectives and outcomes. According to findings of this project, the process of science advice for health should follow some steps: framing the issue to be covered; planning entire process leading to the conclusion; drafting the report; reviewing the report and revision; publishing report and assessing the impact on policy.

  7. Improving energy decisions towards better scientific policy advice for a safe and secure future energy system

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Kaiser, M; Schreurs, Miranda; Weber, Christoph; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society. The main foci of the book are, thus, to develop an understanding about the specific challenges of the scientific policy advice in the area, to explore typical current approaches for the analysis of future energy systems and to develop criteria for the quality assessment and guidelines for the improvement of such studies. The book provides assistance to the interpretation of existing studies and guidelines for setting up and carrying out new analyses as well as for communicating and applying the results. Thereby, it aims to support the involved actors such as the respective scientific expert...

  8. Endangered Mangroves in Segara Anakan, Indonesia: Effective and Failed Problem-Solving Policy Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, Budi; Böcher, Michael; Krott, Max

    2017-09-01

    The success of scientific knowledge transfer depends on if the decision maker can transform the scientific advice into a policy that can be accepted by all involved actors. We use a science-policy interactions model called research-integration-utilization to observe the process of scientific knowledge transfer in the case of endangered mangroves in Segara Anakan, Indonesia. Scientific knowledge is produced within the scientific system (research), science-based solutions to problems are practically utilized by political actors (utilization), and important links between research and utilization must be made (integration). We looked for empirical evidence to test hypotheses about the research-integration-utilization model based on document analysis and expert interviews. Our study finds that the failures in knowledge transfer are caused by the inappropriate use of scientific findings. The district government is expected by presidential decree to only used scientifically sound recommendations as a prerequisite for designing the regulation. However, the district government prefers to implement their own solutions because they believe that they understand the solutions better than the researcher. In the process of integration, the researcher cannot be involved, since the selection of scientific recommendations here fully depends on the interests of the district government as the powerful ally.

  9. Cronobacter sakazakii reduction by blueberry proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal S; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2014-05-01

    Blueberry juice and blueberry polyphenols reportedly have antimicrobial properties against foodborne pathogens, without much currently known on their effects against Cronobacter sakazakii. This study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of blueberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) and commercial blueberry juice (BJ) against two strains of C. sakazakii, ATCC 29004 and 29544. BJ (pH 2.8), blueberry PAC (5 mg/ml) and controls (phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, and malic acid pH 3.0) were mixed with equal volumes of washed overnight cultures of C. sakazakii and incubated for 30 min, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h at 37°C. Reductions of ∼1 and 1.50 log CFU/ml were obtained for strains 29004 and 29544, respectively after 30 min with BJ or blueberry PAC. Both C. sakazakii strains 29004 and 29544 were reduced to undetectable levels from 8.25 ± 0.12 log CFU/ml and 8.48 ± 0.03 log CFU/ml, respectively with BJ (pH 2.8) or blueberry PAC after 1 h, while malic acid (pH 3.0) showed ∼1.3 log CFU/ml reduction for both strains. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed differences in cell membrane morphology with clumping and formation of blebs of the treated strains compared to untreated controls. These results warrant further in vivo studies with blueberry bioactives to determine potential for preventing and treating C. sakazakii infections. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. State Science and Technology Policy Advice: Issues, Opportunities, and Challenges: Summary of a National Convocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The federal government plays the predominant role in supporting research and development (R&D) and in establishing public policies that affect science and technology (S&T) in the United States. However, the federal government is no longer the sole focus of R&D funding and S&T policy making. State and local policy makers are…

  11. Supersize me: Cronobacter sakazakii phage GAP32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasifar, Reza; Griffiths, Mansel W. [Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sabour, Parviz M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph Food Research Centre, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 5C9 (Canada); Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang [Department of Microbiology-Infectiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Vandersteegen, Katrien; Lavigne, Rob [Laboratory of Gene Technology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Noben, Jean-Paul [Biomedical Research Institute and Transnational University Limburg, School of Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Alanis Villa, Argentina; Abbasifar, Arash [Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Nash, John H.E. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3W4 (Canada); Kropinski, Andrew M., E-mail: akropins@uoguelph.ca [Public Health Agency of Canada, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3W4 (Canada); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative pathogen found in milk-based formulae that causes infant meningitis. Bacteriophages have been proposed to control bacterial pathogens; however, comprehensive knowledge about a phage is required to ensure its safety before clinical application. We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage genome (358,663 bp). A total of 571 genes including 545 protein coding sequences and 26 tRNAs were identified, thus more genes than in the smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium G37. BLASTP and HHpred searches, together with proteomic analyses reveal that only 23.9% of the putative proteins have defined functions. Some of the unique features of this phage include: a chromosome condensation protein, two copies of the large subunit terminase, a predicted signal-arrest-release lysin; and an RpoD-like protein, which is possibly involved in the switch from immediate early to delayed early transcription. Its closest relatives are all extremely large myoviruses, namely coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2, with whom it shares approximately 44% homologous proteins. Since the homologs are not evenly distributed, we propose that these three phages belong to a new subfamily. - Highlights: • Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 has a genome of 358,663 bp. • It encodes 545 proteins which is more than Mycoplasma genitalium G37. • It is a member of the Myoviridae. • It is peripherally related to coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2. • GAP32 encodes a chromosome condensation protein.

  12. Technology assessment in Australia : the case for a formal agency to improve advice to policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, A. Wendy; Vanclay, Frank M.; Salisbury, Janet G.; Aslin, Heather J.

    The pace and reach of technological change has led to calls for better technology policy and governance to improve social outcomes. Technology assessment can provide information and processes to improve technology policy. Having conducted a review of international best practice, we established a set

  13. Expert views on scientific policy advice on complex environmental health issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Fact-based policies grounded in solid uncontested scientific evidence: this may sound as the ideal relation between science and policy. However, this ideal rarely holds for complex environmental health risks. When scientific knowledge is contested or incomplete, scientists can take different roles

  14. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  15. THE VITAL IMPORTANCE OF PROVIDING SOUND SCIENTIFIC ADVICE TO POLICY MAKERS IN GOVERNMENT

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    G. S. Pearson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an idea of the scope of professional activity of scientists working in the field of biosafety in terms of providing timely and effective advice for politicians and diplomats in the government. It should be acknowledged that politicians and diplomats are also involved in a varying degree with biosafety issues such as toxicological and biological weapons, formulated in the relevant Convention: Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. However taking into account their professional interests, they mightn’t have appropriate information on relevant events in these and other activities. The value of these activities of qualified scientists knowing the latest information in the field of biosafety is difficult to overestimate, as they have the possibility to analyze any situation on the range of relevant activities and use their knowledge to make informed proposals which could be acceptable for their co-worker scientists in other areas of biological science. For highly qualified scientists such activities appeared to be effective, it is a vital aspect of their professional activity, because such scientists are able to provide scientific advice, analyze and summarize relevant scientific aspects on a specific topic of interest for politicians and diplomats. Such an analysis should include identification of key elements that are relevant to a given scientific problem and should be formulated so as the consequences of the various elements of the Convention were clearly appreciated and understood by politicians and diplomats. In other words, the rele vant scientific aspects should be analyzed, summarized and presented in the context of the Convention, together with suggestions on what steps in this direction should be taken by politicians and diplomats.

  16. Enterobacter sakazakii in infants: Novel phenomenon in India

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    Ray P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E. sakazakii has been implicated in necrotizing enterocolitis, bloodstream and central nervous system infections, with mortality rates of 40-80%. Two cases of E. sakazakii infections; one preterm very low birth weight neonate with meningitis and a two month infant with bacteraemia, are described for the first time in India. The first baby succumbed to the infection while the other responded to appropriate therapy. Powdered infant milk formulae have been implicated in causing neonatal infections and the first baby was on formula feed with classic signs of sepsis and meningitis. The second infant was on breast feed and probably developed nosocomial E. sakazakii bacteraemia.

  17. A Better Prescription: Advice for a National Strategy on Pharmaceutical Policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G; Gagnon, Marc-André; Mintzes, Barbara; Lexchin, Joel

    2016-08-01

    Canada needs a national strategy to fulfill its obligation to ensure universal access to necessary healthcare, including prescription drugs. A 2004 attempt at a national strategy for pharmaceutical policy failed because it lacked clear vision, logical planning and commitment from federal and provincial governments. The result of uncoordinated pharmaceutical policies in Canada has been more than a decade of poor system performance. In this essay, we present a framework for a renewed national strategy for pharmaceutical policy. Building on published research and international frameworks, we propose that pharmaceutical policies of federal, provincial and territorial governments be coordinated around a core health-focused goal. We strongly suggest policy actions be taken on four core objectives that are necessary to support the overarching health goal. If implemented, the proposed strategy would offer clear benefits to all Canadians who use medicines, federal and provincial governments and to the economy as a whole. We therefore argue that political leadership is now needed to articulate and implement such a plan on behalf of Canadians. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.

  18. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii Virulence Factors by Citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Sun, Yi; Liu, Zhiyuan; Guo, Du; Sun, Huihui; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Shan; Zhang, Wenting; Wen, Qiwu; Peng, Xiaoli; Xia, Xiaodong

    2017-02-24

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen associated with fatal forms of necrotizing enterocolitis, meningitis and sepsis in neonates and infants. The aim of this study was to determine whether citral, a major component of lemongrass oil, could suppress putative virulence factors of C. sakazakii that contribute to infection. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of citral significantly decreased motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and endotoxin production. Citral substantially reduced the adhesion and invasion of C. sakazakii to Caco-2 cells and decreased bacterial survival and replication within the RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Citral also repressed the expression of eighteen genes involved in the virulence. These findings suggest that citral has potential to be developed as an alternative or supplemental agent to mitigate the infections caused by C. sakazakii.

  19. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii Virulence Factors by Citral

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Chao; Sun, Yi; Liu, Zhiyuan; Guo, Du; Sun, Huihui; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Shan; Zhang, Wenting; Wen, Qiwu; Peng, Xiaoli; Xia, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen associated with fatal forms of necrotizing enterocolitis, meningitis and sepsis in neonates and infants. The aim of this study was to determine whether citral, a major component of lemongrass oil, could suppress putative virulence factors of C. sakazakii that contribute to infection. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of citral significantly decreased motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and endotoxin production. Citral substantially reduced the...

  20. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  1. Immunochromatographic Strip Assay for Detection of Cronobacter sakazakii in Pure Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinjie; Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Gibaek; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-11-28

    Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) is a foodborne pathogen, posing a high risk of disease to infants and immunocompromised individuals. In order to develop a quick, easy, and sensitive assay for detecting C. sakazakii, a rabbit anti-C. sakazakii immunoglobulin G (IgG) was developed using sonicated cell protein from C. sakazakii. The developed anti-C. sakazakii (IgG) was of good quality and purity, as well as species-specific. The developed rabbit anti-C. sakazakii IgG was attached to the surface of a sulforhodamine B-encapsulated liposome to form an immunoliposome. A test strip was then prepared by coating goat anti-rabbit IgG onto the control line and rabbit anti-C. sakazakii IgG onto the test line, respectively, of a plastic-backed nitrocellulose membrane. A purple color signal both on the test line and the control line indicated the presence of C. sakazakii in the sample, whereas purple color only on the control line indicated the absence of C. sakazakii in the sample. This immunochromatographic strip assay could produce results in 15 min with a limit of detection of 107 CFU/ml in C. sakazakii culture. The immunochromatographic strip assay also showed very good specificity without cross-reactivity with other tested Cronobacter species. Based on these results, the developed immunochromatographic strip assay is efficient for the detection of C. sakazakii and has high potential for on-site detection.

  2. Regulating household financial advice

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    Benjamin F. Cummings

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews economic theory related to investment advice. This theory explains 1 why financial advisors need to be carefully regulated for the benefit of both the investment advice industry and for consumers, 2 why principles-based regulation (e.g., a fiduciary standard is more efficient than rules-based regulation, 3 why dual regulation of financial professionals providing investment or insurance advice is inefficient and inequitable policy, and 4 why the application of a universal and uniform fiduciary standard will be difficult to implement.

  3. Cerebral infarctions due to CNS infection with Enterobacter sakazakii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, P.G. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Pediatrics Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Ball, W.S. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Radiology Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Recent reports have implicated Enterobacter sakazakii, a gram-negative enteric bacillus, in neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Cases of severe central nervous system involvement, including ventriculitis, brain abscess, infarction, and cyst formation, have been described. We present serial head CT findings in a case of neonatal E. sakazakii meningitis complicated by a ring enhancing cerebral infarction which mimicked abscess formation. In meningitis secondary to this agent, a recognized pattern of cerebral hypodensity with or without cystic degeneration late in the course of the infection is likely to represent cerebral infarction rather than an abscess especially if there is a lack of culture evidence of a bacterial infection. (orig.).

  4. Genetic Characterization of Cronobacter sakazakii Recovered from the Environmental Surveillance Samples During a Sporadic Case Investigation of Foodborne Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Irshad M; Jacobs, Emily; Segars, Katharine; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil

    2016-08-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic human-pathogenic bacterium known to cause acute meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and immunocompromised individuals. This human-pathogenic microorganism has been isolated from a variety of food and environmental samples, and has been also linked to foodborne outbreaks associated with powdered infant formula (PIF). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have a policy of zero tolerance of these organisms in PIF. Thus, this agency utilizes the presence of these microorganisms as one of the criteria in implementing regulatory actions and assessing adulteration of food products of public health importance. In this study, we recovered two isolates of Cronobacter from the 91 environmental swab samples during an investigation of sporadic case of foodborne illness following conventional microbiological protocols. The isolated typical colonies were identified using VITEK2 and real-time PCR protocols. The recovered Cronobacter isolates were then characterized for species identification by sequencing the 16S rRNA locus. Further, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was accomplished characterizing seven known C. sakazakii-specific MLST loci (atpD, fusA, glnS, gltB, gyrB, infB, and pps). Results of this study confirmed all of the recovered Cronobacter isolates from the environmental swab samples to be C. sakazakii. The MLST profile matched with the published profile of the complex 31 of C. sakazakii. Thus, rRNA and 7-loci MLST-based sequencing protocols are robust techniques for rapid detection and differentiation of Cronobacter species, and these molecular diagnostic tools can be used in implementing successful surveillance program and in the control and prevention of foodborne illness.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity and Possible Mechanism of Action of Citral against Cronobacter sakazakii

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Chao; Song, Kaikuo; Zhang, Xiaorong; Sun, Yi; Sui, Yue; Chen, Yifei; Jia, Zhenyu; Sun, Huihui; Sun, Zheng; Xia, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Citral is a flavor component that is commonly used in food, beverage and fragrance industries. Cronobacter sakazakii is a food-borne pathogen associated with severe illness and high mortality in neonates and infants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate antimicrobial effect of citral against C. sakazakii strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of citral against C. sakazakii was determined via agar dilution method, then Gompertz models were used to quantitate the effe...

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and Possible Mechanism of Action of Citral against Cronobacter sakazakii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Song, Kaikuo; Zhang, Xiaorong; Sun, Yi; Sui, Yue; Chen, Yifei; Jia, Zhenyu; Sun, Huihui; Sun, Zheng; Xia, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Citral is a flavor component that is commonly used in food, beverage and fragrance industries. Cronobacter sakazakii is a food-borne pathogen associated with severe illness and high mortality in neonates and infants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate antimicrobial effect of citral against C. sakazakii strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of citral against C. sakazakii was determined via agar dilution method, then Gompertz models were used to quantitate the effect of citral on microbial growth kinetics. Changes in intracellular pH (pHin), membrane potential, intracellular ATP concentration, and membrane integrity were measured to elucidate the possible antimicrobial mechanism. Cell morphology changes were also examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The MICs of citral against C. sakazakii strains ranged from 0.27 to 0.54 mg/mL, and citral resulted in a longer lag phase and lower growth rate of C. sakazakii compared to the control. Citral affected the cell membrane of C. sakazakii, as evidenced by decreased intracellular ATP concentration, reduced pHin, and cell membrane hyperpolarization. Scanning electron microscopy analysis further confirmed that C. sakazakii cell membranes were damaged by citral. These findings suggest that citral exhibits antimicrobial effect against C. sakazakii strains and could be potentially used to control C. sakazakii in foods. However, how it works in food systems where many other components may interfere with its efficacy should be tested in future research before its real application.

  7. A new protocol for the detection of Enterobacter sakazakii applied to environmental samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.; Reij, M.W.; Puyvelde, van K.; Guillaume-Gentil, O.; Beumer, R.R.; Schothorst, van M.

    2004-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is a motile, peritrichous, gram-negative rod that was previously known as a yellow pigmented Enterobacter cloacae. It is documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of life-threatening neonatal meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis. E. sakazakii has

  8. Meningoencephalitis and Compartmentalization of the Cerebral Ventricles Caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Martin B.; Allen, Stephen D.; Neal, Patricia; Reynolds, Janet

    1981-01-01

    A necrotizing meningoencephalitis complicated by ventricular compartmentalization and abscess formation caused by Enterobacter sakazakii in a previously healthy 5-week-old female is described. A detailed description of the isolate is presented. This communication firmly establishes the pathogenicity of E. sakazakii. PMID:7287892

  9. Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Indexing of the Cronobacter genus (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronobacter is a recently defined genus synonymous with Enterobacter sakazakii. This new genus currently comprises 6 genomospecies. To extend our understanding of the genetic relationship between Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 and the other species of this genus, microarray-based comparative genomi...

  10. Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Attenuate Virulence in Cronobacter sakazakii in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Roshni Amalaradjou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen, which causes a life-threatening form of meningitis, necrotizing colitis and meningoencephalitis in neonates and children. Epidemiological studies implicate dried infant formula as the principal source of C. sakazakii. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SIC of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC, an ingredient in cinnamon, for reducing C. sakazakii virulence in vitro using cell culture, microscopy and gene expression assays. TC significantly (p ≤ 0.05 suppressed C. sakazakii adhesion to and invasion of human and rat intestinal epithelial cells, and human brain microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, TC inhibited C. sakazakii survival and replication in human macrophages. We also observed that TC reduced the ability of C. sakazakii to cause cell death in rat intestinal cells, by inhibiting nitric oxide production. Results from gene expression studies revealed that TC significantly downregulated the virulence genes critical for motility, host tissue adhesion and invasion, macrophage survival, and LPS (Lipopolysaccharide synthesis in C. sakazakii. The efficacy of TC in attenuating these major virulence factors in C. sakazakii underscores its potential use in the prevention and/or control of infection caused by this pathogen.

  11. Professional advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies strategic communication by an expert who is concerned about appearing to be well informed. The expert is assumed to observe a private signal with a simple and particularly tractable (multiplicative linear) structure. The quality of the expert's information is evaluated on the b......This paper studies strategic communication by an expert who is concerned about appearing to be well informed. The expert is assumed to observe a private signal with a simple and particularly tractable (multiplicative linear) structure. The quality of the expert's information is evaluated...... on the basis of the advice given and the realized state of the world. In equilibrium of this reputational cheap-talk game, no more than two messages are effectively reported. The model is extended to consider sequential communication by experts with conditionally independent signals. In the long run, learning...

  12. [Isolation and identification of Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii) strains from food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaohui; Li, Chengsi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Mo, Shuping; Guo, Weipeng; Yang, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xiaoke

    2013-05-04

    This study aimed to detect and quantify Cronobacter in 300 powdered milk samples and 50 non-powdered milk samples. Totally, 24 Cronobacter (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) strains isolated from powdered milk and other foods were identified and confirmed. Cronobacter strains were detected quantitatively using most probable number (MPN) method and molecular detection method. We identified 24 Cronobacter strains using biochemical patterns, including indole production and dulcitol, malonate, melezitose, turanose, and myo-Inositol utilization. Of the 24 strains, their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced, and constructed phylogenetic tree by N-J (Neighbour-Joining) with the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 17 identified Cronobacter strains and 10 non-Cronobacter strains. Quantitative detection showed that Cronobacter strains were detected in 23 out of 350 samples yielding 6.6% detection rate. Twenty-four Cronobacter strains were isolated from 23 samples and the Cronobacter was more than 100 MPN/100g in 4 samples out of 23 samples. The 24 Cronobacter spp. isolates strains were identified and confirmed, including 19 Cronobacter sakazakii strains, 2 C. malonaticus strains, 2 C. dubliensis subsp. lactaridi strains, and 1 C. muytjensii strain. The combination of molecular detection method and most probable number (MPN) method could be suitable for the detection of Cronobacter in powdered milk, with low rate of contamination and high demand of quantitative detection. 24 isolated strains were confirmed and identified by biochemical patterns and molecular technology, and C. sakazakii could be the dominant species. The problem of Cronobacter in powdered milk should be a hidden danger to nurseling, and should catch the government and consumer's attention.

  13. [Optimizing antibiotics policy in the Netherlands. VI. SWAB advice: no selective decontamination of intensive care patients on mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, M.J.; Kullberg, B.J.; Filius, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (Dutch acronym is SWAB) has issued a guideline in which the pro and cons of the routine use of selective decontamination (SD) in patients in intensive care (IC) on mechanical ventilation are compared in order to decide whether SD is indicated. The effectiveness

  14. Adhesive properties of Enterobacter sakazakii to human epithelial and brain microvascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospischil Andreas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. However, up to now little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenicity in E. sakazakii. A necessary state in the successful colonization, establishment and ultimately production of disease by microbial pathogens is the ability to adhere to host surfaces such as mucous membranes, gastric and intestinal epithelial or endothelial tissue. This study examined for the first time the adherence ability of 50 E. sakazakii strains to the two epithelial cell lines HEp-2 and Caco-2, as well as the brain microvascular endothelial cell line HBMEC. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial culture conditions on the adherence behaviour were investigated. An attempt was made to characterize the factors involved in adherence. Results Two distinctive adherence patterns, a diffuse adhesion and the formation of localized clusters of bacteria on the cell surface could be distinguished on all three cell lines. In some strains, a mixture of both patterns was observed. Adherence was maximal during late exponential phase, and increased with higher MOI. The adhesion capacity of E. sakazakii to HBMEC cells was affected by the addition of blood to the bacteria growth medium. Mannose, hemagglutination, trypsin digestion experiments and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the adhesion of E. sakazakii to the epithelial and endothelial cells is mainly non-fimbrial based. Conclusion Adherence experiments show heterogeneity within different E. sakazakii strains. In agreement with studies on E. cloacae, we found no relationship between the adhesive capacities in E. sakazakii and the eventual production of specific fimbriae. Further studies will have to be carried out in order to determine the adhesin(s involved in the interaction of E. sakazakii with cells and to

  15. [Multiple cerebral infarcts with resulting multicystic encephalomalacia in a premature infant with Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, M; Harms, D; Scharf, J

    1994-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an uncommon cause of neonatal meningitis. The prognosis of newborns with meningitis due to Enterobacter sakazakii is poor, the fatality rate is reported as high as 50%. Survivors usually have severe neurologic complications. Most computed tomography (CT) findings were low density lesions of white matter and cortex suggesting infarctions which underwent cystic degeneration. We present one premature baby with meningitis due to Enterobacter sakazakii and large bilateral regions of hypo- and hyperdensity suggesting massive hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic intracerebral infarctions leading to multiple cystic encephalomalacia.

  16. What's worrying young Australians and where do they go for advice and support? Policy and practice implications for their well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Anne; Di Nicola, Kathryn

    2011-02-01

    The Mission Australia annual National Survey of Young Australians aims to generate insights into what young people think on a range of issues, including what they value, what issues are of concern to them, and where they go for advice and support. A two-page opt-in questionnaire was distributed to a very broad range of organisations across Australia, and was available in both an online and paper-based format. Responses to the survey were anonymous. Respondents were asked to rank items from the lists provided, and results are reported on the basis of items ranked one, two or three by respondents. Responses were disaggregated by age, gender, cultural background and living arrangements. Close to 48,000 young people participated in the 2009 survey, and the data confirms the importance of relationships to young people, as well as the diversity of concerns they may have, including drugs, suicide, mental health and body image. While concerns tended to vary with age and to some extent gender, what is valued by young people tends to be consistent across age and genders, namely family and friends. Implications for policy making and service delivery are drawn with a focus on the issues of relationships, drugs and mental health. In particular, the need for early intervention, evidence-based drug education programs, and initiatives that support those closest to young people, to assist them when they have concerns, are highlighted. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  18. A robotic DNA purification protocol and real-time PCR for the detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilasser Françoise

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterobacter sakazakii is the causative agent of rare but severe food-borne infections associated with meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in infants. Rehydrated powdered infant formulae have been implicated as the source of infection in several outbreaks and sporadic cases. In this work, a real time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR assay incorporating an internal amplification control (IAC was developed for the specific detection of E. sakazakii in foods. Performance of the assay, coupled to an automated DNA extraction system and the E. sakazakii ISO-IDF (TS 22964/RM 210 enrichment procedure, was evaluated on infant formulae and samples from production environment. Results The real-time PCR assay had 100% specificity as assessed using 35 E. sakazakii and 184 non-E. sakazakii strains. According to the E. sakazakii strains tested, the detection limits ranged from 5 to 25 genomic copies. Assays on pure cultures (including real-time PCR and DNA extraction gave a sensitivity of about 102 to 103 CFU/ml. Out of 41 naturally contaminated infant formulae and environmental samples analysed for the presence of E. sakazakii, 23 were positive by real-time PCR and 22 by the conventional culture method, giving 97.5% concordance with the ISO-IDF reference method. Conclusion This method, combining specific real-time PCR, automated DNA extraction and ISO-IDF standard enrichments, provides a useful tool for rapid screening of E. sakazakii in food and environmental matrices.

  19. A simple and rapid cultural method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume-Gentil, O; Sonnard, V; Kandhai, M C; Marugg, J D; Joosten, H

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed to detect and identify Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. The method is based on selective enrichment at 45+/-0.5 degrees C in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth supplemented with 0.5 M NaCl and 10 mg/liter vancomycin (mLST) for 22 to 24 h followed by streaking on tryptone soy agar with bile salts. When exposed to light during incubation at 37 degrees C, E. sakazakii produces yellow colonies within 24 h; identification was confirmed by testing for alpha-glucosidase activity and by using API 20E strips. All of the E. sakazakii strains tested (n = 99) were able to grow in mLST at 45+/-0.5 degrees C, whereas 35 of 39 strains of potential competitors, all belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae, were suppressed. A survey was carried out with 192 environmental samples from four different milk powder factories. Using this new protocol, E. sakazakii was isolated from almost 40% of the samples, whereas the reference procedure (enrichment in buffered peptone water, isolation on violet red bile glucose agar, and biochemical identification of randomly chosen colonies) only yielded 26% positive results. This selective method can be very useful for the rapid and reliable detection of E. sakazakii in environmental samples.

  20. Comparison of Cronobacter sakazakii from Agra region grown in biofilms, agar surface associated and planktonic mode by proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging food borne pathogen that causes severe meningitis, meningoencephalitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants, with a high fatality rate. Aims: The present paper is for the rapid detection of C. sakazakii from milk and milk products of Agra region via PCR method and comparison of C. sakazakii in biofilm, on agar surface and planktonic cells by proteomic analysis. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 55 samples of milk and milk products of the Agra region were analyzed. 200 isolates were obtained of which 11 were biochemically detected as C. sakazakii. The PCR targeting the ompA gene was used to amplify a 496 bp DNA segment unique to C. sakazakii, in order to confirm C. sakazakii isolates. The proteome was investigated to study the differential protein pattern expressed by biofilm, agar surface-associated and planktonic bacteria employing SDS-PAGE. Statistical Analysis: UN-SCAN-6.1 gel analysis software. Results: The primer pair ESSF and ESSR was successfully used to amplify a 469 bp DNA unique to C. sakazakii. Whole cell protein profiles of planktonic, biofilm and agar surface associated were characteristic. Conclusion: The cultural procedure for detection of C. sakazakii is laborious, taking up to 7 days for completion, whereas PCR combined with enrichment culturing can detect C. sakazakii in about 12 hours and thus has the potential to be used as a rapid tool for detecting its presence. Differential protein pattern of C. sakazakii cultivated in biofilm versus agar-surface-associated and planktonic cells were observed. Further understanding the role of specific proteins during the biofilm development should permit a better understanding of the mechanisms sustaining the proliferation and the resistance of bacteria on biotic surfaces.

  1. Heat Tolerances of Salmonella, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Pediococcus acidilactici Inoculated into Galactooligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jihyun; Choi, Moonkak; Jeong, Haeseok; Lee, Sangseob; Kim, Yoonbin; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Hoikyung

    2017-07-01

    Food-grade galactooligosaccharide (GOS) with low water activity (a w of ca. 0.7) is used as an ingredient in various foods. We evaluated heat tolerances of Salmonella, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Pediococcus acidilactici at temperatures (70 to 85°C) used during the saturation process of GOS by comparing decimal reduction time (D-values) and thermal resistance constants (z-values). To determine the D- and z-values, GOS containing Salmonella (5.1 to 5.8 log CFU/g) or C. sakazakii (5.3 to 5.9 log CFU/g) was heat treated at 70, 77.5, or 85°C for up to 40, 25, or 15 s, respectively, and GOS containing P. acidilactici (6.1 to 6.5 log CFU/g) was heat treated at 70, 77.5, or 85°C for up to 150, 75, or 40 s, respectively. The D-values were calculated using a linear model for heating time versus microbial population for each bacterium. When the D-values for Salmonella, C. sakazakii, and P. acidilactici in GOS were compared, the thermal resistance of all bacteria decreased as the temperature increased. Among the three bacteria, P. acidilactici had higher D-values than did Salmonella and C. sakazakii. The z-values of Salmonella, C. sakazakii, and P. acidilactici were 30.10, 33.18, and 13.04°C, respectively. Overall order of thermal resistance was P. acidilactici > Salmonella ≈ C. sakazakii. These results will be useful for selecting appropriate heat treatment conditions for the decontamination of pathogenic microorganisms during GOS manufacturing.

  2. Enterobacter sakazakii brain abscess in the neonate: the importance of neuroradiologic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdette, J.H. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Santos, C. [Department Neurology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Bowman Gray Campus, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Background. Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare but important cause of life-threatening neonatal sepsis and meningitis complicated by the development of brain abscess. Objective. Given the neurotropic qualities of this organism, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial as a poor prognosis follows brain abscess formation. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional imaging (CT and MRI) play an important role in the diagnostic work-up. Conclusion. A biopsy-proven case of E. sakazakii brain abscess, which was diagnosed on MR images, is presented, and the importance of prompt radiologic imaging of the central nervous system in the work-up of patients with this life-threatening disease is discussed. (orig.)

  3. GAMBARAN KEAMANAN CEMARAN MIKROBA E. Sakazakii PADA SUSU FORMULA BAYI YANG BEREDAR DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondri Dwi Sampurno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Background. Infant formulain powdered form(powder is not a sterile product. It is likely to contain pathogenic microorganisms, cause infectioning the infant. E.sakazakii (Cronobacter spp is one of the pathogens as indicatorof the safety in infant formula. Method. This survey design is cross sectional and purpose of this survey is not to conclude lot a cceptance (safety assurance to a level of standard or quality control of product.To ensure food security, the number of samples taken is one sample (n =1 per item from distributed products. Nevertheless, this survey uses 2 samples (n=2. Method used to detect E. Sakazakii in infant formula samples isbased onISO/TS 22964 : 2006 from Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC in July 2008.Method uses testing method validation. Samples are obtained from Indonesian regions which representing 7 Bappenas regions with a number of 88 samples, consist of 41samples (2 batch number and 6 samples (1 batch number. Maximum Limit of microbial contaminants in food are set by the Head of National Agency of Drug and Food Control Regulations number HK.00.06.1.52.4011 based on Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC in July 2008. It determines the limit of E.Sakazakii on infant formula that is negativein 10 gram. This data is complemented with secondary data about GMP and HACCP implementation in industry which produces/imports infant formula milk. Result. The result showed that all of samples are negative in 10 g sample. In addition, all of the manufacturers have fulfilled the GMP requirements and have applied HACCP system in the production system. Imported baby milk formula products have to attach analysis certificate which declares that the products are negative from E. Sakazakii/10 gram. Keywords : E.sakazakii, infant formula, Cronobacter sp Abstrak. Latar Belakang. Susu formula bayi dalam bentuk bubuk (powder bukan merupakan produk steril, kemungkinan bisa mengandung mikroorganisme sehingga harus dijamin ketiadaan

  4. Surveillance and genotyping of Enterobacter sakazakii suggest its potential transmission from milk powder into imitation recombined soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharoud, W M; El-Din, M Z; Ziada, D M; Ahmed, S F; Klena, J D

    2008-08-01

    To examine the presence of Enterobacter sakazakii in milk and milk-related products produced/distributed under Egyptian conditions and to probe possible transmission routes of the pathogen during the preparation of dairy products. One hundred and thirty-seven samples of milk and milk-related products were randomly collected from Egyptian markets and examined for the presence of Ent. sakazakii. The pathogen could be detected only in skimmed milk powder (SMP) and its related product, imitation recombined soft (IRS) cheese. Enterobacter sakazakii isolates recovered from these products were phenotypically similar and sensitive to all antibiotics examined in this study. They also showed indistinguishable banding patterns when subjected to macro-restriction profiling using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (mrp-PFGE). One Ent. sakazakii isolate was inoculated into SMP that was used in the preparation of IRS cheese using two cheese making procedures. The pathogen could survive for up to 1 month in the IRS cheese prepared by either procedure. The simultaneous presence of Ent. sakazakii in SMP and IRS cheese samples collected within the same local market besides the phenotypic and genotypic similarities of isolates recovered from these samples suggested the possibility of Ent. sakazakii being transmitted from SMP into IRS cheese. This hypothesis was supported by the observation that the pathogen could survive in the IRS cheese prepared from contaminated SMP. The study highlights SMP and IRS cheese as potential transmission vehicles of Ent. sakazakii. It also raises concern on the microbiological safety of IRS cheese prepared from SMP.

  5. Giving advice to agents with hidden goals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available estimates the performance of the user by comparing behaviour to the common sense model, and then based on this, provides advice in states where it is estimated to be needed. In this way, we regard advice as a data-driven policy selection mechanism.... Although the mechanism of action priors is defined as learning from policies Π, we consider trajectories as samples thereof, and use these to update the action prior model. We define Π as a set of expert policies, where an expert is considered...

  6. Rapid inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii on copper alloys following periods of desiccation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elguindi, Jutta; Alwathnani, Hend A; Rensing, Christopher

    2012-04-01

    Cronobacter spp. have been identified as the causative agent in meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants which can be linked to the bacterium's desiccation resistance and persistence in powdered infant formula. In this study we examined the efficacy of copper cast alloys in contact killing of Cronobacter sakazakii following periods of desiccation stress. Cronobacter sakazakii cells suspended in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) were killed within 10 min while kept moist on 99.9% copper alloys and within 1 min of drying on 99.9% copper alloys. Survival times were unchanged after cells suspended in TSB were desiccated for 33 days. Cronobacter sakazakii cells suspended in infant formula were killed within 30 min under moist conditions and within 3 min of drying on 99.9% copper alloys. However, when desiccated in infant formula for 45 days, survival times decreased to 10 and 1 min in moist and dry conditions, respectively. In contrast, no decrease in viable cells was noted on stainless steel surfaces under the experimental conditions employed in this study. Cronobacter sakazakii was rapidly killed on copper alloys under all testing conditions of this study indicating that desiccation and copper ion resistance do not prolong survival. These results could have important implications for the utilization of copper in the production and storage of powdered infant formula.

  7. Detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in neonatal sepsis by PCR on 16S ribosomal RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Ahmadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterobacter sakazakii is a gram negative, facultative anaerobic, straight rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is also considered an emerging opportunistic pathogen, responsible of cases of neonatal infections including sepsis, meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis ad bacteremia. The goal of this study was detection of Enterobacter salazakii in neonates with sepsis by PCR on 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 blood specimens that were taken from hospitalized neonates suspected to sepsis in Ahvaz Abuzar Hospital in 2011. From each neonate 0.5 ml blood sample was taken and placed in CBC tubes containing EDTA at -200C for polymerase chain reaction. For detection of Enterobacter sakazakii, PCR was performed on DNA for amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Results: In all 405 neonates blood samples’ PCR reactions for Enterobacter sakazakii 16S ribosomal RNA gene were negative. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus agalactiae in 8 (1.4 % patients. Conclusion: Because Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen with high pathogenicity power, more investigation on high risk groups is required. For detection of infection caused by this organism using of different diagnostic methods with high specificity and sensitivity is necessary.

  8. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Baek [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Yeongi 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of); Woon, Jae-Ho [Livestock Products standard Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang 430-824 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-11-15

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D{sub 10}-values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g{sup -1} onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 deg. C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.

  9. A simple and rapid cultural method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume-Gentil, O.; Sonnard, V.; Kandhai, M.C.; Marugg, J.; Joosten, H.

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed to detect and identify Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. The method is based on selective enrichment at 45 ± 0.5°C in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth supplemented with 0.5 M NaCl and 10 mg/liter vancomycin (mLST) for 22 to 24 h followed by streaking on tryptone

  10. Inactivation of Nondesiccated and Desiccated Cronobacter sakazakii in Reconstituted Infant Formula by Combination of Citral and Mild Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Jia, Zhenyu; Sun, Yi; Chen, Yifei; Guo, Du; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wen, Qiwu; Guo, Xiao; Ma, Linlin; Yang, Baowei; Baloch, Allah Bux; Xia, Xiaodong

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of citral plus mild heat on nondesiccated and desiccated Cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula. Various concentrations of citral (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%) combined with various temperatures (25, 45, 50, and 55°C) were applied to nondesiccated and desiccated cocktails of three C. sakazakii strains (approximately 6.0 log CFU mL-1) in reconstituted infant formula, and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically. The combined treatments had marked antimicrobial effects on C. sakazakii compared with the control. Desiccated cells were more susceptible to citral than were nondesiccated cells in reconstituted infant formula. These findings suggest there is a potential application of citral in combination with mild heat to control C. sakazakii during preparation of reconstituted infant formula.

  11. Biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Cronobacter sakazakii depending on environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Ho; Choi, Na-Young; Lee, Sun-Young

    2013-05-01

    Biofilm matrices are formed largely of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). This study was conducted to investigate biofilm formation and EPS production by Cronobacter sakazakii under various conditions (media, nutrition, and relative humidity (RH)) by quantification of EPS and cell populations, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and colony observation. Various agar media conditions (TSA without dextrose (W/D), M9 minimum salt medium (MSM) agar, and M9 MSM agar with 3% glucose, 3% NaCl, 3% Tween 80, 3% sucrose, and adjusted to pH 5 with HCl) were prepared. C. sakazakii biofilm formed on the surface of stainless steel coupons (SSCs) immersed in TSB W/D and M9 MSM with or without 0, 1, 3, and 5% sucrose and subsequently exposed to various RH levels (23, 43, 68, 85, and 100%). EPS production by C. sakazakii on TSA W/D was significantly higher than that on other media after 1 and 2 days. However, C. sakazakii ATCC 12868 produced the highest levels of EPS (209.18 ± 16.13 and 207.22 ± 4.14 μg/mL after 1 and 2 days, respectively) on M9 MSM agar with 3% sucrose. Regarding C. sakazakii ATCC 12868 biofilm formed on the surface of SSCs immersed in M9 MSM with 0, 1, 3, and 5% sucrose and subsequently exposed to various RHs, populations were significantly different among the various RHs and sucrose concentrations, and EPS production was significantly higher (4.69 mg/L) compared to other sucrose concentrations (0%:0.71 mg/L and 1%:0.98 mg/L), except for M9 MSM with 3% sucrose (2.97 mg/L) (P ≤ 0.05). From these results, biofilm formation and EPS production by C. sakazakii differed depending on the nutrient or environmental conditions provided to the cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. My 40-Year History with Cronobacter/Enterobacter sakazakii -- Lessons Learned, Myths Debunked, and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Farmer III

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Much has been learned about Cronobacter/Enterobacter sakazakii since I first named and described Enterobacter sakazakii in 1980. However, there are still wide knowledge gaps. One of the most serious is that are still many uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from these bacteria, particularly in neonatal meningitis. Over the last few decades Cronobacter contamination of commercial powdered infant formula has apparently been reduced, but it is still an ongoing problem. The powdered infant formula industry still cannot produce powdered formula that is free of bacterial contamination with Cronobacter, other Enterobacteriaceae, and other pathogenic bacteria. Until this happens infants and other will be at risk of becoming infected when contaminated product is ingested.

  13. Enterobacter sakazakii : Risikoprofil und Untersuchungen zum Nachweis in Säuglingsnahrungen

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjaq, Suhad

    2008-01-01

    Bakterielle Infektionen durch Enterobacter (E.) sakazakii bei Säuglingen, die durch Verunreinigungen in Säuglingsmilchpulvernahrung verursacht wurden, sind seltene jedoch gravierende Erkrankungen mit potenziell tödlichem Ausgang. Neben den Salmonellen ist dieser der einzige Keim, bei dem ein Kausalzusammenhang zwischen der Erkrankung von Säuglingen und der Kontamination von Säuglingsmilchpulvernahrung nachgewiesen werden konnte. Entsprechend der durch die CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION vorgege...

  14. Using Vignettes to Tap Into Moral Reasoning in Public Health Policy: Practical Advice and Design Principles From a Study on Food Advertising to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy. PMID:25121818

  15. Conditioned medium from Bifidobacteria infantis protects against Cronobacter sakazakii-induced intestinal inflammation in newborn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Meiqian; Ganguli, Kriston; Zhu, Weishu; Shi, Hai Ning; Walker, W Allan

    2014-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight infants. Several hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of NEC have been proposed but to date no effective treatment is available. Previous studies suggest that probiotic supplementation is protective. We recently reported that probiotic (Bifidobacterium infantis) conditioned medium (PCM) has an anti-inflammatory effect in cultured fetal human intestinal cells (H4) and fetal intestine explants. In this study, we tested in vivo whether PCM protects neonatal mice from developing intestinal inflammation induced by exposure to Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii), an opportunistic pathogen associated with NEC. We found that infected neonatal mice had a significantly lower body weight than control groups. Infection led to ileal tissue damage including villous rupture, disruption of epithelial cell alignment, intestinal inflammation, apoptotic cell loss, and decreased mucus production. Pretreatment with PCM prevented infection caused decrease in body weight, attenuated enterocyte apoptotic cell death, mitigated reduced mucin production, and maintained ileal structure. Infected ileum expressed reduced levels of IκBα, which could be restored upon pretreatment with PCM. We also observed a nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in H4 cells exposed to C. sakazakii, which was prevented in PCM-pretreated cells. Finally, treatment of neonatal mice with PCM prior to infection sustained the capacity of ileal epithelial proliferation. This study suggests that an active component(s) released into the culture medium by B. infantis may prevent ileal damage by a pathogen linked to NEC.

  16. Multiplexed Lateral Flow Test for Detection and Differentiation ofCronobacter sakazakiiSerotypes O1 and O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Eva J; Dietrich, Richard; Wittwer, Tobias; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Schauer, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii is responsible for severe meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants associated with ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). The current ISO method for isolation and detection of Cronobacter spp. is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. In this study, a multiplexed lateral flow test strip was developed to rapidly detect and simultaneously serotype O1 and O2 C. sakazakii serotypes. The assay is based on two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) that specifically bind to the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of these pathogens. The test strip provides results very quickly; C. sakazakii could be detected in pure culture within 15 min with a sensitivity of 10 7 CFU/ml. After non-selective enrichment for 18 h as low as one Cronobacter cell per g PIF could be detected. Moreover, the established lateral flow assay (LFA) offers excellent specificity showing no cross-reactivity with other C. sakazakii serotypes, Cronobacter species or Enterobacteriaceae tested. These characteristics, together with several advantages such as speed, simplicity in performance, low analysis cost, and no requirement of specialized skills or sophisticated equipment make the developed multiplexed LFA suitable for reliable detection and serotyping of C. sakazakii serotypes O1 and O2.

  17. Multiplexed Lateral Flow Test for Detection and Differentiation of Cronobacter sakazakii Serotypes O1 and O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva J. Scharinger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii is responsible for severe meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants associated with ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF. The current ISO method for isolation and detection of Cronobacter spp. is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. In this study, a multiplexed lateral flow test strip was developed to rapidly detect and simultaneously serotype O1 and O2 C. sakazakii serotypes. The assay is based on two monoclonal antibodies (MAb that specifically bind to the lipopolysaccharides (LPS of these pathogens. The test strip provides results very quickly; C. sakazakii could be detected in pure culture within 15 min with a sensitivity of 107 CFU/ml. After non-selective enrichment for 18 h as low as one Cronobacter cell per g PIF could be detected. Moreover, the established lateral flow assay (LFA offers excellent specificity showing no cross-reactivity with other C. sakazakii serotypes, Cronobacter species or Enterobacteriaceae tested. These characteristics, together with several advantages such as speed, simplicity in performance, low analysis cost, and no requirement of specialized skills or sophisticated equipment make the developed multiplexed LFA suitable for reliable detection and serotyping of C. sakazakii serotypes O1 and O2.

  18. Making sense of energy advice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, Sarah [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Environmental Change Inst.

    2003-07-01

    This paper analyses the ways in which householders, advisers and evaluators make sense of domestic energy advice: how they interpret the process and how they assess its usefulness. Using constructivist learning theory as a guide, it emphasises the contribution made by personal experience and tacit knowledge (procedural knowledge) in developing householders' ability to understand and manage their energy use, and advisers' ability to interpret and respond to a situation. Energy advice programmes in the UK were chosen as subjects for study because they link householders, advisers, suppliers and installers in order to achieve objectives such as a reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, a more energy-efficient housing stock, and improved health and comfort. Material from interviews with householders and advisers in contrasting programmes is analysed, to show some of the processes by which they learn and increase their understanding and abilities. It raises the issue of how householders become capable of teaching themselves and adapting to changing conditions. Careful use of qualitative research can provide valuable information on what and how householders learn, whether they have been formally advised or not. This information is worthwhile in its own right and can also be used to supplement quantitative data on installation of efficiency measures or behavioural change. It allows advisers and policy makers to reflect on their work more productively, to develop their programmes in the most suitable way for a given set of circumstances and to choose the most suitable criteria for reviewing programme effectiveness.

  19. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  20. Actions and advice in coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoche, Hendrik; Jamadagni, HS; Rao, PR Sheshagiri

    2015-01-01

    To improve their agricultural output, farmers require timely and contextualized information and advice. Relevant information and advice provided by trusted peers represents a promising approach. We present the considerations for the design of coli, an agricultural information network on touch...

  1. Attachment of and biofilm formation by Enterobacter sakazakii on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Beuchat, Larry R

    2006-09-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been reported to form biofilms, but environmental conditions affecting attachment to and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces have not been described. We did a study to determine the effects of temperature and nutrient availability on attachment and biofilm formation by E. sakazakii on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes. Five strains grown to stationary phase in tryptic soy broth (TSB), infant formula broth (IFB), or lettuce juice broth (LJB) at 12 and 25 degrees C were examined for the extent to which they attach to these materials. Higher populations attached at 25 degrees C than at 12 degrees C. Stainless steel coupons and enteral feeding tubes were immersed for 24 h at 4 degrees C in phosphate-buffered saline suspensions (7 log CFU/ml) to facilitate the attachment of 5.33 to 5.51 and 5.03 to 5.12 log CFU/cm(2), respectively, before they were immersed in TSB, IFB, or LJB, followed by incubation at 12 or 25 degrees C for up to 10 days. Biofilms were not produced at 12 degrees C. The number of cells of test strains increased by 1.42 to 1.67 log CFU/cm(2) and 1.16 to 1.31 log CFU/cm(2) in biofilms formed on stainless steel and feeding tubes, respectively, immersed in IFB at 25 degrees C; biofilms were not formed on TSB and LJB at 25 degrees C, indicating that nutrient availability plays a major role in processes leading to biofilm formation on the surfaces of these inert materials. These observations emphasize the importance of temperature control in reconstituted infant formula preparation and storage areas in preventing attachment and biofilm formation by E. sakazakii.

  2. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...

  3. Inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii by ultrasonic waves under pressure in buffer and foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, C; Cebrián, G; Pagán, R; Condón, S

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this research was to characterize the resistance of Cronobacter sakazakii to ultrasonic waves under pressure (manosonication, MS). The D(MS) value (decimal reduction time value) of C. sakazakii in standard conditions (35°C, 117 μm, 200 kPa, citrate-phosphate buffer pH 7.0) was 0.41 min. This value was higher than that of Yersinia enterocolitica (D(MS)=0.19 min) and lower than those of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (D(MS)=0.61 min), Listeria monocytogenes (D(MS)=0.86 min), and Enterococcus faecium (D(MS)=1.2 min). Strain studied (ATCC 29544, NCTC 8155, 9238, and 9529), growth temperature (10, 20, 30, and 37°C), and pH of the treatment media (4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0) did not significantly change C. sakazakii MS resistance. Conversely, entry into stationary growth phase, decreasing water activity of the treatment media (0.98, 0.96, and 0.94), and treatment in food products (apple and orange juices, chicken and vegetable soups, and rehydrated powdered milk) resulted in up to a 1.6-, 3.9-, and 2.5-fold maximum change in D(MS) values, respectively. Whereas an exponential relationship between the amplitude of ultrasonic waves and D(MS) values was found, the relationship between static pressure and D(MS) values was better described by a quadratic equation. The energy transferred into the medium determined the lethality of the ultrasonic waves regardless of the combination of pressure (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 kPa) and amplitude (34, 62, 90, 117 and 145 μm) applied. There was an exponential relationship between D(MS) values and the power input: an increase of 134 W increased the inactivation rate ten times regardless of the treatment medium. No C. sakazakii cells with sublethally injured cytoplasmic membrane or with sublethal oxidative damage occurred after MS treatments, but the results indicated that damage to the outer membrane preceded microbial death. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cronobacter sakazakii DNA Detection in Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Mimic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Piombo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old male noticed progressive weakness of the right lower limb with gait disturbance. Over the following months, motor deficits worsened, spreading to the right upper limb. Electromyography showed active denervation in the upper and lower limb muscles. A diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS was made. About 2 years after symptom onset, gradual improvement occurred. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis performed about 3 years after the beginning of symptoms identified Cronobacter sakazakii. Since no other possible causes were identified, we suggest that an almost completely reversible ALS-like syndrome had been triggered by Cronobacter infection in our immunocompetent patient.

  5. Short communication: Effects of vacuum freeze-drying on inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC29544 in liquid media with different initial inoculum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Rui; Gao, Jina; Zhang, Xiyan; Zhang, Maofeng; Chen, Jiren; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Ye, Yingwang

    2017-03-01

    Vacuum freeze-drying is an important food-processing technology for valid retention of nutrients and bioactive compounds. Cronobacter sakazakii has been reported to be associated with severe infections in neonates through consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. In this study, effects of vacuum freeze-drying treatment for 12, 24, and 36 h on inactivation of C. sakazakii with different initial inoculum levels in sterile water, tryptic soy broth (TSB), skim milk, and whole milk were determined. Results indicated that the lethality rate of C. sakazakii in each sample increased with the extension of vacuum freeze-drying time. With initial inoculum levels of 102 and 103 cfu/mL, the survival of C. sakazakii in different liquid media was significantly affected by vacuum freeze-drying for 12, 24, and 36 h. In addition, the lethality rates of C. sakazakii in whole milk, skim milk, and TSB was significantly reduced compared with those in sterile water. Furthermore, whole milk showed the strongest protective role for C. sakazakii cells, followed by skim milk and TSB medium. Using the scanning electron microscope, the intracellular damage and obvious distortion of C. sakazakii cells were observed after vacuum freeze-drying for 24 and 36 h compared with the untreated sample, and the injured cells increased with the extension of vacuum-drying time. We concluded that inactivation of vacuum freeze-drying on C. sakazakii cells is related to the food matrix, and a combination with other methods for inactivating C. sakazakii is required for ensuring microbial safety of powdered infant formula. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biofilm formation on enteral feeding tubes by Cronobacter sakazakii, Salmonella serovars and other Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, E; Kucerova, E; Loughlin, M; Caubilla-Barron, J; Forsythe, S J

    2009-12-31

    WHO (2007) recommended that to reduce microbial risks, powdered infant formula should be reconstituted with water at temperatures >70 degrees C, and that such feeds should be used within 2h of preparation. However, this recommendation does not consider the use of enteral feeding tubes which can be in place for more than 48h and can be loci for bacterial attachment. This study determined the extent to which 29 strains of Cronobacter sakazakii, Salmonella serovars, other Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. can adhere and grow on enteral feeding tubes composed of polyvinyl chloride and polyurethane. The study also included silver-impregnated tubing which was expected to have antibacterial activity. Bacterial biofilm formation by members of the Enterobacteriaceae was ca. 10(5)-10(6) cfu/cm after 24h. Negligible biofilm was detected for Acinetobacter gensp. 13; ca. 10 cfu/cm, whereas Cr. sakazakii strain ATCC 12868 had the highest biofilm cell density of 10(7) cfu/cm. Biofilm formation did not correlate with capsule production, and was not inhibited on silver-impregnated tubing. Bacteria grew in the tube lumen to cell densities of 10(7)cfu/ml within 8h, and 10(9)cfu/ml within 24h. It is plausible that in vivo the biofilm will both inoculate subsequent routine feeds and as the biofilm ages, clumps of cells will be shed which may survive passage through the neonate's stomach. Therefore biofilm formation on enteral feeding tubes constitutes a risk factor for susceptible neonates.

  7. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society......This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...

  8. Advice for the Newly Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the System Books & Resources Employment Issues Finding the Right Doctor Benefits and Insurance Relationships Advice for Loved Ones Sexual & Reproductive Health Sharing Your Diagnosis Support Groups For Clinicians ...

  9. Dietary advice in family medicine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, C. van

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual basis of dietary advice in family medicine. Given the large number of illnesses and diseases encountered in family practice for which diet and nutrition are relevant interventions, food-related advice is an important part of daily practice. To enhance the

  10. Young children heed advice selectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Ehrling, Christoph; Harris, Paul L; Schultze, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    A rational strategy to update and revise one's uncertain beliefs is to take advice by other agents who are better informed. Adults routinely engage in such advice taking in systematic and selective ways depending on relevant characteristics such as reliability of advisors. The current study merged research in social and developmental psychology to examine whether children also adjust their initial judgment to varying degrees depending on the characteristics of their advisors. Participants aged 3 to 6 years played a game in which they made initial judgments, received advice, and subsequently made final judgments. They systematically revised their judgments in light of the advice, and they did so selectively as a function of advisor expertise. They made greater adjustments to their initial judgment when advised by an apparently knowledgeable informant. This suggests that the pattern of advice taking studied in social psychology has its roots in early development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of radio-frequency dielectric heating system for destruction of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella species in nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, M; Phebus, R K; Thippareddi, H; Subbiah, J; Birla, S L; Schmidt, K A

    2014-12-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella species have been associated with human illnesses from consumption of contaminated nonfat dry milk (NDM), a key ingredient in powdered infant formula and many other foods. Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella spp. can survive the spray-drying process if milk is contaminated after pasteurization, and the dried product can be contaminated from environmental sources. Compared with conventional heating, radio-frequency dielectric heating (RFDH) is a faster and more uniform process for heating low-moisture foods. The objective of this study was to design an RFDH process to achieve target destruction (log reductions) of C. sakazakii and Salmonella spp. The thermal destruction (decimal reduction time; D-value) of C. sakazakii and Salmonella spp. in NDM (high-heat, HH; and low-heat, LH) was determined at 75, 80, 85, or 90 °C using a thermal-death-time (TDT) disk method, and the z-values (the temperature increase required to obtain a decimal reduction of the D-value) were calculated. Time and temperature requirements to achieve specific destruction of the pathogens were calculated from the thermal destruction parameters, and the efficacy of the RFDH process was validated by heating NDM using RFDH to achieve the target temperatures and holding the product in a convection oven for the required period. Linear regression was used to determine the D-values and z-values. The D-values of C. sakazakii in HH- and LH-NDM were 24.86 and 23.0 min at 75 °C, 13.75 and 7.52 min at 80 °C, 8.0 and 6.03 min at 85 °C, and 5.57 and 5.37 min at 90 °C, respectively. The D-values of Salmonella spp. in HH- and LH-NDM were 23.02 and 24.94 min at 75 °C, 10.45 and 12.54 min at 80 °C, 8.63 and 8.68 min at 85 °C, and 5.82 and 4.55 min at 90 °C, respectively. The predicted and observed destruction of C. sakazakii and Salmonella spp. were in agreement, indicating that the behavior of the organisms was similar regardless of the heating system (conventional vs

  12. Advice for Trump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Physicist John Holdren, who served as presidential science adviser and head of the Office of Science and Technology Policy during Barack Obama’s presidency, talks to Peter Gwynne about his expectations for the Trump administration’s approach to science and technology

  13. Reservoir and routes of transmission of Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) in a milk powder-producing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C; Braun, P; Hammer, P

    2011-08-01

    Several outbreaks of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) have been described as food-borne illness in neonates and infants. Powdered infant formula has been identified as a source of infection, especially in hospital nurseries, where a bulk of formula nutrient is prepared for the whole day and instructions for preparation are not always followed correctly. Neonates who are underweight or immunosuppressed are especially at risk for an E. sakazakii infection. Considering that milk powder is the main ingredient of powdered infant formula, we analyzed the incidence and distribution of E. sakazakii in a milk powder-producing plant. We looked specifically at the spray-drying towers and roller dryers. Selected isolates from samples taken from the environment and final product were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of the organism within the production area of the plant. Seven pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were detected in the spray-drying area, which presumably entered the plant through an aperture for process air and an improperly controlled roller shutter. Furthermore, textile filters for exhaust air of both the spray-drying towers were identified as internal reservoirs of the pathogen. For economic reasons, powder from the textile filters is reintroduced into the product flow; this can contaminate the final product. For the production of milk powder to be used as an ingredient of powdered infant formula, it was suggested to terminate the process of reintroducing the filtered powder into the product flow. A second transmission route was identified in the roller dryer section of the factory. It could be shown that contaminated milk concentrate could pass the process unheated, thus leading to a contamination of the product with E. sakazakii. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Alexander Häusser; Johannes Leder; Charlene Ketturat; Martin Dresler; Nadira Sophie Faber

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by - more or less qualified - advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We conducted a 2 (sleep deprivation: yes vs. no) x 2 (competency of advisor: medium vs. high) experimental study to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on advice taking in an estimation task. We compa...

  15. Fate of Enterobacter sakazakii attached to or in biofilms on stainless steel upon exposure to various temperatures or relative humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoikyung; Bang, Jihyun; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2008-05-01

    Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii dried on the surface of stainless steel and exposed to 43% relative humidity, as affected by temperature, was studied. Populations of E. sakazakii (7.4 to 8.6 log CFU per coupon) on coupons dried for 2 h at 22 degrees C decreased significantly (P steel immersed in M9 medium, which contains minimal concentrations of nutrients, and infant formula at 25 degrees C and subsequent survival of cells at 25 degrees C as affected by exposure to 23, 43, 68, 85, and 100% relative humidity were investigated. Some of the cells in these biofilms survived under all test relative humidities for up to 42 days. The overall order of survival as affected by relative humidity was 100 > 23 = 43 = 68 > 85% relative humidity, regardless of the medium in which the biofilm was formed. Reduction in viability of cells was significantly greater in biofilm that had formed in M9 medium than in biofilm formed in infant formula. Results indicate that infant formula provides protection for attached cells, as well as cells in biofilm, against lethality on exposure to desiccation. These results are useful when predicting the survival characteristics of E. sakazakii on stainless steel surfaces in processing and preparation kitchen environments.

  16. Drying parameters greatly affect the destruction of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella Typhimurium in standard buffer and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Emilie; Iaconelli, Cyril; Zoz, Fiona; Guyot, Stéphane; Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; Beney, Laurent; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii are two foodborne pathogens involved in neonatal infections from milk powder and infant formula. Their ability to survive in low-moisture food and during processing from the decontamination to the dried state is a major issue in food protection. In this work, we studied the effects of the drying process on Salmonella Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii, with the aim of identifying the drying parameters that could promote greater inactivation of these two foodborne pathogens. These two bacteria were dried under different atmospheric relative humidities in milk and phosphate-buffered saline, and the delays in growth recovery and cultivability were followed. We found that water activity was related to microorganism resistance. C. sakazakii was more resistant to drying than was S. Typhimurium, and milk increased the cultivability and recovery of these two species. High drying rates and low final water activity levels (0.11-0.58) had a strong negative effect on the growth recovery and cultivability of these species. In conclusion, we suggest that effective use of drying processes may provide a complementary tool for food decontamination and food safety during the production of low-moisture foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional advice from George Orwell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Hedegaard

    2015-01-01

    challenge the underlying rationalities and assumptions of the rational yet “knowledge deficient” individual consumer implicitly present in much nutritional advice - both past and present. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general “de......-socialization” of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already tentatively questioned by some nutritionist (Burr et al., 2007) as well as “food” sociologist (Smith & Holm 2010).......Despite of a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the “social gradient” on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (WHO 2013, Marmot & Wilkinson 1999, Marmot et.al 1991, Budrys 2003, Ross & Wu 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual...

  18. Advice dilemmas: Managing advice against the competing public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to resolving this issue is an acknowledgement that, whether as counsellor or health adviser, persuasion and influence are central features of the VCT interaction. Clear practice guidelines and tools are required to assist counsellors to distinguish between advice, suggestion or mere confirmation of an intended client ...

  19. Advice in the Abortion Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)

  20. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausser, J.A.; Leder, J.; Ketturat, C.; Dresler, M.; Faber, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by - more or less qualified - advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We

  1. Advice Giving: A Subtle Pathway to Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaerer, Michael; Tost, Leigh P; Huang, Li; Gino, Francesca; Larrick, Rick

    2018-01-01

    We propose that interpersonal behaviors can activate feelings of power, and we examine this idea in the context of advice giving. Specifically, we show (a) that advice giving is an interpersonal behavior that enhances individuals' sense of power and (b) that those who seek power are motivated to engage in advice giving. Four studies, including two experiments ( N = 290, N = 188), an organization-based field study ( N = 94), and a negotiation simulation ( N = 124), demonstrate that giving advice enhances the adviser's sense of power because it gives the adviser perceived influence over others' actions. Two of our studies further demonstrate that people with a high tendency to seek power are more likely to give advice than those with a low tendency. This research establishes advice giving as a subtle route to a sense of power, shows that the desire to feel powerful motivates advice giving, and highlights the dynamic interplay between power and advice.

  2. Financial Literacy, Confidence and Financial Advice Seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    We find that people with higher confidence in their own financial literacy are less likely to seek financial advice, but no relation between objective measures of literacy and advice seeking. The negative association between confidence and advice seeking is more pronounced among wealthy households.

  3. HIV prevention advice for people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicola; Akhtar, Athfah; Tosh, Graeme E; Clifton, Andrew V

    2014-12-08

    People with serious mental illness have rates of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) infection higher than expected in the general population for the same demographic area. Despite this elevated prevalence, UK national strategies around sexual health and HIV prevention do not state that people with serious mental illness are a high risk group. However, a significant proportion in this group are sexually active and engage in HIV-risk behaviours including having multiple sexual partners, infrequent use of condoms and trading sex for money or drugs. Therefore we propose the provision of HIV prevention advice could enhance the physical and social well being of this population. To assess the effects of HIV prevention advice in reducing morbidity, mortality and preserving the quality of life in people with serious mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (24 January, 2012), which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. There is no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. We planned to include all randomised controlled trials focusing on HIV prevention advice versus standard care or comparing HIV prevention advice with other more focused methods of delivering care or information for people with serious mental illness. Review authors (NW, AC, AA, GT) independently screened search results and did not identify any studies that fulfilled the review's criteria. We did not identify any randomised studies that evaluated advice regarding HIV for people with serious mental illness. The excluded studies illustrate that randomisation of packages of care relevant to both people with serious mental illness and HIV risk are possible. Policy makers, clinicians, researchers and service users need to collaborate to produce guidance on how best to provide advice for people with serious mental illness in

  4. Specific antismoking advice after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete; Larsen, Klaus; Brink-Kjær, Tove

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many stroke survivors would benefit from modification of their lifestyle in order to reduce their risk of recurrent stroke. We investigated if tailored smoking cessation advice would yield a higher smoking cessation rate and a higher rate with sustained abstinence in ex......-smokers in the intervention group than among controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients admitted with an acute stroke or a transient ischaemic attack were included in a randomised controlled trial focusing on control of lifestyle risk factors and hypertension. Here, we report the intervention focused on smoking cessation. We...

  5. Advice for Loved Ones and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the System Books & Resources Employment Issues Finding the Right Doctor Benefits and Insurance Relationships Advice for Loved Ones Sexual & Reproductive Health Sharing Your Diagnosis Support Groups For Clinicians ...

  6. No Effect of Writing Advice on Reading Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2018-01-01

    This article considers text comprehension through the integrated perspectives of language processing research and practical writing advice as expressed in writing guides and language policies. Such guides for instance include advice to use active constructions instead of passives and sentences...... instead of nominalizations. These recommended and problem constructions and two other contrasts were investigated in an eye-tracking experiment where 27 students read four authentic texts where the target constructions had been manipulated. A mixed-effects regression analysis showed no difference between...... recommended and problem constructions, while several control variables were significant. This result indicates that the linguistic manipulations are not in themselves crucial to text comprehension, and it is hypothesized that the central aspect for text comprehension is how the linguistic manipulations...

  7. 5 CFR 2635.107 - Ethics advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ethics advice. 2635.107 Section 2635.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.107 Ethics advice. (a) As required by §§ 2638.201...

  8. Young Children's Trust in Overtly Misleading Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D.; Sritanyaratana, Lalida; Vanderbilt, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to disregard advice from an overtly misleading informant was investigated across five studies (total "n" =212). Previous studies have documented limitations in young children's ability to reject misleading advice. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that these limitations are primarily…

  9. Explaining customer experience of digital financial advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyze the customer experience of digital-driven financial advice systems. It is the objective of this study to develop a cross-cultural model for validating customer experiences of digital financial advice. In doing so, both objective and subjective system aspects have

  10. Use of enhanced nisin derivatives in combination with food-grade oils or citric acid to control Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Alicia; Morrissey, Ruth; Field, Des; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2017-08-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are well known food-borne pathogens that can cause severe disease. The identification of new alternatives to heating to control these pathogens in foods, while reducing the impact on organoleptic properties and nutritional value, is highly desirable. In this study, nisin and its bioengineered variants, nisin V and nisin S29A, are used alone, or in combination with plant essential oils (thymol, carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde) or citric acid, with a view to controlling C. sakazakii and E. coli O157:H7 in laboratory-based assays and model food systems. The use of nisin variants (30 μM) with low concentrations of thymol (0.015%), carvacrol (0.03%) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.035%) resulted in extended lag phases of growth compared to those for corresponding nisin A-essential oil combinations. Furthermore, nisin variants (60 μM) used in combination with carvacrol (0.03%) significantly reduced viable counts of E. coli O157:H7 (3-log) and C. sakazakii (4-log) compared to nisin A-carvacrol treatment. Importantly, this increased effectiveness translated into food. More specifically, sub-inhibitory concentrations of nisin variants and carvacrol caused complete inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice within 3 h at room temperature compared to that of the equivalent nisin A combination. Furthermore, combinations of commercial Nisaplin and the food additive citric acid reduced C. sakazakii numbers markedly in infant formula within the same 3 h period. These results highlight the potential benefits of combining nisin and variants thereof with carvacrol and/or citric acid for the inhibition of Gram negative food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advice to speak English in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Mario Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article addresses the issue of advice given to immigrant parents to speak English only with their children in Australia, as reflected in the Spanish-speaking community. The article shows that something that appears to be down to chance, i.e. whether this advice is given or not, has a social explanation. This social explanation is based on understanding several social variables such as the ethnic identity of the adviser and the year in which the advice was given, as we...

  12. Clinician advice to quit smoking among seniors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shadel, William G; Elliott, Marc N; Haas, Ann C; Haviland, Amelia M; Orr, Nate; Farmer, Melissa M; Ma, Sai; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Farley, Donna O; Cleary, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Little smoking research in the past 20years includes persons 50 and older; herein we describe patterns of clinician cessation advice to US seniors, including variation by Medicare beneficiary characteristics...

  13. The neural basis of following advice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Biele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning by following explicit advice is fundamental for human cultural evolution, yet the neurobiology of adaptive social learning is largely unknown. Here, we used simulations to analyze the adaptive value of social learning mechanisms, computational modeling of behavioral data to describe cognitive mechanisms involved in social learning, and model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify the neurobiological basis of following advice. One-time advice received before learning had a sustained influence on people's learning processes. This was best explained by social learning mechanisms implementing a more positive evaluation of the outcomes from recommended options. Computer simulations showed that this "outcome-bonus" accumulates more rewards than an alternative mechanism implementing higher initial reward expectation for recommended options. fMRI results revealed a neural outcome-bonus signal in the septal area and the left caudate. This neural signal coded rewards in the absence of advice, and crucially, it signaled greater positive rewards for positive and negative feedback after recommended rather than after non-recommended choices. Hence, our results indicate that following advice is intrinsically rewarding. A positive correlation between the model's outcome-bonus parameter and amygdala activity after positive feedback directly relates the computational model to brain activity. These results advance the understanding of social learning by providing a neurobiological account for adaptive learning from advice.

  14. Science advice in the white house? Continuation of a debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnikoff, E B; Brooks, H

    1975-01-10

    Thus, we are skeptical of the commonly stated arguments for re-creation of a science office at the White House, but are ultimately convinced that such an office is justified. A three-man CST is a reasonable proposal, although the detailed structure is less critical than the mandate given to the office, and the general understanding within government of its functions and limitations and of its relationship to the President. To give it permanence, the office should be grounded in a science policy management and oversight function that is critically needed today. That kind of strong office could lead a president to use it as his personal science advisory staff, but the decision must be made anew by each president. The President does have other ways of obtaining scientific advice, although the right kind of science office would be a preferable route in our view. The importance of such an office being able to present its analyses and recommendations in policy terms useful to other policy-makers cannot be overestimated. This has important implications for the kind of competence required to staff and work with such a council; it also requires recognition of the fact that policy-relevant studies and advice can never be value-free, even when carried out by scientists and engineers. And finally, such a council could bring intensive and continuous attention to the international dimension of U.S. science policy, which seems to us to be particularly neglected. It is not yet clear whether there will be any structural changes in the new Administration. But it is not too soon to be clearer about the essential factors that should underlie a sensible proposal for this or the next Administration.

  15. Variability in cell response of Cronobacter sakazakii after mild-heat treatments and its impact on food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eParra-Flores

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. have been responsible for severe infections in infants associated with consumption of powdered infant formula (PIF and follow-up formulae (FUF. Despite several risk assessments described in published studies, few approaches have considered the tremendous variability in cell response that small micropopulations or single cells can have in infant formula during storage, preparation or post process/preparation before the feeding of infants. Stochastic approaches can better describe microbial single cell response than deterministic models as we prove in this study. A large variability of lag phase was observed in single cell and micropopulations of ≤50 cells. This variability increased as the heat shock increased and growth temperature decreased. Obviously, variability of growth of individual Cronobacter sakazakii cell is affected by inoculum size, growth temperature and the probability of cells able to grow at the conditions imposed by the experimental conditions should be taken into account, especially when errors in bottle-preparation practices, such as improper holding temperatures or manipulation, may lead to growth of the pathogen to a critical cell level. The mean probability of illness from initial inoculum size of 1 cell were below 0.2 in all the cases and for inoculum size of 50 cells the mean probability of illness were, in most of the cases, was above 0.7.

  16. Comparative Genomic Characterization of the Highly Persistent and Potentially Virulent Cronobacter sakazakii ST83, CC65 Strain H322 and Other ST83 Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Chase

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter (C. sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen and has been associated with serious infections with high mortality rates predominantly in pre-term, low-birth weight and/or immune compromised neonates and infants. Infections have been epidemiologically linked to consumption of intrinsically and extrinsically contaminated lots of reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, thus contamination of such products is a challenging task for the PIF producing industry. We present the draft genome of C. sakazakii H322, a highly persistent sequence type (ST 83, clonal complex (CC 65, serotype O:7 strain obtained from a batch of non-released contaminated PIF product. The presence of this strain in the production environment was traced back more than 4 years. Whole genome sequencing (WGS of this strain together with four more ST83 strains (PIF production environment-associated confirmed a high degree of sequence homology among four of the five strains. Phylogenetic analysis using microarray (MA and WGS data showed that the ST83 strains were highly phylogenetically related and MA showed that between 5 and 38 genes differed from one another in these strains. All strains possessed the pESA3-like virulence plasmid and one strain possessed a pESA2-like plasmid. In addition, a pCS1-like plasmid was also found. In order to assess the potential in vivo pathogenicity of the ST83 strains, each strain was subjected to infection studies using the recently developed zebrafish embryo model. Our results showed a high (90–100% zebrafish mortality rate for all of these strains, suggesting a high risk for infections and illness in neonates potentially exposed to PIF contaminated with ST83 C. sakazakii strains. In summary, virulent ST83, CC65, serotype CsakO:7 strains, though rarely found intrinsically in PIF, can persist within a PIF manufacturing facility for years and potentially pose significant quality assurance challenges to the PIF manufacturing industry.

  17. Ocorrencia de Enterobacter sakazakii em formulas infantis para lactentes em hospitais e maternidades da região de Campinas/SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Francisco Siqueira dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: Enterobacter sakazakii é uma bactéria patogênica emergente, recentemente classificado pela International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) como ?de risco severo para população restrita, representando ameaça de morte ou de seqüelas crônicas de longa duração?. A população de risco são crianças de até 1 ano, particularmente os prematuros e os recém nascidos de baixo peso corporal. Esse grupo de risco pode sofrer doenças graves como sepse, meningite e enteroco...

  18. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    were of the central type such as migraine, meningitis pain or other types of headaches. For treatment of pain mainly paracetamol, NSAIDs and opioids was used. Paracetamol was offered to all with pain without any registration. Among the patients with nociceptive pain 4 were treated with NSAIDs and one......Background: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and travelling passengers is important and can be Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and travelling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim was to analyse the data from...

  19. Post-tonsillectomy dietary advice: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, A J F; Gaunt, A C; Phillips, J S

    2016-10-01

    To determine if there is evidence that post-tonsillectomy dietary advice affects post-operative morbidity. A systematic review was conducted of Embase, Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsycInfo, to November 2014. Seventeen articles were included; their heterogeneous nature prevented meta-analysis. Of these, all three small, randomised studies showed no statistical difference in morbidity between restricted and non-restricted diets. Most post-tonsillectomy dietary advice is based on historical anecdotes and not rigorous scientific testing. The existing small-scale, randomised studies show no statistical difference in morbidity between non-restricted and restricted diets.

  20. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  1. Policy Analysis for Growth and Employment | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    quality research and policy advice, mobilizing and promoting Southern expertise, and ensuring this expertise is heard in national and international policy ... China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars Network - Phase II.

  2. Consider the source: adolescents and adults similarly follow older adult advice more than peer advice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico S Lourenco

    Full Text Available Individuals learn which of their actions are likely to be rewarded through trial and error. This form of learning is critical for adapting to new situations, which adolescents frequently encounter. Adolescents are also greatly influenced by their peers. The current study tested the extent to which adolescents rely on peer advice to guide their actions. Adolescent and young adult participants completed a probabilistic learning task in which they chose between four pairs of stimuli with different reinforcement probabilities, with one stimulus in each pair more frequently rewarded. Participants received advice about two of these pairs, once from a similarly aged peer and once from an older adult. Crucially, this advice was inaccurate, enabling the dissociation between experience-based and instruction-based learning. Adolescents and adults learned equally well from experience and no age group difference was evident in the overall influence of advice on choices. Surprisingly, when considering the source of advice, there was no evident influence of peer advice on adolescent choices. However, both adolescents and adults were biased toward choosing the stimulus recommended by the older adult. Contrary to conventional wisdom, these data suggest that adolescents may prioritize the advice of older adults over that of peers in certain decision-making contexts.

  3. Consider the source: adolescents and adults similarly follow older adult advice more than peer advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Frederico S; Decker, Johannes H; Pedersen, Gloria A; Dellarco, Danielle V; Casey, B J; Hartley, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Individuals learn which of their actions are likely to be rewarded through trial and error. This form of learning is critical for adapting to new situations, which adolescents frequently encounter. Adolescents are also greatly influenced by their peers. The current study tested the extent to which adolescents rely on peer advice to guide their actions. Adolescent and young adult participants completed a probabilistic learning task in which they chose between four pairs of stimuli with different reinforcement probabilities, with one stimulus in each pair more frequently rewarded. Participants received advice about two of these pairs, once from a similarly aged peer and once from an older adult. Crucially, this advice was inaccurate, enabling the dissociation between experience-based and instruction-based learning. Adolescents and adults learned equally well from experience and no age group difference was evident in the overall influence of advice on choices. Surprisingly, when considering the source of advice, there was no evident influence of peer advice on adolescent choices. However, both adolescents and adults were biased toward choosing the stimulus recommended by the older adult. Contrary to conventional wisdom, these data suggest that adolescents may prioritize the advice of older adults over that of peers in certain decision-making contexts.

  4. Mortgage risks, debt literacy and financial advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, Raun; van Rooij, Maarten C.J.

    2016-01-01

    A limited understanding of mortgage contracts and the risks involved may have contributed to the outbreak of the 2007–2008 financial crisis. We developed a special questionnaire relating mortgage loan decisions to financial knowledge and financial advice. Our results demonstrate that homeowners

  5. Investment research and investment advice: real differences?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggi Manuela; Settanni Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the investment research - a service introduced by MIFID - in order to describe the major application problems. In particular, the paper will an- alyse similarities and differences between investment research and investment advice, highlighting the potential problems in practice, and outlining possible solutions from an operational point of view.

  6. Advice Complexity of the Online Search Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemente, Jhoirene; Hromkovič, Juraj; Komm, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The online search problem is a fundamental problem in finance. The numerous direct applications include searching for optimal prices for commodity trading and trading foreign currencies. In this paper, we analyze the advice complexity of this problem. In particular, we are interested in identifying...

  7. Good Intentions, Bad Advice for Bilingual Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlin, Rebecca; Paneque, Oneyda M.

    2006-01-01

    Quite often, educators tell families of children who are learning English as a second language to speak only English, and not their native language, at home. Although these educators may have good intentions, the authors argue that the educators' advice to families is misguided and stems from misunderstandings about the nature of bilingualism and…

  8. A New Paradigm in Mortgage Loan Advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otterstedt, Margrét Sesselja; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Kulahci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Danish mortgage market has undergone considerable changes during the last 15 years. New and more complex variations of loan products have been introduced. Nevertheless, mortgage loan advice has remained, by large, unchanged. This paper addresses a study where a number of new refinancing rules...

  9. Voting Advice Applications and electoral turnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemenis, Konstantinos; Rosema, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) have become popular tools among voters, especially in several countries with a multi-party system. In this paper we test if the use of VAAs stimulates electoral participation. We use survey data from the Netherlands, where such tools are

  10. Dietary advice in HFE-hemochromatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van G.M.; Gosselink, I.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    This report aims to provide dietary advice which is based on what is known so far about the effect of a diet, particularly on iron overload in HFE-hemochromatosis. The reason that the recommendations in principle apply only to the group of individuals with HFE-gene mutations and are focused on the

  11. Advice to young behavioral and cognitive scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Ronald G

    2008-02-01

    Modeled on Medawar's Advice to a Young Scientist [Medawar, P.B., 1979. Advice to a Young Scientist. Basic Books, New York], this article provides advice to behavioral and cognitive scientists. An important guiding principle is that the study of comparative cognition and behavior are natural sciences tasked with explaining nature. The author advises young scientists to begin with a natural phenomenon and then bring it into the laboratory, rather than beginning in the laboratory and hoping for an application in nature. He suggests collaboration as a way to include research outside the scientist's normal competence. He then discusses several guides to good science. These guides include Tinbergen's [Tinbergen, N., 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410-433. This journal was renamed Ethology in 1986. Also reprinted in Anim. Biol. 55, 297-321, 2005] four "why" questions, Platt's [Platt, J.R., 1964. Strong inference. Science 146, 347-353, (http://weber.ucsd.edu/~jmoore/courses/Platt1964.pdf)] notion of strong inference using multiple alternative hypotheses, and the idea that positive controls help scientists to follow Popper's [Popper, K.R., 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books, New York, p. 41] advice about disproving hypotheses. The author also recommends Strunk and White's [Strunk, W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York] rules for sound writing, and he provides his personal advice on how to use the anticipation of peer review to improve research and how to decode editors' and reviewers' comments about submitted articles.

  12. Characterisation of the antibacterial properties of a bacterial derived peptidoglycan hydrolase (LysCs4), active against C. sakazakii and other Gram-negative food-related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersen, Lorraine; Coffey, Aidan; Ross, R Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia; Hill, Colin; O'Mahony, Jim

    2015-12-23

    Illness caused by the consumption of contaminated food products continues to represent one of the main challenges facing food manufacturers worldwide. Even with current intervention technologies and increased hygiene measures, foodborne illness remains a significant threat to public health. This coupled with the increasing emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens has increased the need for the development of novel technologies for pathogen control. Bacterial derived peptidoglycan hydrolases represent a vast and highly diverse group of enzymes with potential for biocontrol of a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogens. In this study, we describe the identification, cloning, expression and purification of a peptidoglycan hydrolase (LysCs4) derived from Cronobacter sakazakii for biocontrol of the aforementioned infant formula pathogen itself. In silico analysis of LysCs4 revealed the gene to display greatest sequence similarity to a putative lysozyme encoded by the lytic Cronobacter phage ES2. Conserved domain analysis of LysCs4 revealed the presence of a single catalytic domain predicted to display O-Glycosyl hydrolase activity and to be a member of the GH24 family. The ability of this enzyme to hydrolyse the peptidoglycan of 25 Gram-negative strains, across 4 different genera, highlights its potential as a novel candidate for biocontrol of C. sakazakii and other Gram-negative food related pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of distance between initial estimates and advice on advice utilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Schultze; Anne-Fernandine Rakotoarisoa; Stefan Schulz-Hardt Data

    2015-01-01

    ... confidence shifts due to social validation. Whereas previous research suggests that advice is weighted less the more it differs from one's initial opinion, we consistently find evidence of a curvilinear pattern...

  14. Discharge against medical advice in a pediatric emergency center in the State of Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Abdulateef

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze cases that had left the Pediatric Emergency Center Al Sadd, Doha (PEC against medical advice, with the aim of developing policies to help reduce this occurrence. Methodology: All patients that were admitted to the main PEC observation room for treatment and/or investigation and subsequently left against medical advice from February 18, 2007 to June 18, 2007, were followed by a phone call, and a questionnaire, which was completed by the departmental patient representative. Results: 99,133 patients attended the facility during the study period. Of those, 106 left the facility against medical advice. Ninety-four guardians were successfully contacted. 90% of the cases were in children below 2 years of age. In 87% of the cases the mother was the main decision maker for leaving against medical advice. Domestic obligations were the leading cause of DAMA (discharge against medical advice, reported in 45% of the cases. Respondents reported that the consequences of DAMA were well explained by medical staff before they left the facility however, they had not met with the departmental patient representative during their stay. Conclusion:As the majority of DAMA cases occurred in infants, medical staff should address the concerns of this group early on in the course of treatment. Maintaining communication and providing support, in particular for mothers of higher risk groups may help to reduce the rate of DAMA cases.

  15. A study with Paperless Electronic Medical Advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to drive the EMR’s further application and rapid expansion clinically based on the electronic medical advice as the core thereby realizing the paperless EMR. This paper has analyzed the implementation effects of electronic medical advice, followed by discussion of frequently asked questions (FAQ and development direction, and finally analyzed the solution of paperless EMR. It indicates that electronic signatures and unitrust time stamp are keys to achieve the paperless EMR. The laws and regulations, new ideas, paperless consultation sheets, all data integration and sharing, virtual printing technology, application of wireless and mobile ward-round trolley, etc. within the health care field shall be proposed to be improved. It is significantly important to save the medical costs, reduce the medical negligence, achieve the paperless EMR and build a high-quality digital hospital.

  16. Communication of Science Advice to Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2016-01-01

    There are various ways to construct good processes for soliciting and understanding science. Our critique of advisory models finds that a well-supported chief science advisor (CSA) best ensures the provision of deliberative, informal, and emergency advice to government. Alternatively, bias, increasingly manifest as science-based advocacy, can hinder communication, diminish credibility, and distort scientific evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Power in telephone-advice nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Vesa

    2010-03-01

    Power is a central aspect of nursing, especially in telephone-advice nursing, where nurses assess callers' medical problems and decide what measures that need to be taken. This article presents a framework for understanding how power operates in social interaction between nurses and callers in telephone-advice nursing in primary care in Sweden. Power is analysed as the result of nurses and callers being oriented to five social structures that are relevant to their actions in this context, namely the organization of telephone-advice nursing, the social stock of medical knowledge, the professional division of labour between nurses and doctors, structures of social interaction and structures of emotions. While structural constraints govern some actions to a high degree, calls take place in an organizational free room that give nurses more leeway for acting more creatively. The discussion focuses on the introduction of new technologies of control, for instance computerized decision support systems and audio recording of calls, and on how they reduce the free room. Empirical data consist of 276 audio-recorded telephone calls to 13 nurses at six primary-care centres and of qualitative interviews with 18 nurses.

  18. 76 FR 66135 - Investment Advice-Participants and Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Investment Advice; Participants and Beneficiaries; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 206... Administration 29 CFR Part 2550 RIN 1210-AB35 Investment Advice--Participants and Beneficiaries AGENCY: Employee... of 1986, relating to the provision of investment advice to participants and beneficiaries in...

  19. 75 FR 9360 - Investment Advice-Participants and Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR 2550 RIN 1210-AB35 Investment Advice--Participants and... provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, relating to the provision of investment advice to... account plans, as well as providers of investment and investment advice related services to such plans...

  20. Stepwise Advice Negotiation in Writing Center Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Innhwa

    2014-01-01

    While the delivery and reception of advice is a practice integral to a wide range of settings, little attention has been given to the detailed practices of advice resistance and how it leads to advice negotiation. Based on 7 hours of videotaped tutoring interactions among 6 tutors and 11 tutees, this conversation analytic study examines the…

  1. The speech act of advice in Setswana educational contexts | Dlali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this article is to examine the linguistic pragmatics of advice in Setswana. This article will attempt to present an account of the speech act of advice within the broad framework of Brown and Levinson's (1987) politeness theory and explore a range of features of advice in Setswana. The research ...

  2. 32 CFR 776.10 - Informal ethics advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal ethics advice. 776.10 Section 776.10... § 776.10 Informal ethics advice. (a) Advisors. Covered attorneys may seek informal ethics advice either... of Director, JA Division, HQMC; and (5) Head, Standards of Conduct/Government Ethics Branch...

  3. Advice on Writing a Scientific Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.

    2006-04-01

    What makes one author a good communicator and another a poor one? What turns out one manuscript a swift editorial task, and another an editorial nightmare? Based on direct experience from the manuscripts of the lectures and papers presented during this school, advice is given on what to do and on what to avoid when writing a scientific paper. Some feedback recommendation is also provided on how to prepare manuscripts, handle copyright and permissions to reproduce, how to anticipate plagiarism, how to deal with editors and referees, and how to avoid common errors. A few illustrations of English grammar and style for the foreign author are given.

  4. Writing from the wards: advice for residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, Michael D; Zuzuárregui, José-Rafael P; Frank, Samuel A

    2012-03-01

    Published articles share information and ideas across fields and can be a part of educational and career development. Academic and personal interests are the typical motivators, but many residents have trouble with the logistics of writing and the simple act of getting started. The following article gives concrete advice, structural recommendations and addresses logistical concerns in writing manuscripts, focusing on case reports. The process of writing a paper results in self-teaching, while striving to teach others. Working on case reports often produces posters and presentations on the way to writing the manuscript. This article reviews different types of case reports: from the classic sentinel case, to case series, and video submissions, to teaching cases. A "how to" strategy is presented in the writing process, from idea, to data, to writing itself. Aspects such as choosing your audience and journal are discussed, as well as employing coauthors and working together to produce a polished manuscript. Residents and fellows are immersed in clinical medicine but may not possess experience in writing journal articles. Presented is advice on and logistics of writing manuscripts that are based on clinical data and clinical experience. Through utilizing a structured approach and understanding the practicalities involved, more physicians in training can write from the wards.

  5. Let Me Give You a Piece of Advice: Empirical Papers about Advice Taking in Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Tzioti (Stefanie)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUsing advice in decision making is widespread for all sorts of important personal and professional decisions. Yet, traditional research on individual decision making has failed to systematically study the impact that social interactions about a decision problem can have on the decision

  6. The Financial Coaching Advice Model: An Exploration into how it Satisfies Expectations of Quality Advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Knutsen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For 20 years, the financial planning sector in Australia has been transitioning from a sales-orientated force to aprofession of qualified and skilled practitioners. Today, the potential for professional financial planning adviceto benefit Australians financially, economically and psychologically is recognised by government. Financially,these benefits include increased savings, less interest expense through faster debt reduction, higher investmentreturns and appropriate levels of insurance. Economically, a more financially literate society has the potentialfor less reliance on an already burdened social security system. Psychologically, the benefits include the peaceof mind that comes from an individual being confident in financial matters. However, despite this level ofrecognition and development, national surveys have reported that only a small percentage of the populationactually seek professional financial advice. The factors attributing to these low percentages included the gapsin financial literacy limiting an individual’s engagement in financial matters and consumer’s current mistrust ofthe financial advice business models that remain dominated by commission-driven product sales. Thesedeficiencies have led some financial planning firms to break from financial product sales as the primary advicemodel and focus on financial coaching. Exploratory interviews with the practitioners and clients of a selectedfinancial planning firm have generated insightful discussion into how a financial coaching advice model isachieving the financial, economic and psychological benefits recognised by government as the potentialoutcomes of professional financial advice. The aim of this paper is to present the findings from that discussionand demonstrate the opportunities embedded within a financial coaching advice model. It is argued that thisdiscussion offers a foundation for future research direction in an area currently under researched in

  7. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners.

  8. [Dietary advice in type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigalleau, Vincent; Gonzalez, Concepcion; Raffaitin, Christelle; Gin, Henri

    2010-04-20

    The dietary advice is a part of the global care for type 2 diabetes. First, overweight implies a caloric restriction. When poor glucose control is associated with weight gain, important errors are obvious (excess fat and sugar), providing more pills or insulin without correcting them is poorly effective, but promotes further weight gain. Normal body weight, or poor glucose control despite loss of weight, needs to reappraise the diagnosis: diabetes type, intercurrent disease. The cofactors of the "metabolic syndrom" are usually present, so saturated fat has to be reduced, while maintaining fish, fruits, vegetables and whole grain cereals. Blood pressure and dyslipidemia may need further counselling about dietary sodium, carbohydrates, cholesterol. When insulin, sulfonylurea or glinids are indicated, the dietary intake of carbohydrates has to be regular to avoid hypoglycemia.

  9. 29 CFR 1400.735-3 - Advice and counseling service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advice and counseling service. 1400.735-3 Section 1400.735-3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND DISCIPLINE General § 1400.735-3 Advice and counseling service...

  10. Advice-giving in the English lingua franca classroom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including Italian, Spanish, and French, mixed with elements of Greek, Turkish, Arabic and. Persian to create the pidgin tongue first ... Nevertheless, regardless of the dialect spoken or the political popularity of ..... requesting advice. Replies like me too and I also clearly indicate identification with the advice-seeker on the part ...

  11. Advising in austerity reflections on challenging times for advice agencies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirwan, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Advising in austerity provides a lively and thought-provoking account of the conditions, consequences and challenges of advice work in the UK. It examines how advisors negotiate the private troubles of those who come to Citizens Advice Bureaux (CAB) and construct ways forward.

  12. Using Advice from Multiple Sources to Revise and Improve Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Ilan; Milyavsky, Maxim

    2007-01-01

    How might people revise their opinions on the basis of multiple pieces of advice? What sort of gains could be obtained from rules for using advice? In the present studies judges first provided their initial estimates for a series of questions; next they were presented with several (2, 4, or 8) opinions from an ecological pool of advisory estimates…

  13. Discharge against medical advice amongst orthopaedic patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Discharge Against Medical Advice (DAMA) is a term used when patients opt to leave a hospital against the advice of the doctor. Trauma patients account for a significant percentage of these. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of and reasons for DAMA amongst Orthopaedic and trauma ...

  14. Incidence and reasons for Discharge Against Medical Advice in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These have resulted in poorer treatment outcome and patients' dissatisfaction that sometime result in discharge against medical advice. This study is to ascertain the reasons for the growing incidence of discharges against medical advice in the medical wards of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port ...

  15. Discharge Against Medical Advice in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In exercising freedom to determine their own future without external restraints, patients admitted to hospital sometimes opt to leave against medical advice. ... Results: One hundred and fifteen medical patients left hospital against medical advice (82 males and 33 females) and 92 of them (80%) were admitted ...

  16. What Makes Proteges Take Mentors' Advice in Formal Mentoring Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, SuJin; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the factors affecting a protege's willingness to take a mentor's advice. The sample for this study consisted of 183 proteges from two different South Korean organizations who were part of formal mentoring programs. We found protege commitment to be the principal factor that predisposes a protege to take advice from mentors and…

  17. Emotions in advice taking: the roles of agency and valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hooge, I.E.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Tzioti, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, advice taking has received attention in decision-making research, and some studies suggest that emotions may play a role in this process. Yet a clear account of how emotions influence advice taking is lacking. The current research introduces a parsimonious explanation by suggesting that

  18. Antimalarial measures - type, sources of advice and compliance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-06-01

    Jun 1, 1994 ... acid supplementation.. Two of the pharmacies whose suggestions include. Maloprim (pyrimethamine + dapsone) made enquiries about sulphone sensitivity. Regimens were adjusted for size/weight. Table I. Prophylactic advice provided by 70 pharmacies. Advice. Adults Pregnant women Children. Daraclor.

  19. 19 CFR 111.39 - Advice to client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advice to client. 111.39 Section 111.39 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.39 Advice to client. (a) Withheld or false information. A broker must not withhold information relative to any customs business from a client...

  20. The Perceived Impact of Agricultural Advice in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alexander; Hudson, John

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the impact of advice given by extension agents to Ethiopian farmers, as perceived by the farmers themselves. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data from 2014, we analyze the perceived impact of advice on farmers' incomes and crop yields. We use a bootstrapped instrumental variable (IV) estimator and the conditional…

  1. Discharge from hospital against medical advice among paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The reasons underlying discharge against medical advice by Paediatric patients varies from place to place. Discharge against medical advice is frustrating to the medical personnel and deprives the patient of adequate medical care. This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with ...

  2. Advice under uncertainty in the marine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankel, Dorothy J.; Aps, Robert; Padda, Gurpreet

    2012-01-01

    There is some uncertainty in the fisheries science–policy interface. Although progress has been made towards more transparency and participation in fisheries science in ICES Areas, routine use of state-of-the-art quantitative and qualitative tools to address uncertainty systematically is still la...

  3. Career Advice for Young Allergy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, Katja; Nowak, Dennis; Vogelberg, Christian; Ruëff, Franziska

    2016-08-08

    One-third of all young persons entering the work force have a history of atopic disease. Occupationally induced allergy and asthma generally arise in the first few months on the job, while pre-existing symptoms tend to worsen. Young persons with a history of an atopic disease should receive evidence-based advice before choosing a career. We systematically searched PubMed for cohort studies investigating the new onset of asthma, rhinitis, or hand eczema among job trainees from before the start of training and onward into the first few years on the job. The search revealed 514 articles; we read their abstracts and selected 85 full-text articles for further analysis. 24 of these met the inclusion criteria. According to present evidence, atopy and a history of allergic disease (allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis) are the main risk factors for occupationally induced disease. The predictive value of a personal history of allergic diseases for the later development of an occupationally induced disease varies from 9% to 64% in the studies we analyzed. It follows that only young people with severe asthma or severe atopic eczema should be advised against choosing a job that is associated with a high risk of allergy, e.g., hairdressing or working with laboratory animals. Young people with a history of other atopic diseases should be counseled about their individual risk profile. In view of the relatively poor predictive value of pre-existing atopic disease, secondary prevention is particularly important. This includes frequent medical follow-up of the course of symptoms over the first few years on the job. If sensitization or allergic symptoms arise, it should be carefully considered whether exposure reduction will enable the apprentice to stay on the job.

  4. Rapid and sensitive detection of Cronobacter spp. (previously Enterobacter sakazakii) in food by duplex PCR combined with capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jia; Li, Ming; Liu, Ya-Pan; Li, Yuan-Qian; Li, Yong-Xin

    2013-03-15

    Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) is an emerging opportunistic pathogen with a 40-80% mortality rate in infants and immunocompromised crowd resulting from the consumption of contaminated food. A novel method for detecting Cronobacter spp. in food samples by duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detector has been developed. The specific gene sequences of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Cronobacter spp. were amplified by duplex PCR. The PCR products were separated and determined sensitively by CE-LIF within 12min. The relative standard deviations of migration time for the detected DNA fragments were 2.01-2.91%. The detection limit was as low as 1.6×10(1)cfu/mL of Cronobacter spp. Besides, the specificity of the method was verified by 24 non-Cronobacter bacterial strains. A total of 120 commercial infant food formula were tested for the presence of Cronobacter spp. by using the proposed method. This current study demonstrates that the combination of CE-LIF method with duplex PCR is rapid, sensitive and environmental friendly, and has the potential to be adapted for the routine detection of Cronobacter spp. in food samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first use of CE-LIF for the detection of Cronobacter spp. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Caco-2 Invasion by Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica Exposed to Drying and Heat Treatments in Dried State in Milk Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in low moisture food, the decontamination of milk powder is an important issue in food protection. The safety of food products is, however, not always insured and the different steps in the processing of food involve physiological and metabolic changes in bacteria. Among these changes, virulence properties may also be affected. In this study, the effect of drying and successive thermal treatments on the invasion capacity of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, and Cronobacter sakazakii was assessed. Bacteria were dried on milk powder at three different water activity levels (0.25, 0.58, and 0.80 and heated at two different temperatures (90°C and 100°C for 30 and 120 s. After recovery, stressed bacterial populations were placed in contact with Caco-2 cells to estimate their invasion capacity. Our results show that drying increases the invasion capacity of foodborne pathogens, but that heat treatment in the dried state did not exert a selective pressure on bacterial cells depending on their invasion capacity after drying. Taken together, our findings add to the sum of knowledge on food safety in dried food products and provide insight into the effects of food processing.

  6. Inactivation effect of X-ray treatments on Cronobacter species (Enterobacter sakazakii) in tryptic soy broth, skim milk, low-fat milk and whole-fat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, B S M

    2009-11-01

    To determine the inactivation effect of X-ray treatments on Cronobacter (E. sakazakii) in tryptic soy broth (TSB), skim milk (0% fat), low-fat milk (1% and 2%) and whole-fat milk (3.5%). X-rays were produced using the RS 2400 generator system (Rad Source Technologies Inc.). Cronobacter (in TSB), inoculated skim milk (0% fat), low-fat milk (1% and 2% fat) and whole-fat milk (3.5% fat) were treated with 0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 kGy X-ray doses. Surviving bacteria in the TSB and inoculated milk, before and after treatment, were enumerated using plating method onto trypticase soy agar. Greater than 7.0-log CFU reduction in Cronobacter population was observed with 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 6.0 and 6.0 kGy X-ray in the TSB, skim milk, 1% fat milk, 2% fat milk and 3.5% fat milk, respectively. Treatment with X-rays significantly (P industry.

  7. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  8. An Expert's Advice: What To Do If You Have Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Expert's Advice: What To Do If You Have Psoriasis Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... too expensive to continue for very long. We have to make it more accessible and more affordable. ...

  9. 5 CFR 1304.4607 - Advice to former Government employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST § 1304.4607 Advice to former Government employees. The Office of General Counsel, OMB, has the responsibility for providing assistance promptly to former...

  10. Research in geosciences policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    The general task was to look beyond the adverse physical impacts and to defining the policy problem. In order for policy actions to be effective, they must address the right policy problems, which will be different from and broader than the physical problems. We will work on defining the policy problems with a view to indicating how practical solutions might be implemented. In particular, public officials need advice on what should be said, and done, and for what purposes. That advice needs to be based on systematic analysis of: (1) the scholarly literature in the social sciences, and related disciplines; (2) the charging content of the policy debate at the center of attention; and (3) how citizens perceive and understand issues related to global change. We will conduct this analysis. Chapter 1 and 2 each reports work on defining the policy problem and analyzing the scholarly literature. Chapters 3 and 4, respectively, address the policy debate and citizen viewpoints in issues related to global change.

  11. Targeting the robo-advice customer: the development of a psychographic segmentation model for financial advice robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, D.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the world’s first psychographic market segmentation model that supports personalization, customer education, customer activation, and customer engagement strategies with financial advice robots. As traditional segmentation models in consumer finance primarily

  12. The travel advice as an inhibiting factor of tourist movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylonopoulos Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is significantly affected by unpredictable and uncertain factors such as the occurrence of a terrorist attack, an epidemic outbreak or a natural disaster, etc. The impact of these phenomena on the tourist movement of the country or the place where the event occurred is aggravated by the way it is presented by the media both locally and internationally. The adverse climate gets worse by the issuance of travel advice that usually accompanies such phenomena and has the effect of limiting or even halting tourist flows. In order to identify and study the different types of travel advice that have been issued during international tourism crisis incidents, an internet search was carried out using keywords. Moreover, a study on the travel advice issued by major tourists' origin states, as the USA, Australia, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, etc. was carried out. Incidents (terrorist attacks, epidemics, natural disasters which had a great impact on tourism were then selected. In addition, the issuance of travel advice, their different issuing authorities, the classification level and the impact on the tourism of the country or the place in question were examined. An analysis of the reaction and the instructions of major international organizations (World Health Organization, World Tourism Organization concerning the management of such crises, directly or indirectly affecting tourism, were also analyzed. The study of the relevant websites, the international literature and the recorded incidents shows that the issuing of travel advice has negative effects on many sectors of tourism activity and is a bottleneck for tourism development. In fact, in many cases, travel advice is used by countries to exert pressure on other countries in order to achieve a desired result. Due to the enormous economic and social effects when issuing travel advice, the states proper management is necessary in order to minimize the negative consequences and avoid

  13. Young tertiary students and help-seeking for health advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Lesley; Dutton, Jane

    2011-11-01

    Help-seeking is an active process used by people of all ages to obtain assistance to solve problems. This research sought to investigate a component of help-seeking related to health concerns. A health related help-seeking model, was adapted to frame questions for an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Seventy-five students aged between 16 and 24 years responded and data were analysed using content and descriptive statistical techniques. Findings indicated that young people perceived the need to seek advice when unwell, needing support or information, are resourceful, and were motivated to seek help from a variety of sources. Parents and whānau formed one usual source of advice, but young people reported one of the best sources of advice as General Practice nurses and doctors. Barriers to seeking advice included distrusting sources, and concerns about confidentiality. Unsurprisingly, many respondents used the Internet for health information, although some mistrusted that information. Nurses need to be aware of the sources of health advice and support that young people choose to use. Motivations for selecting services, providers, or sources clearly replicated what young people hold as important--sources with which they feel comfortable, have a relationship, trust, and which they perceived as maintaining confidentiality.

  14. Advice-Implicative Interrogatives: Building "Client-Centered" Support in a Children's Helpline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Carly W.; Potter, Jonathan; Danby, Susan; Emmison, Michael; Hepburn, Alexa

    2010-01-01

    Interactional research on advice giving has described advice as normative and asymmetric. In this paper we examine how these dimensions of advice are softened by counselors on a helpline for children and young people through the use of questions. Through what we term "advice-implicative interrogatives," counselors ask clients about the…

  15. Body weight recovery, eating difficulties and compliance with dietary advice in the first year after stem cell transplantation : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iestra, J.A.; Fibbe, W.E.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kromhout, D.

    2002-01-01

    Among healthcare professionals there is no consensus about the best policy to increase oral intake and promote recovery in the post-hospital phase after bone marrow or blood stem cell transplantation. In order to evaluate body weight recovery and compliance with dietary advice among these patients,

  16. Naïve advice in financial decision making: Hidden costs of a free offer

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The current study examines individual decision making in the field of personal finance. A laboratory experiment investigates the way naïve advice influences the decisionmaking process. When advice is offered on demand, participants prefer expert over naïve advice. Although naïve advice is only half the price of expert advice, demand for naïve advice is negligible. When naïve advice is given unsolicited, however, it has nevertheless a strong impact on the decision process by lowering engagemen...

  17. Use and preference of advice on small children's food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey...... of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general...... practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers’ peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households...

  18. Student giving health advice to family and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Simon; Yousuf, Asim

    2016-06-01

    This study explored graduate-entry medical students' experiences of health-advice requests from their family and friends. This was a descriptive thematic analysis study involving a convenience sample of medical students from the University of Warwick 4-year MB ChB graduate-entry medicine programme. Each participating student attended a one-to-one semi-structured interview. Audio recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Data saturation of the main themes was achieved following 14 interviews. Of the 14 students, eight (57%) were males and six (43%) were females. Students were asked to advise on a range of human and veterinary health issues. They were prepared to offer advice on health issues that they felt competent to manage: for example, first-aid scenarios that a 'reasonable layperson' or a first-aider would be able to help with. The nature of health advice given by students became increasingly complex as they progressed through their degree programme; however, they generally refrained from giving advice on complex health issues and chose to refer the individual to seek help from competent professionals instead. Previous research highlighted inappropriate advice could delay individuals seeking help from competent professionals, resulting in adverse clinical outcomes; however, we recommend that students should not be discouraged to act as good Samaritans. Instead, educators could help them to explore the professionalism and ethical issues raised by these requests, and the practical ways of handling these requests sensitively through discussion of case scenarios with acceptable and inappropriate behaviours. This study explored graduate-entry medical students' experiences of health-advice requests from their family and friends. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Health Professional Advice and Adult Action to Reduce Sodium Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; Coleman King, Sallyann M; Park, Soyoun; Fang, Jing; Odom, Erika C; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sodium intake is a key modifiable risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Although 95% of U.S. adults exceed intake recommendations, knowledge is limited regarding whether doctor or health professional advice motivates patients to reduce intake. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and determinants of taking action to reduce sodium, and to test whether receiving advice was associated with action. Analyses, conducted in 2014, used data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey representative of non-institutionalized adults. Respondents (n=173,778) from 26 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico used the new optional sodium module. We estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) based on average marginal predictions, accounting for the complex survey design. Fifty-three percent of adults reported taking action to reduce sodium intake. Prevalence of action was highest among adults who received advice (83%), followed by adults taking antihypertensive medications, adults with diabetes, adults with kidney disease, or adults with a history of cardiovascular disease (range, 73%-75%), and lowest among adults aged 18-24 years (29%). Overall, 23% of adults reported receiving advice to reduce sodium intake. Receiving advice was associated with taking action (prevalence ratio=1.59; 95% CI=1.56, 1.61), independent of sociodemographic and health characteristics, although some disparities were observed across race/ethnicity and BMI categories. Our results suggest that more than half of U.S. adults in 26 states and two territories are taking action to reduce sodium intake, and doctor or health professional advice is strongly associated with action. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Advice Complexity of the Online Induced Subgraph Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komm, Dennis; Královič, Rastislav; Královič, Richard

    2016-01-01

    these problems by investigating a generalized problem: for an arbitrary but fixed hereditary property, find some maximal induced subgraph having the property. We investigate this problem from the point of view of advice complexity, i.e. we ask how some additional information about the yet unrevealed parts...... of the input can influence the solution quality. We evaluate the information in a quantitative way by considering the best possible advice of given size that describes the unknown input. Using a result from Boyar et al. we give a tight trade-off relationship stating that, for inputs of length n, roughly n...

  1. A Qualitative Study of Advice from Bereaved Parents and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L.; Miller, Kimberly S.; Barrera, Maru; Davies, Betty; Foster, Terrah L.; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Hogan, Nancy; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing bereavement literature, relatively little is known about what families find helpful after a child’s death and how best to assist them during the grieving process. This qualitative study explored advice from 40 families (65 parents, 39 siblings) of children died who cancer 6–19 months earlier. Content analysis emphasized the individual nature of grief and revealed advice that fit into three temporal categories: before the death, soon after, and long-term. Findings are discussed in the context of contemporary theory and provide insight into the development and timing of grief interventions. PMID:21895435

  2. Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) Core Grant - Phase IV ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) Core Grant - Phase IV. Established in 1996, Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) is an organization that coordinates a network of researchers that seeks to provide the Government of South Africa, civil society and the region with independent advice on economic policy, ...

  3. Productive ward 2: practical advice to facilitators implementing the programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsopp, Pete; Faruqi, Joe; Gascoigne, Laura; Tennyson, Rachel

    This is the second in a two-part series looking at the implementation of Productive Ward. Part one looked at roll-out of the initiative across a hospital This part offers advice to facilitators involved in implementing the programme.

  4. The Public Services Job Hunt: Observations and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The library science job market is competitive, and library and information science (LIS) students and new graduates often have questions and concerns about how to engage in a successful job hunt. Based on research with employers and interactions with students and alumni, the author offers advice for job-seekers looking for public services…

  5. Time Advice and Learning Questions in Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Students (N = 101) used an introductory text and a computer simulation to learn fundamental concepts about statistical analyses (e.g., analysis of variance, regression analysis and General Linear Model). Each learner was randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (with or without time advice) x 3 (with learning questions and corrective feedback, with…

  6. Constructing victims and perpetrators of rape in the advice column

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This article reports on the ways in which the rape of women by men is constructed in the advice column Dear Dolly, published in the South African periodical Drum Magazine. The data collected for the study spans from 1984 to 2004, encompassing both 10 years before and 10 years after the onset of democracy in ...

  7. Essay-Writing: Do Study Manuals Give Relevant Advice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalski, Pauline A.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the writing of 28 geography students at Otago University (New Zealand) compared aspects of the essays with grading and rater comments. It is concluded that, although study manuals for essay-writing can help some students, their advice may not be useful to all; other methods may be more helpful. (Author/MSE)

  8. Advice for Writing a Thesis (Based on What Examiners Do)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Clinton

    2017-01-01

    In the article, "What examiners do: What thesis students should know", we identified 11 things that thesis examiners do as they read and judge a thesis. But, we left a gap in the research: knowing this, What should thesis students do to write for their examiners? In this article, I fill the gap. The advice for thesis students is: first,…

  9. Discharge from hospital against medical advice among paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty eight (87.5%) of the 32 children whose social class were available came from low social class. Conclusions: Discharge against medical advice is not infrequent in the study population. We recommend health education and free medical care for under-five children and comprehensive implementation of National ...

  10. Professional Development Advice from Past Presidents of ACPA and NASPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Diane L.; Miller, Theodore K.; Saunders, Sue A.; Chernow, Erin; Kulic, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Surveys past presidents of ACPA and NASPA (N=25) regarding their advice for individuals beginning their first entry-level position and for seasoned professionals planning to move into Chief Student Affairs Officers (CSAO) positions. Several of the themes that emerged included: pursue opportunities for professional development, develop strong…

  11. Disparities in hypertension control advice according to smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Davila, Evelyn P; Zhao, Wei; Arheart, Kristopher; Hooper, Monica Webb; Byrne, Margaret; Messiah, Antoine; Dietz, Noella; Huang, Youjie; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Blood pressure (BP) reduction, particularly among smokers, is highly effective at preventing cardiovascular diseases. We examined the association between patient smoking status and hypertension management advice. Adults who participated in the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with self-reported hypertension were examined (n=51,063). Multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, insurance status, body mass index, alcohol use, self-reported general health and survey design were conducted to examine the association between smoking status (never, former, or current) and receipt of hypertension control advice. After controlling for potential confounders, being a current smoker was significantly associated with lower odds of receiving advice to lower salt intake (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR, 0.91 [95% confidence interval=0.84-0.99]), exercise (AOR 0.89 [0.80-0.98]), and to take hypertensive medication (AOR 0.80 [0.66-0.98]) compared to never smokers. However, hypertensive smokers had greater odds of receiving advice to reduce alcohol consumption (AOR 1.23 [1.10-1.45]). Although healthcare providers are in an optimal position to provide patient education to improve BP control, hypertensive smokers may be less likely to receive important BP control lifestyle modification messages from their healthcare provider than non-smokers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding DSM-5. Advice for South African practitioners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding DSM-5. Advice for. South African practitioners. Correspondence. Prof. C Allgulander email: Christer.Allgulander@ki.se. Table I: Brief history of classic diagnoses and classifications. 81-138 Aretaeus: bipolar disease. 1746. Carl von Linné: Morbi mentales: Dementia, Mania, Vesania,. Delirium, Melancholia.

  13. Library Students Are "Breaking Good" with Saul Goodman's Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkewitz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Graduate students are taking big steps and stretching themselves, whether returning to school midpoint in their lives, taking classes on unfamiliar topics, or starting internships and trying to put theory into practice. Who better to offer advice to these graduate students than America's favorite hilarious, morally ambiguous, ambulance-chasing,…

  14. Sense about Sex: Media, Sex Advice, Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Feona; Barker, Meg John; Boynton, Petra; Hancock, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The media are widely acknowledged as important in sex and relationship education, but they are usually associated with "bad" effects on young people in contrast to the "good" knowledge represented by more informational and educational formats. In this paper we look at sex advice giving in newspapers, magazines and television in…

  15. Sustained Forced Sale Value Opinion Advice in Nigerian Valuation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    Sustained Forced Sale Value Opinion Advice in Nigerian. Valuation Practice: The Recurring Face of a Bad Coin. Terzungwe Timothy Dugeri. Department of Estate Management, Kaduna State Univeristy. Abstract. This study, the first in a series testing for standardisation of practice among professional Valuers, explores the ...

  16. Web accessibility practical advice for the library and information professional

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Offers an introduction to web accessibility and usability for information professionals, offering advice on the concerns relevant to library and information organizations. This book can be used as a resource for developing staff training and awareness activities. It will also be of value to website managers involved in web design and development.

  17. Advice to Graduate Students: From Application to Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADE Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Offers advice to graduate students studying English and those studying foreign languages, covering issues relevant to candidates for master's degrees or doctorates. Suggests questions to ask when selecting a graduate program, including those related to investigating the program and inquiring about employment and financial assistance, teaching…

  18. Dear author--advice from a retiring editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, J M

    1999-09-01

    This commentary, detailing the handling of a manuscript by the editor and guiding authors on preparing manuscripts and responding to reviews, provides parting advice to authors from a retiring editor. A close reading of this commentary will give some insight into the editorial process at the American Journal of Epidemiology through the observations of one of its editors.

  19. Advice to White Allies: Insights from Faculty of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Gloria S.; Jackson, Tambra O.

    2014-01-01

    This article interweaves discussions of successes and tensions surrounding cross-racial collaborative social justice efforts in teacher education. It addresses frustrations that often occur for faculty of Color when working with White allies in P-12 settings and schools of education at Predominantly White Institutions. Advice is offered with the…

  20. Styles of Physician Advice about Smoking Cessation in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Leigh; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether young adult cigarette smokers who were in the precontemplation and contemplation stages of change for smoking cessation would differ in their evaluations of vignettes depicting 2 types of physician advice. Participants: Fifty-seven young adult cigarette smokers who were undergraduate students (49.1% female, mean age =…

  1. The advice of the wise: Afterthoughts about reality checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bergsma (Ad)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOne of the aims of this special issue on happiness advice was to assess the reality value of recommendations. All papers checked empirical indications for effectiveness, typically by inspecting whether the things advised have been found to be related to happiness in empirical research.

  2. Marriage Advice for Parents of Children With Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Children With Special Needs KidsHealth / For Parents / Marriage Advice for Parents of Children With Special Needs Print en español Consejos matrimoniales para padres de niños con necesidades especiales If you're raising a child with special needs, you probably devote much of ...

  3. Investing in government science advice for better policymaking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-10

    Oct 10, 2017 ... A new project funded by IDRC and led by the International Network for Government Science Advice (INGSA) seeks to facilitate the flow of information between academia and governments to ensure that sound scientific evidence informs policymaking. As part of this grant, applications are now open for six ...

  4. 31 CFR 10.37 - Requirements for other written advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... give written advice (including electronic communications) concerning one or more Federal tax issues if... or should know, or, in evaluating a Federal tax issue, takes into account the possibility that a tax return will not be audited, that an issue will not be raised on audit, or that an issue will be resolved...

  5. Personalized nutrition advice : an everyday-life perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents societal preconditions for Personalized Nutrition Advice (PNA) that result from an everyday-life perspective on this innovative approach. Generally, PNA is regarded as promising, because it provides users with highly specific information on individual health risks and benefits

  6. Dietary advice on prescription: experiences with a weight reduction programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräutigam-Ewe, Marie; Lydell, Marie; Månsson, Jörgen; Johansson, Gunnar; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2017-03-01

    To describe overweight persons' experiences with weight reduction and participation in the dietary advice on prescription. Approximately 20% of overweight individuals are able to successfully lose weight. Experiences from earlier weight reduction programmes indicate that those who succeed typically manage to avoid overeating to handle stress and have high motivation to lose weight. Those who fail have low self-control and engage in negative health behaviours such as eating when experiencing negative emotions and stress. The study used a descriptive qualitative design and was conducted at a Primary Health Care Centre in south-west Sweden. The first nineteen study participants who completed the weight reduction programme in two years responded in writing to five open questions about their experiences with the programme. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The participants appreciated the face-to-face meetings with the nurse because they felt seen and listened to during these sessions. They also felt their life situations and self-discipline had an impact on how well they were able to follow the programme. Dietary advice on prescription advice was considered to be helpful for achieving behavioural changes and losing weight. People who succeeded in sustainably losing weight described the importance of support from partners or close friends. To achieve sustainable weight reduction, it is important to individualise the programme in order to address each person's life situation and the unique difficulties they may encounter. Motivational interviewing appears to be a good technique for developing a successful relationship between the nurse and the patient. The dietary advice on prescription advice was perceived to be a good way to improve food habits and can easily be used at many Primary Health Care Centres. Patient's partners should also be offered the opportunity to participate in the programme. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Discharge against Medical Advice among Children in Oman: A university hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadoon, Muna; Al-Shamousi, Khalid

    2013-11-01

    Discharge against medical advice (DAMA) is a major problem in healthcare delivery as it can complicate the health problems from which patients are suffering. The aim of this study was to understand DAMA among children in a tertiary teaching hospital in Oman and to evaluate the documentation of the events in the medical records. A retrospective survey of the medical records of patients discharged against medical advice over a two-year interval was performed (2004-2006). Of the 11,802 admissions, there were 38 cases of DAMA, giving a prevalence rate of 0.32%. In 39.5% of the cases, the discharge happened within 24 hours of hospital admission. The majority of the cases were infants (n = 24; 63.25%). The diagnosis at discharge in some cases included life-threatening conditions. However, in 57.9% of the cases, the reasons for DAMA were neither reported nor documented in the patients' medical records. Although the results of this study yielded a low prevalence rate compared to the rates reported in other studies, the occurrence of DAMA for children in a tertiary hospital is a distressing phenomenon. It was evident that the documentation of the DAMA process was poor. More studies should be conducted to understand the details of the problem. Policies should be established and implemented in order to attempt to reduce DAMA among child patients and to protect them from the consequences of such discharges.

  8. Economic advice as a vocation: symbioses of scientific and political authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William

    2011-06-01

    Academic economists perform an important function in advising politicians and state bureaucrats, lending them epistemological authority. This creates a challenge of institutional design and of professional vocation, of how these experts can combine their commitment to scientific analysis with their commitment towards their governmental patrons. This article examines the case of anti-trust economics, in which government economists are encouraged to remain as academically engaged as possible, so that their advice will be - or appear to be - unpolluted by political or bureaucratic pressures. Yet this ideal is constantly compromised by the fact that the economists are nevertheless government employees, working beneath lawyers. Max Weber's concept of a 'vocation' is adopted to explore this tension, and his two lectures, 'Science as a Vocation' and 'Politics as a Vocation' are read side by side, to consider this core dilemma of academic policy advisors. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  9. A phenomenologic investigation of pediatric residents' experiences being parented and giving parenting advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L

    2016-09-01

    Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing.

  10. Nutritional advice for community patients: insights from a panel discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linda V; Jenkins, Gill; Belton, Julie; Clements, Suzie; Jacob, Ciara; Johnson, Naomi; Joy, Deirdre; Low, Jennifer; Munson, Eileen; Sheppard, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the conclusions of an expert panel that discussed four case studies; these were examples of patients typically encountered by nurses working in the community. The panel considered the nutritional and lifestyle advice that could be given by nurses relating to conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, vulnerability to common infections, elderly care, recurrent urinary tract infection, antibiotic use, and risk of type 2 diabetes. A general conclusion was the importance of motivational interviewing techniques in achieving full understanding of patients' concerns and to determine the best health strategy. As well as specific guidance appropriate for each disorder, a range of information sources for both health professionals and patients are listed in the paper. The panel noted that, although general nutritional advice can be given by nurses working at GP surgeries and in the community, patients should always be referred to registered dietitians or nutritionists if significant dietary changes are considered.

  11. Nutrigenomics-based personalised nutritional advice: in search of a business model?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Berezowska, A.; Goossens, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional advice has mainly focused on population-level recommendations. Recent developments in nutrition, communication, and marketing sciences have enabled potential deviations from this dominant business model in the direction of personalisation of nutrition advice. Such personalisation efforts

  12. Self-selection and advice in venture capital finance

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2007-01-01

    In financing start-up firms, venture capitalists carefully select among alternative projects, design incentive compatible financial contracts and support portfolio companies with value enhancing managerial advice. This paper considers how venture capitalists can induce self-selection among entrepreneurial firms with different qualities by designing appropriate contracts and offering commercial support. We study the efficiency of the competitive market equilibrium with respect to the level and...

  13. Patient responses to inhaler advice given by community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Aarup, Kristine Hallberg Friis; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of counseling in community pharmacy depends on its ability to help patients improve their use of medicine and thereby health status, by their adherence to recommendations. Studies showing how patients respond to daily pharmacy counseling are, however, scarce. The aim......, this aspect should be investigated further, as this could help staff providing adequate counseling to patients. Further, pharmacy staff should focus more on supporting patients implementing their health advice at home....

  14. Sport participation and Ramadan observance: Advice for the athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, Roy J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A growing number of Muslim athletes now engage in international competition. This raises the question of the advice they should be given if a major event occurs during the month of Ramadan. Methods: A narrative review has been based upon books and extensive reviews completed by the author and other investigators. Results: Practical considerations hamper assessment of the effects of Ramadan upon physical performance, but there seem small decreases in muscular strength and both an...

  15. Millennials at Work: The Advice of Great Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    community. For ex- ample, implementing environmentally “green” choices within the workplace will allow millennials to connect with the orga- nization and...March–April 2015 Millennials , more than previous generations, expect an envi- ronment of honesty, trust and integrity in the workplace and all... Millennials at Work The Advice of Great Leaders Carol Axten Axten has more than 30 years of experience in Defense Department engineering, program

  16. Why Financial Advice Cannot Substitute for Financial Literacy?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Debbich

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of financial advice provided by sellers of financial services to substitute for financial literacy of customers. I set up a simple theoretical model in which an informed financial advisor communicates with a less informed customer of financial services. Given the existence of a conflict of interest from the advisor's perspective, the model predicts that only well financially sophisticated customers receive relevant information from the advisor. This fact tends ...

  17. Weight Advice Associated With Male Firefighter Weight Perception and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Austin L; Poston, Walker S C; Jahnke, Sara A; Haddock, C Keith; Luo, Sheng; Delclos, George L; Day, R Sue

    2015-10-01

    The high prevalence of overweight and obesity threatens the health and safety of the fire service. Healthcare professionals may play an important role in helping firefighters achieve a healthy weight by providing weight loss counseling to at-risk firefighters. This study characterizes the impact of healthcare professional weight loss advice on firefighter weight perceptions and weight loss behaviors among overweight and obese male firefighters. A national sample of 763 overweight and obese male firefighters who recalled visiting a healthcare provider in the past 12 months reported information regarding healthcare visits, weight perceptions, current weight loss behaviors, and other covariates in 2011-2012. Analyzed in 2013, four unique multilevel logistic regression models estimated the association between healthcare professional weight loss advice and the outcomes of firefighter-reported weight perceptions, intentions to lose weight, reduced caloric intake, and increased physical activity. Healthcare professional weight loss advice was significantly associated with self-perception as overweight (OR=4.78, 95% CI=2.16, 10.57) and attempted weight loss (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.25, 3.38), but not significantly associated with reduced caloric intake (OR=1.26, 95% CI=0.82, 1.95) and increased physical activity (OR=1.51, 95% CI=0.89, 2.61), after adjusting for confounders. Healthcare professional weight loss advice appears to increase the accuracy of firefighter weight perceptions, promote weight loss attempts, and may encourage dieting and physical activity behaviors among overweight firefighters. Healthcare providers should acknowledge their ability to influence the health behaviors of overweight and obese patients and make efforts to increase the quality and frequency of weight loss recommendations for all firefighters. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reinforcement learning agents providing advice in complex video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew E.; Carboni, Nicholas; Fachantidis, Anestis; Vlahavas, Ioannis; Torrey, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a teacher-student framework for reinforcement learning, synthesising and extending material that appeared in conference proceedings [Torrey, L., & Taylor, M. E. (2013)]. Teaching on a budget: Agents advising agents in reinforcement learning. {Proceedings of the international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems}] and in a non-archival workshop paper [Carboni, N., &Taylor, M. E. (2013, May)]. Preliminary results for 1 vs. 1 tactics in StarCraft. {Proceedings of the adaptive and learning agents workshop (at AAMAS-13)}]. In this framework, a teacher agent instructs a student agent by suggesting actions the student should take as it learns. However, the teacher may only give such advice a limited number of times. We present several novel algorithms that teachers can use to budget their advice effectively, and we evaluate them in two complex video games: StarCraft and Pac-Man. Our results show that the same amount of advice, given at different moments, can have different effects on student learning, and that teachers can significantly affect student learning even when students use different learning methods and state representations.

  19. Evaluating the science behind the management advice for North Sea cod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeves, S.A.; Pastoors, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1974, annual assessments have constituted the core of the scientific advice underpinning management of the North Sea cod stock. Here, we base our evaluation of the assessments' performance on the quality of the advice and on the wider issue of how science is used to produce management advice.

  20. A quantitative analysis of the quality and content of the health advice in popular Australian magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amanda; Smith, David; Peel, Roseanne; Robertson, Jane; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-06-01

    To examine how health advice is provided in popular magazines and the quality of that advice. A prospective quantitative analysis of the quality of health advice provided in Australian magazines between July and December 2011 was conducted. A rating instrument was adapted from the Media Doctor Australia rating tool used to assess quality of health news reporting. Criteria included: recommends seeing a doctor; advice based on reliable evidence; advice clear and easily applied; benefits presented meaningfully; potential harms mentioned; evidence of disease mongering; availability and cost of treatments; obvious advertising; vested interest, and anecdotal evidence. 163 health advice articles were rated showing a wide variation in the quality of advice presented between magazines. Magazines with 'health' in the title, rated most poorly with only 36% (26/73) of these articles presenting clear and meaningful advice and 52% (38/73) giving advice based on reliable evidence. Australian magazines, especially those with health in the title, generally presented poor quality, unreliable health advice. Teen magazine Dolly provided the highest quality advice. Consumers need to be aware of this when making health choices. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. 22 CFR 8.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 8.2 Section 8.2 Foreign Relations... solely for advisory functions and any decision taken pursuant to the advice or recommendation of an... advisory committees will be open to the public unless there is a compelling reason which requires...

  2. Following celebrities’ medical advice: meta-narrative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To synthesise what is known about how celebrities influence people’s decisions on health. Design Meta-narrative analysis of economics, marketing, psychology, and sociology literatures. Data sources Systematic searches of electronic databases: BusinessSource Complete (1886-), Communication & Mass Media Complete (1915-), Humanities Abstracts (1984-), ProQuest Political Science (1985-), PsycINFO (1806-), PubMed (1966-), and Sociology Abstracts (1952-). Inclusion criteria Studies discussing mechanisms of celebrities’ influence on people in any context. Results Economics literature shows that celebrity endorsements act as signals of credibility that differentiate products or ideas from competitors and can catalyse herd behaviour. Marketing studies show that celebrities transfer their desirable attributes to products and use their success to boost their perceived credibility. Psychology shows that people are classically conditioned to react positively to the advice of celebrities, experience cognitive dissonance if they do not, and are influenced by congruencies with their self conceptions. Sociology helps explain the spread of celebrity medical advice as a contagion that diffuses through social networks and people’s desire to acquire celebrities’ social capital. Conclusions The influence of celebrity status is a deeply rooted process that can be harnessed for good or abused for harm. A better understanding of celebrity can empower health professionals to take this phenomenon seriously and use patient encounters to educate the public about sources of health information and their trustworthiness. Public health authorities can use these insights to implement regulations and restrictions on celebrity endorsements and design counter marketing initiatives—perhaps even partnering with celebrities—to discredit bogus medical advice while promoting evidence based practices.

  3. More about software requirements thorny issues and practical advice

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2006-01-01

    No matter how much instruction you've had on managing software requirements, there's no substitute for experience. Too often, lessons about requirements engineering processes lack the no-nonsense guidance that supports real-world solutions. Complementing the best practices presented in his book, Software Requirements, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers tackles even more of the real issues head-on in this book. With straightforward, professional advice and practical solutions based on actual project experiences, this book answers many of the tough questions rais

  4. Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) - Phase III | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) is an network of researchers established in 1996 that seeks to provide the Government of South Africa, civil society and the region with independent advice on economic policy, with a particular focus on trade and industrial issues. Its mission is to form a critical mass of intellectual ...

  5. Delivering effective science communication: advice from a professional science communicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sam

    2017-10-01

    Science communication is becoming ever more prevalent, with more and more scientists expected to not only communicate their research to a wider public, but to do so in an innovative and engaging manner. Given the other commitments that researchers and academics are required to fulfil as part of their workload models, it is unfair to be expect them to also instantly produce effective science communication events and activities. However, by thinking carefully about what it is that needs to be communicated, and why this is being done, it is possible to develop high-quality activities that are of benefit to both the audience and the communicator(s). In this paper, I present some practical advice for developing, delivering and evaluating effective science communication initiatives, based on over a decade of experience as being a professional science communicator. I provide advice regarding event logistics, suggestions on how to successfully market and advertise your science communication initiatives, and recommendations for establishing effective branding and legacy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrition myths and healthy dietary advice in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Mazza, Mary Carol; Lucan, Sean C

    2015-05-01

    Healthy dietary intake is important for the maintenance of general health and wellness, the prevention of chronic illness, the optimization of life expectancy, and the clinical management of virtually all disease states. Dietary myths (i.e., concepts about nutrition that are poorly supported or contradicted by scientific evidence) may stand in the way of healthy dietary intake. Dietary myths exist about micronutrients, macronutrients, non-nutrients, and food energy. Representative myths of each type include that patients need to focus on consuming enough calcium to ensure bone health, dietary fat leads to obesity and is detrimental to vascular health, all fiber (whether naturally occurring or artificially added) is beneficial, and food calories translate to pounds of body weight through a linear relationship and simple arithmetic. A common theme for dietary myths is a reductionist view of diet that emphasizes selected food constituents as opposed to whole foods. Healthy dietary advice takes a more holistic view; consistent evidence supports recommendations to limit the consumption of ultraprocessed foods and to eat whole or minimally processed foods, generally in a form that is as close to what occurs in nature as possible. Family physicians can help dispel myths for patients and give sound nutritional advice by focusing on actual foods and broader dietary patterns.

  7. Unrealistic optimism in advice taking: A computational account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yuan Chang; Zaki, Jamil

    2018-02-01

    Expert advisors often make surprisingly inaccurate predictions about the future, yet people heed their suggestions nonetheless. Here we provide a novel, computational account of this unrealistic optimism in advice taking. Across 3 studies, participants observed as advisors predicted the performance of a stock. Advisors varied in their accuracy, performing reliably above, at, or below chance. Despite repeated feedback, participants exhibited inflated perceptions of advisors' accuracy, and reliably "bet" on advisors' predictions more than their performance warranted. Participants' decisions tightly tracked a computational model that makes 2 assumptions: (a) people hold optimistic initial expectations about advisors, and (b) people preferentially incorporate information that adheres to their expectations when learning about advisors. Consistent with model predictions, explicitly manipulating participants' initial expectations altered their optimism bias and subsequent advice-taking. With well-calibrated initial expectations, participants no longer exhibited an optimism bias. We then explored crowdsourced ratings as a strategy to curb unrealistic optimism in advisors. Star ratings for each advisor were collected from an initial group of participants, which were then shown to a second group of participants. Instead of calibrating expectations, these ratings propagated and exaggerated the unrealistic optimism. Our results provide a computational account of the cognitive processes underlying inflated perceptions of expertise, and explore the boundary conditions under which they occur. We discuss the adaptive value of this optimism bias, and how our account can be extended to explain unrealistic optimism in other domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Advice Taking from Humans and Machines: An fMRI and Effective Connectivity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Kimberly; Parasuraman, Raja; Chernyak, Sergey; Madhavan, Poornima; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Krueger, Frank

    2016-01-01

    With new technological advances, advice can come from different sources such as machines or humans, but how individuals respond to such advice and the neural correlates involved need to be better understood. We combined functional MRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis with an X-ray luggage-screening task to investigate the neural basis and corresponding effective connectivity involved with advice utilization from agents framed as experts. Participants were asked to accept or reject good or bad advice from a human or machine agent with low reliability (high false alarm rate). We showed that unreliable advice decreased performance overall and participants interacting with the human agent had a greater depreciation of advice utilization during bad advice compared to the machine agent. These differences in advice utilization can be perceivably due to reevaluation of expectations arising from association of dispositional credibility for each agent. We demonstrated that differences in advice utilization engaged brain regions that may be associated with evaluation of personal characteristics and traits (precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, temporoparietal junction) and interoception (posterior insula). We found that the right posterior insula and left precuneus were the drivers of the advice utilization network that were reciprocally connected to each other and also projected to all other regions. Our behavioral and neuroimaging results have significant implications for society because of progressions in technology and increased interactions with machines.

  9. Advice taking from humans and machines: an fMRI and effective connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Goodyear

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With new technological advances, advice can come from different sources such as machines or humans, but how individuals respond to such advice and the neural correlates involved need to be better understood. We combined functional MRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis with an X-ray luggage-screening task to investigate the neural basis and corresponding effective connectivity involved with advice utilization from agents framed as experts. Participants were asked to accept or reject good or bad advice from a human or machine agent with low reliability (high false alarm rate. We showed that unreliable advice decreased performance overall and participants interacting with the human agent had a greater depreciation of advice utilization during bad advice compared to the machine agent. These differences in advice utilization can be perceivably due to reevaluation of expectations arising from association of dispositional credibility for each agent. We demonstrated that differences in advice utilization engaged brain regions that may be associated with evaluation of personal characteristics and traits (precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, temporoparietal junction and interoception (posterior insula. We found that the right posterior insula and left precuneus were the drivers of the advice utilization network that were reciprocally connected to each other and also projected to all other regions. Our behavioral and neuroimaging results have significant implications for society because of progressions in technology and increased interactions with machines.

  10. Advice to Policy Makers Who Would Tackle Syria: The Problem with Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    place but are difficult to replicate; “ zombie problems” that do not stay fixed; problems that resist a definitive definition; and the reality that... comes from the possibility of lessening the negative impact of the dynamic and increasing the likelihood that the dynamic will have positive...fraud or result rigging, and an increase in hate speech tend to exacerbate “Nasarwasalam, Iraq (Jan. 30,2005) - Iraqi citizens come out in masses to

  11. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  12. IDRC contributes to policy advice for G20 Summit in Hamburg ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-07

    Jul 7, 2017 ... IDRC thought leadership in two areas — eSkills for women and girls and the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) — is contributing to ... contribute to agricultural resilience to climate change in Costa Rica and Brazil by developing more sustainable soil and water management strategies.

  13. Smart Meters in the Netherlands. Revised financial analysis and policy advice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerwen, R.; Koenis, F.; Schrijner, M.; Widdershoven, G.

    2010-07-15

    Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI) has instructed KEMA to perform a revised cost-benefit analysis to gain insight into the consequences of the changed circumstances with respect to the business case for the introduction of smart meters in the Netherlands.

  14. 76 FR 17180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal Renewal of an Advisory Committee... international economic policy. The Committee provides information and advice on the effective integration of economic interests into overall foreign policy and on the Department of State's role in advancing American...

  15. 77 FR 1548 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Tuesday, January 31, 2012, in room 1107 of the..., and provides advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting...

  16. 75 FR 67804 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday, November 18, 2010, at the U.S... advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will focus on India...

  17. 76 FR 53165 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Tuesday, September 13, 2011, in room 1107 of the... advisory capacity, and provides advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy...

  18. 75 FR 42813 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday, August 12, 2010, at the U.S... advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will focus on a...

  19. 77 FR 57180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Wednesday, October 3, 2012, in room 1107 of the..., and provides advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting...

  20. 78 FR 42148 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. on Wednesday, July 31, 2013, in Room 1107 of... capacity, and provides advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The...

  1. 78 FR 24784 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. on Tuesday, May 14, 2013, in Room 1105 of the..., and provides advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting...

  2. 76 FR 71617 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday, December, 8, 2011, in room 1107 of the... capacity, and provides advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The...

  3. 77 FR 33014 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Wednesday, June 20, 2012, in room 1107 of the..., and provides ] advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting...

  4. Parents' professional sources of advice regarding child discipline and their use of corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; Moeller, William; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet C

    2013-02-01

    Parents (n = 500) were surveyed about which professional groups they were most likely to seek and follow advice from regarding child discipline as well as their use of corporal punishment (CP). Nearly half of the parents reported that they were most likely to seek child discipline advice from pediatricians (48%), followed by religious leaders (21%) and mental health professionals (18%). Parents who sought advice from religious leaders (vs pediatricians) had nearly 4 times the odds of reporting use of CP. Parents reported that they were more likely to follow the advice of pediatricians than any other professional; however, black parents were as likely to follow the advice of religious leaders as that of pediatricians. Pediatricians play a central role in advising parents about child discipline. Efforts to engage pediatricians in providing violence prevention counseling should continue. Increased efforts are needed to engage other professionals, especially religious leaders, in providing such advice to parents.

  5. Parents’ professional sources of advice regarding child discipline and their use of corporal punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Moeller, William; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet C.

    2014-01-01

    Parents (n=500) were surveyed about which professional groups they were most likely to seek and follow advice from regarding child discipline as well as their use of corporal punishment (CP). Nearly half of parents reported that they were most likely to seek child discipline advice from pediatricians (48%), followed by religious leaders (21%) and mental health professionals (18%). Parents that sought advice from religious leaders (vs. pediatricians) had nearly 4 times the odds of reporting use of CP. Parents reported they were more likely to follow the advice of pediatricians than any other professional; however, Black parents were as likely to follow the advice of religious leaders as that of pediatricians. Pediatricians play a central role in advising parents about child discipline. Efforts to engage pediatricians in providing violence prevention counseling should continue. Increased efforts are needed to engage other professionals, especially religious leaders, in providing such advice to parents. PMID:23185082

  6. Parents’ professional sources of advice regarding child discipline and their use of corporal punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Catherine A; Moeller, William; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Parents (n=500) were surveyed about which professional groups they were most likely to seek and follow advice from regarding child discipline as well as their use of corporal punishment (CP). Nearly half of parents reported that they were most likely to seek child discipline advice from pediatricians (48%), followed by religious leaders (21%) and mental health professionals (18%). Parents that sought advice from religious leaders (vs. pediatricians) had nearly 4 times the odds of reporting us...

  7. Sport participation and Ramadan observance: Advice for the athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy J. Shephard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A growing number of Muslim athletes now engage in international competition. This raises the question of the advice they should be given if a major event occurs during the month of Ramadan. Methods: A narrative review has been based upon books and extensive reviews completed by the author and other investigators. Results: Practical considerations hamper assessment of the effects of Ramadan upon physical performance, but there seem small decreases in muscular strength and both anaerobic and aerobic capacity.  Nevertheless, athletes who wish to observe Ramadan can reduce such effects by prior adjustment of diet and training plans, minimizing sleep loss, and careful management of fluid and food intake during the period of intermittent fasting. Conclusion: Competitors in most events can observe Ramadan with a small loss of athletic performance. However, intermittent fasting can endanger health for individuals with type I diabetes mellitus, and for participants in ultra-endurance events (particularly under hot conditions.

  8. Advice and dissent: rating the corporate governance compact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, C R; Lorsch, J W; Hanson, L

    1991-01-01

    The July-August 1991 HBR presented "A New Compact for Owners and Directors," a set of principles for reconciling differences between owners and managers. In "Advice and Dissent: Rating the Corporate Governance Compact," a panel of three experts evaluates the Compact--and takes issue with its fundamental recommendation. Clifton R. Wharton, Jr., chairman and CEO of TIAA-CREF, describes how his organization brings delinquent managers and directors to task. Harvard Business School professor Jay W. Lorsch explains why strengthening the role of outside directors will develop more effective corporate control. And Lord Hanson, chairman of Hanson PLC, reaffirms the importance of maintaining a unitary board of directors and maximizing shareholder value.

  9. The effects of civility on advice, leadership, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Christine L; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Schorch, Sebastian L

    2015-09-01

    Workplace incivility is rampant and on the rise-with costs to individuals and organizations. Despite the increased need for civility, little is known about potential individual benefits of civility, defined as behavior involving politeness and regard for others in the workplace, within workplace norms for respect (Andersson & Pearson, 1999). Recent research has suggested that being civil may be hazardous to influence, power, and income (see Forni, 2002; Judge et al., 2012).Yet, throughout history, civil behavior has been extolled because it paid dividends to the person who behaved well. The focus of this research is whether that holds true in organizations. Using social exchange theory, we developed hypotheses about how civility benefits people, and investigated this in 2 studies. First, in a 2-wave social network study of a research and development department (n = 31) of a biotechnology firm, we found that people who perceived a colleague as civil would be more likely to seek that person out for work advice and to see that person as a leader. The more the individual was perceived as civil by others in his or her network, the better his or her performance. Being sought out for work advice and being viewed as a leader mediated this effect. In the second experiment (n = 162), we extended our understanding of what drove these benefits. We found that people who are civil were perceived as warm and competent, and these positive perceptions, in turn, helped to explain the benefits garnered. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Nutritional Advice for Patients with Melasma in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdis Mojtabaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Melasma (called Kalaf in Iranian traditional medicine is a common acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of skin. Several factors including exposure to sunlight, pregnancy, and endocrine diseases increase the risk for Melasma. In traditional medicine, antecedent philosophers and physicians have tried to understand the nature and mechanisms of different systems of the human body for the diagnosis and management of Melasma; they have offered different solutions for it. This study is important since Melasma is a disease causing mental side effects in patients, due to darkness and opacity of the skin; therefore, the treatment of Melasma in terms of its psychological complications is of particular importance. In addition, texts of Iranian traditional medicine contain a wealth of nutritional advice for patients with Melasma. These texts have, until now, not yet been reviewed. The present study has considered the most important references of Iranian traditional medicine texts. Objectives The objective of this study was to extract and categorize the nutritional advice of Iranian traditional medicine texts for the treatment of Melasma. Results Dietary recommendations, not only for treatment but also for prevention of diseases and staying healthy, are very efficient. Conclusions Based on the traditional medicine texts, it is helpful to avoid Soda-producing food as well as to identify appropriate food in order to eliminate the accumulation of Soda or black bile from the blood. This study offers a set of analytical and clinical research on food, which in traditional medicine is called Soda-producing as well as Soda reducing.

  11. The return to agricultural advice in Ethiopia: A rationale for a success story?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Alexander; Hudson, John

    2015-01-01

    The most recent data shows that cereal production in Ethiopia is increasing very rapidly. We examine the potential impact on this of the advice given by extension agents. Using survey data from 2014, we find a positive impact of several kinds of advice on both crop yields and income. However, not all advice is positive in its impact and there is evidence that advice on credit may actually have a negative impact, particularly on income, although this impact may be less for better educated farm...

  12. Sociality Mental Modes Modulate the Processing of Advice-Giving: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People have different motivations to get along with others in different sociality mental modes (i.e., communal mode and market mode, which might affect social decision-making. The present study examined how these two types of sociality mental modes affect the processing of advice-giving using the event-related potentials (ERPs. After primed with the communal mode and market mode, participants were instructed to decide whether or not give an advice (profitable or damnous to a stranger without any feedback. The behavioral results showed that participants preferred to give the profitable advice to the stranger more slowly compared with the damnous advice, but this difference was only observed in the market mode condition. The ERP results indicated that participants demonstrated more negative N1 amplitude for the damnous advice compared with the profitable advice, and larger P300 was elicited in the market mode relative to both the communal mode and the control group. More importantly, participants in the market mode demonstrated larger P300 for the profitable advice than the damnous advice, whereas this difference was not observed at the communal mode and the control group. These findings are consistent with the dual-process system during decision-making and suggest that market mode may lead to deliberate calculation for costs and benefits when giving the profitable advice to others.

  13. Pregnant women's secondhand smoke exposure and receipt of screening and brief advice by prenatal care providers in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011-2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it.

  14. The importance of nutrition, diet and lifestyle advice for cancer survivors - the role of nursing staff and interprofessional workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jane L; Girot, Elizabeth A

    2013-06-01

    To examine current guidelines and the evidence base to illustrate the importance of nutrition, diet and lifestyle advice to support people who have survived cancer and help them integrate back into normal life, improve their quality of life and potentially improve their chance of long-term survival. Cancer survivors need to know about nutrition and other lifestyle behaviour changes to help them recover and potentially reduce the risk of the same cancer recurring or a new cancer developing. From this perspective, frontline registered nurses are in a prime position to support cancer survivors who are in their care. Discursive paper. On the basis of the international research evidence and a critical analysis of recent policy and practice literature, themes emerged, which illustrate the importance of nutrition, diet and lifestyle advice for cancer survivors. This paper discusses the need for more focused education and greater interprofessional working for quality care delivery. New professional guidance for emerging frontline nurses indicates they should be able to provide appropriate and more consistent advice on nutritional issues, physical activity and weight management, although more research is needed to understand the right mode of nutrition training. Additionally, interprofessional working needs improving as well as encouraging cancer survivors to respond. High-quality nutrition education and training is required for nurses working across both the acute and primary care sectors. They require this to effectively monitor and advise patients and to know when, where and from whom they can access more specialist help. Interprofessional collaborative working across multi-centre settings (National Health Service and non-National Health Service) is key to provide the best effective care and support for cancer survivors. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Factors influencincing discharge against medical advice among paediatric patients in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, Roland Chidi; Muoneke, Vivan U; Nnebe-Agumadu, Uche H; Amadife, Mary-Ann U

    2009-02-01

    Discharge against medical advice (DAMA) has become a major problem in health care delivery in Nigeria. Children are the victims because most of the times they are not the one taking the decision, and may not understand or contribute to it. This retrospective study was undertaken to identify the factors that influence DAMA among paediatric patients in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki in southeastern Nigeria, with a view at curbing it. There were 97 cases of DAMA out of a total admission of 6505 giving a prevalence rate of 1.5%. Infants constituted 52.2% of them, of which 37.8% were neonates. Majority (96.7%) were from lower social classes residing in rural villages (61.1%).Neonatal conditions (36.7%) were the most common condition for which DAMA was sought, followed by severe malaria (22.2%) and road traffic accident with fractures (12.2%). The common reasons given for DAMA were financial constraint (33.3%), resort to native treatment (25%) and hopelessness of the disease condition (15%). DAMA at the study site is closely asssociated with parental poverty and ignorance. Neonates and older children with surgical conditions are the most vulnerable group. Policies should be targeted at protecting these groups.

  16. [Pre-travel advice and patient education of Hungarian travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Ingrid; Felkai, Péter

    2018-03-01

    According to international surveys, over half of the travellers face some kind of health issue when travelling. The overwhelming majority of travel-related illnesses can be prevented with pre-travel medical consultations, but the syllabus and content of the consultation have to match the travel habits and culture of the given society. This publication explores the specificities and travel habits of Hungarian travellers. One hundred participants of a travel exhibition completed a survey about their international travel. As the survey was not representative, the data could only be processed through simple statistical methods. However, since the exhibition was presumably attended by those wishing to travel, the conclusions drawn from the results are worth publishing, since no similar survey in Hungary has been published before. Based on the suitable classification of age groups in travel medicine, 11% of the participants were adolescents / young adults (aged 15-24), 81% adults (25-59) and 8% elderly (60-74). Twenty-eight percent of the participants travel multiple times a year, 40% yearly and 32% of them less frequently; 16% of the adults, 8% of the adolescents and 4% of the elderly age group travel multiple times a year. The travel destinations of Hungarian travellers have remained practically unchanged since a study was conducted 13 years ago: the vast majority (95%) travelled within Europe, 2% to the United States, and 11% of them elsewhere. Since Hungarians do not travel to endemic areas, only 5% consulted their general practitioners (GPs) prior to travelling, and 29% did when they had to be vaccinated. Forty-two percent of those wishing to travel never consult their GPs, even though 29% of them are aware of some chronic illness. Instead, 51% gather their health information from the internet and only 6% from their doctors. By the contradiction between the poor health status of the majority of Hungarian travellers and the negligence of seeking pre-travel advice

  17. Assessing drivers ability to carry out headway advice in motorway car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, Malte; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; nb,

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve throughput on motorways, a headway advisory system is being developed. This system could enable drivers to choose their headway differently by providing in-vehicle advice. How well are drivers able to follow a time or a distance headway advice and what effect has vehicle speed

  18. Quality of Extension Advice: A Gendered Case Study from Ghana and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne-Godwin, Julien; Williams, Frances; Bandara, Willoru Mudiyansele Palitha Thilakasiri; Appiah-Kubi, Ziporah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Women farmers have less access to extension services than male farmers, even though they make up almost half of the global agricultural workforce. Gender-focused international development programmes have focused on how ensuring women receive better access to advice. However, the quality of the technical advice and the service women…

  19. The role of financial literacy and advice in fi nancial decision making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A growing body of research is focused on determining to what extent fi nancial advice can act as a substitute for low levels of fi nancial literacy. To date, studies have found confl icting results. This study used data from a national survey of South Africans to determine whether advice could substitute for low levels of fi nancial ...

  20. The impact of naïve advice and observational learning in beauty-contest games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.; Sutter, M.; Wakolbinger, F.

    2007-01-01

    We study the impact of advice or observation on the depth of reasoning in an experimental beauty-contest game. Both sources of information trigger faster convergence to the equilibrium. Yet, we find that subjects who receive naïve advice outperform uninformed subjects ermanently, whereas subjects

  1. 12 CFR 9.101 - Providing investment advice for a fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (including acting as investment adviser to a mutual fund). Additionally, the qualifying phrase “if the bank... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Providing investment advice for a fee. 9.101... ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Interpretations § 9.101 Providing investment advice for a fee. (a) In general...

  2. Flipping Advice for Beginners: What I Learned Flipping Undergraduate Mathematics and Statistics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a description of my experiences flipping undergraduate mathematics and statistics courses for the first time with some advice for any fellow novice flippers. This paper discusses ways to start small and build up to a completely flipped class over the span of a few terms with advice on what technology to use including software…

  3. Psychological effects of prescriptive vs general lifestyle advice for weight loss in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew S; Norman, Robert J; Clifton, Peter M; Noakes, Manny

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of prescriptive lifestyle advice with quantifiable dietary and physical goals compared to general lifestyle advice on weight and psychological outcomes in young women with overweight or obesity. A total of 203 women (body mass index 33.3+/-0.3, age 28+/-0.3 years) received either prescriptive or general lifestyle advice for weight loss over 12 weeks. Linear mixed models found that the prescriptive lifestyle advice group had significantly greater weight loss (4.2+/-0.4 kg vs 0.6+/-0.2 kg, Padvice group. However, the prescriptive lifestyle advice group also had greater attrition (48% vs 31%, Padvice group. Linear mixed models found that the prescriptive lifestyle advice group had greater improvement in psychological distress (-3.0+/-0.04 vs -1.1+/-0.01, Padvice group. Changes in psychological distress and self-esteem remained significantly different between groups after correcting for weight loss. Food cravings decreased significantly over time without group differences (P0.05). Drop-outs had greater baseline psychological distress (15.1+/-0.7 vs 12.5+/-0.4, Pyoung women compared to general lifestyle advice. However, these quantitative targets should be accompanied with qualitative advice on how they could be met in a variety of circumstances.

  4. Young People's Use of Friends and Family for Sex and Relationships Information and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Eryl

    2008-01-01

    With the recognition that improving access to advice and support on sex and relationships is vital in helping young people make positive healthy choices, the present paper explores how young people gain such information and advice. Drawing on the analysis of questionnaire and interview data collected for a local study of 401 young people from…

  5. Empowering Girls through Sport? Sports Advice Books for Young Female Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecken, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Advice books by female athletes are among the top selling sports books for young readers in the US. Though they have received little attention to date, sports advice books are important to examine because of how they function as a form of conduct manual instructing girls in specific understandings of female identity. Implying that girls face…

  6. Pragmatic Variations in Giving Advice in L2 by Malaysian Postgraduate Students: The Situational Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farashaiyan, Atieh; Muthusamy, Paramasivam

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempted to describe the giving advice strategies utilized by Malaysian postgraduate students in confronting different situations. In addition, it examined the effects of the situational factors of social distance, power, and imposition on the students' choice of giving advice strategies. Another objective was to categorize the…

  7. Whose Expertise?: An Analysis of Advice Giving in Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood and early childhood special education programs have a focus on parent-educator partnerships. Parent-teacher conferences are a context for these partnerships, and advice giving is one type of exchange occurring within conferences. Parent-teacher conference advice was investigated through participant interviews and the methodology of…

  8. Patients, evidence and genes: an exploration of GPs' perspectives on gene-based personalized nutrition advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.; Molder, te H.F.M.; Hiddink, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Nutrigenomics science examines the response of individuals to food compounds using post-genomics technology. It is expected that in the future, personalized nutrition advice can be provided based on information about genetic make-up. Objectives. Gene-based personalized nutrition advice

  9. From single-species advice to mixed-species management: taking the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Reeves, S.A.; Patterson, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Fishery management advice has traditionally been given on a stock-by-stock basis. Recent problems in implementing this advice, particularly for the demersal fisheries of the North Sea, have highlighted the limitations of the approach. In the long term, it would be desirable to give advice...... a recent approach used to address these problems. The approach takes the single-species advice for each species in the fishery as a starting point, then attempts to resolve it into consistent catch or effort advice using fleet-disaggregated catch forecasts in combination with explicitly stated management...... priorities for each stock. Results are presented for the groundfish fisheries of the North Sea, and these show that the development of such approaches will also require development of the ways in which catch data are collected and compiled. (C) 2004 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea...

  10. Vascular injuries during gynecological laparoscopy: the vascular surgeon's advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Barbosa Barros

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Iatrogenic vascular problems due to laparoscopy are a well recognized problem and lead to significant repercussions. In this context, a ten-year review of cases topic is presented, based on experience gained while heading two important vascular surgery services. CASES: Five patients with vascular injuries during elective laparoscopy are described. These patients presented with seven lesions of iliac vessels. All cases were evaluated immediately and required laparotomy, provisional hemostasis and urgent attendance by a vascular surgeon. Direct suturing was performed in three cases. One aortoiliac bypass and one ilioiliac reversed venous graft were made. Venous lesions were sutured. One case of a point-like perforation of the small bowel was found. There were no deaths and no complications during the postoperative period. DISCUSSION: Important points on this subject are made, and advice is given. There needs to be immediate recognition of the vascular injury, and expert repair by a vascular surgeon is recommended, in order to significantly reduce the degree of complications.

  11. Refugees' advice to physicians: how to ask about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patricia J

    2014-08-01

    About 45.2 million people were displaced from their homes in 2012 due to persecution, political conflict, generalized violence and human rights violations. Refugees who endure violence are at increased risk of developing chronic psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression. The primary care visit may be the first opportunity to detect the devastating psychological effects of trauma. Physicians and refugees have identified communication barriers that inhibit discussions about mental health. In this study, refugees offer advice to physicians about how to assess the mental health effects of trauma. Ethnocultural methodology informed 13 focus groups with 111 refugees from Burma, Bhutan, Somali and Ethiopia. Refugees responded to questions concerning how physicians should ask about mental health in acceptable ways. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic categorization informed by Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence. Refugees recommended that physicians should take the time to make refugees comfortable, initiate direct conversations about mental health, inquire about the historical context of symptoms and provide psychoeducation about mental health and healing. Physicians may require specialized training to learn how to initiate conversations about mental health and provide direct education and appropriate mental health referrals in a brief medical appointment. To assist with making appropriate referrals, physicians may also benefit from education about evidence-based practices for treating symptoms of refugee trauma. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Top-selling childbirth advice books: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly Powell; Nardini, Katrina; McLeod-Waldo, Rebecca; Ennis, Linda

    2009-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that one-third of women receive information about pregnancy and childbirth through books. Messages about what characteristics are normal (or expected) in childbirth are disseminated in a variety of ways, including popular childbirth education books, but little study of them has been conducted. The purpose of this investigation is to address that gap by examining the discussions about childbirth in the 10 top-selling books in the United States. Discourse analysis (relating to the public, personal, and political discussions about a specific phenomenon) was used to study 10 best-selling United States childbirth advice books marketed to childbearing women during the first week of November 2007. Book styles ranged from clinical descriptions of pregnancy and birth primarily offering reassurance, self-help information, and danger signs to more folksy and humorous commentaries. Presentation of scientific evidence to support recommendations was uneven and at times inaccurate. Five focal areas of discourse included body image, labor and birth, pain, power and control, and life preparation for motherhood. Top-selling books shine an interesting light on the current state of United States maternity practices. Women and health professionals should assess them carefully and engage with each other about their recommendations and implications for childbirth.

  13. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The District Level Household Survey (2007-08 was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver

  14. Expert financial advice neurobiologically "Offloads" financial decision-making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Capra, C Monica; Noussair, Charles; Berns, Gregory S

    2009-01-01

    Financial advice from experts is commonly sought during times of uncertainty. While the field of neuroeconomics has made considerable progress in understanding the neurobiological basis of risky decision-making, the neural mechanisms through which external information, such as advice, is integrated during decision-making are poorly understood. In the current experiment, we investigated the neurobiological basis of the influence of expert advice on financial decisions under risk. While undergoing fMRI scanning, participants made a series of financial choices between a certain payment and a lottery. Choices were made in two conditions: 1) advice from a financial expert about which choice to make was displayed (MES condition); and 2) no advice was displayed (NOM condition). Behavioral results showed a significant effect of expert advice. Specifically, probability weighting functions changed in the direction of the expert's advice. This was paralleled by neural activation patterns. Brain activations showing significant correlations with valuation (parametric modulation by value of lottery/sure win) were obtained in the absence of the expert's advice (NOM) in intraparietal sulcus, posterior cingulate cortex, cuneus, precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Notably, no significant correlations with value were obtained in the presence of advice (MES). These findings were corroborated by region of interest analyses. Neural equivalents of probability weighting functions showed significant flattening in the MES compared to the NOM condition in regions associated with probability weighting, including anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral PFC, thalamus, medial occipital gyrus and anterior insula. Finally, during the MES condition, significant activations in temporoparietal junction and medial PFC were obtained. These results support the hypothesis that one effect of expert advice is to "offload" the calculation of value of decision options from the

  15. The power of advice: experts in Chinese climate change politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuebbeke, Jost

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the role of experts in Chinas climate change policy. With the beginning of the UNFCCC process, many semi-official institutes and universities emerged, dealing with the scientific, economic and political aspects of climate change. The major argument presented here is that experts are important actors in Chinese climate change politics, and that they have been underestimated in research on China. This analysis has two aims: first, applying a science, policy interface model from regime theory, it examines the political impact of various research organizations during different stages of the policy-making process. In the second step, analysis turns to the causes behind the degree of impact. These include the relevance of administrative links, the quality of knowledge, and personal ties. The results show that, in particular, semi-official institutes and certain universities can have a very high impact on political action.(auth)

  16. Drinking policies and exercise-associated hyponatraemia: is anyone still promoting overdrinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, F G; Hew-Butler, T; Noakes, T D

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of hydration research and advice on drinking during exercise from published scientific papers, books and non-scientific material (advertisements and magazine contents) and detail how erroneous advice is likely propagated throughout the global sports medicine community. Hydration advice from sports-linked entities, the scientific community, exercise physiology textbooks and non-scientific sources was analysed historically and compared with the most recent scientific evidence. Drinking policies during exercise have changed substantially throughout history. Since the mid-1990s, however, there has been an increase in the promotion of overdrinking by athletes. While the scientific community is slowly moving away from "blanket" hydration advice in which one form of advice fits all and towards more modest, individualised, hydration guidelines in which thirst is recognised as the best physiological indicator of each subject's fluid needs during exercise, marketing departments of the global sports drink industry continue to promote overdrinking.

  17. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-04-17

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  18. Understanding barriers to following advice: Evaluation of an advisory service from dairy farmers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Katharina Charlotte; Scheu, Theresa; Duc, Phuong Do; Gundling, Frieder; Wichern, Anika; Hemmel, Malin; Hoedemaker, Martina; Wellbrock, Wiebke; Campe, Amely

    2016-01-01

    In dairy herd health medicine, the success of consultation is sometimes limited as farmers do not always implement given advice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate a consultation performed during a study in the northwest of Germany and thereby to detect barriers that hinder farmers with long lasting problems in herd health from implementing veterinary advice. Six to twelve months after a non-recurring extensive herd health analysis and consultation, 38 farmers were interviewed by phone. Nearly all farmers were content with the farm visit, and 79% of the farmers stated that they had implemented at least some of the advice. This shows that farmers appreciated this service in general and were willing to follow advice. Even though the results cannot be generalized, factors that could be considered by advisors to improve the success of consultation were detected: Reasons as to why the advice was rejected were mostly related to farmers' expectations. Implementing only some of the advice was caused by a lack of time, self-discipline, money, and a lacking farm successor. Factors that pleased farmers were friendliness of the study veterinarians, in-depth examinations, handling of cows, good advice and how well organized the farm visit was. Factors that displeased the farmers were usually indicated only by one farmer each. Other factors influencing the success of consultation were the teamwork with the practising veterinarian, the self-evaluation of the farmers and the desire of the farmers for a single reason for the herd health problems.

  19. Advice for salt, sugar and fat intake habits among adults: a national-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suele Manjourany Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : A healthy diet is recognized as an important strategy for promoting health as an essential part of non-pharmacological therapy of various health problems. OBJECTIVE : To analyze the reported advice for the intake of salt, sugar and fat for the Brazilian adults living in urban areas. METHODOLOGY : National-based cross-sectional study with 12,402 adults interviewed in 100 Brazilian cities. RESULTS : The most prevalent advice was to low fat intake (38%, followed by the advice to low salt and sugar intake (36% and sugar (29%. The percentage of receiving different advice was similar and more common among women, older people, those with a partner, higher economic class, former smokers, active and in person with physician diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes and overweight. People with white skin color received more advice to eat healthy food, except for the orientation to low salt intake. CONCLUSION : The results show a low prevalence of advice, which configures a missed opportunity to prevent health problems. Although dietary counseling should not be understood only as the transmission of advice regarding some nutrients, it is important to develop actions in order to qualify services and health professionals, allowing the population to have access to qualified information about the benefits of having healthy lifestyles.

  20. Weight Management Advice for Clients with Overweight or Obesity: Allied Health Professional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne J. Snodgrass

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The potential for allied health professionals to intervene through the provision of lifestyle advice is unknown. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals in the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for clients with overweight or obesity. Dietitians, exercise physiologists, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and psychologists (n = 296 working in New South Wales were surveyed using paper-based and online methods. The majority of health professionals (71% believed that providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice; 81% provided physical activity advice but only 57% provided dietary advice. Other than dietitians, few had received training in client weight management during their professional qualification (14% or continuing education (16%. Providing dietary advice was associated with: believing it was within their scope of practice (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.9–7.9, p < 0.01, training during their entry-level qualification (OR 7.2, 3.2–16.4, p < 0.01 and having departmental guidelines (OR 4.7, 2.1–10.9, p < 0.01. Most health professionals are willing to provide lifestyle advice to clients with overweight or obesity but few have received required training. Developing guidelines and training for in client weight management may potentially impact on rising obesity levels.

  1. Pretravel health advice among international travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Maldonado, Fernando; Quispe, Wanda; Serrano, Edson; Mozo, Karen; Gonzales, Elsa; Seas, Carlos; Verdonck, Kristien; Echevarria, Juan I; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Cuzco, a Peruvian city of historical interest located 3,326 m above sea level, is a frequent destination for tourists. We conducted a descriptive study to assess the extent and sources of pretravel health advice received by international travelers before their arrival to Cuzco. Data were collected as part of a health survey among travelers. Between August and November 2002, travelers between 15 and 65 years old were invited to fill out a questionnaire in the departing area of Cuzco's international airport. A total of 5,988 travelers participated. The mean age was 35.4 years (SD 11.4 yr); 50.6% were female and 50.8% were single. Tourism was the reason for traveling in 90.2% of the participants, and 89.3% of them were traveling with companions. Pretravel health information was received by 93.6%. The median number of information sources was two, with books (41.5%), travel medicine clinics (38.8%), the Internet (23.3%), and general practitioners (22.7%) as the main sources. Most frequently received recommendations were about safe food and water consumption (85%), use of insect repellents (66.0%), sunburn protection (64.4%), and condom use (22%). Only 16.5% took medication to prevent altitude sickness, and 14.2% took medication to prevent traveler's diarrhea. Variables independently associated with receiving pretravel health information from a health care professional were female gender, country of residence other than the United States, length of stay in Cuzco > 7 days, length of stay in other Peruvian cities > 7 days, tourism as the main reason for visiting Cuzco, traveling with companions, and consulting of more than one source of information. Most travelers arriving to Cuzco had received pretravel health information, and the majority obtained it from more than one source. Recommendations addressed for specific health risks, such as altitude sickness prophylaxis, were received by few travelers.

  2. Designing occupancy studies: general advice and allocating survey effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    1. The fraction of sampling units in a landscape where a target species is present (occupancy) is an extensively used concept in ecology. Yet in many applications the species will not always be detected in a sampling unit even when present, resulting in biased estimates of occupancy. Given that sampling units are surveyed repeatedly within a relatively short timeframe, a number of similar methods have now been developed to provide unbiased occupancy estimates. However, practical guidance on the efficient design of occupancy studies has been lacking. 2. In this paper we comment on a number of general issues related to designing occupancy studies, including the need for clear objectives that are explicitly linked to science or management, selection of sampling units, timing of repeat surveys and allocation of survey effort. Advice on the number of repeat surveys per sampling unit is considered in terms of the variance of the occupancy estimator, for three possible study designs. 3. We recommend that sampling units should be surveyed a minimum of three times when detection probability is high (> 0.5 survey-1), unless a removal design is used. 4. We found that an optimal removal design will generally be the most efficient, but we suggest it may be less robust to assumption violations than a standard design. 5. Our results suggest that for a rare species it is more efficient to survey more sampling units less intensively, while for a common species fewer sampling units should be surveyed more intensively. 6. Synthesis and applications. Reliable inferences can only result from quality data. To make the best use of logistical resources, study objectives must be clearly defined; sampling units must be selected, and repeated surveys timed appropriately; and a sufficient number of repeated surveys must be conducted. Failure to do so may compromise the integrity of the study. The guidance given here on study design issues is particularly applicable to studies of species

  3. Trends in professional advice to lose weight among obese adults, 1994 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J Elizabeth; Doescher, Mark P; Saver, Barry G; Hart, L Gary

    2005-09-01

    Obesity is a fast-growing threat to public health in the U.S., but information on trends in professional advice to lose weight is limited. We studied whether rising obesity prevalence in the U.S. was accompanied by an increasing trend in professional advice to lose weight among obese adults. We used the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional prevalence study, from 1994 (n = 10,705), 1996 (n = 13,800), 1998 (n = 18,816), and 2000 (n = 26,454) to examine changes in advice reported by obese adults seen for primary care. Self-reported advice from a health care professional to lose weight. From 1994 to 2000, the proportion of obese persons receiving advice to lose weight fell from 44.0% to 40.0%. Among obese persons not graduating from high school, advice declined from 41.4% to 31.8%; and for those with annual household incomes below 25,000 dollars, advice dropped from 44.3% to 38.1%. In contrast, the prevalence of advice among obese persons with a college degree or in the highest income group remained relatively stable and high (> 45%) over the study period. Disparities in professional advice to lose weight associated with income and educational attainment increased from 1994 to 2000. There is a need for mechanisms that allow health care professionals to devote sufficient attention to weight control and to link with evidence-based weight loss interventions, especially those that target groups most at risk for obesity.

  4. Advice to stay active or structured exercise in the management of sciatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Matt; Hartvigsen, Jan; Ferreira, Manuela L

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence on comparative effectiveness of advice to stay active versus supervised structured exercise in the management of sciatica. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Conservative management of sciatica usually includes......) that exercise provides small, superior effects compared with advice to stay active on leg pain in the short term for patients suffering with sciatica. However there is moderate quality evidence showing no difference between advice to stay active and exercise on leg pain and disability status in people...... with sciatica in the long term....

  5. 77 FR 48169 - The Information Technology Agreement: Advice and Information on the Proposed Expansion: Part 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...Following receipt of a request on July 31, 2012, from the United States Trade Representative (USTR) under section 115 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3524) and section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1332(g)), the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted two investigations for the purpose of providing the requested advice and information: investigation No. 332-532, The Information Technology Agreement: Advice and Information on the Proposed Expansion: Part 1, and investigation No. 332-536, The Information Technology Agreement: Advice and Information on the Proposed Expansion: Part 2.

  6. On Advice Complexity of the k-server Problem under Sparse Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, S.; Kamali, S.; López-Ortiz, A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the k-Server problem under the advice model of computation when the underlying metric space is sparse. On one side, we introduce Θ (1)-competitive algorithms for a wide range of sparse graphs, which require advice of (almost) linear size. Namely, we show that for graphs of size N...... for the 2-server problem on a path metric of size N ≥ 5. Through another lower bound argument, we show that at least n/2 (log α - 1.22) bits of advice is required to obtain an optimal solution for metric spaces of treewidth α, where 4 ≤ α

  7. I don't get it : Response difficulties in answering political attitude questions in Voting Advice Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje

    2017-01-01

    Voting Advice Applications are online tools that provide users with a voting advice based on their answers to a set of political attitude questions. This study investigated to what extent VAA users understand the questions that lead to the voting advice, and what search and response behaviour they

  8. Both Smoking Reduction With Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Motivational Advice Increase Future Cessation Among Smokers Unmotivated to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J.; Hughes, John R.; Solomon, Laura J.; Callas, Peter W.

    2004-01-01

    Smokers not currently interested in quitting (N=616) were randomized to receive telephone-based (a) reduction counseling plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus brief advice to quit, (b) motivational advice plus brief advice, or (c) no treatment. More smokers in the reduction (43%) and motivational (51%) conditions made a 24-hr quit attempt…

  9. Climate Policy Under Fat-Tailed Risk: An Application of Dice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwang, I.C.; Reynès, F.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty plays a significant role in evaluating climate policy, and fat-tailed uncertainty may dominate policy advice. Should we make our utmost effort to prevent the arbitrarily large impacts of climate change under deep uncertainty? In order to answer to this question, we propose a new way of

  10. Building and Strengthening Policy Research Capacity: Key Issues in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of higher education in social and economic development, governments need to build a strong higher education data and policy research infrastructure to support informed decision-making, provide policy advice, and offer a critical assessment of key trends and issues. The author discusses the decline of higher education policy…

  11. Advice to the high school teacher in the conduct of its work teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rosales López

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the characteristics of advice to high school teacher for the realization of their basic teaching duties. We beging to identify current features of this stage as openness to multiple choice and the consequent need of guidance, the increase in enrollment in it, the decline in academic performance, diversification of its students, the increase in disruptive and violent behavior and the introduction of new technologies. It is emphasized that the high school teacher needs advice on a variety of tasks such as planning ac- cording to various perspectives, diverse and cooperative teaching and learning assessment. This advice can be external or internal to the school, can be performed by different professionals and according to different modalities. It is a task of the support and help to optimize your professional intervention and in this sense is con- sidered to constitute a component of teacher training. advice; secondary education; teaching duties; planning; methodology; evaluation. 

  12. Adherence to pharmacotherapeutic advice in the guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhof, F.; Bettink, C.W.; Dijk, L. van; Veen, W.J. van der; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    The guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners were used to assess the adherence to pharmacotherapeutic advice for three diagnoses with a high prevalence: hypertension, depression and cystitis. Medication prescribed in 2001 was analysed for adherence to these guidelines.

  13. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the HTS AGENCY: United States International... (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth...

  14. Older people's views of advice about falls prevention: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yardley, L; Donovan-Hall, M; Francis, K; Todd, C

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of older people's perceptions of falls prevention advice, and how best to design communications that will encourage older people to take action to prevent falls...

  15. Consumers' intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Wendel (Sonja); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A. Ronteltap (Amber); H.C.M. van Trijp (Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We

  16. Consumers’ intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel, S.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; Ronteltap, A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We examine

  17. Discharge against medical advice: Factors and patients′ characteristics in Abuth, Zaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dahiru

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Discharge against medical advice is prevalent in ABUTH and factors significantly influence DAMA include young age, male gender, admission through ER, involvement in road accident, surgical as well as OBGYdiagnoses.

  18. Sharing Advice From The Heart | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Women and Heart Disease Sharing Advice From The Heart Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... What message do you have for women, especially young women, about heart health and taking care of ...

  19. Destination image and crime in Mexico: An analysis of foreign government travel advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carlos Monterrubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Destination image has been recognised as an influential component of travel decision processes. Although organic sources of information play an important role in shaping destination image, researchers have often ignored the types of sources and the information they deliver. In particular, official websites where government travel advice is given, especially in relation to crime, have been widely excluded from scholarly research. This paper analyses the relationship between crime-related travel advice given by foreign governments and Mexico’s destination image. Qualitative content analysis of official websites from the US, Canada, the UK and Spain reveals that the travel advice given relates largely to the violence and insecurity that Mexico is currently experiencing. “No advisory in effect”, “Exercise caution” and “Defer non-essential travel” are messages commonly found in the governments’ travel advice about Mexico.

  20. Destination image and crime in Mexico: An analysis of foreign government travel advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carlos Monterrubio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Destination image has been recognised as an influential component of travel decision processes. Although organic sources of information play an important role in shaping destination image, researchers have often ignored the types of sources and the information they deliver. In particular, official websites where government travel advice is given, especially in relation to crime, have been widely excluded from scholarly research. This paper analyses the relationship between crime-related travel advice given by foreign governments and Mexico’s destination image. Qualitative content analysis of official websites from the US, Canada, the UK and Spain reveals that the travel advice given relates largely to the violence and insecurity that Mexico is currently experiencing. “No advisory in effect”, “Exercise caution” and “Defer non-essential travel” are messages commonly found in the governments’ travel advice about Mexico.

  1. Exploring the views of healthcare professionals on increasing smoking cessation advice for patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ho ShuYing; McGee Hannah; McElvaney Noel G; Doyle Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation advice provided by healthcare professionals can be effective in increasing smoking cessation among patients. Any successful intervention will require staff knowledge of local barriers to implementation. However, the views of Irish healthcare professionals on increasing the provision of smoking cessation advice and the associated barriers remain unexplored. Aims: To explore the views of Irish healthcare professionals on barriers to increasing smoking cessation ...

  2. The impact of naive advice and observational learning in beauty-contest games

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin; Sutter, Matthias; Wakolbinger, Florian

    2007-01-01

    We study the impact of advice or observation on the depth of reasoning in an experimental beauty-contest game. Both sources of information trigger faster convergence to the equilibrium. Yet, we find that subjects who receive naive advice outperform uninformed subjects permanently, whereas subjects who observe others' past behavior before making their decision do only have a temporary advantage over uninformed subjects. We show in a simulation that the latter result is due to subjects failing ...

  3. The Impact of Naïve Advice and Observational Learning in Beauty-contest Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Sutter, Matthias; Wakolbinger, Florian

    2007-01-01

    We study the impact of advice or observation on the depth of reasoning in an experimental beauty-contest game. Both sources of information trigger faster convergence to the equilibrium. Yet, we find that subjects who receive naïve advice outperform uninformed subjects permanently, whereas subjects who observe others’ past behavior before making their decision do only have a temporary advantage over uninformed subjects. We show in a simulation that the latter result is due to subjects failing ...

  4. It is important that they care - older persons' experiences of telephone advice nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Inger K; Nokkoudenmäki, Mai-Britt; Zukancic, Selma; Sundler, Annelie J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore older persons' experiences of telephone advice nursing at primary healthcare centres. Telephone advice nursing is expanding worldwide, and the older population is increasing. Little is known about older persons' experiences of telephone advice nursing provided by primary healthcare. This study has a descriptive design with a qualitative inductive approach. Data were collected via interviews with a purposive sample of 10 older persons in 2014. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The older persons' experiences were described in two themes: the patient-friendly aspects of telephone advice nursing and the patient-unfriendly aspects of telephone advice nursing. The themes can be understood as two sides of the same coin; the differences point to both the advantages and disadvantages of the service and are further illuminated through seven subthemes. This study contributes to increased awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of the telephone advice nursing system as experienced by older persons. To be the focus of attention during calls was highlighted as important; and clear communication was deemed crucial. When the communication between the nurse and the older persons was perceived as good and the perspective of the caller was the focus, an experience of safety and satisfaction was described. Older persons had great confidence in the telephone nurses' competence and perceived their ability to access the service as mostly good, even if it was sometimes difficult to use the service. The communicative competence of telephone nurses is essential when providing telephone advice nursing to older persons. In addition, a person-centred approach is important to provide optimal care in telephone advice nursing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Financial literacy: A barrier to seek financial advice but not a shield against following it

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The current study examines individual decision making in the field of personal finance. How do people arrive at a financial decision? A laboratory experiment investigates the way external information is integrated into the decision-making process. Financial literacy shows to lower demand for financial advice but it does not immunize against sunk cost fallacies: High financial literate subjects are not less likely to follow financial advice than less literate subjects, even when the quality of...

  6. Nutrigenomics-based personalised nutritional advice: in search of a business model?

    OpenAIRE

    Ronteltap, Amber; van Trijp, Hans; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Goossens, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional advice has mainly focused on population-level recommendations. Recent developments in nutrition, communication, and marketing sciences have enabled potential deviations from this dominant business model in the direction of personalisation of nutrition advice. Such personalisation efforts can take on many forms, but these have in common that they can only be effective if they are supported by a viable business model. The present paper takes an inventory of approaches to personalise...

  7. Midwives' Role in Providing Nutrition Advice during Pregnancy: Meeting the Challenges? A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arrish, Jamila; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the Australian midwives' role in the provision of nutrition advice. Little is known about their perceptions of this role, the influence of the model of care, and the barriers and facilitators that may influence them providing quality nutrition advice to pregnant women. Semistructured telephone interviews were undertaken with a subsample (n = 16) of the members of the Australian College of Midwives who participated in an online survey about midwives' nutrition knowledge, at...

  8. The implementation of ergonomics advice and the stage of change approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmore, Paul; Aylward, Paul; Karnon, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the implementation of injury prevention advice tailored according to the Stage of Change (SOC) approach. The managers of 25 workgroups, drawn from medium to large companies across a wide range of occupational sectors were allocated to receive either standard ergonomics advice or ergonomics advice tailored according to the workgroup SOC. Twelve months after the advice was provided, semi-structured interviews were conducted with each manager. In a multivariate model, managers who had received tailored advice were found to have implemented significantly more of the recommended changes (IRR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.07-2.63) and more "additional" changes (IRR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.12-3.20). Qualitative analysis identified that the key barriers and facilitators to the implementation of changes were largely related to worker resistance to change and the attitudes of senior managers towards health and safety. The findings from this study suggest that the implementation of ergonomics recommendations may be improved by the tailoring of advice according to SOC principles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. A survey of exercise advice and recommendations in United Kingdom paediatric cardiac clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig A; Gowing, Lucy; Horn, Richard; Stuart, Alan Graham

    2017-07-01

    Physical activity and exercise have important health benefits for children and adolescents with CHD. The objective of this study was to survey the provision of advice and recommendations in United Kingdom paediatric CHD clinics. A three-page questionnaire was sent out to paediatric cardiac consultants in the United Kingdom, paediatric consultants with expertise in cardiology, and nursing staff (Paediatricians with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group), as well as all members of the British Congenital Cardiovascular Association. The aim of this questionnaire was to determine the extent and scope of current information provision and to assess the importance that clinicians place on this advice. There were 68 responses in total, and the data showed that, of these, 24 (36%) clinicians had never provided paediatric CHD patients with written advice about exercise. Only 27 (39%) clinicians provided physical activity advice at every appointment. Lack of time during consultation (n=39, 56.9%), lack of training (n=38, 55.2%), and uncertainty about appropriate recommendations (n=38, 55.2%) were identified as the main factors preventing clinicians from providing patients with advice about physical activity. Although healthcare providers consider physical activity to be very important, the provision of clear, specific advice and recommendations is underutilised; therefore, more education and provision of resources to support the promotion of exercise need to be provided to clinicians and their support teams.

  10. Dietary advice for muscularity, leanness and weight control in Men's Health magazine: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Toni M; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2014-10-11

    The dietary content of advice in men's lifestyle magazines has not been closely scrutinised. We carried out an analysis of such content in all 2009 issues (n = 11) of Men's Health (MH) focusing on muscularity, leanness and weight control. Promotion of a mesomorphic body image underpinned advice to affect muscle building and control weight. Diet advice was underpinned by a strong pseudo-scientific discourse, with citation of expert sources widely used to legitimise the information. Frequently multiple dietary components were advocated within one article e.g. fat, omega-3 fatty acids, thiamine, zinc and high-glycaemic index foods. Furthermore advice would cover numerous nutritional effects, e.g. strengthening bones, reducing stress and boosting testosterone, with little contextualisation. The emphasis on attainment of a mesomorphic body image permitted promotion of slimming diets.Advice to increase calorie and protein intake to augment muscle mass was frequent (183 and 262 references, respectively). Such an anabolic diet was advised in various ways, including consumption of traditional protein foods (217 references) and sports foods (107 references), thereby replicating muscle magazines' support for nutritional supplements. Although advice to increase consumption of red meat was common (52 references), fish and non-flesh sources of protein (eggs, nuts & pulses, and soy products) together exceeded red meat in number of recommendations (206 references). Advice widely asserted micronutrients and phytochemicals from plant food (161 references) as being important in muscle building. This emphasis diverges from stereotypical gender-based food consumption patterns.Dietary advice for control of body weight largely replicated that of muscularity, with strong endorsement to consume fruits and vegetables (59 references), diets rich in nuts and pulses and fish (66 references), as well as specific micronutrients and phytochemicals (62 references). Notably there was emphasis on

  11. Differential quality and technical/managerial advice relationships in Andalusian (Spain olive oil protected designations of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Cendón

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A relevant topic investigated in ‘Local Agro-Food Systems’ studies (LAFS is the key role of collective action in the dissemination of innovations and knowledge aimed at the organization of quality on a local scale. The scope of this article deals with the methodological tools for typifying the relationships made, in LAFS hosting a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, between the relational social capital and the differential quality of firms. The objective of this work is to categorize the agro-industrial firms into hierarchies for implementing rural development policies, with respect to their technical and managerial advice relationships and their score achieved in terms of product and process quality. The study takes into account the LAFS of “Estepa” and “Sierra de Segura”, Andalusia (S Spain, corresponding to two important olive oil PDOs. The methodological approach comprises, firstly, the elaboration of a quality synthetic indicator on processes and products of the mills. Secondly, social network analysis is applied to the technical/managerial advice networks of the mills. Thirdly, a mill typology was established by means of factor analysis which employs quality and relational indicators. It is proved that the Regulatory Boards, as well as the second-step cooperatives, can assume a role of integrating poles with respect to the collective action developed in the LAFS, particularly in terms of dissemination of knowledge and innovations, which enhances the process and product quality of local firms. The existence of networks is a necessary condition to improve and homogenize the quality in a diffuse local agro-food structure.

  12. CAH to CAH: EHR implementation advice to critical access hospitals from peer experts and other key informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, C K; Sievert, M C; Hicks, L L; Alexander, G L; Hearne, L B; Holmes, J H

    2014-01-01

    The US government allocated $30 billion to implement electronic health records (EHRs) in hospitals and provider practices through policy addressing Meaningful Use (MU). Most small, rural hospitals, particularly those designated as Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs), comprising nearly a quarter of US hospitals, had not implemented EHRs before. Little is known about implementation in this setting. Socio-technical factors differ between larger hospitals and CAHs, which continue to lag behind other hospitals in EHR adoption. The main objective is to provide EHR implementation advice for CAHs from a spectrum of experts with an emphasis on recommendations from their peers at CAHs that have undertaken the process. The secondary objective is to begin to identify implementation process differences at CAHs v. larger hospitals. We interviewed 41 experts, including 16 CAH staff members from EHR teams at 10 CAHs that recently implemented EHRs. We qualitatively analyzed the interviews to ascertain themes and implementation recommendations. Nineteen themes emerged. Under each theme, comments by experts provide in-depth advice on all implementation stages including ongoing optimization and use. We present comments for three top themes as ranked by number of CAH peer experts commenting - EHR System Selection, EHR Team, and Preparatory Work - and for two others, Outside Partners/Resources and Clinical Decision Support (CDS)/Knowledge Management (KM). Comments for remaining themes are included in tables. CAH experts rank the themes differently from all experts, a likely indication of the differences between hospitals. Comments for each theme indicate the specific difficulties CAHs encountered. CAH staffs have little or no EHR experience before implementation. A factor across themes is insufficient system and process knowledge, compounded by compressed implementation schedules. Increased, proactive self-education, via available outside partners and information resources, will mitigate

  13. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) from infant food, herbs and environmental samples and the subsequent identification and confirmation of the isolates using biochemical, chromogenic assays, PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Ziad W; Ababneh, Qotaiba O; Saadoun, Ismail M; Samara, Nawal A; Rashdan, Abrar M

    2009-10-27

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii), are a group of Gram-negative pathogens that have been implicated as causative agents of meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants. The pathogens are linked to infant formula; however, they have also been isolated from a wide range of foods and environmental samples. In this study, 233 samples of food, infant formula and environment were screened for the presence of Cronobacter spp. in an attempt to find its source. Twenty nine strains were isolated from samples of spices, herbs, infant foods, and dust obtained from household vacuum cleaners. Among the 76 samples of infant food, infant formula, milk powder and non-milk dairy products tested, only one sample of infant food contained Cronobacter spp. (1.4%). The other Cronobacter spp. isolates recovered include two from household vacuum dust, and 26 from 67 samples of herbs and spices. Among the food categories analyzed, herbs and spices harbored the highest number of isolates, indicating plants as a possible reservoir of this pathogen. Initial screening with API 20E test strips yielded 42 presumptive isolates. Further characterization using 3 chromogenic media (alpha-MUG, DFI and EsPM) and 8 sets of PCR primers detecting ITS (internal transcribed spacer sequences), 16S rRNA, zpx, gluA, gluB, OmpA genes followed by nucleotide sequencing of some PCR amplicons did not confirm the identity of all the isolates as none of the methods proved to be free of both false positives or false negatives. The final confirmation step was done by 16S rRNA sequence analysis identifying only 29 of the 42 isolates as Cronobacter spp. Our studies showed that Cronobacter spp. are highly diverse and share many phenotypic traits with other Enterobacteriaceae members highlighting the need to use several methods to confirm the identity of this pathogen. None of the biochemical, chromogenic or PCR primers proved to be a reliable method for confirmation of the identity of the isolates

  14. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii from infant food, herbs and environmental samples and the subsequent identification and confirmation of the isolates using biochemical, chromogenic assays, PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Nawal A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii, are a group of Gram-negative pathogens that have been implicated as causative agents of meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants. The pathogens are linked to infant formula; however, they have also been isolated from a wide range of foods and environmental samples. Results In this study, 233 samples of food, infant formula and environment were screened for the presence of Cronobacter spp. in an attempt to find its source. Twenty nine strains were isolated from samples of spices, herbs, infant foods, and dust obtained from household vacuum cleaners. Among the 76 samples of infant food, infant formula, milk powder and non-milk dairy products tested, only one sample of infant food contained Cronobacter spp. (1.4%. The other Cronobacter spp. isolates recovered include two from household vacuum dust, and 26 from 67 samples of herbs and spices. Among the food categories analyzed, herbs and spices harbored the highest number of isolates, indicating plants as a possible reservoir of this pathogen. Initial screening with API 20E test strips yielded 42 presumptive isolates. Further characterization using 3 chromogenic media (α-MUG, DFI and EsPM and 8 sets of PCR primers detecting ITS (internal transcribed spacer sequences, 16S rRNA, zpx, gluA, gluB, OmpA genes followed by nucleotide sequencing of some PCR amplicons did not confirm the identity of all the isolates as none of the methods proved to be free of both false positives or false negatives. The final confirmation step was done by 16S rRNA sequence analysis identifying only 29 of the 42 isolates as Cronobacter spp. Conclusion Our studies showed that Cronobacter spp. are highly diverse and share many phenotypic traits with other Enterobacteriaceae members highlighting the need to use several methods to confirm the identity of this pathogen. None of the biochemical, chromogenic or PCR primers proved to be a reliable

  15. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination........ Three "fevers" are identified as involved in the narrowing of policy imagination and two "tonics" are offered to widen it. The three fevers are: 1. viewing the present as natural; 2. seeing history as overtly path dependent; and 3. viewing history as driven by "Great Men". These fevers limit our...

  16. Advice networks in teams: the role of transformational leadership and members' core self-evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Peterson, Suzanne J

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the team-level factors promoting advice exchange networks in teams. Drawing upon theory and research on transformational leadership, team diversity, and social networks, we hypothesized that transformational leadership positively influences advice network density in teams and that advice network density serves as a mediating mechanism linking transformational leadership to team performance. We further hypothesized a 3-way interaction in which members' mean core self-evaluation (CSE) and diversity in CSE jointly moderate the transformational leadership-advice network density relationship, such that the relationship is positive and stronger for teams with low diversity in CSE and high mean CSE. In addition, we expected that advice network centralization attenuates the positive influence of network density on team performance. Results based on multisource data from 79 business unit management teams showed support for these hypotheses. The results highlight the pivotal role played by transformational leadership and team members' CSEs in enhancing team social networks and, ultimately, team effectiveness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Friends with Benefits, but without the Sex: Straight Women and Gay Men Exchange Trustworthy Mating Advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although research has made progress in elucidating the benefits exchanged within same- and opposite-sex friendships formed between heterosexual men and women, it is less clear why straight women and gay men form close relationships with one another. The current experiments begin to address this question by exploring a potential benefit hypothesized to be uniquely available to straight women and gay men in the context of these friendships: trustworthy mating advice. Experiment 1 revealed that straight women perceive mating-relevant advice from a gay man to be more trustworthy than similar advice offered by a straight man or woman. Experiment 2 demonstrated that gay men perceive mating advice offered by a straight woman to be more trustworthy than advice offered by a lesbian woman or another gay man. Overall, the results provide initial experimental evidence that relationships between gay men and straight women may be characterized by a mutual exchange of mating-relevant benefits in the absence of sexual interest or competition.

  18. Friends with benefits, but without the sex: straight women and gay men exchange trustworthy mating advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Eric M; DelPriore, Danielle J; Butterfield, Max E; Hill, Sarah E

    2013-02-09

    Although research has made progress in elucidating the benefits exchanged within same- and opposite-sex friendships formed between heterosexual men and women, it is less clear why straight women and gay men form close relationships with one another. The current experiments begin to address this question by exploring a potential benefit hypothesized to be uniquely available to straight women and gay men in the context of these friendships: trustworthy mating advice. Experiment 1 revealed that straight women perceive mating-relevant advice from a gay man to be more trustworthy than similar advice offered by a straight man or woman. Experiment 2 demonstrated that gay men perceive mating advice offered by a straight woman to be more trustworthy than advice offered by a lesbian woman or another gay man. Overall, the results provide initial experimental evidence that relationships between gay men and straight women may be characterized by a mutual exchange of mating-relevant benefits in the absence of sexual interest or competition.

  19. Developing leaflets to give dental health advice to Aboriginal families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkhorn, Fiona; Wallace, Janet; Smith, Leanne; Blinkhorn, Anthony S

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries (decay) is a serious problem for young Aboriginal children, causing pain and stress. Treatment often involves extraction of teeth under a general anaesthetic. However, dental caries can be prevented by reducing the frequency of sugar consumption and brushing teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Such straightforward advice could be given to families by Aboriginal Health Workers who are trusted by their communities and have an existing advisory role. This paper reports on the development of dental health advice leaflets for use in Aboriginal communities. An Aboriginal reference panel was recruited to comment on dental health advice leaflets prepared by an Aboriginal graphic designer. The panel was asked to consider the design, cultural appropriateness and practicality of the leaflets. Comments were collected through email and face-to-face discussions, which were collated and the leaflets altered accordingly. The advice from the panel resulted in greater use of pictures. For example large green ticks and red crosses highlighted healthy and unhealthy behaviours, respectively. The tooth brushing leaflet was amended to emphasise the safe storage of toothpaste in order to keep it out of reach of young children. The panel stated that all leaflets should incorporate the Aboriginal flag, and proposed that fridge magnets might be beneficial as all family members would benefit from seeing the messages every day. The consultation process refined dental advice leaflets to reflect the views of an Aboriginal Reference Panel, in terms of design, cultural competence and practicality. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Successful Track Record with Diverse Policies (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center helps governments, advisors, and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through its no-cost offerings, the Solutions Center enables countries to learn from and share policy best practices, data, and analysis tools, creating an international dialogue on clean energy policies that raises global awareness of emerging policy issues and innovations. As part of these efforts, the Solutions Center provides an indispensable service by connecting those seeking policy information and advice with a policy expert who can help them achieve their goals. The Solutions Center's Ask an Expert service matches policymakers with one of the more than 30 global experts selected as authoritative leaders on specific clean energy policy topics.

  1. Tax Policy, Venture Capital, and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    The paper studies the effects of tax policy on venture capital activity. Entrepreneurs pursue a single high risk project each but have no own resources. Financiers provide equity finance. They must structure the entrepreneur's profit share and base salary to assure their incentives for full effort....... In addition to providing equity finance, venture capitalists assist with valuable business advice to enhance survival rates. Within a general equilibrium framework with a traditional and an entrepreneurial sector, the paper investigates the effects of taxes on the equilibrium level of entrepreneurship...... and managerial advice. It considers differential wage and capital income taxes, a comprehensive income tax, incomplete loss offset, progressive taxation as well as investment and output subsidies to the entrepreneurial sector...

  2. Differences between Japanese and American college students in giving advice about help seeking to rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Niwako

    2007-10-01

    In this study, the author investigated differences in Japanese and American college students' tendencies to advise a hypothetical rape victim (their sister) to seek help from police, family members, or mental health professionals. Japanese students tended to encourage the victim to seek help from her family members, whereas American students tended to encourage her to seek help from police and mental health counselors. Cross-cultural discrepancies were marked by the following factors: (a) feelings of shame moderated advice to seek help from police; (b) minimization of rape mediated the likelihood to advise the involvement of police and mental health counselors; (c) attitudes toward mental health counselors mediated advice to seek help from them; and (d) the type of rape (stranger vs. date rape) moderated advice to report the crime to police.

  3. Using plant clinic registers to assess the quality of diagnoses and advice given to farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Boa, Eric; Mafabi, Moses

    2012-01-01

    validated diagnoses. The majority of recommendations (82%) were assessed ‘partially effective’. ‘Best practice’ was recommended for 10% and ineffective advice was given in 8% of the cases with considerable variation between diseases. Practical implications: Plant doctors need more training in symptom...... clinic registers have been used to systematically assess quality of plant clinic services. Apart from being a valuable tool for quality assessment of extension, the plant clinic registers constitute a novel source of regular information about pests, diseases and farmer demand that can help improve......Purpose: This study developed a framework for quality assessment of diagnoses and advice given at plant clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Clinic registers from five plant clinics in Uganda (2006-2010) were used to develop quality assessment protocols for diagnoses and advice given by plant...

  4. Education of patients after whiplash injury: is oral advice any better than a pamphlet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge

    2008-01-01

    disability after whiplash injuries are related to both serious personal suffering and huge socio-economic costs. Pure educational interventions after such injuries seem generally as effective as more costly interventions, but it is unknown if the way advice is communicated is of any importance. METHODS...... outcome parameters, even though the outcome tended to be better for the group receiving personal advice. CONCLUSION: Prognosis did not differ between patients who received personal education and those who got a pamphlet. However, a systematic tendency toward better outcome with personal communicated...... information was observed and the question how patients should be educated to reduce the risk of chronicity after whiplash is worth further investigation, since no treatment have been proven to prevent long-lasting symptoms, and all forms of advice or educational therapy are so cheap that even a modest effect...

  5. Nurse provision of healthy lifestyle advice to people who are overweight or obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Ashley; James, Carole; Snodgrass, Suzanne; Plotnikoff, Ronald; Guest, Maya; Ashby, Samantha; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Collins, Clare

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a regional area in Australia to measure nurses' perceptions, practices, and knowledge in regard to providing healthy lifestyle advice to people who are overweight or obese. Responses were compared between geographic regions. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Of the 79 nurse participants, 68% considered that provision of healthy lifestyle advice was within their scope of practice. Only 28% reported frequently estimating body mass index in the practice setting. Nurses often recommended increasing activity levels (44%), but recommended reducing daily caloric intake less often (25%). Nurses' knowledge about weight management was variable and the proportion of correct answers to knowledge items ranged from 33-99%. Nurses have many opportunities to deliver healthy lifestyle advice in a range of practice settings. The variation in practices and knowledge of nurses indicates a need for improved healthy lifestyle education for undergraduate and practicing nurses. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Are we being drowned in hydration advice? Thirsty for more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, James David; Thornton, Simon N; Lee, Jason Kw; Laursen, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Hydration pertains simplistically to body water volume. Functionally, however, hydration is one aspect of fluid regulation that is far more complex, as it involves the homeostatic regulation of total body fluid volume, composition and distribution. Deliberate or pathological alteration of these regulated factors can be disabling or fatal, whereas they are impacted by exercise and by all environmental stressors (e.g. heat, immersion, gravity) both acutely and chronically. For example, dehydration during exercising and environmental heat stress reduces water volume more than electrolyte content, causing hyperosmotic hypohydration. If exercise continues for many hours with access to food and water, composition returns to normal but extracellular volume increases well above baseline (if exercising upright and at low altitude). Repeating bouts of exercise or heat stress does likewise. Dehydration due to physical activity or environmental heat is a routine fluid-regulatory stress. How to gauge such dehydration and - more importantly-what to do about it, are contested heavily within sports medicine and nutrition. Drinking to limit changes in body mass is commonly advocated (to maintain ≤2% reduction), rather than relying on behavioural cues (mainly thirst) because the latter has been deemed too insensitive. This review, as part of the series on moving in extreme environments, critiques the validity, problems and merits of externally versus autonomously controlled fluid-regulatory behaviours, both acutely and chronically. Our contention is that externally advocated hydration policies (especially based on change in body mass with exercise in healthy individuals) have limited merit and are extrapolated and imposed too widely upon society, at the expense of autonomy. More research is warranted to examine whether ad libitum versus avid drinking is beneficial, detrimental or neither in: acute settings; adapting for obligatory dehydration (e.g. elite endurance competition in

  7. Are we being drowned in hydration advice? Thirsty for more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Hydration pertains simplistically to body water volume. Functionally, however, hydration is one aspect of fluid regulation that is far more complex, as it involves the homeostatic regulation of total body fluid volume, composition and distribution. Deliberate or pathological alteration of these regulated factors can be disabling or fatal, whereas they are impacted by exercise and by all environmental stressors (e.g. heat, immersion, gravity) both acutely and chronically. For example, dehydration during exercising and environmental heat stress reduces water volume more than electrolyte content, causing hyperosmotic hypohydration. If exercise continues for many hours with access to food and water, composition returns to normal but extracellular volume increases well above baseline (if exercising upright and at low altitude). Repeating bouts of exercise or heat stress does likewise. Dehydration due to physical activity or environmental heat is a routine fluid-regulatory stress. How to gauge such dehydration and — more importantly—what to do about it, are contested heavily within sports medicine and nutrition. Drinking to limit changes in body mass is commonly advocated (to maintain ≤2% reduction), rather than relying on behavioural cues (mainly thirst) because the latter has been deemed too insensitive. This review, as part of the series on moving in extreme environments, critiques the validity, problems and merits of externally versus autonomously controlled fluid-regulatory behaviours, both acutely and chronically. Our contention is that externally advocated hydration policies (especially based on change in body mass with exercise in healthy individuals) have limited merit and are extrapolated and imposed too widely upon society, at the expense of autonomy. More research is warranted to examine whether ad libitum versus avid drinking is beneficial, detrimental or neither in: acute settings; adapting for obligatory dehydration (e.g. elite endurance competition

  8. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  9. Eating and drinking in labor: the influence of caregiver advice on women's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, H C; Thans, M C; de Jong, P A; Essed, G G; Le Cessie, S; Kanhai, H H

    2001-06-01

    Although there is much debate about eating and drinking during labor, little scientific data about its influence on the course of labor exist. In The Netherlands, most midwives and obstetricians allow women to eat and drink during normal labor. The objective of this study was to examine whether or not women were actively advised to eat and drink and if this advice affected eating and drinking behavior. A randomly selected group of midwives and obstetricians from across The Netherlands identified 211 consecutive nulliparous women to participate in the study. In a questionnaire with open-ended questions, women were asked after their delivery whether or not they were advised about eating and drinking during labor, and if so, about the nature of this advice and what they had consumed. Data were analyzed at the Leyenburg Hospital in The Hague. Sixty-six percent of the women were not given advice about eating and drinking during labor. Women who were given advice usually followed it. In the total group, 37 percent of the women had intake other than water and of these, 75 percent ate solid food. After adjusting for other prognostic factors, the incidence of an instrumental delivery due to a nonprogressing second stage was lower in women with caloric intake (13% vs 24%, p = 0.04). The study design did not enable us to draw conclusions about the cause and effect between caloric intake and labor progress. Scientific data with respect to the giving of evidence-based advice about eating and drinking during labor are lacking. Should such advice become available, women are likely to follow it.

  10. Parents' Primary Professional Sources of Parenting Advice Moderate Predictors of Parental Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; McKasson, Sarah; Hoy, Guenevere; DeJong, William

    2017-02-01

    Despite the risk it poses to children's mental and physical health, approval and use of corporal punishment (CP) remains high in the United States. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we examined potential predictors of attitudes supportive of CP while assessing the moderating effects of parents' (N=500) chosen primary professional source of advice regarding child discipline: pediatricians (47.8%), religious leaders (20.8%), mental health professionals (MHPs) (n=18.4%), or other identified professionals (13.0%). We conducted a random-digit-dial telephone survey among parents ages 18 and over within New Orleans, LA. The main outcome measure was derived from the Attitudes Toward Spanking scale (ATS). The main "predictors" were: perceived injunctive norms (i.e., perceived approval of CP by professionals; and by family and friends), perceived descriptive norms of family and friends regarding CP, and expected outcomes of CP use. We used multivariate OLS models to regress ATS scores on the predictor variables for each subset of parents based on their chosen professional source of advice. Perceived approval of CP by professionals was the strongest predictor of parental attitudes supportive of CP, except for those seeking advice from MHPs. Perceived injunctive and descriptive norms of family and friends were important, but only for those seeking advice from pediatricians or religious leaders. Positive expected outcomes of CP mattered, but only for those seeking advice from religious leaders or MHPs. In conclusion, the strength and relevance of variables predicting attitudes toward CP varied according to the professional from which the parent was most likely to seek advice.

  11. Maternal perceptions of advice on sleep in young children: How, what, and when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Rosalind E M; Gardani, Maria

    2018-02-27

    Parental knowledge on sleep hygiene in children may be a contributing factor for sleep difficulties in preschoolers. As sleep is crucial for healthy development, it is important to understand how parental knowledge can be improved. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop an understanding of advice available in the United Kingdom (UK) on sleep in young children. This study employed constructivist grounded theory methodology. Participants were recruited via social media and a previously constructed participant database. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed. Fourteen mothers were interviewed independently, whilst one mother was interviewed together with her husband. Themes relating to how UK mothers wish advice on sleep to be formulated, what they believe it should include and when they would like to receive it, were identified from the data. Specifically, this study suggests that UK mothers value experience and thus recommends that advice be made through collaboration projects involving both professionals and parents. It also suggests that advice should be readily available and given to expecting parents prior to the arrival of their baby as well as at regular follow-ups. In addition, the participating mothers wanted advice to be balanced and non-judgemental. This study looks at the views of mainly White British mothers currently residing within the United Kingdom. Thus, it may not represent the views of everyone in the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, it still makes important recommendations for practice. For example, relationships between health professionals and parents need to be improved and information on different sleeping practices widely dispersed. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Poor sleep is common in young children. Young children's sleep quality can be affected by parental behaviours. Parents lack knowledge of sleep in young children. What does this study add? According to this study: It would

  12. Sustainable diet policy development: implications of multi-criteria and other approaches, 2008-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tim; Mason, Pamela

    2017-12-04

    The objective of the present paper is to draw lessons from policy development on sustainable diets. It considers the emergence of sustainable diets as a policy issue and reviews the environmental challenge to nutrition science as to what a 'good' diet is for contemporary policy. It explores the variations in how sustainable diets have been approached by policy-makers. The paper considers how international United Nations and European Union (EU) policy engagement now centres on the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate Change Accord, which require changes across food systems. The paper outlines national sustainable diet policy in various countries: Australia, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, Qatar, Sweden, UK and USA. While no overarching common framework for sustainable diets has appeared, a policy typology of lessons for sustainable diets is proposed, differentiating (a) orientation and focus, (b) engagement styles and (c) modes of leadership. The paper considers the particularly tortuous rise and fall of UK governmental interest in sustainable diet advice. Initial engagement in the 2000s turned to disengagement in the 2010s, yet some advice has emerged. The 2016 referendum to leave the EU has created a new period of policy uncertainty for the UK food system. This might marginalise attempts to generate sustainable diet advice, but could also be an opportunity for sustainable diets to be a goal for a sustainable UK food system. The role of nutritionists and other food science professions will be significant in this period of policy flux.

  13. Do not shoot the messenger: ICES advice for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Marta; Chapela, Rosa; Monsalve, Maria Paulina Ramirez

    2017-01-01

    The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) occupies a central role in the advice system to support the implementation of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in the European Union. Despite improvements in its capacity to deliver ecosystem advice, it seems...... in generating the EAFM framework in which management decisions could operate; (ii) advice suppliers and advice users agree on the capability of using existing knowledge to “do EAFM now”; (iii) some shortcomings can be addressed in-house, but other require concerted action in both the advisory system...

  14. A review of the provision of appropriate advice by pharmacy staff for self-medication in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brata, Cecilia; Gudka, Sajni; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2015-01-01

    Patients in developing countries often prefer to self-medicate via community pharmacies. Pharmacy staff are therefore in a strategic position to optimize the health of the public by providing appropriate advice to patients who self-medicate. To determine the proportion of pharmacy staff who provide appropriate advice when handling self-medication requests in developing countries. A literature search was undertaken via MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Studies that reported on the proportion of pharmacy staff providing appropriate advice when handling self-medication requests in developing countries were included. The appropriateness of advice was determined by each author's definition in the original studies. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. There were variations in methods, scenarios, how the authors reported and defined appropriate advice, and study populations. The proportion of pharmacy staff providing appropriate advice varied widely from 0% to 96%, with a minority providing appropriate advice in 83% of the scenarios performed. There was considerable variation in results, with the majority of studies reporting that inappropriate advice was provided by pharmacy staff when handling self-medication requests in developing countries. Consistent and robust methods are required to provide comparisons across practice settings. There is also a need to identify contributing factors to poor provision of advice for developing intervention strategies for practice improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Response Scales in Voting Advice Applications: Do Different Designs Produce Different Outcomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, Martin; Louwerse, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) represent popular election campaign tools in many countries, enabling voters to discover which party or candidate provides the best match with their political preferences. This article examines the effects of design choices on these tools by focusing on the response

  16. Adherence to pharmacotherapeutic advice in the guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhof, Feikje; Wefers Bettink, Carlijn; van Dijk, Liset; van der Veen, Willem Jan; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty; Westert, Gert P; Jabaaij, Lea; Schellevis, François G

    2006-01-01

    What is this chapter about? The guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners were used to assess the adherence to pharmacotherapeutic advice in three diagnoses with a high prevalence: hypertension, depression and cystitis. Medication prescribed in 2001 was analysed for adherence to these

  17. "Relinquish the reins": persuasion and consensus in the discourse of pregnancy and childbirth advice literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ornaith

    2015-03-01

    Popular pregnancy and childbirth advice books constitute an important source of information for pregnant women. These texts shape women's perceptions of pregnancy, childbirth and the medical care they will receive during this time. This article reports on a study of the enactment of power relations between pregnant women and their medical caregivers in the discourse of pregnancy and childbirth advice literature and its implications for practice. The study focuses on the discursive positioning of women in relation to medical personnel through a critical discourse analysis of two popular advice books, one in English and one in French. The article suggests that through the use of a number of key discursive strategies, pregnant women are constructed as under the control of the medical institution in these texts. However, this control is not achieved by an overt oppressive discourse, instead it is achieved through persuasion and consensus by generating the consent of pregnant women to comply with medical norms. The medical institution is represented in these texts as a dominant force while women are constructed as powerless recipients of medical care. Medical professionals should firstly consider whether the power relations represented in these texts correspond to those enacted in clinics and delivery rooms. Secondly, caregivers should be cautious about recommending popular pregnancy and childbirth advice books to women as the relationship between pregnant women and their caregivers may be undermined by the negative power asymmetry enacted in these texts. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Social counseling in outpatient cancer counseling centers : Offers and use by advice-seekers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jochen; Mehnert, Anja; Weis, Joachim; Faust, Tanja; Giesler, Jürgen M; Roick, Julia

    2016-11-01

    Outpatient psychosocial cancer care has gained importance in recent years and psychosocial counselling services (PCS) offer a broad spectrum of counselling interventions. Yet there is no published research on PCS legal counselling services. This study investigated the range of issues addressed by legal counselling and their relationship with characteristics of advice seekers and counsellors. We analyzed the records of 21 PCS funded by the German Cancer Aid (DKH) including 5203 advice seekers (80 % patients, 20 % others including friends and family; age ∅ 54 years; 24 % male) in 20,947 counselling sessions. We calculated descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analyses (legal counselling: yes/no). Fifty-five percent of counselling seekers received legal counselling and 28 % approached the PCS exclusively for legal counselling. The proportion of people seeking legal advice ranged from 15 to 87 % between counselling centers. The most common topics during legal counselling were medical rehabilitation programs (57 %) and disability law (43 %). Counselling occurred in a single session in 68 % of cases and was mostly sought by older and unemployed persons with a recent diagnosis. Legal counselling made up 18 % of counselling time. Legal advice was mostly given by social workers (71 %). Legal counselling is a major part of psychosocial care services. Our results reveal large differences between counselling centers. Further research on quality of care and efficacy of legal counseling is needed.

  19. Oxytocin facilitation of acceptance of social advice is dependent upon the perceived trustworthiness of individual advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ruixue; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Weihua; Ma, Xiaole; Xu, Xiaolei; Kou, Juan; Gao, Zhao; Becker, Benjamin; Kendrick, Keith M

    2017-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin may increase social cohesion by making us more willing to trust others and/or to conform to their opinions. Here we investigated whether intranasal oxytocin can influence acceptance of advice given on solving everyday social problems by either individual expert (psychologist) or non-expert advisors with or without influencing their perceived likeability or trustworthiness. In a double-blind, between-subject, placebo-control design study in 160 male and female subjects, intranasal oxytocin (24IU) only significantly enhanced acceptance of advice given by female psychologists who were rated as the most trustworthy advisors. However, oxytocin itself did not alter either trustworthiness or likeability ratings. The oxytocin effect on acceptance of the female psychologist's advice was not maintained after a week, with subjects mainly reverting to their original solutions. These findings suggest that while oxytocin can transiently increase acceptance of advice from the most trustworthy individuals this is because it makes subjects more likely to conform to their opinions rather than enhancing their perceived trustworthiness or likeability. Thus in every day contexts oxytocin may primarily promote social cohesion by facilitating conformity towards the opinions of the most trusted individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Home care nursing advice for patients with head and neck cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemund Sister

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Please feel free to print and use this article to support patients and their families. You may wish to translate or alter this depending on your local needs. If you are only using one section, remember to include the introduction. The advice contained in this article is aimed to support patients who have limited access to hospital care and equipment.

  1. Influence of public alcohol and tobacco use on general practitioners' advice: an international comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, L.; Boerma, W.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Saunders, J.B.; Zee, J. van der

    2002-01-01

    Background: Efficacy of advice for substance use is proven in general practice. Studies show high variability of perfomance. Especially intercountry variability has rarely been taken into account. Aim: To study the influence of public tobacco and alcohol use and health service characteristics on the

  2. Ramblings of an old academic: Unconfident advice for end-times academics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The last person anyone should take advice from about how be an academic today is me. First, I am a Baby-Boomer. We Baby-Boomers let colleges and the rest of the world go to hell in a handbasket on our watch. Second, . . . [download the PDF below and read more

  3. Bereaved Siblings' Advice to Health Care Professionals Working With Children With Cancer and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, Malin; Bylund-Grenklo, Tove; Jalmsell, Li; Wallin, Alexandra Eilegård; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2016-07-01

    Siblings of children with cancer experience psychosocial distress during the illness and after bereavement, but often stand outside the spotlight of attention and care. This study explored bereaved siblings' advice to health care professionals (HCPs) working with children with cancer and their families. In a nationwide Swedish survey of bereaved siblings, 174/240 (73%) participated. Of these, 108 answered an open-ended question about what advice they would give to HCPs working with children with cancer and their families. In this study, responses to this single question were analyzed using content analysis. The most common advice, suggested by 56% of siblings, related to their own support. One third suggested giving better medical information to siblings. Some siblings wanted to be more practically involved in their brother's/sister's care and suggested that HCPs should give parents guidance on how to involve siblings. Other common advice related to psychosocial aspects, such as the siblings' wish for HCPs to mediate hope, yet also realism, and the importance of asking the ill child about what care they wanted. Information, communication, and involvement should be emphasized by HCPs to support siblings' psychosocial needs in both the health care setting and within the family. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  4. Pharmacist advice is accepted more for medical than for surgical patients in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer Mogensen, Christian; Olsen, Inger; Thisted, Anette Rehn

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists' advice may reduce medication errors in the emergency department (ED). However, pharmacists' recommendations are of little value if not acknowledged by physicians. The aim of the present study was to analyze how often and which categories of pharmacist recommendations were taken...

  5. [Cost-benefit of medical advice for quitting smoking in the Region of Murcia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, Angel; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Muñoz, Celia

    To perform a cost-benefit analysis of brief medical advice to quit smoking in the Region of Murcia. A cost-benefit analysis is performed on brief medical advice to quit smoking versus non-intervention. A Markov model is used to estimate the costs (€ in 2014), under the perspective of the National Health System, and health outcomes. These are measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The time horizon of the analysis is 20years, and costs and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. A univariate and multivariate deterministic sensitivity analysis is performed. Region of Murcia. Smokers in the Region of Murcia. Brief advice to quit smoking. Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). With a time horizon of 5years (2018), the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) would be €172,400 per QALY gained; at 10years (2023) the ICER was €30,300 per QALY gained; and, for the maximum horizon considered by the model, the ICER was €7,260 per QALY gained. Brief advice intervention is more efficient in the long-term than in the short-term and, depending on the Spanish cost-benefit threshold, public funding for this intervention would be recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of community pharmacists in providing oral health advice in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Al-Saleh

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Community pharmacists are approached frequently for oral healthcare advices. Majority of them had no oral health training. Almost all of them were willing to provide oral health information in the community. It is essential to provide continuous oral health education to the pharmacists to better serve oral health needs of the community.

  7. Why do older adults avoid seeking financial advice? Adviser anxiety in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, Hendrik P.; Henkens, Kène; Hershey, Douglas A.

    Why is it that many people fail to seek retirement planning advice when doing so is clearly indicated? Distrust of financial intermediaries is often presented as the common answer. But this paper shows that trust issues are only part of the answer; an appreciable proportion of individuals experience

  8. Why do older adults avoid seeking financial advice? Adviser anxiety in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.; Hershey, D.

    2017-01-01

    Why is it that many people fail to seek retirement planning advice when doing so is clearly indicated? Distrust of financial intermediaries is often presented as the common answer. But this paper shows that trust issues are only part of the answer; an appreciable proportion of individuals experience

  9. The influential role of personal advice networks on general practitioners' performance: a social capital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calciolari, Stefano; González-Ortiz, Laura G; Lega, Federico

    2017-08-08

    In several health systems of advanced countries, reforms have changed primary care in the last two decades. The literature has assessed the effects of a variety of interventions and individual factors on the behavior of general practitioners (GPs). However, there has been a lack of investigation concerning the influence of the resources embedded in the GPs' personal advice networks (i.e., social capital) on GPs' capacity to meet defined objectives. The present study has two goals: (a) to assess the GPs' personal advice networks according to the social capital framework and (b) to test the influence of such relationships on GPs' capacity to accomplish organizational goals. The data collection relied on administrative data provided by an Italian local health authority (LHA) and a survey administered to the GPs of the selected LHA. The GPs' personal advice networks were assessed through an ad-hoc instrument and interpreted as egocentric networks. Multivariate regression analyses assessed two different performance measures. Social capital may influence the GPs' capacity to meet targets, though the influence differs according to the objective considered. In particular, the higher the professional heterogeneity of a GP personal advice network, the lower her/his capacity is to meet targets of prescriptive appropriateness. Our findings might help to design more effective primary care reforms depending on the pursued goals. However, further research is needed.

  10. Sales Managers’ Performance and Social Capital: the Impact of an Advice Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to research a sales manager’s social network and demonstrate that sales managers who are central in closure structures of an advice network achieve high sales performance. Considering the results obtained and the discussion provided in the hypotheses presentation, we argue that sales managers must have accurate perceptions of their network. Two different networks were analyzed: friendship and advice; and we also considered two different views of network structure that claim to make an impact on performance and, to explore this claim, we examined whether sales managers, in order to improve sales performance, develop either a highly cohesive network or one containing structural holes. Census data was collected from over 500 personnel of an agricultural input retailer with 23 divisions. Estimates from a sample of 101 sales managers demonstrated, in the advice network, how important a highly cohesive structure is to a sales manager’s performance. These results suggest that firms should encourage contacts among their personnel to disseminate and share technical and commercial information. By stimulating cohesive structures of contacts for the purpose of receiving advice, firms create an environment for sales managers to develop relationships of trust in which social norms prevail.

  11. Discharge against medical advice from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: 10 years experience at a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim K Al-Turkistani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discharging patients against medical advice is a problem of every age-group. However, because of their physiological vulnerability, the risk for the neonatal population is greater when discharged against medical advice (DAMA. This article is a study of the prevalence of the problem, the possible causes and/or risk factors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 10 years of medical records of neonates discharged against medical advice from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU at a university hospital. Results: The overall prevalence of DAMA was 1.6%. Most of the 51 infants who were taken out of hospital against medical advice (AMA were term (72.5% with a mean gestational age of 37.78 ± 2.5 weeks, of normal birth weight, with a mean of 2736 ± 661 g, Saudis (96%, those delivered vaginally (69%, and those that were provisionally diagnosed with transient tachypnea of newborn (TTN and/or query sepsis (49%. There was no difference between males and females (M/F = 1.2. There was an association between DAMA and the timing of DAMA (27.5% of DAMA at weekends and 67% of DAMA from May to October. Conclusion: DAMA of neonates is particularly critical. The causes and risk factors are many and difficult to predict. In addition to several other factors, its prevalence is influenced negatively by some socio-cultural beliefs.

  12. Leadership Indian Style: A Comparison of Kautilya's Advice with Akbar's Experience. Draft Copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupp, Heidi

    To provide a learning unit on leadership, religious tolerance, and social customs, this paper used a 16th century Mogul Indian prince's life to promote discussion on these topics. The story of Akbar's life included his early years, education, and leadership ability, and advice from Kautilya, a fourth century Indian statesman, was interspersed…

  13. The Influence of Financial Risk Tolerance on Investment Decision-Making in a Financial Advice Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linh T.M. Nguyen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Client risk tolerance is universally assessed in the advisory process to help financial advisers provide suitable advice that assists clients in their investment decision-making. Although there is a well-established literature on risk tolerance and decision-making, little is known about financial risk tolerance and its influence on investor decisions in the financial advice context. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine this influence with a focus on the key expected risk tolerance determinants: client financial literacy, trust in the financial advice service, and relationship length with the service. A new theoretical model and related hypotheses were proposed and tested using survey data from financial adviser clients in Australia (N=538. Results revealed a positive relationship between client risk tolerance and investment decision-making. Further, client trust and relationship length with the service were found to be positively associated with client financial literacy and risk tolerance. These findings, which provide a more comprehensive understanding of how risk tolerance and its antecedents influence client decisions, have the potential to improve advice in the financial services industry.

  14. Lifestyle advice with or without pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of adding pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to a structured lifestyle advice program. METHODS: This was a single-blinded randomized trial of women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage ≥ II. Participants were randomized...

  15. An unusual presentation of colloid cyst--implications for lifestyle advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, M C; MacArthur, D C

    2011-04-01

    Colloid cysts are rare intracranial neoplasms which typically present with headaches. There is risk of neurological deterioration or death due to acute hydrocephalus. We report a case of colloid cyst presenting after a sudden acceleration/deceleration force from a theme park ride, highlighting the importance of lifestyle advice in these patients.

  16. Parenting an Overweight or Obese Teen: Issues and Advice from Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Feldman, Shira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study addresses: (1) what challenges parents of overweight adolescents face and (2) what advice parents of overweight adolescents have for other parents. Design: One-on-one interviews were conducted with parents of overweight or previously overweight adolescents. Setting: Medical clinic at the University of Minnesota.…

  17. An Examination of College Students' Receptiveness to Alcohol-Related Information and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…

  18. Positive vs. Negative : The Impact of Question Polarity in Voting Advice Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, Bregje; Kamoen, Naomi; Krouwel, Andre; van de Pol, Jasper; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Online Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are survey-like instruments that help citizens to shape their political preferences and compare them with those of political parties. Especially in multi-party democracies, their increasing popularity indicates that VAAs play an important role in opinion

  19. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, G.; Heemink, A.; Lu, S.; Segers, A.; Weber, K.; Lin, H.X.

    2016-01-01

    The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain,

  20. Graph-Based Specification and Simulation of Featherweight Java with Around Advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staijen, T.; Rensink, Arend

    In this paper we specify an operational run-time semantics of Assignment Featherweight Java -- a minimal subset of Java with assignments -- with around advice, using graph transformations. We introduce a notion of correctness of our specification with respect to an existing semantics and claim a

  1. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose : Professional Advice and Daily Practice of Patients With Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; van der Bijl, Jaap J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the advice given by diabetes educators in Europe, and the daily practice of Dutch patients with diabetes regarding the use of the first or second drop of blood and other aspects concerning self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Method During a diabetes conference in

  2. Why do older adults avoid seeking financial advice? : Adviser anxiety in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, Harry; Henkens, Kene; Hershey, D.A.

    Why is it that many people fail to seek retirement planning advice when doing so is clearly indicated? Distrust of financial intermediaries is often presented as the common answer. But this paper shows that trust issues are only part of the answer; an appreciable proportion of individuals experience

  3. A survey of footwear advice, beliefs and wear habits in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Kade L; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion recommends cushioned and supportive footwear for people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, little is known about the footwear advice people receive from healthcare professionals, or the beliefs and footwear habits of people with knee OA. This study aimed to determine i) what types of shoes people are advised to wear for their knee OA and by whom; ii) establish which types of shoes people with knee OA believe are best for managing their knee OA symptoms and (iii) which shoes they wear most often. 204 people with symptomatic knee OA completed an online survey. The survey comprised 14 questions asking what footwear advice people had received for their knee OA and who they received it from, individual beliefs about optimal footwear styles for their knee OA symptoms and the types of footwear usually worn. Only one third (n = 69, 34%) of participants reported receiving footwear advice for their knee OA, and this was most frequently received from a podiatrist (n = 47, 68%). The most common advice was to wear sturdy/supportive shoes (n = 96, 47%) or shoes with arch supports (n = 84, 41%). These were also amongst the shoe styles that participants believed were best for their knee OA (n = 157 (77%) and n = 138 (68%) respectively). The type of shoes most frequently worn were athletic (n = 131, 64%) and sturdy/supportive shoes (n = 116, 57%). Most people with knee OA who completed our survey had not received advice about footwear for their knee OA symptoms. Our participants typically believed that sturdy/supportive shoes were best for their knee OA and this shoe style was most frequently worn, which is reflective of expert opinion. Future research is needed to confirm whether sturdy/supportive shoes are indeed optimal for managing symptoms of knee OA.

  4. Patients telephoning A&E for advice: a comparison of expectations and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, J; Crouch, R; Patel, A; Williams, S

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the expectations of patients when they phone the accident and emergency (A&E) department, how this relates to the advice they receive, the action they subsequently take, and their satisfaction with the service. The study was undertaken at an inner city hospital in south east London. 597 calls to the department were documented during the study period, and callers for whom a phone number had been recorded were followed up by structured interviews carried out by a trained interviewer within 72 h of the call. Up to three attempts were made to contact each patient. The interviews were conducted at various times of the day to avoid excluding people with different work or social patterns. The interviewer was able to contact 203 patients within 72 h of their call to the A&E department. Of these 197 (97%) agreed to participate. Almost two thirds stated that when they phoned A&E they anticipated receiving self care advice; 11% expected to be advised to see or contact their general practitioner. Only a quarter of callers stated that they had expected to be told to attend A&E. There was disagreement between the advice that nurses documented as having been given, the advice the caller recalled receiving, and the action the patient subsequently took. Even so, 107 (55%) callers were very satisfied and 62 (32%) were satisfied, while 11 (6%) were dissatisfied with the telephone consultation; 15 (8%) were unsure. In all, 170 (87%) thought the advice they received was helpful. Understanding the reasons why patients phone A&E departments and their expectations should contribute to developing more responsive and effective services.

  5. Advice on malaria and yellow fever prevention provided at travel agencies in Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Meyer, Pablo G; Garcia-Jasso, Carlos A; Springer, Chelsea A; Lane, Jenna K; Su, Bonny S; Hidalgo, Idania S; Goodrich, Mary R; Deichsel, Emily L; White, A C; Cabada, Miguel M

    2015-01-01

    Travelers receive medical advice from a variety of sources, including travel agencies. The aim of this study is to describe the quality of pre-travel advice provided by travel agencies in Cuzco to travelers interested in visiting malaria and yellow fever endemic areas. Trained medical students posed as tourists and visited travel agencies in Cuzco requesting travel advice for a trip to the southern Amazon of Peru, recording advice regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever. A total of 163 registered travel agencies were included in the study. The mean proposed tour duration was 6.8 days (±1.4 days) with a median time to departure of 3 days and a median tour cost of 805 US dollars (USD) [interquartile range (IQR) 580-1,095]. Overall, 45% employees failed to mention the risk for any illness. Eighteen percent of the employees acknowledged risk of malaria and 53% risk of yellow fever. However, 36% denied malaria risk and 2% denied risk of yellow fever in the region. The price of tours from travel agencies that did not mention any health risk was significantly lower [1,009.6 ± 500.5 vs 783.9 ± 402 USD, t (152) = 3, p yellow fever (100%) were able to provide at least one recommendation for prevention. However, advice was not always accurate or spontaneously volunteered. Only 7% of the employees provided both correct scheduling and location information for administration of the yellow fever vaccine. The majority of registered travel agencies in Cuzco did not provide sufficient and accurate information regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever to travelers inquiring about trips to the southern Amazon of Peru. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  6. Health care provider advice for adolescent tobacco use: results from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Agaku, Israel T; King, Brian A; Malarcher, Ann M

    2014-09-01

    Health care providers play an important role in promoting tobacco use abstinence among adolescents. This study aimed to provide nationally representative data on the prevalence of provider tobacco use screening and advice delivered to adolescents. Cessation behaviors and correlates of past year quit attempts among current smokers are also explored. Data came from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative school-based survey of adolescents in grades 6 through 12 (n = 18385). Provider screening and advice were assessed by smoking status and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between advice and past year quit attempt. The overall prevalence of current tobacco use was 16.6%; 10.8% were current cigarette smokers (3.6% were established smokers, 7.2% were nonestablished smokers); 17.3% were former smokers; and 71.9% were never smokers (22.6% high susceptibility, 77.4% low susceptibility). Among all respondents, the prevalence of being asked about tobacco use by a health care provider was 32.2%; the prevalence of being advised to quit or avoid tobacco was 31.4%. Established smokers were more likely than other groups to report provider assessment of tobacco use and advice. Receipt of advice was associated with a higher adjusted odds of having made a past year quit attempt (odds ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.82). Less than one-third of adolescents report being asked about tobacco use or being advised not to use tobacco. Increased tobacco use intervention by health care providers is needed to prevent initiation and increase cessation. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Patients, evidence and genes: an exploration of GPs' perspectives on gene-based personalized nutrition advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Laura; Te Molder, Hedwig; Hiddink, Gerrit

    2008-12-01

    Nutrigenomics science examines the response of individuals to food compounds using post-genomics technology. It is expected that in the future, personalized nutrition advice can be provided based on information about genetic make-up. Gene-based personalized nutrition advice emerges at the junction of different disciplines and technologies and may directly influence people's lives. Therefore, public concern is to be expected. Because GPs are gatekeepers of health care, their involvement in early stages of the development process is desirable. In 2006, 15 GPs were interviewed to collect their perceived barriers and opportunities towards involvement in gene-based nutrition advice. The interviews were qualitatively analysed with use of Atlas.ti, a qualitative analysis programme. The participants held a mostly critical view towards such personalized nutrition advice. They argued that findings of nutritional studies lacked robustness, were not based on patients' needs and were often equivocal. And that a patient central perspective urges them to question consequences for patients. Participants argued that GPs should be involved in selecting and monitoring patients in nutrigenomics studies. Early involvement of GPs in the development process is needed to allow for the integration of their practical, social and ethical considerations in the technical and scientific agendas. However, the background of their critical attitude towards nutrigenomics-based personalized nutrition, and nutrition advice more generally, has to be explored further. To facilitate a joint learning process and to improve socio-technical decision making with respect to this innovation, initiatives that allow different stakeholders to exchange their perspectives should be organized.

  8. 75 FR 65031 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable... Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports..., Singapore, and Vietnam). In his letter of October 5, 2010, the USTR advised the Commission that Malaysia has...

  9. Using Plant Clinic Registers to Assess the Quality of Diagnoses and Advice Given to Farmers: A Case Study from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Boa, Eric; Mafabi, Moses; Mutebi, Emmanuel; Reeder, Robert; Kabeere, Flavia; Karyeija, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study developed a framework for quality assessment of diagnoses and advice given at plant clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Clinic registers from five plant clinics in Uganda (2006-2010) were used to develop quality assessment protocols for diagnoses and advice given by plant doctors. Assessment of quality of diagnoses was based…

  10. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  11. Can genetic-based advice help you lose weight? Findings from the Food4Me European randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis-Morales, C.; Marsaux, C.F.M.; Livingstone, K.M.; Navas-Carretero, S.; San-Cristobal, R.; Fallaize, R.; Macready, A.L.; O'Donovan, C.; Woolhead, C.; Forster, H.; Kolossa, S.; Daniel, H.; Moschonis, G.; Mavrogianni, C.; Manios, Y.; Surwillo, A.; Traczyk, I.; Drevon, C.A.; Grimaldi, K.; Bouwman, J.; Gibney, M.J.; Walsh, M.C.; Gibney, E.R.; Brennan, L.; Lovegrove, J.A.; Martinez, J.A.; Saris, W.H.M.; Mathers, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been limited evidence about whether genotype-tailored advice provides extra benefits in reducing obesityrelated traits compared with the benefits of conventional one-size-fitsall advice. Objective: We determined whether the disclosure of information on fat-mass and

  12. 5 CFR 2641.203 - One-year restriction on any former employee's representations, aid, or advice concerning ongoing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employee's representations, aid, or advice concerning ongoing trade or treaty negotiation. 2641.203 Section... CONFLICT OF INTEREST RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions § 2641.203 One-year restriction on any former employee's representations, aid, or advice concerning ongoing trade or treaty negotiation. (a) Basic prohibition of 18 U.S.C...

  13. Sustainable Development Commission response to the review of Food Standard Agency’s advice on fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2009-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Commission's response to the Food Standards Agency's review of its advice on fish consumption uses sustainable development as a lens through which to examine how the Agency can align its advice on fish consumption for health with evidence on sustainable sourcing. Publisher PDF

  14. Tobacco industry argues domestic trademark laws and international treaties preclude cigarette health warning labels, despite consistent legal advice that the argument is invalid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-05-01

    To analyse the tobacco industry's use of international trade agreements to oppose policies to strengthen health warning labels (HWLs). A review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation and international treaties. During the early 1990s, the tobacco industry became increasingly alarmed about the advancement of HWLs on cigarettes packages. In response, it requested legal opinions from British American Tobacco's law firms in Australia and England, Britain's Department of Trade and Industry and the World Intellectual Property Organisation on the legality of restricting and prohibiting the use of their trademarks, as embodied in cigarette packages. The consistent legal advice, privately submitted to the companies, was that international treaties do not shield trademark owners from government limitations (including prohibition) on the use of their trademarks. Despite receiving this legal advice, the companies publicly argued that requiring large HWLs compromised their trademark rights under international treaties. The companies successfully used these arguments as part of their successful effort to deter Canadian and Australian governments from enacting laws requiring the plan packaging of cigarettes, which helped delay large graphic HWLs, including 'plain' packaging, for over a decade. Governments should not be intimidated by tobacco company threats and unsubstantiated claims, and carefully craft HWL laws to withstand the inevitable tobacco industry lawsuits with the knowledge that the companies' own lawyers as well as authoritative bodies have told the companies that the rights they claim do not exist.

  15. The Back 2 Activity Trial: education and advice versus education and advice plus a structured walking programme for chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradbury Ian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current evidence supports the use of exercise-based treatment for chronic low back pain that encourages the patient to assume an active role in their recovery. Walking has been shown it to be an acceptable type of exercise with a low risk of injury. However, it is not known whether structured physical activity programmes are any more effective than giving advice to remain active. Methods/Design The proposed study will test the feasibility of using a pedometer-driven walking programme, as an adjunct to a standard education and advice session in participants with chronic low back pain. Fifty adult participants will be recruited via a number of different sources. Baseline outcome measures including self reported function; objective physical activity levels; fear-avoidance beliefs and health-related quality of life will be recorded. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated under strict, double blind conditions to one of two treatments groups. Participants in group A will receive a single education and advice session with a physiotherapist based on the content of the 'Back Book'. Participants in group B will receive the same education and advice session. In addition, they will also receive a graded pedometer-driven walking programme prescribed by the physiotherapist. Follow up outcomes will be recorded by the same researcher, who will remain blinded to group allocation, at eight weeks and six months post randomisation. A qualitative exploration of participants' perception of walking will also be examined by use of focus groups at the end of the intervention. As a feasibility study, treatment effects will be represented by point estimates and confidence intervals. The assessment of participant satisfaction will be tabulated, as will adherence levels and any recorded difficulties or adverse events experienced by the participants or therapists. This information will be used to modify the planned interventions to be used in a

  16. Effect of media coverage and physician advice on utilization of breast cancer screening by women 40 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovitzky, I; Blitz, C L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relative importance of media coverage and physician advice on the decision of women 40 years and older to obtain a mammogram. Five theoretical models, by which media coverage and physician advice may interact to affect individual health behavior, are presented. These models are tested with time-series regression analysis based on national-level data on mammography utilization and physician advice from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and content analysis of mammography-related national news coverage. Results suggest that although physician advice plays a key role in women's decisions to have mammograms, media coverage of mammography screening also contributes to mammography utilization by women. In particular, media coverage seems to be important for women who do not have regular contact with a physician or access to physicians. A possible conclusion is that mass media and physician advice complement one another in persuading individuals to adopt preventive health behavior.

  17. National Vaccine Policy: ethical equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, T

    2013-01-01

    The ministry of health and family welfare published the national vaccination policy in April 2011. The policy document drew severe criticism from several public health experts. A review of the print and web-based literature on the national vaccine policy was done and the issues of ethics and equity involved in introducing new vaccines under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) were studied. The average coverage of the UIP vaccines at the national level is below 50%. Despite this, the policy document did not state any concrete strategy for increasing the coverage. The main stumbling block for evidence-based vaccine policy in India is the lack of reliable epidemiological data, which makes it difficult for the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation to offer sound technical advice to the government. No attempts have been made to prioritise diseases or the selection of vaccines. The policy suggests the introduction of the following vaccines in the UIP: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccines and human papillomavirus (HPV). This selection is on the grounds of the vaccines' availability, not on the basis of epidemiological evidence or proven cost-effectiveness. This is a critical review of the current vaccination policy and the move to include the rotavirus and HPV vaccines in the UIP.

  18. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  19. Evaluating Health Advice in a Web 2.0 Environment: The Impact of Multiple User-Generated Factors on HIV Advice Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Joseph B; Jang, Jeong-Woo; Hanna Edwards, Ashley A

    2018-01-01

    Unlike traditional media, social media systems often present information of different types from different kinds of contributors within a single message pane, a juxtaposition of potential influences that challenges traditional health communication processing. One type of social media system, question-and-answer advice systems, provides peers' answers to health-related questions, which yet other peers read and rate. Responses may appear good or bad, responders may claim expertise, and others' aggregated evaluations of an answer's usefulness may affect readers' judgments. An experiment explored how answer feasibility, expertise claims, and user-generated ratings affected readers' assessments of advice about anonymous HIV testing. Results extend the heuristic-systematic model of persuasion (Chaiken, 1980) and warranting theory (Walther & Parks, 2002). Information that is generally associated with both systematic and heuristic processes influenced readers' evaluations. Moreover, content-level cues affected judgments about message sources unexpectedly. When conflicting cues were present, cues with greater warranting value (consensus user-generated ratings) had greater influence on outcomes than less warranted cues (self-promoted expertise). Findings present a challenge to health professionals' concerns about the reliability of online health information systems.

  20. Leaving against medical advice of addicted to drugs in a Department of Infectious Diseases: Economical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia González

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Giving up health recommendations and care against medical advice is a setback that may happen in daily health work. In a pilot study made at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, Spain, during the first five months in 1998, the incidence of leaving against medical advice was 12,3 times higher than the mean in that hospital (7,03% vs 0,57%. Patients involved in this kind of event were drug abusers with acute infectious problems in a HIV primary infection or a multiple drug dependency. 42% of this patients returned to the hospital in the next 15 days. The research group thought out to study this problem under this hypothesis: Leaving against medical advice, besides having harmful consequences for the patient and the public health, produces an increase in the cost and the stay of the patient in hospital.The main objective of the research was to set up the economic the deviation in the cost/stay of a group of patients that had left against medical advice or in a regular process. It is a prospective and observational study. We studied 284 drug abusers staying in the Department of Infectious Diseases between Oct, 1st, 1999 and Sept, 30th, 2000. The research variables were: 1. Sociodemographic: Initials, , age, sex, and history number. 2. Clinical: Leaving medical diagnosis, returning medical diagnosis. 3. Administrative: Group of Related Diagnosis (GRD, admission date, leaving date, returning date and estimated cost of the episode. All episodes were grouped by kind of leaving and GRD. The cost/stay was calculated adjusted to GRD, and the deviations inside GRD were analyzed in the regular leaving group and the leaving against medical advice group.Results: Around 90% admission episodes were grouped in 6 GRD: 714 (47.92%, 541 (8.85%, 709 (8.85%, 710 (7,81%, 101 (7,29% y 715 (7,29%. The Pneumonia in HIV (GRD 714 caused the majority of the admissions. Global deviation adjusted to cost/stay was 29,44% (more expensive

  1. Comparative study on the use of pharmacist advice between U.S. and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E K

    1990-07-01

    This study investigated the differences in the use of pharmacist advice between the US and Korean university students. The variations in a person's decision to use pharmacist advice in response to symptoms are examined based on Andersen's model; this model relates an individual's decision to use health care services to predisposing, enabling, and need components. A pre-experiment was conducted for the students taking similar courses using a self-administered questionnaire. In the US 165 students responded to the survey, whereas 183 students did in Korea. Utilization was the dependent variable. For the 18 hypothetical symptoms, they were asked to decide how to respond to each of them for 7 days. 5 options were provided based on the research questions of the study doctor use, pharmacist advice use, OTC drug use, other, and doing nothing. 6 key variables were selected as predisposing variables: age, sex, faith in doctors, faith in pharmacists, health professionals in the family, and country. 8 variables were key factors of enabling components: 3 accessibility variables for pharmacy, 3 for doctor's offices, and 2 regular sources of care variables. After controlling for the symptom severity, US students were apt to use pharmacist advice for less days, no matter how they perceived them. For Korean students, there was no relationship between the pharmacist advice use and symptom groups. They were apt to use advice for at least 1 day for all symptoms with various levels of symptom sensitivity. The results also showed that there were meaningful differences in the use between the 2 countries after adjusting for differences in the predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics. A revised 4 stage model was successful in explaining the differences in the utilization. Application of modified version of Andersen's model to US and Korean university students yielded very unique findings, where the most predictive power was in predisposing variables. The meaning of the "country

  2. Reflected glory and failure: the role of the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum in self vs other relevance during advice-giving outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobbs, Dean; Hagan, Cindy C; Yu, Rongjun; Takahashi, Hidehiko; FeldmanHall, Oriel; Calder, Andrew J; Dalgleish, Tim

    2015-10-01

    Despite the risks, people enjoy giving advice. One explanation is that giving beneficial advice can result in reflected glory, ego boosts or reputation enhancement. However, giving poor advice can be socially harmful (being perceived as incompetent or untrustworthy). In both circumstances, we have a vested interest in the advice follower's success or failure, especially when it reflects specifically on us compared with when it is diffused between multiple advisors. We examined these dynamics using an Advisor-Advisee Game, where subjects acted as an Advisor to a confederate Advisee who selected one of the three options when trying to win money: accept the subject's advice, accept the advice of a second confederate Advisor or accept both Advisors' advice. Results showed that having one's advice accepted, compared with being rejected, resulted in activity in the ventral striatum--a core reward area. Furthermore, the ventral striatum was only active when the subject's advice led to the advisee winning, and not when the advisee won based on the confederate's advice. Finally, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was more active when the Advisee won or lost money based solely on the subject's advice compared with when the second Advisor's advice was accepted. One explanation for these findings is that the MPFC monitors self-relevant social information, while the ventral striatum is active when others accept advice and when their success leads to reflected glory. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Examining the content of weight, nutrition and physical activity advices provided by Dutch practice nurses in primary care: analysis of videotaped consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, S M E; Noordman, J; van Dulmen, S; Hiddink, G J

    2014-01-01

    To examine the content of Dutch practice nurses' (PNs') advices about weight, nutrition and physical activity to overweight and obese patients. A 100 videotaped real-life PN consultations (The Netherlands, 2010/2011) with overweight or obese patients were selected. An observational checklist was developed to assess frequency and content. Personalization of advices was scored, as also the guidelines on which PNs based their advices. Content analysis was used to identify different categories of advices. About one quarter of advices concerned weight, over two-thirds nutrition and one-third physical activity. Lose weight, eat less fat and be more physically active in general were the main categories for each type of advice. Despite high clarity of advices, lower scores were found for specificity and personalization. Very few nutrition advices were provided in combination with physical activity advices. Weight advices often related to the patient's complaint. PNs seldom set a concrete weight goal. Although benefits of physical activity were discussed, often no practical advices were provided about how to achieve this. Integrated lifestyle advice was not common: advices about nutrition and physical activity were fragmented throughout the consultation. Obesity prevention needs more emphasis in PNs' educational programs.

  4. Involving the public and other stakeholders in development and evaluation of a community pharmacy alcohol screening and brief advice service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, J; Mackridge, A J

    2014-04-01

    To explore the views of community pharmacy staff, the general public and other stakeholders towards pharmacy-based alcohol screening and advice services. To involve all relevant stakeholders in designing an acceptable and feasible pharmacy-based alcohol screening and advice service. To evaluate a pilot service from the user perspective. Mixed methods study involving a range of populations, designed to explore multiple perspectives and enable triangulation of results, to develop an optimal service design, prior to service commissioning. Telephone interviews were conducted with relevant stakeholders and a street survey undertaken with the public to explore views on the desirability and feasibility of pharmacy-based alcohol services. Following this, a stakeholder working group was held, involving a nominal group technique, to develop and refine the service design. Finally a pilot service was evaluated from the user perspective through telephone interviews and direct observations by a trained researcher. All stakeholder groups (pharmacy staff, public, commissioners, alcohol treatment service staff) viewed pharmacy-based alcohol screening services as acceptable and feasible with the potential for integration and/or combination with existing public health services. Privacy was the main concern of the public, but 80% were comfortable discussing alcohol in a pharmacy. These views were not influenced by drinking status age or gender, but people recruited in areas of high deprivation were more likely to accept a pro-active approach or alcohol-related advice from a pharmacist than those from areas of low deprivation. Stakeholder groups were in agreement on the acceptability of a pharmacy screening service, but alcohol treatment service staff viewed direct referral to alcohol support services less beneficial than other stakeholders. Posters in pharmacies and GP surgeries were viewed as most likely to encourage uptake of screening. Involvement of non-pharmacist pharmacy staff

  5. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination. Fourth annual report, July 1, 1987--June 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.L.

    1988-06-30

    This is the fourth annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was chartered April 9, 1984 under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy.

  6. HSE Advice

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

      var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-152/CERN-MOVIE-2011-152-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', '', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-152/CERN-MOVIE-2011-152-posterframe-480x360-at-30-percent.jpg', '1388277', true, '');   You can also download the presentation for future reference.

  7. Nutritional Advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed N Jeejeebhoy

    1994-01-01

    suggested that bowel rest did not aid the induction of remission but enteral feeding of defined formula diets did induce remission to the same degree as steroids in some but not all studies. Recently a controlled trial suggested the remission induced by a defined formula diet could be prolonged by the use of elimination diets. The use of specific nutrients capable of reducing inflammation or promoting epithelial integrity await study.

  8. Advice concerning pregnancy and health in late medieval Europe: peasant women's wisdom in The Distaff Gospels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Kathleen; Jeay, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores an area which has proven difficult for scholars to penetrate: women's popular wisdom concerning medical matters in the later medieval period. Contextualized within an examination of medieval medical texts both by and about women, our discussion focuses on a later 15th-century French work, The Distaff Gospels. This text, published recently in English for the first time since 1510, consists of more than 200 pieces of advice or "gospels," ostensibly conveyed to one another by a group of women who met together during the long winter evenings to spin. A significant portion of the advice might be considered "medical" in nature; it is grouped into two broad categories: pregnancy and health. We conclude that although our text is male mediated, it provides a reliable and valuable guide to peasant women's medical lore during this period.

  9. Conditional advice and inducements: are readers sensitive to implicit speech acts during comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Matthew; Stewart, Andrew J; Wood, Jeffrey S; Connell, Louise

    2011-03-01

    Conditionals can implicitly convey a range of speech acts including promises, tips, threats and warnings. These are traditionally divided into the broader categories of advice (tips and warnings) and inducements (promises and threats). One consequence of this distinction is that speech acts from within the same category should be harder to differentiate than those from different categories. We examined this in two self-paced reading experiments. Experiment 1 revealed a rapid processing penalty when inducements (promises) and advice (tips) were anaphorically referenced using a mismatching speech act. In Experiment 2 a delayed penalty was observed when a speech act (promise or threat) was referenced by a mismatching speech act from the same category of inducements. This suggests that speech acts from the same category are harder to discriminate than those from different categories. Our findings not only support a semantic distinction between speech act categories, but also reveal pragmatic differences within categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advice to a young scientist (by someone who doesn't know how to give it).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    While trying to extract original and general advice from the details of my career, I realized this might not be possible. My path, like those of so many others, had too many idiosyncratic twists and turns that had to work out just the way they did to be mined for generally useful strategies. So I abandon the conceit of advice and simply give you my story. There are many like it, but this one is mine. Take what you wish from it. © 2015 Denic. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Communication of alcohol and smoking lifestyle advice to the gastroenterological patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Andrew D; Khasawneh, Mais; Allen, Patrick B; Addley, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Effective communication between healthcare staff and patients is central to development of the patient-professional relationship. Many barriers influence this communication, often resulting in patients' lack of understanding and retention of information, particularly affecting advice regarding lifestyle habits, such as alcohol consumption and smoking. Alcohol and smoking misuse are potentially modifiable risk factors known to adversely affect a variety of gastroenterological conditions and improvements in communication with patients regarding this is an important management component. This review discusses the clinical impact of these factors and how healthcare professionals can improve communication. We discuss how enhancing verbal communication skills through medical training leads to greater outcomes in patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment and advice. In addition, with the rapid digitalisation of society, platforms such as social media and smartphone applications may be considered as adjuncts to traditional forms of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rural development policy in Egypt towards 2025 : targeted conditional income support: a suitable option?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.; Vullings, L.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    This report is the final output of the project “Policy towards dynamic rural area in Egypt” (BO-10-006-115) financed by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality. Project purposes 2007 are: Advice to the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation on preservation of

  13. 76 FR 37112 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT represents diverse interests from academia... meeting is to discuss and approve NACEPT's Second Advice Letter on EPA Workforce Planning: Leadership Capabilities and Culture for ``One EPA'' and Strategies to Obtain and Retain Scientific and Technical Expertise...

  14. Lifestyle advice provision to teenage and young adult cancer patients: the perspective of health professionals in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Gemma; Hough, Rachael; Gravestock, Helen; Williams, Kate; Fisher, Abigail

    2017-12-01

    Health professionals are an important source of information for teenage and young adult (TYA) cancer patients. However, little is known about health professionals' provision of lifestyle advice to young people with cancer who are in their care. An online survey was distributed to health professionals within the UK who identified themselves as working with TYA cancer patients. Health professional awareness of lifestyle guidance, provision of lifestyle advice to young people and views on lifestyle information format and delivery were explored. Ninety-five health professionals (44% nurses; 28% allied health professionals; 17% physicians) completed the survey. The majority (72%) of respondents were aware of some lifestyle guidance for cancer patients. However, less than half of TYA health professionals (46%) were able to successfully recall the source of the guidelines and less than a third reported proving specific advice to the majority of their patients on weight management, smoking, alcohol consumption and sun safety. Many health professionals (38%) felt that they were not the right person to provide advice and cited lack of resources as a key barrier to advice provision. The majority (95%) reported being interested in a resource containing relevant lifestyle information that could be given to young people with cancer. TYA health professionals' awareness of lifestyle guidance and provision of advice regarding health behaviour is sub-optimal. Clear and comprehensive guidance written specifically for TYA health professionals could overcome the reported barriers and improve professionals' confidence in addressing and providing advice on lifestyle to young people with cancer.

  15. Development and usability of a computer-tailored pedometer-based physical activity advice for breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, K; Charlier, C; Van Hoof, E; Pauwels, E; Lechner, L; Bourgois, J; Spittaels, H; Vandelanotte, C; De Bourdeaudhuij, I

    2015-09-01

    This observational study aimed to adapt a computer-tailored step advice for the general population into a feasible advice for breast cancer survivors and to test its usability. First, several adaptations were made to the original design (adding cancer-related physical activity (PA) barriers and beliefs, and self-management strategies to improve survivors' personal control). Second, the adapted advice was evaluated in two phases: (1) a usability testing in healthy women (n = 3) and survivors (n = 6); and (2) a process evaluation during 3 weeks in breast cancer survivors (n = 8). Preliminary usability testing revealed no problems during logging-in; however, three survivors misinterpreted some questions. After refining the questionnaire and advice, survivors evaluated the advice as interesting, attractive to read, comprehensible and credible. Inactive survivors found the advice novel, but too long. The process evaluation indicated that the majority of the women (n = 5/8) reported increased steps. Monitoring step counts by using a pedometer was perceived as an important motivator to be more active. To conclude, this study provides initial support for the usability and acceptability of a computer-tailored pedometer-based PA advice for breast cancer survivors. After testing efficacy and effectiveness of this intervention, this tool can broaden the reach of PA promotion in breast cancer survivors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Making LibrariesAccessible for Visually Impaired Users: Practical Advice For Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devney Hamilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an introduction to making university libraries accessible to visually impaired users. It includes a summary of how visually impaired students access information and how libraries can provide access to materials, devices and software, and staff support to ensure visually impaired students ’ equal opportunity to use the library. The practical advice for librarians are based on interviews with 18 visually impaired university students and professionals who specialize in media, library services and information retrieval.

  17. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Guangliang; Heemink, A.W.; Lu, S.; Segers, AJ; Weber, Konradin; Lin, H.X.

    2016-01-01

    The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 ...

  18. Integrating guideline development and implementation: analysis of guideline development manual instructions for generating implementation advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Anna R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines are important tools that inform healthcare delivery based on best available research evidence. Guideline use is in part based on quality of the guidelines, which includes advice for implementation and has been shown to vary. Others hypothesized this is due to limited instructions in guideline development manuals. The purpose of this study was to examine manual instructions for implementation advice. Methods We used a directed and summative content analysis approach based on an established framework of guideline implementability. Six manuals identified by another research group were examined to enumerate implementability domains and elements. Results Manuals were similar in content but lacked sufficient detail in particular domains. Most frequently this was Accomodation, which includes information that would help guideline users anticipate and/or overcome organizational and system level barriers. In more than one manual, information was also lacking for Communicability, information that would educate patients or facilitate their involvement in shared decision making, and Applicability, or clinical parameters to help clinicians tailor recommendations for individual patients. Discussion Most manuals that direct guideline development lack complete information about incorporating implementation advice. These findings can be used by those who developed the manuals to consider expanding their content in these domains. It can also be used by guideline developers as they plan the content and implementation of their guidelines so that the two are integrated. New approaches for guideline development and implementation may need to be developed. Use of guidelines might be improved if they included implementation advice, but this must be evaluated through ongoing research.

  19. Patients telephoning A&E for advice: a comparison of expectations and outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, J; Crouch, R; Patel, A; Williams, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expectations of patients when they phone the accident and emergency (A&E) department, how this relates to the advice they receive, the action they subsequently take, and their satisfaction with the service. SETTING: The study was undertaken at an inner city hospital in south east London. METHODS: 597 calls to the department were documented during the study period, and callers for whom a phone number had been recorded were followed up by structured interviews carr...

  20. Transfer of Knowledge on Agroforestry Management Practices: the Structure of Farmer Advice Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marney E. Isaac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to knowledge on farm management practices is essential for the maintenance of productive agroforestry systems. Farmers who lack the means to acquire farming knowledge from formal sources often rely on information within their informal social networks. However, little research has explored the explicit structure of farmer communication patterns. We examined advice network structures by using farmer attributes, i.e., kin relationships, community involvement, and imitation, to characterize structural positions and investigated the consequences of such structure on farming practices in cocoa agroforestry systems in Ghana, West Africa. Furthermore, we used a multicommunity approach; we constructed networks for four communities to increase replication and enhance the generality of our conclusions. A high density of advice ties occurred among a small group of farmers, indicating a core-periphery structure. Settler farmers composed 73% of core position members, suggesting that social proximity did not control the formation of informal advice structures. Because core farmers were highly participative in community activities, the promotion of community involvement may facilitate the movement of knowledge and social exchange to strengthen informal networks. Farmers in both core and peripheral structural positions indicated that they observed fellow farmers and subsequently adopted their practices. Of highly sought farmers, 84% used external information, predominately from government institutions, thus functioning as bridging links between formal and informal networks. Both external and farmer-derived sources of knowledge of agroforestry practices were transferred through informal advice networks, providing available information throughout the farming community, as well as a foundation for community-based adaptive management.

  1. Preventive behaviour in adult offspring of Type 2 diabetic patients and its relationship to parental advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaki, M; Kobayashi, K; Abe, Y; Seki, N; Yokomura, T; Yokoyama, M; Kazuma, K

    2008-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate preventive behaviour of offspring at risk of Type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the relationship between patients' behaviour of giving advice as parents. This cross-sectional study was based on a self-reported questionnaire survey and was conducted at the diabetes clinic of one general hospital. Subjects were 164 pairs, comprising Type 2 diabetic patients ranging in age from 50 to 75 years and non-diabetic offspring ranging in age from 20 to 50 years. Approximately half of patients' offspring were engaged in preventive behaviour; 51.2% to prevent weight gain and 50.6% to have a healthy diet. The proportion of offspring taking regular exercise was significantly less (40.2%) than those attempting weight control and eating a healthy diet (P = 0.0039, P = 0.0035, respectively). One hundred and six (64.6%) patients advised their offspring to change their lifestyle habits, such as with diet or exercise, for diabetes prevention. However, preventive behaviours in offspring, including preventing weight gain, having a healthy diet and taking regular exercise, were not facilitated by parental advice (P = 0.27, 0.92, 0.61, respectively). The offspring regarded medical professionals or mass media as reliable information sources, but not the family. However, they received information about diabetes most frequently from their family. Although more offspring practised preventive behaviour than expected, they were less likely to exercise than to change their diet or attempt to control their weight. Parental advice did not facilitate offspring preventive behaviour. Further research is needed to discover how to mediate links between parental advice and offspring preventive behaviour.

  2. Did public health travel advice reach EURO 2012 football fans? A social network survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiec, J; Zielicka-Hardy, A; Polkowska, A; Rogalska, J; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-08-02

    We posted a survey on the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)’s EURO 2012 Facebook profile to evaluate whether public health travel advice, specifically on the importance of measles vaccination,reached fans attending EURO 2012. Responses suggested that these messages were missed by 77% of fans. Social networks could serve as innovative platforms to conduct surveys, enabling rapid access to target populations at low cost and could be of use during upcoming mass gatherings such as the Olympics.

  3. [Via internet to the psychiatrist. The internet as a first step to seek psychiatric advice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielein, Tanja; Klein, Helmfried E; Hübner-Liebermann, Bettina; Spiessl, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Consultation via Internet is becoming increasingly common for patients with psychiatric illnesses. We report on the e-mail-correspondence with a young woman (according to her own statement), taking medical advice for depressive symptoms via Internet. The correspondence focuses on the difficulties of the consulter to find and accept adequate (professional) support in the "real world". On the basis of this case report, advantages and limitations of the communication via Internet are discussed.

  4. "Delivering knowledge and advice": Healthcare providers' experiences of their interaction with patients' management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, Ulrika; Bergman, Stefan; Fridlund, Bengt; Arvidsson, Barbro

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases are often chronic and involve a lifetime of suffering. The focus of rheumatology care is to support patients to manage their lives and master their disease. Healthcare providers and patients have different views on the consequences of living with rheumatic diseases and patients are reporting unmet healthcare needs. There is a need to integrate providers' perspective to develop the quality of rheumatology care. The aim was to explore healthcare providers' experiences of their interaction with patients in their management of RA. Interviews with 18 providers from different clinical settings were analysed in accordance with the grounded theory method. A core category; Delivering knowledge and advice was found to be the most important task and involved providing the patient with information about the disease and appropriate forms of treatment. Healthcare providers' attitudes and patients' responses influenced the outcome of the delivery of knowledge and advice and three dimensions emerged; completed delivery, adjusted delivery and failed delivery. There were differences in the providers' experiences in their interaction with patients as well as in reflections on their role as the delivering part. There could be difficulties in the interaction when patients' expectations and preferences were not taken into account when giving advice. These findings highlight the importance of developing rheumatology care, as no provider or patient benefits if the delivery of knowledge and advice becomes a failed delivery. The healthcare organization must acknowledge the difficulties involved in the interaction with patients in their management of RA and find methods to develop a more person-centred approach to care.

  5. The ICMJE and URM: Providing Independent Advice for the Conduct of Biomedical Research and Publication

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Weyden, Martin B

    2007-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is a working group of editors of selected medical journals that meets annually. Founded in Vancouver, Canada, in 1978, it currently consists of 11 member journals and a representative of the US National Library of Medicine. The major purpose of the Committee is to address and provide guidance for the conduct and publishing of biomedical research and the ethical tenets underpinning these activities. This advice is detailed in the C...

  6. Sports Nutrition Knowledge, Perceptions, Resources, and Advice Given by Certified CrossFit Trainers

    OpenAIRE

    Cassie Maxwell; Kyle Ruth; Carol Friesen

    2017-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete sur...

  7. Advice on exercise for pregnant women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Shalini; Anim-Nyame, Nick

    2015-03-01

    Reports on advice about exercise for women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are reviewed and how exercise could influence long-term cardiovascular risk is assessed. Exercise in pregnancy seems to be beneficial in pregnancies complicated by hypertension. However, the intensity of the exercise to be recommended remains unclear. Further research is required to inform national and international guidelines for women who develop hypertension during pregnancy. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lessons learned and advice from Vietnam war nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell-Desch, Elizabeth A

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe guidance for nurses today from the lessons learned by nurses who served in the Vietnam War. There is little research focusing on nurses' experiences in the Vietnam War. Lessons learned and subsequent advice from nurses who served in Vietnam may be helpful to those serving in current and future wars. A Husserlian phenomenological approach was taken, using interviews with a purposive sample of Registered Nurses who were female, and had served in the United States of America armed forces in Vietnam during the war. Seven theme clusters described the lesson learned and guidance offered by the Vietnam War nurses: advice about journaling, training, caring for yourself, use of support systems, talking about your experiences, understanding the mission, and lack of preparation for war. Much can be learned from the lessons learned and advice given by Vietnam War nurses. These lessons stress that nurses need to take a pro-active role in preparing themselves for deployment to a war zone, and that institutional training for war needs to be intensive and realistic. The environmental, cultural, technological, clinical and psychosocial demands of war nursing need to be comprehensively addressed before nurses deploy to a war.

  9. Immunisation errors reported to a vaccine advice service: intelligence to improve practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah; Ford, Karen J; John, Tessa; Pollard, Andrew J; McCarthy, Noel D

    2014-01-01

    The success of immunisation programmes depends on the quality with which they are administered. The Vaccine Advice for CliniCians Service (VACCSline) is an advice service to support immunisers and promote excellence in immunisation practice, through specialist guidance and local education, covering a catchment population of two million people. All enquiries are recorded onto a database and categorised. Vaccine error is selected when a vaccine has not been prepared or administered according to national recommendations or relevant expert guidance. All enquiries from 2009 to 2011, categorised on the VACCSline database as 'vaccine error' were analysed and subjected to a detailed free-text review. Of 4301 enquiries, 158 (3.7%) concerned vaccine errors. The greatest frequency of errors, 145 (92.9%) concerned immunisations delivered in primary care services; 92% of all errors occurred during either vaccine selection and preparation or history checking and scheduling. Administration of the wrong vaccine was the most frequent error recorded in 33.3% of reports. A shared first letter of the vaccine name was noted to occur in 13 error reports in which the incorrect vaccine was inadvertently administered. Consultations involving pairs of siblings were associated with various errors in seven enquiries. Failure to revaccinate after spillage (seven reports) showed a widespread knowledge gap in this area. Advice line enquiries provide intelligence to alert immunisers to the errors that are commonly reported and may serve to highlight processes that predispose to errors, thus informing immuniser training and updating.

  10. Clinical and radiographic improvement of rickets in Bangladeshi children as a result of nutritional advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, J; Pettifor, J M; Cimma, J P; Fischer, P R; Craviari, T; Meisner, C; Haque, S

    2007-09-01

    Calcium-deficiency rickets is common in south-east Bangladesh and responds to calcium supplementation. To evaluate the healing effect on active rickets of a five-component nutritional advice programme aimed at doubling dietary calcium intakes. Forty-nine children aged rickets were followed over a period of 12 months. All were provided with a five-component nutritional advice programme advocating (i) the routine addition of 1 g limestone/kg rice, (ii) consuming small fish (including bones) instead of large ones, and (iii) daily consumption of 5 g ground sesame seeds, (iv) 100 g leafy vegetables and, if possible, (v) 100 ml of milk. Radiographic scores improved in 90% of children. The response was positively associated with age (r=0.34, n=48, p=0.01) and severity of radiographic score at baseline (r=0.85, n=49, prickets, nutritional advice may be a cost-effective treatment and possibly a valuable long-term solution to the problem.

  11. Bounds on the power of proofs and advice in general physical theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ciarán M; Hoban, Matty J

    2016-06-01

    Quantum theory presents us with the tools for computational and communication advantages over classical theory. One approach to uncovering the source of these advantages is to determine how computation and communication power vary as quantum theory is replaced by other operationally defined theories from a broad framework of such theories. Such investigations may reveal some of the key physical features required for powerful computation and communication. In this paper, we investigate how simple physical principles bound the power of two different computational paradigms which combine computation and communication in a non-trivial fashion: computation with advice and interactive proof systems. We show that the existence of non-trivial dynamics in a theory implies a bound on the power of computation with advice. Moreover, we provide an explicit example of a theory with no non-trivial dynamics in which the power of computation with advice is unbounded. Finally, we show that the power of simple interactive proof systems in theories where local measurements suffice for tomography is non-trivially bounded. This result provides a proof that [Formula: see text] is contained in [Formula: see text], which does not make use of any uniquely quantum structure-such as the fact that observables correspond to self-adjoint operators-and thus may be of independent interest.

  12. Advice to walk after meals is more effective for lowering postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus than advice that does not specify timing: a randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Andrew N; Mann, Jim I; Williams, Sheila; Venn, Bernard J

    2016-12-01

    Regular physical activity is a cornerstone of diabetes management. We conducted a study to evaluate whether specifying the timing of walking in relation to meals enhances the benefits conferred by current physical activity guidelines. A total of 41 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean ± SD age 60 ± 9.9 years; mean diabetes duration 10 years) participated in this randomised, crossover study. Randomisation was by a computer-generated protocol. For periods of 2 weeks, advice to walk 30 min each day was compared with advice to walk for 10 min after each main meal. Both sets of advice met current physical activity guidelines for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over the full intervention, and glycaemia was measured using continuous glucose monitoring in 5 min intervals over 7 days. The primary outcome of postprandial glycaemia was assessed during the 3 h after a meal by the incremental area under the blood glucose curve (iAUC). The iAUC was significantly lower when participants walked after meals compared with on a single daily occasion (ratio of geometric means 0.88, 95% CI 0.78, 0.99). The improvement was particularly striking after the evening meal (0.78, 95% CI 0.67, 0.91) when the most carbohydrate was consumed and sedentary behaviours were highest. One participant died during the 30 day washout period between interventions, but participation in this study was not judged to contribute to this unfortunate event. The benefits relating to physical activity following meals suggest that current guidelines should be amended to specify post-meal activity, particularly when meals contain a substantial amount of carbohydrate. ACTRN12613000832774 FUNDING: : This study was supported by grants from the University of Otago and the New Zealand Artificial Limb Service. Glycated albumin reagents were provided by Asahi Kasei.

  13. Dietary advice for muscularity, leanness and weight control in Men’s Health magazine: a content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, T. M.; Russell, J M; Barker, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The dietary content of advice in men’s lifestyle magazines has not been closely scrutinised.\\ud \\ud Methods: We carried out an analysis of such content in all 2009 issues (n = 11) of Men’s Health (MH) focusing on muscularity, leanness and weight control.\\ud \\ud Results: Promotion of a mesomorphic body image underpinned advice to affect muscle building and control weight. Diet advice was underpinned by a strong pseudo-scientific discourse, with citation of expert sources widely use...

  14. Effectiveness of manual therapy or pulsed shortwave diathermy in addition to advice and exercise for neck disorders: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial in physical therapy clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Krysia; Hill, Jonathan; Lewis, Martyn; Sim, Julius; Daniels, Jane; Hay, Elaine M

    2005-04-15

    To determine whether manual therapy or pulsed shortwave diathermy, in addition to advice and exercise, provide better clinical outcome at 6 months than advice and exercise alone in primary care patients with nonspecific neck disorders. This was a multicenter, 3-arm randomized controlled trial in 15 physical therapy departments. Of the 735 screened patients, 350 were recruited to the study (mean age 51 years) from July 2000 to June 2002. Participants were randomized to advice and exercise plus manual therapy, advice and exercise plus pulsed shortwave, or advice and exercise alone. Assessments were undertaken at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. The primary outcome was the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire. Analysis was by intention to treat. Of the participants, 115 were allocated to advice and exercise, 114 to advice and exercise plus manual therapy, and 121 to advice and exercise plus pulsed shortwave; 98% received the allocated treatment. There was 93% followup at 6 months. The mean +/- SD fall in Northwick Park score at 6 months was 11.5 +/- 15.7 for advice and exercise alone, 10.2 +/- 14.1 for advice and exercise plus manual therapy, and 10.3 +/- 15.0 for advice and exercise plus pulsed shortwave. There were no statistically significant differences in mean changes between groups. The addition of pulsed shortwave or manual therapy to advice and exercise did not provide any additional benefits in the physical therapy treatment of neck disorders.

  15. The influence of trade union Disability Champions on employer disability policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, N.; Hoque, K.

    2015-01-01

    Disability Champions are a new type of lay workplace trade union activist, whose role is to encourage employers to audit and improve disability policies and offer independent advice and guidance on disability issues to employees. Drawing on a survey of the population of Disability Champions, this article assesses Disability Champion influence on employer disability policy and practice. While the majority of Disability Champions report having had a positive impact, they report greater influenc...

  16. Lay Evaluation of Financial Experts: The Action Advice Effect and Confirmation Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaleskiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this experimental project was to investigate lay peoples’ perceptions of epistemic authority (EA in the field of finance. EA is defined as the extent to which a source of information is treated as evidence for judgments independently of its objective expertise and based on subjective beliefs. Previous research suggested that EA evaluations are biased and that lay people tend to ascribe higher EA to experts who advise action (in the case of medical experts or confirm clients’ expectations (in the case of politicians. However, there has been no research into biases in lay evaluations of financial experts and this project is aimed to fill this gap. Experiment 1 showed that lay people tended to ascribe greater authority to financial consultants who gave more active advice to clients considering taking out a mortgage. Experiment 2 confirmed the action advice effect found in Experiment 1. However, the outcomes of Experiments 2 and – particularly – 3 suggested that this bias might also be due to clients’ desire to confirm their own opinions. Experiment 2 showed that the action advice effect was moderated by clients’ own opinions on taking loans. Lay people ascribed the greatest EA to the advisor in the scenario in which he advised taking action and where this coincided with the client’s positive opinion on the advisability of taking out a loan. In Experiment 3 only participants with a positive opinion on the financial product ascribed greater authority to experts who recommended it; participants whose opinion was negative tended to rate consultants who advised rejecting the product more highly. To conclude, these three experiments revealed that lay people ascribe higher EA to financial consultants who advise action rather than maintenance of the status quo, but this effect is limited by confirmation bias: when the client’s a priori opinion is salient, greater authority is ascribed to experts whose advice confirms it. In this

  17. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) – Opinion by written procedure – Review of scientific advice for 2013- part I – Advice on stocks in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The scientific advice on the stocks and fisheries in the Baltic Sea in 2013 evaluated and endorsed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) by written procedure in June 2012 on a request by the European Commission......The scientific advice on the stocks and fisheries in the Baltic Sea in 2013 evaluated and endorsed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) by written procedure in June 2012 on a request by the European Commission...

  18. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  19. Health-care provider screening for tobacco smoking and advice to quit - 17 countries, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable mortality in the world. Article 14 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) states that countries should promote cessation of tobacco use and adequate treatment for tobacco dependence. Health-care providers asking all patients about their tobacco use and advising tobacco users to quit are evidence-based strategies that increase tobacco abstinence. This report examines the proportion of tobacco smokers in 17 countries responding to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) who saw a health-care provider in the past year and who reported that a health-care provider asked them about smoking and advised them to quit. Respondents were tobacco smokers aged ≥15 years surveyed during 2008-2011 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam. The proportion of smokers who had visited a health-care provider during the previous 12 months ranged from 21.6% in Egypt to 62.3% in Poland. Among these, the proportion reporting that a health-care provider asked if they smoked ranged from 34.9% in Vietnam to 82.1% in Romania. Among those screened for tobacco use, those who reported their health-care providers advised them to quit ranged from 17.3% in Mexico to 67.3% in Romania. In most countries, persons aged ≥45 years were more likely to report being screened and advised to quit than were persons aged ≤24 years. Health-care providers should identify smokers and provide advice and assistance in quitting at each visit as an adjunct to effective community interventions (e.g., increased price of tobacco products; smoke-free policies, mass media campaigns, and tobacco quitlines).

  20. Training and Regulating those providing Publicly Funded Legal Advice Services\\ud \\ud A Case Study of Civil Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Pete; Sommerlad, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a two year project funded by the Ministry of Justice, evaluating the impact of regulatory and training regimes on the front line experiences of solicitors and advice agency staff involved in the delivery of publicly funded legal advice. The findings shed light on the impact of contractual regulation on the organization and objectives of private firms and voluntary organizations, and rpovide insight into the nature of work-based learning.

  1. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    This article uses Arctic Winter 2016 as an exploration site of values and futures in Greenland. By taking a valuation approach where the creation and interpretation of event values are seen as an ongoing and taxing accomplishment, we firstly expand the understanding of events beyond their actual...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...... planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...

  2. Health advice obtained by tourists travelling to Magnetic Island: a risk area for 'Irukandji' jellyfish in North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Harrison, Simone L; Fenner, Peter J; Durrheim, David N; Swinbourne, Anne L

    2005-02-01

    Little is known about the travel health advice obtained by tourists travelling to Magnetic Island, which is a known risk area for the potentially fatal 'Irukandji' jellyfish on the Great Barrier Reef coast of north Queensland, Australia. Structured interviews were conducted with 208 ferry passengers (93% response) travelling between Townsville (Latitude 19 degrees S) and Magnetic Island. Less than half of the international tourists (21, 46%) had obtained travel health advice before coming to north Queensland, although they were significantly more likely to have done so than domestic tourists (pjellyfish was (pjellyfish. Most of the international tourists travelled to north Queensland by bus (30, 65%), while most domestic tourists arrived by private car (12, 40%) or plane (10, 33%). Only a small proportion of international tourists knew about Irukandji jellyfish and most tourists had not received travel health advice. The majority of tourists had not received further information about Irukandji jellyfish risk whilst on the island. All travellers to popular north Queensland tourist areas need travel health advice, which includes advice on avoiding contact with Irukandji and Chironex box jellyfish. Health promotion campaigns directed at providing this advice need to be aware that most tourists to north Queensland arrive by bus or car and the only 'shared' vehicle, at least to Magnetic Island, is the passenger ferry.

  3. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  4. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P embarazo y la lactancia. Métodos En diciembre de 2001 y diciembre de 2002 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas con un total de 167 mujeres que estaban amamantando o que habían amamantado recientemente. A las madres se les preguntó qué tipo de consejos, en caso de haberlos, les dieron los profesionales de la salud y sus parientes y amistades

  5. Nutritional advice for prevention of acute pancreatitis: review of current opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe ME

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mark E Lowe, Wednesday A SevillaDivision of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that can be acute and self-limiting or, in a small percentage of patients, recurrent. Patients with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis (RAP often progress to chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis in all forms causes significant economic and social burdens. Prevention of RAP may decrease those burdens and halt progression to chronic disease. Unfortunately, no therapy has proven effective at altering the course of RAP. While enteral nutritional therapy plays an important role in the treatment of acute pancreatitis during episodes, nutritional advice provided to patients in an attempt to prevent recurrent episodes has not proven effective in most cases. Discontinuing alcohol consumption and treating dyslipidemia with diet and medication can help patients with these issues. In patients whose pancreatitis is associated with celiac disease or eosinophilic gastroenteritis, a gluten-free diet and avoidance of food allergens can be effective in stopping RAP. Advice to take pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, lose weight, control diabetes, decrease dietary sucrose, decrease dietary fat or avoid monosodium glutamate has little to no evidence of efficacy. Some studies suggest that an antioxidant cocktail may decrease the frequency of RAP and the intensity of chronic pain, but the evidence is weak. Nutritional therapy may have a role in the treatment of patients with RAP. At present, there are no clear guidelines for nutritional advice to give these patients. More studies are needed to identify nutritional interventions that will benefit patients with RAP.Keywords: pancreatitis, nutrition, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, antioxidants, herbal supplements

  6. Addressing the financial consequences of cancer: qualitative evaluation of a welfare rights advice service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Moffatt

    Full Text Available The onset, treatment and trajectory of cancer is associated with financial stress among patients across a range of health and welfare systems and has been identified as a significant unmet need. Welfare rights advice can be delivered effectively in healthcare settings, has the potential to alleviate financial stress, but has not yet been evaluated. We present an evaluation of a welfare rights advice intervention designed to address the financial consequences of cancer.Descriptive study of welfare outcomes among 533 male and 641 female cancer patients and carers aged 4-95 (mean 62 years, who accessed the welfare rights advice service in North East England between April 2009 and March 2010; and qualitative interview study of a maximum variation sample of 35 patients and 9 carers.Over two thirds of cancer patients and carers came from areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Welfare benefit claims were successful for 96% of claims made and resulted in a median increase in weekly income of £70.30 ($109.74, €84.44. Thirty-four different types of benefits or grants were awarded. Additional resources were perceived to lessen the impact of lost earnings, help offset costs associated with cancer, reduce stress and anxiety and increase ability to maintain independence and capacity to engage in daily activities, all of which were perceived to impact positively on well-being and quality of life. Key barriers to accessing benefit entitlements were knowledge, system complexity, eligibility concerns and assumptions that health professionals would alert patients to entitlements.The intervention proved feasible, effectively increased income for cancer patients and was highly valued. Addressing the financial sequelae of cancer can have positive social and psychological consequences that could significantly enhance effective clinical management and suitable services should be routinely available. Further research is needed to evaluate health outcomes

  7. Discharge against medical advice at a tertiary center in southeastern Nigeria: sociodemographic and clinical dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface Eze

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Boniface Eze1, Kenneth Agu2, Jones Nwosu31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Surgery, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria Objective: To assess the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients discharged against medical advice (DAMA at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria.Methods: The UNTH’s admission and discharge records between 1997 and 2006 were examined. Patients DAMA were identified; relevant sociodemographic and clinical data were extracted from their recalled clinical charts. Data were analyzed to generate rates, percentages, and proportions, and a level of P < 0.05 (one degree of freedom was considered statistically significant.Results: Of the 64,856 admissions (45.2% male, 54.8% female, 113 (0.002%; males: 54%, females: 46% were discharged against medical advice. DAMA rate was highest in Surgery (0.4%, and lowest in Obstetrics and Gynecology (0.1% and Pediatrics (0.1%. Infections (32.7%, trauma (29.2%, and cancer (16.8% were the leading diagnoses in patients DAMA. Financial constraints (37.2%, unsatisfactory response to treatment (17.7%, and dissatisfaction with hospital environment (15.0% were the main reasons for patients choosing to discharge themselves. DAMA was associated with a short admission period (P < 0.05, patients having high levels of formal education (P < 0.05, and those who had not been previously hospitalized (P < 0.05; but not with age (P = 0.398, gender (P = 0.489, or employment (P = 0.091.Conclusion: Comparatively, the rate of DAMA at UNTH is low. The causes of DAMA are preventable; for example, strengthening of the national health insurance scheme, enhancement of doctor-patient communication, and improvement of hospital environment would further reduce DAMA rate. Keywords: discharge against medical advice, tertiary center, sociodemographic characteristics, clinical

  8. Smoking cessation advice: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among clinical dental students'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allama Prabhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is the single most important public health challenge facing the National Health Service. The detrimental effects on the general health of tobacco smoking are well documented. Smoking is a primary risk factor for oral cancer and many oral diseases. Dental professional scan plays an important role in preventing adverse health effects by promoting smoking cessation. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice among clinical dental students in giving smoking cessation advice and to explore the barriers to this activity. Materials and Methods: A total of 262 clinical dental trainee of two dental colleges (College of Dental Sciences and Bapuji Dental College of Davangere city were included in the survey. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward Tobacco Cessation Advise. Results: Among the 262 participants in the study, around 51% said they know about Nicotine Replacement Therapy, and among them, only 4.6% were aware of the options available in the market. When asked about 5A's of tobacco cessation, only 35.5% were aware of it. Similarly, when asked about 5R's of tobacco cessation, 48.5% were unaware of it. Conclusions: The respondents did not have sufficient knowledge regarding tobacco cessation advice. With patient's disinterest and lack of time being quoted as the important barriers in providing tobacco cessation advice, it is highly recommended that there is need to incorporate few chapters on tobacco, its effect and cessation of habit in the undergraduate dental curriculum with simultaneous application of the same in clinical practice.

  9. Factors influencing physicians’ advice about female sterilization in USA: a national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R.E.; Rasinski, K.A.; Yoon, J.D.; Curlin, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tubal ligation can be a controversial method of birth control, depending on the patient's circumstances and the physician's beliefs. METHODS In a national survey of 1800 US obstetrician-gynecologist (Ob/Gyn) physicians, we examined how patients’ and physicians’ characteristics influence Ob/Gyns’ advice about, and provision of, tubal ligation. Physicians were presented with a vignette in which a patient requests tubal ligation. The patient's age, gravida/parity and her husband's agreement/disagreement were varied in a factorial experiment. Criterion variables were whether physicians would discourage tubal ligation, and whether physicians would provide the surgery. RESULTS The response rate was 66% (1154/1760). Most Ob/Gyns (98%) would help the patient to obtain tubal ligation, although 9–70% would attempt to dissuade her, depending on her characteristics. Forty-five percent of physicians would discourage a G2P1 (gravida/parity) woman, while 29% would discourage a G4P3 woman. Most physicians (59%) would discourage a 26-year-old whose husband disagreed, while 32% would discourage a 26-year-old whose husband agreed. For a 36-year-old patient, 47% would discourage her if her husband disagreed, while only 10% would discourage her if her husband agreed. Physicians’ sex had no significant effect on advice about tubal ligation. CONCLUSIONS Regarding patients who seek surgical sterilization, physicians’ advice varies based on patient age, parity and spousal agreement but almost all Ob/Gyns are willing to provide or help patients obtain surgical sterilization if asked. An important limitation of the study is that a brief vignette, while useful for statistical analysis, is a rough approximation of an actual clinical encounter. PMID:20961942

  10. Education of patients after whiplash injury: is oral advice any better than a pamphlet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsted, Alice; Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge; Bach, Flemming Winther; Korsholm, Lars; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Bendix, Tom

    2008-10-15

    Randomized parallel-group trial with 1-year follow-up. To evaluate whether education of patients communicated orally by a specially trained nurse is superior to giving patients a pamphlet after a whiplash injury. Long-lasting pain and physical disability after whiplash injuries are related to both serious personal suffering and huge socio-economic costs. Pure educational interventions after such injuries seem generally as effective as more costly interventions, but it is unknown if the way advice is communicated is of any importance. Participants with relatively mild complaints after car collisions were recruited from emergency departments and GPs. A total of 182 participants were randomized to either: (1) a 1 hour-educational session with a specially trained nurse, or (2) an educational pamphlet. Outcome parameters were neck pain, headache, disability, and return to work. Recovery was defined as scoring pain 0 or 1 (0-10 point scale) and not being off sick at the time of the follow-ups. After 3, 6, and 12 months 60%, 58%, and 66%, respectively of the participants had recovered. Group differences were nonsignificant on all outcome parameters, even though the outcome tended to be better for the group receiving personal advice. Prognosis did not differ between patients who received personal education and those who got a pamphlet. However, a systematic tendency toward better outcome with personal communicated information was observed and the question how patients should be educated to reduce the risk of chronicity after whiplash is worth further investigation, since no treatment have been proven to prevent long-lasting symptoms, and all forms of advice or educational therapy are so cheap that even a modest effect justifies its use.

  11. Perceptions of genetic testing for personalized nutrition: a randomized trial of DNA-based dietary advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Daiva E; Shih, Sarah; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests have facilitated easy access to personal genetic information related to health and nutrition; however, consumer perceptions of the nutritional information provided by these tests have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess individual perceptions of personalized nutrition and genetic testing and to determine whether a personalized nutrition intervention modifies perceptions. A double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was conducted among healthy men and women aged 20-35 years (n = 138). Participants in the intervention group (n = 92) were given a report of DNA-based dietary advice and those in the control group (n = 46) were given a general dietary advice report. A survey was completed at baseline and 3 and 12 months after distributing the reports to assess perceptions between the two groups. No significant differences in perceptions of personalized nutrition and genetic testing were observed between the intervention and control group, so responses of both groups were combined. As compared to baseline, participant responses increased significantly toward the positive end of a Likert scale at 3 months for the statement 'I am interested in the relationship between diet and genetics' (mean change ± SD: 0.28 ± 0.99, p = 0.0002). The majority of participants indicated that a university research lab (47%) or health care professional (41%) were the best sources for obtaining accurate personal genetic information, while a DTC genetic testing company received the fewest selections (12%). Most participants (56%) considered dietitians to be the best source of personalized nutrition followed by medical doctors (27%), naturopaths (8%) and nurses (6%). These results suggest that perceptions of personalized nutrition changed over the course of the intervention. Individuals view a research lab or health care professional as better providers of genetic information than a DTC genetic testing company

  12. Addressing the financial consequences of cancer: qualitative evaluation of a welfare rights advice service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Suzanne; Noble, Emma; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The onset, treatment and trajectory of cancer is associated with financial stress among patients across a range of health and welfare systems and has been identified as a significant unmet need. Welfare rights advice can be delivered effectively in healthcare settings, has the potential to alleviate financial stress, but has not yet been evaluated. We present an evaluation of a welfare rights advice intervention designed to address the financial consequences of cancer. Descriptive study of welfare outcomes among 533 male and 641 female cancer patients and carers aged 4-95 (mean 62) years, who accessed the welfare rights advice service in North East England between April 2009 and March 2010; and qualitative interview study of a maximum variation sample of 35 patients and 9 carers. Over two thirds of cancer patients and carers came from areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Welfare benefit claims were successful for 96% of claims made and resulted in a median increase in weekly income of £70.30 ($109.74, €84.44). Thirty-four different types of benefits or grants were awarded. Additional resources were perceived to lessen the impact of lost earnings, help offset costs associated with cancer, reduce stress and anxiety and increase ability to maintain independence and capacity to engage in daily activities, all of which were perceived to impact positively on well-being and quality of life. Key barriers to accessing benefit entitlements were knowledge, system complexity, eligibility concerns and assumptions that health professionals would alert patients to entitlements. The intervention proved feasible, effectively increased income for cancer patients and was highly valued. Addressing the financial sequelae of cancer can have positive social and psychological consequences that could significantly enhance effective clinical management and suitable services should be routinely available. Further research is needed to evaluate health outcomes definitely and assess

  13. Reporting ethical matters in the Journal of Physiology: standards and advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Gordon B

    2009-02-15

    Reporting of ethical matters in The Journal is very important. To advise and assist authors, particularly those who may be less familiar with the legislation in the UK, this article sets out the basic principles and methods that should be used and provides many key web sources of information. It addresses the structure of regulations, and introduces the concept of research governance. The UK law is summarized. Advice is given on the format and description of experiments, and common problems addressed. Aspects of human studies are addressed. Ethical considerations of publication such as authorship and originality, and problems such as plagiarism and fabrication are described. Updates will be published regularly.

  14. Updated Swedish advice on reducing the risk of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennergren, Göran; Nordstrand, Kerstin; Alm, Bernt; Möllborg, Per; Öhman, Anna; Berlin, Anita; Katz-Salamon, Miriam; Lagercrantz, Hugo

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews updated advice and factual material from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare on reducing the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Issues covered by the guidance for parents and healthcare professionals include sleeping positions, smoking, breastfeeding, bed sharing and using pacifiers. The guidelines conclude that infants under three months of age are safest sleeping in their own cot and that a pacifier can be used when they are going to sleep. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Detection, advice, and referral to services (DARTS) procedures among clients with public defenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A; Belenko, Steven; Festinger, David S

    2011-01-01

    Although screening and brief intervention techniques have been found to be efficacious in a variety of medical settings, their use in the criminal justice system has been limited. We present data from Chief Public Defenders (PDs) in 24 Pennsylvania counties who were surveyed about their approach to substance-using clients and their attitudes toward treatment and talking to clients about substance use. A random subsample (n = 8) participated in an additional semistructured interview. Results provide preliminary support for the use of Detection, Advice, and Referral to Services (DARTS) procedures by PDs and identify potential barriers to its implementation.

  16. No effect of basic bladder advice in enuresis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederblad, Maria; Sarkadi, Anna; Engvall, Gunn; Nevéus, Tryggve

    2015-06-01

    There are two firstline, evidence-based treatments available for nocturnal enuresis: desmopressin and the enuresis alarm. Prior to use of these therapies, international experts usually recommend that the children also be given basic bladder training during the daytime. The rationale behind this recommendation is that daytime bladder training or urotherapy, is a mainstay in the treatment of daytime incontinence caused by detrusor overactivity. Still, there is, as yet, no firm evidence that daytime bladder training is useful against nocturnal enuresis. To explore whether basic bladder advice has any effect against nocturnal enuresis. The study was prospective, randomized, and controlled. The evaluated intervention was bladder advice, given in accordance with ICCS guidelines and focused on regular voiding, sound voiding posture, and sufficient fluid intake. Forty children aged 6 years or more with previously untreated enuresis, but no daytime incontinence, were randomized (20 in each group) to receive either first basic bladder advice for 1 month and then alarm therapy (group A) or just the alarm therapy (group B). Based on power calculations, the minimum number of children required in each treatment arm was 15. The basic bladder advice did not reduce the enuresis frequency in group A (p = 0.089) and the end result after alarm therapy did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.74) (see Table). Only four children in group A had a partial or full response to bladder training, and two of these children relapsed immediately during alarm therapy. This was the first study to evaluate, in a prospective, randomized manner, the value of daytime basic bladder training as a treatment of enuresis. It was found that the treatment neither resulted in a significant reduction in the number of wet nights, nor did it improve the success of subsequent alarm therapy. The recommendation that all children with enuresis be given bladder training as a firstline therapy can no longer be

  17. Advice to a young researcher: with reminiscences of a life in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Michael T

    2013-06-28

    This paper provides an informal guide to young researchers in science and engineering as they progress for their first 10 or so years from the time that they first started thinking about doing a PhD. This advice is drawn, with examples and anecdotes, from my own research career which started at the Cambridge Engineering Department in 1958, and progressed through 48 years at University College London to a part-time chair that I now hold in Aberdeen. I hope it may encourage and help tomorrow's scientists on whom the Earth's future very much depends.

  18. Advice to Stay Active or Structured Exercise in the Management of Sciatica: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Matt; Hartvigsen, Jan; Ferreira, Manuela L; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Machado, Aryane F; Lemes, Ítalo R; Maher, Chris G; Ferreira, Paulo H

    2015-09-15

    A systematic review and meta-analysis. To evaluate the evidence on comparative effectiveness of advice to stay active versus supervised structured exercise in the management of sciatica. Conservative management of sciatica usually includes interventions to promote physical activity in the form of advice to stay active or exercise, but there has been no systematic review directly comparing the effectiveness of these 2 approaches. Data Sources included MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PEDro databases. Studies were randomized controlled trials comparing advice with exercise. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Pain and disability data were extracted for all time points and converted to a common 0 to 100 scale. Data were pooled with a random effects model for short, intermediate, and long-term follow-ups. The GRADE approach was used to summarize the strength of evidence. Five trials were included in the meta-analysis, which showed a significant, although small effect favoring exercise over advice for reducing leg pain intensity in the short term (weighted mean difference: 11.43 [95% confidence interval, 0.71-22.16]) but no difference for disability (weighted mean difference: 1.45 [95% confidence interval, -2.86 to 5.76]). Furthermore, there was no difference at intermediate and long-term follow-ups between advice and exercise for patient-relevant outcomes. There is low-quality evidence (GRADE) that exercise provides small, superior effects compared with advice to stay active on leg pain in the short term for patients experiencing sciatica. However, there is moderate-quality evidence showing no difference between advice to stay active and exercise on leg pain and disability status in people with sciatica in the long term. 1.

  19. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guangliang; Heemink, Arnold; Lu, Sha; Segers, Arjo; Weber, Konradin; Lin, Hai-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an ensemble-based data assimilation system combined with a volcanic ash transport model to investigate the potential improvement on the forecast accuracy with regard to the distal volcanic ash plume. We show that the error of the analyzed volcanic ash state can be significantly reduced through assimilating real-life in situ measurements. After a continuous assimilation, it is shown that the aviation advice for Germany, the Netherlands and Luxembourg can be significantly improved. We suggest that with suitable aircrafts measuring once per day across the distal volcanic ash plume, the description and prediction of volcanic ash clouds in these areas can be greatly improved.

  20. Parenting an overweight or obese teen: issues and advice from parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Feldman, Shira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study addresses: (1) what challenges parents of overweight adolescents face and (2) what advice parents of overweight adolescents have for other parents. One-on-one interviews were conducted with parents of overweight or previously overweight adolescents. Medical clinic at the University of Minnesota. Twenty-seven parents of adolescents (12-19 years) who were either currently or previously overweight recruited from the community. Qualitative interviews related to parenting overweight adolescents. Content analysis was used to identify themes regarding parental experiences. Issues most frequently mentioned were (1) uncertainty regarding effective communication with adolescent about weight-related topics; (2) inability to control adolescents' decisions related to healthful eating and activity behaviors; (3) concern for adolescents' well-being; and (4) parental feeling of responsibility/guilt. Parental advice most often provided included: (1) setting up a healthful home environment; (2) parental role modeling of healthful behaviors; and (3) providing support/encouragement for positive efforts. Topics for potential intervention development include communication and motivation of adolescents regarding weight-related topics, appropriate autonomy, and addressing negative emotions concerning the adolescent's weight status. Targeting these topics could potentially improve acceptability and outcomes for treatments. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advice for Gaining Upper Administration Support for Research at an Undergraduate Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenhower, Donald

    2015-10-01

    This talk has its beginnings in questions asked after my invited talk for the 2015 APS Prize for Outstanding Research at an Undergraduate Institution at the April APS Meeting. A common question was how to gain support from one's university's administration to start an undergraduate research program. As my talk was addressing work done during 28 years at a university that had a long history of undergraduate research, I was not prepared to answer the question. It is easy to point out what one must do to obtain funding, even if actually obtaining the funding is difficult. Many other aspects of choosing appropriate research projects, collaborations, and such can also be relatively easy to do. Answers and advice in how to get upper level university administrators to notice and help you start a research program is not as easy or obvious, but is what this talk will address. It will be based on the premiss that one is at a university that is centered on providing high quality undergraduate education. Thus you have the job of showing your administration that having students working on a research program under you will help provide the highest level of education possible. Experience over many years of interactions at ACU will be drawn on for the advice provided. Research supported in part by Grants from the U.S. DOE Office of Science.

  2. "There's rural, and then there's rural": advice from nurses providing primary healthcare in northern remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Misener, Ruth; MacLeod, Martha L P; Banks, Kathy; Morton, A Michel; Vogt, Carolyn; Bentham, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Nursing practice in remote northern communities is highly complex, with unique challenges created by isolation, geography and cultural dynamics. This paper, the second of two focusing on the advice offered by nurses interviewed in the national study, The Nature of Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada, considers suggestions from outpost nurses. Their advice to new nurses was: know what you are getting into; consider whether your personal qualities are suited for northern practice; learn to listen and listen to learn; expect a steep learning curve, even if you are experienced; and take action to prevent burnout. Recommendations for educators were to offer programs that prepare nurses for the realities of outpost nursing and provide opportunities for accessible, flexible, relevant continuing education. The outpost nurses in this study counselled administrators to stay in contact with and listen to the perspectives of nurses at the "grassroots," and not merely to fill positions but instead to recruit outpost nurses effectively and remunerate them fairly. The study findings highlighted the multiple interrelated strategies that nurses, educators and administrators can use to optimize practice in remote northern communities.

  3. Evaluating Provider Advice and Women's Beliefs on Total Weight Gain During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinze, Nkiruka V; Karp, Sharon M; Gesell, Sabina B

    2016-02-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with complications for both mother and child. Minority women are at increased risk for excessive GWG, yet are underrepresented in published weight control interventions. To inform future interventions, we examined the prevalence and accuracy of provider advice and its association with personal beliefs about necessary maternal weight gain among predominantly Latina pregnant women. Secondary analysis examining baseline data (N = 123) from a healthy lifestyle randomized controlled trial conducted in and urban area of the South East. Only 23.6 % of women reported being told how much weight to gain during pregnancy; although 58.6 % received advice that met Institute of Medicine recommendations. Concordance of mothers' personal weight gain target with clinical recommendations varied by mothers' pre-pregnancy weight status [χ (4) (2)  = 9.781, p = 0.044]. Findings suggest the need for prenatal providers of low-income, minority women to engage patients in shaping healthy weight gain targets as a precursor to preventing excessive GWG and its complications.

  4. Rosacea patients seeking advice: Qualitative analysis of patients' posts on a rosacea support forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinia, Hossein; Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Farhangian, Michael E; Huang, Karen E; Taylor, Sarah L; Kuo, Sandy; Richardson, Irma; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Social media have become outlets for patients to voice opinions and ask questions. Since suffering from rosacea is an isolating experience and the disease is poorly understood, patients use social media to expand their knowledge about the condition. To understand rosacea patients' online health information seeking habits to obtain a better insight of their educational needs. Ten percent of posts in online rosacea forum composed of 3350 members and 27 051 posts, discussing patient viewpoints and concern, selected by stratified random sampling. Three hundred and nine queries were directly categorized to patients "seeking advice" by two investigators and qualitatively analyzed. Patients primarily sought advice about treatments (n = 155, 50.1%), triggers (n = 53, 17.1%), diet (n = 48, 15.5%), skin care (n = 37, 11.9%) and special presentations of the disease (n = 22, 7.1%). Questions frequently pertained to adverse effects, efficacy and target of therapy (78, 49, 30 posts, respectively). Proactively providing reliable resources and comprehensive explanations on treatments, triggers, diet and skin care could be helpful in reducing patients' confusion about rosacea and enhancing rosacea patient-physician relationships.

  5. Neural computations underpinning the strategic management of influence in advice giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Palminteri, Stefano; Brunetti, Silvia; Olesen, Cecilie; Frith, Chris D; Bahrami, Bahador

    2017-12-19

    Research on social influence has focused mainly on the target of influence (e.g., consumer and voter); thus, the cognitive and neurobiological underpinnings of the source of the influence (e.g., politicians and salesmen) remain unknown. Here, in a three-sided advice-giving game, two advisers competed to influence a client by modulating their own confidence in their advice about which lottery the client should choose. We report that advisers' strategy depends on their level of influence on the client and their merit relative to one another. Moreover, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the temporo-parietal junction is modulated by adviser's current level of influence on the client, and relative merit prediction error affects activity in medial-prefrontal cortex. Both types of social information modulate ventral striatum response. By demonstrating what happens in our mind and brain when we try to influence others, these results begin to explain the biological mechanisms that shape inter-individual differences in social conduct.

  6. The stage of change approach for implementing ergonomics advice - Translating research into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmore, Paul; Aylward, Paul; Oakman, Jodi; Tappin, David; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    The Stage of Change (SOC) approach has been proposed as a method to improve the implementation of ergonomics advice. However, despite evidence for its efficacy there is little evidence to suggest it has been adopted by ergonomics consultants. This paper investigates barriers and facilitators to the implementation, monitoring and effectiveness of ergonomics advice and the adoption of the SOC approach in a series of focus groups and a subsequent survey of members of the Human Factors Societies of Australia and New Zealand. A proposed SOC assessment tool developed for use by ergonomics practitioners is presented. Findings from this study suggest the limited application of a SOC based approach to work-related musculoskeletal injury prevention by ergonomics practitioners is due to the absence of a suitable tool in the ergonomists' repertoire, the need for training in this approach, and their limited access to relevant research findings. The final translation of the SOC assessment tool into professional ergonomics practice will require accessible demonstration of its real-world usability to practitioners and the training of ergonomics practitioners in its application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Implementing extreme weather event advice and guidance in English public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistow, Jonathan; Curtis, Sarah; Bone, Angie

    2017-09-01

    Extreme weather events (EWEs) can significantly impact on mortality and morbidity in the UK. How EWE guidance is disseminated and applied across health and social care systems, at the local, operational level, is not well understood. This exploratory study develops tools and resources to assist local stakeholders to cascade national 'all weather' EWE guidance across local systems. These resources are also used to evaluate the local interpretation and implementation of this advice and guidance within three local authority areas. In total, five discussion group meetings were held and 45 practitioners took part in the study. A thematic analysis was conducted. The main themes emerging from the analysis related to awareness of PHE guidance for EWE preparedness, data sharing feasibility, community engagement, specific conditions in remote rural areas and capacity of frontline staff. The relative difficulty in finding where the study 'best fits' on local stakeholders' agendas suggests that year-round and preparedness planning for EWEs may not have been considered a high priority in participating areas. This study adds to the relatively limited evidence internationally concerning the practical implementation at local level of national adaptation advice and guidance and potential barriers to achieving this.

  8. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an ensemble-based data assimilation system combined with a volcanic ash transport model to investigate the potential improvement on the forecast accuracy with regard to the distal volcanic ash plume. We show that the error of the analyzed volcanic ash state can be significantly reduced through assimilating real-life in situ measurements. After a continuous assimilation, it is shown that the aviation advice for Germany, the Netherlands and Luxembourg can be significantly improved. We suggest that with suitable aircrafts measuring once per day across the distal volcanic ash plume, the description and prediction of volcanic ash clouds in these areas can be greatly improved.

  9. Frequency and trends of hospital discharges against medical advice (DAMA in a large administrative database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Saia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to characterize hospitalizations associated with discharges against medical advice (DAMA in a large, population-based data system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study on 11 436 500 hospital admissions. The hospital discharge records for residents of the Veneto region (north-east Italy discharged from 2001 to 2012, from both public and accredited private hospitals, were considered. The DAMA rate was calculated by type of hospital admission, excluding patients who died. The time trend of the DAMA rate was charted from the average annual percent changes. RESULTS: During the period considered, 66 549 DAMA were recorded, amounting to an overall DAMA rate of 6.0‰ admissions. Analyzing the diagnostic categories, admissions for substance abuse (drugs or alcohol and dependence coincided with the highest DAMA rate (83.5‰, followed by poisoning (40.2‰, psychiatric disorders (24.7 ‰, traumas (21.1‰, HIV-related diseases (19.9‰, burns (10.5‰, and - for women - issues relating to pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period (11.2‰. The DAMA rate dropped from 6.72 to 5.55 from 2000 to 2008, then remained stable. CONCLUSION: The DAMA rate dropped slightly over the period considered. Several diagnostic categories are associated with a higher likelihood of patients leaving hospital against their doctor's advice.

  10. Prevalence of and Reasons for Patients Leaving Against Medical Advice from Paediatric Wards in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghafri, Mohamed; Al-Bulushi, Abdullah; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and reasons for patients leaving against medical advice (LAMA) in a paediatric setting in Oman. This retrospective study was carried out between January 2007 and December 2009 and assessed patients who left the paediatric wards at the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, against medical advice. Of 11,482 regular discharges, there were 183 cases of LAMA (prevalence: 1.6%). Dissatisfaction with treatment and a desire to seek a second opinion were collectively the most cited reasons for LAMA according to data from the hospital's electronic system (27.9%) and telephone conversations with patients' parents (55.0%). No reasons for LAMA were documented in the hospital's electronic system for 109 patients (59.6%). The low observed prevalence of LAMA suggests good medical practice at the Royal Hospital. This study indicates the need for thorough documentation of all LAMA cases to ensure the availability of high-quality data for healthcare workers involved in preventing LAMA.

  11. Operational availability improvement through online monitoring and advice for emergency diesel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Beom; Kim, Han Gon; Kim, Byong Sup [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Golay, M.; Kang, C. W.; Sui, Y. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This research broadens the prime concern of nuclear power plant operations from safe performance to both economic and safe performance. First, emergency diesel generator is identified as one of main contributors for the lost plant availability through the review of plant forced outage records. The framework of an integrated architecture of performing modern on-line condition for operational availability improvement is configured in this work. For the development of the comprehensive sensor networks for complex target systems, and integrated methodology incorporating a structural hierarchy, a functional hierarchy, and a fault-symptom matrix is formulated. The second part of our research is development of intelligent diagnosis and maintenance advisory system, which employs Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) as a high level reasoning tool for incorporating inherent uncertainty for use in probabilistic inference. Our prototype diagnosis algorithms are represented explicitly through topological symbols and links between them in a causal direction. As new evidence from sensor network developed is entered into the model especially, our advisory system provides operational advice concerning both availability and safety, so that the operator is able to determine the likely failure modes, diagnose the system state, locate root causes, and take the most advantageous action. Thereby, this advice improves operational availability. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  12. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  13. The Do-Well study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial, economic and qualitative process evaluations of domiciliary welfare rights advice for socio-economically disadvantaged older people recruited via primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haighton, Catherine; Moffatt, Suzanne; Howel, Denise; McColl, Elaine; Milne, Eugene; Deverill, Mark; Rubin, Greg; Aspray, Terry; White, Martin

    2012-05-28

    Older people in poor health are more likely to need extra money, aids and adaptations to allow them to remain independent and cope with ill health, yet in the UK many do not claim the welfare benefits to which they are entitled. Welfare rights advice interventions lead to greater welfare income, but have not been rigorously evaluated for health benefits. This study will evaluate the effects on health and well-being of a domiciliary welfare rights advice service provided by local government or voluntary organisations in North East England for independent living, socio-economically disadvantaged older people (aged ≥60 yrs), recruited from general (primary care) practices. The study is a pragmatic, individually randomised, single blinded, wait-list controlled trial of welfare rights advice versus usual care, with embedded economic and qualitative process evaluations. The qualitative study will examine whether the intervention is delivered as intended; explore responses to the intervention and examine reasons for the trial findings; and explore the potential for translation of the intervention into routine policy and practice. The primary outcome is the effect on health-related quality of life, measured using the CASP 19 questionnaire. Volunteer men and women aged ≥60 years (1/household) will be identified from general practice patient registers. Patients in nursing homes or hospitals at the time of recruitment will be excluded. General practice populations will be recruited from disadvantaged areas of North East England, including urban, rural and semi-rural areas, with no previous access to targeted welfare rights advice services delivered to primary care patients. A minimum of 750 participants will be randomised to intervention and control arms in a 1:1 ratio. Achieving a trial design that is both ethical and acceptable to potential participants, required methodological compromises. The choice of follow-up length required a trade-off between sufficient time

  14. 'How to stop a nosebleed': an assessment of the quality of epistaxis treatment advice on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, A T; Harries, V

    2016-08-01

    Video hosting websites are increasingly being used to disseminate health education messages. This study aimed to assess the quality of advice contained within YouTube videos on the conservative management of epistaxis. YouTube.com was searched using the phrase 'how to stop a nosebleed'. The first 50 videos were screened. Objective advice scores and subjective production quality scores were attributed by independent raters. Forty-five videos were analysed. The mean advice score was 2.0 out of 8 and the mean production quality score was 1.6 out of 3. There were no correlations between a video's advice score and its search results rank (ρ = -0.28, p = 0.068), its view count (ρ = 0.20, p = 0.19) or its number of 'likes' (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.18). The quality of information on conservative epistaxis management within YouTube videos is extremely variable. A high search rank is no indication of video quality. Many videos proffer inappropriate and dangerous 'alternative' advice. We do not recommend YouTube as a source for patient information.

  15. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested.

  16. Advice for prevention from HIV-positive African-American women: 'My story is not just a story'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Alyssa; Padi, Akhila; Lewis, Kaleea; Julious, Carmen; Troutman, Jamie

    2017-05-01

    Large disparities in HIV incidence, prevalence and mortality exist for African-American women, especially in the southern region of the USA. Based on the culture-centric health promotion model, HIV-positive African American women can use their stories to support primary prevention. The purpose of this study was to document advice from HIV-positive African-American women (n = 25) to young African-American women, as described in their own cultural narratives collected through qualitative interviews. Content analysis of women's advice identified five common themes revolving broadly around: (1) advice for prevention, (2) support systems for prevention, (3) education, (4) empowerment/self-care and (5) potential barriers to prevention. Advice reflected recommendations based on personal experience and highlighted social determinants linked to HIV, such as stigma, access to education and healthcare, social support, and gender and power dynamics. Women also offered advice for coping with an HIV-positive diagnosis. Communication with parents, family and friends regarding education and social support emerged as an important interpersonal factor for participants, as were interactions with sexual/romantic partners. Stigma, at the community level, was consistently discussed as a hindrance to prevention. Narratives of HIV-positive women as community health agents of change can enhance the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for young US African-American women.

  17. Pregnancy and Glycemic Index Outcomes study: effects of low glycemic index compared with conventional dietary advice on selected pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert G; Casey, Shelly A; Quinn, Eleanor G; Cleary, Jane M; Tapsell, Linda C; Milosavljevic, Marianna; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2014-03-01

    Eating carbohydrate foods with a high glycemic index (GI) has been postulated to result in fetoplacental overgrowth and higher infant body fat. A diet with a low glycemic index (LGI) has been shown to reduce birth percentiles and the ponderal index (PI). We investigated whether offering LGI dietary advice at the first antenatal visit would result in a lower fetal birth weight, birth percentile, and PI than providing healthy eating (HE) advice. This advice had to be presented within the resources of routine antenatal care. The Pregnancy and Glycemic Index Outcomes study was a 2-arm, parallel-design, randomized, controlled trial that compared the effects of LGI dietary advice with HE advice on pregnancy outcomes. Eligible volunteers who attended for routine antenatal care at glycemic load was the only significant dietary predictor (P = 0.046) of primary outcomes but explained <1% of all variation. A low-intensity dietary intervention with an LGI diet compared with an HE diet in pregnancy did not result in any significant differences in birth weight, fetal percentile, or PI.

  18. Smartphone mobile application delivering personalized, real-time sun protection advice: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Lantz, Kathy; Buller, Mary Klein; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Liu, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Mobile smartphones are rapidly emerging as an effective means of communicating with many Americans. Using mobile applications (apps), they can access remote databases, track time and location, and integrate user input to provide tailored health information. A smartphone mobile app providing personalized, real-time sun protection advice was evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The trial was conducted in 2012 and had a randomized pretest-posttest controlled design with a 10-week follow-up. Data were collected from a nationwide population-based survey panel. A sample of 604 non-Hispanic and Hispanic adults from the Knowledge Panel 18 years or older who owned an Android smartphone were enrolled. The mobile app provided advice on sun protection (ie, protection practices and risk of sunburn) and alerts (to apply or reapply sunscreen and get out of the sun), hourly UV Index, and vitamin D production based on the forecast UV Index, the phone's time and location, and user input. Percentage of days using sun protection and time spent outdoors (days and minutes) in the midday sun and number of sunburns in the past 3 months were collected. Individuals in the treatment group reported more shade use (mean days staying in the shade, 41.0% vs 33.7%; P = .03) but less sunscreen use (mean days, 28.6% vs 34.5%; P = .048) than controls. There was no significant difference in number of sunburns in the past 3 months (mean, 0.60 in the treatment group vs 0.62 for controls; P = .87). Those who used the mobile app reported spending less time in the sun (mean days keeping time in the sun to a minimum, 60.4% for app users vs 49.3% for nonusers; P = .04) and using all protection behaviors combined more (mean days, 39.4% vs 33.8%; P = .04). The mobile app improved some sun protection. Use of the mobile app was lower than expected but associated with increased sun protection. Providing personalized advice when and where people are in the sun may help reduce sun exposure.

  19. Consumers’ intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We examine consumers' intention to use such a health recommendation system as a function of options related to the underlying system (e.g. the type of company that generates the advice) as well as intermediaries (e.g. general practitioner) that might assist in using the system. We further explore if the effect of both the system and intermediaries on intention to use a health recommendation system are mediated by consumers' perceived effort, privacy risk, usefulness and enjoyment. Methods 204 respondents from a consumer panel in the Netherlands participated. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Each respondent evaluated three hypothetical health recommendation systems on validated multi-scale measures of effort, privacy risk, usefulness, enjoyment and intention to use the system. To test the hypothesized relationships we used regression analyses. Results We find evidence that the options related to the underlying system as well as the intermediaries involved influence consumers' intention to use such a health recommendation system and that these effects are mediated by perceptions of effort, privacy risk, usefulness and enjoyment. Also, we find that consumers value usefulness of a system more and enjoyment less when a general practitioner advices them to use a health recommendation system than if they use it out of their own curiosity. Conclusions We developed and tested a model of consumers' intention to use a health recommendation system. We found that intermediaries play an important role in how consumers evaluate such a system over and above options of the underlying system that is used to generate the recommendation. Also, health-related information services seem to

  20. Consumers' intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Sonja; Dellaert, Benedict G C; Ronteltap, Amber; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-04-04

    Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We examine consumers' intention to use such a health recommendation system as a function of options related to the underlying system (e.g. the type of company that generates the advice) as well as intermediaries (e.g. general practitioner) that might assist in using the system. We further explore if the effect of both the system and intermediaries on intention to use a health recommendation system are mediated by consumers' perceived effort, privacy risk, usefulness and enjoyment. 204 respondents from a consumer panel in the Netherlands participated. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Each respondent evaluated three hypothetical health recommendation systems on validated multi-scale measures of effort, privacy risk, usefulness, enjoyment and intention to use the system. To test the hypothesized relationships we used regression analyses. We find evidence that the options related to the underlying system as well as the intermediaries involved influence consumers' intention to use such a health recommendation system and that these effects are mediated by perceptions of effort, privacy risk, usefulness and enjoyment. Also, we find that consumers value usefulness of a system more and enjoyment less when a general practitioner advices them to use a health recommendation system than if they use it out of their own curiosity. We developed and tested a model of consumers' intention to use a health recommendation system. We found that intermediaries play an important role in how consumers evaluate such a system over and above options of the underlying system that is used to generate the recommendation. Also, health-related information services seem to rely on endorsement by the medical sector

  1. Roles of Medicines Counter Assistants in advice giving in community pharmacies: a Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylänne, Virpi; John, Dai N

    2008-04-01

    Research in interaction and communication in community pharmacies has been reported in a number of countries but to date, talk at the micro-level in the community pharmacy context in the UK has received virtually no study. The objective of this exploratory study was to identify what light a Discourse Analytic approach could shed to describe the role(s) of Medicines Counter Assistants (MCAs) when dealing with clients relating to health, illness or medicines. Discourse Analysis is a growing field of study which has its roots in linguistics, but also in critical theory, philosophy, sociology, psychology and more. It is used in various ways by social scientists studying spoken and written language in use. Following research ethics approval and informed consent from participants, audio-recordings of staff-client interactions in three community pharmacies in Wales, UK were transcribed and analysed from a Discourse Analytic perspective, focussing on the emerging role of the MCA in the negotiation of advice. Main outcome measure Transcripts of interactions in community pharmacies analysed using Discourse Analysis. Ten hours of recordings were made. Of the 41 recorded interactions obtained, 29 involved an MCA regarding health and/or medicines. Example extracts represent different ways in which MCAs are involved in the interactions, ranging from dealing solely with the client, to the MCA dealing with the client but checking advice with the pharmacist, the MCA acting as a gatekeeper, the pharmacist intervening in the MCA-client interaction, the MCA keeping the client 'on hold' until the pharmacist is ready to interact with them and the MCA acting as an active intermediary. With the differing involvement, slightly different institutional and participant roles emerge for the MCAs through talk and interaction. This exploratory study succeeded in producing transcripts of interactions between MCAs, and clients and indicated that Discourse Analysis is helpful in assisting our

  2. Advertisement Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. The open access policy of the journals ensure good visibility of the online content of the journals. The journal with high circulation and visibility, thus offer excellent media for promotion of your products, services or conferences through advertisement. The journal has the potential to deliver the message to the targeted audience regularly with each issue. The cost of investment per view is substantially low for our print as well as electronic journals.

  3. The 12-month effects of structured lifestyle advice and pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the 12-month effects of adding pelvic floor muscle training to a lifestyle advice program in women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse stage II-III and the number of women who had sought further treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was a 12-month follow up...... of a randomized controlled trial comparing a structured lifestyle advice program alone (lifestyle group) or in combination with pelvic floor muscle training (training and lifestyle group). Both programs consisted of six separate group sessions within 12 weeks. RESULTS: Data were available from 83 (76%) of the 109...... surgery. More severe anterior prolapse and more bladder symptoms at the 3-month follow up were significantly associated with having sought further treatment in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: At 12-month follow up, the effects of adding pelvic floor muscle training to a structured lifestyle advice program were...

  4. Gender differences in medical advice and health behavior of obese African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G

    2012-09-01

    This study examined gender differences in medical advice related to diet and physical activity for obese African American adults (N = 470) with and without diabetes. Data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Even after sociodemographic adjustments, men were less likely to report receiving medical advice as compared with women. Both men and women given dietary and physical activity advice were more likely to follow it. Men were less likely to report currently reducing fat or calories, yet men with diabetes were 5 times more likely to state that they were reducing fat and calories as compared with women with diabetes. Gender- and disease state-specific interventions are needed comparing standard care with enhanced patient education. Moreover, these findings necessitate studies that characterize the role of the health care professional in the diagnosis and treatment of obesity and underscore patient-provider relationships.

  5. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Constantin; AbuHaliga, Abdullah RY; McGee, Hannah; Morgan, Karen; McElvaney, Noel G.; Doyle, Frank

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out ove...

  6. Brief advice and active referral for smoking cessation services among community smokers: a study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Nam Suen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most smokers do not use smoking cessation (SC services although it increases successful quits. Passive referral providing SC information to smokers is commonly used in SC studies. Little was known about active referral in the community setting. This study aims to motivate community smokers to quit by brief SC advice using a validated AWARD model (Ask, Warn, Advise, Refer and Do-it-again that adjunct with active referral of smokers to various SC services in Hong Kong. Methods/Design This is a single-blinded, parallel three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT with two treatment groups of (1 brief SC advice using the AWARD model, active referral to SC services plus a referral card and a health warning leaflet (active referral group and (2 brief SC advice using AWARD model and health warning leaflet (brief advice group and a control group receives general very brief advice with a self-help booklet. A total of 1291 smokers will be recruited from 66 clusters (recruitment sessions with 22 will be allocated to each of the two intervention and one control groups. SC ambassadors will be trained for delivering the interventions and conducting telephone follow-up. The primary outcomes are self-reported 7-days point prevalence (PP abstinence at 3 and 6 months follow-up. Intention-to-treat principle and multi-level regressions will be used for data analysis. Discussion This is the first RCT on assessing a model combining brief advice and active referral to SC services among community smokers. The results will inform the practices of SC services and intervention studies. Trial registration NCT02539875 (ClinicalTrials.gov registry; registered retrospectively on 22 July 2015

  7. Smoking cessation advice in consultations with health problems not related to smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Baarts, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    primarily addressed the consultations that had been observed. The concept of “ frames ” described by Goffman was deployed as an analytic tool. Setting . Danish general practice. Subjects. Six GPs and 11 of their patients. Results . Both GPs and patients evaluated potential issues to be included during...... consultations by relevance criteria. Relevance criteria served the purpose of limiting the number of issues in individual consultations. Issues could be included if they connected to something already communicated in a consultation. Smoking cessation advice was subject to these relevance criteria....... Conclusions . Relevance criteria in the shape of communication of particular risks to particular patients and small-talk about well-being refl ect the concept of “ frames ” by Goffman. Criteria of relevance limit the number of issues in individual consultations. Relevance criteria may explain why smoking...

  8. Ovarian reserve assessment in users of oral contraception seeking fertility advice on their reproductive lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch Petersen, K; Hvidman, H W; Forman, J L

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: To what extent does oral contraception (OC) impair ovarian reserve parameters in women who seek fertility assessment and counselling to get advice on whether their remaining reproductive lifespan is reduced? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian reserve parameters defined by anti...... in the antral follicles of 5-7 and 8-10 mm with the highest number of AMH secreting granulosa cells. It is essential to be aware of the impact of OC use on ovarian reserve parameters when guiding OC users on their fertility status and reproductive lifespan. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The FAC Clinic...... ageing. In women, AMH declines with age and data suggest a relationship with remaining reproductive lifespan and age at menopause. OC may alter parameters related to ovarian reserve assessment but the extent of the reduction is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional study of 887 women...

  9. Ovarian Reserve Assessment in Users of Oral Contraception Seeking Fertility Advice on their Reproductive Lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K. Birch; Hvidman, H. W.; Forman, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: To what extent does oral contraception (OC) impair ovarian reserve parameters in women who seek fertility assessment and counselling to get advice on whether their remaining reproductive lifespan is reduced? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian reserve parameters defined by anti...... in the antral follicles of 5-7 and 8-10 mm with the highest number of AMH secreting granulosa cells. It is essential to be aware of the impact of OC use on ovarian reserve parameters when guiding OC users on their fertility status and reproductive lifespan. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The FAC Clinic...... ageing. In women, AMH declines with age and data suggest a relationship with remaining reproductive lifespan and age at menopause. OC may alter parameters related to ovarian reserve assessment but the extent of the reduction is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional study of 887 women...

  10. Ancient Israelite and African proverbs as advice, reproach, warning, encouragement and explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Adamo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With few exceptions, the majority of biblical scholars (Euroamericans and Africans concentrate on comparing ancient Israelite proverbs with the so-called ancient Near Eastern proverbs. Despite the importance of proverbs in Sub-Saharan Africa it is doubly unfortunate that the majority of African biblical scholars did not think it wise to compare proverbs from ancient Israel with Sub-Saharan African proverbs. It is also a double tragedy that young people in Sub-Saharan Africa are ignorant of proverbs because they have refused to learn them because they think them archaic. Proverbs in both ancient Israel and in Africa are similar in function and classification. Thus, they serve as advice, reproach, warning, encouragement and further explanation of some facts. They have great value and importance, such as giving a sense of identity, community, culture, respect for authority and elders, sacredness of everything under the sun and a sense of hospitality and others.

  11. Spinal manipulation and home exercise with advice for subacute and chronic back-related leg pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronfort, Gert; Hondras, Maria; Schulz, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back-related leg pain (BRLP) is often disabling and costly, and there is a paucity of research to guide its management. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) plus home exercise and advice (HEA) compared with HEA alone reduces leg pain in the short and long...... of SMT plus HEA or HEA alone. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was patient-rated BRLP at 12 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes were self-reported low back pain, disability, global improvement, satisfaction, medication use, and general health status at 12 and 52 weeks. Blinded objective tests were done...... at 12 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 192 enrolled patients, 191 (99%) provided follow-up data at 12 weeks and 179 (93%) at 52 weeks. For leg pain, SMT plus HEA had a clinically important advantage over HEA (difference, 10 percentage points [95% CI, 2 to 19]; P = 0.008) at 12 weeks but not at 52 weeks...

  12. MetaSearching and Beyond: Implementation Experiences and Advice from an Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Herrera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In March 2003 the University of Mississippi Libraries made our MetaSearch tool publicly available. After a year of working with this product and integrating it into the library Web site, a wide variety of libraries interested in our implementation process and experiences began to call. Libraries interested in this product have included consortia, public, and academic libraries in the United States, Mexico, and Europe. This article was written in an effort to share the recommendations and concerns given. Much of the advice is general and could be applied to many of the MetaSearch tools available. Google Scholar and other open Web initiatives that could impact the future of MetaSearching are also discussed.

  13. Barriers to uptake of antimicrobial advice in a UK hospital: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, J; Broom, A; Plage, S; Adams, K; Post, J J

    2016-08-01

    The role of infectious diseases (ID) and clinical microbiology (CM) in hospital settings has expanded in response to increasing antimicrobial resistance, leading to widespread development of hospital antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes, the majority of which include antibiotic approval systems. However, inappropriate antibiotic use in hospitals continues, suggesting potential disjunctions between technical advice and the logics of antibiotic use within hospitals. To examine the experiences of doctors in a UK hospital with respect to AMS guidance of antibiotic prescribing, and experiences of a verbal postprescription antibiotic approval process. Twenty doctors in a teaching hospital in the UK participated in semi-structured interviews about their experiences of antibiotic use and governance. NVivo10 software was used to conduct a thematic content analysis systematically. This study identified three key themes regarding doctors' relationships with ID/CM clinicians that shaped their antibiotic practices: (1) competing hierarchical influences limiting active consultation with ID/CM; (2) non-ID/CM consultants' sense of ownership over clinical decision-making and concerns about challenges to clinical autonomy; and (3) tensions between evidence-based practice and experiential-style learning. This study illustrates the importance of examining relations between ID/CM and non-ID/CM clinicians in the hospital context, indicating that AMS models that focus exclusively on delivering advice rather than managing interprofessional relationships may be limited in their capacity to optimize antibiotic use. AMS and, specifically, antibiotic approval systems would likely be more effective if they incorporated time and resources for fostering and maintaining professional relationships. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Working with interpreters: practical advice for use of an interpreter in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive commentary is to improve communication in healthcare when an interpreter is used by providing practical advice to healthcare staff when they consider using interpreters. This descriptive commentary considered the issues of preparation and implementation of interpretation sessions to reveal the complexities and dilemmas of an effective healthcare encounter with interpreters. Using the design of a discursive paper, this article seeks to explore and position of what is published in the literature on the topic studied and on the basis of previous studies to provide practical advice on the use of interpreters. The descriptive commentary showed that the interpreter should be used not only as a communication aid but also as a practical and informative guide in the healthcare system. In preparing the interpretation session, it is important to consider the type (trained professional interpreter, family member or bilingual healthcare staff as interpreters) and mode (face to face and telephone) of interpreting. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interpreter's ethnic origin, religious background, gender, language or dialect, social group, clothes, appearance and attitude. During the healthcare encounter, the interpreter should follow the recommendations given in guidelines for interpreters. Healthcare staff should choose an appropriate room and be aware of their own behaviour, appearance and attitude during the healthcare encounter. Good planning is needed, with carefully considered choices concerning the right kind of interpreter, mode of interpretation and individual preferences for the interpretation in order to deliver high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. Depending on the nature of the healthcare encounter, healthcare staff need to plan interpreting carefully and in accordance with the individuals' desires and choose the type of interpreter and mode of interpreting that best suits the need in the actual healthcare situation in

  15. Distributing questionnaires about smoking to patients: impact on general practitioners' recording of smoking advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynne Alison

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of questionnaire-based data collection methods on the consulting behaviour of general practitioners (family physicians who participate in research. Here data collected during a research project which involved questionnaires on smoking being distributed to patients before and after appointments with general practitioners (GPs is analyzed to investigate the impact of this data collection method on doctors' documenting of smoking advice in medical records. Methods Researchers distributed questionnaires on smoking behaviour to 6775 patients who attended consultations during surgery sessions with 32 GPs based in Leicestershire, UK. We obtained the medical records for patients who had attended these surgery sessions and also for a comparator group, during which no researcher had been present. We compared the documenting of advice against smoking in patient's medical records for consultations within GPs' surgery sessions where questionnaires had been distributed with those which occurred when no questionnaires had been given out. Results We obtained records for 77.9% (5276/6775 of all adult patients who attended GPs' surgery sessions, with 51.9% (2739 being from sessions during which researchers distributed questionnaires. Discussion of smoking was recorded in 8.0% (220/2739 of medical records when questionnaires were distributed versus 4.6% (116/2537 where these were not. After controlling for relevant potential confounders including patients' age, gender, the odds ratio for recording of information in the presence of questionnaire distribution (versus none was 1.78 (95% CI, 1.36 to 2.34. Conclusion Distributing questionnaires about smoking to patients before and after they consult with doctors significantly increases GPs' recording of discussions about smoking medical records. This has implications for the design of some types of research into addictive behaviours and further research into how data

  16. Positive vs. Negative: The Impact of Question Polarity in Voting Advice Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Bregje; Kamoen, Naomi; Krouwel, André; Pol, Jasper van de; Vreese, Claes de

    2016-01-01

    Online Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are survey-like instruments that help citizens to shape their political preferences and compare them with those of political parties. Especially in multi-party democracies, their increasing popularity indicates that VAAs play an important role in opinion formation for citizens, as well as in the public debate prior to elections. Hence, the objectivity and transparency of VAAs are crucial. In the design of VAAs, many choices have to be made. Extant research in survey methodology shows that the seemingly arbitrary choice to word questions positively (e.g., 'The city council should allow cars into the city centre') or negatively ('The city council should ban cars from the city centre') systematically affects the answers. This asymmetry in answers is in line with work on negativity bias in other areas of linguistics and psychology. Building on these findings, this study investigated whether question polarity also affects the answers to VAA statements. In a field experiment (N = 31,112) during the Dutch municipal elections we analysed the effects of polarity for 16 out of 30 VAA statements with a large variety of linguistic contrasts. Analyses show a significant effect of question wording for questions containing a wide range of implicit negations (such as 'forbid' vs. 'allow'), as well as for questions with explicit negations (e.g., 'not'). These effects of question polarity are found especially for VAA users with lower levels of political sophistication. As these citizens are an important target group for Voting Advice Applications, this stresses the need for VAA builders to be sensitive to wording choices when designing VAAs. This study is the first to show such consistent wording effects not only for political attitude questions with implicit negations in VAAs, but also for political questions containing explicit negations.

  17. Positive vs. Negative: The Impact of Question Polarity in Voting Advice Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bregje Holleman

    Full Text Available Online Voting Advice Applications (VAAs are survey-like instruments that help citizens to shape their political preferences and compare them with those of political parties. Especially in multi-party democracies, their increasing popularity indicates that VAAs play an important role in opinion formation for citizens, as well as in the public debate prior to elections. Hence, the objectivity and transparency of VAAs are crucial. In the design of VAAs, many choices have to be made. Extant research in survey methodology shows that the seemingly arbitrary choice to word questions positively (e.g., 'The city council should allow cars into the city centre' or negatively ('The city council should ban cars from the city centre' systematically affects the answers. This asymmetry in answers is in line with work on negativity bias in other areas of linguistics and psychology. Building on these findings, this study investigated whether question polarity also affects the answers to VAA statements. In a field experiment (N = 31,112 during the Dutch municipal elections we analysed the effects of polarity for 16 out of 30 VAA statements with a large variety of linguistic contrasts. Analyses show a significant effect of question wording for questions containing a wide range of implicit negations (such as 'forbid' vs. 'allow', as well as for questions with explicit negations (e.g., 'not'. These effects of question polarity are found especially for VAA users with lower levels of political sophistication. As these citizens are an important target group for Voting Advice Applications, this stresses the need for VAA builders to be sensitive to wording choices when designing VAAs. This study is the first to show such consistent wording effects not only for political attitude questions with implicit negations in VAAs, but also for political questions containing explicit negations.

  18. Enhanced Motivational Interviewing versus Brief Advice for Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Suzanne M.; Nargiso, Jessica; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Metrik, Jane; Lewander, William; Woolard, Robert H.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Motivational interviewing (MI) is widely used for adolescent smoking cessation but empirical support for this approach is mixed. Methods Adolescent cigarette smokers 14–18 years old (N = 162) were recruited from medical, school, and community settings and randomly assigned to enhanced MI or brief advice (BA) for smoking cessation. MI comprised an in-person individual session, a telephone booster session one week later, and a brief telephone-based parent intervention. BA consisted of standardized brief advice to quit smoking. Assessments occurred at baseline, post-treatment and at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow ups. Results Biochemically-confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were low (e.g., 4.5% for MI; 1.4% for BA at 1 month) and did not differ significantly by group at any follow up. Only those in MI reported significant decreases in cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) from baseline to 1 month. At 3 and 6 months, smokers in both groups reported significantly reduced CPD with no differences between groups. MI reduced perceived norms regarding peer and adult smoking rates, while BA had no effect on normative perceptions. No group differences emerged for self-reported motivation or self-efficacy to quit smoking. Conclusions Findings support the efficacy of MI for addressing normative misperceptions regarding peer and adult smoking and for modestly reducing CPD in the short-term; however, these effects did not translate to greater smoking abstinence. MI may have more promise as a prelude to more intensive smoking intervention with adolescents than as a stand-alone intervention. PMID:22472523

  19. Physician advice on avoiding secondhand smoke exposure and referrals for smoking cessation services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruger Judy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondhand smoke (SHS exposure causes premature death and disease. Eliminating smoking in indoor spaces is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure, and also contributes to helping smokers quit smoking. Primary health care providers can play an important role in advising nonsmoking patients to avoid SHS exposure, cautioning current smokers against exposing others to SHS, and referring tobacco users to cessation programs. Methods The purpose of this paper is to examine primary care provider (obstetricians/gynecologists, pediatricians, and general practitioners advice regarding SHS exposure and referral to cessation programs. Using data from the 2008 DocStyles survey (n = 1,454, we calculated the prevalence and adjusted odds ratios for offering patients advice regarding SHS exposure and referring adults who smoked or used other tobacco products to a cessation program. Results The current study found that among a convenience sample of primary care providers, 94.9% encouraged parents to take steps to protect children from SHS exposure, 86.1% encouraged smokers to make their homes and cars smoke-free, and 77.4% encouraged nonsmokers to avoid SHS exposure. Approximately 44.0% of primary care providers usually or always referred patients who smoked or used tobacco products to cessation programs such as a quitline, a group cessation class, or one-on-one counseling. Conclusion Findings from a convenience sample of primary care providers who participated in a web-based survey, suggests that many primary care providers are advising parents to protect children from SHS exposure, encouraging patients who smoke to maintain smoke-free homes and cars, and advising smokers on ways to avoid exposing others to SHS. Healthcare providers are encouraged to advise patients to avoid SHS exposure and to refer patients who use tobacco products to cessation services.

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of nutrition therapy compared with dietary advice in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith; Andersen, Henning Keinke; Snorgaard, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite recommendations, many patients with type 2 diabetes receive dietary advice from nurses or doctors instead of individualized nutrition therapy (INT) that is provided by a dietitian. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of INT that is provided by a regis......Background: Despite recommendations, many patients with type 2 diabetes receive dietary advice from nurses or doctors instead of individualized nutrition therapy (INT) that is provided by a dietitian. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of INT that is provided...

  1. Design and Implementation of a Telephone Triage/Advice Service: An Instrument of Demand Management at USA Medical Department Activity-Heidelberg

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton, Priscilla

    1997-01-01

    .... Demand management systems may involve health care "gatekeepers," prevention and wellness programs, self-care instruction, and frequently employ telephone triage and advice capabilities Telephonic...

  2. Different types of dietary advice for women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shanshan; Middleton, Philippa; Shepherd, Emily; Van Ryswyk, Emer; Crowther, Caroline A

    2017-02-25

    Dietary advice is the main strategy for managing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). It remains unclear what type of advice is best. To assess the effects of different types of dietary advice for women with GDM for improving health outcomes for women and babies. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (8 March 2016), PSANZ's Trials Registry (22 March 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of different types of dietary advice for women with GDM. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility, risk of bias, and extracted data. Evidence quality for two comparisons was assessed using GRADE, for primary outcomes for the mother: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; caesarean section; type 2 diabetes mellitus; and child: large-for-gestational age; perinatal mortality; neonatal mortality or morbidity composite; neurosensory disability; secondary outcomes for the mother: induction of labour; perineal trauma; postnatal depression; postnatal weight retention or return to pre-pregnancy weight; and child: hypoglycaemia; childhood/adulthood adiposity; childhood/adulthood type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this update, we included 19 trials randomising 1398 women with GDM, at an overall unclear to moderate risk of bias (10 comparisons). For outcomes assessed using GRADE, downgrading was based on study limitations, imprecision and inconsistency. Where no findings are reported below for primary outcomes or pre-specified GRADE outcomes, no data were provided by included trials. Primary outcomes Low-moderate glycaemic index (GI) versus moderate-high GI diet (four trials): no clear differences observed for: large-for-gestational age (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22 to 2.34; two trials, 89 infants; low-quality evidence); severe hypertension or pre-eclampsia (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.07 to 15.86; one trial, 95 women; very low-quality evidence); eclampsia (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.01 to 8

  3. What is Policy, Social Policy and Social Policy Changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Hernández, Jose; Noruzi, Mohammad Reza; Farhad Nezhad Haj Ali, Irani

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Today we are experiencing good improvements in policy, social policy and policy making. A lot of good researches have been done on these issues and helped for the development of policy. The contributions of university professors, politicians and elites cannot be considered low. And the academic papers are deployed to offer from the major theoretical and methodological approaches and empirical research. To put in their proper context the important contributions of the p...

  4. I don’t get it : Response difficulties in answering political attitude statements in Voting Advice Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje

    2017-01-01

    Political knowledge and feelings of political competence are essential for political participation. Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) aim to contribute to that. In a VAA, users respond to a set of attitude statements about political issues. Based on a comparison between the users’ answers and the

  5. I don't get it : Response difficulties in answering political attitude statements in Voting Advice Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje

    2017-01-01

    What question characteristics are related to comprehension problems in political attitude questions? And what type of answering behaviour do people expose when they do not understand the question? We investigated these issues in the context of Voting Advice Applications (VAAs). These online tools

  6. Where do intra-organizational advice relations come from? The role of informal status and social capital in social exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, Filip; Wittek, Rafael

    Social status and social capital frameworks are used to derive competing hypotheses about the emergence and structure of advice relations in organizations. Although both approaches build on a social exchange framework, they differ in their behavioral micro-foundations. From a status perspective,

  7. Leaping "out of the doubt"--nutrition advice: values at stake in communicating scientific uncertainty to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-06-01

    This article deals with scientific advice to the public where the relevant science is subject to public attention and uncertainty of knowledge. It focuses on a tension in the management and presentation of scientific uncertainty between the uncertain nature of science and the expectation that scientific advisers will provide clear public guidance. In the first part of the paper the tension is illustrated by the presentation of results from a recent interview study with nutrition scientists in Denmark. According to the study, nutrition scientists feel their roles as ''public advisers'' and ''scientists'' differ in that the former involves an expectation that they will provide unambiguous advice of the kind that might relegate scientific uncertainty to the background. In the second, more general, part of the paper we provide a normative analysis of different strategies of dealing with the tension. The analysis is structured around the extremes of either total concealment or full openness regarding scientific uncertainty. The result of analysis is that scientific advisers should not simply ''feed'' scientific conclusions to the public. They should rather attempt to promote the ability and willingness of the public to assess and scrutinize scientific knowledge by displaying uncertainties in the scientific basis of advice. On the other hand, scientific advisers must accommodate the public's need for guidance. Such guidance should be restricted by careful consideration of what it is relevant for the public to know in order to evaluate scientific advice in practical terms.

  8. The International Diversification of Banks and the Value of their Cross-Border M&A Advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; Ongena, S.; van der Poel, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of international diversification of banks on the value of their M&A advice. We study bidder returns to 1,253 cross-border M&A announcements. We find that acquirers engaging a more internationally diversified financial advisor generate lower excess returns.

  9. A Decade of Advice for Women and Men in the Best-Selling Self-Help Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Holm, Kristen E.; Haddock, Shelley A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a content analysis of the top ten self-help books on the New York Times best-seller list over a ten year period to determine the degree to which the books empower individuals to resist gender-based socialization messages. The four best sellers contained advice for both genders to behave consistently with traditional gender socialization,…

  10. Effect of Ergonomic Advice on Neck Pain among Engineering Students of Belagavi City, Karnataka: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Prashant P

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Neck pain is a common health problem experienced by engineering students. Majority of the times, neck pain is due to poor workstation posture, improper workstation structure. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the effect of ergonomic advice on neck pain among engineering students of Belagavi. Materials and methodology: An observational study was carried out among engineering students of all academic levels in local engineering institutes of Belagavi. Data of study was collected in academic year 2016-2017 using Neck pain and disability scale from 331 students. Initially, a baseline data was collected and then booklet consisting of ergonomic advice was given and follow-up was done after 4 weeks by using same questionnaire. Results: Overall 33.96% of reduction in neck pain was seen after ergonomic advice. In accordance with movements associated with neck pain, there was significant pain reduction in relation to up-down movement. Conclusion: Ergonomic advice is effective in terms of reducing neck pain among engineering students and it should be adopted for prevention of neck pain.

  11. The international diversification of banks and the value of their cross-border M&A advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); S. Ongena (Steven); A.M. van der Poel (Marieke)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We examine the impact of the international diversification by banks on the value of their advice provided in cross-border merger and acquisition transactions by studying bidder returns and deal performance following 1,708 cross-border M&A deals. We find that bidders

  12. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations and general advice on nuclear medicine; issued on April 28, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    These regulations and general advice are applicable to nuclear medicine within human medical care. The regulations are also applicable to activities where radioactive substances are administered to individuals in connection to medical or biomedical research and medical examinations for insurance or legal purposes.

  13. Developing the public health role of a front line clinical service: integrating stop smoking advice into routine podiatry services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jackie; Eden, Gary; Williams, Maria

    2007-06-01

    Although smoking is a major public health problem, many clinicians do not routinely provide evidence-based health improvement advice to smokers to help them to quit. Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle methodology was used to design and implement a service development so that health improvement advice for smokers featured in all podiatry consultations provided by a Primary Care Trust in North East England. IT systems were developed to record the number and proportion of patients for whom smoking status was assessed, and the number and proportion of smokers who were given advice to quit and referred for specialist support. A questionnaire to staff explored their perceptions of the development on their clinics and consultations. During a 6-month period, smoking status was recorded for all 8831 (100%) patients attending podiatry clinics; 83% of smokers were given brief advice to quit; 7% of smokers were given help to access specialist stop smoking support services. Improvements were introduced within existing budgets and did not prolong clinics. It is straightforward and inexpensive to develop clinical services so that public health guidance is routinely implemented. More widespread implementation of similar service developments could lead to national improvements in public health.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing compared with drug information and advice for early intervention among young cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Slym, Renee L; Strang, John

    2008-11-01

    To test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in comparison with drug information and advice in opportunistically securing reductions in drug-related risk among young cannabis users not seeking help. Randomized controlled trial. Eleven London Further Education colleges. A total of 326 students aged 16-19 years who smoked cannabis weekly or more frequently. Participants were randomized to a single-session intervention of MI or drug information and advice-giving. Cannabis use, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and harm outcomes were assessed after both 3 and 6 months. No differences were found between MI and drug information and advice, although MI fidelity was not high. There were wide-ranging individual practitioner effects on observed outcomes and a practitioner-intervention interaction was detected in relation to cannabis cessation after 3 months. Change over time was more pronounced for cannabis use than for other drug use. Further study of the nature and consequences of MI fidelity, and individual practitioner effects more generally, is needed. Advice may be an effective brief intervention with young cannabis users in its own right and should be evaluated further in trials.

  15. The Role of Parents in Young Adolescents' Competence with Peers: An Observational Study of Advice Giving and Intrusiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Francois; Nadeau, Karine; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2012-01-01

    Young adolescents who encounter difficulties with peers can consult with their parents to help solve these problems. In this context, this study examines the contribution of adolescents' disclosure, parental advice giving, and parental intrusiveness into adolescents' social and behavioral adjustment. Young adolescents (N = 93; 49% girls; mean age…

  16. Specific Advice on Fulfilling Information Requirements for Nanomaterials under REACH (RIP-oN 2) – Final Project Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hankin, S. M.; Peters, S. A. K.; Poland, C. A.

    The European Commission (EC) began in 2009 a Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Implementation Project on Nanomaterials (RIPoN), which it intended to provide advice on key aspects of the implementation of REACH with regard to nanomaterials....

  17. General practitioner advice on physical activity: Analyses in a cohort of older primary health care patients (getABI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiem Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of physical activity for health and functioning are recognized to extend throughout life, the physical activity level of most older people is insufficient with respect to current guidelines. The primary health care setting may offer an opportunity to influence and to support older people to become physically active on a regular basis. Currently, there is a lack of data concerning general practitioner (GP advice on physical activity in Germany. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate and characteristics of older patients receiving advice on physical activity from their GP. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data collected at 7 years of follow-up of a prospective cohort study (German epidemiological trial on ankle brachial index, getABI. 6,880 unselected patients aged 65 years and above in the primary health care setting in Germany were followed up since October 2001. During the 7-year follow-up telephone interview, 1,937 patients were asked whether their GP had advised them to get regular physical activity within the preceding 12 months. The interview also included questions on socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, medical conditions, and physical activity. Logistic regression analysis (unadjusted and adjusted for all covariables was used to examine factors associated with receiving advice. Analyses comprised only complete cases with regard to the analysed variables. Results are expressed as odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of the 1,627 analysed patients (median age 77; range 72-93 years; 52.5% women, 534 (32.8% stated that they had been advised to get regular physical activity. In the adjusted model, those more likely to receive GP advice on physical activity were men (OR [95% CI] 1.34 [1.06-1.70], patients suffering from pain (1.43 [1.13-1.81], coronary heart disease and/or myocardial infarction (1.56 [1.21-2.01], diabetes mellitus (1

  18. Effectiveness of Web-Based Tailored Advice on Parents’ Child Safety Behaviors: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Injuries at home are a major cause of death, disability, and loss of quality of life among young children. Despite current safety education, required safety behavior of parents is often lacking. To prevent various childhood disorders, the application of Web-based tools has increased the effectiveness of health promotion efforts. Therefore, an intervention with Web-based, tailored, safety advice combined with personal counseling (E-Health4Uth home safety) was developed and applied. Objective To evaluate the effect of E-Health4Uth home safety on parents’ safety behaviors with regard to the prevention of falls, poisoning, drowning, and burns. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted (2009-2011) among parents visiting well-baby clinics in the Netherlands. Parents were randomly assigned to the intervention group (E-Health4Uth home safety intervention) or to the control condition consisting of usual care. Parents in the intervention condition completed a Web-based safety behavior assessment questionnaire; the resulting tailored safety advice was discussed with their child health care professional at a well-baby visit (age approximately 11 months). Parents in the control condition received counseling using generic safety information leaflets at this well-baby visit. Parents’ child safety behaviors were derived from self-report questionnaires at baseline (age 7 months) and at follow-up (age 17 months). Each specific safety behavior was classified as safe/unsafe and a total risk score was calculated. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to reveal differences in safety behavior between the intervention and the control condition at follow-up. Results A total of 1292 parents (response rate 44.79%) were analyzed. At follow-up, parents in the intervention condition (n=643) showed significantly less unsafe behavior compared to parents in the control condition (n=649): top of staircase (23.91% vs 32.19%; OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85); bottom of

  19. Compliance with Sunscreen Advice in a Survey of Adults Engaged in Outdoor Winter Recreation at High Elevation Ski Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Maloy, Julie A.; Dignan, Mark B.; Cutter, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adults are advised to wear sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15+, apply it up to 30 minutes prior to sun exposure, and reapply it after two hours to reduce exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight for the prevention of skin cancer. Objective This study investigated the extent to which adults comply with sunscreen advice. Methods A survey was conducted with 4,837 adult skiers and snowboarders at 28 high-altitude ski areas in Western North America in January – April 2001-02. Respondents self reported use of sunscreen, its SPF, time of first application, and reapplication. Results Only 4.4% (95% CI=±0.6) of adults were in full compliance with all sunscreen advice. Half (49.8% [95% CI=±1.4]) complied with SPF 15+ advice. Of those wearing sunscreen, 73.2% (95% CI=±1.8) applied the sunscreen 30 minutes before beginning skiing/snowboarding, but only 20.4% (95% CI=±2.0) complied with advice to reapply it after 2 hours. Total compliance was lowest during inclement weather, on low-UV days, by males, and among respondents who believed skin cancer was unimportant and with low sun sensitive skin. It was positively associated with wearing lip balm and hats with a brim. Limitations The sample was predominantly male and of high socio-economic status; the results apply most to winter recreation when UV radiation levels are low, and sunscreen use was assessed by self-report. Conclusion While the recommendation to use SPF 15+ sunscreen has reached many adults, the reapplication advice is heeded by few adults and needs to be highlighted in future sun safety promotions. PMID:21742410

  20. Compliance with sunscreen advice in a survey of adults engaged in outdoor winter recreation at high-elevation ski areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Walkosz, Barbara J; Scott, Michael D; Maloy, Julie A; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R

    2012-01-01

    Adults are advised to wear sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher, apply it up to 30 minutes before sun exposure, and reapply it after 2 hours to reduce exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight for the prevention of skin cancer. This study investigated the extent to which adults comply with sunscreen advice. A survey was conducted with 4837 adult skiers and snowboarders at 28 high-altitude ski areas in western North America in January through April 2001 through 2002. Respondents self-reported use of sunscreen, its SPF, time of first application, and reapplication. Only 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = ±0.6) of adults were in full compliance with all sunscreen advice. Half (49.8% [95% CI = ±1.4]) complied with SPF 15 or higher advice. Of those wearing sunscreen, 73.2% (95% CI = ±1.8) applied the sunscreen 30 minutes before beginning skiing/snowboarding, but only 20.4% (95% CI = ±2.0) complied with advice to reapply it after 2 hours. Total compliance was lowest during inclement weather, on low-ultraviolet days, by men, and among respondents who believed skin cancer was unimportant and with low sun-sensitive skin. It was positively associated with wearing lip balm and hats with a brim. The sample was predominantly male and of high socioeconomic status; the results apply most to winter recreation when ultraviolet radiation levels are low, and sunscreen use was assessed by self-report. Although the recommendation to use SPF 15 or higher sunscreen has reached many adults, the reapplication advice is heeded by few adults and needs to be highlighted in future sun safety promotions. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabotyping for the development of tailored dietary advice solutions in a European population: the Food4Me study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Clare B; Walsh, Marianne C; Woolhead, Clara; Forster, Hannah; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Rodrigo San-Cristobal, S; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Mvrogianni, Christina; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; Daniel, Hannelore; Manios, Yannis; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally, personalised nutrition was delivered at an individual level. However, the concept of delivering tailored dietary advice at a group level through the identification of metabotypes or groups of metabolically similar individuals has emerged. Although this approach to personalised nutrition looks promising, further work is needed to examine this concept across a wider population group. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to: (1) identify metabotypes in a European population and (2) develop targeted dietary advice solutions for these metabotypes. Using data from the Food4Me study (n 1607), k-means cluster analysis revealed the presence of three metabolically distinct clusters based on twenty-seven metabolic markers including cholesterol, individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Cluster 2 was identified as a metabolically healthy metabotype as these individuals had the highest Omega-3 Index (6·56 (sd 1·29) %), carotenoids (2·15 (sd 0·71) µm) and lowest total saturated fat levels. On the basis of its fatty acid profile, cluster 1 was characterised as a metabolically unhealthy cluster. Targeted dietary advice solutions were developed per cluster using a decision tree approach. Testing of the approach was performed by comparison with the personalised dietary advice, delivered by nutritionists to Food4Me study participants (n 180). Excellent agreement was observed between the targeted and individualised approaches with an average match of 82 % at the level of delivery of the same dietary message. Future work should ascertain whether this proposed method could be utilised in a healthcare setting, for the rapid and efficient delivery of tailored dietary advice solutions.

  2. Patients' perceptions of their general practitioner's health and weight influences their perceptions of nutrition and exercise advice received

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser SE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: General practitioners (GPs play an important role in the management of patients who are overweight or obese. Previous research suggests that GPs' physical characteristics may influence patients' perceptions of health care received during consultations, mediating the likelihood of patients following health advice provided by GPs. This study aimed to explore patients' perceptions of their GP's health status and its influence on patients' perceptions of healthy eating and exercise advice. METHODS: An interpretive approach to phenomenology underpinned the qualitative inquiry and study design. Twenty-one participants (aged 55.9 ± 6.5 years; 14 females, 7 males who had previously received healthy eating and/or exercise advice from a GP participated in an individual semi-structured interview. A constant comparison approach to thematic analysis was conducted. FINDINGS: Participants identified three key indicators of perceived health of their GP. These included the GP's physical appearance, particularly weight status; perceived absence of ill health; and disclosure of a GP's health behaviours. Participants expressed favourable perceptions of the weight status of their GP. Participants expected their GP to be a healthy role model and often, but not always, felt more confident receiving advice from a GP that they perceived as healthy. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight that a GP's perceived health status influences patients' perceptions of the health advice received during consultations. These findings provide a foundation for future research that may allow GPs to modify patients' perceptions of their health status in order to facilitate behaviour change in overweight or obese patients.

  3. Pediatrician’s perspectives on discharge against medical advice (DAMA among pediatric patients: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrohon Bernadette C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phenomenon of discharge against medical advice (DAMA among pediatric patients places pediatricians in a dilemma between respect for the parent’s decision and the desire to provide complete care for the vulnerable child-patient. Little has been written about factors that affect a pediatrician’s decision to allow a parent to discharge his child against medical advice. This qualitative study aims to answer the question of how pediatric residents in a tertiary government hospital perceive and decide on a DAMA request from a parent or primary caregiver. Methods Using a focus group discussion approach, 11 pediatric residents from a government-run tertiary hospital were recruited for the study. The session was digitally recorded and dominant themes were coded and identified. Results There were three prominent themes that arose in the discussion: variability of definitions of DAMA, factors considered before “allowing” the patient to be DAMA, and the implications of a DAMA request on their performance as pediatricians. Definitions vary from one resident to another based on the main reason for DAMA (terminal, cultural, or financial. A conflict was noted in the definition of Home per Request (HPR versus DAMA. Factors that influence a pediatrician to sign out a case as DAMA include: their ability to do something about the reason given for the DAMA request, the condition of the patient when the DAMA request was given, their impression of the kind of care that the parents provide, and their legal liabilities. Pediatric residents generally maintain a positive attitude towards the parents who request for DAMA and in the event of readmission, accept the patient into their care again. The occurrence of a variety of definitions and subcategories for DAMA may cause confusion among the pediatricians and should be clarified. The familiarity with cultural traditions contributes to their ability to handle situations that may lead to DAMA

  4. Systematic review of long term effects of advice to reduce dietary salt in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Bartlett, Christopher; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the long term effects of advice to restrict dietary sodium in adults with and without hypertension. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Cochrane library, Medline, Embase, and bibliographies. Study selection Unconfounded randomised trials that aimed to reduce sodium intake in healthy adults over at least 6 months. Inclusion decisions, validity and data extraction were duplicated. Random effects meta-analysis, subgrouping, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression were performed. Outcomes Mortality, cardiovascular events, blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, quality of life, and use of antihypertensive drugs. Results Three trials in normotensive people (n=2326), five trials in those with untreated hypertension (n=387), and three trials in people being treated for hypertension (n=801) were included, with follow up from six months to seven years. The large high quality (and therefore most informative) studies used intensive behavioural interventions. Deaths and cardiovascular events were inconsistently defined and reported. There were 17 deaths, equally distributed between intervention and control groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced (systolic by 1.1 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 0.4 mm Hg; diastolic by 0.6 mm Hg, 1.5 to −0.3 mm Hg) at 13 to 60 months, as was urinary 24 hour sodium excretion (by 35.5 mmol/24 hours, 47.2 to 23.9). Degree of reduction in sodium intake and change in blood pressure were not related. Conclusions Intensive interventions, unsuited to primary care or population prevention programmes, provide only small reductions in blood pressure and sodium excretion, and effects on deaths and cardiovascular events are unclear. Advice to reduce sodium intake may help people on antihypertensive drugs to stop their medication while maintaining good blood pressure control. What is already known on this topicRestricting sodium intake in people with

  5. What do patients think about the role of optometrists in providing advice about smoking and nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Laura E; Douglass, Amanda; Guest, Daryl; Keller, Peter R

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and nutrition are key lifestyle factors with long-term effects on eye health. However, little is known about patients' perceptions and experiences in these areas in relation to the care received from optometrists. The main aim was to survey patients' perceptions and prior experience regarding the role of optometrists in enquiring and providing advice about tobacco smoking and nutrition. An anonymous, paper-based survey was distributed to a convenience sample of 225 adults attending the University of Melbourne eye care clinic. Respondents provided demographic and other information (age, sex, length of time since last eye examination, country of most recent eye examination, smoking status and intake of nutritional supplements) and indicated their level of agreement (using a five-step Likert scale) with a series of statements relating to the care provided by optometrists in the areas of health, smoking and nutrition. The statements were designed to assess the perceived scope of practice of optometrists and the extent to which patients expect, and feel comfortable, discussing these issues with their optometrist. 220 completed surveys were returned. Most respondents (>80%) agreed that they visit their optometrist to quantify their refractive error and to examine their eye health. About two-thirds of respondents indicated that they expect their optometrist to ask about their general health, with almost half expecting their optometrist to communicate with their general medical practitioner. Approximately one-third of respondents indicated having been routinely questioned about their smoking status, diet and nutritional supplement intake by their optometrist. This was despite about half expecting their optometrist to question them about these factors and almost three out of four respondents indicating that they felt comfortable talking with their optometrist about these lifestyle behaviours. This study provides novel insight into patients' perceptions and

  6. Tailoring Nutritional Advice for Mexicans Based on Prevalence Profiles of Diet-Related Adaptive Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ojeda-Granados

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet-related adaptive gene (DRAG polymorphisms identified in specific populations are associated with chronic disorders in carriers of the adaptive alleles due to changes in dietary and lifestyle patterns in recent times. Mexico’s population is comprised of Amerindians (AM and Mestizos who have variable AM, European (EUR and African genetic ancestry and an increased risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Nutritional advice based on the Mexican genome and the traditional food culture is needed to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we aimed to provide a prevalence profile of several DRAG polymorphisms in the Mexican population, including Central West (CW Mexico subpopulations. Geographic heat maps were built using ArcGIS10 (Esri, Redlands, CA, USA software, based on the published data of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133, ABCA1 Arg230Cys (rs9282541, APOE T388C (rs429358/C526T (rs7412, LCT C-13910T (rs4988235 polymorphisms and AMY1 copy number variation (CNV. Also, new data obtained by allelic discrimination-real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays for the MTHFR, ABCA1, and APOE polymorphisms as well as the AMY1 CNV in the CW Mexico subpopulations with different proportions of AM and EUR ancestry were included. In the CW region, the highest frequency of the MTHFR 677T, ABCA1 230C and APOE ε4 adaptive alleles was observed in the AM groups, followed by Mestizos with intermediate AM ancestry. The LCT-13910T allele frequency was highest in Mestizos-EUR but extremely low in AM, while the AMY1 diploid copy number was 6.82 ± 3.3 copies. Overall, the heat maps showed a heterogeneous distribution of the DRAG polymorphisms, in which the AM groups revealed the highest frequencies of the adaptive alleles followed by Mestizos. Given these genetic differences, genome-based nutritional advice should be tailored in a regionalized and individualized manner according to the available foods and Mexican traditional food culture that

  7. Advice for Sex Advisors: A Guide for "Agony Aunts", Relationship Therapists and Sex Educators Who Want to Work with the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, Petra M.

    2007-01-01

    Education programmes for sex and relationships are greatly needed globally. One way such information can be delivered is via the media. Sex and relationship advice has long been a popular media component, but the quality, accuracy and effectiveness of such advice--particularly from the sex "expert" or "agony aunt"--has not been adequately…

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of Offering Advice Speech Acts by Iranian EFL Learners and English Native Speakers: Pragmatic Transfer in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Sherveh; Shahrokhi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the speech act of offering advice as realized by Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers. The study, more specifically, attempted to find out whether there was any pragmatic transfer from Persian (L1) among Iranian EFL learners while offering advice in English. It also examined whether…

  9. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  10. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartels, C

    2012-01-06

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out over 2 weeks in February 2011 with all eligible in-patients in Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 61% stated they had been asked about smoking by a healthcare professional in the past year. Only 44% of current\\/recent smokers stated they had received smoking cessation advice from a health professional within the same timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase rates of healthcare professional-provided smoking cessation advice are urgently needed.

  11. It ain't what you do, it's the way that you do it: a qualitative study of advice for young cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Nathan; McCambridge, Jim; Slym, Renee L; Rollnick, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Advice is a widely recommended and practised intervention with young drug users. Study of precisely how advice is given and received in any setting has, however, been limited. We qualitatively analysed 106 audio-recordings of advice sessions on cannabis use for young people within a randomised trial. Inductive data analysis was guided by a focus on practitioner behaviour which served to engage the active participation of the young drug user in the session. A cluster of 'Information Management' activities was identified together with an 'Interactive Orientation' evident in a series of specific behaviours. Participants were most successfully engaged when both were combined, understood here as 'Personalised Advice-giving'. These components identified in this exploratory study might assist further research in rectifying the absence of a solid empirical basis for effective practice in advice giving with young drug users and more widely.

  12. A 3-Arm randomised controlled trial of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT) to mothers with infants to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Baur, Louise A; Hayes, Alison J; Xu, Huilan; Whelan, Anna; Hua, Myna; Shaw, Miranda; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2017-01-14

    With an increasing prevalence of obesity in young children globally, there is an urgent need for the development of effective early interventions. A previous Healthy Beginnings Trial using a nurse-led home visiting program has demonstrated that providing mothers with evidence-based advice can improve maternal practice regarding obesity prevention, and can reduce Body Mass Index (BMI) in the first few years of life. However, the costs for scale-up of home visiting limit its population reach. This trial aims to determine the efficacy of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT) to mothers with infants in improving infant feeding practices and preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. We propose a 3-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a consecutive sample of 1056 mothers with their newborn children in New South Wales (NSW) Australia. Pregnant women who are between weeks 28 and 34 of their pregnancy will be invited to participate in the CHAT trial. Informed consent will be obtained, and after baseline data collection, participants will be randomly allocated to the telephone intervention, text messaging intervention, or the control group. The intervention comprises telephone consultations or text messages, together with 6 intervention packages being mailed at specific times from the third trimester of pregnancy until 12 months post birth. The main trial outcome measures include a) duration of breastfeeding, b) timing of introduction of solids, c) nutrition behaviours, physical activity and television viewing, and d) weight and BMI z-score at 12 and 24 months, e) cost-effectiveness, as well as f) feasibility and acceptability of the interventions. The results will ascertain whether early intervention using telephone consultation or text messaging together with staged mailed intervention resources can be feasible and effective in improving infant feeding practices, physical activity and reducing children's BMI in the early

  13. A 3-Arm randomised controlled trial of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT to mothers with infants to prevent childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing prevalence of obesity in young children globally, there is an urgent need for the development of effective early interventions. A previous Healthy Beginnings Trial using a nurse-led home visiting program has demonstrated that providing mothers with evidence-based advice can improve maternal practice regarding obesity prevention, and can reduce Body Mass Index (BMI in the first few years of life. However, the costs for scale-up of home visiting limit its population reach. This trial aims to determine the efficacy of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT to mothers with infants in improving infant feeding practices and preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. Methods/Design We propose a 3-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT with a consecutive sample of 1056 mothers with their newborn children in New South Wales (NSW Australia. Pregnant women who are between weeks 28 and 34 of their pregnancy will be invited to participate in the CHAT trial. Informed consent will be obtained, and after baseline data collection, participants will be randomly allocated to the telephone intervention, text messaging intervention, or the control group. The intervention comprises telephone consultations or text messages, together with 6 intervention packages being mailed at specific times from the third trimester of pregnancy until 12 months post birth. The main trial outcome measures include a duration of breastfeeding, b timing of introduction of solids, c nutrition behaviours, physical activity and television viewing, and d weight and BMI z-score at 12 and 24 months, e cost-effectiveness, as well as f feasibility and acceptability of the interventions. Discussion The results will ascertain whether early intervention using telephone consultation or text messaging together with staged mailed intervention resources can be feasible and effective in improving infant feeding practices

  14. Individual Risk and Prevention of Complications: Doctors' Advice to Persons Wishing a New Tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Doctors who are consulted about health and tattoo risks have an important role in the prevention of an individual's tattoo complications. Tattooing is a tremendous exposure of the human body to needle operation, particles, and chemicals. The risk is related to a person's health condition, level of insight, decision-making, and to the operation of tattooing, tattoo inks and utensils, tattoo parlour, and the aftercare. Tattooing is painful minor surgery performed without anesthesia. It can be associated with syncope. It is major needle trauma with histamine release and wheal and flare in the operation field. The skin barrier is broken. Bacterial infections come early. Chronically intermittent and mild complaints affect 4/10 of all the tattooed, and 2/10 have sensitivity to sun. Chronic complications with allergy in red tattoos and nodules due to pigment agglomeration and foreign body formation in black tattoos are less common but certainly at the level of cumbersome skin disease. Reactions to black tattoos are strongly associated with sarcoidosis. There are many other distinct entities of tattoo complications. A campaign called 'Tattoo - know your risk' is presented with detailed fact sheets about tattoos, tattoo problems, how to reduce risk, and a checklist for the tattoo customer before decision-making. The sheets with keynote information are useful aids for doctors giving advice to persons curious about acquiring a tattoo. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Sports Nutrition Knowledge, Perceptions, Resources, and Advice Given by Certified CrossFit Trainers

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    Cassie Maxwell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale. Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p < 0.01. Conclusion: Nutrition education modules for Level 1 and 2 CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.

  16. A Word to the Wise: Advice for Scientists Engaged in Collaborative Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Peter; Huber, Ann; Saah, David S.; Battles, John J.

    2017-05-01

    Collaborative adaptive management is a process for making decisions about the environment in the face of uncertainty and conflict. Scientists have a central role to play in these decisions. However, while scientists are well trained to reduce uncertainty by discovering new knowledge, most lack experience with the means to mitigate conflict in contested situations. To address this gap, we drew from our efforts coordinating a large collaborative adaptive management effort, the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project, to offer advice to our fellow environmental scientists. Key challenges posed by collaborative adaptive management include the confusion caused by multiple institutional cultures, the need to provide information at management-relevant scales, frequent turnover in participants, fluctuations in enthusiasm among key constituencies, and diverse definitions of success among partners. Effective strategies included a dedication to consistency, a commitment to transparency, the willingness to communicate frequently via multiple forums, and the capacity for flexibility. Collaborative adaptive management represents a promising, new model for scientific engagement with the public. Learning the lessons of effective collaboration in environmental management is an essential task to achieve the shared goal of a sustainable future.

  17. How Do I Get a Library Job? Evidence-based Advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Logan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely assumed that practical job experience is the main factor that will get you a job once you graduate from a library program, so it follows that obtaining an internship while in school must be key to your future career success. But is there evidence behind this common advice? The accompanying video investigates these questions using interview and survey methodology. On suppose largement que l’expérience de travail réelle et concrète est ce dont on a besoin pour trouver un emploi après avoir reçu un diplôme d’un programme de bibliothéconomie. Donc l’expérience de travail précédente, ou l’obtention d’un stage pendant les études, est la clef du succès professionnelle dans l’avenir. Mais il y a-t-il des preuves qui soutiennent cette affirmation? La vidéo accompagnante examine ces questions utilisant des entrevues et des sondages conduits par les auteurs.

  18. Fitness to fly in the paediatric population, how to assess and advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israëls, Joël; Nagelkerke, Ad F; Markhorst, Dick G; van Heerde, Marc

    2018-02-26

    The number of children on commercial aircrafts is rising steeply and poses a need for their treating physicians to be aware of the physiologic effects and risks of air travel. The most important risk factors while flying are a decrease in partial oxygen pressure, expansion of trapped air volume, low cabin humidity, immobility, recirculation of air and limited options for medical emergencies. Because on-board medical emergencies mostly concern exacerbations of chronic disease, the medical history, stability of current disease and previous flight experience should be assessed before flight. If necessary, hypoxia altitude simulation testing can be performed to simulate the effects of in-flight hypoxia. Although the literature on paediatric safety of air travel is sparse, recommendations for many different situations can be given. We present an overview of the most up to date recommendations to ensure the safety of children during flight. What is Known: • Around 65% of on-board medical emergencies are complications of underlying disease. • In children, the three most common emergencies during flight concern respiratory, neurological and infectious disease. What is New: • Although studies are scarce, some advices to ensure safe air travel can be given for most underlying medical conditions in children, based on physiology, studies in adults and expert opinions. • In former preterm infants without chronic lung disease, hypoxia altitude simulation testing to rule out in-flight desaturation is not recommended.

  19. Integration of complementary and alternative medicine information and advice in chronic disease management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Team, Victoria; Canaway, Rachel; Manderson, Lenore

    2011-01-01

    The growing evidence on the benefits and risks of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and its high rate of use (69% of Australians) - particularly for chronic or recurrent conditions - means increasing attention on CAM. However, few people disclose CAM use to their GP, and health professionals tend to inadequately discuss CAM-related issues with their patients, partly due to insufficient knowledge. As clinical and non-clinical chronic condition management guidelines are a means to educate primary health care practitioners, we undertook a content analysis of guidelines relevant to two common chronic conditions - cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) - to assess their provision of CAM-related information. Ten current Australian guidelines were reviewed, revealing scant CAM content. When available, the CAM-relevant information was brief, in some cases unclear, inconclusive and lacking in direction to the GP or health care provider. Although we focus on CVD and T2DM, we argue the value of all chronic condition management guidelines integrating relevant evidence-informed information and advice on CAM risks, benefits and referrals, to increase GP awareness and knowledge of appropriate CAM therapies, and potentially to facilitate doctor-client discussion about CAM.

  20. [Prior health advice to immigrants who travel to visit family and friends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Carme; Aguilar, Anna; Valerio, Lluís; Solsona, Lluís; Carrasco, Clara; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis Andrés

    2014-04-01

    Immigrants who make or plan journeys to visit their families in their countries of origin (immigrants -visiting friends and relatives, I-VFR) have a higher risk of acquiring travel-associated diseases than other travellers. The main aim of this study is to analyse the knowledge of the immigrant population on the need to receive health advice (HA) before making international journeys in general and in particular before travelling to their country of origin. Observational, multicentre study. Ten Family Doctors from 10 Health Centres in Catalonia and Aragon participated A total of 555 immigrants ≥ 15 years of age, who consulted their Family Doctor and agreed to answer a questionnaire. Opportunity sampling was used. A total of 389 (70.1%) of those surveyed considered it necessary to receive HA before making an international journey, 406 (73.2%) were I-VFR and 145 (35.7%) had requested HA prior to the journey, mostly from their Family Doctor (n=60; 41.1%). Almost two-thirds (261, 65.2%) of the subjects did not seek HA, with the most common reason being that they did not consider it necessary (173, 42.6%). I-VFR do not usually request HA prior to travelling, basic due to considering it unnecessary. When they do request it, they are very often initially directed to their Family Doctor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.