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Sample records for sak gerda raidaru

  1. Gerda Murre / Lidia Sooster

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooster, Lidia, 1926-1999

    2000-01-01

    Estonia teatri laulja Gerda Murre elust Karaganda oblastis Kiilasmäe erilaagris, kus ta oli Kiilasmäe naisteteatri kunstiline juht. (1940/41 aastavahetusel arreteeriti ebaseaduslikult ja saadeti 1941 asumisele Siberisse). Ka hilisematest kokkupuudetest Eestis

  2. The GERDA calibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, Laura; Froborg, Francis; Tarka, Michael; Bruch, Tobias; Ferella, Alfredo [Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    A system with three identical custom made units is used for the energy calibration of the GERDA Ge diodes. To perform a calibration the {sup 228}Th sources are lowered from the parking positions at the top of the cryostat. Their positions are measured by two independent modules. One, the incremental encoder, counts the holes in the perforated steel band holding the sources, the other measures the drive shaft's angular position even if not powered. The system can be controlled remotely by a Labview program. The calibration data is analyzed by an iterative calibration algorithm determining the calibration functions for different energy reconstruction algorithms and the resolution of several peaks in the {sup 228}Th spectrum is determined. A Monte Carlo simulation using the GERDA simulation software MAGE has been performed to determine the background induced by the sources in the parking positions.

  3. GERDA: Results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, Carla Maria; GERDA Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    From November 2011 to May 2013, GERDA searched for 0 νββ and 2 νββ of 76Ge, operating bare in a liquid argon bath Ge detectors enriched up to ˜ 87% in 76Ge (enrGe), for a total mass of ˜ 18 kg of enrGe. A total exposure of 21.6 kgṡy, of enrGe was collected, and the existing claim [H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al., Phys. Lett. B 586 (2004) 198] of 0 νββ evidence was scrutinized. GERDA didn't observe any peak at Qββ or in its immediate surroundings; the limit of T1/20ν > 2.1 ṡ1025 yr (90 % C.L.) is derived [GERDA collaboration: M. Agostini et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, (2013) 122503]. When combining the GERDA limit with those of past HdM [HdM collaboration: H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al., Eur. Phys. J. A12 (2001) 147] and Igex [Igex Collaboration: C. E. Aalseth et al., Phys. Rev. D 65 (2002) 092007] experiments, the lower limit of 3.0 ṡ1025 yr (90 % C.L.) on T1/20ν is achieved. The background index (BI) at Qββ (˜ 2039 keV) is ˜ 2.0 ṡ10-2 cts / (keV ṡkg ṡyr) and ˜ 1.0 ṡ10-2 cts / (keV ṡkg ṡyr), prior and after the pulse shape cuts respectively. Thanks to the low background the 2 νββ dominates the energy spectrum below 1800 keV: the Tν1/2 2 = (1.84-0.10+0.14) ṡ1021y was derived on a first data set corresponding to 5.1 kgṡyr exposure [GERDA collaboration: M. Agostini et al., J. Phys. G 40 (2013), 035110]. The ongoing experimental program, to double the exposed mass by adding new enrGe detectors with improved pulse shape discrimination features, and to implement the liquid argon scintillation light readout is outlined.

  4. Peeter Saks maksab karmavõlga / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Investeerimispanga Suprema Securities juhatuse esimees Peeter Saks oma sportlasekarjäärist, muudatustest investeerimispanga juhtkonnas ning panga tegevusest sportlaste toetamisel. Kommenteerib mäesuusataja Tiiu Nurmberg

  5. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  6. Status of the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medinaceli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) using "7"6Ge, therefore asses the nature of neutrinos (Dirac or Majorana). In the so-called Phase I, with an exposure of 21.6 kr yr, GERDA reached a background index (BI) of 10"−"2 cts/(keV kg yr) at 90% CL No signal was found during this phase and a lower limit on the process half-life of 2.1 × 10"2"5 yr was derived (90% CL). GERDA is currently being upgraded to its Phase II, where the "7"6Ge mass will be double, and it is expected to reduce by an order of magnitude the BI. For 0νββ half-lives at the order of 10"2"6 yr will be derived in the absence of signal. The experimental techniques used by GERDA will be depicted and the most relevant results from Phase I will be shown; as well as details on the upgrades of Phase II, including the status of the additional detectors deployed recently, and the new background reduction techniques using the active liquid Argon veto.

  7. Status of the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinaceli, E.; Gerda Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) using ^{76} Ge, therefore asses the nature of neutrinos (Dirac or Majorana). In the so-called Phase I, with an exposure of 21.6kr yr, GERDA reached a background index (BI) of 10^{-2}{ cts/(keV kg yr)} at 90% CL No signal was found during this phase and a lower limit on the process half-life of 2.1×10^{25}{ yr} was derived (90% CL). GERDA is currently being upgraded to its Phase II, where the ^{76} Ge mass will be double, and it is expected to reduce by an order of magnitude the BI. For 0νββ half-lives at the order of 10^{26}{ yr} will be derived in the absence of signal. The experimental techniques used by GERDA will be depicted and the most relevant results from Phase I will be shown; as well as details on the upgrades of Phase II, including the status of the additional detectors deployed recently, and the new background reduction techniques using the active liquid Argon veto.

  8. Upgrades for GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) of 76Ge. It is a process that violates lepton number conservation and is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. GERDA is located underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. An array of bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge is operated in a cryostat with 64 m3 of liquid argon supplemented by a 3 m thick shield of water. The experiment aims at exploring the 0 νββ decay up to a half life of 2 .1026 yr in two phases: Phase I of the experiment has been concluded last year. No signal is observed and the so far best limit is derived for the half life of the 0 νββ decay of 76Ge, T1/20ν GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) of 76Ge. It is a process that violates lepton number conservation and is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. GERDA is located underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. An array of bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge is operated in a cryostat with 64 m3 of liquid argon supplemented by a 3 m thick shield of water. The experiment aims at exploring the 0 νββ decay up to a half life of 2 .1026 yr in two phases: Phase I of the experiment has been concluded last year. No signal is observed and the so far best limit is derived for the half life of the 0 νββ decay of 76Ge, T1/20 ν GERDA Collaboration.

  9. Low background aspects of GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-01-01

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in 76 Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from 222 Rn. The main source of 222 Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq 228 Th.

  10. Use of pipe saks on pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghio, Alberto F.M.; Caciatori, Angelo [Galvao Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruschi, Allan A.; Santos, Felipe A. dos; Barros, Horacio B. de; Loureiro, Regis R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of new technologies applied to pipeline construction and assembling, aimed at enhancing productivity has been searched by PETROBRAS, throughout its subcontractors, assemblers, by transference in the mentioned constructions. Along the construction of Cacimbas Catu Pipeline, Spread 1 A, placed between the Cacimbas Gas Treatment Station (Linhares, ES) and the future Compression Station of Sao Mateus (ES), one, by means of surveys, noticed that the length of flooded or prone to flooding areas was way superior to the ones foreseen in the basic design. One of the broadly used methods for assuring buoyancy control is concreting the pipes. Such method deeply impacts work's logistics in for instance, the pipe stringing work; in this one, a maximum load of two pipes can be transported until the area to applied, what leads to lower productivity and higher risk due to the increase of trips by heavy load trucks. As an alternative to regular concrete, the Pipe Sak System was adopted and such method improved productivity and decreased discontinuities. (author)

  11. Gerdas råd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte Orr

    2017-01-01

    I den her blogpost vil jeg præsentere det, som Gerda kalder et eksemplarisk fald og fortælle om, hvordan hun lever med fald. Posten er udarbejdet ud fra en løbende samtale jeg havde sammen med ti mennesker, der var faldet. Samtalerne var slået op som et tilbud om en individuel samtale om fald, men...... medarbejderne, andre var mødt op på eget initiativ. Workshoppen foregik i august 2014. Seks af deltagerne var til stede hele seancen, fire gik til og fra undervejs. Gerda var en af dem, som valgte at blive under hele seancen. Et par af deltagerne ønskede ikke at samtalerne blev optaget, derfor blev der taget...... noter undervejs og efter workshoppen. Alle gav mundtlig tilladelse til, at jeg måtte bruge mine noter i min forskning og faldforebyggelsesarbejde. Gerda er 82 år og bor alene med sin hund i et stort hus. Ud over lidt hjælp til rengøring hver 14. dag klarer hun selv alt andet i sin dagligdag. Ca. tre...

  12. Study on preservation of sweet apricot kernel (SAK) by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jide; Xu Fang

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces the study on effect of insecticide and sterilization of SAK by 60 Co γ irradiation. The results declare that the proper dose kill the insect eggs on the surface of SAK is 3.5 kGy, the preserving period under ambient temperature is up to 7 months, the intactness rate is 100%, and the SAK can be safely stored through the summer. By the irradiation of 3.5 kGy, the sanitary quality of SAK can be notably improved and the amount of microbes can decrease by at least 99%. There are no remarkable changes of the main nutrition components of irradiated SAK

  13. Development and installation of the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolnikov, A

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the development of the GERDA (GErmanium Detector Array) experiment is presented. The goal of the experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge with considerable reduction of background in comparison with predecessor experiments. GERDA will operate bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in 76 Ge) submerged in high purity liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The experimental set up is currently under construction in the underground facility of LNGS, Italy. The results of various R and D efforts and the main steps of the GERDA set up design and installation are given as well as several novel methods for background reduction are described.

  14. Status of Gerda Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index (BI) of 10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached. No signal has been found and a lower limit on the half-life of 2.1.10{sup 25} yr (at 90% C.L.) is extracted. The aim of Phase II is to double the Ge mass and further reduce the BI by an order of magnitude to explore half-lives of about 10{sup 26} yr. Thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by an active veto to read out argon scintillation light. The Phase II commissioning showed that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl decays, can be suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. This talk presents the current status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade.

  15. Test of GERDA Phase II detector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Tobias; Gusev, Konstantin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schwingenheuer, Bernhard; Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. The experiment uses HPGe detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge as source and detection material. In GERDA Phase I five BEGe detectors were operated successfully. These detectors are distinguished for improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. In Phase II additional 25 BEGe detectors will be installed. New electronics and radio-pure low-mass holders were specially designed for Phase II. Prior to the installation in GERDA all BEGe detectors are tested in their final assembly in the LNGS underground laboratory. This talk presents the mechanics and performance of the GERDA Phase II detector assembly.

  16. New derivative of staphylokinase SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul exerts thrombolytic effects in the arterial thrombosis model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemraj, Janusz; Zakrzeska, Agnieszka; Brown, George; Stankiewicz, Adrian; Gromotowicz, Anna; Grędziński, Tomasz; Chabielska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    SAK-RGD-K2-Hir and SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul are recombinant proteins that are derivatives of r-SAK (recombinant staphylokinase). They are characterized by their fibrin-specific plasminogen activation properties and their antithrombin and antiplatelet activities. The difference between these proteins is the presence of the antithrombotic fragment (hirudin or hirulog) in the C-terminal portion of the r-SAK. The aim of the present study was to examine the thrombolytic potentials of SAK-RGD-K2-Hir and SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul in an electrically induced carotid artery thrombosis model in rats and to compare the potentials to that of r-SAK. We determined that a bolus injection of SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul was more effective than one of r-SAK in the improvement and maintenance of carotid patency and in arterial thrombus weight reduction; however, it had the same potency as SAK-RGD-K2-Hir. The bleeding time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly prolonged in the animals that were treated with either dose (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg) of SAK-RGD-K2-Hir or SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul, whereas no changes were observed in the plasma fibrinogen concentration or the α2 plasmin inhibitor level. r-SAK alone did not change the bleeding time or coagulation parameters. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the thrombolytic activity of intravenous bolus injection of the novel thrombolytic agent SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul in rats. Although this protein compares favorably with r-SAK, we were unable to show the presence of any beneficial effects of SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul over those of SAK-RGD-K2-Hir. Furthermore, our results suggest that high doses of SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul bear the risk of bleeding.

  17. Sandia reactor kinetics codes: SAK and PK1D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.S.; Odom, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Sandia Kinetics code (SAK) is a one-dimensional coupled thermal-neutronics transient analysis code for use in simulation of reactor transients. The time-dependent cross section routines allow arbitrary time-dependent changes in material properties. The one-dimensional heat transfer routines are for cylindrical geometry and allow arbitrary mesh structure, temperature-dependent thermal properties, radiation treatment, and coolant flow and heat-transfer properties at the surface of a fuel element. The Point Kinetics 1 Dimensional Heat Transfer Code (PK1D) solves the point kinetics equations and has essentially the same heat-transfer treatment as SAK. PK1D can address extended reactor transients with minimal computer execution time

  18. Sakārtojuma nevienādības

    OpenAIRE

    Popmane, Daiga

    2008-01-01

    Darbā tiek apskatīta viena no nevienādību teorijas sastāvdaļām – sakārtojuma nevienādības, kā arī daži to lietojumi. Darbā ir aplūkoti arī vairāki uzdevumi no dažādu gadu matemātikas olimpiādēm.

  19. LAr instrumentation for Gerda phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013. Currently the commissioning of Gerda Phase II is ongoing. To reach the aspired background index of ≤10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). It has been demonstrated by the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. The light instrumentation consisting of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon multipliers (SiPM) has been installed in Gerda. In this talk the low background design of the LAr veto and its performance during the commissioning runs are reported.

  20. Experience from operating germanium detectors in GERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios; GERDA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, searching for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge, was completed in September 2013. The most competitive half-life lower limit for the 0νββ decay of 76Ge was set (T-0ν1/2 > 2.1 · 1025 yr at 90% C.L.). GERDA operates bare Ge diodes immersed in liquid argon. During Phase I, mainly refurbished semi-coaxial high purity Ge detectors from previous experiments were used. The experience gained with handling and operating bare Ge diodes in liquid argon, as well as the stability and performance of the detectors during GERDA Phase I are presented. Thirty additional new enriched BEGe-type detectors were produced and will be used in Phase II. A subgroup of these detectors has already been used successfully in GERDA Phase I. The present paper gives an overview of the production chain of the new germanium detectors, the steps taken to minimise the exposure to cosmic radiation during manufacturing, and the first results of characterisation measurements in vacuum cryostats.

  1. Experience from operating germanium detectors in GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, searching for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76 Ge, was completed in September 2013. The most competitive half-life lower limit for the 0νββ decay of 76 Ge was set (T- 0ν 1/2 > 2.1 · 10 25 yr at 90% C.L.). GERDA operates bare Ge diodes immersed in liquid argon. During Phase I, mainly refurbished semi-coaxial high purity Ge detectors from previous experiments were used. The experience gained with handling and operating bare Ge diodes in liquid argon, as well as the stability and performance of the detectors during GERDA Phase I are presented. Thirty additional new enriched BEGe-type detectors were produced and will be used in Phase II. A subgroup of these detectors has already been used successfully in GERDA Phase I. The present paper gives an overview of the production chain of the new germanium detectors, the steps taken to minimise the exposure to cosmic radiation during manufacturing, and the first results of characterisation measurements in vacuum cryostats. (paper)

  2. The GERDA experiment: results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macolino, Carla; Gerda Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The Germanium Detector Array, GERDA, at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy), is designed to search for Majorana neutrinos via neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. GERDA completed the Phase I in 2013, after an exposure of 21.6 kg·yr and with a background of about 0.01 cts/(keVkgyr): no signal was found and a limit on the half-life of T0ν1/2 > 2.1 · 1025 yr (90% C.L.) was established. The previous claim of 0νββ observation for 76Ge is strongly disfavoured in a model independent way. The commission for GERDA Phase II is currently ongoing and about 20 kg of additional enriched Ge diodes will be deployed. Pulse- shape analysis, together with the liquid argon instrumentation will allow to reach a background level one order of magnitude lower than in Phase I. In this paper the measurement of the half-life of 0νββ decay from GERDA Phase I and the expected sensitivity for Phase II are discussed.

  3. Status report of the GERDA experiment phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riboldi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Phase I of GERDA, aimed at investigating neutrino-less double beta decay of 76 Ge is in the active phase since November 2011 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN—Italy. GERDA Ge detectors are non-encapsulated and operate immersed in liquid argon, equipped with a front-end readout electronics consisting of cryogenic charge sensitive preamplifiers designed and manufactured to cope with the characteristics of the GERDA experiment (radio-purity, long and resistive cables, etc.). The presentation will report on the current status of the GERDA experiment phase I, focusing on Ge detectors performance in terms of energy resolution, stability over time, counting rate and related issues

  4. Status report of the GERDA experiment phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Stefano; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    Phase I of GERDA, aimed at investigating neutrino-less double beta decay of 76Ge is in the active phase since November 2011 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN-Italy. GERDA Ge detectors are non-encapsulated and operate immersed in liquid argon, equipped with a front-end readout electronics consisting of cryogenic charge sensitive preamplifiers designed and manufactured to cope with the characteristics of the GERDA experiment (radio-purity, long and resistive cables, etc.). The presentation will report on the current status of the GERDA experiment phase I, focusing on Ge detectors performance in terms of energy resolution, stability over time, counting rate and related issues.

  5. Background characterization for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, Neslihan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the LNGS laboratory of INFN searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. A discovery of this decay can greatly advance our knowledge on the nature and properties of neutrinos. The current best limit on the half-life of {sup 76}Ge 0νββ decay is 1.9 . 10{sup 25} years (90% C.L.). In order to increase the sensitivity on the half-life with respect to past experiments, the background rate in the energy region of interest (ROI) around Q{sub ββ} = 2039 keV has been reduced by a factor 10. Gerda started data-taking with the full set of Phase I detectors in November 2011. Identification of the background in the first phase of the experiment is of major importance to further mitigate the background for Gerda Phase II. An analysis of the Phase I data resulted in a good understanding of the individual components in the Gerda background spectrum. The background components in the ROI have been identified to be mainly due to β- and γ-induced events originating from {sup 214}Bi ({sup 238}U-series), {sup 208}Tl ({sup 232}Th-series), {sup 42}K (progeny of {sup 42}Ar) and α-induced events coming from isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain. A background decomposition in the ROI will be presented, with a special emphasis on the contribution from α-induced events.

  6. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Insitut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-21

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10{sup −2} cts/(keV·kg·yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge was set to 2.1·10{sup 25} yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 10{sup 26} yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10{sup −3} cts/(keV·kg·yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  7. Status of the Gerda phase II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, Andrea [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Gerda experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. The first phase of the experiment collected 21.6 kg. yr of exposure with a background index (BI) of 0.01 cts/(keV . kg . yr). No signal was observed and a lower limit for the 0νββ half-life was set to T{sup 0νββ}{sub 1/2} < 2.1 . 10{sup 25} yr (90% C.L). The apparatus has now been upgraded to the Phase II configuration. In Phase II 38 kg of HPGe detectors will be operated to reach an exposure of 100 kg . yr. The goal of Gerda Phase II is to lower the BI to 10{sup -3} cts/(keV . kg . y), in order to reach the sensitivity for T{sup 0νββ}{sub 1/2} = O(10{sup 26}) yr. The additional target mass is constituted of 30 custom made BEGe detectors with higher energy resolution and better pulse shape discrimination performance. The detectors are operated in new radio-pure low-mass holders. The liquid argon surrounding the detectors has been instrumented to veto the background events which produce scintillation light. In this talk the current status and the performance of the Gerda Phase II are presented.

  8. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10-2 cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge was set to 2.1.1025 yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 1026 yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from 214Bi and 208Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  9. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of "7"6Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10"−"2 cts/(keV·kg·yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of "7"6Ge was set to 2.1·10"2"5 yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 10"2"6 yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from "2"1"4Bi and "2"0"8Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10"−"3 cts/(keV·kg·yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  10. Neutrinoless double beta decay in Gerda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabmayr, Peter; Gerda Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. This lepton number violating process is predicted by extensions of the standard model. Gerda follows a staged approach by increasing mass and lowering the background level from phase to phase. Gerda is setup at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory of INFN, Italy. An array of high-purity germanium detectors is lowered directly in liquid argon for shielding and cooling. Further background reduction is achieved by an instrumented water buffer. In Phase I an exposure of 21.6 kg yr was collected at a background level of 10-2 cts/(keV kg yr). The lower limit on the half-life of 76Ge > 2 . 1 .1025 yr (90% C.L.) has been published. Further analyses search for decay into excited states or the accompanied Majoron decay. Presently, Phase II is in preparation which intends to reach a background level of 10-3 cts/(keV kg yr) and to increase the exposure to 100 kg yr. About 20 kg of novel thick-window BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detectors will be added and the liquid argon will be instrumented. The status of Phase II preparation and results from the commissioning runs will be presented as well as some further results from Phase I.

  11. Shielding of the GERDA experiment against external gamma background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Demidova, E.; Gurentsov, V.; Kianovsky, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Kornouhkov, V.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Vasenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge and is currently under construction at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The basic design of GERDA is the use of cryogenic liquid and water of high purity as a superior shield against the hitherto dominant background from external gamma radiation. In this paper we show by Monte Carlo simulations and analytical calculations how GERDA was designed to suppress this background at Q ββ ( 76 Ge)=2039keV to a level of about 10 -4 cts/(keVkgy).

  12. Performance of GERDA phase II BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. GERDA uses HPGe detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge as source and detection material. The experiment proceeds in two phases. In Phase I a background index of 10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached and a new lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge was set to 2.1.10{sup 25} yr (at 95% C.L.). In Phase II the background index will be lowered by an order of magnitude and a sensitivity of 10{sup 26} yr will be reached. In order to achieve this goal 30 new custom-made broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors and a liquid argon scintillation light veto will be deployed. Five BEGe detectors have been operated successfully in Phase I and demonstrated their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. Special designed electronics will further improve energy resolution and PSD performance. The first results from commissioning of the new BEGe detectors are presented in this talk.

  13. GERDA: Recent results and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Björn

    2014-04-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) is an experiment designed to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) in 76Ge. An array of high purity germanium detectors isotopically enriched to 87% of 76Ge is operated within 64 m3 of liquid argon (LAr) at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). The experiment aims to explore the 0 νββ half-life up to 1.4×1026 yr with a collected exposure of 100 kg yr separated into two physics phases. The data taking of Phase I started in November 2011 and finished in May 2013 with 21.6 kg yr of exposure and a background index (BI) of 2×10-2cts/(kg yr keV) around the Q-value of 2039 keV before pulse shape cuts. Phase II of the experiment is being prepared with additional 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors and an instrumentation of the LAr, aiming at a BI reduction by a factor of 10 w.r. to Phase I. This paper will present the GERDA setup and the latest results of the experiment including a new measurement of the 2 νββ spectrum of 76Ge and the decomposition of the background spectrum. The 0 νββ analysis, finished in the meanwhile, will be briefly mentioned. Furthermore, the major improvements planned for Phase II will be discussed.

  14. GERDA: Recent results and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Björn, E-mail: bjoernlehnert@gmail.com

    2014-04-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) is an experiment designed to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. An array of high purity germanium detectors isotopically enriched to 87% of {sup 76}Ge is operated within 64 m{sup 3} of liquid argon (LAr) at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). The experiment aims to explore the 0νββ half-life up to 1.4×10{sup 26} yr with a collected exposure of 100 kg yr separated into two physics phases. The data taking of Phase I started in November 2011 and finished in May 2013 with 21.6 kg yr of exposure and a background index (BI) of 2×10{sup −2}cts/(kg yr keV) around the Q-value of 2039 keV before pulse shape cuts. Phase II of the experiment is being prepared with additional 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors and an instrumentation of the LAr, aiming at a BI reduction by a factor of 10 w.r. to Phase I. This paper will present the GERDA setup and the latest results of the experiment including a new measurement of the 2νββ spectrum of {sup 76}Ge and the decomposition of the background spectrum. The 0νββ analysis, finished in the meanwhile, will be briefly mentioned. Furthermore, the major improvements planned for Phase II will be discussed.

  15. Malenkaja Gerda, spassaja Kaja, begala v muzei / Oleg Peranov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peranov, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    Muinasjutufilm H.C. Anderseni järgi "Lumekuninganna" ("Snezhnaja koroleva") : stsenarist Jevgeni Shvarts : režissöör Gennadi Kazanski : Gerda osas 13-aastane Jelena Proklova : NSV Liit (Lenfilm) 1966. Filmivõtetest

  16. Status report of the GERDA experiment phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riboldi, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.riboldi@mi.infn.it [Universita' degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Milano (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Phase I of GERDA, aimed at investigating neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge is in the active phase since November 2011 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN—Italy. GERDA Ge detectors are non-encapsulated and operate immersed in liquid argon, equipped with a front-end readout electronics consisting of cryogenic charge sensitive preamplifiers designed and manufactured to cope with the characteristics of the GERDA experiment (radio-purity, long and resistive cables, etc.). The presentation will report on the current status of the GERDA experiment phase I, focusing on Ge detectors performance in terms of energy resolution, stability over time, counting rate and related issues.

  17. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay beyond GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwingenheuer, Bernhard [MPI Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay might be the only window to observe lepton number violation and to determine the nature of neutrinos. Is is therefore considered to be of highest relevance. The isotope Ge-76 has historically been most important for this search and the ongoing experiment GERDA has the lowest background of all experiments in the field. The proposed experimental program beyond GERDA (and Majorana) is presented.

  18. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-01-01

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76 Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m 3 of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m 3 (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10 3 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10 -2 cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural 42 Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  19. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-04-13

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m{sup 3} of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m{sup 3} (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10{sup 3} have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural {sup 42}Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  20. Dose-effective investigation of intraarterial r-Sak in canine model with acute cerebral infarctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sheng; Shi Haibin; Zhang Peng; Wang Chenghu; Zhou Chunguo; Li Linsun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect and complications of intraarterial thrombolysis with different doses of recombinant-staphylokinase (r-Sak) in canine model with acute cerebral infarction, and then to find out the most properly appropriate effective dose. Methods: The model with left cerebral embolism was established with interventional technique in 24 beagle adult dogs. They were randomly divided into 4 groups including control group(saline, 10 ml), group of low dose(r-Sak, 5 000 u/kg), middle dose(r-Sak, 10 000 u/kg) and high dose(r-Sak, 20 000 u/kg). Angiography and intraarterial thrombolysis were performed within 30 minutes after the embolization. Microcatheter was superselectively inserted into left carotid artery. Five hour's later with a repeated angiography at half, 1 and 2 hours after thrombolysis to observe the recanalization. Blood samples were collected at a series of time pre-and post-thrombolysis to test the plasma levels of PT, APTT and D-dimer. These canines were sacrificed, and their cerebri were taken out for pathologic study by the end of 24 hours. Results: The rates of efficacy within 2 hours after thrombolysis were 10.0% (1/10) in control group, 40.0% (4/10) in low dose group, 90.9% (10/11) in middle dose group and 100% (9/9) in high dose group. The rates of complete recanalization were 0, 10% (1/10), 36.4% (4/11) and 66.7% (6/9), correspondingly and respectively. There were statistically obvious differences between the 3 groups (P 0.05). Death occurred in 1 canine(high dose group) within 24 hours after thrombolysis with hemorrhagic lesion in parietal lobe of brain. No other severe complications ocurred. Conclusions: (1) Intraarterial thrombolysis with r-Sak within 5 hours after onset of thrombosis is effective and feasible. Intraarterial r-Sak shows strong thrombolytic effect for white thrombus including a few platelets. There is relative high rate of recanalization with no less than 10 000U/kg of r-Sak but accompanied with high risk of

  1. First results from GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    Gerda is designed for a background-free search of 76Ge neutrinoless double-β decay, using bare Ge detectors in liquid Ar. The experiment was upgraded after the successful completion of Phase I to double the target mass and further reduce the background. Newly-designed Ge detectors were installed along with LAr scintillation sensors. Phase II of data-taking started in Dec 2015 with approximately 36 kg of Ge detectors and is currently ongoing. The first results based on 10.8 kg· yr of exposure are presented. The background goal of 10-3 cts/(keV· kg· yr) is achieved and a search for neutrinoless double-β decay is performed by combining Phase I and II data. No signal is found and a new limit is set at T1/20ν > 5.3 \\cdot {1025} yr (90% C.L.).

  2. The Gerda Phase II detector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Tobias; Schoenert, Stefan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schwingenheuer, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Phase II of the Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) experiment will continue the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. Prerequisites for Phase II are an increased target mass and a reduced background index of < 10 {sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr). Major hardware upgrades to achieve these requirements are scheduled for 2013. They include the deployment of a new radio pure low mass detector assembly. The structural properties of available radio-pure materials and reduction of mass necessitate a change of the electrical contacting used to bias and read-out the detectors. The detector assembly design and the favored contacting solution are presented.

  3. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  4. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  5. PENGARUH PEMBELAJARAN AKUNTANSI BERBASIS SAK IFRS DAN SELF-EFFICACY TERHADAP KESIAPAN MAHASISWA MENJADI GURU AKUNTANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeni Raeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was inspired by students’ readiness to be Accounting teachers with the rapid progress of science and technology and also free-market for workers. The objective of the study was to test the influence of Accounting learning based on SAK IFRS and self-efficacy toward students’ readiness to be Accounting teachers. The population of the research were Accounting education students in classess of 2010 until 2012. Thus, it used proportionate stratified random sampling. The respondents were 85 students in class 2010, 123 students in class 2011 and 154 students in class 2012. Then, the data were analyzed by percentage descriptive and doubled linear regression. The result of regression analysis showed that 1 Accounting learning based on SAK IFRS and self-efficacy contibuted positively and significantly for 52.4% toward students’ readiness to be Accounting students, 2 there was a positive and significant influence of Accounting learning based on SAK IFRS for 26.2% toward students’ readiness to be Accounting teachers, 3 there was a positive and significant influence of self-efficacy for 16.32% toward students’ readiness to be Accounting teachers. The familiarity level for learning Accounting based on SAK IFRS was high with the progress of science and technology and also full adoption from IFRS.

  6. PENGARUH PEMBELAJARAN AKUNTANSI BERBASIS SAK IFRS DAN SELF-EFFICACY TERHADAP KESIAPAN MAHASISWA MENJADI GURU AKUNTANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeni Raeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was inspired by students’ readiness to be Accounting teachers with the rapid progress of science and technology and also free-market for workers. The objective of the study was to test the influence of Accounting learning based on SAK IFRS and self-efficacy toward students’ readiness to be Accounting teachers. The population of the research were Accounting education students in classess of 2010 until 2012. Thus, it used proportionate stratified random sampling. The respondents were 85 students in class 2010, 123 students in class 2011 and 154 students in class 2012. Then, the data were analyzed by percentage descriptive and doubled linear regression. The result of regression analysis showed that 1 Accounting learning based on SAK IFRS and self-efficacy contibuted positively and significantly for 52.4% toward students’ readiness to be Accounting students, 2 there was a positive and significant influence of Accounting learning based on SAK IFRS for 26.2% toward students’ readiness to be Accounting teachers, 3 there was a positive and significant influence of self-efficacy for 16.32% toward students’ readiness to be Accounting teachers. The familiarity level for learning Accounting based on SAK IFRS was high with the progress of science and technology and also full adoption from IFRS.

  7. RELAP5/MOD2 blind calculation of GERDA small break test and data comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, D.M.; Steiner, J.L.; Waterman, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in support of the USNRC, has developed a RELAP5/MOD2 model of the GERDA facility to be used for analysis of the GERDA data, particularly relative to the phenomena of natural circulation and the boiler condenser mode of heat transfer. A blind calculation of GERDA Test 1605AA and a preliminary comparison with experimental data has been performed. The GERDA facility is a single loop integral facility with an electrically heated core. A general arrangement diagram of the facility is shown. The GERDA facility was designed for the performance of both separate effects and overall systems tests

  8. Upgrade for Phase II of the Gerda experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-05-01

    The Gerda collaboration is performing a sensitive search for neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{76}Ge at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The upgrade of the Gerda experiment from Phase I to Phase II has been concluded in December 2015. The first Phase II data release shows that the goal to suppress the background by one order of magnitude compared to Phase I has been achieved. Gerda is thus the first experiment that will remain "background-free" up to its design exposure (100 kg year). It will reach thereby a half-life sensitivity of more than 10^{26} year within 3 years of data collection. This paper describes in detail the modifications and improvements of the experimental setup for Phase II and discusses the performance of individual detector components.

  9. Performance of the LAr scintillation veto of Gerda Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesinger, Christoph [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013 and Gerda has been upgraded to Phase II. To reach the aspired background index of ∝10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques are applied, including an active liquid argon (LAr) veto. It has been demonstrated with the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium detectors, which simultaneously deposit energy in the LAr. The light instrumentation consisting of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) has been installed in Gerda. In this talk the low background design of the LAr veto and its performance during Phase II start-up is reported.

  10. Performance of the LAr scintillation veto of GERDA Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesinger, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Dept. E15, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013 and Gerda is upgraded to Phase II. To reach the aspired background index of ≤ 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques are applied, including an active liquid argon (LAr) veto. It has been demonstrated with the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in the LAr. The light instrumentation consisting of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon multipliers (SiPM) has been installed in Gerda. In this talk the low background design of the LAr veto and its performance during the commissioning runs are reported.

  11. The calibration system of the GERDA muon veto Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, Florian; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Freund, Kai; Grabmayr, Peter; Jochum, Josef; Knapp, Markus; Meierhofer, Georg; Shaibonov, Bator

    2010-01-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ). To achieve a sensitivity of 10 -3 counts/(keVkgy) or better within a specific region of interest (ROI), a good background identification is needed. Therefore GERDA is located in the LNGS (Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso) underground facility. In addition to the good rejection of cosmic muons due to the surrounding bedrocks, a dual muon veto system has to be used. For calibration and monitoring of the muon veto, two separate systems have been developed.

  12. Sakīna: contribución a su estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornero, Emilio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the postkoranic evolution of the term sakīna. First, it examines what previous research has said about that. It then presents, translates, and analizes five texts—which had not been taken into consideration previously— pertaining to the Islamic and philosophical fields in which this term occurs. The texts have been taken from Ibn Ḥabīb, al-Tawḥīdī, the Arabic translation of the Golden Verses, and the two Commentaries on the Golden Verses attributed respectively to Iamblichus and Proclus. The article shows how the Koranic sakīna has evolved in these texts: it connotes pacification of violent animals in Ibn Habib, in al-Tawhidi it denotes a state close to Divinity of characters similar to Sufis: in the Golden Verses, the term sakīna is used to translate daímōn, thanks to which evils originating from innate discord among humans are eliminated; finally, the Commentaries on the Golden Verses contain explanations of this term that are both religious and rationalist.Estudio del término sakīna en su evolución postcoránica en el que se muestra, en primer lugar, lo que la investigación ha dicho sobre él, para, a continuación, presentar, traducir y analizar cinco textos pertenecientes al ámbito islámico y al filosófico en donde aparece dicho término y que no habían sido tenidos en cuenta hasta ahora. Estos textos proceden de: Ibn Ḥabīb, al-Tawḥīdī, traducción árabe de los Versos áureos, y Comentarios de Jámblico y de Proclo a estos Versos áureos. La sakīna coránica evoluciona en estos autores pasando a connotar una pacificación en los animales violentos en Ibn Habib y un estado cercano a la divinidad de caracteres próximos al de los sufíes en al-Tawhidi, mientras que en los Versos áureos se emplea sakīna para traducir daímōn, con sus efectos de eliminación de los males originados por la discordia innata a los hombres. En los Comentarios a los Versos áureos se dan explicaciones, de

  13. A Myb transcription factor of Phytophthora sojae, regulated by MAP kinase PsSAK1, is required for zoospore development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    Full Text Available PsSAK1, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase from Phytophthora sojae, plays an important role in host infection and zoospore viability. However, the downstream mechanism of PsSAK1 remains unclear. In this study, the 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE profiling method was applied to sequence the global transcriptional sequence of PsSAK1-silenced mutants during the cysts stage and 1.5 h after inoculation onto susceptible soybean leaf tissues. Compared with the gene expression levels of the recipient P. sojae strain, several candidates of Myb family were differentially expressed (up or down in response to the loss of PsSAK1, including of a R2R3-type Myb transcription factor, PsMYB1. qRT-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of PsMYB1 decreased due to PsSAK1 silencing. The transcriptional level of PsMYB1 increased during sporulating hyphae, in germinated cysts, and early infection. Silencing of PsMYB1 results in three phenotypes: a no cleavage of the cytoplasm into uninucleate zoospores or release of normal zoospores, b direct germination of sporangia, and c afunction in zoospore-mediated plant infection. Our data indicate that the PsMYB1 transcription factor functions downstream of MAP kinase PsSAK1 and is required for zoospore development of P. sojae.

  14. Characterisation of GERDA Phase-I detectors in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabe Heider, Marik; Schoenert, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Gusev, Konstantin [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    GERDA will search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge by submerging bare enriched HPGe detectors in liquid argon. In GERDA Phase-I, reprocessed enriched-Ge detectors, which were previously operated by the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX collaborations, and reprocessed natural-Ge detectors from Genius-TF, will be redeployed. We have tested the operation and performance of bare HPGe detectors in liquid nitrogen and in liquid argon over more than three years with three non-enriched p-type prototype detectors. The detector handling and mounting procedures have been defined and the Phase-I detector technology, the low-mass assembly and the long-term stability in liquid argon have been tested successfully. The Phase-I detectors were reprocessed by Canberra Semiconductor NV, Olen, according to their standard technology but without the evaporation of a passivation layer. After their reprocessing, the detectors have been mounted in their low-mass holders and their characterisation in liquid argon performed. The leakage current, the counting characteristics and the efficiency of the detectors have been measured. The testing of the detectors was carried out in the liquid argon test stand of the GERDA underground Detector Laboratory (GDL) at LNGS. The detectors are now stored underground under vacuum until their operation in GERDA.

  15. Embracing "All But My Life" by Gerda Weissmann Klein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Harold M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Gerda Weissmann Klein's book, "All But My Life," which chronicles the author's journey from a normal young (Jewish) woman to a slave in Nazi labor camps for six years. Argues that the book is well written, has characters of depth and complexity, affirms life through the ordeal of the Holocaust, and is a popular book with…

  16. Neutrinoless double beta decay in GERDA Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macolino, C.

    2014-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76 Ge and it is installed in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, Italy. The GERDA experiment has completed the Phase I with a total collected exposure of 21.6 kg yr and a background index (BI) of the order of BI ≃ 10 −2 cts/(keVkg yr). No excess of events from 0νββ decay has been observed and a lower limit on the half-life on the 0νββ decay for 76 Ge has been estimated: T 0ν 1 /2 > 2.1·10 25 yr at 90% CL. The goal of GERDA Phase II is to reach the target sensitivity of T 0ν 1 /2 ≃ 1.4 · 10 26 yr, with an increased total mass of the enriched material and a reduced background level. In this paper the results from GERDA Phase I and the major improvements planned for Phase II are discussed.

  17. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay from GERDA phase I

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    After motivating searches of double beta decay and lepton number violation details about the construction, operation and analysis of GERDA will be given. Results of the recently completed phase I of data taking will then be presented and interpreted. Finally an outlook on future plans will be given.

  18. The background in the experiment Gerda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2014-04-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta () decay of Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around . The main parameters needed for the analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains several contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at is dominated by close sources, mainly due to K, Bi, Th, Co and emitting isotopes from the Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.

  19. Aplikasi Penyusunan Laporan Keuangan Berbasis SAK Etap Pada Bagus Agriseta Mandiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Indah Puspita Sari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the arrangement of existing financial report in Bagus Agriseta Mandiri and to conduct the implementation of financial report arrangement that is suitable with SAK ETAP in UKM Bagus Agriseta Mandiri. In this study, the researcher uses case study or field study research that is aimed to learn intensively on the background of problems, situation and the position of the event occurs in nowadays, to solve the problems occurs in company, also the environmental interaction of current social unit in its way (given. The result of this study shows that company only makes loss and profit report, but in its presentation, it still not appropriate with SAK ETAP and financial balance report, cash flow and company equity is not presented yet because of the company less comprehending the standard of arranging financial report. By the existence of SAK ETAP it is expected to create the uniformity in implementing accounting treatment and the presentation of financial report so that it can result appropriate information toward the need of users.

  20. Germanium detector studies in the framework of the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan

    2009-05-06

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) is an ultra-low background experiment under construction at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. GERDA will search for {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay with an aim for 100-fold reduction in background compared to predecessor experiments. This ambition necessitates innovative design approaches, strict selection of low-radioactivity materials, and novel techniques for active background suppression. The core feature of GERDA is its array of germanium detectors for ionizing radiation, which are enriched in {sup 76}Ge. Germanium detectors are the central theme of this dissertation. The first part describes the implementation, testing, and optimisation of Monte Carlo simulations of germanium spectrometers, intensively involved in the selection of low-radioactivity materials. The simulations are essential for evaluations of the gamma ray measurements. The second part concerns the development and validation of an active background suppression technique based on germanium detector signal shape analysis. This was performed for the first time using a BEGe-type detector, which features a small read-out electrode. As a result of this work, BEGe is now one of the two detector technologies included in research and development for the second phase of the GERDA experiment. A suppression of major GERDA backgrounds is demonstrated, with (0.93{+-}0.08)% survival probability for events from {sup 60}Co, (21{+-}3)% for {sup 226}Ra, and (40{+-}2)% for {sup 228}Th. The acceptance of {sup 228}Th double escape events, which are analogous to double beta decay, was kept at (89{+-}1)%. (orig.)

  1. Role of the Talaromyces marneffei (Penicillium marneffei) sakA gene in nitrosative stress response, conidiation and red pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmanee, Panjaphorn; Tam, Emily W T; Woo, Patrick C Y; Vanittanakom, Pramote; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2017-04-01

    Stress-activated MAPK pathways are systems used to regulate the stress adaptation of most fungi. It has been shown that in Talaromyces marneffei (Penicillium marneffei), a pathogenic dimorphic fungus, the sakA gene is involved, not only in tolerance against oxidative and heat stresses, but also in playing a role in asexual development, yeast cell generation in vitro and survival inside macrophage cell lines. In this study, the role of the T. marneffei sakA gene on the nitrosative stress response and the regulation of gene expression were investigated. The susceptibility of the sakA mutant to NaNO2 was investigated using drop dilution assay and the expression of genes of interest were determined by RT-PCR, comparing them to the wild-type and complemented strains. The results demonstrated that the T. marneffei sakA gene played a role in the stress response to NaNO2, the expression of genes functioning in conidial development (brlA, abaA and wetA) and red pigment biosynthesis (pks3, rp1, rp2 and rp3). These findings suggest that T. marneffei sakA is broadly involved in a wide variety of cell activities, including stress response, cell morphogenesis, asexual development and pigmentation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. GERDA - a new neutrinoless double beta experiment using 76Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierhofer, G

    2011-01-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νssss) has been a very active field for the last decades. While double beta decay has been observed, 0νssss decay still waits for its experimental proof. The GErmanium Detector Array (GERDA) uses 76 Ge, an ideal candidate as it is acting as source and detector simultaneously. Germanium detectors, isotopically enriched in 76 Ge are submerged directly into an ultra pure cryo liquid, which serves as coolant and radiation shield. This concept will allow to reduce the background by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to earlier experiments. GERDA has been constructed in hall A of the underground laboratory LNGS of the INFN in Italy. The experiment started recently with a test run.

  3. Annual modulation of the muon flux in the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Raphael; Freund, Kai; Grabmayr, Peter; Hegai, Alexander; Jochum, Josef; Schmitt, Christopher; Schuetz, Ann-Kathrin [Eberhard Karls Univeritaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Gerda collaboration aims to determine the half life of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. In Phase I, the experimental background was reduced to 10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr) in the region around Q{sub ββ}. For Phase II we want to reduce the background contribution by one order of magnitude. Cosmic muons induce part of this dangerous background and must be vetoed. The muon veto consists of a water Cherenkov detector with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the Gerda cryostat which contains the germanium crystals. The muon veto operated stably for 806 days where only 2 PMTs were lost. The rate however is modulated by the Cngs neutrino beam and the atmospheric temperature effect, both will be presented in this talk.

  4. Study of the GERDA Phase II background spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The Gerda experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN in Italy, searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. Gerda Phase II is aiming to reach a sensitivity for the 0νββ half life of 1026 yr in ˜ 3 years of physics data taking with 100 kg·yr of exposure and a background index of ˜ 10-3 cts/(keV·kg·yr). After 6 months of acquisition a first data release with 10.8 kg·yr of exposure is performed, showing that the design background is achieved. In this work a study of the Phase II background spectrum, the main spectral structures and the background sources will be presented and discussed.

  5. Performance of BEGe detectors for GERDA Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, Andrea [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    After the end of the data-taking for GERDA Phase I, the apparatus has been upgraded to fulfill the requirements of the second phase. Phase II sensitivity will be driven by 30 custom made BEGe detectors. This detectors are now available and can be operated in phaseII configuration in the GERDA cryostat together with the liquid argon scintillation veto. The performances of BEGe detectors in liquid argon are presented in this talk. Besides the spectroscopy capability, the focus will be placed on the expectations in terms of background rejection via pulse shape discrimination (PSD). In particular the main goal the BEGe's pulse shape analysis is to discriminate surface events produced by beta emitters (e.g. {sup 42}K) present in the liquid Ar.

  6. Status report of the Gerda Phase II startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Andrea, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, searches for 0νββ of "7"6Ge. Germanium diodes enriched to ∼ 86 % in the double beta emitter "7"6Ge ("e"n"rGe) are exposed being both source and detector of 0νββ decay. This process is considered a powerful probe to address still open issues in the neutrino sector of the (beyond) Standard Model of particle Physics. Since 2013, at the completion of the first experimental phase (Phase I), the Gerda setup has been upgraded to perform its next step (Phase II). The aim is to reach a sensitivity to the 0νββ decay half life larger than 10"2"6 yr in about 3 years of physics data taking, exposing a detector mass of about 35 kg of "e"n"rGe with a background index of about 10"−"3cts/(keV·kg·yr). One of the main new implementations is the liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light read-out, to veto those events that only partially deposit their energy both in Ge and in the surrounding LAr. In this paper the Gerda Phase II expected goals, the upgraded items and few selected features from the first 2016 physics and calibration runs will be presented. The main Phase I achievements will be also reviewed.

  7. Status report of the Gerda Phase II startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Valerio; Gerda Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, searches for 0νββ of 76Ge . Germanium diodes enriched to ˜ 86 % in the double beta emitter 76Ge ( enrGe are exposed being both source and detector of 0νββ decay. This process is considered a powerful probe to address still open issues in the neutrino sector of the (beyond) Standard Model of particle Physics. Since 2013, at the completion of the first experimental phase (Phase I), the GERDA setup has been upgraded to perform its next step (Phase II). The aim is to reach a sensitivity to the 0νββ decay half-life larger than 10^{26} yr in about 3 years of physics data taking, exposing a detector mass of about 35 kg of enrGe with a background index of about 10^{-3} cts/(keV . kg . yr). One of the main new implementations is the liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light read-out, to veto those events that only partially deposit their energy both in Ge and in the surrounding LAr. In this paper the GERDA Phase II expected goals, the upgraded items and few selected features from the first 2016 physics and calibration runs will be presented. The main Phase I achievements will be also reviewed.

  8. A liquid argon scintillation veto for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013. Currently Gerda is being upgraded to a second phase. To reach the aspired background index of ≤ 10{sup -3} cts/(keV . kg . yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). It has been demonstrated by the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. This talk focusses on the light instrumentation which is being installed in GERDA. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are combined to maximize the photoelectron-yield with respect to various background sources. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to optimize the design for background suppression and low self-induced background. First results of the prototypes and the progress of installation are reported.

  9. Forgotten evidence: A mixed methods study of why sexual assault kits (SAKs) are not submitted for DNA forensic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Bybee, Deborah; Shaw, Jessica

    2017-10-01

    Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) (also termed "rape kits") have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence can help sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying offenders, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. In this article, we describe a 5-year action research project conducted with 1 city that had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-and our examination into why thousands of rape kits in this city were never submitted for forensic DNA testing. This mixed methods study combined ethnographic observations and qualitative interviews to identify stakeholders' perspectives as to why rape kits were not routinely submitted for testing. Then, we quantitatively examined whether these factors may have affected police practices regarding SAK testing, as evidenced by predictable changes in SAK submission rates over time. Chronic resource scarcity only partially explained why the organizations that serve rape victims-the police, crime lab, prosecution, and victim advocacy-could not test all rape kits, investigate all reported sexual assaults, and support all rape survivors. SAK submission rates significantly increased once criminal justice professionals in this city had full access to the FBI DNA forensic database Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), but even then, most SAKs were still not submitted for DNA testing. Building crime laboratories' capacities for DNA testing and training police on the utility of forensic evidence and best practices in sexual assault investigations can help remedy, and possibly prevent, the problem of untested rape kits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Why is the conclusion of the Gerda experiment not justified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Krivosheina, I. V.

    2013-12-01

    The first results of the GERDA double beta experiment in Gran Sasso were recently presented. They are fully consistent with the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment, but because of its low statistics cannot proof anything at this moment. It is no surprise that the statistics is still far from being able to test the signal claimed by the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment. The energy resolution of the coaxial detectors is a factor of 1.5 worse than in the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment. The original goal of background reduction to 10-2 counts/kg y keV, or by an order of magnitude compared to the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment, has not been reached. The background is only a factor 2.3 lower if we refer it to the experimental line width, i.e. in units counts/kg y energy resolution. With pulse shape analysis ( PSA) the back-ground in the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment around Q ββ is 4 × 10-3 counts/kg y keV [1], which is a factor of 4 (5 referring to the line width) lower than that of GERDA with pulse shape analysis. The amount of enriched material used in the GERDA measurement is 14.6 kg, only a factor of 1.34 larger than that used in the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment. The background model is oversimplified and not yet adequate. It is not shown that the lines of their background can be identified. GERDA has to continue the measurement further ˜5 years, until they can responsibly present an understood background. The present half life limit presented by GERDA of T {1/2/0v} > 2.1 × 1025 y (90% confidence level, i.e. 1.6ρ) is still lower than the half-life of T {1/2/0v} = 2.23{-0.31/+0.44} × 1025 y [1] determined in the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment.

  11. Results from phase I of the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array Gerda at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of the INFN in Italy is an experiment dedicated to the search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay in 76 Ge. The experiment employs high purity germanium detectors enriched in 76 Ge inside a 64 m 3 cryostat filled with liquid argon. Gerda was planned in two phases of data taking with the goal to reach a half-life sensitivity in the order of 10 26 yr. Phase I of Gerda was running from November 2011 until May 2013. With about 18 kg total detector mass, data with an exposure of 21.6 kg·yr was collected and a background index of 0.01 cts/(keV·kg·yr) was achieved in the region of interest. No signal was found for the 0νββ decay and a new limit of T 1/2 > 2.1 · 10 25 yr (90% C.L.) was obtained, strongly disfavoring the previous claim of observation. Furthermore, the 2νββ decay half-life of 76 Ge was measured with unprecedented precision. Other results include new half-life limits of the order of 10 23 yr for Majoron emitting double beta decay modes with spectral indices n = 1, 2, 3, 7 and new limits in the order of 10 23 yr for 2νββ decays to the first 3 excited states of 76 Se. In Phase II, currently in preparation, the detector mass will be doubled while reducing the background index by a factor of 10

  12. Results from phase I of the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, Thomas [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, TU Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, Germany thomas.wester@tu-dresden.de (Germany)

    2015-10-28

    The GERmanium Detector Array Gerda at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of the INFN in Italy is an experiment dedicated to the search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay in {sup 76}Ge. The experiment employs high purity germanium detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge inside a 64 m{sup 3} cryostat filled with liquid argon. Gerda was planned in two phases of data taking with the goal to reach a half-life sensitivity in the order of 10{sup 26} yr. Phase I of Gerda was running from November 2011 until May 2013. With about 18 kg total detector mass, data with an exposure of 21.6 kg·yr was collected and a background index of 0.01 cts/(keV·kg·yr) was achieved in the region of interest. No signal was found for the 0νββ decay and a new limit of T{sub 1/2} > 2.1 · 10{sup 25} yr (90% C.L.) was obtained, strongly disfavoring the previous claim of observation. Furthermore, the 2νββ decay half-life of {sup 76}Ge was measured with unprecedented precision. Other results include new half-life limits of the order of 10{sup 23} yr for Majoron emitting double beta decay modes with spectral indices n = 1, 2, 3, 7 and new limits in the order of 10{sup 23} yr for 2νββ decays to the first 3 excited states of {sup 76}Se. In Phase II, currently in preparation, the detector mass will be doubled while reducing the background index by a factor of 10.

  13. Results from phase I of the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array Gerda at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of the INFN in Italy is an experiment dedicated to the search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay in 76Ge. The experiment employs high purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge inside a 64 m3 cryostat filled with liquid argon. Gerda was planned in two phases of data taking with the goal to reach a half-life sensitivity in the order of 1026 yr. Phase I of Gerda was running from November 2011 until May 2013. With about 18 kg total detector mass, data with an exposure of 21.6 kg.yr was collected and a background index of 0.01 cts/(keV.kg.yr) was achieved in the region of interest. No signal was found for the 0νββ decay and a new limit of T1/2 > 2.1 . 1025 yr (90% C.L.) was obtained, strongly disfavoring the previous claim of observation. Furthermore, the 2νββ decay half-life of 76Ge was measured with unprecedented precision. Other results include new half-life limits of the order of 1023 yr for Majoron emitting double beta decay modes with spectral indices n = 1, 2, 3, 7 and new limits in the order of 1023 yr for 2νββ decays to the first 3 excited states of 76Se. In Phase II, currently in preparation, the detector mass will be doubled while reducing the background index by a factor of 10.

  14. The GERDA Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorovits, Bela A.

    2007-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta (0νββ)-decay is the key process to gain understanding of the nature of neutrinos. The GErmanium Detector Array (GERDA) is designed to search for 0νββ-decay of the isotope 76 Ge. Germanium crystals enriched in 76 Ge, acting as source and detector simultaneously, will be submerged directly into an ultra pure cooling medium that also serves as a radiation shield. This concept will allow for a reduction of the background by up to two orders of magnitudes with respect to earlier experiments

  15. The performance of the Muon Veto of the Gerda experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, K.; Falkenstein, R.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Knapp, M.; Ritter, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Lubsandorzhiev, B. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jitnikov, I.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Low background experiments need a suppression of cosmogenically induced events. The Gerda experiment located at Lngs is searching for the 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge. It is equipped with an active muon veto the main part of which is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the Gerda cryostat. With this system 806 live days have been recorded, 491 days were combined muon-germanium data. A muon detection efficiency of ε{sub μd} = (99.935 ± 0.015)% was found in a Monte Carlo simulation for the muons depositing energy in the germanium detectors. By examining coincident muon-germanium events a rejection efficiency of ε{sub μr} = (99.2{sub -0.4}{sup +0.3})% was found. Without veto condition the muons by themselves would cause a background index of BI{sub μ} = (3.16 ± 0.85) x 10{sup -3} cts/(keV . kg . year) at Q{sub ββ}. (orig.)

  16. ICP MS selection of radiopure materials for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Vacri, M. L.; Nisi, S.; Cattadori, C.; Janicsko, J.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Smolnikov, A.; Walter, M.

    2015-08-01

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment, located in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) aims to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of the 76Ge isotope. Both an ultra-low radioactivity background environment and active techniques to abate the residual background are required to reach the background index (of 10-3 counts/keV kg y) at the Qββ. In order to veto and suppress those events that partially deposit energy in Ge detectors, the readout of liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light (SL) has been implemented for the second GERDA experimental Phase. A double veto system has been designed and constructed using highly radiopure materials (scintillating fibers, wavelength shifters, polymeric foils, reflective foils). This work describes the study of lead, thorium and uranium ultra-trace content, performed at the LNGS Chemistry Laboratory by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR ICP MS), for the selection of all materials involved in the construction of the veto system

  17. ICP MS selection of radiopure materials for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Vacri, M. L., E-mail: divacrim@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, via G.Acitelli 22, 67100 Assergi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, University of L’Aquila, via Vetoio, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Nisi, S., E-mail: nisi@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, via G.Acitelli 22, 67100 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Cattadori, C., E-mail: cattadori@lngs.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Janicsko, J. [TUM Munich (Germany); Lubashevskiy, A. [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany); JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Smolnikov, A. [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany); Walter, M. [Physik-Institut, Universitat Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-17

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment, located in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) aims to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of the {sup 76}Ge isotope. Both an ultra-low radioactivity background environment and active techniques to abate the residual background are required to reach the background index (of 10{sup −3} counts/keV kg y) at the Q{sub ββ}. In order to veto and suppress those events that partially deposit energy in Ge detectors, the readout of liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light (SL) has been implemented for the second GERDA experimental Phase. A double veto system has been designed and constructed using highly radiopure materials (scintillating fibers, wavelength shifters, polymeric foils, reflective foils). This work describes the study of lead, thorium and uranium ultra-trace content, performed at the LNGS Chemistry Laboratory by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR ICP MS), for the selection of all materials involved in the construction of the veto system.

  18. Background rejection of n+ surface events in GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta (0vββ) decay in 76Ge using an array of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors immersed in liquid argon (LAr). Phase II of the experiment uses 30 new broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors with superior pulse shape discrimination capabilities compared to the previously used semi-coaxial detector design. By far the largest background component for BEGe detectors in GERDA are n+-surface events from 42K β decays which are intrinsic in LAr. The β particles with up to 3.5 MeV can traverse the 0.5 to 0.9 mm thick electrode and deposit energy within the region of interest for the 0vββ decay. However, those events have particular pulse shape features allowing for a strong discrimination. The understanding and simulation of this background, showing a reduction by up to a factor 145 with pulse shape discrimination alone, is presented in this work.

  19. Searching Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Comellato, T.; D’Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giordano, M.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hahne, C.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, P.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaidic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Marissens, G.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Reissfelder, M.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Sala, E.; Salamida, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schweisshelm, B.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Schütz, A.-K.; Seitz, H.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zschocke, A.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    An observation of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay would allow to shed light onto the nature of neutrinos. GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) aims to discover this process in a background-free search using 76Ge. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy. Bare, isotopically enriched, high purity germanium detectors are operated in liquid argon. GERDA follows a staged approach. In Phase II 35.6 kg of enriched germanium detectors are operated since December 2015. The application of active background rejection methods, such as a liquid argon scintillation light read-out and pulse shape discrimination of germanium detector signals, allows to reduce the background index to the intended level of 10‑3 cts/(keVṡkgṡyr). No evidence for the 0νββ decay has been found in 23.2 kgṡyr of Phase II data, and together with data from Phase I the up-to-date most stringent half-life limit for this process in 76Ge has been established, at a median sensitivity of 5.8ṡ1025yr the 90% C.L. lower limit is 8.0ṡ1025yr.

  20. Off-line data processing and analysis for the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M; Pandola, L; Zavarise, P

    2012-01-01

    Gerda is an experiment designed to look for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge. The experiment uses an array of high-purity germanium detectors (enriched in 76 Ge) directly immersed in liquid argon. Gerda is presently operating eight enriched coaxial detectors (approximately 15 kg of 76 Ge) and about 25 new custom-made enriched BEGe detectors will be deployed in the next phase (additional 20kg of 76 Ge). The paper describes the Gerda off-line analysis of the high-purity germanium detector data. Firstly we present the signal processing flow, focusing on the digital filters and on the algorithms used. Secondly we discuss the rejection of non-physical events and the data quality monitoring. The analysis is performed completely with the Gerda software framework (Gelatio), designed to support a multi-channel processing and to perform a modular analysis of digital signals.

  1. Search for the neutrinoless ββ decay in 76Ge with the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattadori, C.; Knapp, M.; Kröninger, K.; Liu, X.; Pandola, L.; Pullia, A.; Tomei, C.; Ur, C.; Zocca, F.

    2011-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, [Gerda Collaboration, Abt I et al., Proposal, a (http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/ge76/home.html)] is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ)-decay of 76 Ge. The importance of such a search is emphasized by the evidence of a non-zero neutrino mass from flavour oscillation experiments and by the recent claim [Klapdor-Kleingrothaus H V et al., Phys. Lett. B 586, 198 (2004)] based on data of the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment. GERDA will be installed in the Hall A of the Gran Sasso underground Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. The construction of GERDA will start in 2006.

  2. Phase II Upgrade of the GERDA Experiment for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorovits, B.

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta decay could answer the question regarding the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos. The GERDA experiment utilizes HPGe detectors enriched with the isotope 76Ge to search for this process. Recently the GERDA collaboration has unblinded data of Phase I of the experiment. In order to further improve the sensitivity of the experiment, additionally to the coaxial detectors used, 30 BEGe detectors made from germanium enriched in 76Ge will be deployed in GERDA Phase II. BEGe detectors have superior PSD capability, thus the background can be further reduced. The liquid argon surrounding the detector array will be instrumented in order to reject background by detecting scintillation light induced in the liquid argon by radiation. After a short introduction the hardware preparations for GERDA Phase II as well as the processing and characterization of the 30 BEGe detectors are discussed.

  3. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Vacri, A. di; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, ********************M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-06-01

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the value for decay in Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter.

  4. Improvement of the GERDA Ge Detectors Energy Resolution by an Optimized Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benato, G.; D'Andrea, V.; Cattadori, C.; Riboldi, S.

    GERDA is a new generation experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge, operating at INFN Gran Sasso Laboratories (LNGS) since 2010. Coaxial and Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) Detectors have been operated in liquid argon (LAr) in GERDA Phase I. In the framework of the second GERDA experimental phase, both the contacting technique, the connection to and the location of the front end readout devices are novel compared to those previously adopted, and several tests have been performed. In this work, starting from considerations on the energy scale stability of the GERDA Phase I calibrations and physics data sets, an optimized pulse filtering method has been developed and applied to the Phase II pilot tests data sets, and to few GERDA Phase I data sets. In this contribution the detector performances in term of energy resolution and time stability are here presented. The improvement of the energy resolution, compared to standard Gaussian shaping adopted for Phase I data analysis, is discussed and related to the optimized noise filtering capability. The result is an energy resolution better than 0.1% at 2.6 MeV for the BEGe detectors operated in the Phase II pilot tests and an improvement of the energy resolution in LAr of about 8% achieved on the GERDA Phase I calibration runs, compared to previous analysis algorithms.

  5. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  6. Acute Treatment with T-Type Calcium Channel Enhancer SAK3 Reduces Cognitive Impairments Caused by Methimazole-Induced Hypothyroidism Via Activation of Cholinergic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Noreen; Yabuki, Yasushi; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2018-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder that is associated with psychological disturbances such as dementia, depression, and psychomotor disorders. We recently found that chronic treatment with the T-type calcium channel enhancer SAK3 prevents the cholinergic neurodegeneration induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of methimazole (MMI; 75 mg/kg), thereby improving cognition. Here, we evaluated the acute effect of SAK3 on cognitive impairments and its mechanism of action following the induction of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism was induced by 2 injections of MMI (75 mg/kg, i.p.) administered once per week. Four weeks after the final MMI treatment, MMI-treated mice showed reduced serum thyroxine (T4) levels and cognitive impairments without depression-like behaviors. Although acute SAK3 (1.0 mg/kg, p.o.) administration failed to ameliorate the decreased T4 levels and histochemical destruction of the glomerular structure, acute SAK3 (1.0 mg/kg, p.o.) administration significantly reduced cognitive impairments in MMI-treated mice. Importantly, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-selective inhibitor methyllycaconitine (MLA; 12 mg/kg, i.p.) and T-type calcium channel-specific blocker NNC 55-0396 (25 mg/kg, i.p.) antagonized the acute effect of SAK3 on memory deficits in MMI-treated mice. We also confirmed that acute SAK3 administration does not rescue reduced olfactory marker protein or choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity levels in the olfactory bulb or medial septum. Taken together, these results suggest that SAK3 has the ability to improve the cognitive decline caused by hypothyroidism directly through activation of nAChR signaling and T-type calcium channels. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Design, simulation and construction of the GERDA-muon veto; Design, Simulation und Aufbau des GERDA-Myonvetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Markus Alexander

    2009-10-09

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) is a experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. This very rare weakly interacting process is predicted to occur if the neutrino exhibits a mass and is a Majorana particle; i.e. it is its own antiparticle. Although the double beta decay with emission of two neutrinos has been found in several nuclei, there is at this moment only a part of the Heidelberg-Moscow Collaboration claiming to have observed the neutrinoless double beta decay. The best limit for the half life currently is T{sub 1/2} > 1.2.10{sup 25} y. Gerda will expose about 15 kg.y of enriched germanium detectors from the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX crystals in phase I. In this phase, it will be able to test the claim within one year, due to reduced background by a factor 10. In phase II about 100 kg.y of data will be accumulated, leading to T{sub 1/2} > 2.10{sup 26} y due to an additional reduction of the background by a factor of 10. For a high sensitivity at these half lives, it is necessary to detect the corresponding rare events. Therefore background reduction to a rate of 10{sup -3} (counts)/(keV.kg.year) is of utmost importance. Therefore different background identification methods, like pulseshape analysis or a muon veto will be used. In this work, the development of the Cherenkov muon veto detectors is presented. First design studies will be shown, including extensive Monte-Carlo simulations. These simulations were also used to optimize the trigger conditions of the data acquisition, to detect all muons, that cause an energy deposition in the germanium detectors. Finally the on site construction at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy will be described. (orig.)

  8. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge from the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios

    2015-05-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge, a lepton number violating nuclear process predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. GERDA is an array of bare germanium diodes immersed in liquid argon located at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. The results of the GERDA Phase I data taking with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr and a background index of 0.01 cts/(keV kg yr) are presented in this paper. No signal was observed and a lower limit of T1/20ν > 2.1×1025 yr (90% C.L.) was derived for the half-life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge. Phase II of the experiment aims to reduce the background around the region of interest by a factor of ten.

  9. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.

    2015-01-01

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76 Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the Q value for 0νββ decay in 76 Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter

  10. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M. [Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M. [Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A. M. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS, and Gran Sasso Science Institute, GSSI, Assergi (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2015-06-09

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the Q value for 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter.

  11. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge from GERDA Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76 Ge by operating bare germanium diodes in liquid argon. GERDA is located at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. During Phase I, a total exposure of 21.6 kg yrand a background index of 0.01 cts/(keVkg yr) were reached. No signal was observed and a lower limit of T 0ν 1/2 > 2.1 · 10 25 yr(90% C.L.) is derived for the half life of the 0νββ decay of 76 Ge. (paper)

  12. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge from GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios; GERDA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge by operating bare germanium diodes in liquid argon. GERDA is located at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. During Phase I, a total exposure of 21.6 kg yrand a background index of 0.01 cts/(keVkg yr) were reached. No signal was observed and a lower limit of T0ν1/2 > 2.1 · 1025 yr(90% C.L.) is derived for the half life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge.

  13. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Zavarise, P. [LNGS, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barros, N. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bellotti, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Inzhechik, L.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); International University for Nature, Society and Man ' ' Dubna' ' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2015-06-15

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The GERDA Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10% at the Q value for 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter. (orig.)

  14. The Gerda search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Christopher; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) is a search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors enriched in the isotope-76 are operated bare in liquid argon (LAr). LAr is used for both cooling of the HPGe diodes to their operating temperatures and for shielding from external radiation sources. From the measurements of the first phase that began data taking on 1 Nov. 2011 it is expected to have a sensitivity on the level of T1/2>2E25 yr at a 90% CL after 15 kġyr. The goal of this phase will be to probe the claim of an observation by part of the Heidelberg-Moscow collaboration. Efforts will then focus on increasing the sensitivity of the experiment by deploying additional enriched detectors that are in an advanced stage of production and by reducing the background index further by making use of pulse shape discrimination techniques as well as an active LAr veto. While the 0νββ region of interest continues to remain blinded, here the status of Phase-I data taking is presented along with the work towards improving the experimental sensitivity.

  15. Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with the GERDA Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hoffmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicksó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Marissens, G.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Reissfelder, M.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Seitz, H.; Selivalenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Strecker, H.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-04-01

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) is an experiment for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) in 76Ge, located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). In the first phase of the experiment, a 90% confidence level (C.L.) sensitivity of 2.4 ṡ1025 yr on the 0 νββ decay half-life was achieved with a 21.6 kgṡyr exposure and an unprecedented background index in the region of interest of 10-2 counts/(keVṡkgṡyr). No excess of signal events was found, and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of 2.1 ṡ 1025 yr (90% C.L.) was established. Correspondingly, the limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass is mee < 0.2- 0.4 eV, depending on the considered nuclear matrix element. The previous claim for evidence of a 0 νββ decay signal is strongly disfavored, and the field of research is open again.

  16. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay with GERDA phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knies, J.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Marissens, G.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Reissfelder, M.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Seitz, H.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-10-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (gerda) experiment, located at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy, is one of the leading experiments for the search of 0νββ decay. In Phase II of the experiment 35.6 kg of enriched germanium detectors are operated. The application of active background rejection methods, such as a liquid argon scintillation light read-out and pulse shape discrimination of germanium detector signals, allowed to reduce the background index to the intended level of 10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr). In the first five month of data taking 10.8 kg yr of exposure were accumulated. No signal has been found and together with data from Phase I a new limit for the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life of 76Ge of 5.3 . 1025 yr at 90% C.L. was established in June 2016. Phase II data taking is ongoing and will allow the exploration of half-lifes in the 1026 yr regime. The current status of data taking and an update on the background index are presented.

  17. LArGe: active background suppression using argon scintillation for the GERDA 0νββ-experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M.; Budjas, D.; Schoenert, S.; Barnabe-Heider, M.; Cattadori, C.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Smolnikov, A.; Junker, M.; Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Pelczar, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-01-01

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the GERDA experiment. Similar to GERDA, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m 3 , 1.4tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The scintillation signals are used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10 3 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12 - 4.6) x 10 -2 cts/(keV kg year) (90 % C.L.), which is at the level of GERDA Phase I. Furthermore, for the first time we monitor the natural 42 Ar abundance (parallel to GERDA), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. These results show the effectivity of an active liquid argon veto in an ultra-low background environment. As a consequence, the implementation of a liquid argon veto in GERDA Phase II is pursued. (orig.)

  18. LArGe: active background suppression using argon scintillation for the Gerda 0ν β β -experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Barnabé-Heider, M.; Budjáš, D.; Cattadori, C.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Junker, M.; Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Pelczar, K.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-10-01

    LArGe is a Gerda low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the Gerda experiment. Similar to Gerda, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m^3, 1.4 tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The scintillation signals are used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to Gerda. Suppression factors of a few times 10^3 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6)× 10^{-2} cts/(keV kg year) (90 % C.L.), which is at the level of Gerda Phase I. Furthermore, for the first time we monitor the natural ^{42}Ar abundance (parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2ν β β -decay in natural germanium. These results show the effectivity of an active liquid argon veto in an ultra-low background environment. As a consequence, the implementation of a liquid argon veto in Gerda Phase II is pursued.

  19. LArGe: active background suppression using argon scintillation for the GERDA 0νββ-experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Budjas, D.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Barnabe-Heider, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Cattadori, C. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); INFN, Milan (Italy); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institut for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Joint Institut for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center Kurchatov Institut, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heisel, M.; Smolnikov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Junker, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Joint Institut for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pelczar, K. [Jagellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Zuzel, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Jagellonian University, Cracow (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the GERDA experiment. Similar to GERDA, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m{sup 3}, 1.4tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The scintillation signals are used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10{sup 3} have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12 - 4.6) x 10{sup -2} cts/(keV kg year) (90 % C.L.), which is at the level of GERDA Phase I. Furthermore, for the first time we monitor the natural {sup 42}Ar abundance (parallel to GERDA), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. These results show the effectivity of an active liquid argon veto in an ultra-low background environment. As a consequence, the implementation of a liquid argon veto in GERDA Phase II is pursued. (orig.)

  20. Teadlased loovad laboris narkokoera tehisnina / Vilja Kohler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kohler, Vilja, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Bionina projekti kallal on 2000. aastast töötanud Tartu Ülikooli kolloid- ja keskkonnakeemia õppetooli teadur filosoofiadoktor Toonika Rinken, Tartu Ülikooli orgaanilise ja bioorgaanilise keemia instituudi teadlased professor Ago Rinken ja teadur Gerda Raidaru. Samas ka: Maailma levinuim biosensor aitab suhkruhaigeid. Lisa: Biosensor kopeerib meeleelundeid

  1. Results on Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay from Gerda Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macolino, Carla

    2014-12-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge and it is installed in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, Italy. In this review, the detection principle and detector setup of GERDA are described. Also, the main physics results by GERDA Phase I, are discussed. They include the measurement of the half-life of 2νββ decay, the background decomposition of the energy spectrum and the techniques for the discrimination of the background, based on the pulse shape of the signal. In the last part of this review, the estimation of a limit on the half-life of 0νββ (T0ν 1/2>2.1ḑot 1025 yr at 90% C.L.) and the comparison with previous results are discussed. GERDA data from Phase I strongly disfavor the recent claim of 0νββ discovery, based on data from the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment.

  2. Search for 0νββ-decay with gerda phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorovits, B.

    2018-01-01

    The Gerda experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. From data taken during Phase I of the experiment some knowledge on background contributions important for future experiments could be obtained: limits on the bulk contamination of HPGe with primordial uranium and thorium are presented and first evidence for observation of the decay of the meta-stable state of 77mGe due to neutron capture on 76Ge is discussed. In Phase II of the Gerda experiment 37 HPGe detectors enriched in the isotope 76Ge are deployed into the Gerda cryostat. From non-observation of a peak at 2039 keV a half-life limit on neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge of T1/2 > 5.3 . 1025 yr has been obtained. The background rate in the energy region of interest, after pulse shape discrimination and liquid argon veto cuts is in the range of a few Cts//ROI ton yr). This makes Gerda the first 0νββ-experiment that has a background so low that <1 counts are expected in the RoI within the anticipated life time of the experiment.

  3. All but Her Life: Holocaust Survivor Gerda Klein Shares with Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    During the 2006-2007 school year, students from Battle Creek, Michigan, high school joined numerous others from across the state in reading holocaust survivor Gerda Klein's memoir, "All But My Life." Published in 57 editions and still in print after 50 years, the book is the inspiring account of a remarkable individual who endured unspeakable…

  4. In-situ measurement of the light attenuation in liquid argon in the GERDA cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Birgit [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    GERDA is an experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. It uses germanium detectors which are enriched in {sup 76}Ge and operates them naked in liquid argon (LAr), which serves both as a coolant and a shield for external radiation. For phase II of GERDA it is planned to reach an exposure of 100 kg . yr with a BI of 10{sup -3} cts/(kg . yr . keV). One of the major improvements to further reduce the BI is to instrument the LAr to act as an additional background veto. The attenuation of the scintillation light in LAr creates a constraint on the effective active volume of the LAr veto and is therefore a key parameter to characterize the instrumentation. In order to measure the light attenuation in LAr, a setup was designed that could be deployed directly into the GERDA cryostat. This setup contains a movable beta source and a PMT to detect the scintillation light at different distances. The talk will describe in detail the construction of the setup, its successful deployment in the GERDA cryostat and the consecutive analysis of the acquired data.

  5. Suppression of the background coming from {sup 42}Ar in the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubashevskiy, Alexey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The GERDA experiment aims at the 0νββ search in {sup 76}Ge. The search is performed with high purity germanium detectors operated in liquid argon. One of the most dangerous backgrounds in GERDA is the background from {sup 42}K which is a daughter isotope of cosmogenically produced {sup 42}Ar, presented in natural argon. {sup 42}K ions collect on the surface of the detector and increase its background level. Several ways to suppress such background has been investigated. The tests were performed at LArGe low-background test facility, which gives a possibility to operate bare detectors in about 1m{sup 3} of LAr. It is equipped with a scintillation veto, so particles which deposit part of their energy in LAr can be detected by PMTs. The experimental setup is located at LNGS underground laboratory close to GERDA experiment location. Different experimental techniques were tested together with pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method in order to suppress {sup 42}K background. The chosen solution for GERDA Phase II is so called ''nylon mini-shroud'' (NMS). It is made from nylon foil and covered with wavelength shifter from both sides. NMS allows to suppress collection of {sup 42}K ions towards to the surface significantly. It was demonstrated in LArGe that together with PSD and scintillation veto the {sup 42}K background can be suppressed in more than 1000 times. The results obtained during commissioning runs in GERDA Phase II are also presented.

  6. Pulse shape discrimination for Gerda Phase I data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Misiaszek, M.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-10-01

    The Gerda experiment located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN searches for neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay of 76Ge using germanium diodes as source and detector. In Phase I of the experiment eight semi-coaxial and five BEGe type detectors have been deployed. The latter type is used in this field of research for the first time. All detectors are made from material with enriched 76Ge fraction. The experimental sensitivity can be improved by analyzing the pulse shape of the detector signals with the aim to reject background events. This paper documents the algorithms developed before the data of Phase I were unblinded. The double escape peak (DEP) and Compton edge events of 2.615 MeV γ rays from 208Tl decays as well as two-neutrino double beta (2 νββ) decays of 76Ge are used as proxies for 0 νββ decay. For BEGe detectors the chosen selection is based on a single pulse shape parameter. It accepts 0.92±0.02 of signal-like events while about 80 % of the background events at Q ββ =2039 keV are rejected. For semi-coaxial detectors three analyses are developed. The one based on an artificial neural network is used for the search of 0 νββ decay. It retains 90 % of DEP events and rejects about half of the events around Q ββ . The 2 νββ events have an efficiency of 0.85±0.02 and the one for 0 νββ decays is estimated to be . A second analysis uses a likelihood approach trained on Compton edge events. The third approach uses two pulse shape parameters. The latter two methods confirm the classification of the neural network since about 90 % of the data events rejected by the neural network are also removed by both of them. In general, the selection efficiency extracted from DEP events agrees well with those determined from Compton edge events or from 2 νββ decays.

  7. Pulse shape discrimination for Gerda Phase I data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Muenchen (Germany); Allardt, M.; Barros, N.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Wester, T.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Andreotti, E. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Nisi, S.; Pandola, L.; Zavarise, P. [LNGS, INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Gurentsov, V.; Inzhechik, L.V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barnabe Heider, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Muenchen (Germany); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Ferella, A.; Guthikonda, K.K.; Tarka, M.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Hampel, W.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Machado, A.A.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Strecker, H.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Cossavella, F.; Liao, H.Y.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Schulz, O.; Volynets, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Bellotti, E.; Pessina, G. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Sada, C. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); INFN Padova, Padova (Italy); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Shevchik, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C.; Gotti, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Muenchen (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padova (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano (IT); INFN Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (IT); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (RU); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (RU); Sturm, K. von [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (IT); INFN Padova, Padova (IT); Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (DE)

    2013-10-15

    The Gerda experiment located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN searches for neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of {sup 76}Ge using germanium diodes as source and detector. In Phase I of the experiment eight semi-coaxial and five BEGe type detectors have been deployed. The latter type is used in this field of research for the first time. All detectors are made from material with enriched {sup 76}Ge fraction. The experimental sensitivity can be improved by analyzing the pulse shape of the detector signals with the aim to reject background events. This paper documents the algorithms developed before the data of Phase I were unblinded. The double escape peak (DEP) and Compton edge events of 2.615 MeV {gamma} rays from {sup 208}Tl decays as well as two-neutrino double beta (2{nu}{beta}{beta}) decays of {sup 76}Ge are used as proxies for 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay. For BEGe detectors the chosen selection is based on a single pulse shape parameter. It accepts 0.92{+-}0.02 of signal-like events while about 80 % of the background events at Q{sub {beta}{beta}} =2039 keV are rejected. For semi-coaxial detectors three analyses are developed. The one based on an artificial neural network is used for the search of 0 {nu}{beta}{beta} decay. It retains 90 % of DEP events and rejects about half of the events around Q{sub {beta}{beta}}. The 2 {nu}{beta}{beta} events have an efficiency of 0.85 {+-}0.02 and the one for 0 {nu}{beta}{beta} decays is estimated to be 0.90{sup +0.05}{sub -0.09}. A second analysis uses a likelihood approach trained on Compton edge events. The third approach uses two pulse shape parameters. The latter two methods confirm the classification of the neural network since about 90 % of the data events rejected by the neural network are also removed by both of them. In general, the selection efficiency extracted from DEP events agrees well with those determined from Compton edge events or from 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decays. (orig.)

  8. Mitigation of ^{42}Ar/^{42}K background for the GERDA Phase II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubashevskiy, A.; Agostini, M.; Budjáš, D.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Klimenko, A.; Lazzaro, A.; Lehnert, B.; Pelczar, K.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.; Walter, M.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-01-01

    Background coming from the ^{42}Ar decay chain is considered to be one of the most relevant for the Gerda experiment, which searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{76}Ge. The sensitivity strongly relies on the absence of background around the Q-value of the decay. Background coming from ^{42}K, a progeny of ^{42}Ar, can contribute to that background via electrons from the continuous spectrum with an endpoint at 3.5 MeV. Research and development on the suppression methods targeting this source of background were performed at the low-background test facility LArGe . It was demonstrated that by reducing ^{42}K ion collection on the surfaces of the broad energy germanium detectors in combination with pulse shape discrimination techniques and an argon scintillation veto, it is possible to suppress ^{42}K background by three orders of magnitude. This is sufficient for Phase II of the Gerda experiment.

  9. Gerda: A new 76Ge Double Beta Decay Experiment at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simgen, Hardy

    2005-01-01

    In the new 76 Ge double beta decay experiment Gerda [I. Abt et al., arXiv hep-ex/0404039; Gerda proposal, to be submitted to the Gran Sasso scientific committee] bare diodes of enriched 76 Ge will be operated in highly pure liquid nitrogen or argon. The goal is to reduce the background around Q ββ =2039 keV below 10 -3 counts/(kg-bar keV-bar y). With presently available diodes from the Igex and HdMs experiments the current evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay [H.-V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, et al., Mod. Phys. Lett. A16 (2001) 2409ff] can unambigously be checked within one year of measurement

  10. First results of neutrinoless double beta decay search with the GERmanium Detector Array "GERDA"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicskó Csáthy, József

    2014-06-01

    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is the most powerful approach to the fundamental question if the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own anti-particle. The observation of the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta decay would establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Until now neutrinoless double beta decay was not observed. The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA is a double beta decay experiment located at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy. GERDA operates bare Ge diodes enriched in 76Ge in liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The exposure accumulated adds up to 21.6 kg· yr with a background level of 1.8 · 10-2 cts/(keV·kg·yr). The results of the Phase I of the experiment are presented and the preparation of the Phase II is briefly discussed.

  11. The search for 0νββ decay with the GERDA experiment: Status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorovits, B.

    2015-08-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge using HPGe detectors directly immersed into liquid argon. In its first phase the GERDA experiment has yielded a half life limit on this decay of T1/2 0 v>2.1 ṡ1025 . A background model has been developed. It explains the measured spectrum well, taking into account only components with distances to the detectors less then 2 cm. Competitive limits on Majoron accompanied double beta decay have been derived. Phase II of the experiment, now with additional liquid argon veto installed, is presently starting its commissioning phase. First commissioning spectra from calibration measurements are shown, proving that the liquid argon veto leads to a significant reduction of background events.

  12. Current experiments in germanium 0 ν β β search -- GERDA and MAJORANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sturm, K.

    2015-01-01

    There are unanswered questions regarding neutrino physics that are of great interest for the scientific community. For example the absolute masses, the mass hierarchy and the nature of neutrinos are unknown up to now. The discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) would prove the existence of a Majorana mass, which would be linked to the half-life of the decay, and would in addition provide an elegant solution for the small mass of the neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. Because of an existing discovery claim of 0νββ of 76Ge and the excellent energy resolution achievable, germanium is of special interest in the search for 0νββ . In this article the state of the art of germanium 0νββ search, namely the GERDA experiment and MAJORANA demonstrator, is presented. In particular, recent results of the GERDA collaboration, which strongly disfavour the above mentioned claim, are discussed.

  13. BEGe detectors in GERDA Phase I - performance, physics analysis and surface events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, Andrea [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The Phase I of the Gerda experiment, which has concluded its data taking in Summer 2013, was based on coaxial HPGe detectors already used for IGEX and HdM experiments. In the upcoming Phase II customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors will provide the major contribution to the total exposure. The first set of BEGe detectors has been deployed in Gerda since June 2012. The data collected in Phase I show the performance achieved in terms of spectroscopy and pulse shape discrimination. In particular the strongest background source, the {sup 42}K beta decay from the liquid argon surrounding the detectors, has been effectively rejected. The signals due to beta decay on the detector surface are indeed characterized by a longer charge collection time. This talk focuses on this key feature of the BEGe-PSD.

  14. Current experiments in germanium 0νββ search — GERDA and MAJORANA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Sturm, K.

    2015-01-01

    There are unanswered questions regarding neutrino physics that are of great interest for the scientific community. For example the absolute masses, the mass hierarchy and the nature of neutrinos are unknown up to now. The discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) would prove the existence of a Majorana mass, which would be linked to the half-life of the decay, and would in addition provide an elegant solution for the small mass of the neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. Because of an existing discovery claim of 0νββ of 76 Ge and the excellent energy resolution achievable, germanium is of special interest in the search for 0νββ. In this article the state of the art of germanium 0νββ search, namely the Gerda experiment and Majorana demonstrator, is presented. In particular, recent results of the Gerda collaboration, which strongly disfavour the above mentioned claim, are discussed.

  15. Signal and background studies for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76, by operating bare HPGe detectors in ultra-pure liquid Ar. This dissertation presents a first decomposition of the background measured in the current data-taking phase. The background at the energy of interest was found to be dominated by 214 Bi, 208 Tl and 42 K gamma-rays, with secondary contributions from 42 K and 214 Bi beta-rays, and 210 Po alpha-rays. For the forthcoming upgrade of the apparatus, a new HPGe detector design (BEGe) has been studied, with focus on its capability of suppressing the identified backgrounds through pulse shape analysis. This included the development of a comprehensive modeling of the detectors and the experimental characterization of their response to surface interactions. The achieved results show that GERDA can improve the present limit on the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life by an order of magnitude.

  16. MaGe: a Monte Carlo framework for the Gerda and Majorana double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M; Belogurov, S; Chan, Yd; Descovich, M; Detwiler, J; Di Marco, M; Fujikawa, B; Franco, D; Gehman, V; Henning, R; Hudek, K; Johnson, R; Jordan, D; Kazkaz, K; Klimenko, A; Knapp, M; Kroeninger, K; Lesko, K; Liu, X; Marino, M; Mokhtarani, A; Pandola, L; Perry, M; Poon, A; Radford, D; Tomei, C; Tull, C

    2006-01-01

    The Gerda and Majorana projects, both searching for the neutrinoless double beta-decay of 76 Ge, are developing a joint Monte-Carlo simulation framework called MaGe. Such an approach has many benefits: the workload for the development of general tools is shared between more experts, the code is tested in more detail, and more experimental data is made available for validation

  17. First results of GERDA Phase II and consistency with background models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode1, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) is an experiment for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge, located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). GERDA operates bare high purity germanium detectors submersed in liquid Argon (LAr). Phase II of data-taking started in Dec 2015 and is currently ongoing. In Phase II 35 kg of germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge including thirty newly produced Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors is operating to reach an exposure of 100 kg·yr within about 3 years data taking. The design goal of Phase II is to reduce the background by one order of magnitude to get the sensitivity for T1/20ν = O≤ft( {{{10}26}} \\right){{ yr}}. To achieve the necessary background reduction, the setup was complemented with LAr veto. Analysis of the background spectrum of Phase II demonstrates consistency with the background models. Furthermore 226Ra and 232Th contamination levels consistent with screening results. In the first Phase II data release we found no hint for a 0νββ decay signal and place a limit of this process T1/20ν > 5.3 \\cdot {1025} yr (90% C.L., sensitivity 4.0·1025 yr). First results of GERDA Phase II will be presented.

  18. Production, characterization and operation of {sup 76}Ge enriched BEGe detectors in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M.; Barros, N.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Andreotti, E. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Ioannucci, L.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Nisi, S.; Zavarise, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Gurentsov, V.; Inzhechik, L.V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Strecker, H.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bellotti, E.; Pessina, G. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Sada, C.; Von Sturm, K. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Shevchik, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C.; Gotti, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. Germanium detectors made of material with an enriched {sup 76}Ge fraction act simultaneously as sources and detectors for this decay. During Phase I of the experiment mainly refurbished semi-coaxial Ge detectors from former experiments were used. For the upcoming Phase II, 30 new {sup 76}Ge enriched detectors of broad energy germanium (BEGe)- type were produced. A subgroup of these detectors has already been deployed in GERDA during Phase I. The present paper reviews the complete production chain of these BEGe detectors including isotopic enrichment, purification, crystal growth and diode production. The efforts in optimizing the mass yield and in minimizing the exposure of the {sup 76}Ge enriched germanium to cosmic radiation during processing are described. Furthermore, characterization measurements in vacuum cryostats of the first subgroup of seven BEGe detectors and their long-term behavior in liquid argon are discussed. The detector performance fulfills the requirements needed for the physics goals of GERDA Phase II. (orig.)

  19. In-situ measurement of the light attenuation in liquid argon in the GERDA cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Birgit [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    GERDA is an experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. It operates the enriched germanium detectors bare in liquid argon (LAr), which serves both as a coolant and a shield for external radiation. Phase II of GERDA aims for an exposure of 100 kg . yr with a background index (BI) of 10{sup -3} cts/(kg . yr . keV). One of the major improvements to further reduce the BI comes from the instrumentation of the LAr to readout its scintillation light. The attenuation of the scintillation light in LAr limits the effective active volume of the LAr veto and is therefore a key parameter to characterize the instrumentation. In order to measure the light attenuation in LAr, a setup was designed that could be deployed directly into the GERDA cryostat. This setup contains a movable beta source and a PMT to detect the scintillation light at different distances. The talk will present the acquired data as well as a detailed description of the performed analysis technique and the current results.

  20. Production, characterization and operation of {sup 76}Ge enriched BEGe detectors in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M. [Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M. [Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Andreotti, E. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Physikalisches Institut, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Bakalyarov, A. M. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); and others

    2015-02-03

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. Germanium detectors made of material with an enriched {sup 76}Ge fraction act simultaneously as sources and detectors for this decay. During Phase I of theexperiment mainly refurbished semi-coaxial Ge detectors from former experiments were used. For the upcoming Phase II, 30 new {sup 76}Ge enriched detectors of broad energy germanium (BEGe)-type were produced. A subgroup of these detectors has already been deployed in Gerda during Phase I. The present paper reviews the complete production chain of these BEGe detectors including isotopic enrichment, purification, crystal growth and diode production. The efforts in optimizing the mass yield and in minimizing the exposure of the {sup 76}Ge enriched germanium to cosmic radiation during processing are described. Furthermore, characterization measurements in vacuum cryostats of the first subgroup of seven BEGe detectors and their long-term behavior in liquid argon are discussed. The detector performance fulfills the requirements needed for the physics goals of Gerda Phase II.

  1. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76 with the GERmanium Detector Array '' GERDA ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnera, R.

    2009-01-01

    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is the most powerful approach to the fundamental question if the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own anti-particle. The observation of neutrinoless DBD would not only establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino but also represent a determination of its effective mass if the nuclear matrix element is given. So far, the most sensitive results have been obtained with Ge-76, and the group of Klapdor-Kleingrothaus has made a claim of discovery. Future experiments have to reduce radioactive backgrounds to increase the sensitivity. '' GERDA '' is a new double beta-decay experiment which is currently under construction in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy. It is implementing a new shielding concept by operating bare Ge diodes - enriched in Ge-76 - in high purity liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The aim of '' GERDA '' is to verify or refute the recent claim of discovery, and, in a second phase, to achieve a two orders of magnitude lower background index than recent experiments, increasing the sensitive mass and reaching exposure of 100 kg yr. It be will discuss design, physics reach, and status of construction of '' GERDA '', and present results from various R efforts including long term stability of bare Ge diodes in cryogenic liquids, material screening, cryostat performance, detector segmentation, cryogenic precision electronics, safety aspects, and Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  2. Dead layer and active volume determination for GERDA Phase II detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern [TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERDA experiment investigates the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge and is currently running Phase I of its physics program. Using the same isotope as the Heidelberg Moscow (HDM) experiment, GERDA aims to directly test the claim of observation by a subset of the HDM collaboration. For the update to Phase II of the experiment in 2013, the collaboration organized the production of 30 new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) type detectors from original 35 kg enriched material and tested their performance in the low background laboratory HADES in SCK.CEN, Belgium. With additional 20 kg of detectors, GERDA aims to probe the degenerated hierarchy scenario. One of the crucial detector parameters is the active volume (AV) fraction which directly enters into all physics analysis. This talk presents the methodology of dead layer and AV determination with different calibration sources such as {sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 60}Co and {sup 228}Th and the results obtained for the new Phase II detectors. Furthermore, the AV fraction turned out to be the largest systematic uncertainty in the analysis of Phase I data which makes it imperative to reduce its uncertainty for Phase II. This talk addresses the major contributions to the AV uncertainty and gives an outlook for improvements in Phase II analysis.

  3. Production, characterization and operation of Ge enriched BEGe detectors in GERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Misiaszek, M.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-02-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay () of Ge. Germanium detectors made of material with an enriched Ge fraction act simultaneously as sources and detectors for this decay. During Phase I of theexperiment mainly refurbished semi-coaxial Ge detectors from former experiments were used. For the upcoming Phase II, 30 new Ge enriched detectors of broad energy germanium (BEGe)-type were produced. A subgroup of these detectors has already been deployed in Gerda during Phase I. The present paper reviews the complete production chain of these BEGe detectors including isotopic enrichment, purification, crystal growth and diode production. The efforts in optimizing the mass yield and in minimizing the exposure of the Ge enriched germanium to cosmic radiation during processing are described. Furthermore, characterization measurements in vacuum cryostats of the first subgroup of seven BEGe detectors and their long-term behavior in liquid argon are discussed. The detector performance fulfills the requirements needed for the physics goals of Gerda Phase II.

  4. The Aspergillus fumigatus SchASCH9 kinase modulates SakAHOG1 MAP kinase activity and it is essential for virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Castro, Patrícia; Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Dolan, Stephen K; Oliveira Manfiolli, Adriana; Brown, Neil Andrew; Jones, Gary W; Doyle, Sean; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M; Squina, Fábio Márcio; Caldana, Camila; Singh, Ashutosh; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Goldman, Gustavo H

    2016-11-01

    The serine-threonine kinase TOR, the Target of Rapamycin, is an important regulator of nutrient, energy and stress signaling in eukaryotes. Sch9, a Ser/Thr kinase of AGC family (the cAMP-dependent PKA, cGMP- dependent protein kinase G and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C family), is a substrate of TOR. Here, we characterized the fungal opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Sch9 homologue (SchA). The schA null mutant was sensitive to rapamycin, high concentrations of calcium, hyperosmotic stress and SchA was involved in iron metabolism. The ΔschA null mutant showed increased phosphorylation of SakA, the A. fumigatus Hog1 homologue. The schA null mutant has increased and decreased trehalose and glycerol accumulation, respectively, suggesting SchA performs different roles for glycerol and trehalose accumulation during osmotic stress. The schA was transcriptionally regulated by osmotic stress and this response was dependent on SakA and MpkC. The double ΔschA ΔsakA and ΔschA ΔmpkC mutants were more sensitive to osmotic stress than the corresponding parental strains. Transcriptomics and proteomics identified direct and indirect targets of SchA post-exposure to hyperosmotic stress. Finally, ΔschA was avirulent in a low dose murine infection model. Our results suggest there is a complex network of interactions amongst the A. fumigatus TOR, SakA and SchA pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Application of the A/E pulse shape discrimination method to first Ge-76 enriched BEGe detectors operated in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, Andrea; Agostini, Matteo; Budjas, Dusan; Schoenert, Stefan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In 2013 the Gerda experiment will be upgraded to its second phase with more than double of the current {sup 76}Ge mass. The additional diodes are custom made Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors. This design has been chosen to enhance the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capability, with respect to the Phase I coaxial detectors. The goal of Phase II is to improve by one order of magnitude the current background index; the PSD will bring a major contribution to this result. Since summer 2012 the first set of five enriched BEGe detectors are operated in Gerda Phase I. This offers us the possibility to test the PSD performances and the signal analysis in an environment as close as possible to the Gerda Phase II configuration. In this talk I present the A/E analysis, the calibration of the cut parameters and the results in terms of background reduction for the data taken with these enriched BEGe.

  6. GERDA, a GERmanium Detector Array for the search for neutrinoless ββ decay in 76Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandola, L.; Tomei, C.

    2006-01-01

    The GERDA project, searching for neutrinoless double beta-decay of 76Ge with enriched germanium detectors submerged in a cryogenic bath, has been approved for installation at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. The GERDA technique is aiming at a dramatic reduction of the background due to radioactive contaminations of the materials surrounding the detectors. This will lead to a sensitivity of about 1026 years on the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay. Already in the first phase of the experiment, GERDA will be able to investigate with high statistical significance the claimed evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge based on the data of the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment

  7. Limit on the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of {sup 36}Ar from GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barros, N. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Kish, A.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Hakenmueller, J.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bellotti, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics NRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Bode, T.; Csathy, J.J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S.; Wiesinger, C. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Caldwell, A.; Gooch, C.; Kneissl, R.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Cattadori, C.; Salamida, F. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics NRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hemmer, S.; Lippi, I.; Stanco, L. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [European Commission, JRC-Geel, Geel (Belgium); Inzhechik, L.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); International University for Nature, Society and Man ' ' Dubna' ' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Macolino, C. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); LAL, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA collaboration

    2016-12-15

    Neutrinoless double electron capture is a process that, if detected, would give evidence of lepton number violation and the Majorana nature of neutrinos. A search for neutrinoless double electron capture of {sup 36}Ar has been performed with germanium detectors installed in liquid argon using data from Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of INFN, Italy. No signal was observed and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of {sup 36}Ar was established: T{sub 1/2} > 3.6 x 10{sup 21} years at 90% CI. (orig.)

  8. Results on decay with emission of two neutrinos or Majorons in Ge from GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-09-01

    A search for neutrinoless decay processes accompanied with Majoron emission has been performed using data collected during Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). Processes with spectral indices were searched for. No signals were found and lower limits of the order of 10 yr on their half-lives were derived, yielding substantially improved results compared to previous experiments with Ge. A new result for the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied decay of Ge with significantly reduced uncertainties is also given, resulting in yr.

  9. Limit on Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay of 76Ge by GERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Heider, M. Barabè; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Machado, A. A.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Misiaszek, M.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Shaughnessy, C. O.'.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    The Gerda experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy uses germanium detectors made from material with an enriched 76Ge isotope fraction to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of this nucleus. Applying a blind analysis we find no signal after an exposure of 21.6 kg·yr and a background of about 0.01 cts/(keV·kg·yr). A half-life limit of Tov1/2> 2.1 · 1025 yr (90% C.L.) is extracted. The previous claim of a signal for 76Ge is excluded with 99% probability in a model independent way.

  10. Limit on the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar from GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-12-01

    Neutrinoless double electron capture is a process that, if detected, would give evidence of lepton number violation and the Majorana nature of neutrinos. A search for neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar has been performed with germanium detectors installed in liquid argon using data from Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of INFN, Italy. No signal was observed and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar was established: T_{1/2} > 3.6 × 10^{21} years at 90% CI.

  11. Active background suppression with the liquid argon scintillation veto of GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would allow to shed light onto the particle nature of neutrinos. Gerda is aiming to perform a background-free search for this process using high purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge operated in liquid argon. This goal relies on the application of active background suppression techniques. A low background light instrumentation has been installed for Phase II to detect events with coincident energy deposition in the nearby liquid argon. The intended background index of ˜10-3 cts/(keV·ky·yr) has been confirmed.

  12. Enesetapp - rääkida või vaikida? / Gerda Kordemets, Mart Laisk ja Merike Sisask ; intervjueerinud Tiina Jõgeda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kordemets, Gerda, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Kas noorte enesetappudest rääkimine toob matkijaid või on teemast rääkimine vajalik? Suitsiiditeemaga kokku puutunud Mart Laisk, Eesti Televisiooni uue sarja "Klass: elu pärast" üks režissööre Gerda Kordemets ja suitsidoloog Merike Sisask arutlevad

  13. Investigation of n{sup +} surface events in HPGe detectors for liquid argon background rejection in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern [TU-Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The GERDA experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge using an array of germanium detectors immersed in liquid argon (LAr). Phase II of the experiment aims to improve the background level by a factor 10 in order to reach 10{sup -3} counts / (kg.keV.yr). A strong suppression technique is required to suppress the intrinsic LAr background of {sup 42}Ar/{sup 42}K. 30 newly produced p-type Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors will be deployed in Phase II. The n{sup +} electrode of the GERDA BEGe detectors is covering 96-98 % of the surface and is between 0.5 and 1.2 mm thick. Betas from the {sup 42}K decay can penetrated the detector surface and deposit energies within the 0νββ region. Experiences from GERDA Phase I show that these surface events are the dominate background component without suppression. Energy depositions inside the n{sup +} layer create pulse shapes that are slower than those from interactions in the bulk. This talk presents a rejection technique for those events. The signal development inside the n{sup +} layer is modeled and applied in Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations are compared with data for {sup 241}Am and {sup 90}Sr calibration source measurements. The suppression capabilities are extrapolated for {sup 42}K in GERDA Phase II.

  14. The Gerda experiment for the search of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in {sup 76}Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, K.H.; Altmann, M.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Cossavella, F.; Lenz, D.; Liao, H.; Majorovits, B.; Mayer, S.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Schubert, J.; Schulz, O.; Seitz, H.; Stelzer, F.; Vogt, S.; Volynets, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M.; Barros, N.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Andreotti, E. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Pandola, L. [LNGS, INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Denisov, A.; Gurentsov, V.; Kianovsky, S.; Kusminov, V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barnabe Heider, M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); CEGEP St-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Ferella, A.; Froborg, F.; Guthikonda, K.K.; Tarka, M.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Hampel, W.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kankanyan, R.; Kihm, T.; Kiko, J.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Machado, A.A.; Maneschg, W.; Oehm, J.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwan, U.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Strecker, H.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bellotti, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Sada, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Padova, Padova (Italy); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Shevchik, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chkvorets, O. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Laurentian University, Sudbury (Canada); D' Andragora, A. [LNGS, INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Di Vacri, A. [LNGS, INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); University ' ' G. d' Annunzio' ' di Chieti-Pescara, Department of Neurosciences and Imaging, Chieti (Italy); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Knapp, M.; Niedermeier, L.; Schmitt, C.; Sturm, K. von [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparro, J. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); National Physical Laboratory, Teddigton (United Kingdom); Gazzana, S. [LNGS, INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Hult, M.; Marissens, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Inzhechik, L.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kroeninger, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); U. Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); U. Siegen, Department Physik, Siegen (Germany); Lippi, I.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padova (Italy); Liu, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU, Tokyo (Japan); Liu, X. [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Meierhofer, G. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); TUeV-SUeD, Muenchen (Germany); Peiffer, P. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano (Italy); INFN Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Ritter, F. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Robert Bosch GmbH, Reutlingen (Germany); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Trunk, U. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); DESY, Photon-Science Detector Group, Hamburg (Germany); Zavarise, P. [LNGS, INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); University of L' Aquila, Dipartimento di Fisica, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    The Gerda collaboration is performing a search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge with the eponymous detector. The experiment has been installed and commissioned at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and has started operation in November 2011. The design, construction and first operational results are described, along with detailed information from the R and D phase. (orig.)

  15. Signal and background studies for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Matteo

    2013-04-24

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76, by operating bare HPGe detectors in ultra-pure liquid Ar. This dissertation presents a first decomposition of the background measured in the current data-taking phase. The background at the energy of interest was found to be dominated by {sup 214}Bi, {sup 208}Tl and {sup 42}K gamma-rays, with secondary contributions from {sup 42}K and {sup 214}Bi beta-rays, and {sup 210}Po alpha-rays. For the forthcoming upgrade of the apparatus, a new HPGe detector design (BEGe) has been studied, with focus on its capability of suppressing the identified backgrounds through pulse shape analysis. This included the development of a comprehensive modeling of the detectors and the experimental characterization of their response to surface interactions. The achieved results show that GERDA can improve the present limit on the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life by an order of magnitude.

  16. Mitigation of {sup 42}Ar/{sup 42}K background for the GERDA Phase II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubashevskiy, A.; Klimenko, A.; Smolnikov, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Agostini, M. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budjas, D.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, Munich (Germany); Gangapshev, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, Munich (Germany); Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heisel, M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Lehnert, B. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Carleton University, Physics Department, Ottawa (Canada); Pelczar, K. [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS, Assergi (Italy); Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Zuzel, G. [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    2018-01-15

    Background coming from the {sup 42}Ar decay chain is considered to be one of the most relevant for the Gerda experiment, which searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The sensitivity strongly relies on the absence of background around the Q-value of the decay. Background coming from {sup 42}K, a progeny of {sup 42}Ar, can contribute to that background via electrons from the continuous spectrum with an endpoint at 3.5 MeV. Research and development on the suppression methods targeting this source of background were performed at the low-background test facility LArGe. It was demonstrated that by reducing {sup 42}K ion collection on the surfaces of the broad energy germanium detectors in combination with pulse shape discrimination techniques and an argon scintillation veto, it is possible to suppress {sup 42}K background by three orders of magnitude. This is sufficient for Phase II of the Gerda experiment. (orig.)

  17. Production and characterization of 228Th calibration sources with low neutron emission for GERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Carconi, P.; Cattadori, C.; De Felice, P.; Eberhardt, K.; Eichler, R.; Petrucci, A.; Tarka, M.; Walter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The GERDA experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. In view of the GERDA Phase II data collection, four new 228Th radioactive sources for the calibration of the germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge have been produced with a new technique, leading to a reduced neutron emission rate from (α, n) reactions. The gamma activities of the sources were determined with a total uncertainty of ~4% using an ultra-low background HPGe detector operated underground at LNGS. The neutron emission rate was determined using a low background LiI(Eu) detector and a 3He counter at LNGS. In both cases, the measured neutron activity is ~10-6 n/(sṡBq), with a reduction of about one order of magnitude with respect to commercially available 228Th sources. Additionally, a specific leak test with a sensitivity to leaks down to ~10 mBq was developed to investigate the tightness of the stainless steel capsules housing the sources after their use in cryogenic environment.

  18. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneschg, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ∼15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  19. GERDA and the search for neutrinoless double beta decay: first results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Matteo [Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton-number-violating nuclear transition predicted by several extensions of the Standard Model. The Gerda experiment searches for this transition in {sup 76}Ge by operating bare Ge detectors in liquid Ar. The talk focuses on the results of data acquired during Phase I of the experiment, in which 21.6 kg.yr of exposure were accumulated with a background index of about 0.01 cts/(keV.kg.yr). No signal was observed and a lower limit was derived for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge, T{sub 1/2} > 2.1 . 10{sup 25} yr (90% C.L.). The experiment is currently undergoing a major upgrade in preparation for the next phase of data taking. Thanks to an increased target mass, an improved energy resolution and the introduction of novel background reduction techniques, the sensitivity of Gerda will increase of about one order of magnitude in a few years of operation.

  20. Flux modulations seen by the muon veto of the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicsk'o Cs'athy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knapp, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Ritter, F.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Strecker, H.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-11-01

    The GERDA experiment at LNGS of INFN is equipped with an active muon veto. The main part of the system is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the GERDA cryostat. The muon flux recorded by this veto shows a seasonal modulation. Two causes have been identified: (i) secondary muons from the CNGS neutrino beam (2.2%) and (ii) a temperature modulation of the atmosphere (1.4%). A mean cosmic muon rate of Iμ0 =(3.477 ± 0 .002stat ± 0 .067sys) ×10-4 /(s · m2) was found in good agreement with other experiments at LNGS. Combining the present result with those from previous experiments at LNGS the effective temperature coefficient αT , Lngs is determined to 0.93 ± 0.03. A fit of the temperature coefficients measured at various underground sites yields a kaon to pion ratio rK/π of 0.10 ± 0.03.

  1. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from GERDA and CALANUS from 1972-03-14 to 1972-03-24 (NCEI Accession 9500067)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected from ships CALANUS and GERDA between March 14, 1972 and March 24, 1972. The real time data of water temperature at varying...

  2. Kibe kolimine Mustamäel / Jüri Järs, Gerda Koidla, Hilja Rikmann, Siret Mikumets ; intervjueerinud Taimi Nurmiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järs, Jüri, 1951-

    2009-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Raamatukogu direktori Jüri Järsi, asedirektori Gerda Koidla, hoidlakogude peaspetsialisti Hilja Rikmanni ja teenindusosakonna avakogude peaspetsialisti Siret Mikumetsaga raamatukogu uude hoonesse kolimise protsessist ja uutest võimalustest teeninduses

  3. Muonic background in the GERDA 0νββ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai Lorenz

    2014-07-18

    Muons can cause a non-negligible background in rare-event experiments like GERDA which searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) in the isotope {sup 76}Ge. The kinetic energy of cosmogenic muons depends on the progenitor particle, hence they can have an energy which is high enough to penetrate even the deepest underground laboratory. For this reason GERDA is equipped with a powerful muon veto system which in most parts was developed in Tuebingen. In this work, a plastic scintillator veto was added to the existing water Cherenkov veto in order to protect a weak spot. Existing hardware was maintained, frequently calibrated and faulty modules exchanged when possible. The DAQ and analysis was upgraded in order to run both veto systems simultaneously. The system was simulated with a GEANT4-based Monte-Carlo simulation. Multiplicity and photon spectra of the simulations were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data and give an efficiency for the detection of energy-depositing muons of ε{sup sim}{sub μd}=(99.935±0.015)%. Two external effects were clearly identified in the muon veto data: additional muons originating from the CNGS-beam at CERN and an annual flux modulation due to seasonal atmospheric temperature changes. Both effects were measured with high precision and agree well with other experiments. Coincidences with the germanium detectors were studied and muon-germanium coincidences were clearly identified. By defining a muon cut, a muon rejection efficiency of the germanium detectors of ε{sup Ge}{sub μr}=(99.2{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4})% was found. Two methods were pursued to find radioactive isotopes produced by muons through spallation or neutron activation. The result of both methods is compatible with zero, i.e. no events could be clearly identified. The overall functionality of the muon veto for Phase I of GERDA was successfully maintained and verified.

  4. GERDA results and the future perspectives for the neutrinoless double beta decay search using 76Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Biernat, J.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Comellato, T.; D’Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giordano, M.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaidic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pertoldi, L.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zschocke, A.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-03-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) is a low background experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of 76Ge. In the first phase (Phase I) of the experiment, high purity germanium diodes were operated in a “bare” mode and immersed in liquid argon. The overall background level of 10‑2cts/(keV ṡkg ṡyr) was a factor of ten better than those of its predecessors. No signal was found and a lower limit was set on the half-life for the 0νββ decay of 76Ge T1/20ν > 2.1 × 1025 yr (90% CL), while the corresponding median sensitivity was 2.4 × 1025 yr (90% CL). A second phase (Phase II) started at the end of 2015 after a major upgrade. Thanks to the increased detector mass and performance of the enriched germanium diodes and due to the introduction of liquid argon instrumentation techniques, it was possible to reduce the background down to 10‑3cts/(keV ṡkg ṡyr). After analyzing 23.2 kgṡyr of these new data no signal was seen. Combining these with the data from Phase I a stronger half-life limit of the 76Ge 0νββ decay was obtained: T1/20ν > 8.0 × 1025 yr (90% CL), reaching a sensitivity of 5.8 × 1025 yr (90% CL). Phase II will continue for the collection of an exposure of 100 kg ṡyr. If no signal is found by then the GERDA sensitivity will have reached 1.4 × 1026 yr for setting a 90% CL. limit. After the end of GERDA Phase II, the flagship experiment for the search of 0νββ decay of 76Ge will be LEGEND. LEGEND experiment is foreseen to deploy up to 1-ton of 76Ge. After ten years of data taking, it will reach a sensitivity beyond 1028 yr, and hence fully cover the inverted hierarchy region.

  5. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay search in GERDA. Background modeling and limit setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici Schmidt, Neslihan

    2014-07-22

    The search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) process is primarily motivated by its potential of revealing the possible Majorana nature of the neutrino, in which the neutrino is identical to its antiparticle. It has also the potential to yield information on the intrinsic properties of neutrinos, if the underlying mechanism is the exchange of a light Majorana neutrino. The Gerda experiment is searching for 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge by operating high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge (∝ 87%), directly in ultra-pure liquid argon (LAr). The first phase of physics data taking (Phase I) was completed in 2013 and has yielded 21.6 kg.yr of data. A background index of B∼10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr) at Q{sub ββ}=2039 keV has been achieved. A comprehensive background model of the Phase I energy spectrum is presented as the major topic of this dissertation. Decomposition of the background energy spectrum into the individual contributions from different processes provides many interesting physics results. The specific activity of {sup 39}Ar has been determined. The obtained result, A=(1.15±0.11) Bq/kg, is in good agreement with the values reported in literature. The contribution from {sup 42}K decays in LAr to the background spectrum has yielded a {sup 42}K({sup 42}Ar) specific activity of A=(106.2{sub -19.2}{sup +12.7}) μBq/kg, for which only upper limits exist in literature. The analysis of high energy events induced by α decays in the {sup 226}Ra chain indicated a total {sup 226}Ra activity of (3.0±0.9) μBq and a total initial {sup 210}Po activity of (0.18±0.01) mBq on the p{sup +} surfaces of the enriched semi-coaxial HPGe detectors. The half life of the two-neutrino double beta (2νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge has been determined as T{sub 1/2}{sup 2ν}=(1.926±0.094).10{sup 21} yr, which is in good agreement with the result that was obtained with lower exposure and has been published by the Gerda collaboration

  6. Development and test results of a readout chip for the GERDA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Smale, Nigel; Knöpfle, K T; Schwingenheuer, B; Trunk, U; Fallot-Burghardt, W

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the F-CSA104 architecture and its measurement results. The F-CSA104 is for γ spectroscopy with Ge detectors. It is a low noise, fully integrated, four channel XFAB 0.6μm CMOS technology ASIC, that has been developed for the GERDA experiment. Each channel contains a charge sensitive preamplifier (CSA) followed by a 11.7MHz differential line driver. It has been particularly designed to operate in liquid argon (T = 87K/-186°C) and to have a measuring sensitivity of 660e- with an ENC of 110e-, after offline filtering with 10μs shaping, when connected to a 30pF load. Special techniques are used to improve the SNR such as a large input PMOS FET, an integrated 500MΩ CSA feedback resistor and a noise degeneration drain resistor.

  7. Keeping the Background Low: Production and Testing of the GERDA Phase II Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmer, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso searches for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge. The first phase using ∼15 kg of coaxial germanium detectors is ongoing. In a second phase, additional ∼20 kg of newly produced Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors will be deployed. To limit the generation of cosmogenically induced radioisotopes, the exposure of the germanium to cosmic radiation during the detector production and testing was minimized. An acceptance and characterization campaign of the newly produced detectors was carried out at the HEROICA facility in the HADES underground laboratory in Mol, Belgium. An overview over the complete production process, from isotopic enrichment of the material to the detector testing protocol, is given. (authors)

  8. Limits on uranium and thorium bulk content in GERDA Phase I detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakemüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-05-01

    Internal contaminations of 238U, 235U and 232Th in the bulk of high purity germanium detectors are potential backgrounds for experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The data from GERDA Phase I have been analyzed for alpha events from the decay chain of these contaminations by looking for full decay chains and for time correlations between successive decays in the same detector. No candidate events for a full chain have been found. Upper limits on the activities in the range of a few nBq/kg for 226Ra, 227Ac and 228Th, the long-lived daughter nuclides of 238U, 235U and 232Th, respectively, have been derived. With these upper limits a background index in the energy region of interest from 226Ra and 228Th contamination is estimated which satisfies the prerequisites of a future ton scale germanium double beta decay experiment.

  9. Toxicity of phosphor esters: Willy Lange (1900-1976) and Gerda von Krueger (1907-after 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroianu, G A

    2010-10-01

    In 1851 Williamson serendipitously discovered a new and efficient way to produce ethers using ethyl iodide and potassium salts. Based on this new synthetic approach, the Frenchman Philippe de Clermont and the Muscovite Wladimir Moschnin, both élèves of Adolphe Wurtz in his Paris School of Chemistry, achieved the synthesis of the first ester of pyrophosphoric acid (TEPP). de Clermont "tasted" the new compound and although TEPP is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor he failed to recognize its toxicity. Almost a century later, in 1932, Willy Lange (1900-1976) and his graduate student Gerda v. Krueger (1907-after 1970) described the toxicity of organophosphonates. While the classic paper of the two "Uber Ester der Monofluorphosphorsäure." is cited by almost everybody working in the field, little is known about Lange and almost nothing about v. Krueger. This brief communication attempts to shed some light on the life of both.

  10. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay search in GERDA. Background modeling and limit setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerici Schmidt, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    The search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) process is primarily motivated by its potential of revealing the possible Majorana nature of the neutrino, in which the neutrino is identical to its antiparticle. It has also the potential to yield information on the intrinsic properties of neutrinos, if the underlying mechanism is the exchange of a light Majorana neutrino. The Gerda experiment is searching for 0νββ decay of 76 Ge by operating high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors enriched in the isotope 76 Ge (∝ 87%), directly in ultra-pure liquid argon (LAr). The first phase of physics data taking (Phase I) was completed in 2013 and has yielded 21.6 kg.yr of data. A background index of B∼10 -2 cts/(keV.kg.yr) at Q ββ =2039 keV has been achieved. A comprehensive background model of the Phase I energy spectrum is presented as the major topic of this dissertation. Decomposition of the background energy spectrum into the individual contributions from different processes provides many interesting physics results. The specific activity of 39 Ar has been determined. The obtained result, A=(1.15±0.11) Bq/kg, is in good agreement with the values reported in literature. The contribution from 42 K decays in LAr to the background spectrum has yielded a 42 K( 42 Ar) specific activity of A=(106.2 -19.2 +12.7 ) μBq/kg, for which only upper limits exist in literature. The analysis of high energy events induced by α decays in the 226 Ra chain indicated a total 226 Ra activity of (3.0±0.9) μBq and a total initial 210 Po activity of (0.18±0.01) mBq on the p + surfaces of the enriched semi-coaxial HPGe detectors. The half life of the two-neutrino double beta (2νββ) decay of 76 Ge has been determined as T 1/2 2ν =(1.926±0.094).10 21 yr, which is in good agreement with the result that was obtained with lower exposure and has been published by the Gerda collaboration. According to the model, the background in Q ββ ±5 keV window is resulting from close

  11. GERDA test facility for pressurized water reactors with straight tube steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, G.; Haury, G.; Lahner, K.; Schatz, A.

    1983-01-01

    A number of large-scale experimental facilities have been constructed and operate in order to experiment on the thermodynamic and thermohydraulic behaviour of nuclear facilities in case of LOCA. Most of them were designed for ''large leak'' accidents, but as ''small leak'' accidents became the focus of interest, such experiments were also carried out. Experiments carried out with this arrangement for PWR-type reactors with straight-tube steam generators are only partially evaluable. BBR and B and W therefore cooperated in the construction of the test facility GERDA, designed for testing reactors of BBR design. It supplied relevant experimental results for the nuclear power plant at Muelheim-Kaerlich. (orig.) [de

  12. Background-free search for neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge with GERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Marco, N.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; GERDA Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    Many extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics explain the dominance of matter over antimatter in our Universe by neutrinos being their own antiparticles. This would imply the existence of neutrinoless double-β decay, which is an extremely rare lepton-number-violating radioactive decay process whose detection requires the utmost background suppression. Among the programmes that aim to detect this decay, the GERDA Collaboration is searching for neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge by operating bare detectors, made of germanium with an enriched 76Ge fraction, in liquid argon. After having completed Phase I of data taking, we have recently launched Phase II. Here we report that in GERDA Phase II we have achieved a background level of approximately 10-3 counts keV-1 kg-1 yr-1. This implies that the experiment is background-free, even when increasing the exposure up to design level. This is achieved by use of an active veto system, superior germanium detector energy resolution and improved background recognition of our new detectors. No signal of neutrinoless double-β decay was found when Phase I and Phase II data were combined, and we deduce a lower-limit half-life of 5.3 × 1025 years at the 90 per cent confidence level. Our half-life sensitivity of 4.0 × 1025 years is competitive with the best experiments that use a substantially larger isotope mass. The potential of an essentially background-free search for neutrinoless double-β decay will facilitate a larger germanium experiment with sensitivity levels that will bring us closer to clarifying whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles.

  13. Gamma-ray spectrometry of ultra low levels of radioactivity within the material screening program for the GERDA experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budjás, D; Gangapshev, A M; Gasparro, J; Hampel, W; Heisel, M; Heusser, G; Hult, M; Klimenko, A A; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Maneschg, W; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A A; Tomei, C; Vasiliev, S I

    2009-05-01

    In present and future experiments in the field of rare events physics a background index of 10(-3) counts/(keV kg a) or better in the region of interest is envisaged. A thorough material screening is mandatory in order to achieve this goal. The results of a systematic study of radioactive trace impurities in selected materials using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in the framework of the GERDA experiment are reported.

  14. Characterization of the first true coaxial 18-fold segmented n-type prototype HPGe detector for the gerda project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Gutknecht, D.; Kroeninger, K.; Lampert, M.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; Quirion, D.; Stelzer, F.; Wendling, P.

    2007-01-01

    The first true coaxial 18-fold segmented n-type HPGe prototype detector produced by Canberra-France for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay project was tested both at Canberra-France and at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik in Munich. The main characteristics of the detector are given and measurements concerning detector properties are described. A novel method to establish contacts between the crystal and a Kapton cable is presented

  15. Operation of bare HPGe detectors in LAr/LN{sub 2} for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heider, M Barnabe; Chkvorets, O; Schoenert, S [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Cattadori, C [INFN-Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Vacri, A di [INFN-LNGS, L' Aquila (Italy); Gusev, K; Shirchenko, M [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia and JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)], E-mail: assunta.divacri@lngs.infn.it

    2008-11-01

    GERDA is designed to search for 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay of {sup 76}Ge using high purity germanium detectors (HPGe), enriched ({approx} 85%) in {sup 76}Ge, directly immersed in LAr which acts both as shield against {gamma} radiation and as cooling medium. The cryostat is located in a stainless steel water tank providing an additional shield against external background. The GERDA experiment aims at a background (b) {approx}<10{sup -3} cts/(kg-y-keV) and energy resolution (FWHM) {<=} 4 keV at Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. GERDA experiment is foreseen to proceed in two phases. For Phase I, eight reprocessed enriched HPGe detectors from the past HdM [C Balysh et al., Phys. Rev. D 66 (1997) 54] and IGEX [C E Aalseth et al., Phys. of Atomic Nuclei 63 (2000) 1225] experiments ({approx} 18 kg) and six reprocessed natural HPGe detectors ({approx} 15 kg) from the Genius Test-Facility [H V Klapdor et al., HIM A 481 (2002) 149] will be deployed in strings. GERDA aims at b {approx}< 10{sup -2} cts/(kg{center_dot}keV{center_dot}y). With an exposure of {approx} 15 kg{center_dot}y of {sup 76}Ge and resolution {approx} 3.6 keV, the sensitivity on the half-life will be T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2} 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 25} y (90 % C.L.) corresponding to m{sub ee} < 270 meV [V A Rodin et al., Nucl. Phys. A 766 (2006) 107]. In Phase II, new diodes, able to discriminate between single- and multi-site events, will be added ({approx} 20 kg of {sup 76}Ge with intrinsic b {approx} 10{sup -2} cts/(kg{center_dot}keV{center_dot}y). With an exposure of {approx} 120 kg{center_dot}y, it is expected T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2} > 1.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 26} y (90% C.L.) corresponding to m{sub ee} < 110 meV [V A Rodin et al., Nucl. Phys. A 766 (2006) 107]. Three natural p-type HPGe prototypes (different passivation layer designs) are available in the GERDA underground facility at LNGS to investigate the effect of the detector assembly (low-mass low-activity holder), of the handling procedure and of the

  16. The slow control system of the GERDA double beta decay experiment at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnera, R; Garfagnini, A; Gigante, G; Hemmer, S; Zinato, D; Costa, F; Lippi, I; Michelotto, M; Ur, C

    2012-01-01

    GERDA is an experiment designed and built to study double beta decays of 76 Ge. It is currently in operation at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories (LNGS). A custom slow control system has been designed to monitor and control all the critical parameters for the proper functioning of the experiment. The main sub-components of the experiment (Cryostat, Clean Room, Water Tank, electronic crates and temperatures, High Voltage Systems, Radon Monitor and Source Insertion System) are constantly monitored by several distributed clients which write acquired data to a relational database (PostgreSQL). The latter allows to maintain a history of the whole experiment and, performing correlation between different and independent components, is useful to debug possible system malfunctions. The system is complemented by a Web server, a lightweight and efficient interface to the user on shifts and to the on-call experts, and by a dedicated Alarm dispatcher which distributes the errors generated by the components to the users allowing to react in short time. The whole project has been built around open source and custom software.

  17. 2νββ decay of 76Ge into excited states with GERDA phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Mi, Y.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Schütz, A.-K.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-11-01

    Two neutrino double beta decay of {}76{Ge} to excited states of {}76{Se} has been studied using data from Phase I of the GERDA experiment. An array composed of up to 14 germanium detectors including detectors that have been isotopically enriched in {}76{Ge} was deployed in liquid argon. The analysis of various possible transitions to excited final states is based on coincidence events between pairs of detectors where a de-excitation γ ray is detected in one detector and the two electrons in the other. No signal has been observed and an event counting profile likelihood analysis has been used to determine Frequentist 90% C.L. bounds for three transitions: {0}{{g}.{{s}}.}+-{2}1+: {T}1/22ν \\gt 1.6× {10}23 yr, {0}{{g}.{{s}}.}+-{0}1+: {T}1/22ν \\gt 3.7× {10}23 yr and {0}{{g}.{{s}}.}+-{2}2+: {T}1/22ν \\gt 2.3× {10}23 yr. These bounds are more than two orders of magnitude larger than those reported previously. Bayesian 90% credibility bounds were extracted and used to exclude several models for the {0}{{g}.{{s}}.}+-{0}1+ transition.

  18. Double-beta decay with majoron emission in GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay with emission of one or two majorons (0 νββχ( χ)) is predicted by several beyond-Standard-Model theories. This article reviews the results of a search for 0 νββχ( χ) of 76Ge using data from the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, located underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The analysis comprised data with an exposure of 20.3 kg·yr from the first phase of the experiment. No indication of contributions to the observed energy spectra was detected for any of the majoron models. The lower limit on the half-life for the ordinary majoron model (spectral index n = 1 was determined to be T {1/2/0 νβ } > 4.2 · 1023 yr (90% quantile). This limit and the limits derived for the other majoron modes constitute the most stringent limits on 0 νββχ( χ) decay of 76Ge measured to date.

  19. Monte Carlo studies and optimization for the calibration system of the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A. D.; Froborg, F.; Tarka, M.

    2013-11-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, searches for neutrinoless double β decay in 76Ge using bare high-purity germanium detectors submerged in liquid argon. For the calibration of these detectors γ emitting sources have to be lowered from their parking position on the top of the cryostat over more than 5 m down to the germanium crystals. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations, the relevant parameters of the calibration system were determined. It was found that three 228Th sources with an activity of 20 kBq each at two different vertical positions will be necessary to reach sufficient statistics in all detectors in less than 4 h of calibration time. These sources will contribute to the background of the experiment with a total of (1.07±0.04(stat)-0.19+0.13(sys))×10-4 cts/(keV kg yr)) when shielded from below with 6 cm of tantalum in the parking position.

  20. Monte Carlo studies and optimization for the calibration system of the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, L. [Physics Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Ferella, A.D. [Physics Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, 67010 Assergi (Italy); Froborg, F., E-mail: francis@froborg.de [Physics Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Tarka, M. [Physics Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Physics Department, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, searches for neutrinoless double β decay in {sup 76}Ge using bare high-purity germanium detectors submerged in liquid argon. For the calibration of these detectors γ emitting sources have to be lowered from their parking position on the top of the cryostat over more than 5 m down to the germanium crystals. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations, the relevant parameters of the calibration system were determined. It was found that three {sup 228}Th sources with an activity of 20 kBq each at two different vertical positions will be necessary to reach sufficient statistics in all detectors in less than 4 h of calibration time. These sources will contribute to the background of the experiment with a total of (1.07±0.04(stat){sub −0.19}{sup +0.13}(sys))×10{sup −4}cts/(keVkgyr)) when shielded from below with 6 cm of tantalum in the parking position.

  1. Improved Limit on Neutrinoless Double-β Decay of ^{76}Ge from GERDA Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Biernat, J; Bode, T; Borowicz, D; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; Comellato, T; D'Andrea, V; Demidova, E V; Di Marco, N; Domula, A; Doroshkevich, E; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Grabmayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Hakenmüller, J; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Hiller, R; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Janicskó Csáthy, J; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kazalov, V; Kermaidic, Y; Kihm, T; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Kish, A; Klimenko, A; Kneißl, R; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Macolino, C; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Miloradovic, M; Mingazheva, R; Misiaszek, M; Moseev, P; Nemchenok, I; Panas, K; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Pertoldi, L; Pullia, A; Ransom, C; Riboldi, S; Rumyantseva, N; Sada, C; Salamida, F; Schmitt, C; Schneider, B; Schönert, S; Schütz, A-K; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Selivanenko, O; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Vanhoefer, L; Vasenko, A A; Veresnikova, A; von Sturm, K; Wagner, V; Wegmann, A; Wester, T; Wiesinger, C; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zschocke, A; Zsigmond, A J; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2018-03-30

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton-number-violating neutrinoless double-β decay of ^{76}Ge (^{76}Ge→^{76}Se+2e^{-}) operating bare Ge diodes with an enriched ^{76}Ge fraction in liquid argon. The exposure for broad-energy germanium type (BEGe) detectors is increased threefold with respect to our previous data release. The BEGe detectors feature an excellent background suppression from the analysis of the time profile of the detector signals. In the analysis window a background level of 1.0_{-0.4}^{+0.6}×10^{-3}  counts/(keV kg yr) has been achieved; if normalized to the energy resolution this is the lowest ever achieved in any 0νββ experiment. No signal is observed and a new 90% C.L. lower limit for the half-life of 8.0×10^{25}  yr is placed when combining with our previous data. The expected median sensitivity assuming no signal is 5.8×10^{25}  yr.

  2. HEROICA: a test facility for the characterization of BEGe detectors for the Gerda experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Raphael [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. It uses bare, enriched Germanium diodes that are operated in liquid argon. Currently, Phase I is running at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. For Phase II, ∝20 kg of Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge at 86% level will be additionally deployed. These detectors allow for advanced pulse shape discrimination techniques, to suppress the background, which will be necessary to reach the goal of Phase II with a background index of 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) in the Region of Interest. The HEROICA project aims for acceptance tests and the characterization of the BEGe detectors. In this talk, the infrastructure of the Belgian HADES underground test facility, as well as the full test protocol for the characterization campaign of the enrBEGe detectors, is described. This test protocol includes the determination of important detector parameters, such as energy resolution, depletion voltage, dead-layer thickness and uniformity, active volume, as well as pulse shape discrimination parameters.

  3. Improved Limit on Neutrinoless Double-β Decay of Ge 76 from GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Biernat, J.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Comellato, T.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaidic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pertoldi, L.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zschocke, A.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; Gerda Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton-number-violating neutrinoless double-β decay of Ge 76 (Ge 76 →Se 76 +2 e- ) operating bare Ge diodes with an enriched Ge 76 fraction in liquid argon. The exposure for broad-energy germanium type (BEGe) detectors is increased threefold with respect to our previous data release. The BEGe detectors feature an excellent background suppression from the analysis of the time profile of the detector signals. In the analysis window a background level of 1. 0-0.4+0.6×10-3 counts /(keV kg yr ) has been achieved; if normalized to the energy resolution this is the lowest ever achieved in any 0 νβ β experiment. No signal is observed and a new 90% C.L. lower limit for the half-life of 8.0 ×1025 yr is placed when combining with our previous data. The expected median sensitivity assuming no signal is 5.8 ×1025 yr .

  4. Performance and stability tests of bare high purity germanium detectors in liquid argon for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabe Heider, Marik

    2009-05-27

    GERDA will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge by using a novel approach of bare germanium detectors in liquid argon (LAr). Enriched germanium detectors from the previous Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments have been reprocessed and will be deployed in GERDA Phase-I. At the center of this thesis project is the study of the performance of bare germanium detectors in cryogenic liquids. Identical detector performance as in vacuum cryostats (2.2 keV FWHM at 1.3 MeV) was achieved in cryogenic liquids with a new low-mass detector assembly and contacts. One major result is the discovery of a radiation induced leakage current (LC) increase when operating bare detectors with standard passivation layers in LAr. Charge collection and build-up on the passivation layer were identified as the origin of the LC increase. It was found that diodes without passivation do not exhibit this feature. Three month-long stable operation in LAr at {proportional_to} 5 pA LC under periodic gamma irradiation demonstrated the suitability of the modi ed detector design. Based on these results, all Phase-I detectors were reprocessed without passivation layer and subsequently successfully characterized in LAr in the GERDA underground Detector Laboratory. The mass loss during the reprocessing was {proportional_to}300 g out of 17.9 kg and the exposure above ground {proportional_to} 5 days. This results in a negligible cosmogenic background increase of {proportional_to} 5.10{sup -4} cts/(keV.kg.y) at {sup 76}Ge Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} for {sup 60}Co and {sup 68}Ge. (orig.)

  5. Search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge: GERDA Phase II commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Tobias [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    After successful completion of Phase I the Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) experiment underwent a major upgrade of the experimental apparatus. These upgrades include additional 20 kg of custom-made detectors with improved background rejection capabilities, accompanied by improved front-end electronics and an active liquid argon scintillation light veto. A sensitivity on the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life (T{sub 1/2}{sup 0ν}) of 10{sup 26} yr should be reached after a few years of data taking (Phase II). First results of Phase II commissioning and latest results from Phase I analyses are presented in this talk.

  6. Limit on the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of "3"6Ar from GERDA Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M.; Balata, M.; D'Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K.; Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V.; Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Kish, A.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Walter, M.; Bauer, C.; Hakenmueller, J.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von; Bode, T.; Csathy, J.J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S.; Wiesinger, C.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D.; Caldwell, A.; Gooch, C.; Kneissl, R.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L.; Cattadori, C.; Salamida, F.; Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A.; Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K.; Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Hemmer, S.; Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Hult, M.; Lutter, G.; Inzhechik, L.V.; Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Macolino, C.; Pandola, L.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Shirchenko, M.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinoless double electron capture is a process that, if detected, would give evidence of lepton number violation and the Majorana nature of neutrinos. A search for neutrinoless double electron capture of "3"6Ar has been performed with germanium detectors installed in liquid argon using data from Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of INFN, Italy. No signal was observed and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of "3"6Ar was established: T_1_/_2 > 3.6 x 10"2"1 years at 90% CI. (orig.)

  7. Status of the GERDA Experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brugnera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda is a low background experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS of the INFN designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ of 76Ge. In its first phase, high purity germanium diodes inherited from the former Heidelberg-Moscow and Igex experiments are operated “bare” and immersed in liquid argon, with an overall background environment of 10−2 cts/(keV·kg·yr, a factor of ten better than its predecessors. Measurements on two-neutrino double beta decay (2νββ giving T1/22ν=(1.88±0.10×1021 yr and recently published background model and pulse shape performances of the detectors are discussed in the paper. A new result on 0νββ has been recently published with a half-life limit on 0νββ decay T1/20ν>2.1×1025 yr (90% C.L.. A second phase of the experiment is scheduled to start during the year 2014, after a major upgrade shutdown. Thanks to the increased detector mass with new designed diodes and to the introduction of liquid argon instrumentation techniques, the experiment aims to reduce further the expected background to about 10−3 cts/(keV·kg·yr and to improve the 0νββ sensitivity to about T1/20ν>1.5×1026 yr (90% C.L..

  8. The background in the 0νββ experiment GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Csathy, J.J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Muenchen (Germany); Allardt, M.; Barros, N.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Wester, T.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Andreotti, E. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Nisi, S.; Pandola, L.; Zavarise, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Gurentsov, V.; Inzhechik, L.V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barnabe Heider, M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Muenchen (Germany); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Ferella, A.; Guthikonda, K.K.; Tarka, M.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Hampel, W.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Machado, A.A.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Strecker, H.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Cossavella, F.; Liao, H.Y.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Volynets, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Bellotti, E.; Pessina, G. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Sada, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Shevchik, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C.; Gotti, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Muenchen (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano (IT); INFN Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (IT); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (RU); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (RU); Sturm, K. von [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (IT); INFN Padova, Padua (IT); Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (DE)

    2014-04-15

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the Q{sub ββ} value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around Q{sub ββ}. The main parameters needed for the 0νββ analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains several contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around Q{sub ββ} with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 x 10{sup -3} cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at Q{sub ββ} is dominated by close sources,mainly due to {sup 42}K, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes from the {sup 226}Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known γ peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around Q{sub ββ} with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size. (orig.)

  9. The effects of pre-harvest napthalene acetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments on storage performance of ‘ Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar grown in Erzincan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan OZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of pre-harvest aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, 150, 225 ve 300 mg/L and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 20 mg/L treatments in different doses on storage performance of ‘Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. in 2012. The changes on some fruit quality parameters were measured at 2±1 oC temperature and with 90±5 % relative humidity at 45 days interval during storage. The lowest weight loss was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. In the all analysis date, the highest L* value was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits, and the lowest hue angle value was reported from the fruits of control treatment. The flesh firmness was determined that the best kept in the 225 and 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. The flesh firmness significantly reduced with NAA treatment at the end of storage. The highest soluble solids concentration (SSC was obtain from control fruit during the storage, whereas the lowest SSC was observed in fruit treated with 300 mg/L AVG. In the all analysis date, the highest titratable acidity was obtained in fruits treated with 225 and 300 mg/L AVG. The starch degradation was delayed with AVG treatments.

  10. Background reduction at low energies with BEGe detector operated in liquid argon using the GERDA-LArGe facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    LArGe is a low background test facility used for proving innovative approaches to background reduction in support of the neutrinoless double beta decay experiment Gerda. These approaches include an anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from liquid argon, as well as a novel pulse shape discrimination method exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for double beta decays) and efficiently reject multi-site events (typical for backgrounds from gamma-ray interactions), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. While the main focus of the LArGe facility is to assist with reaching the goal of Gerda - improving the sensitivity for {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay search, reducing the background at low energies and lowering the energy threshold is also of interest. In particular such efforts can be potentially relevant for search of dark matter or low energy neutrino interactions. In this talk I present the experimental measurement of the low energy region with a BEGe detector operated in LArGe with the application of powerful background suppression methods. The performance will be compared to that of some dedicated dark matter detection experiments.

  11. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the GERDA as part of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) project from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957 (NODC Accession 7000057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the GERDA from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957. Data were collected as part of the Rosenstiel...

  12. Background suppression in Gerda Phase II and its study in the LArGe low background set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In Phase II of the Gerda experiment additional ∝20 kg of BEGe-type germanium detectors, enriched in {sup 76}Ge, will be deployed in liquid argon (LAr) to further increase the sensitivity for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge to > 2 . 10{sup 26} yr. To reduce background by a factor of 10 to the required level of < 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr), it is necessary to employ active background-suppression techniques, including anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from LAr and pulse shape discrimination exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for 0νββ) and efficiently reject multi-site events (mainly from γ-rays), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. The combined power of these techniques was studied for {sup 42}K and other background sources at the low background facility LArGe. Together with extensive simulations, the information from tracking of the Phase II detector material exposure to cosmic rays and based on the background contributions observed in Phase I, the expected background level in Phase II in the region of interest at 2039 keV, the Q{sub ββ} energy of {sup 76}Ge, is estimated. The preliminary analysis shows that contributions from all expected background components after all cuts are in line with the goal of Gerda Phase II.

  13. Excited state transitions in 2νββ decays of {sup 76}Ge from phase I of the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, Thomas [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Germanium Detector Array GERDA is an experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The observation of such a decay would prove the Majorana character of the neutrino and could provide a hint about the neutrino mass and possibly identify the mass hierarchy scheme. The half life of the neutrino accompanied double beta decay (2νββ) of {sup 76}Ge has been measured by GERDA Phase I with unprecedented precision. The observed spectrum comes mostly from the transition from the 0{sup +} ground state of {sup 76}Ge to the 0{sup +} ground state of {sup 76}Se. However, phase space suppressed 2νββ transitions to excited states of {sup 76}Se exist as well. At current state, the predicted half lives for such decays vary by several orders of magnitude, due to the large uncertainties in the nuclear matrix elements and the available nuclear models. An observation would therefore help to constrain model parameters and decrease those uncertainties. This study investigates the 2νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge into various excited states of {sup 76}Se using the data from GERDA Phase I. An event counting method is performed based on coincident events between two germanium detectors. Several analysis parameters are optimized with the help of Monte Carlo simulations to maximize the sensitivity. The presentation discusses the procedure and results of this analysis.

  14. Populaarsemad raamatud : [Sõnum] / Ita Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Ita, 1921-2003

    1996-01-01

    Aasta populaarseimad raamatud läti kirjanduses: Vizma Belshevica 'Bille', Regina Ezera 'Lohe Muna' ja Karlis Levinshi 'Muinasjutujärve ääres'; populaarseimad publitsistikaraamatud on Guntis Ulmanise 'Sinult ju palju ei nõuta' ja Dainis Ivansi 'Juhuslik sõdalane'

  15. Outbreak of contact sensitization to methylisothiazolinone: an analysis of French data from the REVIDAL-GERDA network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosteing, Stéphanie; Meyer, Nicolas; Waton, Julie; Barbaud, Annick; Bourrain, Jean-Luc; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Felix, Brigitte; Milpied-Homsi, Brigitte; Ferrier Le Bouedec, Marie-Christine; Castelain, Michel; Vital-Durand, Dominique; Debons, Michèle; Collet, Evelyne; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Mathelier-Fusade, Pascale; Vermeulen, Christophe; Assier, Haudrey; Gener, Gwendoline; Lartigau-Sezary, Isabelle; Catelain-Lamy, Amandine; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    The preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) is used in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), but the MCI/MI mixture has been identified as highly allergenic. MI is considered to be less allergenic, and since the mid-2000s has been widely used alone, but is now clearly identified as a contact allergen. The French Vigilance Network for Dermatology and Allergy of the Study and Research Group on Contact Dermatitis (REVIDAL-GERDA) added MI to its baseline patch testing series in 2010. To evaluate the change in the proportion of MI-positive tests in France between 2010 and 2012. We conducted a nationwide, multicentre, retrospective study of all MI-tested patients between 2010 and 2012. Sixteen centres participated in the study (7874 patients were tested). Patch tests were performed mainly at a concentration of MI 200 ppm aq. We observed a significant increase in the proportion of MI-positive tests in 2012 and 2011 as compared with 2010 (5.6%, 3.3%, and 1.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). We report a significant increase in the number of MI-positive tests. MI is confirmed to be a rapidly emerging allergen, as also observed in other European countries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Results on neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge from phase I of the GERDA experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Allardt, M; Andreotti, E; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Barnabé Heider, M; Barros, N; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Becerici-Schmidt, N; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Belyaev, S T; Benato, G; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Bode, T; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Budjáš, D; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; Cossavella, F; Demidova, E V; Domula, A; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Ferella, A; Freund, K; Frodyma, N; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Gotti, C; Grabmayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Guthikonda, K K; Hampel, W; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Heusser, G; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Ioannucci, L; Janicskó Csáthy, J; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kihm, T; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Klimenko, A; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lebedev, V I; Lehnert, B; Liao, H Y; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Liu, X; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Macolino, C; Machado, A A; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Misiaszek, M; Nemchenok, I; Nisi, S; O'Shaughnessy, C; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Pessina, G; Pullia, A; Riboldi, S; Rumyantseva, N; Sada, C; Salathe, M; Schmitt, C; Schreiner, J; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Schönert, S; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Strecker, H; Tarka, M; Ur, C A; Vasenko, A A; Volynets, O; von Sturm, K; Wagner, V; Walter, M; Wegmann, A; Wester, T; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zavarise, P; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2013-09-20

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process that violates lepton number conservation. It is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. This Letter reports the results from phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope (76)Ge. Data considered in the present analysis have been collected between November 2011 and May 2013 with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr. A blind analysis is performed. The background index is about 1 × 10(-2) counts/(keV kg yr) after pulse shape discrimination. No signal is observed and a lower limit is derived for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of (76)Ge, T(1/2)(0ν) >2.1 × 10(25) yr (90% C.L.). The combination with the results from the previous experiments with (76)Ge yields T(1/2)(0ν)>3.0 × 10(25) yr (90% C.L.).

  17. Results on Neutrinoless Double-β Decay of Ge76 from Phase I of the GERDA Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Misiaszek, M.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process that violates lepton number conservation. It is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. This Letter reports the results from phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope Ge76. Data considered in the present analysis have been collected between November 2011 and May 2013 with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr. A blind analysis is performed. The background index is about 1×10-2counts/(keVkgyr) after pulse shape discrimination. No signal is observed and a lower limit is derived for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge76, T1/20ν>2.1×1025yr (90% C.L.). The combination with the results from the previous experiments with Ge76 yields T1/20ν>3.0×1025yr (90% C.L.).

  18. Search for 2νββ excited state transitions and HPGe characterization for surface events in GERDA phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern

    2016-03-01

    The search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay is one of the most active fields in modern particle physics. This process is not allowed within the Standard Model and its observation would imply lepton number violation and would lead to the Majorana nature of neutrinos. The experimentally observed quantity is the half-life of the decay, which can be connected to the effective Majorana neutrino mass via nuclear matrix elements. The latter can only be determined theoretically and are currently affected by large uncertainties. To reduce these uncertainties one can investigate the well established two-neutrino double beta (2νββ) decay into the ground and excited states of the daughter isotope. These similar processes are allowed within the Standard Model. In this dissertation, the search for 2νββ decays into excited states is performed in {sup 110}Pd, {sup 102}Pd and {sup 76}Ge. Three gamma spectroscopy setups at the Felsenkeller (Germany), HADES (Belgium) and LNGS (Italy) underground laboratories are used to search for the transitions in {sup 110}Pd and {sup 102}Pd. No signal is observed leading to lower half-live bounds (90% C.I.) of 2.9 . 10{sup 20} yr, 3.9 . 10{sup 20} yr and 2.9 . 10{sup 20} yr for the 0/2νββ 2{sup +}{sub 1}, 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 2} transitions in {sup 110}Pd and 7.9 . 10{sup 18} yr, 9.2 . 10{sup 18} yr and 1.5 . 10{sup 19} yr for the 0/2νββ 2{sup +}{sub 1}, 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 2} transitions in {sup 102}Pd, respectively. This is a factor of 1.3 to 3 improvement compared to previous limits. The data of Phase I (Nov 2011 - May 2013) of the 0νββ decay experiment GERDA at LNGS is used to search for excited state transitions in {sup 76}Ge. The analysis is based on coincidences between two detectors and finds no signal. Lower half-life limits (90 % C.L.) of 1.6.10{sup 23} yr, 3.7.10{sup 23} yr and 2.3.10{sup 23} yr are obtained for the 2νββ 2{sup +}{sub 1}, 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 2

  19. Search for the neutrinoless double β-decay in GERDA phase I using a pulse shape discrimination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment, located underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, deploys high-purity germanium detectors to search for the neutrinoless double β-decay (0νββ) of 76 Ge. An observation of this lepton number violating process, which is expected by many extensions of the Standard Model, would not only generate a fundamental shift in our understanding of particle physics, but also unambiguously prove the neutrino to have a non-vanishing Majorana mass component. A first phase of data recording lasted from November 2011 to May 2013 - resulting in a total exposure (defined as the product of detector mass and measurement time) of 21.6 kg.yr. Within this thesis a thorough study of this data with special emphasis on the development and scrutiny of an active background suppression technique by means of a signal shape analysis has been performed. Among several investigated multivariate approaches, particularly a selection algorithm based on an artificial neural network is found to yield the best performance; i.a. the background index close to the Q-value of the 0νββ-decay could be suppressed by 45% to 1.10 -2 cts/(keV.kg.yr), while still retaining a considerably high signal survival fraction of (83±3)% leading to a significant improvement of the experimental sensitivity. The efficiency is derived by a simulation and further validated by substantiated consistency checks availing themselves of measurements taken with different calibration sources and physics data. No signal is observed and a new lower limit of T 0ν 1/2 (90%C.L.)> 2.2. 10 25 yr for the half-life of neutrinoless double β-decay of 76 Ge is established.

  20. Search for the neutrinoless double β-decay in GERDA phase I using a pulse shape discrimination technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Andrea

    2014-07-09

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment, located underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, deploys high-purity germanium detectors to search for the neutrinoless double β-decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. An observation of this lepton number violating process, which is expected by many extensions of the Standard Model, would not only generate a fundamental shift in our understanding of particle physics, but also unambiguously prove the neutrino to have a non-vanishing Majorana mass component. A first phase of data recording lasted from November 2011 to May 2013 - resulting in a total exposure (defined as the product of detector mass and measurement time) of 21.6 kg.yr. Within this thesis a thorough study of this data with special emphasis on the development and scrutiny of an active background suppression technique by means of a signal shape analysis has been performed. Among several investigated multivariate approaches, particularly a selection algorithm based on an artificial neural network is found to yield the best performance; i.a. the background index close to the Q-value of the 0νββ-decay could be suppressed by 45% to 1.10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr), while still retaining a considerably high signal survival fraction of (83±3)% leading to a significant improvement of the experimental sensitivity. The efficiency is derived by a simulation and further validated by substantiated consistency checks availing themselves of measurements taken with different calibration sources and physics data. No signal is observed and a new lower limit of T{sup 0ν}{sub 1/2} (90%C.L.)> 2.2. 10{sup 25} yr for the half-life of neutrinoless double β-decay of {sup 76}Ge is established.

  1. Oceanographic and meteorological data measurements collected from CTD, bottle and other instruments from Gerda, J.E., Pillsbury and Calanus in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 1967-02-24 to 1970-11-13 (NCEI Accession 7100821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic and meteorological data measurements collected from CTD, bottle and other instruments. Data were collected from Gerda, J.E., Pillsbury and Calanus in...

  2. Pulse shape analysis for the GERDA experiment to set a new limit on the half-life of 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria Elisabeth

    2017-01-25

    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors operated in liquid argon (LAr). The aim is to explore half-lives of the order of 10{sup 26} yr. Therefore, GERDA relies on improved active background reduction techniques such as pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in which the time structure of the germanium signals is analyzed to discriminate signal- from background-like events. Two types of HPGe detectors are operated: semi-coaxial detectors previously used in the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments and new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors which feature an improved energy resolution and enhanced PSD. In Phase I of the experiment, five enriched BEGe detectors were used for the first time in the search for 0νββ decay. A PSD based on a single parameter, the ratio of the maximum current amplitude over the energy A/E is applied. 83% of the background events in a 232 keV region around Q{sub ββ} are rejected with a high signal efficiency of (92.1 ± 1.9) %. The achieved background index (BI) is (5.4{sup +4.1}{sub -3.4}) . 10{sup -3} (counts)/(keV.kg.yr). This is an improvement by a factor of 10 compared to previous germanium based 0νββ experiments. Phase II of the experiment includes a major upgrade: for further background rejection, the LAr cryostat is instrumented to detect argon scintillation light. Additional 25 BEGe detectors are installed. After PSD and LAr veto a BI of (0.7{sup +1.3}{sub -0.5}) . 10{sup -3} (counts)/(keV.kg.yr) is achieved. This is the best BI achieved in 0νββ experiments so far. A frequentist statistical analysis is performed on the combined data collected in GERDA Phase I and the first Phase II release. A new limit on the half-life of 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge is set to T{sup 0ν}{sub 1/2}>5.3.10{sup 25} yr at 90% C.L., with a median sensitivity of T{sup 0ν}{sub 1/2}>4.0.10{sup 25} yr at 90% C.L.

  3. Results on ββ decay with emission of two neutrinos or Majorons in {sup 76}Ge from GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Csathy, J.J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Zavarise, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barros, N. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bellotti, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Inzhechik, L.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); International University for Nature, Society and Man ' ' Dubna' ' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2015-09-15

    A search for neutrinoless ββ decay processes accompanied with Majoron emission has been performed using data collected during Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). Processes with spectral indices n = 1, 2, 3, 7 were searched for. No signals were found and lower limits of the order of 10{sup 23} yr on their half-lives were derived, yielding substantially improved results compared to previous experiments with {sup 76}Ge. A new result for the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied ββ decay of {sup 76}Ge with significantly reduced uncertainties is also given, resulting in T{sub 1/2}{sup 2ν} = (1.926 ± 0.094) @ x 10{sup 21} yr. (orig.)

  4. Results on ββ decay with emission of two neutrinos or Majorons in {sup 76}Ge from GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M. [Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M. [Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A. M. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2015-09-09

    A search for neutrinoless ββ decay processes accompanied with Majoron emission has been performed using data collected during Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). Processes with spectral indices n=1,2,3,7 were searched for. No signals were found and lower limits of the order of 10{sup 23} yr on their half-lives were derived, yielding substantially improved results compared to previous experiments with {sup 76}Ge. A new result for the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied ββ decay of {sup 76}Ge with significantly reduced uncertainties is also given, resulting in T{sub 1/2}{sup 2ν}=(1.926±0.094)×10{sup 21} yr.

  5. Systolic blood pressure decline in very old individuals is explained by deteriorating health: Longitudinal changes from Umeå85+/GERDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidung, Bodil; Toots, Annika; Nordström, Peter; Carlberg, Bo; Gustafson, Yngve

    2017-12-01

    Declining systolic blood pressure (SBP) is common in very old age and is associated with adverse events, such as dementia. Knowledge of factors associated with SBP changes could explain the etiology of this decline in SBP. This study investigated longitudinal changes in socioeconomic factors, medical conditions, drug prescriptions, and assessments and their associations with SBP changes among very old followed individuals.The study was based on data from the Umeå85+/Gerontological Regional Database (GERDA) cohort study, which provided cross-sectional and longitudinal data on participants aged 85, 90, and ≥95 years from 2000 to 2015. Follow-up assessments were conducted after 5 years. The main outcome was a change in SBP. Factors associated with SBP changes were assessed using multivariate linear regression models.In the Umeå85+/GERDA study, 454 surviving individuals underwent follow-up assessment after 5 years. Of these, 297 had SBP measured at baseline and follow-up. The mean change ± standard deviation in SBP was -12 ± 25 mm Hg. SBP decline was associated independently with later investigation year (P = .009), higher baseline SBP (P < .001), baseline antidepressant prescription (P = .011), incident acute myocardial infarction during follow-up (P = .003), new diuretic prescription during follow-up (P = .044), and a decline in the Barthel Activities of Daily Living index at follow-up (P < .001).In conclusion, SBP declines among very old individuals. This decline seems to be associated with initial SBP level, investigation year, and health-related factors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk analysis and reliability of the GERDA Experiment extraction and ventilation plant at Gran Sasso mountain underground laboratory of Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Mara; Garzia, Fabio; Guarascio, Massimo; Giovannone, Enzo Paolo; Giampaoli, Antonio; Musti, Mafalda; Ranalli, Maria Teresa; Perruzza, Roberto; Tartaglia, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is the risk analysis evaluation about argon release from the GERDA experiment in the Gran Sasso underground National Laboratories (LNGS) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). The GERDA apparatus, located in Hall A of the LNGS, is a facility with germanium detectors located in a wide tank filled with about 70 m"3 of cold liquefied argon. This cryo-tank sits in another water-filled tank (700 m"3 ) at atmospheric pressure. In such cryogenic processes, the main cause of an accidental scenario is lacking insulation of the cryo-tank. A preliminary HazOp analysis has been carried out on the whole system. The risk assessment identified two possible top-events: explosion due to a Rapid Phase Transition - RPT and argon runaway evaporation. Risk analysis highlighted a higher probability of occurrence of the latter top event. To avoid emission in Hall A, the HazOp, Fault Tree and Event tree analyses of the cryogenic gas extraction and ventilation plant have been made. The failures related to the ventilation system are the main cause responsible for the occurrence. To improve the system reliability some corrective actions were proposed: the use of UPS and the upgrade of damper opening devices. Furthermore, the Human Reliability Analysis identified some operating and management improvements: action procedure optimization, alert warnings and staff training. The proposed model integrates the existing analysis techniques by applying the results to an atypical work environment and there are useful suggestions for improving the system reliability. (author)

  7. Risk analysis and reliability of the GERDA Experiment extraction and ventilation plant at Gran Sasso mountain underground laboratory of Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lombardi

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is the risk analysis evaluation about argon release from the GERDA experiment in the Gran Sasso underground National Laboratories (LNGS of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN. The GERDA apparatus, located in Hall A of the LNGS, is a facility with germanium detectors located in a wide tank filled with about 70 m3 of cold liquefied argon. This cryo-tank sits in another water-filled tank (700 m3 at atmospheric pressure. In such cryogenic processes, the main cause of an accidental scenario is lacking insulation of the cryo-tank. A preliminary HazOp analysis has been carried out on the whole system. The risk assessment identified two possible top-events: explosion due to a Rapid Phase Transition - RPT and argon runaway evaporation. Risk analysis highlighted a higher probability of occurrence of the latter top event. To avoid emission in Hall A, the HazOp, Fault Tree and Event tree analyses of the cryogenic gas extraction and ventilation plant have been made. The failures related to the ventilation system are the main cause responsible for the occurrence. To improve the system reliability some corrective actions were proposed: the use of UPS and the upgrade of damper opening devices. Furthermore, the Human Reliability Analysis identified some operating and management improvements: action procedure optimization, alert warnings and staff training. The proposed model integrates the existing analysis techniques by applying the results to an atypical work environment and there are useful suggestions for improving the system reliability.

  8. Risk analysis and reliability of the GERDA Experiment extraction and ventilation plant at Gran Sasso mountain underground laboratory of Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Mara; Garzia, Fabio; Guarascio, Massimo; Giovannone, Enzo Paolo; Giampaoli, Antonio; Musti, Mafalda; Ranalli, Maria Teresa; Perruzza, Roberto; Tartaglia, Roberto, E-mail: mara.lombardi@uniroma1.it, E-mail: fabio.garzia@uniroma1.it, E-mail: massimo.guarascio@uniroma1.it [Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza-Engineering Roma (Italy); Corpo Nazionale Vigili del Fuoco L' Aquila (CNVF) (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori del Gran Sasso L' Aquila, Abruzzo (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    The aim of this study is the risk analysis evaluation about argon release from the GERDA experiment in the Gran Sasso underground National Laboratories (LNGS) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). The GERDA apparatus, located in Hall A of the LNGS, is a facility with germanium detectors located in a wide tank filled with about 70 m{sup 3} of cold liquefied argon. This cryo-tank sits in another water-filled tank (700 m{sup 3} ) at atmospheric pressure. In such cryogenic processes, the main cause of an accidental scenario is lacking insulation of the cryo-tank. A preliminary HazOp analysis has been carried out on the whole system. The risk assessment identified two possible top-events: explosion due to a Rapid Phase Transition - RPT and argon runaway evaporation. Risk analysis highlighted a higher probability of occurrence of the latter top event. To avoid emission in Hall A, the HazOp, Fault Tree and Event tree analyses of the cryogenic gas extraction and ventilation plant have been made. The failures related to the ventilation system are the main cause responsible for the occurrence. To improve the system reliability some corrective actions were proposed: the use of UPS and the upgrade of damper opening devices. Furthermore, the Human Reliability Analysis identified some operating and management improvements: action procedure optimization, alert warnings and staff training. The proposed model integrates the existing analysis techniques by applying the results to an atypical work environment and there are useful suggestions for improving the system reliability. (author)

  9. [Gerda Alexander eutonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, R

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important objectives of euronia is to find the adequate tonus in situations of total rest or of maximum dynamism. The dimension of tonic mastery together with relaxation make eutonia an extremely useful method in phoniatrics and orthophony.

  10. Characterization of the liquid argon veto of the GERDA experiment and its application for the measurement of the "7"6Ge half-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmann, Anne Christin

    2017-01-01

    The search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) is one of the most active fields in modern particle physics as the observation of this process would prove lepton number violation and imply new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The GERDA experiment searches for this decay by operating bare Germanium detectors, enriched in the ββ isotope "7"6Ge, in liquid argon. For the first time, a ββ-experiment combines the excellent properties of semiconductor Germanium detectors with an active background suppression technique based on the simultaneous detection of liquid argon scintillation light by photomultiplier tubes and silicon photomultipliers coupled to scintillating fibers (LAr veto). The LAr veto has been successfully operated during the first six months of Phase II of the experiment and yielded - in combination with a Germanium detector pulse shape discrimination technique - a background index of (0.7"+"1"."1_-_0_._5).10"-"3 ((cts)/(kg.keV.yr)). With an ultimate exposure of 100 kg.yr this will allow for a 0νββ-decay half-life sensitivity of the Gerda Phase II experiment of 10"2"6 yr. Double-beta decay under the emission of two neutrinos (2νββ) is a second-order process but which is allowed by the Standard Model. The excellent background reduction of the LAr veto results in an unprecedented signal-to-background ratio of 30:1 in the energy region dominated by 2νββ-decay of "7"6Ge. The remaining background after LAr veto is estimated using the suppression factor from calibration source measurements and results in a measurement of T"2"ν_1_/_2=(1.98±0.02(stat)±0.05(syst)).10"2"1 yr and T_1_/_2"2"ν=(1.92 ±0.02(stat)±0.11(syst)).10"2"1 yr based on two different detector designs and give uncertainties on the detector parameters but both with improved systematic uncertainties in comparison to earlier measurements.

  11. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0νββ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay, which can be investigated using 76 Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0νββ decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) 76 Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new 76 Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of ≤10 -2 events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of ≤10 -3 events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in 76 Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced 60 Co is expected to be ∝2.5.10 -3 events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV (λ=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for 60 Co and a factor 17 for 232 Th around Q ββ = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for 232 Th and 60 Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength shifter/reflector combination for the light detection has been developed, leading to a photo electron (pe) yield of as much as

  12. Characterization of the liquid argon veto of the GERDA experiment and its application for the measurement of the {sup 76}Ge half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne Christin

    2017-01-18

    The search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) is one of the most active fields in modern particle physics as the observation of this process would prove lepton number violation and imply new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The GERDA experiment searches for this decay by operating bare Germanium detectors, enriched in the ββ isotope {sup 76}Ge, in liquid argon. For the first time, a ββ-experiment combines the excellent properties of semiconductor Germanium detectors with an active background suppression technique based on the simultaneous detection of liquid argon scintillation light by photomultiplier tubes and silicon photomultipliers coupled to scintillating fibers (LAr veto). The LAr veto has been successfully operated during the first six months of Phase II of the experiment and yielded - in combination with a Germanium detector pulse shape discrimination technique - a background index of (0.7{sup +1.1}{sub -0.5}).10{sup -3} ((cts)/(kg.keV.yr)). With an ultimate exposure of 100 kg.yr this will allow for a 0νββ-decay half-life sensitivity of the Gerda Phase II experiment of 10{sup 26} yr. Double-beta decay under the emission of two neutrinos (2νββ) is a second-order process but which is allowed by the Standard Model. The excellent background reduction of the LAr veto results in an unprecedented signal-to-background ratio of 30:1 in the energy region dominated by 2νββ-decay of {sup 76}Ge. The remaining background after LAr veto is estimated using the suppression factor from calibration source measurements and results in a measurement of T{sup 2ν}{sub 1/2}=(1.98±0.02(stat)±0.05(syst)).10{sup 21} yr and T{sub 1/2}{sup 2ν}=(1.92 ±0.02(stat)±0.11(syst)).10{sup 21} yr based on two different detector designs and give uncertainties on the detector parameters but both with improved systematic uncertainties in comparison to earlier measurements.

  13. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-07-25

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  14. Harmonisasi SAK dan Aturan Pajak: Mungkinkah?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Sukendar Sukendar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to illustrate the fact that the case today, especially in Indonesia's commitment to convergency of IFRS, where the decision was certainly not out of global importance that in order to improve the information from the financial statements of companies in Indonesia. In addition, the IFRS Convergence is one of the Indonesian government agreements as a member of the G20 forum, the results of the meeting of G20 leaders in Washington DC forum, 15 November 2008. On the other hand, the tax rules that apply are still using the old accounting standards and do not follow the development of increasingly different. Previous differences between GAAP and tax rules are limited to the "deductible and non-deductible" which is resolved through fiscal reconciliation mechanism with positive correction and correction negatipnya. The widening gap today would be a separate issue for IAI as the organization of the accounting profession. Tax Accountant compartment formation in March 2014 is a serious evidence of the organization as an anticipation, particularly in an effort to bridge the gap widening

  15. Positive effects, side effects, and adverse events of clinical holistic medicine. A review of Gerda Boyesen's nonpharmaceutical mind-body medicine (biodynamic body-psychotherapy) at two centers in the United Kingdom and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmer, Charlotte; Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    To review adverse events of intensive, clinical holistic medicine (CHM) as it is practiced in holistic body-psychotherapy in England and Germany. Gerda Boyesen's "biodynamic body-psychotherapy" (BBP) is an intensive type of holistic mind-body medicine used by Boyesen at two centers. About 13,500 patients were treated during 1985-2005 period and studied for side effects and adverse events. The first author worked closely with Boyesen 1995-2005 with full insight in all aspects of the therapy and provided the data on side-effects. Therapy helped chronic patients with physical, psychological, sexual, psychiatric and existential problems to improve health, ability, and quality of life (NNT (number needed to treat) = 1-3). Effective in the treatment of mentally ill patients (schizophrenia, anxiety, poor mental health, low general ability). For retraumatization, brief reactive psychosis, depression, depersonalization and derealization, implanted memories, side effects from manipulations of the body, suicide/suicide attempts, hospitalization for physical and mental health problem during or 90 days after treatment, NNH (number needed to harm) > 13,500. Intensive, holistic non-drug medicine is helpful for physical, sexual, psychological, psychiatric and existential problems and is completely safe for the patient. The therapeutic value TV = NNH/NNT > 5,000. Altogether about 18,000 patients treated with different subtypes of CHM in four different countries have now been evaluated for effects, side effects and adverse events, with similar results.

  16. Toiduvilja koht pole kütusepaagis / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline 22. mai, lk. 4, Pärnu Postimees 22. mai, lk. 15, Võrumaa Teataja 22. mai, lk. 2, Vooremaa 22. mai, lk. 2, Valgamaalane 22. mai lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 23. mai, lk. 2, Kuulutaja 23. mai lk. 4, Koit 24. mai lk. 6, Järva Teataja, Harju Elu 27. mai lk. 2, Vali Uudised 28. mai lk. 2, Meie Maa 29. mai lk. 2, Lääne Elu 5. juuni lk. 2, Virumaa Teataja 6. juuni, lk. 11, Sakala 6. juuni lk. 2, Molodjozh Estonii 9. juuni lk. 7. Euroopa Parlamendi liige annab ülevaate EL biokütusepoliitikast

  17. Riskikapital vajab riigi kehtestatud mängureegleid / Peeter Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Peeter

    2004-01-01

    AS-i Suprema Securities juhatuse esimehe sõnul on Euroopa riskikapitali turul selge nõudlus sobiva seadusliku raamistiku ja hea mainega riigi või piirkonna järele, Eestil on praegu võimalus kujuneda Euroopa üheks riskikapitali keskuseks. Autori arvates peaks esimeseks sammuks olema eraldi riskikapitali seaduse loomine. Vt. samas: Andrus Ansip, Taavi Veskimägi ja Linnar Viik vastavad küsimusele, kas Eesti vajab riiklikku riskikapitali fondi

  18. Kas holokaust võib korduda? / Elhonen Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Elhonen, 1927-

    2000-01-01

    Eestit külastas USA Kongressi Esindajatekoja välissuhete komisjoni liige Tom Lantos. Dokumentaalfilm "Viimased päevad" ("The Last Days") Eesti välisministeeriumi pressikeskuses. režissöör James Moll : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1998. Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation algatus. Filmi esitusel osalesid ka L. Meri ja T. H. Ilves.

  19. Ebavõrdsus hukutab Eesti arengu / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Pärnu Postimees, 22. jaan. 2004, lk. 11; Võrumaa Teataja, 24. jaan. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 24. jaan. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 27. jaan. 2004, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 31. jaan. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 31. jaan. 2004, lk. 2; Koit, 3. veebr. 2004, lk. 6; Hiiumaa, 3. veebr. 2004, lk. 2. Autor vaatleb riigi osa ebavõrduse ilmingute likvideerimisel Eestis ja leiab, et ebavõrdsus on meie arengu peamine takistus, mille kõrvaldamine on sotsiaaldemokraatide peamine eesmärk

  20. Laste hulk ei sõltu toonekurgede arvukusest / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2006-01-01

    Perekonnaseaduse eelnõust ja samasooliste abielust. Sama ka Harjumaa 24. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Võrumaa Teataja 24. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vali Uudised 25. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Meie Maa 25. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Hiiu Leht 27. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Kuulutaja 27. jaan. 2006, lk. 4 ; Lõunaleht 26. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 26. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 11 ; Sakala 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 25. aprill 2006, lk. 2 ; Hiiu Leht 9. mai 2006, lk. 2 ; Sotsiaaldemokraat 16. veeb. 2006, lk. 5

  1. KUALITAS LAPORAN KEUANGAN UMKM SERTA PROSPEK IMPLEMENTASI SAK ETAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Rudiantoro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of quality of the SMEs’ financial statements on level of credit received by SMEs, as well as prospect of financial accounting standard for entity without public accountability (FAS EWPA implementation in 2011 to improve the quality of the financial statements of SMEs. The data of this study is obtained from the questionnaires returned by 50 SME entrepreneurs in the area of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, and other parts of Java. The results of this study show that the quality of SME financial statements do not affect the amount of credit received by SMEs. This may be due to the low quality of financial statements of SMEs so that banks are still in doubt with the relevancy and reliability of financial reporting. Prospect of FAS EWPA implementation to improve the quality of financial report may have been constrained due to the low understanding of the SME entrepreneurs over the FAS EWPA.

  2. Pikk tee märkamiseni / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2008-01-01

    Õpilaste koolisuhetest ning koolivägivallast. Ilmunud ka Vooremaa 9. okt. 2008, lk. 2 ; Võrumaa Teataja 11. okt. 2008, lk. 2 ; Koit 11. okt. 2008, lk. 6 ; Meie Maa 13. okt. 2008, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 10. okt. 2008, lk. 15 ; Virumaa Teataja 15. okt. 2008, lk. 11

  3. Äraaetud hobused lastakse maha / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2008-01-01

    Tööaja direktiivi muutmise eelnõust, mis suurendaks töötajate tööaja piiranguid. Ilmunud ka Põhjarannik 19. juuni 2008, lk.2 ; Vooremaa 21. juuni 2008, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 27. juuni 2008, lk. 11 ; Pärnu Postimees 27. juuni 2008, lk. 15 ; Järva Teataja 1. juuli 2008, lk. 2 ; Koit 3. juuli 2008, lk. 6 ; Nädalaleht 20. juuni 2008, lk. 7

  4. Necip Fazıl Kısakürek’in “Kaldırımlar” Şiiri Üzerine Dil Bilimsel Bir Çözümleme A Linguistic Analysis On Necip Fazıl Kısakurek’s Poem Called As ‘Kaldırımlar’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf TEPELİ

    2013-03-01

    önüyle şiirin başarısında ve kalıcılığında büyük paya sahiptir. Şiir dilden ayrı düşünülemeyeceği için şiir eleştirisi de dilden bağımsız gerçekleştirilemez. Şiirin yansıttığı duyguları, okuyucuya yaşattığı atmosferi birtakım öznel değerlendirmelerle aktarmak yerine tamamen metnin kendi söz varlığına dayanan, bilimsel bir yöntemle açıklamak ihtiyacı bu çalışmanın yapılmasında etkili olmuştur. Bu çalışma için Necip Fazıl Kısakürek’in şiirinin tercih edilmesinde şairin sapmalar ve aktarmalarla özgün imgeler yaratması, ses ögelerinden bolca yararlanması, konuşulan dilin verdiği rahat söyleyişi yakalaması etkili olmuştur. Şair kişinin yoğun iç hesaplaşmalarının, ruh çalkantılarının yansımalarını dış dünyanın gerçekliğiyle aktardığı mistik şiirler kaleme almıştır. “Kaldırımlar” şiiri tüm bu nitelikleri içermesi bakımından bizlere ideal bir dil malzemesi sağlamaktadır.Bu çalışmada, Necip Fazıl Kısakürek’in Kaldırımlar adlı şiiri dilbilimsel bakışla çözümlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bunun için Doğan Aksan'ın "Şiir Dili ve Türk Şiir Dili" adlı eseri temel alınarak, Aksan’ın değişik şiir örnekleri üzerinde gösterdiği şiir inceleme yöntemi bir Kaldırımlar şiiri üzerinde uygulanmıştır.İki bölümden oluşan çalışmanın ilk bölümünde kısaca sözcük türleri üzerinde durulmuş, ikinci bölümde ise metnin söz varlığını oluşturan sözcüklerin dil bilimsel/ anlam bilimsel/ gösterge bilimsel incelemesi yapılmış, bulgular tablolaştırılarak aktarılmıştır. Metinde geçen sözcükler tür, anlam yönü, ses ögeleri bakımından incelenmiş, bunların duygu değerleri, geçiş sıklıkları ve birbirleriyle ilişkileri tespit edilerek çözümlemeye gidilmiştir.

  5. Jutud / Jerome K Jerome ; tlk. Gerda Kroom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jerome, Jerome K., 1859-1927

    1997-01-01

    Järjejutt. Lõpp: 26. juuni 1997. Sisu : Onu Podger töötamas; Joostes rongile; Kaks tüdrukut sisseoste tegemas; Tandem; Mees, kes ei uskunud õnne; Hajameelne mees; Telefoni esimesed sammud; Üks hea nõuanne; Vestlussõnastikud; Kas parandada või sõita?

  6. Aspects of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in fish preservation by irradiation 1. The presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in coastal areas of Sumatra and Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A study was carried out on the presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples of sediment and seafoods originating from the eastern coast of Sumatra and the north coastal areas of Java. In a total of 2.434 samples of sediment and seafoods, 79 (3,3%) were found to contain vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the 467 sediment samples, 1.650 fish, 133 shellfish, 123 shrimps, and 61 crab samples, 22 (4.7%), 41 (2.5%), 12 (9.0%), 2 (1,6%) and 2 (3.3%) were positive for vibrio parahaemolyticus, respectively. Based on the sampling areas, the high incidence of vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in samples collected from Riau (5.4%), while the samples from East Java was only about 0.4%. The contamination level of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples collected from coastal areas of Sumatra and Java is relatively lower compared with the data obtained from some other coastal areas in the United States and Japan. (author)

  7. Valitsusliit jätab lasteaiaõpetajad virelema / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Koolieelsete lasteasutuste seaduse muutmise seaduseelnõu hääletati Riigikogu menetlusest välja, vanemahüvitistest. Ilmunud ka Pärnu Postimees 23. sept. 2004, lk. 15 ; Hiiu Leht 24. sept. 2004, lk. 2 ; Sakala 24. sept. 2004, lk. 2 ; Vali Uudised 24. sept. 2004, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 23. sept. 2004, lk. 4 ; Põhjarannik 24. sept. 2004, lk. 2 ; Türi Rahvaleht 24. sept. 2004, lk. 4, Meie Maa 28. sept. 2004. lk. 2 ; Koit 30. sept. 2004, lk. 6 ; Vooremaa 7. okt. 2004, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 16. okt. 2004, lk. 2

  8. Onu Miltie mälestuseks ehk Mis seob New Orleansi ja Keilat? / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2008-01-01

    16. novembril sai kaks aastat liberaalse majanduse guru Milton Friedmani surmast. Friedmani šokidoktriinist, katastroofikapitalismist ja pimedast usust erakapitali, ajal, mil Keila linnaisad olid otsustanud, et haridust hakkab munitsipaalkooli asemel edendama sihtasutus

  9. Uued muutused nõuavad enam selgitustööd / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu otsustest ja nende tähtsusest ning selgitamise vajadusest. Ilmunud ka Koit 22. jaan. 2008, lk. 6, pealkiri kujul: Muutused nõuavad poliitikutelt järjest enam selgitustööd, Meie Maa 22. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Sakala 24. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 22. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 25. jaan. 2008, lk. 11 ; Lääne Elu 24. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 5. veeb. 2008, lk. 19

  10. Kes kaitseb röövelliku kiirlaenu eest? / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2008-01-01

    Kiirlaenudest ja nendega seonduvatest probleemidest Eestis, seaduseelnõust, mis suurendab SMS-laenu võtnute võimalusi kaitsta oma õigusi laenuandjate ees ning olukorra ohjeldamisest Rootsis ja Soomes. Ilmunud ka Pärnu Postimees 31. okt. 2008, lk. 11, pealkiri kujul: kaitse röövelliku kiirlaenu vastu ja tarbijakaitsepoliitika ; Lõunaleht 6. nov. 2008, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: kes kaitseb röövelliku kiirlaenu eest ehk tarbijakaitsepoliitika lakmustest ; Vali Uudised 7. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Harju Ekspress 7. nov. 2008, lk. 8, pealkiri kujul: kes kaitseb röövelliku kiirlaenu vastu ehk tarbijakaitsepoliitika lakmustest ; Türi Rahvaleht 14. nov. 2008, lk. 4 ; Virumaa Teataja 14. nov. 2008, lk. 11, pealkiri kujul: kiirlaenud on test tarbijakaitsepoliitikale ; Kuulutaja 14. nov. 2008, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: kes kaitseb kiirlaenu vastu ; Vooremaa 18. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Sõnumitooja 26. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Koit : Tarbijaleht 27. nov. 2008, lk. 10

  11. Ohutusnõuded laste mänguasjadele muutuvad senisest karmimaks / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni avaldatud kauaoodatud mänguasjade ohtuse direktiivi eelnõust, mis reguleerib siin müüdavate mängukannide ohutusnõudeid. Ilmunud ka Meie Maa 23. okt. 2008, lk. 2, pealkiri kujul: nõuded laste mänguasjadele muutuvad karmimaks ; Põhjarannik 23. okt. 2008, lk. 2 ; Järva Teataja 25. okt. 2008, lk. 2, pealkiri kujul: lelude ohutusnõuded karmistuvad ; Kuulutaja 24. okt. 2008, lk. 4 ; Oma Saar 6. nov. 2008, lk. 5 ; Pärnu Postimees 7. nov. 2008, lk. 15 ; Valgamaalane 11. nov. 2008, lk. 2

  12. Kirjandus- ja kultuuritegelased Pärnu Alevi kalmistul / Gerda Kuum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuum, Gerda

    2007-01-01

    Jutukirjanik Suve Jaan, kodanikunimega Sommer Johann Friedrich (1777-1851); baltisaksa kirjamees ja pastor Johann Heinrich Rosenplänter (1782-1846); kirjamees ja köster Caspar Franz Lorenzsonn (1811-1880); köster Heinrich Gottlieb Lorenzsonn (1803-1847); trükkal ja kirjastaja Friedrich Wilhelm Bonn (1812-1881); linnapead Oskar Alexander Brackmann (1841-1927) ja Jaan Leesment (1870-1941)

  13. Kelder. Gerda Taljaard. Kaapstad: Tafelberg, 2012. 224 pp. ISBN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are. Benjamin's girlfriends—Elzette, the evil blonde skinny lawyer, and Martine, the goth with porcelain skin who plays jazz saxophone in her soundproof bathroom whilst standing on the toilet seat. One of Esmeralda's boyfriends is a butcher with massive sideburns. Another boyfriend is a professional big game hunter,.

  14. Kognitiivsete ja metakognitiivsete õpistrateegiate toetamine tehnoloogiaga tõhustatud keeleõppes / Katrin Saks, Äli Leijen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1968-

    2015-01-01

    Tehnoloogiliste vahenditega tõhustatud võõrkeelekursuse raames välja töötatud sekkumisest, mis võimaldab õpetajal parimal moel toetada õppijate kognitiivseid ja metakognitiivseid keele- õppestrateegiaid

  15. 20 aastat tagasi talletatud Siberi elulugudest valmib telesari / Gerda Kulli-Kordemets ; intervjueerinud Erika Klaats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli-Kordemets, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Uuest telesarjast tööpealkirjaga "Siber", mis räägib 14. 06. 1941 Virumaalt küüditatud politseinike lastest, kes viidi Tomski oblastisse Vasjuganje piirkonda. Stsenarist Merle Karusoo, kunstnik Eugen Tamberg, tegevprodutsent Mart Saar. Dokumentaalfilm tööpealkirjaga "Memento" tutvustab telesarja tegelaste prototüüpe ja reaalseid tegevuskohti. ETV võttegrupi käigust Tomski oblastisse

  16. Ümberkujundava juhtimise karismaatiline aspekt ja selle tõhusus / Kulno Türk, Gerda Mihhailova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Türk, Kulno, 1954-

    2004-01-01

    Autorite arvates ei tohi vastandada klassikalist juhtimist eestvedamisele ning juhi ja liidri rollid on mõlemad olulised organisatsiooni edukuse eeldused. Edukas juht peab kasutama tasakaalustatult erinevaid juhtimisstiile. Skeem

  17. Subjectivity Matters: Using Gerda Lerner's Writing and Rhetoric to Claim an Alternative Epistemology for the Feminist Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the common assumption among teachers that the traditional academic essay is the most appropriate sustained writing activity for students. As a feminist, the author believes that the traditional academic essay considers a positivist, patriarchal epistemology that governs beliefs about knowledge and teaching…

  18. Pronksiööl küpsenud valus tõde / Gerda Kordemets ; intervjueeris Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kordemets, Gerda, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    ETV lavastuslike saadete toimetuse juhataja meenutab Tallinna Linnateatri lavastuse "Karin ja Indrek. Tõde ja õigus" Eesti Televisioonile lindistamist aprillis 2007. Lavastaja Elmo Nüganen, aluseks Tammsaare "Tõe ja õiguse" IV osa

  19. Kuriteoohvrite abistamisest Eestis : [bakalaureusetöö] / Gerda Sepp ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Silvia Kaugia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    Viktimoloogia mõistest ja olemusest, kuritegevusest Eestis viimasel viiel aastal, kuriteo negatiivsest mõjust selle ohvrile, ohvrite reaalsetest võimalustest abisaamiseks praeguses Eestis, hinnangust ohvriabi süsteemile Eestis

  20. Charismatic aspect of transformational leadership and its role in creating organizational culture / Gerda Mihhailova, Kulno Türk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihhailova, Gerda

    2006-01-01

    Ettevõtte kasvu- ja küpsusfaasis vajatakse autorite hinnangul enam nn. klassikalisi juhte, karismaatilised juhid sobivad pigem radikaalseid muutusi nõudvatesse situatsioonidesse, nagu näiteks ettevõtte rajamine või selle langusfaasist välja toomine. Skeemid. Tabel. Lisa lk. 194

  1. Evaluating the use of a customer resource management system in selected South African business schools / Gerda Schilling

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    The management and implementation of unique resources contribute to the creation of a sustainable competitive advantage that has a positive impact on the owner of the resource’s profits. Customer relationship management becomes very important because customers with their own personal devices and options such as cloud computing, social media and mobility have converged into a renewed driving force expecting organisations to remember their experiences. These experiences should not been stored i...

  2. Mis on peidus hariduse ajaloos? : haridus on seotud võimuga ja kuskil ei tule see esile nii selgelt kui Baltikumis / intervjueerinud Liina Lukas ; saksa keelest tõlkinud Reet Bender, Liina Uudelt ja Triinu Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Vestlusringis osalejad Heinrich Bosse, Jürgen Joachimsthaler, Gert von Pistohlkors, Silke Pasewalck, Kaspar Renner ja Marju Luts-Sootak selgitavad Tartu ja Marburgi ülikooli koostöös toimuva rahvusvahelise konverentsi "Baltimaised haridusteed" ("Baltische Bildungsgescichte(n)") 20.-22.09.2016 eesmärke ja teemat

  3. The determination of multiple resistance, inheritance and cytochrome P450 activity in bifenthrinresistant Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    AY, Recep; YORULMAZ, Sibel

    2010-01-01

    In this study, multiple resistance, inheritance and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity were determined in Tetranychus urticae Koch (SAK) population after 20 selections for bifenthrin resistance. Selection study and LC50, 60 levels of SAK population of T. urticae were determined by dry film method. LC50 level of the SAK population selected twenty times with bifenthrin was increased from 984.49 to 11914.40 µl l-1 distiled water. Selected population showing 21.84 fold resistances was named ...

  4. Patch test reactions to mite antigens: a GERDA multicentre study. Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherches en Dermato-Allergie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, M; Birnbaum, J; Castelain, P Y; Ducombs, G; Grosshans, E; Jelen, G; Lacroix, M; Meynadier, J; Mougeolle, J M; Lachapelle, J M

    1993-11-01

    We performed patch tests with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) antigens from 2 different sources in 355 non-randomly selected patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 398 subjects of a control group. The study demonstrated that contact sensitization to mites occurred in an appreciable % of AD cases (20.8%), using commonly available assay products. The differences recorded between the 2 materials tested were related to the concentration of P1 antigen. Non-atopic patients rarely showed positive reactions to Dp (0.75%), when strict criteria for readings were applied and if 2 readings were performed. Patients with positive patch tests did not necessarily show positive immediate skin tests. It would be useful to carry out tests systematically in atopic patients, even if it is not yet known what modern treatment would be best for the patient. Laboratories still do not provide standardized house dust mite preparations--measuring and codifying their biological activity--for use in patch tests. It is to be hoped that the extension of this type of test will lead to the production of better test materials, in syringes with homogeneous dispersion and concentration.

  5. Kelle nimel NO99 seekord kõneleb ja kelle poole pöördub? / Valle-Sten Maiste, Gerda Kordemets, Madli Pesti...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    23. märtsil esietendub Nokia kontserdimajas NO99 lavastus"The Rise and Fall of Estonia", mis saab olema Eesti-teemaliste lavastuste tsükli lõpp. Lavastajad Ene-Liis Semper ja Tiit Ojasoo. Eesti teatrikriitikute ühendus tegi eksperimendi ja otsustas oma teatrimuljed kohe jäädvustada: esietendusjärgsel hilisõhtul vestlesid lavastusest erinevad eesti teatrikriitikud

  6. Staphylokinase has distinct modes of interaction with antimicrobial peptides, modulating its plasminogen-activation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Leonard T.; Vogel, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylokinase (Sak) is a plasminogen activator protein that is secreted by many Staphylococcus aureus strains. Sak also offers protection by binding and inhibiting specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we evaluate Sak as a more general interaction partner for AMPs. Studies with melittin, mCRAMP, tritrpticin and bovine lactoferricin indicate that the truncation of the first ten residues of Sak (SakΔN10), which occurs in vivo and uncovers important residues in a bulge region, improves its affinity for AMPs. Melittin and mCRAMP have a lower affinity for SakΔN10, and in docking studies, they bind to the N-terminal segment and bulge region of SakΔN10. By comparison, lactoferricin and tritrpticin form moderately high affinity 1:1 complexes with SakΔN10 and their cationic residues form several electrostatic interactions with the protein’s α-helix. Overall, our work identifies two distinct AMP binding surfaces on SakΔN10 whose occupation would lead to either inhibition or promotion of its plasminogen activating properties. PMID:27554435

  7. Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…

  8. The Roman Empire - The Third Century Crisis and Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    December 2010. Hekster, Olivier, Gerda De Kleijn, and Danielle Slootjes. "Introduction." Impact of Empire. 7, (2006, June 1): 3-10. Koselleck...Crisis of the Third Century. Edited by Olivier Hekster, Gerda De Kleijn, and Danielle Slootjes. Vol. 7, Impact of EMpire. Boston: Brill Academic, 2012...1. Protagoras and John Nicols, Mapping the Crisis of the Third Century, ed. Olivier Hekster, Gerda De Kleijn, and Danielle Slootjes

  9. Pojan syntymä sielussa ja läpimurtautuminen jumaluuteen : Mestari Eckhartin käsitys jumalallisesta ykseydestä

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen, Anni

    2011-01-01

    Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena on tutkia mestari Eckhartin (1260 1327) ykseyden mystiikkaa. Tutkimuskysymyksiä on kaksi: (1) Miten Eckhart kuvaa käsitystään unio mysticasta? Tarkastelen kysymystä Eckhart-tutkimuksen piirissä tehdyn jaottelun mukaan, jossa unio ymmärretään joko Pojan syntymänä sielussa (saks. Geburt) ja läpimurtautumisena (saks. Durchbruch) tun-temattomaan jumaluuteen (saks. Gotheit/Gottheit). Toinen tutkimuskysymykseni on jatkumoa edelliselle ja kuuluu: (2) Millainen on Jumal...

  10. Saving Coalition Lives and Limbs: Disrupting the Improvised Explosive Device Network in Iraq with Center of Gravity Analysis and Social Network Viral Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-21

    63, 73. 64. Evelin Gerda Lindner, ―In Times of In Times of Globalization and Human Rights: Does Humiliation Become the Most Disruptive Force...Force-Protection Issue, General Says.‖ American Forces Press Service, 14 February 2007. Lindner, Evelin Gerda . ―In Times of In Times of

  11. Værk og værksted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølsen, Tine; Gammelgaard, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Gerda Thune Andersen – Værk og Værksted Bogen er udgivet i forbindelse med jubilæumsudstillingen på Vendsyssel Kunstmuseum 31 august – 25 november 2012. Udstillingen er blevet til i et samarbejde mellem Vendsyssel Kunstmuseum og Gerda Thune Andersen. Tak til: Jørgen Gammelgaard, Tine Kjølsen, Anne...

  12. Reference: 359 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 359 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16531491i Cnops Gerda...leaf development in Arabidopsis thaliana. 4 852-66 16531491 2006 Apr The Plant cell Azmi Abdelkrim|Cnops Gerda

  13. "Klass : elu pärast" võitis peaauhinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Genfis toimunud rahvusvahelisel festivalil Cinema Tous Ecrans sai telesarjade võistlusprogrammis peaauhinna ETV sari "Klass : elu pärast", produtsent Gerda Kordemets, stsenarist Margit Keerdo, režissöörid Ilmar Raag, Gerda Kordemets, Liina Paakspuu, Priit Valkna ja Marek Miil

  14. "Klass : elu pärast" võitis rahvusvahelisel festivalil peaauhinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Genfis toimunud rahvusvahelisel festivalil Cinema Tous Ecrans sai telesarjade võistlusprogrammis peaauhinna ETV sari "Klass : elu pärast", produtsent Gerda Kordemets, stsenarist Margit Keerdo, režissöörid Ilmar Raag, Gerda Kordemets, Liina Paakspuu, Priit Valkna ja Marek Miil

  15. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients measurements collected using bottle from the LCM Red in the Alaskan Coastal waters, from the Gerda in the Atlantic Ocean, and from DeSteiguer in the Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 0002231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, oxygen and other profile data received at NODC on 06/10/04 by Olga Baranova, digitized from "William J. Teague, Zachariah R. Hallock, Jan M....

  16. Reval Hotel Lietuva Vilniuses : Konstitucijos pr. 20 / Piret Lindpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindpere, Piret, 1963-

    2004-01-01

    Vilniuse hotelli "Lietuva" renoveerimine. Arhitektuurse projekti koostaja Rootsi arhitektuuribüroo AB SWECO (arhitektid Aare Saks, Nils Palm. Sisekujundus: Vaikla Disain AS (Katrin ja Argo Vaikla, Liis Lindvere, Peeter Loo). Kommenteerivad Argo ja Katrin Vaikla. 3 ill

  17. On Zweier Sequence Spaces and de la Vall\\'{e}e-Poussin mean of order $\\alpha$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to study some geometrical properties such as order continuous, the Fatou property and the Banach-Saks property of the new space $[\\mathcal{Z}_{\\lambda}^{\\alpha}]_{\\infty}(p.$

  18. Graafika Filharmoonias : Harry Liivrand soovitab / Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivrand, Harry, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Alustatakse regulaarse kunstinäituse programmiga Estonia Kontserdisaalis. Avatakse graafikanäitus "Lähenemised" (koostaja Vappu Vabar). Osalevad Marje Üksine, Reti Saks, Maria-Kristiina Ulas, Kelli Kagovere, Naima Neidre jt

  19. International conference "Cultural Plurality in Estonia : Policies and Solutions"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Ettekandjad: Katrin Saks, Mall Hellam, Mati Luik, Kirsti Häkkinen, Vello Pettai, Ivi Proos, Katri Raik, NiinaOrhimenko, Ib Ostergaard Rasmussen, Urve Läänemets, Jüri Valge, Aleksander Dusman, Raivo Juurak, Rein Ruutsoo

  20. Eduard Odinets : "Olen eestlane, kelle emakeel on vene keel" / Eduard Odinets ; interv. Erik Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Odinets, Eduard, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 3. juuni lk. 3. Riigikogu sotsiaaldemokraatide fraktsiooni nõunik oma poliitikukarjäärist. Arvamust avaldab Katrin Saks ja Meelis Goldberg (Severnoje Pob.)

  1. 77 FR 32115 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Individual), Lar D. Westerberg, CEO, Application Type: Add NVO Service. Jo-Sak Shipping USA, Inc. (NVO & OFF... Service. Waterline International Logistics, Inc. (NVO & OFF), 24178 Alicia Parkway, Mission Viejo, CA...

  2. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Manal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, the two most commonly used fibrinolytic agents in thrombolytic therapy are recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA and streptokinase (SK. Whereas SK has the advantage of substantially lower costs when compared to other agents, it is less effective than either rt-PA or related variants, has significant allergenic potential, lacks fibrin selectivity and causes transient hypotensive effects in high dosing schedules. Therefore, development of an alternative fibrinolytic agent having superior efficacy to SK, approaching that of rt-PA, together with a similar or enhanced safety profile and advantageous cost-benefit ratio, would be of substantial importance. Pre-clinical data suggest that the novel fibrinolytic recombinant staphylokinase (rSAK, or related rSAK variants, could be candidates for such development. However, since an efficient expression system for rSAK is still lacking, it has not yet been fully developed or evaluated for clinical purposes. This study’s goal was development of an efficient fermentation process for the production of a modified, non-glycosylated, biologically active rSAK, namely rSAK-2, using the well-established single cell yeast Hansenula polymorpha expression system. Results The development of an efficient large scale (80 L Hansenula polymorpha fermentation process of short duration for rSAK-2 production is described. It evolved from an initial 1mL HTP methodology by successive scale-up over almost 5 orders of magnitude and improvement steps, including the optimization of critical process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, feeding strategy, medium composition, etc.. Potential glycosylation of rSAK-2 was successfully suppressed through amino acid substitution within its only N-acetyl glycosylation motif. Expression at high yields (≥ 1g rSAK-2/L cell culture broth of biologically active rSAK-2 of expected molecular weight was achieved. Conclusion The optimized production process

  3. Uus film tegi Raagist tegija / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Televisiooni fiktiivne dokumentaaldraama "August 1991" : stsenarist ja režissöör Ilmar Raag : produtsent Gerda Kordemets : operaator Janno-Hans Arro. Lisatud augustiputshi ajal teletorni kaitsnud Jüri Joosti ja Peeter Milli kommentaar

  4. Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with grass hosts in commercial pine production areas of South Africa. Cassandra L Swett, Bernice Porter, Gerda Fourie, Emma T Steenkamp, Thomas R Gordon, Michael J Wingfield ...

  5. 77 FR 67665 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Mill, Jesus Barcinas Rd., Merizo, 12000973 INDIANA Porter County Meyer, Dr. John and Gerda, House, 360..., 345 Main St., East Aurora, 12000981 Herkimer County Perry, Stuart and William Swezey Houses, 7541...

  6. New generation in Estonian animation / Mari-Liis Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari-Liis, 1988-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti animafilmide loojate uuest põlvkonnast, animafilmide tegemise võimalustest, uute animafilmide tasemest. Martinus Daane Klemeti animafilmidest "Furry Flurry" (2006) ja "Light My Fire" (2007) ning joonisfilmist "Õhus" (Eesti Joonisfilm, 2009, kunstnik Gerda Märtens)

  7. Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association with asymptomatic Pinus patula planting stock. Andrew R Morris, Gerda Fourie, Izette Greyling, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicoletta B Jones ...

  8. The 76Ge Program to Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiseppe, Vincente

    2017-09-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay searches play a major role in determining the nature of neutrinos, the existence of a lepton violating process, and the effective Majorana neutrino mass. The Majorana and Gerda Collaborations are operating arrays of high purity Ge detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The Majorana Demonstrator is operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota while the Gerda experiment is operating at LNGS in Italy. The Gerda and Majorana Demonstrator experiments have achieved the lowest backgrounds in the neutrinoless double-beta decay region of interest. These results, coupled with the superior energy resolution (0.1%) of Ge detectors demonstrate that 76Ge is an ideal isotope for a large next generation experiment. The LEGEND collaboration, with 220 members from 47 institutions around the world, has been formed to pursue a ton scale 76Ge experiment. Building on the successes of Gerda and Majorana, the LEGEND collaboration aims to develop a phased neutrinoless double-beta decay experimental program with discovery potential at a half-life significantly longer than 1027 years. This talk will present the initial results from the Majorana Demonstrator and Gerda experiments and the plan for the LEGEND program.

  9. Trachypodaceae. A critical revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van B.O.

    1959-01-01

    1. Trachypus. 1. T. bicolor Reinw. et Hornsch. is divided into 4 varieties: a. var. bicolor, b. var. hispidus (C. Muell.) Card., c. var. viridulus (Mitt.) Zant. comb. nov., d. var. scindifolius (Sak.) Nog. 2. T. humilis Lindb. is divided into 2 varieties: a. var. humilis, b. var. tenerrimus (Herz.)

  10. Challenges in Utilising Key Leader Engagement in Civil-Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    experience from Afghanistan represented different organisations: Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF), Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency ( Sida ...with Swedish civil and military personnel • Extensive experience from several missions, focus on Afghanistan • Organisations: SwAF, Sida , SAK and

  11. Naval Research Laboratory 1986 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    probabil- infinitesimal impedance elements cannot be dep- ity density, icted .) If PR (r. 1 is the joint probability den- sity function for r and 1, a...Dynamics. 1-5 Sept. 1986, finse Research. Medellin , Colombia. % Rosenblum, L.J., Chairperson, IEEE Computer Saks, N.S., Coorganizer and lecturer, IEEE

  12. Eesti graafika edu Hispaanias / Benjamin Vasserman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasserman, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Hispaanias Orenses dets. 1998/jaan. 1999 peetud V rahvusvahelisel graafikabiennaalil "Julio Prieto Nespereira auhind" pälvisid žürii kiituse eesti graafikud R. Saks, V. Tolli, B. Vasserman. I preemia ئ T. Uchida. Näitusel osales S. Liiva. 1998. a. sügisel Jaapanis toimunud II Tokio rahvusvahelisest väikegraafika triennaalist võttis osa N. Neidre.

  13. Pärnu piirivalvekordoni hoone arhitektuurivõistlus / Hindrek Kesler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kesler, Hindrek

    2006-01-01

    Žürii liige eskiisprojekti võistlusest ja võistlustöödest. Tulemused: II koht - töö "Arava", autor Toomas Mägi, III koht - töö "Vilgatus", autorid Kätlin Saks, Harry Klaar, ergutuspreemia - töö "Maru", autorid Heidi Urb, Siiri Vallner, Toomas Paaver

  14. ON STRONG AND WEAK CONVERGENCE IN n-HILBERT SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus L. Soenjaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the concepts of strong and weak convergence in n-Hilbert spaces and study their properties. Some examples are given to illustrate the concepts. In particular, we prove an analogue of Banach-Saks-Mazur theorem and Radon-Riesz property in the case of n-Hilbert space.

  15. Benjamin Vassermanile preemiad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Graafik Benjamin Vasserman pälvis kolme digitaalse graafilise lehe eest žürii kiituse Ungaris Györis toimunud biennaalil "The Master of Drawing and Graphic Arts" ning II preemia nelja lehe eest Leedus Vilniuses toimunud VI rahvusvahelisel väikegraafika triennaalil. Eestist osalesid veel Reti Saks ja Kelli Valk

  16. Fathers: A Placement Resource for Abused and Neglected Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.; Zuravin, Susan J.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated 17 custodial and 18 noncustodial fathers of abused or neglected children to determine: (1) how fathers get custody; (2) how situations in which fathers get custody differ from those in which they do not; and (3) the degree to which father placements are satisfactory. (SAK)

  17. Ähvardus : olümpiamängude teleülekanne jääb ära / Kai Kalamees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalamees, Kai

    2005-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Jaak Allik peab vajalikuks leida ETV-le lisamiljoneid olümpiamängude ja jalgpalli MM-i teleülekanneteks. Riigikogu liikmed Olav Aarna ja Katrin Saks kritiseerisid valitsust, et rahvusringhäälingu arengukava suhtes pole võetud seisukohta. Kultuuriminister Raivo Palmaru arvamusi. Lisa: Ringhäälingureform tulekul

  18. Relation of Knowledge and Performance in Boys' Tennis: Age and Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sue L.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    1989-01-01

    Examined 10- to 13-year-old boys' development of knowledge structure and sport performance in tennis by comparing skills and knowledge of experts and novices. Experts focused on higher concepts and exhibited greater decision-making ability because of their more highly developed knowledge structure. (SAK)

  19. Arvutijuhtimisega korter annab omanikule kontrolli / Siiri Suutre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suutre, Siiri

    2007-01-01

    Järgmisel aastal valmib Tallinnas Juurdeveo 19 maja, kus korteriomanikel on pidev virtuaalne juurdepääs oma kodule. Projekteerijad Harry Klaar ja Kätlin Saks arhitektuuribüroost On Arhitektid. Tehnoloogiline lahendus AS Eltron ja Yoga Intelligence AS

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Gadagi” tea preparations,. “sak'',”sada” and “magani”.. LD50 values of each type of the tea were determined. Results of phase. I and phase II of the study showed no mortality was recorded in any of the experimental groups of rats in 24hours ...

  1. A lattice calculation of the hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to (g-2)μ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Morte, Michele; Francis, Anthony; Gerardin, A.

    2018-01-01

    We present results of calculations of the hadronic vacuum polarisation contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Specifically, we focus on controlling the infrared regime of the vacuum polarisation function. Our results are corrected for finite-size effects by combining the Gounaris-Sak...

  2. Climate change and urbanization threaten water resources in South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-08-14

    Aug 14, 2014 ... JAGP: Have you found that climate-related pressures are related to ... SAK: We found that urbanization and climate change have put extra stress on water ... JAGP: Will the research team continue to work together on water ...

  3. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  4. From centriole biogenesis to cellular function: centrioles are essential for cell division at critical developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Martins, Ana; Riparbelli, Maria; Callaini, Giuliano; Glover, David M; Bettencourt-Dias, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Centrioles are essential for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosome organization. Abnormalities in centrosome structure and number in many cancers can be associated with aberrant cell division and genomic instability.(1,2) Canonical centriole duplication occurs in coordination with the cell division cycle, such that a single new "daughter" centriole arises next to each "mother" centriole. If destroyed, or eliminated during development, centrioles can form de novo.(3-5) Here we discuss our recent data demonstrating a molecular pathway that operates in both de novo and canonical centriole biogenesis involving SAK/PLK4, SAS-6 and SAS-4.(6) We showed that centriole biogenesis is a self-assembly process locally triggered by high SAK/PLK4 activity that may or not be associated with an existing centriole. SAS-6 acts downstream of SAK/PLK4 to organize nine precentriolar units, which we call here enatosomes, fitting together laterally and longitudinally, specifying a tube-like centriole precursor.(7,8) The identification of mutants impaired in centriole biogenesis has permitted the study of the physiological consequences of their absence in the whole organism. In Drosophila, centrioles are not necessary for somatic cell divisions.(9,10) However, we show here that mitotic abnormalities arise in syncytial SAK/PLK4-derived mutant embryos resulting in lethality. Moreover male meiosis fails in both SAK/PLK4 and DSAS-4 mutant spermatids that have no centrioles. These results show diversity in the need for centrioles in cell division. This suggests that tissue specific constraints selected for different contributions of centrosome-independent and dependent mechanisms in spindle function. This heterogeneity should be taken into account both in reaching an understanding of spindle function and when designing drugs that target cell division.

  5. AL FIKR AL BALAGHI FI AL MA’ĂNI ‘INDA AS SAKĂKI FI KITABIHI MIFTAHUL ULUM DIRĂSAH BALAGHIYYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talqis Nurdianto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Miftāhul ‘Ulūm, written by al-Sakākī, especially the third part, was the beginning of a new phase in the development of Arabic rhetoric. Al-Sakākī divided the rhetoric into three fields of study, which are  (1 Ma’ānī, (2 Bayān, (3 Badī’. However, his style is influenced by philosophers, theologians and their verbal lexicon, which are difficult to take, especially for the ordinary recipient. Al-Sakākī described that his book containing several types of literature, namely, ‘ilm ṣarf in complete version and its conclusion, derivation science, and the grammatical study in the completeness of Ma’ānī and Bayān. The meaning of Makna is the study of completeness and conclusion. Therefore, books and prose, and poem require al-‘Arūḍ and al-Qawāfī include Ṣarf, Grammar, Ma’ānī, Bayān, limitation, reasoning, al’Arūḍ, and al-Qawāfī. He argued that the fields of study were influential in delivering knowledge to the student in order to reach the goal of the author towards his book.This research was an analytical descriptive study of al-Sakākī rhetoric that focused on the normative aspect represented by rhetorical rule and aesthetic aspects. Those aspects were shown by the feeling. Al-Sakākī rhetoric thought is a method based on mental division and has conducted in the construction of many factors, which the most important of them are philosophy and logic. Keywords: thought, rhetoric, meanings, sakkaki, study

  6. Novel Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase MpkC of Aspergillus fumigatus Is Required for Utilization of Polyalcohol Sugars▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Guadalupe; Romans, Angela; Nguyen, C. Kim; May, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    The genome of Aspergillus fumigatus has four genes that encode mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), sakA/hogA, mpkA, mpkB, and mpkC. The functions of the MpkB and MpkC MAPKs are unknown for A. fumigatus and the closely related and genetically amenable species Aspergillus nidulans. mpkC deletion mutants of A. fumigatus were made and their phenotypes characterized. The mpkC deletion mutants were viable and had normal conidial germination and hyphal growth on minimal or complete media. This is in contrast to deletion mutants with deletions in the closely related MAPK gene sakA/hogA that we previously reported had a nitrogen source-dependent germination phenotype. Similarly, the growth of the mpkC deletion mutants was wild type on high-osmolarity medium. Consistent with these two MAP kinase genes regulating different cellular responses, we determined that the mpkC deletion mutants were unable to grow on minimal medium with sorbitol or mannitol as the sole carbon source. This result implicates MpkC signaling in carbon source utilization. Changes in mRNA levels for sakA and mpkC were measured in response to hypertonic stress, oxidative stress, and a shift from glucose to sorbitol to determine if there was overlap in the SakA and MpkC signaling pathways. These studies demonstrated that SakA- and MpkC-dependent patterns of change in mRNA levels are distinct and have minimal overlap in response to these environmental stresses. PMID:16998074

  7. Novel mitogen-activated protein kinase MpkC of Aspergillus fumigatus is required for utilization of polyalcohol sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Guadalupe; Romans, Angela; Nguyen, C Kim; May, Gregory S

    2006-11-01

    The genome of Aspergillus fumigatus has four genes that encode mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), sakA/hogA, mpkA, mpkB, and mpkC. The functions of the MpkB and MpkC MAPKs are unknown for A. fumigatus and the closely related and genetically amenable species Aspergillus nidulans. mpkC deletion mutants of A. fumigatus were made and their phenotypes characterized. The mpkC deletion mutants were viable and had normal conidial germination and hyphal growth on minimal or complete media. This is in contrast to deletion mutants with deletions in the closely related MAPK gene sakA/hogA that we previously reported had a nitrogen source-dependent germination phenotype. Similarly, the growth of the mpkC deletion mutants was wild type on high-osmolarity medium. Consistent with these two MAP kinase genes regulating different cellular responses, we determined that the mpkC deletion mutants were unable to grow on minimal medium with sorbitol or mannitol as the sole carbon source. This result implicates MpkC signaling in carbon source utilization. Changes in mRNA levels for sakA and mpkC were measured in response to hypertonic stress, oxidative stress, and a shift from glucose to sorbitol to determine if there was overlap in the SakA and MpkC signaling pathways. These studies demonstrated that SakA- and MpkC-dependent patterns of change in mRNA levels are distinct and have minimal overlap in response to these environmental stresses.

  8. Phenomenology of experiential sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, Felipe; Zahavi, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended to be overl......The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended...

  9. Targeting the oxidative stress response system of fungi with safe, redox-potent chemosensitizing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong H. eKim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidation system is a target in the antifungal action of amphotericin B (AMB and itraconazole (ITZ, in filamentous fungi. The sakAΔ mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK gene deletion mutant in the antioxidation system, was found to be more sensitive to AMB or ITZ than other A. fumigatus strains, a wild type and a mpkCΔ mutant (MAPK gene deletion mutant in polyalcohol sugar utilization system. The sakAΔ mutant showed no growth at 0.5 μg mL-1 of ITZ or reduced growth at 1.0 to 2.0 μg mL-1 of AMB, while the other strains exhibited robust growth. Complete fungal kill (≥ 99.9% by ITZ or AMB was achieved by much lower dosages for the sakAΔ mutant than for the other strains. SakA and MpkC appear to have overlapping roles in marshalling the oxidative stress response under treatment by an organic peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The SakA signalling pathway was found to be responsible for fungal tolerance to AMB or ITZ toxicity. It appears msnA, an Aspergillus ortholog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 (encoding a stress-responsive C2H2-type zinc-finger regulator and sakA and/or mpkC (upstream MAPKs are in the same stress response network under t-BuOOH-, H2O2- or AMB-triggered toxicity. Of note is that ITZ-sensitive yeast pathogens (Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans were also sensitive to t-BuOOH, showing a connection between ITZ toxicity and oxidative stress response. This was shown by enhanced antifungal activity of AMB or ITZ when co-applied with redox-potent natural compounds, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, thymol or salicylaldehyde, as chemosensitizing agents. Hence, redox compounds, which target the antioxidation system in fungi, possess a potent chemosensitizing capacity to enhance efficacy of conventional drugs inducing oxidative stress. Such chemosensitization can reduce costs and alleviate negative side effects associated with current

  10. "August 1991" - film ajaloost ja teletöötajaist / Sergo Selder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selder, Sergo

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Televisiooni fiktiivne dokumentaaldraama "August 1991" : stsenarist ja režissöör Ilmar Raag : produtsent Gerda Kordemets : operaator Janno-Hans Arro. "Prototüübid" Enn Eesmaa ja Andres Raid kommenteerivad endi ja kolleegide kujutamist filmis

  11. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-01-01

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in 60 Co, 152 Eu and 228 Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  12. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benato, G. [University of Zurich, (Switzerland); Cattadori, C. [INFN - Milano Bicocca, (Italy); Di Vacri, A. [INFN LNGS, (Italy); Ferri, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy); D' Andrea, V.; Macolino, C. [GSSI/INFN LNGS, (Italy); Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano/INFN Milano, (Italy); Salamida, F. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN - Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)

  13. Pulse shape analysis of enriched BEGe detectors in vacuum cryostat and liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. Germanium diodes of BEGe type (Canberra, Belgium) made from isotopically modified material have been procured for Phase II of Gerda. They will improve the sensitivity of the experiment by additional target mass, improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. The PSD efficiencies of the new enriched BEGe detectors were studied in vacuum cryostats as part of the characterization campaign at the HADES underground laboratory. For a deeper understanding of the pulse shape performance of the enriched BEGe detectors, detailed {sup 241}Am surface scans were performed. Unexpectedly high position-dependence of the pulse shape parameter Amplitude-over-Energy was found for some of the detectors. With further investigation this effect was traced to surface charge effects specific to the operational configuration of the detectors inside the vacuum cryostats. The standard behavior is restored when they are operated in liquid argon in the configuration intended for Gerda Phase II. Finally, five of the enriched BEGe diodes were installed in the Gerda liquid argon cryostat prior to the full upgrade. They show a good performance and are able to reject efficiently multi-site-events as well as β- and α-particles.

  14. Antitrypanosomal isoflavan quinones from Abrus precatorius

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hata, Y

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fitoterapia Vol. 93, pp 81-87 Antitrypanosomal isoflavan quinones from Abrus precatorius Yoshie Hata a,d, Samad Nejad Ebrahimi a,e, Maria De Mieri a, Stefanie Zimmermann a, Tsholofelo Mokoka c, Dashnie Naidoo c, Gerda Fouche c, Vinesh Maharaj c...

  15. [Patch testing: historical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, J-M

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the key points in the history of patch testing, which spans more than a century, starting with the first description of the method by J. Jadassohn in 1895. Special attention is paid to the contribution of French schools in this field, which led to the foundation of the Groupe d'études et de recherches en dermato-allergologie (GERDA).

  16. Semiconductor-based experiments for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnabé Heider, Marik

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are employing semiconductor detectors in the search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay: COBRA, Majorana and GERDA. COBRA is studying the prospects of using CdZnTe detectors in terms of achievable energy resolution and background suppression. These detectors contain several ββ emitters and the most promising for 0νββ-decay search is 116 Cd. Majorana and GERDA will use isotopically enriched high purity Ge detectors to search for 0νββ-decay of 76 Ge. Their aim is to achieve a background ⩽10 −3 counts/(kg⋅y⋅keV) at the Q improvement compared to the present state-of-art. Majorana will operate Ge detectors in electroformed-Cu vacuum cryostats. A first cryostat housing a natural-Ge detector array is currently under preparation. In contrast, GERDA is operating bare Ge detectors submerged in liquid argon. The construction of the GERDA experiment is completed and a commissioning run started in June 2010. A string of natural-Ge detectors is operated to test the complete experimental setup and to determine the background before submerging the detectors enriched in 76 Ge. An overview and a comparison of these three experiments will be presented together with the latest results and developments.

  17. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-06-05

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 228}Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  18. Indigenous edible plants as sources of nutrients and health benefitting components (nutraceuticals)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, N

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available Africa, not only to address health problems and malnutrition, but also to create employment through establishment of industries © CSIR 2010 Slide 21 The Team at CSIR Tshidi Moroka Nomusa Dlamini Gerda Botha Judy Reddy Lauraine Mlotshwa Middah...

  19. Valik konkursi "Noored poeedid 2009" alapealkirjaga "See on rõõm elust endast" tunnustust pälvinud töödest : [luuletused

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Vanem vanuseaste 1. koht Triin Sepp, 2. koht Triinu Ansper, 3.-4. koht Kairi Sepp ja Heli Armus. Keskmine vanuseaste 1. koht Annaliis Lehto, 2. koht Liina Salonen, 3. koht Gerda-Liis Palmiste. Noorem vanuseaste 1. koht Reet Rüütel, 2. koht Diana Kasesalu, 3. koht Eliis Mets

  20. Bruno 2016 / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2016-01-01

    Valik disainiauhinnale Bruno 2016 kandideerivatest esemetest (Gerda Retter "Jääkideta nahadisain", Raul Abner "Kummut Mix", Argo Ader ja Rain Aduson "Fitbi - spordi mugavalt!", Merili Sulg "Seinašabloon Kasemets", Rita Assor "Lugemispesa-mänguala Aas", Mare Kelpman "Terra pleedid", Henri Viljarand "Vineervalamu Gniss")

  1. The impact of telecommuting on the division of labour in the domestic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casimir, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    When people start working at home, it is plausible that the division of labour within the home will change, in particular the division between men and women. Gerda Casimir studied these changes, by analysing the results of an Internet survey, to which 171 respondents reacted. The core of

  2. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1985-01-01

    AMSHOFF, Ms. Dr. Gerda Jane Hillegonda (5 January 1913 — 10 February 1985) Ms. Amshoff studied biology at the State University of Utrecht. Her Ph.D. thesis was on the Leguminosae of Surinam. In later years she was attached to the Agricultural College of Wageningen and worked as a staffmember of WAG,

  3. Eesti disain / Silvia Pärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärmann, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Ahti Grünbergi ja Tõnis Kalve mööbliseeria Derelict. Maile Grünbergi disainitud toolid ja laud Madis. Taniel Kolpakovi kaubamärgile Rough Bloom disainitud köögimööbel. Kaubamärgi Varm Country uus kollektsioon Basic no 2. Kersti Laanmaa keraamilised teekannud Kiviaeg ja Jänes kapsas. Tiina Mangi kavandatud diivan Sik-Sak. Tõnis Vellama valgustimudel AET27

  4. Peasant struggles and social change: migration, households and gender in a rural Turkish society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilcan, S M

    1994-01-01

    "This article sheds light on the interrelationship of seasonal migration, subsistence production and peasant relations in a community (Sakli) located in Turkey's northwestern countryside.... While migrant labor is understood by local villagers as forming part of a continual battle to preserve local tradition and kinship ties, this article shows how it reduces the dominion of landlords while creating internal household differentiation and gendered hierarchies." excerpt

  5. Installation Restoration Program. Site Investigation Report. 147th Fighter Interceptor Group, Texas Air National Guard, Ellington, Field, Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    N4.L.....-I~C1 01AME TER ...... SACKS OF TON’O 4-1At AN SCH4EDULE 40PVC SAK pTA rEINO 8LANK VLT TRAP I o GALLONS OF GVOUT USED SOTTOM WELL CAP POUNDS...and fungi on leaf surfaces and in soil. Many of these microorganisms play key roles in the decomposer food chain. Cases of lead poisoning have been

  6. Perbedaan IFRS, U.S. GAAP, Dan PSAK: Investement Property

    OpenAIRE

    L.D., Nunik

    2010-01-01

    International accounting standards convergence which has been done through adopting IFRS completely by DSAK is IAS 40 Investment Property. Based on these adopting, there will be differentiation between IFRS, U.S. GAAP and PSAK. But for PSAK valid in January 1st 2008 (SAK in July 1st 2009), there are no differentiation with IFRS because PSAK adopts IFRS completely, but between IFRS, PSAK and U.S. GAAP have differentiation. This paper will only discuss about the differentiation between IFRS, U....

  7. Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... sequences from S. aureus strains deposited in GenBank (AF332619, ... Metal ions and detergents also showed an inhibitory effect on rSak, especially Zn2+ and Cu2+ which .... at 6000 rpm for 10 min at 4°C. Wet cells was used immediately for .... 42% of the total proteins (Figure 2A, lanes 3 to 5) using.

  8. AS Balti Ameerika Auto Keskus Peterburi tee 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Tallinna 'Chrysleri' ja 'Jeepi' autokeskuse hoonekompleksis on eristatavad kolm osa: kahekorruseline müügisalong, ühekorruseline töökoda ja hooldusruunid, ladu ning olmeplokk. Klaasfassaadiga automüügisaal ulatub hoonest välja sammastega ümbritsetud poolkaarest paadikujulise siiluna. Peatöövõtja: AS Feer Ehituse projektijuht: AS TSM. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuribüroo R. Puusepp. Arhitekt Aare Saks (FFNS, Rootsi). Sisekujundus Rein Nurmse. Projekt 1996, valmis 1997

  9. Subunits of the Snf1 kinase heterotrimer show interdependence for association and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karin; Rubenstein, Eric M; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-09-08

    The Snf1 kinase and its mammalian orthologue, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), function as heterotrimers composed of a catalytic alpha-subunit and two non-catalytic subunits, beta and gamma. The beta-subunit is thought to hold the complex together and control subcellular localization whereas the gamma-subunit plays a regulatory role by binding to and blocking the function of an auto-inhibitory domain (AID) present in the alpha-subunit. In addition, catalytic activity requires phosphorylation by a distinct upstream kinase. In yeast, any one of three Snf1-activating kinases, Sak1, Tos3, or Elm1, can fulfill this role. We have previously shown that Sak1 is the only Snf1-activating kinase that forms a stable complex with Snf1. Here we show that the formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex requires the beta- and gamma-subunits in vivo. However, formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex is not necessary for glucose-regulated phosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop. Snf1 kinase purified from cells lacking the beta-subunits do not contain any gamma-subunit, indicating that the Snf1 kinase does not form a stable alphagamma dimer in vivo. In vitro kinase assays using purified full-length and truncated Snf1 proteins demonstrate that the kinase domain, which lacks the AID, is significantly more active than the full-length Snf1 protein. Addition of purified beta- and gamma-subunits could stimulate the kinase activity of the full-length alpha-subunit but only when all three subunits were present, suggesting an interdependence of all three subunits for assembly of a functional complex.

  10. The Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries by Thai University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atipat Boonmoh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to participate in the experiment. Observations and interviews were utilized to ascertain how the subjects used their PEDs. The findings showed superficial and partial reading of the dictionary entries. It also revealed several factors that may hinder dictionary look-up success. On the basis of this research, guidelines for buying PEDs and for teaching PED skills are proposed.

    OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van sak- elektroniese woordeboeke deur Thaise universiteitstudente. Hierdie artikel doen verslag van 'n kleinskaalse studie van Thaisprekende aanleerders wat sak- elektroniese woordeboeke (SEW's gebruik om 'n Engelse nuusartikel te lees. Dit ondersoek hoe die proefpersone hul SAW's gebruik vir leesbegrip. Nege-en-dertig voorgraadse studente het 'n vraelysopname voltooi. Uit hulle is vier gekies om aan die eksperiment deel te neem. Waarnemings en onderhoude is aangewend om te bepaal hoe die proefpersone hul SEW's gebruik het. Die bevindings het oppervlakkige en gedeeltelike lees van die woordeboekinskrywings getoon. Dit het ook verskeie faktore uitgewys wat woordeboekopsoeksukses mag belemmer. Op grond van hierdie navorsing word riglyne vir die koop van SEW's en vir die onderrig van SEWvaardighede voorgestel.

    Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIK, SAK- ELEKTRONIESE WOORDEBOEK, WOORDEBOEKRAADPLEGING, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK

  11. Mengukur Tingkat Kesesuaian antara Standar Akuntansi Keuangan dengan International Financial Reporting Standards per 1 Januari 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinta Ria Panggabean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available International accounting topic was rare to adress between accounting practices, especially International Accounting Standard. It occured due to the restrictive source and difficulty in finding the source. However, recently the standard has been an addressed issue since Indonesia Chartered of Accountant (IAI plans to comply the Indonesia Accounting Standard (SAK with the International Financialreporting(IFRSon1stJanuary2012.The purpose of the research is to measure the compliance of the (SAK per 1st January 2008 with the IFRS per 1st January 2008 and attain the association between those two standards. Hence, the difference between the two standards and the neccessary steps to be taken for complying can be obtained. The methodology will be used in the paper are Jaccard’s Coefficients, Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient,Euclidean Distances.The sample for the paper will be 43 accounting issues adressed on both standards that have been chosen and investigated. The paper concludes that there are significant equalities (75% between SAK per 1st January 2008 and IFRS 1st January 2008. (using Jaccard’s Coefficients. Due to several problems that have been found in the research, the author wish that the further researchers could widen the research’s samples, so the result will be more accurate and comprehensive. 

  12. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom

  13. Active volume studies with depleted and enriched BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, Katharina von [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment is currently taking data for the search of the 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge. In 2013, 30 newly manufactured Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be deployed which will double the active mass within Gerda. These detectors were fabricated from high-purity germanium enriched in {sup 76}Ge and tested in the HADES underground laboratory, owned by SCK.CEN, in Mol, Belgium. As the BEGes are source and detector at the same time, one crucial parameter is their active volume which directly enters into the evaluation of the half-life. This talk illustrates the dead layer and active volume determination of prototype detectors from depleted germanium as well as the newly produced detectors from enriched material, using gamma spectroscopy methods and comparing experimental results to Monte-Carlo simulations. Recent measurements and their results are presented, and systematic effects are discussed.

  14. Study of pulse shapes in Ge detectors with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabmayr, Peter; Hegai, Alexander; Jochum, Josef; Schmitt, Christopher; Schuetz, Ann-Kathrin [Eberhard Karls Univeritaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Gerda collaboration aims to determine the half life of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. For Phase II Gerda wants to reduce the background contribution significantly by active background-suppression techniques. One of such techniques is the pulse shape analysis of signals induced by the interaction of radiation with the detector. The pulse shapes depend not only on the energy of the interacting gamma, the geometry and field configuration but also on the location of interaction in the crystal. The waveform and the location of the interaction in the germanium can be determined by positron-emission-tomography (PET). First results of this novel pulse shape study with the PET will be presented in this talk.

  15. Double Beta Decay Experiments: Present Status and Prospects for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, A. S.

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( at the level of ˜ (0.01-0.1) eV are discussed. The main attention is paid to experiments of CUORE, GERDA, MAJORANA, EXO, KamLAND-Zen-2, SuperNEMO and SNO+. Possibilities of low-temperature scintillating bolometers on the basis of inorganic crystals (ZnSe, ZnMoO4, Li2MoO4, CaMoO4 and CdWO4) are considered too.

  16. Wavelength shifting reflector foils for liquid Ar scintillation light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Manuel [Physik Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Liquid argon is used as a scintillator in several present and upcoming experiments. In Gerda it is used as a coolant, shielding and will be instrumented to become an active veto in Phase II. Its scintillation light has a wavelength of 128 nm, that gets absorbed by quartz. In order to measure the light using photo multiplier tubes (PMT) for cryogenic temperatures which have a quartz window, it is converted to longer wavelength by coated reflector foils. The conversion efficiency and stability of several such coatings was optimized using VM2000 and Tetratex separately as reflector foils. The efficiency has been measured in a liquid Ar set up build especially for this purpose. It employs a 3'' low radioactivity PMT of type R11065-10 from Hamamatsu, the favorite photo sensor candidate to be used in Gerda.

  17. Computational studies of BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salathe, Marco [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay within the active volume of germanium detectors. Simulations of the physical processes within such detectors are vital to gain a better understanding of the measurements. The simulation procedure follows three steps: First it calculates the electric potential, next it simulates the electron and hole drift within the germanium crystal and finally it generates a corresponding signal. The GERDA collaboration recently characterized newly produced Broad Energy Germanium Detectors (BEGe) in the HADES underground laboratory in Mol, Belgium. A new pulse shape simulation library was established to examine the results of these measurements. The library has also proven to be a very powerful tool for other applications such as detector optimisation studies. The pulse shape library is based on ADL 3.0 (B. Bruyneel, B. Birkenbach, http://www.ikp.uni-koeln.de/research/agata/download.php) and m3dcr (D. Radford, http://radware.phy.ornl.gov/MJ/m3dcr).

  18. Susiseb ja podiseb I-II / Mihkel Mutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutt, Mihkel, 1953-

    1998-01-01

    Järg: 27. märts. 1998. a. riigi kultuuripreemiate jagamisest; Eesti Draamateatrist. Vastukajad: Kasterpalu, Margus. Marutõbine teatripäev // Postimees (1998) 30. märts, lk. 15; Aarma, Jüri. Kolm tähelepanekut susisemise ja podisemise asjus // Sõnumileht (1998) 18. apr., lk. 15; Kordemets, Gerda. Pind põues või palk silmas // Sõnumileht (1998) 18. apr., lk. 15

  19. NDM06: 2. symposium on neutrinos and dark matter in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerib, D; Arnold, R; Balantekin, A; Barabash, A; Barnabe, H; Baroni, S; Baussan, E; Bellini, F; Bobisut, F; Bongrand, M; Brofferio, Ch; Capolupo, A; Enrico, Carrara; Caurier, E; Cermak, P; Chardin, G; Civitarese, O; Couchot, F; Kerret, H de; Heros, C de los; Detwiler, J; Dracos, M; Drexlin, G; Efremenko, Y; Ejiri, H; Falchini, E; Fatemi-Ghomi, N; Finger, M Ch; Finger Miroslav, Ch; Fiorillo, G; Fiorini, E; Fracasso, S; Frekers, D; Fushimi, K I; Gascon, J; Genest, M H; Georgadze, A; Giuliani, A; Goeger-Neff, M; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Greenfield, M; H de Jesus, J; Hallin, A; Hannestad, St; Hirai, Sh; Hoessl, J; Ianni, A; Ieva, M B; Ishihara, N; Jullian, S; Kaim, S; Kajino, T; Kayser, B; Kochetov, O; Kopylov, A; Kortelainen, M; Kroeninger, K; Lachenmaier, T; Lalanne, D; Lanfranchi, J C; Lazauskas, R; Lemrani, A R; Li, J; Mansoulie, B; Marquet, Ch; Martinez, J; Mirizzi, A; Morfin Jorge, G; Motz, H; Murphy, A; Navas, S; Niedermeier, L; Nishiura, H; Nomachi, M; Nones, C.; Ogawa, H; Ogawa, I; Ohsumi, H; Palladino, V; Paniccia, M; Perotto, L; Petcov, S; Pfister, S; Piquemal, F; Poves, A; Praet, Ch; Raffelt, G; Ramberg, E; Rashba, T; Regnault, N; Ricol, J St; Rodejohann, W; Rodin, V; Ruz, J; Sander, Ch; Sarazin, X; Scholberg, K; Sigl, G; Simkovic, F; Sousa, A; Stanev, T; Strolger, L; Suekane, F; Thomas, J; Titov, N; Toivanen, J; Torrente-Lujan, E; Tytler, D; Vala, L; Vignaud, D; Vitiello, G; Vogel, P; Volkov, G; Volpe, C; Wong, H; Yilmazer, A

    2006-07-01

    This second symposium on neutrinos and dark matter is aimed at discussing research frontiers and perspectives on currently developing subjects. It has been organized around 6 topics: 1) double beta decays, theory and experiments (particularly: GERDA, MOON, SuperNEMO, CUORE, CANDLES, EXO, and DCBA), 2) neutrinos and nuclear physics, 3) single beta decays and nu-responses, 4) neutrino astrophysics, 5) solar neutrino review, and 6) neutrino oscillations. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations.

  20. Structure-activity relationship study of sesquiterpene lactones and their semi-synthetic amino derivatives as potential antitrypanosomal products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zimmermann, S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stefanie Zimmermann 1,2, Gerda Fouché 3, Maria De Mieri 1, Yukiko Yoshimoto 4, Toyonobu Usuki 4, Rudzani Nthambeleni 3, Christopher J. Parkinson 5, Christiaan van der Westhuyzen 3, Marcel Kaiser 2,6, Matthias Hamburger 1 and Michael Adams 1,* 1... 1. Introduction Sleeping sickness, or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is a deadly protozoal disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei species spread by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). The two human pathogenic subspecies, T. b. rhodesiense (95...

  1. Kaliningradi biennaal / Sandra Jõgeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgeva, Sandra, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    IX rahvusvaheline graafikabiennaal "Kaliningrad-Königsberg 2008" Kaliningradi kunstigaleriis 15. IX-15. XI. Eesti väljapanek (kuraator Eha Komissarov, kujundaja Marko Nautras, osalejad: Jaanika Okk, Kaarel Kütas, Lauri Koppel, Gerda Märtens, Raul Meel, Lembe Ruben, HULA, Villem Jahu, Tiiu Pirsko, Mati Veermets, Sandra Jõgeva) sai ekspositsioonipreemia. Grand prix - Paulis Liepa, I preemia - Olrik Kohlhoff, II - Dominica Sadowska, III - Raffael Rheinsberg, eripreemia - Markus Lampinen

  2. Neutrinoless double beta decay searches with 76Ge

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay might be the only window to observe lepton number violation. Its observation would favour the leptogenesis mechanism for the explanation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe and is therefore considered to be of highest relevance. The isotope 76Ge has historically been most important for this search and the ongoing experiment GERDA has the lowest background of all experiments in the field. The talk reviews the motivation, the current status of experiments and future programs.

  3. EU REPRO: The Production of fish feed enriched with poly-unsaturated fatty acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available .2 The Production of Fish Feed enriched with poly-unsaturated fatty acids Corinda Erasmus Annali Jacobs Gerda Lombard Petrus van Zyl Judy Reddy Ntombikayise Nkomo Elizabeth Timme Partner 11 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www... www.csir.co.za FLOW DIAGRAM OF THE PRODUCTION OF EPA- ENRICHED FISH FEED BSG (SPENT GRAIN) Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Protein-rich BSG FISH FEED PELLETS MODIFICATION OF BSG (ENZYME/CHEMICAL/MECHANICAL) FERMENTATION (RECOVERY OF EPA...

  4. Kiasma - muzei s vidom na Laplandiju / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2006-01-01

    Steven Holli projekteeritud Kiasma muuseumihoonest Helsingis. Kontseptuaalkunsti näitusest ARS 06 "Reaalsustunne" Kiasmas. Eestlastest esineb Mark Raidpere. Vene kunstnikegrupi AEC+F ja vene kunstnike Juri Vassiljevi ning Aleksandr Ponomarjovi töödest näitusel. Ka Gerda Steineri & Jörg Lenzlingeri (Šveits), Martin & Munoz'i (USA, Hispaania), videokunstnik Bill Viola (USA) töödest

  5. ARS - Helsinki - 2006 / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2006-01-01

    Steven Holli projekteeritud Kiasma muuseumihoonest Helsingis. Kontseptuaalkunsti näitusest ARS 06 "Reaalsustunne" Kiasmas. Eestlastest esineb Mark Raidpere. Vene kunstnikegrupi AEC+F ja vene kunstnike Juri Vassiljevi ning Aleksandr Ponomarjovi töödest näitusel. Ka Gerda Steineri & Jörg Lenzlingeri (Šveits), Martin & Munoz'i (USA, Hispaania), arvutigraafik Charles Sandisoni (SB), videokunstnik Bill Viola (USA) jt. töödest

  6. NDM06: 2. symposium on neutrinos and dark matter in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.; Arnold, R.; Balantekin, A.; Barabash, A.; Barnabe, H.; Baroni, S.; Baussan, E.; Bellini, F.; Bobisut, F.; Bongrand, M.; Brofferio, Ch.; Capolupo, A.; Carrara Enrico; Caurier, E.; Cermak, P.; Chardin, G.; Civitarese, O.; Couchot, F.; Kerret, H. de; Heros, C. de los; Detwiler, J.; Dracos, M.; Drexlin, G.; Efremenko, Y.; Ejiri, H.; Falchini, E.; Fatemi-Ghomi, N.; Finger, M.Ch.; Finger Miroslav, Ch.; Fiorillo, G.; Fiorini, E.; Fracasso, S.; Frekers, D.; Fushimi, K.I.; Gascon, J.; Genest, M.H.; Georgadze, A.; Giuliani, A.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Greenfield, M.; H de Jesus, J.; Hallin, A.; Hannestad, St.; Hirai, Sh.; Hoessl, J.; Ianni, A.; Ieva, M.B.; Ishihara, N.; Jullian, S.; Kaim, S.; Kajino, T.; Kayser, B.; Kochetov, O.; Kopylov, A.; Kortelainen, M.; Kroeninger, K.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lalanne, D.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Lazauskas, R.; Lemrani, A.R.; Li, J.; Mansoulie, B.; Marquet, Ch.; Martinez, J.; Mirizzi, A.; Morfin Jorge, G.; Motz, H.; Murphy, A.; Navas, S.; Niedermeier, L.; Nishiura, H.; Nomachi, M.; Nones, C.; Ogawa, H.; Ogawa, I.; Ohsumi, H.; Palladino, V.; Paniccia, M.; Perotto, L.; Petcov, S.; Pfister, S.; Piquemal, F.; Poves, A.; Praet, Ch.; Raffelt, G.; Ramberg, E.; Rashba, T.; Regnault, N.; Ricol, J.St.; Rodejohann, W.; Rodin, V.; Ruz, J.; Sander, Ch.; Sarazin, X.; Scholberg, K.; Sigl, G.; Simkovic, F.; Sousa, A.; Stanev, T.; Strolger, L.; Suekane, F.; Thomas, J.; Titov, N.; Toivanen, J.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Tytler, D.; Vala, L.; Vignaud, D.; Vitiello, G.; Vogel, P.; Volkov, G.; Volpe, C.; Wong, H.; Yilmazer, A.

    2006-01-01

    This second symposium on neutrinos and dark matter is aimed at discussing research frontiers and perspectives on currently developing subjects. It has been organized around 6 topics: 1) double beta decays, theory and experiments (particularly: GERDA, MOON, SuperNEMO, CUORE, CANDLES, EXO, and DCBA), 2) neutrinos and nuclear physics, 3) single beta decays and nu-responses, 4) neutrino astrophysics, 5) solar neutrino review, and 6) neutrino oscillations. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  7. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M; Pandola, L; Zavarise, P; Volynets, O

    2011-01-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  8. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Université de Genève Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél : + 41 22 379 63 83 (secrétariat) Tél : + 41 22 379 62 56 (réception) Fax: + 41 22 379 69 22 Wednesday 29th November 2006 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs - Stückelberg Auditorium The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) for the search of neutrinoless double beta decays of 76 Ge at LNGS line by Prof. Stefan Schoenert - Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik Heidelberg The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA [1]) for the search of neutrinoless double beta decays of 76Ge at LNGS will operate bare germanium diodes enriched in 76 Ge in an (optional active) cryogenic fluid shield to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay with a sensitivity of T_{1/2} > 2 x 1026~years after an exposure of 100~rm kg x rm years. In this talk, I shall introduce the relevance of neutrinoless double beta decay, the experimental concepts of GERDA, the challenges and techniques to reduce backgrounds to neutrinoless double beta decay, and summarize...

  9. Feature extraction with deep neural networks by a generalized discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlsatz, André; Lippel, Jens; Zielke, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    We present an approach to feature extraction that is a generalization of the classical linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on the basis of deep neural networks (DNNs). As for LDA, discriminative features generated from independent Gaussian class conditionals are assumed. This modeling has the advantages that the intrinsic dimensionality of the feature space is bounded by the number of classes and that the optimal discriminant function is linear. Unfortunately, linear transformations are insufficient to extract optimal discriminative features from arbitrarily distributed raw measurements. The generalized discriminant analysis (GerDA) proposed in this paper uses nonlinear transformations that are learnt by DNNs in a semisupervised fashion. We show that the feature extraction based on our approach displays excellent performance on real-world recognition and detection tasks, such as handwritten digit recognition and face detection. In a series of experiments, we evaluate GerDA features with respect to dimensionality reduction, visualization, classification, and detection. Moreover, we show that GerDA DNNs can preprocess truly high-dimensional input data to low-dimensional representations that facilitate accurate predictions even if simple linear predictors or measures of similarity are used.

  10. Status of double beta decay experiments using isotopes other than 136Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandola, L.

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton-number violating process predicted by many extensions of the standard model. It is actively searched for in several candidate isotopes within many experimental projects. The status of the experimental initiatives which are looking for the neutrinoless double beta decay in isotopes other than 136Xe is reviewed, with special emphasis given to the projects that passed the R&D phase. The results recently released by the experiment GERDA are also summarized and discussed. The GERDA data give no positive indication of neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge and disfavor in a model-independent way the long-standing observation claim on the same isotope. The lower limit reported by GERDA for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge is T1/20ν > 2.1 ṡ1025 yr (90% C.L.), or T1/20ν > 3.0 ṡ1025 yr, when combined with the results of other 76Ge predecessor experiments.

  11. Investigation and development of the suppression methods of the {sup 42}K background in LArGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubashevskiy, Alexey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    GERDA is an ultra-low background experiment aimed for the neutrinoless double beta decay search. The search is performed using HPGe detectors operated in liquid argon (LAr). One of the most dangerous backgrounds in GERDA is the background from {sup 42}K which is a daughter isotope of cosmogenically produced {sup 42}Ar. {sup 42}K ions are collected towards to the detector by the electric field of the detector. Estimation of the background contribution and development of the suppression methods were performed in the low background test facility LArGe. For this purpose encapsulated HPGe and bare BEGe detectors were operated in 1m{sup 3} of LAr in the LArGe setup. It is equipped with scintillation veto, so particles which deposit part of their energy in LAr can be detected by 9 PMTs. In order to better understand background and to increase statistics the LAr of LArGe was spiked with specially produced {sup 42}Ar. All these investigations allowed us to estimate background contribution from {sup 42}K and demonstrate the possibility to suppress it in future measurements in GERDA Phase II.

  12. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Pandola, L.; Zavarise, P.; Volynets, O.

    2011-08-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  13. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  14. Targeting the Oxidative Stress Response System of Fungi with Redox-Potent Chemosensitizing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.; Faria, Natália C. G.; Martins, M. de L.; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant system is a target in the antifungal action of amphotericin B (AMB) and itraconazole (ITZ), in filamentous fungi. The sakAΔ mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene deletion mutant in the antioxidant system, was found to be more sensitive to AMB or ITZ than other A. fumigatus strains, a wild type and a mpkCΔ mutant (a MAPK gene deletion mutant in the polyalcohol sugar utilization system). Complete fungal kill (≥99.9%) by ITZ or AMB was also achieved by much lower dosages for the sakAΔ mutant than for the other strains. It appears msnA, an Aspergillus ortholog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 (encoding a stress-responsive C2H2-type zinc-finger regulator) and sakA and/or mpkC (upstream MAPKs) are in the same stress response network under tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- or AMB-triggered toxicity. Of note is that ITZ-sensitive yeast pathogens were also sensitive to t-BuOOH, showing a connection between ITZ sensitivity and antioxidant capacity of fungi. Enhanced antifungal activity of AMB or ITZ was achieved when these drugs were co-applied with redox-potent natural compounds, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, thymol or salicylaldehyde, as chemosensitizing agents. We concluded that redox-potent compounds, which target the antioxidant system in fungi, possess a chemosensitizing capacity to enhance efficacy of conventional drugs. PMID:22438852

  15. Preoperative radiochemotherapy and radical surgery in comparison with radical surgery alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, C.; Schettler, D.; Bohndorf, W.

    1994-01-01

    A multicentric, randomized study of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and the oropharynx has been undertaken by DOeSAK. The results after radical surgery alone have been compared with the results of combined preoperative radiochemotherapy followed by radical surgery. Patients with primary (biopsy proven) SCC of the oral cavity or the oropharynx with tumor nodes metastasis (TNM) stages T2-4, N0-3, M0 were included in the study. A total of 141 patients were treated by radical surgery alone, whereas 127 patients were treated by radical surgery preceded by preoperative radiochemotherapy. The pre-operative treatment consisted of conventionally fractioned irradiation on the primary and the regional lymph nodes with a total dose of 36 Gy (5 x 2 Gy per week) and low-dose cisplatin chemotherapy with 5 x 12.5 mg cisplatin per m 2 of body surface during the first week of treatment. Radical surgery according to be DOeSAK definitions (DOeSAK, 1982) was performed after a delay of 10-14 days. During the follow-up period, 28.2% of all patients suffered from locoregional recurrence, and 27.2% of the patients died. The percentages were higher after radical surgery alone for locoregional recurrence (31% and 15.6%) and for death (28% and 18.6%). The life-table analysis showed improved survival rates of 4.5% after 1 year and 8.3% after 2 years in the group of patients treated with combined therapy. The demonstrated improvement appeared to be significant with the Gehan-Wilcoxon test as well as with the log rank test below a P value of 5%. (au) (29 refs.)

  16. Eestlased graafikanäitustel / Benjamin Vasserman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasserman, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    IV Kochi graafikatriennaalil Jaapanis 13. III-18. IV osales Eestist Benjamin Vasserman tööga "Vaheldus I". Peapreemia: Eduardo Roca Zalazar. XIV rahvusvahelisel graafikanäitusel "Premio Internationale Biella per I'Incisione" Itaalias 23. IV-23. V osalesid Eestist Peeter Allik, Reti Saks, Benjamin Vasserman. Näituse nimeline preemia: Seung Yeon Kim. 26. VIII avati Fredrikstadis 12. Norra rahvusvaheline graafikatriennaal. 5. nov. avatakse X Varna graafikabiennaal Bulgaarias, 15. XII ئ III Egiptuse graafikatriennaal Gizas. "International Print Triennial Cracow 2000" näitustest

  17. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  18. HÂRİCÎ LERİN “EL-EMRU Bİ’L-MA’RÛF VE’N-NEHYU ANİ’L-MÜNKER” ANLAYIŞI

    OpenAIRE

    Dalkıran, Sayın

    2010-01-01

    “El-Emru bi’l-ma’rûf ve’n-nehyu ani’l-münker / iyiliği emretmek kötülükten sakındırmak” prensibi İslam’da büyük bir öneme sahiptir. Bu bir görevdir ve her müslümanın yapması gereken bir emirdir. Ancak ilk dönemden günümüze kadar bu emrin yerine getirilmesi konusunda Müslüm...

  19. Substituted dihydronaphthalenes as efflux pump inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thota, Niranjan; Reddy, Mallepally V; Kumar, Ashwani

    2010-01-01

    A new series of 3-(substituted-3,4-dihydronaphthyl)-2-propenoic acid amides has been prepared through convergent synthetic strategies and tested in combination with ciprofloxacin against NorA overexpressing Staphylococcus aureus 1199B as test strain for potentiating of the drug activity. Out of 24...... compounds evaluated, 12 compounds potentiated the activity of ciprofloxacin and resulted in 2-16 fold reduction in the MIC (4-0.5 microg/mL) of the drug. The failure of these efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) to potentiate the activity of ciprofloxacin when tested against NorA knock out S. aureus SA-K1758...

  20. Akamai Internship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-17

    been  trained  through  the  ISEE   PDP     o 1  at  UH   Hilo   o 2  at   Hawaii  Community  College  (1  now...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0094 AKAMAI INTERNSHIP PROGRAM Lisa Hunter UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII SYSTEMS Final Report 04/17/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...NUMBER n/a 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER n/a 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii Systems 2530 Dole St. SAK D-200

  1. Disease: H00056 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00056 Alzheimer's disease (AD) Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder tha...sak JM, Holtzman DM ... TITLE ... The role of apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease. ... JOURNAL ... Neuron 63:2...87-303 (2009) DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.06.026 ... PMID:18802446 ... AUTHORS ... Bertram L, Tanzi RE ... TITLE ... Thirty years of Alzheimer...Cacabelos R ... TITLE ... Pharmacogenomics in Alzheimer's disease. ... JOURNAL ... Methods Mol Biol 448:213-357 (2...008) DOI:10.1007/978-1-59745-205-2_10 ... PMID:17082447 ... AUTHORS ... Goedert M, Spillantini MG ... TITLE ... A century of Alzheimer

  2. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the

  3. Regulated functions and integrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Gunčaga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Properties of functions defined on a bounded closed interval, weaker than continuity, have been considered by many mathematicians. Functions having both sides limits at each point are called regulated and were considered by J. Dieudonné [2], D. Fraňková [3] and others (see for example S. Banach [1], S. Saks [8]. The main class of functions we deal with consists of piece-wise constant ones. These functions play a fundamental role in the integration theory which had been developed by Igor Kluvanek (see Š. Tkacik [9]. We present an outline of this theory.

  4. Optimization of waste water discharge and waste water cleaning on the basis of measurements of the organic pollutant load; Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und Abwasserreinigung durch Messung der organischen Abwasserbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, M. [Dr. Bruno Lange GmbH Berlin, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The spectral absorption coefficient (SAC) is a sum parameter for describing the organic pollutant load of waste water. It is based on a purely physical measuring technique and can be monitored continuously and directly in the medium by means of the described UV process probe. From this arise numerous opportunities for optimizing waste water discharge and cleaning. (orig.) [German] Der spektrale Absorptionskoeffizient (SAK) ist ein Summenparameter zur Beschreibung der organischen Abwasserbelastung. Er basiert auf einem rein physikalischen Messverfahren und kann mit der hier vorgestellten UV-Prozess-Sonde kontinuierlich und direkt im Medium erfasst werden. Daraus ergeben sich zahlreiche Moeglichkeiten zur Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und -reinigung. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Annual report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  6. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  7. Ciprofloxacin and Trimethoprim Cause Phage Induction and Virulence Modulation in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, Christiane; Köller, Johanna; Wolz, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus strains of human origin, phages which integrate into the chromosomal gene coding for β-hemolysin (hlb) are widely distributed. Most of them encode accessory virulence determinants such as staphylokinase (sak) or enterotoxins. Here, we analyzed the effects of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on phage induction and expression of phage-encoded virulence factors by using isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis for which the induction of hlb-converting phages was demonstrated in vivo (C. Goerke, S. Matias y Papenberg, S. Dasbach, K. Dietz, R. Ziebach, B. C. Kahl, and C. Wolz, J. Infect. Dis. 189:724-734, 2004) as well as a φ13 lysogen of phage-cured strain 8325-4. Treatment of lysogens with subinhibitory concentrations of either antibiotic resulted in (i) delysogenization of strains resembling the isolates picked up after chronic lung infection and (ii) replication of phages in the bacterial host in a dose-dependent manner. Ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in enhanced recA transcription, indicating involvement of the SOS response in phage mobilization. Induction of φ13 was linked to elevated expression of the phage-encoded virulence gene sak, chiefly due to the activation of latent phage promoters. In summary, we could show the induction of hlb-converting phages and a subsequent virulence modulation of the host bacterium by ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim. PMID:16377683

  8. Scientific Creativity and High Ability: Gender and academic level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier ESPARZA MOLINA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and educational level on scientific creativity among gifted/talented students. A cohort of creatividad científica y alta habilidad: diferencias de género y nivel educativo 78 secondary school students from 12 to 16 years old participated in this research. The scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (Sak & Ayas, 2011 designed for secondary school students from 11 to 14 years old. Its theoretical framework sets up the measurement of a three dimensional structure: general creative abilities (fluency, flexibility and creativity, scientific creative abilities (hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation and scientific knowledge. This test has the right adequate psychometric properties with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.848 (Sak & Ayas, 2013. Results indicated that male students scored significantly higher in a task named Interaction Graph which measures hypothesis generation in interdisciplinary science. The analysis also showed that students involved in upper education levels scores significantly higher in general fluency and in the task called The Food Chain which measures evidence evaluation in the area of ecology.

  9. Using continuous UV extinction measurements to monitor and control the aerated phase of sequencing batch reactors; Einsatz der kontinuierlichen UV-Extinktionsmessung fuer die Ueberwachung und Regelung der Belueftungsphase in SBR-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolet, L.; Rott, U. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Bardeck, S. [Optek-Danulat GmbH (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The work describes the measurement of UV extinction - expressed as the spectral absorption coefficient SAC - at a randomly chosen wave length as a technique for monitoring organic load in effluents from sequencing batch reactors (SBR) at municipal and industrial waste water treatment plants. Further described is to what extent the continuous determination of the SAC can be used in practice for the control of the aerated phase of sequencing batch reactors. By this means, process stabilization and optimization can be achieved and operating reliability can be enhanced. (orig.) [German] Inhalt dieses Beitrages ist es, die Messung der UV-Extinktion - ausgedrueckt durch den spektralen Absorptionskoeffizient (SAK) - bei einer frei gewaehlten Wellenlaenge als Verfahren fuer die Ueberwachung der organischen Belastung in den Ablaeufen von SBR-Anlagen (Sequencing-Batch-Reactor) in der kommunalen und industriellen Abwasserreinigung vorzustellen. Weiterhin soll dargestellt werden, in wieweit die kontinuierliche Bestimmung des SAK in der Praxis fuer die Regelung der beluefteten Phase von SBR-Anlagen eingesetzt werden kann. Hiermit kann eine Prozessstabilisierung und -optimierung der Anlagen erreicht sowie die Betriebssicherheit erhoeht werden. (orig.)

  10. Nest survival of piping plovers at a dynamic reservoir indicates an ecological trap for a threatened population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past 60 years, reservoirs have reshaped riverine ecosystems and transformed breeding habitats used by the threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plover). Currently, 29% of the Northern Great Plains plover population nests at reservoirs that might function as ecological traps because reservoirs have more diverse habitat features and greater dynamics in water levels than habitats historically used by breeding plovers. We examined factors influencing daily survival rates (DSR) of 346 plover nests at Lake Sakakawea (SAK; reservoir) during 2006–2009 by evaluating multiple a priori models, and we used our best model to hindcast nest success of plovers during 1985–2009. Our observed and hindcast estimates of nest success were low compared to published estimates. Previous findings indicate that plovers prefer nest sites that are low relative to water level. We found that elevation of nests above the water level had a strong positive correlation with DSR because water levels of SAK typically increased throughout the nesting period. Habitat characteristics on the reservoir differ from those that shaped nest-site selection for plovers. Accordingly, extraordinary nest loss occurs there in many years, largely due to inundation of nests, and based on low fledging rates those losses were not compensated by potential changes in chick survival. Therefore, our example supports the concept of ecological traps in birds because it addresses quantitative assessments of habitat preference and productivity over 25 years (since species listing) and affects a large portion of the population.

  11. Desain Kapal 3-in-1 Penumpang-Barang-Container Rute Surabaya – Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Hadi Saputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam proses pembangunan ekonomi Indonesia, berbagai upaya telah dilakukan oleh pemerintah antara lain program Masterplan Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia (MP3EI dan juga Program Tol Laut. Program-program tersebut diambil oleh pemerintah agar terjadi pemerataan pembangunan ekonomi di setiap daerah demi meningkatkan kondisi ekonomi Indonesia. Dalam mengaplikasikan program tersebut, pemerintah membutuhkan sarana transportasi yang efisien dan salah satu alat transportasi tersebut adalah kapal 3-in-1. Kapal ini diharapkan mampu menjadi sarana transportasi dan juga sarana dalam pendistribusian barang dari Jawa ke Indonesia Timur sehingga mampu meningkatkan ekonomi di Indonesia bagian timur khususnya. Kapal 3-in-1 ini akan berangkat dari Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak, Surabaya menuju Pelabuhan Lembar, Lombok dengan kecepatan 17 knot. Dalam mendesain kapal dilakukan analisis teknis dan juga analisis ekonomis berupa menghitung biaya pembangunan kapal. Kapal yang didesain memiliki ukuran utama Length of Waterline (LWL: 130 meter, length of perpendicular (LPP: 125 meter, Breadth (B: 22 meter, Height (H: 11.7 meter, dan Draft (T: 6.6 meter. Dengan ukuran tersebut kapal ini mampu mengangkut penumpang sebanyak 488 orang, kontainer sebanyak 161 TEUs, dan semen sebanyak 3200 ton (di dalam bentuk sak di mana 1 sak semen sama dengan 40 kg. Dengan ukuran dan jumlah muatan tersebut seluruh regulasi dan ketentuan teknis telah terpenuhi. Besar biaya pembangunan kapal adalah sebesar Rp 77,302,629,498.00.

  12. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karin; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-02-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. These kinases, Sak1, Tos3 and Elm2 do not appear to require the presence of additional subunits for activity. Sak1 and Snf1 co-purify and co-elute in size exclusion chromatography, demonstrating that these two proteins form a stable complex. The Snf1-activating kinases phosphorylate the activation loop threonine of Snf1 in vitro with great specificity and are able to do so in the absence of beta and gamma subunits of the Snf1 heterotrimer. Finally, we showed that the Snf1 kinase domain isolated from bacteria as a GST fusion protein can be activated in vitro and shows substrate specificity in the absence of its beta and gamma subunits.

  13. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope 76 Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  14. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Daniel

    2010-03-24

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  15. Thomas A. Foster, ed. Women in Early America

    OpenAIRE

    Detsi, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    Women in Early America is an intriguing collection of essays offering richly diverse readings of women’s lives and experiences in 17th- and 18th- century America. This volume is a significant contribution to the scholarship concerning the role of women in history and their participation in historical moments of political change and cultural negotiation. From Gerda Lerner’s seminal work on The Woman in American History (1971) to Linda Kerber’s enlightening book titled Women’s America: Refocusi...

  16. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  17. Development of segmented germanium detectors for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jing

    2009-01-01

    The results from neutrino oscillation experiments indicate that at least two neutrinos have mass. However, the value of the masses and whether neutrinos and anti-neutrinos are identical, i.e., Majorana particles, remain unknown. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments can help to improve our understanding in both cases and are the only method currently possible to tackle the second question. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, which will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge, is currently under construction in Hall A of the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. In order to achieve an extremely low background level, segmented germanium detectors are considered to be operated directly in liquid argon which serves simultaneously as cooling and shielding medium. Several test cryostats were built at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik in Muenchen to operate segmented germanium detectors both in vacuum and submerged in cryogenic liquid. The performance and the background discrimination power of segmented germanium detectors were studied in detail. It was proven for the first time that segmented germanium detectors can be operated stably over long periods submerged in a cryogenic liquid. It was confirmed that the segmentation scheme employed does well in the identification of photon induced background and demonstrated for the first time that also neutron interactions can be identified. The C++ Monte Carlo framework, MaGe (Majorana-GERDA), is a joint development of the Majorana and GERDA collaborations. It is based on GEANT4, but tailored especially to simulate the response of ultra-low background detectors to ionizing radiation. The predictions of the simulation were veri ed to be accurate for a wide range of conditions. Some shortcomings were found and corrected. Pulse shape analysis is complementary to segmentation in identifying background events. Its efficiency can only be correctly determined using reliable pulse shape

  18. A eutonia e o trabalho do ator: experimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Moretti Pereira de Faria

    2010-01-01

    A proposta da presente pesquisa é a prática corporal da Eutonia como ferramenta de suporte para o trabalho do ator, exemplificado pelo Sistema de K. Stanislavski. Sua leitura permite a assimilação dos conceitos teóricos da Eutonia criada por Gerda Alexander e a compreensão dos resultados práticos, descritos através de um experimento com um grupo de atores em formação. O estudo realizado em uma etapa literária e outra vivencial demonstra as possíveis conexões entre Alexander e Stanislavski. De...

  19. La Eutonía-Sus Principios

    OpenAIRE

    Rovella, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende dar cuenta de la Eutonía como práctica corporal dando cuenta de sus objetivos y principios La Eutonía fue creada por Gerda Alexander.El término, del griego, Eu: bueno, óptimo-Tonus: tensión; expresa la idea de una tonicidad armoniosamente equilibrada en adaptación constante al estado o actividad del momento. Es una disciplina basada en la experiencia del propio cuerpo, que conduce a la persona hacia una toma de conciencia de si misma y propone un aprendizaje para ...

  20. En la construcción del espacio interno desde la Eutonia - Escenas

    OpenAIRE

    Rovella, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo contará sobre la Eutonía. Creada a mediados de 1900 por Gerda Alexander quien para el desarrollo de la misma supo integrar sus formaciones previas de música, danza, pedagogía con nuevas búsquedas, algunas surgidas durante períodos de tiempo en que guardó reposo por enfermedades. Propuso a la Eutonía como una pedagogía desde la que se alienta a aprendizajes a través del cuerpo, la atención y la concentración, a percibirse, reconocerse, moverse con economía, flexibilidad, fu...

  1. La ciencia del cosmos, la ciencia en el cosmos : 2013-2014 : ciclo de conferencias de astrofisica y cosmologia

    CERN Document Server

    Science of the Cosmos, Science in the Cosmos : 2013-2014 : series of lectures on astrophysics and cosmology

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to "Science of the Cosmos, Sciences in the Cosmos", the series of lectures that the BBVA Foundation has been offering, live and on DVD, since March 2011. Lecture 1 : Let there be light : finding the earliest galaxies / Richard Ellis ; lecture 2 : The origin of the galaxies / Simon White ; lecture 3 : Astrobiology : the quest for the conditions of life in the Universe / Gerda Horneck ; lecture 4 : The long-term stability of planetary systems / Scott Tremaine ; lecture 5 : Asteroseismology : the study of starquakes and its impact on astrophysics / Conny Aerts ; lecture 6 : From Mars to multiverse / Martin Rees

  2. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Tornow, Werner

    2014-01-01

    After the pioneering work of the Heidelberg-Moscow (HDM) and International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) groups, the second round of neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay searches currently underway has or will improve the life-time limits of double-$\\beta$ decay candidates by a factor of two to three, reaching in the near future the $T_{1/2} = 3 \\times 10^{25}$ yr level. This talk will focus on the large-scale experiments GERDA, EXO-200, and KamLAND-Zen, which have reported already lower half-life...

  3. Development of segmented germanium detectors for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing

    2009-06-09

    The results from neutrino oscillation experiments indicate that at least two neutrinos have mass. However, the value of the masses and whether neutrinos and anti-neutrinos are identical, i.e., Majorana particles, remain unknown. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments can help to improve our understanding in both cases and are the only method currently possible to tackle the second question. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, which will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge, is currently under construction in Hall A of the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. In order to achieve an extremely low background level, segmented germanium detectors are considered to be operated directly in liquid argon which serves simultaneously as cooling and shielding medium. Several test cryostats were built at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik in Muenchen to operate segmented germanium detectors both in vacuum and submerged in cryogenic liquid. The performance and the background discrimination power of segmented germanium detectors were studied in detail. It was proven for the first time that segmented germanium detectors can be operated stably over long periods submerged in a cryogenic liquid. It was confirmed that the segmentation scheme employed does well in the identification of photon induced background and demonstrated for the first time that also neutron interactions can be identified. The C++ Monte Carlo framework, MaGe (Majorana-GERDA), is a joint development of the Majorana and GERDA collaborations. It is based on GEANT4, but tailored especially to simulate the response of ultra-low background detectors to ionizing radiation. The predictions of the simulation were veri ed to be accurate for a wide range of conditions. Some shortcomings were found and corrected. Pulse shape analysis is complementary to segmentation in identifying background events. Its efficiency can only be correctly determined using reliable pulse

  4. Gıda Zehirlenmeleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Akbulut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gıda Teknolojisinin gelişmesi ile, gıda maddesinin tüketici için daha alımlı olmasını sağlamak, kısa zamanda bozulmasını engellemek ve pazara yeni çeşitler sunmak için bazı kimyasal maddeler kullanılmaya başlanılmıştır. Bunun yanında tarımda kullanılan kimyasal maddeler artmış, ambalaj sanayi gelişmiş, bu da gıda maddelerine bulaşan maddelerin türlerini arttırmıştır. Ayrıca gıda maddelerine belirli amacı olmadan katılan maddelerde vardır. Diğer taraftan tüketiciyi aldatmak, hile yapmak, çok kar sağlamak veya kötü kaliteyi gizlemek amacı ile de kullanılan maddeler bulunmaktadır. İster teknik zorunluk, ister hile amacıyla olsun bu tür yabancı maddeler öncelikle insan sağlığını ilgilendirmektedir. Bazı maddelerin vücuda alınması sakıncasız olduğu halde, bazıları sakıncalıdır. Sakıncasız olanlarında belirli bir sınırın üzerinde uzun süre alınmaları zararlı olabilmektedir. Bu toplum sağlığı sorunu birçok ülkeyi gıda sanayiinde kullanılan kimyasal maddelerin hoşgörü sınırlarının hesaplanması noktasına götürmüştür.

  5. The pathway by which the yeast protein kinase Snf1p controls acquisition of sodium tolerance is different from that mediating glucose regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tian; Elbing, Karin; Hohmann, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    It recently became apparent that the highly conserved Snf1p protein kinase plays roles in controlling different cellular processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in addition to its well-known function in glucose repression/derepression. We have previously reported that Snf1p together with Gis4p controls ion homeostasis by regulating expression of ENA1, which encodes the Ena1p Na(+) extrusion system. In this study we found that Snf1p is rapidly phosphorylated when cells are exposed to NaCl and this phosphorylation is required for the role of Snf1p in Na(+) tolerance. In contrast to activation by low glucose levels, the salt-induced phosphorylation of Snf1p promoted neither phosphorylation nor nuclear export of the Mig1p repressor. The mechanism that prevents Mig1p phosphorylation by active Snf1p under salt stress does not involve either hexokinase PII or the Gis4p regulator. Instead, Snf1p may mediate upregulation of ENA1 expression via the repressor Nrg1p. Activation of Snf1p in response to glucose depletion requires any of the three upstream protein kinases Sak1p, Tos3p and Elm1p, with Sak1p playing the most prominent role. The same upstream kinases were required for salt-induced Snf1p phosphorylation, and also under these conditions Sak1p played the most prominent role. Unexpectedly, however, it appears that Elm1p plays a dual role in acquisition of salt tolerance by activating Snf1p and in a presently unknown parallel pathway. Together, these results indicate that under salt stress Snf1p takes part in a different pathway from that during glucose depletion and this role is performed together as well as in parallel with its upstream kinase Elm1p. Snf1p appears to be part of a wider functional network than previously anticipated and the full complexity of this network remains to be elucidated.

  6. Consistency check of pulse shape discrimination for broad energy germanium detectors using double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Heng-Ye [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment was built to study fundamental neutrino properties via neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ). 0νββ events are single-site events (SSE) confined to a scale about millimeter. However, most of backgrounds are multi-site events (MSE). Broad Energy Germanium detectors (BEGes) offer the potential merits of improved pulse shape recognition efficiencies of SSE/MSE. They allow us to reach the goal of Phase II with a background index of 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) in the ROI. BEGe detectors with a total target mass of 3.63 kg have been installed to the Gerda setup in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in July 2012 and are collecting data since. A consistency check of the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) efficiencies by comparison of calibration data and 2νββ data will be presented. The PSD power of these detectors is demonstrated.

  7. The performance of the Muon Veto of the G erda experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, K.; Falkenstein, R.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Knapp, M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Ritter, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schütz, A.-K.; Jitnikov, I.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Zinatulina, D.

    2016-05-01

    Low background experiments need a suppression of cosmogenically induced events. The Gerda experiment located at Lngs is searching for the 0ν β β decay of ^{76}Ge. It is equipped with an active muon veto the main part of which is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the Gerda cryostat. With this system 806 live days have been recorded, 491 days were combined muon-germanium data. A muon detection efficiency of \\varepsilon _\\upmu d=(99.935± 0.015) % was found in a Monte Carlo simulation for the muons depositing energy in the germanium detectors. By examining coincident muon-germanium events a rejection efficiency of \\varepsilon _{\\upmu r}=(99.2_{-0.4}^{+0.3}) % was found. Without veto condition the muons by themselves would cause a background index of {BI}_{μ }=(3.16 ± 0.85)× 10^{-3} cts/(keV\\cdot kg\\cdot year) at Q_{β β }.

  8. γ production and neutron inelastic scattering cross sections for 76Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouki, C.; Domula, A. R.; Drohé, J. C.; Koning, A. J.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Zuber, K.

    2013-11-01

    The 2040.7-keV γ ray from the 69th excited state of 76Ge was investigated in the interest of Ge-based double-β-decay experiments like the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment. The predicted transition could interfere with valid 0νββ events at 2039.0 keV, creating false signals in large-volume 76Ge enriched detectors. The measurement was performed with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) white neutron source, using the (n,n'γ) technique and focusing on the strongest γ rays originating from the level. Upper limits obtained for the production cross section of the 2040.7-keV γ ray showed no possible influence on GERDA data. Additional analysis of the data yielded high-resolution cross sections for the low-lying states of 76Ge and related γ rays, improving the accuracy and extending existing data for five transitions and five levels. The inelastic scattering cross section for 76Ge was determined for incident neutron energies up to 2.23 MeV, significantly increasing the energy range for which experimental data are available. Comparisons with model calculations using the talys code are presented indicating that accounting for the recently established asymmetric rotor structure should lead to an improved description of the data.

  9. Constraining neutrino mass from neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Goswami, Srubabati; Mitra, Manimala; Rodejohann, Werner

    2013-11-01

    We study the implications of the recent results on neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) from GERDA-I (Ge76) and KamLAND-Zen+EXO-200 (Xe136) and the upper limit on the sum of light neutrino masses from Planck. We show that the upper limits on the effective neutrino mass from Xe136 are stronger than those from Ge76 for most of the recent calculations of the nuclear matrix elements (NMEs). We also analyze the compatibility of these limits with the claimed observation in Ge76 and show that while the updated claim value is still compatible with the recent GERDA limit as well as the individual Xe136 limits for a few NME calculations, it is inconsistent with the combined Xe136 limit for all but one NME. Imposing the most stringent limit from Planck, we find that the canonical light neutrino contribution cannot saturate the current limit, irrespective of the NME uncertainties. Saturation can be reached by inclusion of the right-handed (RH) neutrino contributions in TeV-scale left-right symmetric models with type-II seesaw. This imposes a lower limit on the lightest neutrino mass. Using the 0νββ bounds, we also derive correlated constraints in the RH sector, complimentary to those from direct searches at the LHC.

  10. Pulse shape discrimination studies of Phase I Ge-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Andrea [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array experiment aims to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge by using isotopically enriched germanium crystals as source and detector simultaneously. The bare semiconductor diodes are operated in liquid argon at cryogenic temperatures in an ultra-low background environment. In addition, Gerda applies different active background reduction techniques, one of which is pulse shape discrimination studies of the current Phase I germanium detectors. The analysis of the signal time structure provides an important tool to distinguish single site events (SSE) of the ββ-decay from multi site events (MSE) of common gamma-ray background or surface events. To investigate the correlation between the signal shape and the interaction position, a new, also to the predominantly deployed closed-ended coaxial HPGe detectors applicable analysis technique has been developed. A summary of the used electronic/detector assembly is given and followed by a discussion of the performed classification procedure by means of accurate pulse shape simulations of 0νββ-like signals. Finally, the obtained results are presented along with an evaluation of the relevance for the Gerda experiment.

  11. Klp10A modulates the localization of centriole-associated proteins during Drosophila male gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, Marco; Callaini, Giuliano; Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna

    2016-12-16

    Mutations in Klp10A, a microtubule-depolymerising Kinesin-13, lead to overly long centrioles in Drosophila male germ cells. We demonstrated that the loss of Klp10A modifies the distribution of typical proteins involved in centriole assembly and function. In the absence of Klp10A the distribution of Drosophila pericentrin-like protein (Dplp), Sas-4 and Sak/Plk4 that are restricted in control testes to the proximal end of the centriole increase along the centriole length. Remarkably, the cartwheel is lacking or it appears abnormal in mutant centrioles, suggesting that this structure may spatially delimit protein localization. Moreover, the parent centrioles that in control cells have the same dimensions grow at different rates in mutant testes with the mother centrioles longer than the daughters. Daughter centrioles have often an ectopic position with respect to the proximal end of the mothers and failed to recruit Dplp.

  12. Toward a model of employee engagement in a public service organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Strange

    Employee engagement has long been capturing the attention of researchers and practitioners, (e.g. Bakker, Albrecht, & Leiter, 2011; Buckingham & Coffman, 1999) due to its positive impact on various measures of organizational performance (Gruman & Saks, 2011; Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002; Mone...... & London, 2010). To date, however, employee engagement has primarily been studied in private manufacturing firms leaving out a gap of research in a public service organization, such as eldercare organizations, although engagement according to Boselie (2010) is highly relevant in the specific context....... The purpose of the PhD project is to build a model explaining employee engagement in a public service organization. Research on work design theory (e.g. Hackman & Oldham, 1976) will be used, since it has often been applied to identify antecedents associated with engagement (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Kahn...

  13. Tinjauan Hukum Islam terhadap Perkawinan Beda Kelas Muslim Sasak di Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basriadi Basriadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to examine in depth, based on the theory of kafâ‘ah, different class marriages in the Sasak Muslim community, Lombok. The study concludes that on one hand, the different class marriages between noblewomen and non-noblemen do not have an impact on the purpose of marriage which is to create sakînah, mawaddah, and rahmah household. On the other hand, the marriage that is based on Islamic values is able to realize a happy and harmonious household regardless of social status background. The most important thing in domestic life is communication and trust between husbands and wives. In fiqh munâkah}ât, it is required when someone is looking for a spouse, something that needs to be seen is lineage, beauty, wealth and religion. This article would like to emphasize that there is no prohibition in Islam to marry people of different social class.

  14. Exponential Lower Bounds for the PPSZ k-SAT Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shiteng; Scheder, Dominik Alban; Talebanfard, Navid

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, Paturi, Pudl´ak, Saks, and Zane presented PPSZ, an elegant randomized algorithm for k-SAT. Fourteen years on, this algorithm is still the fastest known worst-case algorithm. They proved that its expected running time on k-CNF formulas with n variables is at most 2(1−k)n, where k 2 (1/k).......). So far, no exponential lower bounds at all have been known. In this paper, we construct hard instances for PPSZ. That is, we construct satisfiable k-CNF formulas over n variables on which the expected running time is at least 2(1−k)n, for k 2 O(log2 k/k)....

  15. Editorial

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    For its fiftieth anniversary the Kindergarten and School run by the Staff Association   is in better shape than ever. The CERN site has resounded for 50 years with the joyful shouts of the children there. It is indeed in this joyful and multicultural atmosphere than many generations of children of CERN staff have followed one another all those years. Operating on one of the most beautiful sites of CERN and supervised by competent and creative professionals, the children learn through play, the basics needed for their integration into society and entry into academic learning. Active learning is the heart of the action.  Children take in knowledge as they develop and are exposed to multiple experiences. The activities proposed in the SAKS are based on a global approach to development as well as on values such as self-respect, respect towards others, the environment, autonomy, sharing, cooperation, communication and creativity. In the large, specially designed garden surrounding...

  16. Orlicz difference sequence spaces generated by infinite matrices and de la Vallée-Poussin mean of order α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the spaces V^λ[A,M,Δ,p]o,V^λ[A,M,Δ,p] and V^λ[A,M,Δ,p]∞ generated by infinite matrices defined by Orlicz functions. Also we introduce the concept of S^λ[A,Δ]−convergence and derive some results between the spaces S^λ[A,Δ] and V^λ[A,Δ]. Further, we study some geometrical properties such as order continuity, the Fatou property and the Banach–Saks property of the new space V^λα[A,Δ,p]∞. Finally, we introduce the notion of almost λ-statistically-[A, Δ]-convergence of order α or S^λα[A,Δ]−convergence and obtain some inclusion relations between the set S^λα[A,Δ] and the space V^λα[A,Δ,p]∞.

  17. Genel Anestezi Altında Çocukta Diş Tedavisi

    OpenAIRE

    Gülhan, A.; Sandallı, N.

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu makalede çocuklarda genel anestezi altında diş tedavisinin koşulları anlatıldı ve normal tedavi koşulları sağlanamadığı takdirde, genel anesteziye başvurmanın yararlarına ve sakıncalarına değinildi. Genel anestezi indikasyonları sıralanarak, bunlar arasında en sık rastladığımız «Güç çocuklarım" genci anesteziye başvurmadan Önce hangi yollara başvurularak normal tedavinin deneneceğinden bahsedildi.Bir hastane ortamında genel anestezi altında çalışmaya karar verildikten sonra, bir a...

  18. Ekolojik yüzey işlemlerinin ısırgan ipliğinin fiziksel ve morfolojik özelliklerine etkisinin araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    Şansal, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Rami, kenaf ve jüt gibi bir sak lifi olan ısırgan lifinin ilk kullanımı çok eskilere dayanmaktadır. Yenilenebilir ve doğal kaynaklı olan ısırgan otu bitkisinin az girdi ile üretilmesi, bu bitkiyi ekolojik açıdan avantajlı hale getirirken, ısırgan otu bitkisinden elde edilen liflerinde çevre dostu lifler arasındaki yerini almasını sağlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada ekolojik yüzey işlemlerinin ısırgan ipliği üzerindeki etkisi asidik ve bazik ortamda araştırılmıştır. Bu kapsamda Giant Himalayan Nettle ...

  19. PEMANFAATAN NERACA SEBAGAI PENERAPAN FUNGSI PENGELOLAAN PERMODALAN UMKM (HASIL PEMIKIRAN KONSEPTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufthia Sevriana

    2016-10-01

      Tujuan Penelitian ini adalah untuk menjadi salah satu kontribusi bagi Usaha Mikro, Kecil dan Menengah karena kepedulian penulis pada kondisi UMKM dalam mengembangkan bisnisnya. Karakteristik dari permasalahan mereka sangat klasik. Kebanyakan UMKM masih tidak mampi mengelola modal mereka, mengambil manfaat dari teknologi untuk bisnis mereka, untuk memperluas jaringan pemasaran produknya, dan lain sebagainya. Akan tetapi, modal sebagai kebutuhan mendasar dari operasional bisnis mereka, membutuhkan perlakuan khusus. Dari kajian pustaka, penulis menemukan bahwa meskipun UMKM mengetahui manfaat dari penyusunan laporan keuangan, kebanyakan dari mereka tidak memiliki kemauan untuk menyusun laporan keuangan dengan komitmen yang kuat. Meskipun kita telah memasuki era MEA, kompetensi dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan tidak tedistribusi dengan rata diantara negara-negara Asean. Untuk itu, UMKM membutuhkan dukungan dari pemerintah, perusahaan dan juga akademisi untuk melatih pengusaha UMKM, dan juga untuk membimbing mereka dalam meningkatkan kompetensi dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan berdasarkan tahapan yan sudah mereka terapkan.   Kata Kunci: UMKM, Laporan Keuangan, SAK ETAP

  20. Asterless licenses daughter centrioles to duplicate for the first time in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Zsofia A; Conduit, Paul T; Wainman, Alan; Raff, Jordan W

    2014-06-02

    Centrioles form centrosomes and cilia, and defects in any of these three organelles are associated with human disease [1]. Centrioles duplicate once per cell cycle, when a mother centriole assembles an adjacent daughter during S phase. Daughter centrioles cannot support the assembly of another daughter until they mature into mothers during the next cell cycle [2-5]. The molecular nature of this daughter-to-mother transition remains mysterious. Pioneering studies in C. elegans identified a set of core proteins essential for centriole duplication [6-12], and a similar set have now been identified in other species [10, 13-18]. The protein kinase ZYG-1/Sak/Plk4 recruits the inner centriole cartwheel components SAS-6 and SAS-5/Ana2/STIL, which then recruit SAS-4/CPAP, which in turn helps assemble the outer centriole microtubules [19, 20]. In flies and humans, the Asterless/Cep152 protein interacts with Sak/Plk4 and Sas-4/CPAP and is required for centriole duplication, although its precise role in the assembly pathway is unclear [21-24]. Here, we show that Asl is not incorporated into daughter centrioles as they assemble during S phase but is only incorporated once mother and daughter separate at the end of mitosis. The initial incorporation of Asterless (Asl) is irreversible, requires DSas-4, and, crucially, is essential for daughter centrioles to mature into mothers that can support centriole duplication. We therefore propose a "dual-licensing" model of centriole duplication, in which Asl incorporation provides a permanent primary license to allow new centrioles to duplicate for the first time, while centriole disengagement provides a reduplication license to allow mother centrioles to duplicate again. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methane and carbon dioxide exchange in a post-extraction, unrestored peatland in Eastern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Tracy; Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands, in their pristine state, are important long-term sinks of carbon. The extraction of peat for agricultural purposes or for biofuel leads to a shift in the carbon dynamics. Changes in environmental conditions post extraction may also allow for invasive species to establish and spread across the peatland. Many studies have shown the benefits and advantages of various restoration management practices, but few studies have explored the carbon exchange from unrestored peatlands. Our study reports the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from a post-extraction, unrestored peatland in Eastern Québec at both the plant community scale using static chambers, and at the ecosystem scale using an eddy covariance flux tower, over two complete years. Extraction of the Saint-Alexandre-de-Kamouraska peatland (SAK) started in the early 1970's and was halted in 1999. No restoration efforts have been implemented and the remnant ditches remain unblocked. The site consists of sparse patches of Eriophorum and a vast area of bare peat. Consequently, SAK is an overall source of carbon to the atmosphere, releasing an annual total of 153 g C m-2 and 241 g C m-2 in CO2 emissions for 2014 and 2015, respectively, and an average annual total of 1 g C m-2yr-1 in CH4 emissions. Phragmites and Typha, both invasive species, have established themselves in the ditches and are sources of methane; partly explaining the increased emissions in carbon fluxes to the atmosphere post extraction. Results from this study will help managers assess the importance of post-extraction peatland restoration, by comparing the differences in CO2 and CH4 exchange between restored and unrestored peatlands.

  2. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  3. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption

  4. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: a ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus using reservoir shoreline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Anteau

    Full Text Available Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers. We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m(2 that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median, but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  5. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: a ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J; Sherfy, Mark H; Wiltermuth, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m(2)) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  6. El léxico cromático y la ideología maya Chromatic lexic and Maya ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Savkic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para acercarse al campo semántico de los colores, de primera importancia son diversos diccionarios de las lenguas mayances. El objetivo es hacer una descripción preliminar del vocabulario cromático, compuesto de cinco términos referidos a colores básicos que en el maya yucateco se llaman sak, ek', chak, k'an y ya'ax y significan "blanco", "negro", "rojo", "amarillo" y "verde-azul", respectivamente. El mismo vocabulario remite a determinadas categorías extralingüísticas que la lengua es capaz de acumular, reflejar y comunicar. Éstas dependen de una cultura particular, por lo que el estudio se amplía con las informaciones de diferentes fuentes escritas redactadas durante la época colonial. La intención es detectar los múltiples usos que se hacían en todos los ámbitos de la vida de los colores, lo cual a su vez permite considerar estos últimos como conceptualizaciones articuladas en pares de oposición o agrupamientos tripartitos.To gain greater insight into the color semantic field, it is important to consult various Mayance language dictionaries, in order to assemble a preliminary chromatic vocabulary, composed of five basic color terms which in Yucatec Maya are sak, ek', chak, k'an and ya'ax, or "white", "black", "red", "yellow" and "green-blue", respectively. The very vocabulary addresses certain extra-linguistic categories that language is capable of accumulating, reflecting, and communicating. These categories depend on a particular culture; consequently this study is amplified with greater information from different sources written during the colonial period in order to shed light on the many uses that the colors had in the aspects of human life which, at the same time, can be seen in conceptualizations articulated in pairs of opposition or tripartite groupings.

  7. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A. S., E-mail: barabash@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (NRC ”Kurchatov Institute”), B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  8. Testing Left-Right extensions of the standard model of electroweak interactions with double-beta decay and LHC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitarese, O.; Suhonen, J.; Zuber, K.

    2015-07-01

    The minimal extension of the standard model of electroweak interactions allows for massive neutrinos, a massive right-handed boson WR, and a left-right mixing angle ζ. While an estimate of the light (electron) neutrino can be extracted from the non-observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay, the limits on the mixing angle and the mass of the righthanded (RH) boson may be extracted from a combined analysis of the double beta decay measurements (GERDA, EXO-200 and KamLAND-Zen collaborations) and ATLAS data on the two-jets two-leptons signals following the excitation of a virtual RH boson mediated by a heavy-mass neutrino. In this work we shall compare results of both types of experiments, and show that the estimates are not in tension.

  9. Extracting information from 0νββ decay and LHC pp-cross sections: Limits on the left-right mixing angle and right-handed boson mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitarese, O.; Suhonen, J.; Zuber, K.

    2015-10-01

    The existence of massive neutrinos forces the extension of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, to accommodate them and/or right-handed currents. This is one of the fundamental questions in todays's physics. The consequences of it would reflect upon several decay processes, like the very exotic nuclear double-beta-decay. By the other hand, high-energy proton-proton reactions of the type performed at the LHC accelerator can provide information about the existence of a right-handed generation of the W and Z-bosons. Here we shall address the possibility of performing a joint analysis of the results reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations (σ(pp- > 2l + jets)) and the latest measurements of nuclear-double-beta decays reported by the GERDA and EXO collaborations.

  10. Ciudadanas y heroinas antifranquistas: morir por la república española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aguado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This text raises the analysis of historical context and biographical characterization of several women considered as “republican heroines”. This women died because of their anti-Franco identity and their link with Spanish second Republic; that is, because of their political commitment and their defence of freedom. Women who died because of the same Franco violence during both the civil war and the repression developed after the war and the victory of the revolted. The case of photographer Gerda Taro, Robert Capa’s colleague, is analyzed like this; with another few cases of women who died in the postwar, executed because of their antifascist militancy, like Águeda Campos, POUM’s militant executed in 1941, or María Pérez Lacruz, “La Jabalina”, young libertarian executed in 1942.

  11. Characterization of BEGe detectors in the HADES underground laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Erica; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the characterization of newly produced Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors, enriched in the isotope 76Ge. These detectors have been produced in the frame of the GERDA experiment. The aim of the characterization campaign consists in the determination of all the important operational parameters (active volume, dead layer thickness and uniformity, energy resolution, detector stability in time, quality of pulse shape discrimination). A protocol test procedure and devoted set-ups, partially automated, have been developed in view of the large number (∼ 25) of BEGe's detectors to be tested. The characterization is carried out in the HADES underground laboratory, located 225 m below ground (∼ 500 m water equivalent) in Mol, Belgium.

  12. Extracting information from 0νββ decay and LHC pp-cross sections: Limits on the left-right mixing angle and right-handed boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civitarese, O., E-mail: osvaldo.civitarese@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, UNLP, C.C. 67, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Suhonen, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Zuber, K. [Department of Physics, TU-University, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-10-28

    The existence of massive neutrinos forces the extension of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, to accommodate them and/or right-handed currents. This is one of the fundamental questions in todays’s physics. The consequences of it would reflect upon several decay processes, like the very exotic nuclear double-beta-decay. By the other hand, high-energy proton-proton reactions of the type performed at the LHC accelerator can provide information about the existence of a right-handed generation of the W and Z-bosons. Here we shall address the possibility of performing a joint analysis of the results reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations (σ(pp− > 2l + jets)) and the latest measurements of nuclear-double-beta decays reported by the GERDA and EXO collaborations.

  13. Conceptions and tendencies of age discrimination and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Nils Christian Snellman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to access and explore tendencies in the conceptualization of age discrimination and the perceived attitudes towards older people in regions of Finland and Sweden. The analysis draws on GERDA survey data (GErontological Regional DAtabase, a repeated cross-sectional study in which data was collected in 2005 and 2010. The results indicate that the conceptions of age discrimination are changing in a positive direction, which is contrary to results shown in the Eurobarometer. On the basis of balance coefficients we show that conceived attitudes towards older people are changing as well, except for individuals in some sub-groups. We discuss the role of political rhetoric in relation to ageing awareness, the (nonindividualization of society and the negotiation of age relations as tentative interpretations that strongly challenge the observed empirical tendencies.

  14. Characterization of BEGe detectors in the HADES underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, Erica, E-mail: Erica.ANDREOTTI@ec.europa.eu [Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the characterization of newly produced Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors, enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge. These detectors have been produced in the frame of the GERDA experiment. The aim of the characterization campaign consists in the determination of all the important operational parameters (active volume, dead layer thickness and uniformity, energy resolution, detector stability in time, quality of pulse shape discrimination). A protocol test procedure and devoted set-ups, partially automated, have been developed in view of the large number (∼25) of BEGe's detectors to be tested. The characterization is carried out in the HADES underground laboratory, located 225 m below ground (∼500m water equivalent) in Mol, Belgium.

  15. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The second "YES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Sz. Oláh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on my contribution to a debate, organized by MPIDR, on the question displayed in the title above. I was asked to present arguments for the "yes"-response (together with Laurent Toulemon, and arguing against the "no"-side represented by Gerda Neyer and Dimiter Philipov. As pointed out in the paper, the most important theoretical reasoning relevant for this question is the gender equity theory. A number of studies provide sound empirical support to it, as discussed in the paper in details, and thereby also a rationale for a positive impact of increased gender equality on fertility. As the dual-earner family is here to stay, and given the well-known negative consequences of long-term very low fertility for a society, pushing for gender equality seems to be a reasonable strategy to be considered aiming for sustainable societal development.

  16. Research and Development Supporting a Next Generation Germanium Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steve; Chu, Pinghan; Goett, Johnny; Massarczyk, Ralph; Xu, Wenqin

    2015-10-01

    To improve the search for neutrinoless double beta decay, the next-generation experiments will increase in source mass and continue to reduce backgrounds in the region of interest. A promising technology for the next generation experiment is large arrays of Germanium p-type point contact detectors enriched in 76-Ge. The experience, expertise and lessons learned from the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and GERDA experiments naturally lead to a number of research and development activities that will be useful in guiding a future experiment utilizing Germanium. We will discuss some R&D activities including a hybrid cryostat design, background reduction in cabling, connectors and electronics, and modifications to reduce assembly time. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  17. Measurements of the 40Ar(n, γ)41Ar radiative-capture cross section between 0.4 and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Fallin, B.; Tornow, W.

    2014-09-01

    The 40Ar(n, γ)41Ar neutron capture cross section has been measured between 0.4 and 14.8 MeV neutron energy using the activation technique. The data are important for estimating backgrounds in argon-based neutrino and dark-matter detectors and in the neutrino-less double-beta decay search GERDA, which uses liquid argon as cooling and shielding medium. For the first time the 40Ar(n, γ)41Ar cross section has been measured for neutron energies above 1 MeV. Our results are compared to the evaluation ENDF/B-VII.1 and the calculated prediction TENDL-2013. The latter agrees very well with the present results.

  18. Investigating lithological and geophysical relationships with applications to geological uncertainty analysis using Multiple-Point Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian

    The PhD thesis presents a new method for analyzing the relationship between resistivity and lithology, as well as a method for quantifying the hydrostratigraphic modeling uncertainty related to Multiple-Point Statistical (MPS) methods. Three-dimensional (3D) geological models are im...... is to improve analysis and research of the resistivity-lithology relationship and ensemble geological/hydrostratigraphic modeling. The groundwater mapping campaign in Denmark, beginning in the 1990’s, has resulted in the collection of large amounts of borehole and geophysical data. The data has been compiled...... in two publicly available databases, the JUPITER and GERDA databases, which contain borehole and geophysical data, respectively. The large amounts of available data provided a unique opportunity for studying the resistivity-lithology relationship. The method for analyzing the resistivity...

  19. Wilcoxon signed-rank-based technique for the pulse-shape analysis of HPGe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S.; Quintana, B.; Barrientos, D.

    2016-07-01

    The characterization of the electric response of segmented-contact high-purity germanium detectors requires scanning systems capable of accurately associating each pulse with the position of the interaction that generated it. This process requires an algorithm sensitive to changes above the electronic noise in the pulse shapes produced at different positions, depending on the resolution of the Ge crystal. In this work, a pulse-shape comparison technique based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test has been developed. It provides a method to distinguish pulses coming from different interaction points in the germanium crystal. Therefore, this technique is a necessary step for building a reliable pulse-shape database that can be used later for the determination of the position of interaction for γ-ray tracking spectrometry devices such as AGATA, GRETA or GERDA. The method was validated by comparison with a χ2 test using simulated and experimental pulses corresponding to a Broad Energy germanium detector (BEGe).

  20. Wilcoxon signed-rank-based technique for the pulse-shape analysis of HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, S.; Quintana, B.; Barrientos, D.

    2016-01-01

    The characterization of the electric response of segmented-contact high-purity germanium detectors requires scanning systems capable of accurately associating each pulse with the position of the interaction that generated it. This process requires an algorithm sensitive to changes above the electronic noise in the pulse shapes produced at different positions, depending on the resolution of the Ge crystal. In this work, a pulse-shape comparison technique based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test has been developed. It provides a method to distinguish pulses coming from different interaction points in the germanium crystal. Therefore, this technique is a necessary step for building a reliable pulse-shape database that can be used later for the determination of the position of interaction for γ-ray tracking spectrometry devices such as AGATA, GRETA or GERDA. The method was validated by comparison with a χ"2 test using simulated and experimental pulses corresponding to a Broad Energy germanium detector (BEGe).

  1. Measurements of the {sup 40}Ar(n, γ){sup 41}Ar radiative-capture cross section between 0.4 and 14.8 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhike, Megha, E-mail: megha@tunl.duke.edu [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Fallin, B.; Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    The {sup 40}Ar(n, γ){sup 41}Ar neutron capture cross section has been measured between 0.4 and 14.8 MeV neutron energy using the activation technique. The data are important for estimating backgrounds in argon-based neutrino and dark-matter detectors and in the neutrino-less double-beta decay search GERDA, which uses liquid argon as cooling and shielding medium. For the first time the {sup 40}Ar(n, γ){sup 41}Ar cross section has been measured for neutron energies above 1 MeV. Our results are compared to the evaluation ENDF/B-VII.1 and the calculated prediction TENDL-2013. The latter agrees very well with the present results.

  2. Measurements of the 40Ar(n, γ41Ar radiative-capture cross section between 0.4 and 14.8 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Bhike

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The 40Ar(n, γ41Ar neutron capture cross section has been measured between 0.4 and 14.8 MeV neutron energy using the activation technique. The data are important for estimating backgrounds in argon-based neutrino and dark-matter detectors and in the neutrino-less double-beta decay search GERDA, which uses liquid argon as cooling and shielding medium. For the first time the 40Ar(n, γ41Ar cross section has been measured for neutron energies above 1 MeV. Our results are compared to the evaluation ENDF/B-VII.1 and the calculated prediction TENDL-2013. The latter agrees very well with the present results.

  3. Measurement of the neutron-capture cross section of 76Ge and 74Ge below 15 MeV and its relevance to 0 νββ decay searches of 76Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Fallin, B.; Krishichayan; Tornow, W.

    2015-02-01

    The neutron radiative-capture cross section of 76Ge was measured between 0.4 and 14.8 MeV using the activation technique. Germanium samples with the isotopic abundance of ∼ 86%76Ge and ∼ 14%74Ge used in the 0 νββ searches by the GERDA and Majorana Collaborations were irradiated with monoenergetic neutrons produced at eleven energies via the 3H (p , n)3He, 2H (d , n)3He and 3H (d , n)4He reactions. Previously, data existed only at thermal energies and at 14 MeV. As a by-product, capture cross-section data were also obtained for 74Ge at neutron energies below 8 MeV. Indium and gold foils were irradiated simultaneously for neutron fluence determination. High-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy was used to determine the γ-ray activity of the daughter nuclei of interest. For the 76Ge total capture cross section the present data are in good agreement with the TENDL-2013 model calculations and the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluations, while for the 74Ge (n , γ)75Ge reaction, the present data are about a factor of two larger than predicted. It was found that the 74Ge (n , γ)75Ge yield in the High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors used by the GERDA and Majorana Collaborations is only about a factor of two smaller than the 76Ge (n , γ)77Ge yield due to the larger cross section of the former reaction.

  4. TASAWUF SEBAGAI SOLUSI BAGI PROBLEMATIKA KEMODERNAN: Studi Pemikiran Tasawuf M. Amin Syukur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Faruq Thohir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article aims to elaborate Sufism thought of Amin Syukur. Hepositioned Sufismas one of the solutions to the problems of modernity who have lost the vision of divinity that result in psychological symptoms, namely spiritual emptiness. Then, the people would become stress and worry wart because of their hopless feeling. For this reason, M. Amin Syukur endorsed the problems of modernity with always optimistic, positive thinking, resting every intention and good deeds only to worship God and sharing (solidarity for fellow creatures of God. In addition, he recommends to remember (al-żikr to Godhowever, whenever, and wherever. Remembering God can calm the soul (sakīna and mind that will affect the nerve, the nerve will affect the glands, the glands will produce healthy liquid. Healthy liquid which is a calm soul effect which will make man have the "immune power" against all diseases. In medical the termis called psycho-neuroen docrine immunology. Furthermore, according to Amin Syukur, problems of modernity can besolved by Sufism through methods like ma'rifa Allāh obtained via stairs of ma'rifa al-nafs, ma'rifa al-nās, and ma'rifa al-kawn. Abstrak: Artikel bertujuan untuk mengelaborasi pemikiran tasawuf Amin Syukur. Ia memposisikan tasawuf sebagai salah satu solusi terhadap problematika kemodernan ini yang sudah kehilangan visi keilahian yang mengakibatkan timbulnya gejala psikologis, yaitu adanya kehampaan spiritual. Akibatnya, orang akan menjadi stres dan gelisah karena merasa tidak mempunyai pegangan hidup. Untuk alasan ini, Untuk alasan ini, M. Amin Syukur mengarahkan penyelesaian problematika kemodernan ini dengan selalu optimis, berpikir positif, menyandarkan setiap niat dan perbuatan baik hanya untuk ibadah kepada Allah dan berbagi (solidaritas untuk sesama makhluk ciptaan Allah. Selain itu, ia juga menganjurkan untuk selalu ingat (al-dzikr kepada Allah bagaimana pun, kapan pun, dan dimana pun. Mengingat Allah dapat menenangkan

  5. Antecedents and consequences of work engagement among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Sayfouri, Nasrin

    2014-11-01

    Engaged nurses have high levels of energy and are enthusiastic about their work which impacts quality of health care services. However, in the context of Iran, due to observed burnout, work engagement among nurses necessitates immediate exploration. This investigation aimed to identify a suitable work engagement model in nursing profession in hospitals according to the hypothesized model and to determine antecedents and consequences related to work engagement among nurses. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was given to 279 randomly-selected nurses working in two general teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) to measure antecedents and consequences of work engagement using the Saks's (2005) model. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the model fitness. Two paths were added using LISREL software. The resulting model showed good fitness indices (χ(2) = 23.62, AGFI = 0.93, CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.07) and all the coefficients of the paths were significant (t ≥ 2, t ≤ -2). A significant correlation was found between work engagement and model variables. Paying adequate attention to the antecedents of work engagement can enhance the quality of performance among nurses. Additionally, rewards, organizational and supervisory supports, and job characteristics should be taken into consideration to establish work engagement among nurses. Further researches are required to identify other probable antecedents and consequences of nursing work engagement, which might be related to specific cultural settings.

  6. Searching for Novel Inhibitors of the S. aureus NorA Efflux Pump: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of the 3-Phenyl-1,4-benzothiazine Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Tommaso; Cannalire, Rolando; Burali, Maria Sole; Massari, Serena; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Tabarrini, Oriana; Schindler, Bryan D; Sabatini, Stefano; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2017-08-22

    Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents has become an increasingly serious health problem in recent years. Among the strategies by which resistance can be achieved, overexpression of efflux pumps such as NorA of Staphylococcus aureus leads to a sub-lethal concentration of the antibacterial agent at the active site that in turn may predispose the organism to the development of high-level target-based resistance. With an aim to improve both the chemical stability and potency of our previously reported 3-phenyl-1,4-benzothiazine NorA inhibitors, we replaced the benzothiazine core with different nuclei. None of the new synthesized compounds showed any appreciable intrinsic antibacterial activity, and, in particular, 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)quinoline (6 c) was able to decrease, in a concentration-dependent manner, the ciprofloxacin MIC against the norA-overexpressing strains S. aureus SA-K2378 (norA++) and SA-1199B (norA+/A116E GrlA). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. From phenothiazine to 3-phenyl-1,4-benzothiazine derivatives as inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA multidrug efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Stefano; Kaatz, Glenn W; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Brandini, David; Fravolini, Arnaldo

    2008-07-24

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade effects of substrate antimicrobial agents and inhibition of such pumps is a promising strategy to circumvent this resistance mechanism. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus multidrug efflux pump, the activity of which confers decreased susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, resulting in a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. In this work, a series of 1,4-benzothiazine derivatives were designed and synthesized as a minimized structural template of phenothiazine MDR efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) in an effort to identify more potent S. aureus NorA EPIs. Almost all derivatives evaluated showed good activity in combination with ciprofloxacin against S. aureus ATCC 25923; some were capable of completely restoring ciprofloxacin activity in a norA-overexpressing strain (SA-K2378). Compounds 6k and 7j displayed good activity against SA-1199B, a strain that also overexpresses norA, in an ethidium bromide (EtBr) efflux inhibition assay.

  8. Evolution from a natural flavones nucleus to obtain 2-(4-Propoxyphenyl)quinoline derivatives as potent inhibitors of the S. aureus NorA efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Stefano; Gosetto, Francesca; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Tabarrini, Oriana; Kaatz, Glenn W; Patel, Diixa; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2011-08-25

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade the effects of substrate antimicrobial agents. Inhibition of such pumps is a promising strategy to circumvent this resistance mechanism. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus efflux pump that confers reduced susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, resulting in a multidrug resistant phenotype. In this work, a series of 2-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolone and 2-phenyl-4-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, obtained by modifying the flavone nucleus of known efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), were synthesized in an effort to identify more potent S. aureus NorA EPIs. The 2-phenyl-4-hydroxyquinoline derivatives 28f and 29f display potent EPI activity against SA-1199B, a strain that overexpresses norA, in an ethidium bromide efflux inhibition assay. The same compounds, in combination with ciprofloxacin, were able to completely restore its antibacterial activity against both S. aureus SA-K2378 and SA-1199B, norA-overexpressing strains. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Re-evolution of the 2-phenylquinolines: ligand-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a potent new class of Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Stefano; Gosetto, Francesca; Iraci, Nunzio; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Massari, Serena; Sancineto, Luca; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Tabarrini, Oriana; Dimovska, Mirjana; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2013-06-27

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade the effects of antimicrobial agents that are substrates. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus efflux pump that confers reduced susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, biocides, and dyes, resulting in a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. In this work, a series of 2-phenylquinoline derivatives was designed by means of ligand-based pharmacophore modeling in an attempt to identify improved S. aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Most of the 2-phenylquinoline derivatives displayed potent EPI activity against the norA overexpressing strain SA-1199B. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin, when used in combination with some of the synthesized compounds, was completely restored in SA-1199B and SA-K2378, a strain overexpressing norA from a multicopy plasmid. Compounds 3m and 3q also showed potent synergistic activity with the ethidium bromide dye in a strain overexpressing the MepA MDR efflux pump.

  10. Regular Nanoscale Protein Patterns via Directed Adsorption through Self-Assembled DNA Origami Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Saminathan; Subramaniam, Sivaraman; Stewart, A Francis; Grundmeier, Guido; Keller, Adrian

    2016-11-16

    DNA origami has become a widely used method for synthesizing well-defined nanostructures with promising applications in various areas of nanotechnology, biophysics, and medicine. Recently, the possibility to transfer the shape of single DNA origami nanostructures into different materials via molecular lithography approaches has received growing interest due to the great structural control provided by the DNA origami technique. Here, we use ordered monolayers of DNA origami nanostructures with internal cavities on mica surfaces as molecular lithography masks for the fabrication of regular protein patterns over large surface areas. Exposure of the masked sample surface to negatively charged proteins results in the directed adsorption of the proteins onto the exposed surface areas in the holes of the mask. By controlling the buffer and adsorption conditions, the protein coverage of the exposed areas can be varied from single proteins to densely packed monolayers. To demonstrate the versatility of this approach, regular nanopatterns of four different proteins are fabricated: the single-strand annealing proteins Redβ and Sak, the iron-storage protein ferritin, and the blood protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). We furthermore demonstrate the desorption of the DNA origami mask after directed protein adsorption, which may enable the fabrication of hierarchical patterns composed of different protein species. Because selectivity in adsorption is achieved by electrostatic interactions between the proteins and the exposed surface areas, this approach may enable also the large-scale patterning of other charged molecular species or even nanoparticles.

  11. Kultur, privatliv og offentlighet: Religionens plass i det sekulariserte samfunnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Myskja

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Den dominerende oppfatningen i den politiske og moralfilosofiske tenkningen de siste tiår har vært at religion ikke bør spille noen avgjørende politisk rolle i det moderne sekulariserte demokrati. Religion tilhører privatsfæren, og politiske avgjørelser må fattes på et felles grunnlag, uavhengig av livssyn. De mest sentrale tenkerne i vår tids politiske filosofi, John Rawls og Jürgen Habermas, har begge i tidlige arbeider gitt uttrykk for at dette er en oppfatning som vil få en allmenn, global tilslutning, for de ser modernisering og sekularisering som to sider av samme sak. Det er nærmest to uunngåelige fenomen ettersom globalisering og modernisering vil føre til svekkelse av tradisjonelle kulturer og utbredelse av individualisme og demokratiske idealer. Bakgrunnen for dette temanummeret er at en rekke erfaringer fra de siste tiår har ledet til en gjenåpning av spørsmålet om religionens plass i sekulariserte samfunn.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1706

  12. Üst havayolları için mür tentürü, nane yağı ve mentol kombinasyonu içeren bir pastil

    OpenAIRE

    Öktemer, Tuğba; İpçi, Kağan; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Mür ve boraks içerek tentürler gargara solüsyonu olarak kullanılmaktadır. Mür sakızı, sindirim güçlüğü, ülserler, soğuk algınlığı, öksürük, astım, akciğer konjesyonu, artrit ağrısı ve kanser için de kullanılır. Mür, ağrıya tabi tutulan farelerde, ağrı kesici etkiler göstermiştir. Antiseptik olarak ağız ve boğaz inşamatuar lezyonlarında kullanılır. Boğaz ve ağzın iltihaplı lezyonlara uygulanır ve antispazmodik olarak kanser ve enfeksiyon hastalıklarının tedavisi için kullanılır. Bu yazıda mür ...

  13. Damlatma ve Yayma Kültürel Sayım Yöntemlerinin Kıyaslanması Üzerine bir Araştırma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kadir Halkman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada 6 adet saf laktik asit bakterisinde yayma, damlatma ve en muhtemel sayı yöntemleri ile, 7 adet kaşar peyniri örneğinde yayma ve damlatma yöntemleri ile toplam streptokok, toplam laktobasil, toplam mesofil aerob, maya-küf ve basil sayılmıştır. Saf laktik asit bakterilerinin sayımında EMS yöntemi katı besiyerinde yapılan sayımlara göre çok farklı değerler vermiştir. Laktik asit bakterilerinin sayımında ve kaşar peynirlerinde yapılan mikroorganizma sayımlarında damlatma ve yayma yöntemleri arasında yüksek benzerlik bulunmuştur. Maliyet unsuru dikkate alınarak rutin testlerde damlatma yönteminin yayma yöntemi yerini alması önerilebilir. Bununla beraber damlatma yöntemindeki sakıncaların gözönüne alınması gerekir.

  14. A key centriole assembly interaction interface between human PLK4 and STIL appears to not be conserved in flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Cottee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A small number of proteins form a conserved pathway of centriole duplication. In humans and flies, the binding of PLK4/Sak to STIL/Ana2 initiates daughter centriole assembly. In humans, this interaction is mediated by an interaction between the Polo-Box-3 (PB3 domain of PLK4 and the coiled-coil domain of STIL (HsCCD. We showed previously that the Drosophila Ana2 coiled-coil domain (DmCCD is essential for centriole assembly, but it forms a tight parallel tetramer in vitro that likely precludes an interaction with PB3. Here, we show that the isolated HsCCD and HsPB3 domains form a mixture of homo-multimers in vitro, but these readily dissociate when mixed to form the previously described 1:1 HsCCD:HsPB3 complex. In contrast, although Drosophila PB3 (DmPB3 adopts a canonical polo-box fold, it does not detectably interact with DmCCD in vitro. Thus, surprisingly, a key centriole assembly interaction interface appears to differ between humans and flies.

  15. Projekts Sporta kluba izveidošanai

    OpenAIRE

    Andrejevs, Jurijs

    2010-01-01

    Maģistra darba temats ir „PROJEKTS SPORTA KLUBA „URBAN GYM” IZVEIDOŠANA.” Uzņēmējdarbības vide Latvijā pēdējos gados sākusi stipri vien mainīties. No vienas puses, tā lēnām kļūst sakārtotāka, no otras puses, iezīmējas arvien lielāks konkurences pieaugums. Tirgus tiek piesātināts, un aizvien grūtāk kļūst darboties, nedomājot par konkurenci, darbības aktivitāti un rentabilitāti. Vadītājiem un īpašniekiem nemitīgi jādomā, ar ko uzņēmums īsti pelna naudu, kā varētu pelnīt vairāk. Bet neskatoti...

  16. KAJIAN TERHADAP BEBERAPA METODE PENYUSUTAN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PERHITUNGAN BEBAN POKOK PENJUALAN (COST OF GOOD SOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniady Slamed Setiawan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Every company must generate financial statement, that provide information about income, changes in financial position to whom that concerned. In preparing financial statement, each company has a power to choose the accounting methods and technics that recommended by Financial Accounting Standard. Accounting policies adopted by firm has a substanstial impact in financial statement.Therefore the company that has equal performance will report different result.This article try to present the impact of choosing depreciation method in calculating cost of goods sold. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Setiap perusahaan wajib menerbitkan laporan keuangan, yang memberikan informasi mengenai hasil usaha, perubahan posisi keuangan kepada pihak yang memerlukan. Dalam menyusun laporan keuangan, perusahaan memiliki keleluasaan untuk memilih metode dan teknik sepanjang metode yang dipilih tersebut ada dalam SAK (Standar Akuntansi Keuangan. Pemilihan metode akuntansi memiliki dampak yang sangat besar terhadap laporan keuangan yang dihasilkan. Dengan demikian dimungkinkan perusahaan yang sebenarnya memiliki kinerja yang sama dapat melaporkan hasil yang berbeda. Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengetengahkan dampak pemilihan metode penyusutan terhadap perhitungan beban pokok penjualan (cost of goods sold. Kata kunci: metode penyusutan, beban penyusutan, aktiva tetap, beban pokok penjualan.

  17. Identification of virulence genes carried by bacteriophages obtained from clinically isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasartova, Djursun; Cavusoglu, Zeynep Burcin; Turegun, Buse; Ozsan, Murat T; Şahin, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    Bacteriophages play an important role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) either by carrying accessory virulence factors or several superantigens. Despite their importance, there are not many studies showing the actual distribution of the virulence genes carried by the prophages obtained from the clinically isolated Staphylococcus. In this study, we investigated prophages obtained from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from hospital- and community-associated (HA-CA) infections for the virulence factors. In the study, 43 phages isolated from 48 MRSA were investigated for carrying toxin genes including the sak, eta, lukF-PV, sea, selp, sek, seg, seq chp, and scn virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze phage genomes to investigate the relationship between the phage profiles and the toxin genes' presence. MRSA strains isolated from HA infections tended to have higher prophage presence than the MRSA strains obtained from the CA infections (97% and 67%, respectively). The study showed that all the phages with the exception of one phage contained one or more virulence genes in their genomes with different combinations. The most common toxin genes found were sea (83%) followed by sek (77%) and seq (64%). The study indicates that prophages encode a significant proportion of MRSA virulence factors.

  18. Regular Dental Visits: Influence on Health-Related Quality of Life in 1,607 Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Spalthoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is in the top 10 of all cancer entities. Regular oral examinations by dentists play an important role in oral cancer prevention. Methods. Patients with OSCC (n=1,607 and physicians (n=1,489 completed questionnaires during the DÖSAK Rehab Study. The psychosocial and functional factors collected in these questionnaires were assessed in the present study. We compared patients who visited their dentist at least once a year (group A with those who visited their dentist less than once a year (group B. Results. Patients in group A had significantly better health-related quality of life after tumor treatment than patients in group B. Patients in group A also had a smaller tumor size and less lymph node metastasis and lost fewer teeth during the treatment. This resulted in better prosthetic rehabilitation and better psychological status after tumor treatment. Conclusions. Dentists play an important role in the early recognition of oral cancer. This study should encourage dentists to take a more active role in oral cancer prevention.

  19. Glucose de-repression by yeast AMP-activated protein kinase SNF1 is controlled via at least two independent steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salcedo, Raúl; Lubitz, Timo; Beltran, Gemma; Elbing, Karin; Tian, Ye; Frey, Simone; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda; Hohmann, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, controls energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells but little is known about the mechanisms governing the dynamics of its activation/deactivation. The yeast AMPK, SNF1, is activated in response to glucose depletion and mediates glucose de-repression by inactivating the transcriptional repressor Mig1. Here we show that overexpression of the Snf1-activating kinase Sak1 results, in the presence of glucose, in constitutive Snf1 activation without alleviating glucose repression. Co-overexpression of the regulatory subunit Reg1 of the Glc-Reg1 phosphatase complex partly restores glucose regulation of Snf1. We generated a set of 24 kinetic mathematical models based on dynamic data of Snf1 pathway activation and deactivation. The models that reproduced our experimental observations best featured (a) glucose regulation of both Snf1 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, (b) determination of the Mig1 phosphorylation status in the absence of glucose by Snf1 activity only and (c) a regulatory step directing active Snf1 to Mig1 under glucose limitation. Hence it appears that glucose de-repression via Snf1-Mig1 is regulated by glucose via at least two independent steps: the control of activation of the Snf1 kinase and directing active Snf1 to inactivating its target Mig1. © 2014 FEBS.

  20. Investigation of advanced materials for fusion alpha particle diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonheure, G., E-mail: g.bonheure@fz-juelich.de [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association “Euratom-Belgian State”, Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Van Wassenhove, G. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association “Euratom-Belgian State”, Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Université de Liège (Belgium); Vermaercke, P. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Delvigne, T. [DSI SPRL, 3 rue Mont d’Orcq, Froyennes B-7503 (Belgium); Chene, G.; Delhalle, R. [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Université de Liège (Belgium); Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.; Neubauer, O. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We examine the feasibility of alpha particle measurements in ITER. ► We test advanced material detectors borrowed from the GERDA neutrino experiment. ► We compare experimental results on TEXTOR tokamak with our detector response model. ► We investigate the detector response in ITER full power D–T plasmas. ► Advanced materials show good signal to noise ratio and alpha particle selectivity. -- Abstract: Fusion alpha particle diagnostics for ITER remain a challenging task. Standard escaping alpha particle detectors in present tokamaks are not applicable to ITER and techniques suitable for fusion reactor conditions need further research and development [1,2]. The activation technique is widely used for the characterization of high fluence rates inside neutron reactors. Tokamak applications of the neutron activation technique are already well developed [3] whereas measuring escaping ions using this technique is a novel fusion plasma diagnostic development. Despite low alpha particle fluence levels in present tokamaks, promising results using activation technique combined with ultra-low level gamma-ray spectrometry [4] were achieved before in JET [5,6]. In this research work, we use new advanced detector materials. The material properties beneficial for alpha induced activation are (i) moderate neutron cross-sections (ii) ultra-high purity which reduces neutron-induced background activation and (iii) isotopic tailoring which increases the activation yield of the measured activation product. Two samples were obtained from GERDA[7], an experiment aimed at measuring the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. These samples, made of highly pure (9 N) germanium highly enriched to 87% in isotope Ge-76, were irradiated in real D–D fusion plasma conditions inside the TEXTOR tokamak. Comparison of the calculated and the experimentally measured activity shows good agreement. Compared to previously investigated high temperature ceramic material [8

  1. Partial versus complete fundoplication for the correction of pediatric GERD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Glen

    Full Text Available There is no consensus as to what extent of "wrap" is required in a fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD.To evaluate if a complete (360 degree or partial fundoplication gives better control of GERD.A systematic search of MEDLINE and Scopus identified interventional and observational studies of fundoplication in children. Screening identified those comparing techniques. The primary outcome was recurrence of GERD following surgery. Dysphagia and complications were secondary outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.2289 abstracts were screened, yielding 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs and 12 retrospective cohort studies. The RCTs were pooled. There was no difference in surgical success between partial and complete fundoplication, OR 1.33 [0.67,2.66]. In the 12 cohort studies, 3 (25% used an objective assessment of the surgery, one of which showed improved outcomes with complete fundoplication. Twenty-five different complications were reported; common were dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. Overall study quality was poor.The comparison of partial fundoplication with complete fundoplication warrants further study. The evidence does not demonstrate superiority of one technique. The lack of high quality RCTs and the methodological heterogeneity of observational studies limits a powerful meta-analysis.

  2. Standard and Nonstandard Neutrino-Nucleus Reactions Cross Sections and Event Rates to Neutrino Detection Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Papoulias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explore ν-nucleus processes from a nuclear theory point of view and obtain results with high confidence level based on accurate nuclear structure cross sections calculations. Besides cross sections, the present study includes simulated signals expected to be recorded by nuclear detectors and differential event rates as well as total number of events predicted to be measured. Our original cross sections calculations are focused on measurable rates for the standard model process, but we also perform calculations for various channels of the nonstandard neutrino-nucleus reactions and come out with promising results within the current upper limits of the corresponding exotic parameters. We concentrate on the possibility of detecting (i supernova neutrinos by using massive detectors like those of the GERDA and SuperCDMS dark matter experiments and (ii laboratory neutrinos produced near the spallation neutron source facilities (at Oak Ridge National Lab by the COHERENT experiment. Our nuclear calculations take advantage of the relevant experimental sensitivity and employ the severe bounds extracted for the exotic parameters entering the Lagrangians of various particle physics models and specifically those resulting from the charged lepton flavour violating μ-→e- experiments (Mu2e and COMET experiments.

  3. The body in the processes of musical sensitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Albano de Lima

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights part of the bibliographic collecting of Alexandre Ruger’s Master Degree dissertation entitled “The corporal percussion as a proposal of musical sensitizing for actors and theater students”, developed in the IA-UNESP (Arts Institute – State of São Paulo University. The research was supervised by Sonia Albano de Lima. The bibliographic collection was sub-divided into three items: the body and the musical teaching, the understanding of the body-mind binomial and the musical teaching in the Scenic Arts as a means of developing the expressivity and the corporal awareness. In the present text the two first items will be exposed. In the first one, the work of the educators Emile Jacques-Dalcroze (1865-1950, Carl Orff (1895-1982, Edgar Willems (1890-1978, Murray Schafer (1933-, among others, served as a theoretical subsidy, as well as the work of corporal percussion developed by the Grupo Barbatuques. In the inter-relationship between the body and the mind the theoretical foundation was taken from the texts by Paul Sivadon, from the area of Social Psychology; Jean Claude Coste, from the Psychomotility area; Patrícia Pederiva, from the musical research area; James J. Gibson, from the Psychology area; Gerda Alexander, from the Eutonia area, among others.

  4. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfagnini, A.

    2014-08-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been per- formed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future. EXO and KamLAND-Zen experiments are based on the decay of Xe 136 , GERDA and MAJORANA experiments are based on the decay of Ge 76 , and the CUORE experiment is based on the decay of Te 130

  5. Pulse shape discrimination performance of inverted coaxial Ge detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domula, A.; Hult, M.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Marissens, G.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Wester, T.; Zuber, K.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the characterization of two inverted coaxial Ge detectors in the context of being employed in future 76Ge neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay experiments. It is an advantage that such detectors can be produced with bigger Ge mass as compared to the planar Broad Energy Ge (BEGe) or p-type Point Contact (PPC) detectors that are currently used in the GERDA and MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR 0 νββ decay experiments respectively. This will result in a lower background for the search of 0 νββ decay due to a reduction of detector surface to volume ratio, cables, electronics and holders which are dominating nearby radioactive sources. The measured resolution near the 76Ge Q-value at 2039 keV is 2.3 keV FWHM and their pulse-shape discrimination of background events are similar to BEGe and PPC detectors. It is concluded that this type of Ge-detector is suitable for usage in 76Ge 0 νββ decay experiments.

  6. Five-year change in morale is associated with negative life events in very old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsman, Marina; Niklasson, Johan; Saarela, Jan; Nygård, Mikael; Olofsson, Birgitta; Conradsson, Mia; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve; Nyqvist, Fredrica

    2017-10-27

    The objectives were to study changes in morale in individuals 85 years and older, and to assess the effect of negative life events on morale over a five-year follow-up period. The present study is based on longitudinal data from the Umeå85+/GERDA-study, including individuals 85 years and older at baseline (n = 204). Morale was measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Negative life events were assessed using an index including 13 negative life events occurring during the follow-up period. Linear regression was used for the multivariate analyses. The majority of the sample (69.1%) had no significant changes in morale during the five-year follow-up. However, the accumulation of negative life events was significantly associated with a greater decrease in PGCMS. A higher baseline PGCMS score did not attenuate the adverse effect negative life events had on morale. Morale seemed to be mainly stable in a five-year follow-up of very old people. It seems, nonetheless, that individuals are affected by negative life events, regardless of level of morale. Preventing negative life events and supporting individuals who experience multiple negative life events could have important implications for the care of very old people.

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering cross-section measurements on 7Li and 63,65Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Markus; Belloni, Francesca; Ichinkhorloo, Dagvadorj; Pirovano, Elisa; Plompen, Arjan; Rouki, Chariklia

    2017-09-01

    The γ-ray production cross section for the 477.6-keV transition in 7Li following inelastic neutron scattering has been measured from the reaction threshold up to 18 MeV. This cross section is interesting as a possible standard for other inelastic scattering measurements. The experiment was conducted at the Geel Electron LINear Accelerator (GELINA) pulsed white neutron source with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) spectrometer. Previous measurements of this cross section are reviewed and compared with our results. Recently, this cross section has also been calculated using the continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method. Experiments for studying neutrinoless double-β decay (2β0ν) or other very rare processes require greatly reducing the background radiation level (both intrinsic and external). Copper is a common shielding and structural material, used extensively in experiments such as COBRA, CUORE, EXO, GERDA, and MAJORANA. Understanding the background contribution arising from neutron interactions in Cu is important when searching for very weak experimental signals. Neutron inelastic scattering on natCu was investigated with GAINS. The results are compared with previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data libraries.

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering cross-section measurements on 7Li and 63,65Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Markus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-ray production cross section for the 477.6-keV transition in 7Li following inelastic neutron scattering has been measured from the reaction threshold up to 18 MeV. This cross section is interesting as a possible standard for other inelastic scattering measurements. The experiment was conducted at the Geel Electron LINear Accelerator (GELINA pulsed white neutron source with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS spectrometer. Previous measurements of this cross section are reviewed and compared with our results. Recently, this cross section has also been calculated using the continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC method. Experiments for studying neutrinoless double-β decay (2β0ν or other very rare processes require greatly reducing the background radiation level (both intrinsic and external. Copper is a common shielding and structural material, used extensively in experiments such as COBRA, CUORE, EXO, GERDA, and MAJORANA. Understanding the background contribution arising from neutron interactions in Cu is important when searching for very weak experimental signals. Neutron inelastic scattering on natCu was investigated with GAINS. The results are compared with previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data libraries.

  9. Improving axion detection sensitivity in high purity germanium detector based experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenqin; Elliott, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Thanks to their excellent energy resolution and low energy threshold, high purity germanium (HPGe) crystals are widely used in low background experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay, e.g. the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and the GERDA experiments, and low mass dark matter, e.g. the CDMS and the EDELWEISS experiments. A particularly interesting candidate for low mass dark matter is the axion, which arises from the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem and has been searched for in many experiments. Due to axion-photon coupling, the postulated solar axions could coherently convert to photons via the Primakeoff effect in periodic crystal lattices, such as those found in HPGe crystals. The conversion rate depends on the angle between axions and crystal lattices, so the knowledge of HPGe crystal axis is important. In this talk, we will present our efforts to improve the HPGe experimental sensitivity to axions by considering the axis orientations in multiple HPGe crystals simultaneously. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  10. The large enriched germanium experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay (LEGEND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Abramov, A.; Abrosimov, N.; Abt, I.; Agostini, M.; Agartioglu, M.; Ajjaq, A.; Alvis, S. I.; Avignone, F. T.; Bai, X.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, P. J.; Baudis, L.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Bolozdynya, A.; Borowicz, D.; Boston, A.; Boston, H.; Boyd, S. T. P.; Breier, R.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, A.; Caldwell, T. S.; Camellato, T.; Carpenter, M.; Cattadori, C.; Cederkäll, J.; Chan, Y.-D.; Chen, S.; Chernogorov, A.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cooper, R. J.; Cuesta, C.; Demidova, E. V.; Deng, Z.; Deniz, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Du, Q.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Elliott, S. R.; Fields, D.; Fischer, F.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giordano, M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Gold, M.; Golubev, P.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gurentsov, V.; Gurov, Y.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüeller, J.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Harvey, Z. R.; Haufe, C. R.; Hauertmann, L.; Heglund, D.; Hehn, L.; Heinz, A.; Hiller, R.; Hinton, J.; Hodak, R.; Hofmann, W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Janssens, R.; Ješkovský, M.; Jochum, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Judson, D.; Junker, M.; Kaizer, J.; Kang, K.; Kazalov, V.; Kermadic, Y.; Kiessling, F.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kontul, I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kraetzschmar, T.; Kröninger, K.; Kumar, A.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Lang, K.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Li, Y. L.; Li, Y.-Y.; Li, H. B.; Lin, S. T.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, S. K.; Liu, X.; Liu, J.; Loomba, D.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Ma, H.; Majorovits, B.; Mamedov, F.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Matthews, J. A. J.; McFadden, N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mei, H.; Meijer, S. J.; Mengoni, D.; Mertens, S.; Miller, W.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Myslik, J.; Nemchenok, I.; Nilsson, T.; Nolan, P.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Othman, G.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Papp, L.; Pelczar, K.; Peterson, D.; Pettus, W.; Poon, A. W. P.; Povinec, P. P.; Pullia, A.; Quintana, X. C.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Ransom, C.; Recchia, F.; Reine, A. L.; Riboldi, S.; Rielage, K.; Rozov, S.; Rouf, N. W.; Rukhadze, E.; Rumyantseva, N.; Saakyan, R.; Sala, E.; Salamida, F.; Sandukovsky, V.; Savard, G.; Schönert, S.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schuster, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Sevda, B.; Shanks, B.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simkovic, F.; Singh, L.; Singh, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smolek, K.; Smolnikov, A.; Sonay, A.; Spavorova, M.; Stekl, I.; Stukov, D.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, J.; Van Wechel, T.; Varner, R. L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Vasilyev, S.; Veresnikova, A.; Vetter, K.; von Sturm, K.; Vorren, K.; Wagner, M.; Wang, G.-J.; Waters, D.; Wei, W.-Z.; Wester, T.; White, B. R.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Willers, M.; Wiseman, C.; Wojcik, M.; Wong, H. T.; Wyenberg, J.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yang, G.; Yu, C.-H.; Yue, Q.; Yumatov, V.; Zeman, J.; Zeng, Z.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhu, B.; Zinatulina, D.; Zschocke, A.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-10-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) would show that lepton number is violated, reveal that neu-trinos are Majorana particles, and provide information on neutrino mass. A discovery-capable experiment covering the inverted ordering region, with effective Majorana neutrino masses of 15 - 50 meV, will require a tonne-scale experiment with excellent energy resolution and extremely low backgrounds, at the level of ˜0.1 count /(FWHM.t.yr) in the region of the signal. The current generation 76Ge experiments GERDA and the Majorana Demonstrator, utilizing high purity Germanium detectors with an intrinsic energy resolution of 0.12%, have achieved the lowest backgrounds by over an order of magnitude in the 0νββ signal region of all 0νββ experiments. Building on this success, the LEGEND collaboration has been formed to pursue a tonne-scale 76Ge experiment. The collaboration aims to develop a phased 0νββ experimental program with discovery potential at a half-life approaching or at 1028 years, using existing resources as appropriate to expedite physics results.

  11. Generalized ℤ 2 × ℤ 2 in scaling neutrino Majorana mass matrix and baryogenesis via flavored leptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Roopam; Samanta, Rome; Ghosal, Ambar

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the consequences of a generalized ℤ 2 × ℤ 2 symmetry on a scaling neutrino Majorana mass matrix. It enables us to determine definite analytical relations between the mixing angles θ 12 and θ 13, maximal CP violation for the Dirac type and vanishing for the Majorana type. Beside the other testable predictions on the low energy neutrino parameters such as ββ 0ν decay matrix element | M ee | and the light neutrino masses m 1,2,3, the model also has intriguing consequences from the perspective of leptogenesis. With the assumption that the required CP violation for leptogenesis is created by the decay of lightest ( N 1) of the heavy Majorana neutrinos, only τ -flavored leptogenesis scenario is found to be allowed in this model. For a normal (inverted) ordering of light neutrino masses, θ 23 is found be less (greater) than its maximal value, for the final baryon asymmetry Y B to be in the observed range. Besides, an upper and a lower bound on the mass of N 1 have also been estimated. Effect of the heavier neutrinos N 2,3 on final Y B has been worked out subsequently. The predictions of this model will be tested in the experiments such as nEXO, LEGEND, GERDA-II, T2K, NO νA, DUNE etc.

  12. Cross Section Measurements of the 76Ge (n ,n' γ) Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Yates, S. W.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) is a topic of great current interest and, as such, is the focus of several experiments and international collaborations. Two of these experiments, Majorana and GERDA, are seeking evidence of 0 νββ in the decay of 76Ge, where the signal would appear as a sharp peak in the energy spectrum at the Q-value of the reaction plus a small amount of recoil energy, or 2039 keV. Due to the high sensitivity of such a measurement, knowledge of background lines is critical. A study of 76Ga β- decay into 76Ge revealed a 2040.70(25)-keV transition from the 3951.70(14)-keV level, which, if populated, could potentially be a background line of concern. In addition to β- decay from 76Ga, a potential population mechanism could be cosmic-ray-induced inelastic neutron scattering. Measurements of the neutron-induced cross section of the 3951.70-keV level have been performed utilizing the 76 Ge (n ,n' γ) reaction at the University of Kentucky at neutron energies ranging from 4.3 to 4.9 MeV. This material is based upon work is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under grant no. PHY-0956310.

  13. Updated constraints on the light-neutrino exchange mechanisms of the 0νββ-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štefánik, Dušan, E-mail: dus.stefanik@gmail.com [Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Dvornický, Rastislav [Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Šimkovic, Fedor [Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boboliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Czech Technical University in Prague, 128-00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-28

    The neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay associated with light neutrino exchange mechanisms, which are due to both left-handed V-A and right-handed V+A leptonic and hadronic currents, is discussed by using the recent progress achieved by the GERDA, EXO and KamlandZen experiments. The upper limits for effective neutrino mass m{sub ββ} and the parameters 〈λ〉 and 〈η〉 characterizing the right handed current mechanisms are deduced from the data on the 0νββ-decay of {sup 76}Ge and {sup 136}Xe using nuclear matrix elements calculated within the nuclear shell model and quasiparticle random phase approximation and phase-space factors calculated with exact Dirac wave functions with finite nuclear size and electron screening. The careful analysis of upper constraints on effective lepton number violating parameters assumes a competition of the above mechanisms and arbitrary values of involved CP violating phases.

  14. Optimized digital filtering techniques for radiation detection with HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salathe, Marco, E-mail: marco.salathe@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Kihm, Thomas, E-mail: mizzi@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art digital filtering techniques that are part of GEANA, an automatic data analysis software used for the GERDA experiment. The discussed filters include a novel, nonlinear correction method for ballistic deficits, which is combined with one of three shaping filters: a pseudo-Gaussian, a modified trapezoidal, or a modified cusp filter. The performance of the filters is demonstrated with a 762 g Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector, produced by Canberra, that measures γ-ray lines from radioactive sources in an energy range between 59.5 and 2614.5 keV. At 1332.5 keV, together with the ballistic deficit correction method, all filters produce a comparable energy resolution of ~1.61 keV FWHM. This value is superior to those measured by the manufacturer and those found in publications with detectors of a similar design and mass. At 59.5 keV, the modified cusp filter without a ballistic deficit correction produced the best result, with an energy resolution of 0.46 keV. It is observed that the loss in resolution by using a constant shaping time over the entire energy range is small when using the ballistic deficit correction method.

  15. Probing flavor models with {sup 76}Ge-based experiments on neutrinoless double-β decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Matteo [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Merle, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Munich (Germany); Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The physics impact of a staged approach for double-β decay experiments based on {sup 76}Ge is studied. The scenario considered relies on realistic time schedules envisioned by the Gerda and the Majorana collaborations, which are jointly working towards the realization of a future larger scale {sup 76}Ge experiment. Intermediate stages of the experiments are conceived to perform quasi background-free measurements, and different data sets can be reliably combined to maximize the physics outcome. The sensitivity for such a global analysis is presented, with focus on how neutrino flavor models can be probed already with preliminary phases of the experiments. The synergy between theory and experiment yields strong benefits for both sides: the model predictions can be used to sensibly plan the experimental stages, and results from intermediate stages can be used to constrain whole groups of theoretical scenarios. This strategy clearly generates added value to the experimental efforts, while at the same time it allows to achieve valuable physics results as early as possible. (orig.)

  16. Neutron-capture cross-section measurements of 74Ge and 76Ge in the energy region 0.4-14.8 MeV for neutrinoless double β decay applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Tornow, Werner

    2013-10-01

    Fast neutron capture cross sections for the reactions 74Ge(n, γ)75Ge and 76Ge(n, γ)77Ge have been measured in the neutron energy region 0.4-14.8 MeV with the activation method. The results are important to identify backgrounds in the neutrinoless double- β decay experiments GERDA and MAJORANA, which use germanium as both source and detector. Isotopically enriched targets which consisted of 86% of 76Ge and 14% of 74Ge were irradiated with mono-energetic neutrons produced via 3H(p,n)3He, 2H(d,n)3He and 3H(d,n)4He reactions. The cross sections were determined relative to 197Au(n, γ)198Au, 115In(n,n')115mIn and 197Au(n,2n)196Au standard cross sections. The activities of the products were measured using high-resolution γ-ray spctroscopy. The present results are compared with the evaluated data from ENDF/B-VII.1 and TALYS.

  17. Neutrinoless double beta decay in type I+II seesaw models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Tezpur University,Tezpur-784028 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg,Bhubaneshwar-751005 (India)

    2015-11-30

    We study neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric extension of the standard model with type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses. Due to the enhanced gauge symmetry as well as extended scalar sector, there are several new physics sources of neutrinoless double beta decay in this model. Ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and heavy-light neutrino mixing, we first compute the contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay for type I and type II dominant seesaw separately and compare with the standard light neutrino contributions. We then repeat the exercise by considering the presence of both type I and type II seesaw, having non-negligible contributions to light neutrino masses and show the difference in results from individual seesaw cases. Assuming the new gauge bosons and scalars to be around a TeV, we constrain different parameters of the model including both heavy and light neutrino masses from the requirement of keeping the new physics contribution to neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude below the upper limit set by the GERDA experiment and also satisfying bounds from lepton flavor violation, cosmology and colliders.

  18. Lepton number violation, lepton flavor violation and non zero Θ_1_3 in LRSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgohain, Happy; Das, Mrinal Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We have done a phenomenological study of lepton number violation and lepton flavour violation in a generic left-right symmetric model (LRSM) considering broken ϻ-τ symmetry. The leading order TBM mass matrix originates from the type I (II) seesaw mechanism, whereas the perturbations to generate non-zero reactor mixing angle Θ_1_3, originates from the type II (I) seesaw mechanism. We studied the new physics contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD) ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and the heavy-light neutrino mixing within the framework of left-right symmetric regime by considering the presence of both type I and type II seesaw. We assumed the mass of the gauge bosons and scalars to be around TeV and studied the effects of the new physics contributions on the effective mass and compared with the current experimental limit imposed by GERDA. We further extended our analysis by correlating the lepton flavour violation of the decay process, (ϻ→ 3e) with Θ_1_3. (author)

  19. Wilcoxon signed-rank-based technique for the pulse-shape analysis of HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín, S., E-mail: sergiomr@usal.es; Quintana, B.; Barrientos, D.

    2016-07-01

    The characterization of the electric response of segmented-contact high-purity germanium detectors requires scanning systems capable of accurately associating each pulse with the position of the interaction that generated it. This process requires an algorithm sensitive to changes above the electronic noise in the pulse shapes produced at different positions, depending on the resolution of the Ge crystal. In this work, a pulse-shape comparison technique based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test has been developed. It provides a method to distinguish pulses coming from different interaction points in the germanium crystal. Therefore, this technique is a necessary step for building a reliable pulse-shape database that can be used later for the determination of the position of interaction for γ-ray tracking spectrometry devices such as AGATA, GRETA or GERDA. The method was validated by comparison with a χ{sup 2} test using simulated and experimental pulses corresponding to a Broad Energy germanium detector (BEGe).

  20. Nemo-3 experiment assets and limitations. Perspective for the double β physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augier, C.

    2005-06-01

    After an introduction to this report in Chapter 1, I present a status of our knowledge in neutrino physics in Chapter 2. Then, I detail in Chapter 3 all the choices made for the design and realisation of the NEMO 3 detector for the research of double beta decay process. Performance of the detector is presented, concerning both the capacity of the detector to identify the backgrounds and the ability to study all the ββ process. I also explain the methods chosen by the NEMO collaboration to reduce the radon activity inside the detector and to make this background negligible today. This chapter, which is written in English, is the 'Technical report of the NEMO 3 detector' and forms an independent report for the NEMO collaborators. I finish this report in Chapter 4 with a ten years prospect for experimental projects in physics, with both the SuperNEMO project and its experiment program, and also by comparing the most interesting experiments, CUORE and GERDA, showing as an example the effect of nuclear matrix elements on the neutrino effective mass measurement. (author)

  1. Methods to improve and understand the sensitivity of high purity germanium detectors for searches of rare events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volynets, Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta-decay could answer fundamental questions on the nature of neutrinos. High purity germanium detectors are well suited to search for this rare process in germanium. Successful operation of such experiments requires a good understanding of the detectors and the sources of background. Possible background sources not considered before in the presently running GERDA high purity germanium detector experiment were studied. Pulse shape analysis using artificial neural networks was used to distinguish between signal-like and background-like events. Pulse shape simulation was used to investigate systematic effects influencing the efficiency of the method. Possibilities to localize the origin of unwanted radiation using Compton back-tracking in a granular detector system were examined. Systematic effects in high purity germanium detectors influencing their performance have been further investigated using segmented detectors. The behavior of the detector response at different operational temperatures was studied. The anisotropy effects due to the crystallographic structure of germanium were facilitated in a novel way to determine the orientation of the crystallographic axes.

  2. Inner strength in relation to age, gender and culture among old people--a cross-sectional population study in two Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglund, Kerstin; Jonsén, Elisabeth; Lundman, Berit; Strandberg, Gunilla; Nygren, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical framework for the study was the Model of Inner Strength, and the Inner Strength Scale (ISS)developed based on the Model was used. The aim was to examine inner strength in relation to age, gender and culture among old people in Sweden and Finland. This study forms part of the GErontological Regional DAtabase (GERDA)-Botnia project that investigates healthy ageing with focus on the dignity, social participation and health of old people. The participants (N = 6119) were 65-, 70-, 75- and 80-year old and living in two counties in Sweden or Finland. The ISS consists of 20 items relating to four interrelated dimensions of inner strength, according to the Model of Inner Strength. The range of possible ISS scores is 20-120, a higher score denoting higher inner strength. The result showed that the 65-year-old participants had the highest mean ISS score, with a decrease in score for every subsequent age. The lowest score was achieved by the 80-year-old participants. Women had slightly but significantly higher mean ISS scores than men. Only small differences were found between the counties. The study population came from Sweden and Finland; still, despite the different backgrounds, patterns in the distribution of inner strength were largely similar. The present study provides basic and essential information about inner strength in a population of old people.

  3. Methods to improve and understand the sensitivity of high purity germanium detectors for searches of rare events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volynets, Oleksandr

    2012-07-27

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta-decay could answer fundamental questions on the nature of neutrinos. High purity germanium detectors are well suited to search for this rare process in germanium. Successful operation of such experiments requires a good understanding of the detectors and the sources of background. Possible background sources not considered before in the presently running GERDA high purity germanium detector experiment were studied. Pulse shape analysis using artificial neural networks was used to distinguish between signal-like and background-like events. Pulse shape simulation was used to investigate systematic effects influencing the efficiency of the method. Possibilities to localize the origin of unwanted radiation using Compton back-tracking in a granular detector system were examined. Systematic effects in high purity germanium detectors influencing their performance have been further investigated using segmented detectors. The behavior of the detector response at different operational temperatures was studied. The anisotropy effects due to the crystallographic structure of germanium were facilitated in a novel way to determine the orientation of the crystallographic axes.

  4. Long-Term Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Kohata

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Varenicline, a nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is used to aid smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term benefits of smoking cessation on GERD and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL.Patients treated with varenicline were asked to fill out a self-report questionnaire about their smoking habits, gastrointestinal symptoms, and HR-QOL before and 1 year after smoking cessation. The prevalence of GERD, frequency of symptoms, and HR-QOL scores were compared. We also investigated associations between clinical factors and newly-developed GERD.A total of 141 patients achieved smoking cessation (success group and 50 did not (failure group at 1 year after the treatment. The GERD improvement in the success group (43.9% was significantly higher than that in the failure group (18.2%. The frequency of reflux symptoms significantly decreased only in the success group. There were no significant associations between newly developed GERD and clinical factors including increased body mass index and successful smoking cessation. HR-QOL significantly improved only in the success group.Smoking cessation improved both GERD and HR-QOL. Smoking cessation should be recommended for GERD patients.

  5. BİLEZİKLİ ASENKRON MAKİNELERDE ANLIK YÜKSEK MOMENT VE HIZ DENETİMİ İÇİN ROTOR DEVRESİNE BULANIK MANTIK TABANLI GÜÇ ENJEKSİYONU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami KESLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Büyük güç gerektiren uygulamalarda yüksek moment üretimi ve rüzgâr santrallerinde sabit frekanslı sabit güç üretimi için kullanılan bilezikli asenkron makinelerde rotor devresi güç akışı farklı yöntemlerle denetlenir. Denetimli yüksek moment üretmek, en uygun güç katsayısı elde etmek ve hız denetimi için rotor devresine bilezikler üzerinden kayma frekanslı gerilim uygulanabilir. Bu çalışmada, öncelikle bilezikli bir asenkron makinede rotor sargılarına bilezikler üzerinden gerilim uygulanmasının dinamik etkileri araştırılmış ve yöntemin sakıncalı yönleri uygulama desteğiyle ortaya konulmuştur. Daha sonra bu dinamik etkileri iyileştirmek üzere, makinenin anlık zorlanmalarda yüksek moment üretimini denetlemek ve hızını ayarlamak için rotor tarafında bulanık mantık denetleyicili bir evirici modeli önerilmiştir. Sürekli çalışma durumunda stator sargıları doğrudan şebekeye bağlı olan sistemin benzetim modeli için C/C++ programı geliştirilmiş ve farklı yük şartları için elde edilen sonuçlar tartışılmıştır.

  6. A worldwide comparison of the management of surgical treatment of advanced oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansy, Katinka; Mueller, Andreas Albert; Mücke, Thomas; Koersgen, Friederike; Wolff, Klaus Dietrich; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Hölzle, Frank; Pradel, Winnie; Schneider, Matthias; Kolk, Andreas; Smeets, Ralf; Acero, Julio; Haers, Piet; Ghali, G E; Hoffmann, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    Microvascular surgery following tumor resection has become an important field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Following the results from management of T1/T2 floor-of-mouth and tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in German-speaking countries, Europe, and worldwide, this paper presents specific concepts for the management of resection and reconstruction of T3/T4 SCC of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar process and tongue. The DÖSAK questionnaire was distributed in three different phases to a growing number of maxillofacial units worldwide. Within this survey, clinical patient settings were presented to participants and center-specific treatment strategies were evaluated. A total of 188 OMFS units from 36 different countries documented their treatment strategies for T3/T4 maxillary and mandibular alveolar process and tongue SCC. The extent of surgical resections and subsequent reconstructions is more consistent than with T1/T2 tumors, although the controversy surrounding continuity resections and mandible-sparing procedures remains. For continuity resection of the mandible the fibula free flap is the most frequently used bone replacement, whereas maxilla reconstruction concepts are less consistent, ranging from locoregional coverage concepts and different microvascular reconstruction options to treatment via obturator prosthesis. Results from treatment strategies for T3/T4 tumors underline the limited evidence for the appropriate amount of resection and subsequent reconstruction process, especially in cases involving the mandible. Prospective randomized trials will be necessary in the long term to establish valid treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus innate immune evasion is lineage-specific: a bioinfomatics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Alex J; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, and is targeted by the host innate immune system. In response, S. aureus genomes encode dozens of secreted proteins that inhibit complement, chemotaxis and neutrophil activation resulting in successful evasion of innate immune responses. These proteins include immune evasion cluster proteins (IEC; Chp, Sak, Scn), staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs), phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) and several leukocidins. Biochemical studies have indicated that genetic variants of these proteins can have unique functions. To ascertain the scale of genetic variation in secreted immune evasion proteins, whole genome sequences of 88 S. aureus isolates, representing 25 clonal complex (CC) lineages, in the public domain were analysed across 43 genes encoding 38 secreted innate immune evasion protein complexes. Twenty-three genes were variable, with between 2 and 15 variants, and the variants had lineage-specific distributions. They include genes encoding Eap, Ecb, Efb, Flipr/Flipr-like, Hla, Hld, Hlg, Sbi, Scin-B/C and 13 SSLs. Most of these protein complexes inhibit complement, chemotaxis and neutrophil activation suggesting that isolates from each S. aureus lineage respond to the innate immune system differently. In contrast, protein complexes that lyse neutrophils (LukSF-PVL, LukMF, LukED and PSMs) were highly conserved, but can be carried on mobile genetic elements (MGEs). MGEs also encode proteins with narrow host-specificities arguing that their acquisition has important roles in host/environmental adaptation. In conclusion, this data suggests that each lineage of S. aureus evades host immune responses differently, and that isolates can adapt to new host environments by acquiring MGEs and the immune evasion protein complexes that they encode. Cocktail therapeutics that targets multiple variant proteins may be the most appropriate strategy for controlling S. aureus infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. The Riesz-Radon-Fréchet problem of characterization of integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Valerii K.; Mikhalev, Aleksandr V.; Rodionov, Timofey V.

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a survey of results on characterizing integrals as linear functionals. It starts from the familiar result of F. Riesz (1909) on integral representation of bounded linear functionals by Riemann-Stieltjes integrals on a closed interval, and is directly connected with Radon's famous theorem (1913) on integral representation of bounded linear functionals by Lebesgue integrals on a compact subset of {R}^n. After the works of Radon, Fréchet, and Hausdorff, the problem of characterizing integrals as linear functionals took the particular form of the problem of extending Radon's theorem from {R}^n to more general topological spaces with Radon measures. This problem turned out to be difficult, and its solution has a long and rich history. Therefore, it is natural to call it the Riesz-Radon-Fréchet problem of characterization of integrals. Important stages of its solution are associated with such eminent mathematicians as Banach (1937-1938), Saks (1937-1938), Kakutani (1941), Halmos (1950), Hewitt (1952), Edwards (1953), Prokhorov (1956), Bourbaki (1969), and others. Essential ideas and technical tools were developed by A.D. Alexandrov (1940-1943), Stone (1948-1949), Fremlin (1974), and others. Most of this paper is devoted to the contemporary stage of the solution of the problem, connected with papers of König (1995-2008), Zakharov and Mikhalev (1997-2009), and others. The general solution of the problem is presented in the form of a parametric theorem on characterization of integrals which directly implies the characterization theorems of the indicated authors. Bibliography: 60 titles.

  9. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alba

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Sequence Type (ST1, Clonal Complex(CC1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA- lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100% similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  10. Evaluation of oxidative response and tissular damage in rat lungs exposed to silica-coated gold nanoparticles under static magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferchichi S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soumaya Ferchichi,1 Hamdi Trabelsi,1 Inès Azzouz,1 Amel Hanini,2 Ahmed Rejeb,3 Olfa Tebourbi,1 Mohsen Sakly,1 Hafedh Abdelmelek1 1Laboratory of Integrative Physiology, Faculty Of Sciences of Bizerte, 2Laboratory of Vascular Pathology, Carthage University, Carthage 3Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy, National School of Veterinary Medicine of Sidi Thabet, Manouba Univeristy, Manouba, Tunisia Abstract: The purpose of our study was the evaluation of toxicological effects of silica-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs and static magnetic fields (SMFs; 128 mT exposure in rat lungs. Animals received a single injection of GNPs (1,100 µg/kg, 100 nm, intraperitoneally and were exposed to SMFs, over 14 days (1 h/day. Results showed that GNPs treatment induced a hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Fluorescence microscopy images showed that red fluorescence signal was detected in rat lungs after 2 weeks from the single injection of GNPs. Oxidative response study showed that GNPs exposure increased malondialdehyde level and decreased CuZn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in rat lungs. Furthermore, the histopathological study showed that combined effects of GNPs and SMFs led to more tissular damages in rat lungs in comparison with GNPs-treated rats. Interestingly, intensity of red fluorescence signal was enhanced after exposure to SMFs indicating a higher accumulation of GNPs in rat lungs under magnetic environment. Moreover, rats coexposed to GNPs and SMFs showed an increased malondialdehyde level, a fall of CuZn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in comparison with GNPs-treated group. Hence, SMFs exposure increased the accumulation of GNPs in rat lungs and led to more toxic effects of these nanocomplexes. Keywords: malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, nanotoxicity, histopathological study

  11. Boeravinone B, A Novel Dual Inhibitor of NorA Bacterial Efflux Pump of Staphylococcus aureus and Human P-Glycoprotein, Reduces the Biofilm Formation and Intracellular Invasion of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Samsher; Kalia, Nitin P; Joshi, Prashant; Kumar, Ajay; Sharma, Parduman R; Kumar, Ashok; Bharate, Sandip B; Khan, Inshad A

    2017-01-01

    This study elucidated the role of boeravinone B, a NorA multidrug efflux pump inhibitor, in biofilm inhibition. The effects of boeravinone B plus ciprofloxacin, a NorA substrate, were evaluated in NorA-overexpressing, wild-type, and knocked-out Staphylococcus aureus (SA-1199B, SA-1199, and SA-K1758, respectively). The mechanism of action was confirmed using the ethidium bromide accumulation and efflux assay. The role of boeravinone B as a human P -glycoprotein ( P -gp) inhibitor was examined in the LS-180 (colon cancer) cell line. Moreover, its role in the inhibition of biofilm formation and intracellular invasion of S. aureus in macrophages was studied. Boeravinone B reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and its methicillin-resistant strains; the effect was stronger in SA-1199B. Furthermore, time-kill kinetics revealed that boeravinone B plus ciprofloxacin, at subinhibitory concentration (0.25 × MIC), is as equipotent as that at the MIC level. This combination also had a reduced mutation prevention concentration. Boeravinone B reduced the efflux of ethidium bromide and increased the accumulation, thus strengthening the role as a NorA inhibitor. Biofilm formation was reduced by four-eightfold of the minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin, effectively preventing bacterial entry into macrophages. Boeravinone B effectively inhibited P -gp with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 64.85 μM. The study concluded that boeravinone B not only inhibits the NorA-mediated efflux of fluoroquinolones but also considerably inhibits the biofilm formation of S. aureus. Its P -gp inhibition activity demonstrates its potential as a bioavailability and bioefficacy enhancer.

  12. Capsaicin, a novel inhibitor of the NorA efflux pump, reduces the intracellular invasion of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Nitin Pal; Mahajan, Priya; Mehra, Rukmankesh; Nargotra, Amit; Sharma, Jai Parkash; Koul, Surrinder; Khan, Inshad Ali

    2012-10-01

    To delineate the role of capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) as an inhibitor of the NorA efflux pump and its impact on invasion of macrophages by Staphylococcus aureus. Capsaicin in combination with ciprofloxacin was tested for activity against S. aureus SA-1199B (NorA overproducing), SA-1199 (wild-type) and SA-K1758 (norA knockout). The role of NorA in the intracellular invasion of S. aureus and the ability of capsaicin to inhibit this invasion was established in J774 macrophage cell lines. The three-dimensional structure of NorA was predicted using an in silico approach and docking studies of capsaicin were performed. Capsaicin significantly reduced the MIC of ciprofloxacin for S. aureus SA-1199 and SA-1199B. Furthermore, capsaicin also extended the post-antibiotic effect of ciprofloxacin by 1.1 h at MIC concentration. There was a decrease in mutation prevention concentration of ciprofloxacin when combined with capsaicin. Inhibition of ethidium bromide efflux by NorA-overproducing S. aureus SA-1199B confirmed the role of capsaicin as a NorA efflux pump inhibitor (EPI). The most significant finding of this study was the ability of capsaicin to reduce the intracellular invasion of S. aureus SA-1199B (NorA overproducing) in J774 macrophage cell lines by 2 log(10). This study, for the first time, has shown that capsaicin, a novel EPI, not only inhibits the NorA efflux pump of S. aureus but also reduces the invasiveness of S. aureus, thereby reducing its virulence.

  13. Involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases BcPtpA and BcPtpB in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and multi-stress tolerance in Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Yang

    Full Text Available Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation have emerged as fundamentally important mechanisms of signal transduction and regulation in eukaryotic cells, governing many processes, but little has been known about their functions in filamentous fungi. In this study, we deleted two putative protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP genes (BcPTPA and BcPTPB in Botrytis cinerea, encoding the orthologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ptp2 and Ptp3, respectively. Although BcPtpA and BcPtpB have opposite functions in conidiation, they are essential for sclerotial formation in B. cinerea. BcPTPA and BcPTPB deletion mutants ΔBcPtpA-10 and ΔBcPtpB-4 showed significantly increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall damaging agents. Inoculation tests showed that both mutants exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on tomato leaves, apples and grapes. In S. cerevisiae, it has been shown that Ptp2 and Ptp3 negatively regulate the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG pathway and the cell wall integrity (CWI pathway. Although both BcPtpA and BcPtpB were able to inactive Hog1 and Mpk1 in S. cerevisiae, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, they positively regulate phosphorylation of BcSak1 (the homologue of Hog1 and BcBmp3 (the homologue of Mpk1 in B. cinerea under stress conditions. These results demonstrated that functions of PTPs in B. cinerea are different from those in S. cerevisiae, and BcPtpA and BcPtpB play important roles in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and in adaptation to oxidative, osmotic and cell-wall damage stresses in B. cinerea.

  14. Oral Cancer Malnutrition Impacts Weight and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Claudius Gellrich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients’ strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy.

  15. From bench to application: current practices in tissue engineering and its realisation at maxillofacial units in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Ralf; El-Moawen, Ahmed; Jung, Ole; Hanken, Henning; Hartjen, Philip; Heiland, Max; Kansy, Katinka; Kloss, Frank; Kolk, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Over the last 20 years, the highly interdisciplinary field of tissue engineering (TE) has become an established subspecialty in research facilities all over the world. Numerous methods and protocols are available for various research intentions and aims, but there are no data indicating which of these methods and resources are generally used. This study is an overview of the resources and methods that are commonly applied in TE research in general, and in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The DÖSAK collaborative group for TE developed a detailed questionnaire and collected information from participating university hospitals in these three countries. We evaluated the availability of research facilities, in vitro realisation and in vivo designs for animal studies in these departments. 11 units who replied, out of 35 we contacted, conducted research on bone regeneration in interdisciplinary research facilities. 10 departments used xenogeneic and alloplastic scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo applications. In this case, the most commonly utilised trademarks were Bio-Oss(®) and CERASORB(®). 9 units used osteoblasts (73%) and 10 proliferation assays in vitro, whereas rats served as the standard animal model for histology/immunohistochemistry in 6. All research units were interested in establishing a platform for research exchange and communication. This study shows that tissue engineering is well established and highly accepted in most participating university hospitals and research facilities. The presented data, together with data published in a foregoing paper will help arrange more readily available standardised procedures for further investigations. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Problems and Solution Proposals Related to Sheep and Goat Husbandry in Kastamonu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Tüfekci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted by using a survey made at 80 enterprises from 63 villages with the aim of determining situations, problems and solution proposals related to the sheep and goat farms in Kastamonu province. The average age of the farmers was 49.3 years. The farmers were 8.75% of primary school graduates, 68.75% of secondary school and also 22.6% of illiterate. The enterprises have raised animals as 31.75% of state + own land and 68.75%’ of private + leased land. Also they are kept the rate of 70% Hair goat, 30% Angora goat and 55% Merino sheep, 42.5% Akkaraman sheep, and 16.25% Turkmen genotype, 7.5% Sakız sheep and 6.25% of Kıvırcık Sheep. The average flock sizes goat and sheep enterprises were 77.3 head goats and 71.7 heads sheep, respectively. Sixty percent of the breeder feed their animals on the pasture for 8-10 months and only 30% the breeders give supplementary feeding before and during mating period. The enterprises have 31.2% parturition chamber and 92.5% lamb growth areas. While all enterprises are routinely used to protective vaccines but only used disinfectant of 73.7% enterprises. The reason of sheep and goat breeders is majority contributions of income and habits. So, flock sizes are small (74.5 heads animal. In conclusion, young people by encouraging small animal farming in the province of Kastamonu, should be given to technical, economic support and educational seminars. In the future, as the sole source of income and a large flock size may lead to a development of sheep and goat breeding in Kastamonu province.

  17. The Riesz-Radon-Frechet problem of characterization of integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, Valerii K; Rodionov, Timofey V [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mikhalev, Aleksandr V [Centre for New Information Technologies, Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-16

    This paper is a survey of results on characterizing integrals as linear functionals. It starts from the familiar result of F. Riesz (1909) on integral representation of bounded linear functionals by Riemann-Stieltjes integrals on a closed interval, and is directly connected with Radon's famous theorem (1913) on integral representation of bounded linear functionals by Lebesgue integrals on a compact subset of R{sup n}. After the works of Radon, Frechet, and Hausdorff, the problem of characterizing integrals as linear functionals took the particular form of the problem of extending Radon's theorem from R{sup n} to more general topological spaces with Radon measures. This problem turned out to be difficult, and its solution has a long and rich history. Therefore, it is natural to call it the Riesz-Radon-Frechet problem of characterization of integrals. Important stages of its solution are associated with such eminent mathematicians as Banach (1937-1938), Saks (1937-1938), Kakutani (1941), Halmos (1950), Hewitt (1952), Edwards (1953), Prokhorov (1956), Bourbaki (1969), and others. Essential ideas and technical tools were developed by A.D. Alexandrov (1940-1943), Stone (1948-1949), Fremlin (1974), and others. Most of this paper is devoted to the contemporary stage of the solution of the problem, connected with papers of Koenig (1995-2008), Zakharov and Mikhalev (1997-2009), and others. The general solution of the problem is presented in the form of a parametric theorem on characterization of integrals which directly implies the characterization theorems of the indicated authors. Bibliography: 60 titles.

  18. The Riesz-Radon-Frechet problem of characterization of integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, Valerii K; Rodionov, Timofey V; Mikhalev, Aleksandr V

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a survey of results on characterizing integrals as linear functionals. It starts from the familiar result of F. Riesz (1909) on integral representation of bounded linear functionals by Riemann-Stieltjes integrals on a closed interval, and is directly connected with Radon's famous theorem (1913) on integral representation of bounded linear functionals by Lebesgue integrals on a compact subset of R n . After the works of Radon, Frechet, and Hausdorff, the problem of characterizing integrals as linear functionals took the particular form of the problem of extending Radon's theorem from R n to more general topological spaces with Radon measures. This problem turned out to be difficult, and its solution has a long and rich history. Therefore, it is natural to call it the Riesz-Radon-Frechet problem of characterization of integrals. Important stages of its solution are associated with such eminent mathematicians as Banach (1937-1938), Saks (1937-1938), Kakutani (1941), Halmos (1950), Hewitt (1952), Edwards (1953), Prokhorov (1956), Bourbaki (1969), and others. Essential ideas and technical tools were developed by A.D. Alexandrov (1940-1943), Stone (1948-1949), Fremlin (1974), and others. Most of this paper is devoted to the contemporary stage of the solution of the problem, connected with papers of Koenig (1995-2008), Zakharov and Mikhalev (1997-2009), and others. The general solution of the problem is presented in the form of a parametric theorem on characterization of integrals which directly implies the characterization theorems of the indicated authors. Bibliography: 60 titles.

  19. Genetic composition and connectivity of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hunter, Margaret; Guzmán, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic diversity and haplotype composition of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) population from the San San Pond Sak wetland in Bocas del Toro, Panama was studied using a segment of mitochondrial DNA (D’loop). No genetic information has been published to date for Panamanian populations. Due to the secretive behavior and small population size of the species in the area, DNA extraction was conducted from opportunistically collected fecal (N=20), carcass tissue (N=4) and bone (N=4) samples. However, after DNA processing only 10 samples provided good quality DNA for sequencing (3 fecal, 4 tissue and 3 bone samples). We found three haplotypes in total; two of these haplotypes are reported for the first time, J02 (N=3) and J03 (N=4), and one J01 was previously published (N=3). Genetic diversity showed similar values to previous studies conducted in other Caribbean regions with moderate values of nucleotide diversity (π= 0.00152) and haplotipic diversity (Hd= 0.57). Connectivity assessment was based on sequence similarity, genetic distance and genetic differentiation between San San population and other manatee populations previously studied. The J01 haplotype found in the Panamanian population is shared with populations in the Caribbean mainland and the Gulf of Mexico showing a reduced differentiation corroborated with Fst value between HSSPS and this region of 0.0094. In contrast, comparisons between our sequences and populations in the Eastern Caribbean (South American populations) and North Western Caribbean showed fewer similarities (Fst =0.049 and 0.058, respectively). These results corroborate previous phylogeographic patterns already established for manatee populations and situate Panamanian populations into the Belize and Mexico cluster. In addition, these findings will be a baseline for future studies and comparisons with manatees in other areas of Panama and Central America. These results should be considered to inform management decisions

  20. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  1. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  2. Effect of 5-azacytidine and cortisol on the P1798 cortisol-sensitive and non-resistant lymphosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, C.

    1986-01-01

    The P1798 lymphosarcoma is a tumor with both cortisol-sensitive (CS) and cortisol-resistant (CR) lines. Although differences between the CS and CR cells have been reported, none can fully explain the detailed mechanism of glucocorticoid resistance in CR tumors. Recently, it was shown that 5-azacytidine treatment could generate CS cells from CR SAK lymphoma cells in vitro. The present study examined the effect of combination treatment with 5-azacytidine and cortisol on the growth of the P1798 lymphosarcoma. 5-Azacytidine rendered the P1798 CR tumors partially cortisol-sensitive, and enhanced the cortisol-induced regression of the P1798 CS tumors. Survival of mice bearing both CS and CR P1798 tumors was increased by combination treatment. Similar whole cell and nuclear binding of 3 H-TA were observed in both 5-azacytidine-treated and control P1798 tumors. However, CR nuclei retained 64% of the whole cell binding of 3 H-TA compared to 25-29% nuclear retention in CS tumors. DNA methylation in tumors from 5-azacytidine-treated mice decreased to 53% (CS) and 42% (CR) of control. Since 5-azacytidine did not result in any change in thymidine labeling index or cell cycle distribution in P1798 tumors, it would appear to be cytostatic rather than cytotoxic to P1798 tumors. Three cell lines have been isolated from the P1798 lymphosarcoma: two are cortisol-sensitive both in vivo and in vitro, while the other is cortisol-resistant. Results from this study suggest that glucocorticoid resistance is a reversible process, and that the effect of 5-azacytidine on the P1798 CR tumor is at the gene expression level

  3. Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzouz I

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inès Azzouz, Hamdi Trabelsi, Amel Hanini, Soumaya Ferchichi, Olfa Tebourbi, Mohsen Sakly, Hafedh AbdelmelekLaboratory of Integrative Physiology, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Carthage University, TunisiaAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip] in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth] led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements' bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium to malondialdehyde level in rat liver.Keywords: nanocomplexes biosynthesis, antioxidative responses, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence microscopy, liver

  4. Oral cancer malnutrition impacts weight and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Holtmann, Henrik; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    2015-03-27

    Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients' strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy.

  5. Surface Alpha Interactions in P-Type Point-Contact HPGe Detectors: Maximizing Sensitivity of 76Ge Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszko, Julieta

    Though the existence of neutrino oscillations proves that neutrinos must have non-zero mass, Beyond-the-Standard-Model physics is needed to explain the origins of that mass. One intriguing possibility is that neutrinos are Majorana particles, i.e., they are their own anti-particles. Such a mechanism could naturally explain the observed smallness of the neutrino masses, and would have consequences that go far beyond neutrino physics, with implications for Grand Unification and leptogenesis. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, they could undergo neutrinoless double-beta decay (0nBB), a hypothesized rare decay in which two antineutrinos annihilate one another. This process, if it exists, would be exceedingly rare, with a half-life over 1E25 years. Therefore, searching for it requires experiments with extremely low background rates. One promising technique in the search for 0nBB is the use of P-type point-contact (P-PC) high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors enriched in 76Ge, operated in large low-background arrays. This approach is used, with some key differences, by the MAJORANA and GERDA Collaborations. A problematic background in such large granular detector arrays is posed by alpha particles incident on the surfaces of the detectors, often caused by 222Rn contamination of parts or of the detectors themselves. In the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, events have been observed that are consistent with energy-degraded alphas originating near the passivated surface of the detectors, leading to a potential background contribution in the region-of-interest for neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, it is also observed that when energy deposition occurs very close to the passivated surface, high charge trapping occurs along with subsequent slow charge re-release. This leads to both a reduced prompt signal and a measurable change in slope of the tail of a recorded pulse. Here we discuss the characteristics of these events and the development of a filter that can identify the

  6. Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Annual report 2014/2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual report 2014/2015 of the Fraunhofer Institute for molecular biology and applied ecology includes the following contributions: (A) Molecular Biology: TheraSECOURE - Novel immunotherapeutics for targeted cancer therapy; ''MultiNaBel ''- Automated diagnosis of leukemia; Breeding potato for optimized specialty starches; NGS-based zygosity detection in transgenic maize; High-throughput screen ing system for cellulases based on microfluidic devices; Filter aids reduce production costs for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals; Transient expression of recombinant proteins in packed plant cells; ERA-NET Biodiversa EXOTIC project on the invasive harlequin ladybird; AIM-Biotech supported by the Fraunhofer-Max Planck Cooperation program; Metabolic control analysis of the MEP pathway; Metabolic engineering of Clostridium spp. by genomic integration; The Fraunhofer Future Foundation malaria project; Autoantibodies to type 11 collagen as biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis; Development of a new drug for the treatment of sepsis; Databionic drug research; Structure-based drug design; Neu 2 : competence consortium for multiple sclerosis drug development; Natural compounds from marine fungi for the treatment of cancer; FCR Center for Systems Biotechnology (CSB): Two selected projects; Development and implementation of a plant-derived vaccine against yellow fever. (B) Applied Ecology: Comparison and improvement of laboratory water/sediment test systems; Inter-laboratory comparison of Hyalella Azteca exposure tests lasting 10-42 days; Substance- and matrix-related environmental monitoring of biocides; GERDA-geobased runoff, erosion and drainage risk assessment; The minimum detectable difference and reliability of mesocosm studies; Mechanistic effect models for the ecological risk assessment of pesticides; Molecular biology test for the online analysis of spontaneously-fermented wines; Coupling two test systems to determine the effect of wastewater

  7. The GALATEA test facility and a first study of α-induced surface events in a germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irlbeck, Sabine

    2014-01-30

    Germanium detectors are a choice technology in fundamental research. They are suitable for the search for rare events due to their high sensitivity and excellent energy resolution. As an example, the GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is described. The observation of this decay would resolve the fundamental question whether the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Especially adapted detector technologies and low background rates needed to detect very rare events such as neutrinoless double beta decays are discussed. The identification of backgrounds originating from the interaction of radiation, especially α-particles, is a focus of this thesis. Low background experiments face problems from α-particles due to unavoidable surface contaminations of the germanium detectors. The segmentation of detectors is used to obtain information about the special characteristics of selected events. The high precision test stand GALATEA was especially designed for surface scans of germanium detectors. As part of this work, GALATEA was completed and commissioned. The final commissioning required major upgrades of the original design which are described in detail. Collimator studies with two commercial germanium detectors are presented. Different collimation levels for a β-source were investigated and crystal axis effects were examined. The first scan with an α-source of the passivated end-plate of a special 19-fold segmented prototype detector mounted in GALATEA is described. The α-induced surface events were studied and characterized. Crosstalk and mirror pulses seen in the segments of the germanium detector were analyzed. The detector studies presented in this thesis will help to further improve the design of germanium detectors for low background experiments.

  8. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C

    2016-03-01

    The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n = 85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmes against long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Annual report 2014/2015; Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Jahresbericht 2014/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Annual report 2014/2015 of the Fraunhofer Institute for molecular biology and applied ecology includes the following contributions: (A) Molecular Biology: TheraSECOURE - Novel immunotherapeutics for targeted cancer therapy; ''MultiNaBel ''- Automated diagnosis of leukemia; Breeding potato for optimized specialty starches; NGS-based zygosity detection in transgenic maize; High-throughput screen ing system for cellulases based on microfluidic devices; Filter aids reduce production costs for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals; Transient expression of recombinant proteins in packed plant cells; ERA-NET Biodiversa EXOTIC project on the invasive harlequin ladybird; AIM-Biotech supported by the Fraunhofer-Max Planck Cooperation program; Metabolic control analysis of the MEP pathway; Metabolic engineering of Clostridium spp. by genomic integration; The Fraunhofer Future Foundation malaria project; Autoantibodies to type 11 collagen as biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis; Development of a new drug for the treatment of sepsis; Databionic drug research; Structure-based drug design; Neu{sup 2}: competence consortium for multiple sclerosis drug development; Natural compounds from marine fungi for the treatment of cancer; FCR Center for Systems Biotechnology (CSB): Two selected projects; Development and implementation of a plant-derived vaccine against yellow fever. (B) Applied Ecology: Comparison and improvement of laboratory water/sediment test systems; Inter-laboratory comparison of Hyalella Azteca exposure tests lasting 10-42 days; Substance- and matrix-related environmental monitoring of biocides; GERDA-geobased runoff, erosion and drainage risk assessment; The minimum detectable difference and reliability of mesocosm studies; Mechanistic effect models for the ecological risk assessment of pesticides; Molecular biology test for the online analysis of spontaneously-fermented wines; Coupling two test systems to determine the effect of wastewater

  10. Correlation of endoscopic severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (gerd) with body mass index (bmi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haq, I.U.; Butt, A.R.; Shafiq, F.; Huda, G.; Mirza, G.; Rehman, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the correlation of endoscopic severity of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) with Body Mass Index (BMI). This study was conducted on 203 patients, who presented with upper GI symptoms. Patients who fulfilled the symptom criteria were referred for endoscopy. Classification of GERD was done according to LA Grading classification system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as Body Weight (BW) in kilograms (kg) divided by the square of the body height (BH) in meter (m2). Patient data was analyzed using SPSS 12 software. Statistical evaluation was done using non-parametric Wilcoxon's-sign Rank test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Distribution of GERD was as follows: GERD-A subjects 65 (32%), GERD B subjects 72 (35.4%), GERD-C subjects 23 (11.3%), GERD-D subjects 10 (4.92%), while Non-Erosive Reflux Disease (NERD) was present in 33 subjects (16.2%). Mean BMI was 27+5.02SD (range of 18.2-38.3). BMI of patients having NERD was in normal range but patients who were having advanced disease i.e. Grade C-D were in obese range of BMI, while those who were having LA grade A-B were in overweight BMI range. When regrouped as mild GERD (grade A-B) and NERD versus severe GERD (grade C-D), there was a strong significant correlation between severity of GERD and BMI, as detected by Wilcoxon's signed Rank test (p=0.001). Higher BMI seems to be associated with higher degree of endoscopic GERD severity. (author)

  11. The GALATEA test facility and a first study of α-induced surface events in a germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlbeck, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Germanium detectors are a choice technology in fundamental research. They are suitable for the search for rare events due to their high sensitivity and excellent energy resolution. As an example, the GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is described. The observation of this decay would resolve the fundamental question whether the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Especially adapted detector technologies and low background rates needed to detect very rare events such as neutrinoless double beta decays are discussed. The identification of backgrounds originating from the interaction of radiation, especially α-particles, is a focus of this thesis. Low background experiments face problems from α-particles due to unavoidable surface contaminations of the germanium detectors. The segmentation of detectors is used to obtain information about the special characteristics of selected events. The high precision test stand GALATEA was especially designed for surface scans of germanium detectors. As part of this work, GALATEA was completed and commissioned. The final commissioning required major upgrades of the original design which are described in detail. Collimator studies with two commercial germanium detectors are presented. Different collimation levels for a β-source were investigated and crystal axis effects were examined. The first scan with an α-source of the passivated end-plate of a special 19-fold segmented prototype detector mounted in GALATEA is described. The α-induced surface events were studied and characterized. Crosstalk and mirror pulses seen in the segments of the germanium detector were analyzed. The detector studies presented in this thesis will help to further improve the design of germanium detectors for low background experiments.

  12. Impacts of endoscopic gastroesophageal flap valve grading on pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV endoscopic grading is reported to be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in adults; however its role in pediatric groups remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the significance of GEFV grading and the associations to multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH in children with GERD.A total of 48 children with GERD symptoms who received esophagogastroduodenoscopy and MII-pH monitoring were enrolled. The degree of GEFV was graded from I to IV according to the Hill classification, and classified into two groups: normal GEFV (Hill grades I and II, and abnormal GEFV (Hill grades III and VI. Endoscopic findings and MII-pH monitoring were analyzed among the groups.Thirty-six patients had normal GEFV while 12 had abnormal GEFV. The presence of erosive esophagitis was significantly more common in the patients with abnormal GEFV (p = 0.037, OR 9.84, 95% CI 1.15-84.42. Pathological acidic gastroesophageal reflux (GER determined by MII-pH was more prevalent in the patients with loosened GEFV geometry (p = 0.01, OR 7.0, 95% CI 1.67-27.38. There were significant positive correlations between GEFV Hill grading I to IV and the severity of erosive esophagitis (r = 0.49, p<0.001, percentage of supine acid reflux (r = 0.37, p = 0.009, percentage of total acid reflux (r = 0.3284, p = 0.023, and DeMeester score (r = 0.36, p = 0.01 detected by pH monitoring. In the impedance study, GEFV Hill grading also positively correlated to median number of acid reflux events (r = 0.3015, p = 0.037.GEFV dysfunction highly associated with acid GER and severe erosive esophagitis. An abnormal GEFV is a sign of acid GER in children.

  13. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M.; Stringer, Lloyd D.; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)

  14. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    amount of geographically diverse data, it is not possible to develop a comprehensive predictive model. Based on the comprehensive phase behavior analysis of Alaska North Slope crude oil, a reservoir simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performance of a gas injection enhanced oil recovery technique for the West Sak reservoir. It was found that a definite increase in viscous oil production can be obtained by selecting the proper injectant gas and by optimizing reservoir operating parameters. A comparative analysis is provided, which helps in the decision-making process.

  15. NapA Mediates a Redox Regulation of the Antioxidant Response, Carbon Utilization and Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariann E. Mendoza-Martínez

    2017-03-01

    that SakA-AtfA, SrrA and NapA oxidative stress-sensing pathways regulate essential aspects of spore physiology (i.e., cell cycle arrest, dormancy, drug production and detoxification, and carbohydrate utilization.

  16. Praktik Pemikiran Inklusif-Sosial KH M Sholeh Bahruddin Ngalah sebagai Manifestasi Pendidikan Multikultural Pesantren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anang Sholikhudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam sejarah hidupnya, praktik pemikiran inklusif-sosial Kiai Sholeh sangat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa hal. Pertama, atas perintah ayahanda dengan pesan seperti berikut: “sak temene dek pasar, dek masjid, dek dalan, kabeh iku dulurmu (sesungguhnya baik di pasar, di masjid, maupun di jalanan, di seluruh tempat itu ada saudaramu.” Kedua, penerapan teori Abraham, yakni mencontoh perilaku ayahanda KH M Bahruddin Kalam (almarhum dan juga perilaku kakek KH M Kalam (almarhum. Ketiga, praktik dari rukun Tarekat Naqshabandiyah pada poin kelima dan keenam, yakni “ambugusi kabeh konco, cilik gede, lanang wadon, enom tuo, lan ambagusi kabeh makhluk (bergaul secara baik dengan semua teman, baik kecil maupun besar, laki-laki maupun perempuan, muda maupun tua, dan bergaul secara baik dengan semua makhluk.” Penelitian ini memfokuskan pada praktik pemikiran inklusif-sosial KH M Sholeh Bahruddin dengan model studi kasus, pendekatan yang dipakai adalah expose facto. Data diambil melalui observasi, wawancara serta dokumentasi. Penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa praktik pemikiran inklusif-sosial KH.. M. Sholeh Bahruddin sebenarnya mempertemukan misi perintah masing-masing agama (Islam, Kristen, Katolik, Budha dan Konghucu untuk membangun perdamaian, keamanan dan memelihara kasih sayang bersama-sama dan meminimalisir terjadinya konflik agama. || In the history of his life, the practice of inclusive social thought by Kiai Sholeh greatly influenced by several things. First, on the orders of his father with the following message: “In the markets, in the mosques, as well as on the streets, all over the places there are your brothers.” Secondly, the application of Abraham’s theory, which was practiced by KH M Bahruddin Kalam, the father (deceased of Kiai Sholeh, as well as KH M Kalam, the grandfather (deceased of Kiai Sholeh. Third, the practice of the Naqshabandi pillars that say: “being good with all friends, both small and great, both men and women, young

  17. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Noreen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, glr1Δ and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK mutants of A. fumigatus (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ, indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC or fungicidal (MFC

  18. The Danish Testicular Cancer database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaard G

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gedske Daugaard,1 Maria Gry Gundgaard Kier,1 Mikkel Bandak,1 Mette Saksø Mortensen,1 Heidi Larsson,2 Mette Søgaard,2 Birgitte Groenkaer Toft,3 Birte Engvad,4 Mads Agerbæk,5 Niels Vilstrup Holm,6 Jakob Lauritsen1 1Department of Oncology 5073, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 4Department of Pathology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 6Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Aim: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database. The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. Study population: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. Main variables and descriptive data: The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions

  19. Effects of Biochar and Lime on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Tobacco Seedling Growth in Red Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Red soil, mainly found in the southern China, is developed in a warm, moist climate. The main property of the soils is strong acidity, aluminum toxicity, and low available nutrients. In this study, different effects of biochar and lime on soil physicochemical properties and tobacco growth were determined in red soil, so as to provide a scientific foundation for soil improvement tobacco field. A pot experiment was designed and conducted at four biochar levels(0, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and normal lime level (0.3% to study effects of two different soil amendments on red soil pH, exchangeable aluminum(Exc-Al and exchangeable manganese(Exc-Mn, available nutrients and organic carbon (SOC. Meanwhile, agronomic traits, biomass and leaves elements of tobacco were also tested. Results showed that the agronomic characters and biomass of tobacco seedling had changed effectively after biochar or lime was added. Under 0.5%, 1% biochar treatment, the content of nitrogen(N, phosphorus(P, potassium(K, calcium(Ca and magnesium(Mg in tobacco leaves substantially raised. However, when 2% biochar was applied, leaves N content declined by 9.3%. Compared with the control, leaves N, P and Ca content increased observably in the lime treatment. However, its K and Mg content decreased by 9.0% and 13.3% respectively. Alkaline nitrogen(SAN, available phosphorus (SAP, available potassium (SAK, and exchangeable calcium (Exc-Ca and exchangeable magnesium (Exc-Mg were improved obviously in soil applied with biochar. Only the content of Exc-Ca was significantly increased in lime treatment. In addition, it was beneficial to improve soil pH and reduce soil Exc-Al when biochar or lime had been used. Thus, both biochar and lime are propitious to increase soil pH value, lessen soil Exc-Al content, and improve the growth of tobacco seedling. Furthermore, biochar application also can raise the content of available nutrient and SOC in red soil.

  20. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  1. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Olga E.; Hung, Wei-Chun; Wan, Tsai-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Yachenko, Svetlana V.; Teplyakova, Olga V.; Kamshilova, Vera V.; Kotlovsky, Yuri V.; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan V.; Sidorenko, Sergey V.; Peryanova, Olga V.; Reva, Galina V.; Teng, Lee-Jene; Salmina, Alla B.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA), respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP) were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037)/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras), while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc) (designated as ST8Kras). ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld) genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs): toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3) genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W), with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+) SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome). ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras) emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk) associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  2. Toros sedirinde yetiştirme sıklığının fidan morfolojik özellikleri ve beslenme durumuna etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Şükrü Teoman GÜNER

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, fidanlık koşullarında yetiştirme sıklığının 2+0 yaşlı Toros sediri (Cedrus libani fidanlarının bazı morfolojik özellikleri ile beslenme durumu üzerine etkisini araştırmaktır. Araştırmada, Isparta-Kapıdağ orijinli tohumlar kullanılmıştır. Eskişehir Orman Fidanlığı’nda 1,2 m genişliğindeki yüksek yastıklara, 15 cm aralıklarla oluşturulan 7 ekim çizgisinde, kontrol ( ̴ 1,5; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0 cm mesafe ile yetiştirilen fidanların bazı morfolojik özellikleri ile ibre, gövde ve kök besin elementi içerikleri belirlenmiştir. Denemede rastlantı parselleri deneme deseni kullanılmıştır. Veriler varyans analizi, Duncan testi ve korelasyon analizi ile değerlendirilmiştir. Yetiştirme sıklığı fidan boyu (FB, kök boğazı çapı (KBÇ, FB/KBÇ oranı, sak taze ağırlığı, kök taze ağırlığı, fidan taze ağırlığı, sak kuru ağırlığı (SKA, kök kuru ağırlığı (KKA, fidan kuru ağırlığı (FKA, SKA/KKA oranı ve kök yüzdesini (KKA/FKA oranı önemli derecede etkilemiştir. İncelenen fidan morfolojik özellikleri arasında önemli ilişkiler belirlenmiştir. Fidanların sahip olduğu toplam N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Zn, Cu ve Mn içeriği bakımından yetiştirme sıklıkları arasındaki farklılıklar önemli (P<0,001 bulunmuştur. Yetiştirme sıklığı azaldıkça fidanların toplam besin elementi içeriği artmıştır. Farklı sıklık derecelerinde yetiştirilen fidanların topraktan kaldırdığı besin stokları arasında anlamlı farklılıklar belirlenmiş, sıklığının azalması ile fidanların birim alandan kaldırdığı besin stokları azalmıştır. Bütün bulgular birlikte değerlendirildiğinde, kurak-yarı kurak alan ağaçlandırmalarında fidanlıkta 2,5 cm mesafeyle (232 fidan/m2; yarı nemli-nemli alan ağaçlandırmalarında ise 7,5 cm mesafeyle (77 fidan/m2 fidan yetiştirmenin uygun olacağı düşünülmektedir.

  3. Factors associated with medication information in diabetes care: differences in perceptions between patients and health care professionals

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    Längst G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gerda Längst,1 Hanna Marita Seidling,2,3 Marion Stützle,2,3 Dominik Ose,1 Ines Baudendistel,1 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Michel Wensing,1,4 Cornelia Mahler1 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Cooperation Unit Clinical Pharmacy, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Purpose: This qualitative study in patients with type 2 diabetes and health care professionals (HCPs aimed to investigate which factors they perceive to enhance or impede medication information provision in primary care. Similarities and differences in perspectives were explored.Methods: Eight semistructured focus groups were conducted, four with type 2 diabetes patients (n=25 and four with both general practitioners (n=13 and health care assistants (n=10. Sessions were audio and video recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to computer-aided qualitative content analysis.Results: Diabetes patients and HCPs broadly highlighted similar factors as enablers for satisfactory medication information delivery. Perceptions substantially differed regarding impeding factors. Both patients and HCPs perceived it to be essential to deliver tailored information, to have a trustful and continuous patient–provider relationship, to regularly reconcile medications, and to provide tools for medication management. However, substantial differences in perceptions related to impeding factors included the causes of inadequate information, the detail required for risk-related information, and barriers to medication reconciliation. Medication self-management was a prevalent topic among patients, whereas HCPs’ focus was on fulfilling therapy and medication management responsibilities

  4. Association between socioeconomic and health factors and edentulism in people aged 65 and older - a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Hanna; Ulander, Eva Lena; Gustafson, Yngve; Hörnsten, Carl

    2017-08-01

    To study edentulism and use of dental services in a population-based sample of people aged 65 years and older from northern Sweden and western Finland. In 2010, people aged 65, 70, 75 and 80 years who were living in one of 32 municipalities in northern Sweden and western Finland were invited to answer a questionnaire as part of the Gerontological Regional Database (GERDA) study ( n = 6099). The questionnaire contained items related to socioeconomic status, general health and edentulism. The prevalence of edentulism was 34.9% in Finland, compared with 20.6% in Sweden ( p < 0.001), 31.9% in rural areas, compared with 20.9% in urban areas ( p < 0.001), and 25% overall. The prevalence of edentulism rose from 17.8% in 65-year-olds, 23.8% in 70-year-olds, 33.5% in 75-year-olds and 37.3% in 80-year-olds ( p < 0.001), and was 23.8% in women, compared with 27% in men ( p < 0.001). In multivariate models, edentulism was associated with lower educational level (odds ratio (OR) 2.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31-3.58), low income level (OR 1.7, CI 1.09-1.47), residence in a rural area (OR 1.43, CI 1.23-1.66), male sex (OR 1.30, CI 1.12-1.52), dependence in instrumental activities of daily living (OR 1.48, CI 1.25-1.74), social isolation (OR 1.52, CI 1.17-1.98) and poor self-experienced health (OR 1.38, CI 1.17-1.62). One-quarter of the total sample was edentulous, with a higher prevalence of edentulism in Finland than in Sweden and in rural than in urban areas. Edentulism was associated with socioeconomic, psychological and health-related factors. These findings could be used to inform preventive measures and identify people aged 65 years and older who are in need of oral care.

  5. Developing a Shared Patient-Centered, Web-Based Medication Platform for Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Their Health Care Providers: Qualitative Study on User Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Gerda; Mahler, Cornelia; Seidling, Hanna Marita; Stützle, Marion; Ose, Dominik; Baudendistel, Ines; Wensing, Michel; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2018-03-27

    the platform to users' workflow. By employing a UCD, this study provides insight into the desired functionalities and usability of patients and HCPs regarding a shared patient-centered, Web-based medication platform, thus increasing the likelihood to achieve a functional and useful system. Substantial and ongoing engagement by all intended user groups is necessary to reconcile differences in requirements of patients and HCPs, especially regarding medication safety alerts and access control. Moreover, effective training of patients and HCPs on medication self-management (support) and optimal use of the tool will be a prerequisite to unfold the platform's full potential. ©Gerda Bernhard, Cornelia Mahler, Hanna Marita Seidling, Marion Stützle, Dominik Ose, Ines Baudendistel, Michel Wensing, Joachim Szecsenyi. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 27.03.2018.

  6. COST EFFECT OF BACKWARD GROWTH ON SUPPLY CHAIN IN THE INDUSTRIAL CATERING

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    Kudret GÜL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to get competition advantage, reducing cost even a point is more essential in the industrial catering. The study focused on cost benefits of the backward growth among industrial catering firms in the supply chain. Thus, a survey was conducted on 7 backwards growth firms and 20 traditional working firms in the supply chain. Research results indicate that backwards growth decision of firms resulted positively with increase in stability of supply, competitiveness, firm’s market share, financial risk, firm’s profit and innovation, and negatively in coordination problems. In addition, backwards growth resulted with decrease in supply and inventory cost among vertical mergered firms in the supply chain. Competition in the industry, caterer and supplier relations, capacity utilization, advantages and disadvantages of backgrowth has been also investigated. Öz: Endüstriyel yiyecek işletmeciliğinde rekabet avantajı elde edebilmek için maliyetleri bir birim dahi azaltmak oldukça önemlidir. Çalışma, endüstriyel yiyecek işletmeleri arasında geriye doğru büyümenin maliyet kazanımlarına odaklanmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda tedarik zincirinde geleneksel olarak çalışan 20 firma ile geriye doğru büyüyen 7 firmaya yönelik bir araştırma yürütülmüştür. Araştırma bulguları firmaların geriye doğru büyüme kararının tedarikte istikrarı, rekabeti, pazar payını, finansal riski, firma karını ve yenilikçiliği olumlu yönde, koordinasyon sorunlarını ise olumsuz yönde etkilediğini göstermektedir. Araştırma bulguları geriye doğru büyümenin dikey olarak büyüyen firmalar arasında tedarik ve stok maliyetlerinde de azalma ile sonuçlandığını göstermektedir. Ayrıca çalışmada sektördeki rekabet, tedarikçi ve alıcı ilişkileri, kapasite kullanımı, geriye doğru büyümenin üstünlükleri ve sakıncaları da araştırılmıştır.

  7. Max Weber’de Etik-Siyaset İlişkisi The Relationship Of Ethics-Politics In Max Weber’s Works

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    Nihat YILMAZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of current societies is the problem of ethics. It is not easy to solve this ethics problem in societies where it is not considered in terms of certain moral concerns or concerns about moral problems are not seriously considered. If theproblem of ethics is present in a societal system or, more importantly,in a rulership which has the monopoly of using legitimate powers, moreserious problems can be faced. Undoubtedly, the most effective tool forpoliticians to avoid unethic behavior or overcoming corruption in ageneral sense is political ethics. In the sense of politic ethics, MaxWeber’s work “Politics as a Vocation” in the year 1919 where in Webermade ethic classification and explanations on political function of ethicsis an important work which should especially be read by currentpoliticians and still keeps its currency. As a matter of fact, in thisdeclaration, the foundation is, firstly, how Weber defines the concept of“ethics”, and how the relationship between ethics and politics isestablished according to Weber. Information is provided as to howpolitical newcomers should be acting, and in this sense, the duo of“ethics of belief” and “ethics of responsibility”, which holds an importantplace on how explanation of the relationship between ethics andpolitics, is touched upon. Günümüz toplumlarının en önemli sorunlarından biri, etik sorunudur. Etik probleminin ahlaki birtakım kaygılardan yola çıkarak düşünülmediği ya da ahlaki problemlere ilişkin kaygıların çok da ciddiye alınmadığı toplumlarda çözülmesi kolay değildir. Etik sorunu, toplumsal sistemde ve daha da önemlisi meşru güç kullanma tekelini elinde bulunduran bir iktidarda söz konusu ise daha büyük sorunlarla karşılaşılabilir. Politikacıların etik olmayan davranışlardan sakınmaları ya da genel manada siyasi yolsuzlukların üstesinden gelinebilmesinde en etkili araç ise şüphesiz siyasal

  8. Globalization, differentiation and drinking cultures, an anthropological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wilson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available L’alcool et sa consommation ne renvoient pas simplement au domaine économique. L’alcool est devenu aujourd’hui une partie intégrale des relations sociales dans différentes cultures au point où son importance globale est souvent sous-estimée par ses plus ardents critiques. En dépit de ses conséquences directes sur la santé, sa consommation a pris une certaine ampleur dans le monde industriel développé. Certainement son rôle central dans la construction des identités individuelles explique sa position clé au sein des sociétés. Que nous dit le saké à propos du Japon ou le vin de Bourgogne sur la France? Que nous dit la consommation ou l’abstinence d’alcool sur les questions d’identité individuelle, d’ethnicité, de classe et de culture? Quelle place tient l’alcool dans la définition de soi et dans la notion de résistance? Répondre à ces questions et à d’autres est le but essentiel de cet article qui examine la consommation d’alcool à travers différentes cultures et ce que boire signifie pour ceux qui choisissent de consommer ou de s’abstenir. De l’Irlande à Hong-Kong, Mexico à l’Allemagne, l’alcool occupe un certain nombre de fonctions sociales, religieuses, politiques et familiales. Les cultures du boire définissent ces consommations dans le cadre plus large des pratiques sociales et montrent comment classes sociales, ethnicité et nationalisme peuvent s’exprimer à travers cette commodité. En partant d’approches de terrain, les contributeurs analysent l’interface entre culture et pouvoir dans les bars et pubs, la signification des images publicitaires, le rôle de ces boissons dans la vie quotidienne. Le résultat est la première publication comparative sur les questions de l’impact que la consommation d’alcool a sur l’identité nationale dans le monde aujourd’hui.Alcohol is not only big business, it has become an essential part of social relations in so many cultures that

  9. Volcanic history and petrography of the Pliocene Etrüsk Stratovolcano, E Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural; Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir; Sharkov, Evgenii; Lustrino, Michele; Mattioli, Michele

    2010-05-01

    rhyolite. All these units and also caldera walls are cut by a set of radial dykes. Both trachydacitic/rhyolitic lavas and radial dykes are made up of plagioclase, biotite and quartz phenocrysts. Some textures in the intermediate and felsic lavas (e.g., glass inclusions and sieve texture in plagioclase phenocrysts etc.) suggest that magma mixing might have been an important process in the magma chamber beneath Mt. Etrusk although such textures can also be related to the variations of volatile content of the magma. The Quaternary eruptions on the W flank of the Etrusk volcano are represented by plagioclase-olivine-clinopyroxene-phyric basalts. Our geochemical database indicates that the edifice-forming trachitic lavas are alkaline in character whereas overlying thracyandesites and post caldera thrachydacites/rhyolites plot on the subalkaline-alkaline divide on TAS diagram, displaying transitional characteristics. Quaternary fissure eruptions in the SW of the volcano classify as subalkaline basalts. All these lavas display enrichment in LIL and LREE elements relative to HFS and HREE respectively. These characteristics may be a reflection of the composition of mantle source region, although the effects of magma chamber processes (e.g. AFC and mixing) on magma composition cannot be ruled out. REFERENCE Şengör, A.M.C., Özeren, M.S., Keskin, M., Sakınç, M., Özbakır, A.D. and Kayan, I. (2008). Eastern Turkish high plateau as a small Turkic-type orogen: implications for post-collisional crust-forming processes in Turkic-type orogens, Earth Science Reviews, 90(1-2), 1-48.

  10. TÜRKİYEDEKİ ULAŞTIRMA SİSTEMLERİNİN ANALİZİ VE ULAŞTIRMA POLİTİKALARI

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    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Sosyo-ekonomik ve sosyo-kültürel yapılaşmanın doğal bir sonucu olarak ortaya çıkan ulaştırma talebi değerlendirilirken, ulaştırma sistemlerinin bir bütün olarak ele alınarak incelenmesi gereklidir. Gerek yolcu, gerekse yük taşımacılığı için seçilecek olan ulaştırma sisteminin hızlı, ekonomik, güvenli, çevreye az zarar veren ve ülke koşullarına uygun bir ulaştırma sisteminin olması arzu edilir. Ancak bir sistemin, sıralanan bu hususların hepsini birden bünyesinde toplaması oldukça zordur. Her sistemin birbirlerine göre üstünlükleri ve sakıncaları vardır. Bu nedenledir ki, büyük yatırımlar ülke genelinde tesis edilirken ileriye yönelik çok kapsamlı planlamalar yapılmalıdır. Ayrıca ülke kaynaklarının ulaştırma sistemleri arasında akılcı bir şekilde nasıl dağıtılması gerektiği araştırılmalı ve ulaştırma sistemleri arasında koordineli çalışmayı sağlayacak bir ulaşım planı hazırlanmalıdır. Bu planın başarısı ise hiç kuşkusuz sistemlerden birine ağırlık vermek yerine kombine taşımacılık ile mümkün olacaktır. Ülkemizin üç yanı denizlerle çevrili iken deniz yolu ile yapılan taşımacılığın % 1 seviyesinin çok altında olması ve karayolu ile yapılan yük ve yolcu taşımacılığının ise % 95 seviyelerine çıkması Türkiye'deki ulaştırma politikalarının sorgulanması gerektiğini ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Bu bildiride Türkiye'deki ulaştırma sistemlerinin ve ulaşım politikalarının tarihsel süreç içerisinde genel bir değerlendirmesi yapılarak sorunlar ortaya konulmakta ve çözüm önerileri sunulmaktadır.

  11. Cordia Sebestena Tohumunun ve Tohum Yağının Besinsel Özellikleri ve Potansiyel Değeri (İngilizce

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    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Az kullanılan hammaddelerin geliştirilmesinin ivme kazanması ile iyi bilinen tohum ve tohum yağlarına olan aşırı bağımlılıktan ve bunun sonucundaki yüksek maliyetten dolayı geleneksel ve endüstriyel uygulamalar için az bilinen tohum ve tohum yağları türetilmiştir. Bu nedenle Cordia sebestena tohum ve tohum yağının kullanım potansiyeli bakımından besinsel özelliklerinin değerlendirilmesine yönelik bu çalışma yapılmıştır. Tohum yağında literatürde rapor edilen çeşitli analizler kullanılarak yağ asidi profili incelenmiş ve karakterize edilmişken, tohumda ise genel bileşim, mineral bileşenler ve anti-besinsel faktörler araştırılmıştır. Sonuçlar tohumun iyi bir yağ (%40.3 ± 0.8 ve protein (%11.5 ± 0.6 kaynağı olabileceğini göstermektedir. Tohum aynı zamanda Mg, Ca ve Na benzeri bazı makro-elementler ile esansiyel bir mikro-element olan Zn kaynağı olabilir. Anti-besinlerden fitat, tanen ve oksalat içeriği yüksektir ve gıdalarda tohumun kullanımı sakıncalı olabilir. Bu maddeler belki geleneksel gıda işleme yöntemleri ile giderilebilir. Tohum yağının özellikleri onun alkid reçine sentezinde, biyodizel ve sabun üretiminde kullanışlı olabileceğini göstermektedir. Yağ asidi profili toplam yağın %71.1 oranında insan tüketimi için iyi bir yağ asidi olan oleik asiti (C18:1 ağırlıklı olarak bulundurduğunu göstermektedir. Cordia sebestena tohumu ve tohum yağının önemli kullanım alanları olabileceği görülmüştür, ancak tohum yağının aminoasit profili ve anti-besinler üzerine geleneksel işlemlerin etkileri konularında daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç vardır.

  12. Wiedza kobiet leczących się z powodu osteoporozy na temat ogólnej wiedzy o chorobie i czynników jej ryzyka = Knowledge of women treated for osteoporosis on the general knowledge about the disease and its risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pawlikowska-Łagód

    2016-05-01

    3Department of Pathology and Speech Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lublin           mgr Pawlikowska-Łagód Katarzyna1, dr n. o zdr. Janiszewska Mariola2, mgr Firlej Ewelina2, Dąbska Olga3, dr hab. n med. Sak Jarosław1 1Zakład Etyki i Filozofii Człowieka, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie 2Katedra Zdrowia Publicznego, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie 3Zakład Patologii i Rehabilitacji Mowy, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie   mgr Pawlikowska-Łagód Katarzyna1, dr n. o zdr. Janiszewska Mariola2, mgr Firlej Ewelina2, Dąbska Olga3, dr hab. n med. Sak Jarosław1 1Department of Ethics and Human Philosophy, Medical University of Lublin, Poland 2Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Lublin, Poland 3Department of Pathology and Speech Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lublin           Słowa kluczowe: wiedza, osteoporoza, kobiety, czynniki ryzyka Keywords: knowledge, osteoporosis, women, risk factors   Streszczenie Osteoporoza stanowi jeden z istotnych problemów zdrowotnych, społecznych i ekonomicznych współczesnego świata. Jest chorobą obarczoną ryzykiem trwałego kalectwa i z powodu powikłań wcześniejszej śmiertelności.  Ryzyko zachorowania, dotyczące kobiet wzrasta głównie po 65 roku życia. Szacuje się, że na całym świecie osteoporoza dotyka 200 mln kobiet, z których około 20 – 25% dozna urazu w postaci złamania kości. Biorąc pod uwagę fakt wydłużenia życia statystycznej Polki, należy zauważyć, że spowoduje to wzrost liczby kobiet chorujących na osteoporozę oraz złamań będących jej następstwem. Zwiększą się koszta medyczne i  społeczne związane z leczeniem choroby i jej następstw. Bezsprzecznie możemy stwierdzić, że wiedza na temat osteoporozy a zwłaszcza czynników jej ryzyka i profilaktyki powinien być dobrze znany środowiskom związanym z opieką zdrowotną, a przede wszystkim osobom narażonym na jej rozwój i konsekwencje. W związku z powyższym zajmowanie się tematyk

  13. “Cihanda Türk” Ve “Şarkımız” Şiirlerinin Varlıkbilim Açısından / Ontolojik Açıdan Karşılaştırılması Ontological Comparison Of “Cihanda Türk” And “Şarkimiz” Poems

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    Salim DURUKOĞLU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to Gustave Lanson, since three-quarters of personalityof even the most authentic authors is composed of borrowed elementsas the synthesis of past generations and literary movements; thehorizons of every poet or writer involve other literary texts writtenpreviously by other poets or writers. In a mythological context, the onlyperson who knows whether something has been uttered before is Hz.Adem or his spouse Hz. Havva. Civilization is defined as the greatestsynthesis of thought humanity has attained. It is not possible that anauthor would not confront with other authors, discover and appropriatethem just like it is not possible for cultures which do not confront otherricher cultures and civilizations and benefit them to develop andadvance to the level of civilization. Within these network of relations, wecan arrive to the deduction and definition that authorship (poesy withinthe scope of our text is the greatest synthesis of thought an authorattains.The interaction between writers is both normal and interestingenough to consider, and an important field of study in comparativeliterature. In this paper, the poem Cihanda Türk (Turk in the world byBekir Sıtkı Erdoğan and Şarkımız (Our song by Necip Fazıl Kısakürekwere compared from an ontological perspective. In the paper shorthistory of comparative literature was given and meaning strata inliterary work was summarized according to ontological method and thenfor the comparison, first the publishing processes of the poems werehandled; thus authentic texts were reached; next assessments weredone by analyzing the literary strata interwoven in the literary work asentity strata such as sound strata, meaning strata, and differentschematic views strata. As a result, the boundaries of similaritiesbetween two poems were detected without aiming at grading ordegrading them; general conclusions were made about which of theconcepts such as allusion, imitation, quotation, indirect citation

  14. Textual Differences in Alexander von Humboldt’s Essai politique sur l'île de Cuba. An editorial commentary on the first volume of the „Humboldt in English“ (HiE book series

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    Tobias Kraft

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Die vorliegende Studie basiert auf einem Editionsbericht, der 2009 im Rahmen der Konferenz „Alexander von Humboldt and the Hemisphere“ an der Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN vorgestellt wurde. Die für diese Publikation weiter entwickelte Untersuchung verdeutlicht die Textgenese von Humboldts Essai politique sur l’île de Cuba auf der Basis eines Textvergleichs zwischen allen drei „Originalquellen“ des Texts. Der hier in seinen Ergebnissen vorgestellte Textvergleich ist Teil des Editionsprojektes „Humboldt in English“ (HiE, bei dem sich ein US-deutsches Editorenteam seit 2007 zum Ziel gesetzt haben, kritische Neuübersetzungen von drei wichtigen Schriften aus Humboldts „Opus Americanum“ anzufertigen (s.a. Fußnote. Der Textvergleich des Essai politique sur l’île de Cuba bildete die Textgrundlage für den ersten Band der HiE-Reihe, den 2011 bei Chicago University Press erschienenen The Political Essay on the Island of Cuba (hg. von Vera M. Kutzinski und Ottmar Ette. Summary This study is based on an editorial report, which was presented at the 2009 working conference „Alexander von Humboldt and the Hemisphere“ at Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN. It demonstrates the textual genesis of Humboldt’s writings on Cuba through examples, which were obtained from a detailed text comparison of the three existing „original“ versions of Humboldt’s Essai politique sur l’île de Cuba. The collation was part of a larger strategy to regain philological ground for the „Humboldt in English“ (HiE project. Since 2007 and funded with grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation, and the Gerda Henkel Foundation, the US-German research team behind HiE has been working on new and unabridged translations and critical editions of three of Humboldt’s most significant texts from his American oeuvre.[1] The following observations will outline the most important

  15. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  16. Šaukėnų šnektos veiksmažodžio asmenavimo sistema (vientisinės formos

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    Albertas Rosinas

    2011-12-01

    -stem verbs constitute a highly productive and stable class while in the subdialect there have remained only four i̯a (former i - stem verbs: tí·l̑ : ti·líeti, gál̑ : galíeti, mí·l̑ : mi·líeti  and gúl̑ : gulíeti. The verbs of the 2nd conjugation (or a-stem are also rather productive.The Šaukėnai subdialect has preserved some remnants of athematic conjugation. Some verbs are impersonal, e.g. per̃št, the others possess all personal forms derived from underlying form stems, e.g. mĩ·i̯ktu, etc.The categories in the Šaukėnai subdialect indicate a variety of symbolization.The categories of person and number are usually represented by grammatical morphemes, or endings (i.e. the morphological markers of the categories: /-u/, /-a·u/symbolize the categories of person and number, i.e.  the 1st person and the singular, /-i/, /-a· /, /-e· / -- the 2nd person and the singular /-am/, /-uom/, /-iem/, /-ma/--  the 1st person and the plural, /-at/, /-uot/, /-iet/, /-te/-- the 2nd person and the plural. The ending forms of the 3rd person represent the category of person, i.e. the 3rd person only.The article rejects the opinion, which dominates in Lithuanian linguistic literature, as if the verbal form endings could also represent the category of tense. It is complete misunderstanding, cf. sak-á·u (present and suk-á·u (past, mùš-ù (present and mùš-ù (future, etc. As evidenced by the data from the Šaukėnai subdialect, the tense can be expressed by syntactic category markers, phonological means, cf. mat-á·u and mač̑-ǽ·u, various formants (infixes, such as –n-, -st-, -s-, cf. añk and ãka, ki̲m̃b and kì̲ba, ti̲r̃pst  and ti̲r̃pa, dí̲́rbu and dí̲́rpsu, suffixes, cf. dí̲́rb-a·u and dí̲́rb-dav-a·u as well as vowel gradation, cf. ker̃t and ki̲r̃ta, etc. However, only the simple form endings of the indicative and subjunctive moods can express the mood.The forms of the subjunctive mood, alongside their specific

  17. FRESHWATER FISH FARMING CONDITIONS IN 1999 AND THE PRODUCTION PLAN FOR 2000

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    Zlatko Homen

    2000-09-01

    at 7.945,43 tons of the freshwater fish, of which 7.173,33 tons are warm-water fish species, and 772,10 tons are cold-water species. Carp farming is the most dominante and most significant production branch in both of the years mentioned. Distribution of the produced freshwater fish was conducted as follows. The largest quantity of the produced fish was placed on the market through wholesale (48,51 percent. This was fallowed by the distribution of produced fish for reproduction purposes (plantation which comprises 40,25 percent. Retail trade claimed 4,39 percent and personal use recorded (recreatinal fishing 2,04 percent. Production losses due to diseases or other factors made up 4,81 percent of the overall production. The overall areas of the fish farms in 1999 were 11.921.06 hectares. The actual production sites made up 9.782 hectares. Compared to 1998, the overall areas decreased for 5,84 percentt, while the production sites were increased by 0,94 percent. When taking into account the production areas and the arhieved production for 1999, the fish production average for carp farming ponds was 632,63 kilograms per hectare. Of course, as we already highlighted this is the average, and according to the data provided, some fish farms arhieved cost-effective production, i. e. a produstion of over 1.000 kilograms per hectare. In trout farming ponds, the fish production average amounded to 133,17 tons per hectare. During 1999. 13.501,93 tons of fish food were used. Of this quantity, 12.553,13 tons were used in carp ponds and 948,81 tons in trout ponds. Naturally, corn is still most predominant food for carp species fish. As to the use of various raw materials, the overall amound used was 2.690,21 tons. Among the fixed assets for 1999, there were 218 boats, 74 outboard engines, 121 landing nets, 57 scatter guns. Among the accessories there were mats (known in colloquial Croatian terms as sak and meredov, receptacle for fish transport (tubs, pumps, devices for fish sorting

  18. Okuma Yazma Öğretimi Yöntemleri Ve “Ses Temelli Cümle Yöntemi” Uygulaması The Methods Of Teaching Reading And Writing In Turkish: Practice The Phonetic Based Method

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    Raşit KOÇ

    2012-12-01

    ğrenmede ve bu işi zevkli bir alışkanlığa dönüştürmede okuma ve yazma öğretiminde nasıl bir yol izleneceği de önem kazanmaktadır.Ülkemizde dünyadaki gelişmelere paralel olarak okuma yazma öğretiminde kullanılan yöntemler de zaman içerisinde değişmiştir. Okuma yazma öğretiminde uzun süre harf yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Harf yöntemini sırasıyla ses yöntemi, hece yöntemi kelime ve cümle yöntemi izlemiştir.Davranışçı kuram merkeze alınarak hazırlanmış olan eski Türkçe programı öğrencileri ezbere sevk ettiği, etkili ve kalıcı bir okuma alışkanlığı kazandırmada yeterli olmadığı için eleştirilere muhatap olmuştur. Zaman zaman revizyon geçiren eski program 2005 yılında yerini yeni programa bırakmıştır.Temel felsefesini yapılandırmacı yaklaşımın oluşturduğu yeni Türkçe programında okuma yazma öğretim yöntemi olarak ses temelli cümle yöntemi benimsenmiştir. Bu yöntemle beraber dik temel harflerle yapılan yazı öğretimi yerine bitişik eğik yazı kullanılmaya başlanmıştır.Bu çalışmada, okuma yazma öğretiminde günümüze kadar kullanılan yöntemler ve bu yöntemlerin faydalı ve sakıncalı yönleri belirtildikten sonra yeni hazırlanan Türkçe programında yer alan ses temelli cümle yöntemiyle ilgili düşüncelere yer verilecektir.

  19. Effektive representasjoner? Forventninger til og bekymringer for forskning på befruktede egg

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    Marie Auensen Antonsen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available I Norge har vi hatt kontroverser omkring regulering avhumanmedisinsk bioteknologi siden 1980-tallet. Denneartikkelen analyserer et lite utsnitt av disse reguleringsdebattene,nærmere bestemt kontroversen omkring forskningpå befruktede egg. Med utgangspunkt i skriftlig materialeknyttet til tre reguleringsrunder (1994, 2003/2004 og2008 undersøker vi her hvordan ulike aktører arbeidet forå ramme inn denne kontroversen, bl.a. ved hjelp av ulikevitenskapelige og politiske representasjoner av det befruktedeegget.Vi finner at det i perioden 1987–2007 ble arbeidet medulike innramminger som utgangspunkt for retoriske ogpolitiske strategier: På den ene siden ser vi forsøk på å innrammekontroversen i et risikorammeverk som først ogfremst fokuserte på de potensielle negative sidene vedhumanmedisinsk bioteknologi, og som spesielt vektlarespekten for det ufødte liv. På den andre siden ser vi atman arbeidet med en forventningsinnramming som lahovedvekten på håpet om nye behandlingsregimer foralvorlig syke mennesker.Forbudet mot forskning på befruktede egg som ble vedtatti 1987, ble opprettholdt i 1994 og 2003. Med lovendringeni 2008 fikk vi imidlertid et markant brudd i dennorske lovgivningspraksisen, da forskning på befruktedeegg ble tillatt på visse premisser. Vi argumenterer for at den viktigste årsaken til denne lovendringen var Mehmet-saken, en sak som medførtesåkalte «oversvømmelser» (Callon 1998 i begge innrammingsforsøkenesom er omtalt ovenfor. Mehmet-saken eksponerte samtidig et generelt demokratiskdilemma. Saken illustrerte hvor sårbare lovregler og etiske prinsippkan være for det som for allmennheten fremstår som helt urimelig, og dennesaken etterspør slik sett mer hybride måter å tenke forholdet mellom det universelleog det partikulære, mellom prinsipiell etikk og lekmannsskjønn, mellomfakta og verdier som utgangspunkt for politikkutforming.Nøkkelord: humanmedisinsk bioteknologi, forskning på befruktede egg

  20. Bilim ve Sanat Merkezi Öğret‐menlerinin Üstün ve Özel Yetenekli Öğrenciler için Tasarlanan Doğa ve Bilim Kampı Hakkında Görüşleri (Perceptions of Science and Art Centers’ Teachers about a Nature and Science Camp Designed for Gifted and Talented Students

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    Necati Hırça

    2012-06-01

    all of them worked in the SACs. As they were aware of the situation, they stated that they needed this kind of programs and various science activities from other education faculties to improve their skills in order to teach gifted students in science.Identification, training and employment of gifted individuals significantly contribute to the development of society. Training of these individuals in every academic level will provide value-added benefits to the future of our country (BSMİDR, 2010. The lack of these condi-tions will impede or delay their self-esteem, self-perception, discipline and achievement (Sak, 2011.

  1. IMPORTANT CHANGE IN RELIGIO-LEGAL STANDARDIZATION OF OTTOMAN PRODUCTS: PASSAGE TO CERTIFICATE OF THE SEAL “IT IS CLEAN/TÂHİRDİR” OSMANLI’DA ÜRÜNLERİN DİNÎ/ŞER‘Î STANDARDİZASYONUNDA DÖNÜM NOKTASI: TÂHİRDİR DAMGALI SERTİFİKASYONA GEÇİŞ

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    Mehmet YILDIZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the Ottoman state implemented austere certification of products monitored by organizations such as ihtisab office/ office of the superintendent of guilds and markets and akhi office/ urban fraternity ruling over parts of Anatolia in late Seljuk and early Ottoman times. The monitoring process that was implemented based on religio-legal perspective or material quality aspect moved to an important phase with a critical decision made in modern times: The seal of “it is clean/tâhirdir” was introduced to include inedible products for the first time to be supervised by religio-legal standarts. This decision was made to protect Muslims from products that might contained harmful ingredients according to religio-legal norms. This move was made before the kosher certification that was formed within the Jewish community in America, which became a certain measure of food standart later in the world. This decision also can provide historical background for the practice of halal food certificates in the world. The notion of “it is clean” becomes more evident in the midst of today’s world where genetically modified organisms became so widespread to the level that threatens the health of human generation now. This article aims to study the relevant Ottoman official documents on this issue probably for the first time, and share them with the academic world. Osmanlı devleti ve toplumunda ürünlerin, standartları hisbe/ihtisap ve ahîlik teşkilatları gibi kurumlar vasıtasıyla denetlenen oldukça ciddi sertifikasyon uygulamasına tabi tutuldukları bilinmektedir. Gerek dinî/şer‛î boyutuyla gerekse maddi/nesnel kalite yönleriyle yürütülen bu denetleme işlemi, modern zamanlarda gerçekten çok çarpıcı bir kavşak noktasına ulaştırılmıştır: Özellikle dinî/şer‛î ölçütlerin gıda ürünleri dışındaki ürünlerde de gözetilerek Müslümanların kullanmalarında sakınca bulunmayan ürünlere t

  2. Akceptacja choroby kobiet leczących się z powodu osteoporozy = Acceptance of diseases of women treated for osteoporosis

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    Katarzyna Pawlikowska-Łagód

    2016-05-01

      mgr Pawlikowska-Łagód Katarzyna, dr n. o zdr. Janiszewska Mariola, mgr Firlej Ewelina, Dąbska Olga, dr hab. n med. Sak Jarosław     Abstrakt Wprowadzenie: Współczesna medycyna oraz psychologia coraz więcej czasu poświęcają problemom związanym z osteoporozą oraz przystosowaniu się do niej. Przystosowanie się i akceptacja osteoporozy to skomplikowany proces, na, który wpływają obciążenia chorobowe, uwarunkowania zewnętrzne oraz właściwości jednostki. Akceptacja choroby dla wielu pacjentek jest problemem, z którym zmagają się przez cały okres jej trwania, zmuszając je do akceptacji niedomagań przez nią narzuconych choroby. Pojawienie się choroby ma duże znaczenie, dla jakości życia kobiet. Przede wszystkim zmuszając je do akceptacji niedomagań narzuconych przez chorobę. Cel pracy: Celem pracy było zbadanie stopnia akceptacji choroby kobiet chorujących na osteoporozę. Materiał i metody: W badaniu uczestniczyło 137 pacjentek leczących się z powodu osteoporozy. Grupę badaną stanowiły kobiety od 38-go do 91-g roku życia. Badania przeprowadzono od lutego do kwietnia 2015 roku. W pracy zastosowano kwestionariusz ankiety własnego autorstwa oraz Skalę Akceptacji Choroby (AIS autorstwa B. J. Felton, T. A. Revenson i G. A. Hinrichsen w adaptacji Z Jurczyńskiego. Wyniki: Kobiety chorujące na osteoporozę wykazują się średnim stopniem akceptacji choroby. Wiek zdiagnozowania choroby oraz wykształcenie różnicuje istotnie badane ze względu na stopień akceptacji choroby oraz problemów narzuconych przez chorobę. Wnioski: Rosnąca liczba osób chorych z powodu osteoporozy stawia przed specjalistami służby zdrowia ogromne wyzwanie. Wdrożenie skutecznych programów profilaktycznych oraz oddziaływanie na zwiększenie świadomości chorujących byłoby pomocne w zapobieganiu chorobie, ewentualnie jej akceptacji w sytuacji wystąpienia.   Abstract Introduction: Modern medicine and psychology more and spend more time

  3. Turkish Journal of Chemistry’nin Bibliyometrik Analizi / Bibliometric Analysis of Turkish Journal of Chemistry

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    Hatice Gülşen Birinci

    2008-10-01

    multiple authorships in TJC? What are the institutional affiliations of authors? Does the distribution of authors fit Bradford’s, Lotka’s and Price’s Law and 80/20 Rule? Which types of sources get cited more often in articles? Which journals are the most cited? According to cited journals what are the core journals in chemistry? With regard to impact factor, what is the place of TJC in JCR and SCI?The most productive authors are Sakıp Ali and İhsan Çalış. Distribution of authors does not fit Bradford’s, Lotka’s and Price’s Law and 80/20 Rule, but distirbution of citations fit Bradford and 80/20 Rule. Contributors affiliated with Hacettepe University, Ankara University, and Ataturk University. Journals received %82 of all citations in the TJC. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Phytochemistry and Journal of Organic Chemistry were the most frequently cited journals. Number of references made to TJC has been growing consistently since 1996.

  4. Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities (PSI) at DLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Kloss, M.; Reitz, G.; Horneck, G.

    2010-05-01

    Cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029, Astrobiology, 5/2 127-140Aman, A. (1996) LPS XXVII, 1344-1 [4] de la Torre Noetzel, R.; Sancho, L.G.; Pintado,A.; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Panitz,Corinna; Deutschmann, U.; Reina, M.; Horneck, Gerda (2007): BIOPAN experiment LICHENS on the Foton M2 mission Pre-flight verification tests of the Rhizocarpon geographicum-granite ecosystem. COSPAR [Hrsg.]: Advances in Space Research, 40, Elsevier, S. 1665 - 1671, DOI 10.1016/j.asr.2007.02.022

  5. Survival of the lichen model system Circinaria gyrosa before flight to the ISS (EXPOSE R2 mission)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre Noetzel, Rosa

    potential to space and Mars conditions, contributing to our understanding of extremotolerance and the Lithopanspermia hypothesis [7]. References [1] Rabbow, E., und Rettberg, Petra und Barczyk, Simon und Bohmeier, Maria und Parpart, André und Panitz, Corinna und Horneck, Gerda und von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf und Hoppenbrouwers, Tom und Willnecker, Rainer und Baglioni, Pietro und Demets, René und Dettmann, Jan und Reitz, Guenther (2012) EXPOSE-E: An ESA Astrobiology Mission 1.5 Years in Space. Astrobiology, 12 (5), Seiten 374-386. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2011.0760. [2] De la Torre, R. L.G. Sancho, G. Horneck, A.de los Ríos, J. Wierzchos, K. Olsson-Francis, C.S. Cockell, Rettberg P., T. Berger, J.P. de Vera, S. Ott, J. Martinez Frías, P.Gonzalez Melendi M.M. Lucas, M. Reina, A. Pintado, R.Demets. Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions. Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments. Icarus, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.03.010 (2010). [3] Sanchez, F.J., E. Mateo-Martí, J. Raggio, J. Meessen, J. Martinez-Frias, L. Gª Sancho, S. Ott and R. de la Torre. The resistance of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa (nom. provis.) towards simulated Mars conditions - a model test for the survival capacity of an eukaryotic extremophyle. Planetary and Space Science 72, 102-110 (2012). [4] de Vera JP and the BIOMEX-Team (2012) Supporting Mars exploration: BIOMEX in Low Earth Orbit and further astrobiological studies on the Moon using Raman and PanCam technology. Planetary and Space Science, 74 (1), Seiten 103-110. Elsevier. DOI:10.1016/j.pss.2012.06.010. [5] Meeßen J, Sánchez FJ, Brandt A, Balzer EM, de la Torre R, Sancho LG, de Vera JP, Ott S (2013) Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: Comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research I. Morphological and anatomical characteristics. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 43 (3): 283-303 [6] Meeßen J, Sánchez FJ, Sadowsky A, de Vera JP, de la Torre R, Ott S (2013

  6. Kongre İzlenimleri

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    Yasemin Balcı

    2007-12-01

    çilere açtığı şarap mahzenleri var. Görülmeye değerdi. Kongrenin son günü, Portoya özel bir festival vardı. S. Joe festival olarak anılıyor. Bu festivalin özelliği bir nevi şaka ya da hoşgörü günü gibi olması idi. Bu festival nedeniyle Portekiz’in diğer şehirlerinden pek çok kişi şehre geldi. Her ne kadar herkes sabaha kadar sokaklarda olup eğlense de otellerde yer kalmıyor. Her tarafta rengârenk plastik çekiçler satılıyor. Çoluk çocuk, genç ihtiyar herkes bu çekiçlerden satın alıyor. Sokaklarda yanında bulunan ya da yanından geçen herkese bu çekiçle vuruyor. Kongre organizasyon komitesi de bu nedenle bizi çekiçsiz bırakmadı. Katılımcılara çekiç verdiler. Ayrıca, sokaklarda kötü koku ile özdeşleştirilen fesleğen saksıları (bizde güzel koku olarak bilinir ile çiçeklenmiş/tohuma dönmüş erkek soğanlar satılıyor. İnsanlar yapraklarını koparıp elini yanındaki-nin burnuna sürüyor. Soğanın tohumlu kısmını yüzüne kulağına vs. sürtüyor. Tüm bunlar bir nevi şaka, kimse kimseye kırılmıyor. Şehrin tüm meydanlarında konser platformları kuruluyor, herkes sokaklarda dans ediyor, Super Bock adlı bira çeşmelerinden biralar alınıp içiliyor. Ezilme tehlikesi geçirecek kadar insan seli olmasına karşın, en küçük bir taşkınlıkla karşılaşılmaması oldukça ilgimizi çekti. Gece yarısından sonra nehri baştan yaratacak şekilde yapılan havai fişek gösterisi ile havaya fırlatılan yüzlerce ateş balonları görmeye değerdi. Türkiye’den kongre katılımcıları Uzm. Dr. Özlem Ersoy Adli Tıp Kurumu Prof. Dr. Mete Gülmen Çukurova Üniversitesi Dr. Hüsniye Canan, Phd. Çukurova Üniversitesi Dr. Demet Meral Çukurova Üniversitesi Dr. Dilek Battal, Phd. Çukurova Üniversitesi Prof. Dr. Yasemin Balcı Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Yard. Doç. Dr. Birol Demirel Gazi Üniversitesi Doç. Dr. Coşkun Yorulmaz İstanbul Üniversitesi Yard. Doç. Dr. Gökhan Ersoy

  7. Dergilerden Özetler

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    Mete Korkut Gülmen

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available ANİ BEBEK ÖLÜMÜNE PATOLOJİ AÇISINDAN YAKLAŞIM - ANLAŞMA VEYA KARARSIZLIK? The Pathological Approach to Sudden Infant Death - Consensus or Confusion? RW Byard, LE Becker, PJ Berry, PE Campbell, K Fitzge- rald, JMN Hiltorı, HF Krous, TO Rogrıum AmJ Forensic Med Pathol 1996;17(2:103-5. Ani bebek ölümü sendromu (ABÖS ile ilgili temel sorun, otopsiyi yapan hekim tarafından diğer ani bebek ölüm nedenlerini araştırma ve dışlama işlemlerine gösterilen özenin derecesine bağlı bir eleyici tanı olmasıdır. Ama dikkatli bif otopsi yapıldıktan sonra bile, sadece patolojik zemine dayanarak kasıtlı ya da kaza sonucu oluşan asfiksiyi ani bebek sendromundan ayırmak mümkün olmayabilir. Ayrıca, ülkelerin kendi içinde veya ülkeler arasında protokoller farklıdır. Yatağında ölü bulunan ve ABÖS olarak tanımlanan her bebeğe otopsi yapılmamaktadır. Bu çerçevede ABÖS tanısı konamadığı ve ölüm nedeninin saptanmadan kaldığı vurgulanmalıdır. Olası etyolojik mekanizmaların (ki bunlar kompleks, birden fazladır ve birbirleri ile ilgili değildir anlaşılma eksikliği nedeni ile ilgili diğer güçlükler de ortaya çıkmaktadır. Makroskopik inceleme ve cesedin disseksiyonundan sonra histolojik muayene, araştırma ve saklama için dokuların alıkonulması da dava ile ilgili bir sorun olabilir. İkinci ABÖS global strateji toplantısında (Stavan- gerda yapılmıştır aşağıdaki asgari standardlar savunulmuştur. Toplum ve ailenin yararına, tüm beklenmeyen bebek ölümleri tam olarak incelenmelidir. Ölüm nedeni ve şeklinin saptanması için aşağıdakilerin yapılması gereklidir. 1.\tOlay yeri ve çevresinin değerlendirilmesi eğitimli ve işin uzmanı kişiler tarafından yürütülmelidir. 2.\tBebeğin veya çocuğun ve ailenin öyküsünü de içeren anamnez gözden geçirilmelidir. 3.\tAyrıntılı otopsi ve uygun yardımcı çalışmalar yapılmalıdır. 4.\tOlgu baştan başa gözden ge

  8. 6th International Symposium on Molecular Allergology (ISMA

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    Christiane Hilger

    2016-10-01

    -allergic humans Almedina Kurtaj, Christoph Hillebrand, Gerda Fichtinger, Martin Danzer, Christian Gabriel, Theresa Thalhamer, Sandra Scheiblhofer, Josef Thalhamer, Richard Weiss P4 Analyzing the cross-reactivity profile of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1 Martin Wolf, Michael Hauser, Ulrike Pichler, Teresa Twaroch, Gabriele Gadermaier, Christof Ebner, Hidenori Yokoi, Toshiro Takai, Alain Didierlaurent, Adriano Mari, Peter Briza, Heidrun Behrendt, Angela Neubauer, Frank Stolz, Fátima Ferreira, Michael Wallner P5 LTP (Pru p 3 sensitisation in skin prick test: which means in clinical practice? Sara Carvalho, Tatiana Lourenço, Joana Cosme, Fátima Cabral Duarte, Amélia Spínola Santos, Ana Célia Costa, Manuel Pereira Barbosa P6 IgE profiles, allergen exposure and lifestyle of 501 Austrian pupils: investigation of influences on the development of allergic sensitizations Teresa Stemeseder, Eva Klinglmayr, Bettina Schweidler, Lisa Lueftenegger, Stephanie Moser, Patrick Doppler, Roland Lang, Martin Himly, Gertie J. Oostingh, Arne Bathke, Joerg Zumbach, Thomas Hawranek, Gabriele Gadermaier P7 Molecular profiles of sensitization to perennial inhalant allergens in a middle European region Petr Panzner, Martina Vachova, Tomas Vlas, Marek Maly P8 Evolution of the IgE response to house dust mite allergen molecules in childhood Daniela Posa, Serena Perna, Stephanie Hofmaier, Laura Hatzler, Alexander Rohrbach, Carl-Peter Bauer, Ute Hoffmann, Johannes Forster, Fred Zepp, Antje Schuster, Philippe Stock, Ulrich Wahn, Linus Grabenhenrich, Thomas Keil, Susanne Lau, Kuan-Wei Chen, Yvonne Resch, Susanne Vrtala, Rudolf Valenta, Paolo Maria Matricardi P9 Tropomyosin (Pen a1: to include or not to include in skin prick testing? Joana Cosme, Sara Carvalho, Tatiana Lourenço, Amélia Spínola Santos, Manuel Pereira Barbosa Immunoallergy Department - Hospital de Santa Maria – Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Lisbon, Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal; Immunoallergy Department - Hospital de Santa Maria