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Sample records for sajama bolivia estado

  1. Grazing and climatic variability in Sajama National Park, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yager, K.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sajama National Park, the first protected area in Bolivia, includes five indigenous communities with a primary production base of pastoralism. The semi-arid region of the Central Andes is one of the most extreme areas of human occupation at 4200 meters altitude and affected by high climatic variability. This paper studies the relations between climate variability, resilience, biodiversity of pastures and pastoral production in Sajama National Park. We present a botanical study of palatable pasture herbs between two years, one humid (2006 and the other dry (2007. Thirty vascular plants were recorded. The number of species and the cover of iro (Festuca ortophylla peak in areas of intermediate disturbance; areas that are at a medium distance from camelid corrals. On the other hand, the cover of ephemeral plants between tussocks increases in high disturbance areas. This is interpreted as a result of the tradeoff between the damage of grazing and the benefit of the fertilization produced by the herding animals. The local people clearly perceive strong impacts of climate change, combined with changes in management and human pressures. The social dynamics and production management, combined with climate warming, water reduction, and the increasing variability of surface water regimes create potential risks for the local sustainability of pastoralism.

    El Parque Nacional Sajama, la primer área protegida de Bolivia, incluye a cinco comunidades indígenas con una base de producción principalmente de ganadería. Esta región semi-árida de los Andes Centrales es una de las áreas más extremas de ocupación humana a 4200 metros de altura y es afectada por una alta variabilidad climática. Este trabajo considera las relaciones entre la variabilidad climática, resiliencia, biodiversidad de pastos y la producción ganadera en el Parque Nacional Sajama. Presentamos un estudio botánico de las comunidades de hierbas palatables a lo largo de dos a

  2. CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSIOGRÁFICA DE LA PUNA DE SAJAMA, CORDILLERA OCCIDENTAL DE LOS ANDES (BOLIVIA

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    Fernando Javier Santa Cecilia Mateos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aproxima a la realidad física de la cordillera Occidental de los Andes. Un espacio geográfico donde los caracteres geológicos relacionados con el vulcanismo adquieren una relevancia especial en la configuración del paisaje andino. Los nevados y llanuras intermedias o altiplanos, son los dos elementos que constituyen la imagen de la puna andina, un territorio situado por encima de los 4.000 metros, ámbito intermedio entre los valles húmedos o yungas y las más altas cumbres de los Andes. A la singularidad volcánica habría que añadir la relacionada con el modelado glaciar, los aspectos hidrográficos y la biogeografia en esta área. El artículo toma como ejemplo de estudio la puna de Sajama en eldepartamento de Oruro, en la frontera boliviano-chilena.Abstract. This article approaches the physical reality of the Western Cordillera of the Andes. A geographical space where characters related geological volcanism are of particular importance in shaping the landscape Andean. The intermediate plains or mountains and plateaus, are the two elements that make up the image of the Andean puna, an area located above 4,000 meters, the middle ground between Yungas wet valley and the highest peaks of the Andes. A volcanic uniqueness should add that related to glacier modeling, hydrographic aspects and biogeography in this area. The article uses the example of the highlands of Sajama study in thedepartment of Oruro in Bolivian-Chilean border.

  3. Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Background notes by the U.S. States Department on the landlocked country of Bolivia, in the center of South America are presented. Bolivia has 6.25 million persons, about 1/3 each of Aymara indians, Quechua indians and mixed races. The growth rate is 2.6%, despite high death rates: infant mortality is 123/1000 and life expectancy is 49 years. There are fertile tropical lowland climate, hills and valleys, high plateaus and very high, dry cold mountain regions. Bolivia is the least developed, poorest nation in South America (per capita income is $536). There are remarkable cultural resources in archaeology, art, music, folklore and crafts, however. The country is plagued with military coups, social unrest, debt, poverty, and the disruption of international traffic in illegal drugs. One of the major resources, tin, has been lost as income due to collapse in tin prices in 1985. Other resources include natural gas, zinc, silver, tungsten, coffee, and undeveloped lithium, potassium and borax. Bolivia has had difficulties with border disputes with Chile, and since 1980, with many former friendly nations, including the U.S. due to a repressive military dictatorship. Recently, a more moderate government came into power, and relations and economic aid have resumed.

  4. EL ACRE Y LOS "ASUNTOS DEL PACÍFICO: BOLIVIA, BRASIL, CHILE Y ESTADOS UNIDOS, 1898-1909

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    Cristián Garay Vera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo sitúa el problema de la guerra del Acre en un contexto multilateral, reconociendo la vigencia del equilibrio de poder como parte del razonamiento de la conducción de las políticas exteriores en juego. Se aplica el concepto de frontera de F. J. Turner, para explicar cómo las fronteras permeables pusieron a Brasil y Bolivia en confrontación, por la maniobra boliviana de configurar una concesión a inversionistas estadounidenses, británicos y franceses, que fue interpretada por Brasil como una maniobra imperialista de Estados Unidos. Entones Brasil se acercó a Chile, y afrontaron juntos los problemas del Acre y de Antofagasta, que derivaron en las redacciones de los tratados de Petrópolis (1903 y de Paz y Amistad (1904. El artículo postula que Bolivia procedió de esta forma para impedir el avance brasileño, peruano y paraguayo sobre sus fronteras, y que la búsqueda del paraguas estadounidense fue una idea que Bolivia gestó para compensar el desequilibrio de poder.This work considers the Acre War as part of a multilateral context where the equilibrium of power was important in the reasoning behind the establishment of foreign relations. It uses the frontier concept developed by F. J. Turner to explain why their open frontier put Brazil and Bolivia in confrontation. This happened because of the Bolivian strategy of granting land to investors from the United States, Great Britain and France, which was interpreted by Brazil as an imperialist action promoted by the United States. This explains why Brazil established a cióse relationship with Chile to confront together their problems in Acre and Antofagasta, which led to the drafting of the Petrópilis (1903 and Paz y Amistad (1904 treaties. The article argues that Bolivia proceeded this way to avoid a Brazilian, Peruvian or Paraguayan territorial advance, seeking the support of the United States to compénsate the imbalance of power.

  5. Populismo, Estado y movimientos sociales. Posibles articulaciones en los contextos recientes de Argentina y Bolivia

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    María Virginia Quiroga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers ‘kirchnerism’ and ‘evism’ to be popular identity movements which have attempted to provide answers to the open social dislocations since the crisis of December 2001 in Argentina, and the cycle of protests from 2000-2005 in Bolivia. The emergence of both of these identity constructions has involved at least three simultaneous processes. Firstly, the gradual incorporation of public decision-making on subjects and demands which were formerly ignored; secondly, political divisions within communities; and, finally, establishing a nation within the new institutional framework currently in force. As these processes developed, some points of approach and distancing between the case studies were noted.

  6. EMERGENCIAS DE LA TRANS-MODERNIDAD Y REFUNDACIÓN PLURINACIONAL E INTERCULTURAL DEL ESTADO: ECUADOR Y BOLIVIA EN EL SIGLO XXI

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    Yamandú Acosta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo focaliza a las constituciones de la República del Ecuador de 2008 y del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia de 2009 como unidades de lectura. Las entiende básicamente en su especificidad de leyes fundamentales que fijan la organización política de los respectivos estados. Subsidiariamente las resignifica, considerándolas como utopías narrativas. Leídas éstas en la perspectiva de la función utópica del discurso, habilitan la construcción de las unidades de análisis del Estado plurinacional e intercultural en cada uno de los casos propuestos -evaluados como emergencias de la trans-modernidad-, que interpelan como ideas crítico-reguladoras la condición nacional y monocultural paradigmática del Estado moderno.Palabras clave: Constitución, Utopía, Modernidad, Trans-Modernidad, Estado Plurinacional, Estado Intercultural._________________________The article focuses on the 2008 Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and the 2009 Pluri-national Constitution of Bolivia as units of analysis. I basically look at these constitutions as specific and fundamental laws that frame the political organization of these states. The essay reads these constitutions as utopic narratives. From that standpoint, I argue that they contribute to a different approach and unit of analysis of the multinational-multicultural state in each of the two cases selected for study. They are explored as expressions of trans-modernity that interrogate and question the national and mono-cultural paradigm of the modern state.Keywords: Constitution, Utopia, Modernity, Trans-Modernity, Pluri-National State, Inter-Cultural State.

  7. El etnocentrismo político-jurídico y el estado multinacional: nuevos desafíos para la democracia en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin COCARICO LUCAS

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN: Con la reforma constitucional de 1994, Bolivia dejó atrás el paradigma del Estado liberal y etnocéntrico, para asumir otro de carácter multicultural que se caracteriza por el reconocimiento de la diversidad etnocultural. A partir de la misma, también se reconoció con carácter limitado, la vigencia y validez del Derecho Consuetudinario Indígena como mecanismo legítimo y alternativo de resolución de conflictos. Al igual que para obtener dicho reconocimiento, ha sido necesario esgrimir ...

  8. El estado, los movimientos sociales y el ciudadano de a pie: exploraciones en Bolivia entre 2006 y 2011

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salman, Ton

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este articulo es analizar y contextualizar el aparente deterioro de la relacion entre los movimientos sociales y el partido, ahora oficialista, MAS, entre el 2006 y el 2012, en Bolivia...

  9. El etnocentrismo político-jurídico y el estado multinacional: nuevos desafíos para la democracia en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin COCARICO LUCAS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Con la reforma constitucional de 1994, Bolivia dejó atrás el paradigma del Estado liberal y etnocéntrico, para asumir otro de carácter multicultural que se caracteriza por el reconocimiento de la diversidad etnocultural. A partir de la misma, también se reconoció con carácter limitado, la vigencia y validez del Derecho Consuetudinario Indígena como mecanismo legítimo y alternativo de resolución de conflictos. Al igual que para obtener dicho reconocimiento, ha sido necesario esgrimir argumentos y canalizar demandas a través de los movimientos indígenas, ahora corresponde cimentar nuevos fundamentos que destierren algunos mitos sobre la naturaleza de la justicia comunitaria, cuya complejidad ha hecho que el Estado retrase su tratamiento, siendo su reglamentación un tema pendiente en la agenda política.ABSTRACT: With the constitutional reform of 1994, Bolivia, left behind the paradigm of the liberal and ethno-centric State, to assume a new multicultural character that results from the constitutional recognition of ethno-cultural diversity. The reform also acknowledged, albeit in a limited form, the use and validity of community justice as a legitimate and alternative mechanism of conflict resolution. The indigenous movement played a key role in putting forward these demands, it is now necessary to dispel some of the misplaced myths that exist concerning community justice. Instead, we need to address the complexity of the issue, a complexity which to date has contributed to delaying the development of the corresponding regulatory legislative framework. This article examines through an empirical analysis the diversity of community justice in Bolivia.

  10. El Estado, los movimientos sociales y el ciudadano de a pie: Exploraciones en Bolivia entre 2006 y 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salman, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze and contextualize the allegedly deteriorated relationship between the social movements aiding the electoral victory of the now governing party MAS, and this party once it became government, in Bolivia. The analysis is based on a systematic reading of publications in the

  11. “Mujeres de pollera” y la propuesta de descolonización del género en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia

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    Marianela Agar Díaz Carrasco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar, desde el feminismo descolonial, algunos de los límites y las posibilidades identificados en la propuesta de descolonización del género del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia desde el año 2006 hasta el 2014, problematizando tres puntos que interpelan el contínuum de formas de violencia y colonialidad existentes: i la desnaturalización de inferioridad y servilismo, ii la idea “civilizatoria” demarcada por los conocimientos occidentales adquiridos y iii la permanencia de las estructuras hegemónicas de poder para nombrar y normar. Esto a partir de una metodología feminista y cualitativa, mediante la realización de entrevistas a informantes clave durante este proceso, mujeres indígenas aymaras y quechuas que ocuparon cargos de poder en el Estado y la revisión documental de distintas publicaciones vinculadas al tema. Se cuestionan las tensiones existentes y las contradicciones entre la propuesta planteada a partir de la cosmovisión andina, que constituye un avance estructural y normativo, distante aún de las prácticas presentes dentro y fuera de las organizaciones sociales indígenas y del Estado.

  12. Epidemiología de la parálisis cerebral en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, 2009-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Taboada, Noel; Quintero, Katia; Casamajor, Mavis; González, Keiler; Marrero, Juan; Cruz, Soleidy; Díaz, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Los autores de este artículo pretenden determinar la proporción de individuos con discapacidad intelectual, evaluar el grado de discapacidad intelectual, la forma clínica de presentación, la etiología y la capacidad funcional de los pacientes. Para cumplir con este objetivo se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, se incluyeron 1961 personas con parálisis cerebral, que fueron identificadas en un estudio de base poblacional en Bolivia entre los años 2009 y 2012.

  13. Bolivia: A Gasified Democracy

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    Willem Assies

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In October 2003 a wave of popular protest  brought down the Sánchez de Lozada government  in Bolivia. The intention to export natural gas to  the United States and Mexico triggered the protests, but actually stood for widespread discontent  with the Sánchez de Lozada government, the  preceding governments and the economic policies  pursued since 1985. The events belie the opinion  of various students of the Latin American democratic transitions who held that Bolivian democracy  was on its way towards consolidation and suggest that the recent inquiries into the quality of Latin  American democracies may point a way ahead in  rethinking democracy in the region. Taking such  assessments as a reference, this article reviews the  ‘gas war’ and looks at the Bolivian political regime as it has functioned over the past decades. It  will be argued that the ‘pacted democracy’, that  until now sustained institutionality, and the economic model adopted in 1985 have excluded an  important part of the population, both in political terms and where poverty alleviation and equity is  concerned. Increasing popular protest has been  met with increasing repression, which gradually  turned Bolivia into a ‘democradura’, or a ‘gasified  democracy’ that relies on teargas and bullets to  uphold itself. At present the country finds itself at  a crossroads. It either may reinvent democracy or  become an institutionalized ‘democradura’. Resumen: Bolivia: una democracia gasificadaEn octubre de 2003 una ola de protesta popular  llevó a la caída del gobierno de Sánchez de Lozada en Bolivia. La intención de exportar gas natural a los Estados Unidos y México gatilló dichas  protestas, aunque en realidad reflejaron un descontento general con el gobierno Sánchez de  Lozada, los gobiernos anteriores y las políticas  económicas implementadas desde 1985. Los  sucesos desmienten la opinión de varios analistas  de las

  14. Bolivia: Los discursos de Evo

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    José Luis Exeni R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hace una presentación de un personaje emblemático en la política latinoamericana, el presidentes de Bolivia. En la nación, los mensajes comunicacionales de los políticos lograron cuajar entre los electores. Evo es un líder con lenguaje fácil y mensaje directo, con autoridad y coherencia, su imagen forjada en las difíciles arenas de la lucha sindical de protesta y resistencia desde la sociedad civil, contra el Estado.

  15. La decisión de los agricultores del área tropical de Cochabamba (Bolivia de cultivar coca en lugar de los productos alternativos recomendados por el Estado

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    Juan Carlos Barrientos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la prohibición estatal del cultivo de coca desde 1973 y de la reducción rápida de las plantaciones de coca hasta 2002, este arbusto todavía se cultiva en las zonas tropicales de Cochabamba (Bolivia. Tanto aspectos técnicos como económicos, son responsables de que muchos agricultores se decidan por el cultivo de la coca y no por el de cultivos alternativos. Técnicamente, el cultivo de la coca es más adaptable y menos exigente, en comparación con los cinco cultivos alternativos analizados en esta investigación: piña, banano, maracuyá, palmito y pimienta; que requieren mayores insumos o mayor capital, así como más experiencia y habilidades técnicas de parte de los productores. Desde el punto de vista económico, la demanda de hojas de la coca, contrariamente a la de los cultivos alternativos, excede a la oferta, por lo que los precios de la coca tienden a subir. El cultivo de coca es, en este sentido, más ventajoso, porque les deja a los agricultores mayores ingresos que aquéllos que reciben de los cultivos alternativos. La comercialización de las hojas de la coca, así como su transporte, es relativamente fácil, principalmente por la escasa exigencia de calidad por parte de los compradores. La posibilidad de venta rápida -y, en cierta medida, garantizada- de las hojas de coca favorece claramente su cultivo, comparada con la de los productos alternativos. Sin embargo, muchas de las ventajas mencionadas del cultivo de coca, respecto a las de los cultivos alternativos, se ven desfavorecidas por la prohibición y el combate a los cultivos de coca por parte del estado.

  16. 'Redes políticas' y procesos de democratización. La relación Estado-movimientos sociales bajo el gobierno de Evo Morales en Bolivia, 2006-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdivia Rivera, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    The study looks at the State-social movements relation under the administration of Evo Morales in Bolivia and its impact on the process of democratization. It questions the State-society dichotomy and suggests a network analysis that enables a more integrated and ‘dialectical’ view. It shows that

  17. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

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    J.A. Hribljan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 The high-altitude (4,500+ m Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia: near the village of Manasaya in the Sajama National Park (Cordillera Occidentale, and in the Tuni Condoriri National Park (Cordillera Real. (2 We cored to 5 m depth in the Manasaya peatland, whose age at 5 m was ca. 3,675 yr. BP with a LARCA of 47 g m-2 yr-1. However, probing indicated that the maximum depth was 7–10 m with a total estimated (by extrapolation carbon stock of 1,040 Mg ha-1. The Tuni peat body was 5.5 m thick and initiated ca. 2,560 cal. yr. BP. The peatland carbon stock was 572 Mg ha-1 with a long-term rate of carbon accumulation (LARCA of 37 g m-2 yr-1. (3 Despite the dry environment of the Bolivian puna, the region contains numerous peatlands with high carbon stocks and rapid carbon accumulation rates. These peatlands are heavily used for llama and alpaca grazing.

  18. Transformaciones constitucionales en Bolivia.

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    Franco Gamboa Rocabado.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main problems that the new Political Constitution of Bolivia is facing before being implemented, once it was approved on February 2009. In addition, it also studies how the constitutional provisions were negotiated in order to make the constitutional referendum viable. What were the political conflicts in the critical juncture 2008-2009, and what kind of reflection should be considered as to how the new emerging regional and local governments—together with its decentralized structures—are able to renew democracy in Bolivia within the framework of the Plurinational State? The multiple challenges ahead are highly difficult to confront from democratic theory perspectives.

  19. Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, John R.I.; Carine, M. A.; D.; Harris; Wilkin, P; Williams, B; Scotland, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    An account of the genus Ipomoea L. in Bolivia is presented. 102 species are recognised in the country and each of these is described. Notes are provided on diagnostic features, distribution, habitat, phenology and conservation status. A dichotomous key to all species is provided together with additional informal keys focussing on outstanding features of morphology and ecology. Line drawings illustrate the new species described and photographs are provided to facilitate identification and draw...

  20. El IDRC en Bolivia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    prominente en los conflictos políticos de. Bolivia. En particular, el acceso al agua ha sido un problema que ha dividido a los bolivianos. Las poblaciones rurales suelen .... Por mayor información, visite el sitio. Web de la Oficina Regional para América. Latina y el Caribe: www.idrc.ca/lacro. Suscríbase al Boletín del IDRC:.

  1. The MAS Six Years in Power in Bolivia

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    Ton Salman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Review Essay of:– The Rise of Evo Morales and the MAS, by Sven Harten. London/New York: Zed Books, 2011.– Evo Morales and the Movimiento al Socialismo in Bolivia; The First Term in Context, edited by Adrian J. Pearce. London, Institute for the Study of the Americas, 2011.– El estado de derecho como tiranía, by Luis Tapia. La Paz: CIDES/UMSA, 2011.– From Rebellion to Reform in Bolivia: Class Struggle, Indigenous Liberation and the Politics of Evo Morales, by Jeffery R. Webber. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2011.– La democracia desde los márgenes: Transformaciones en el campo político boliviano, by María Teresa Zegada, with Claudia Arce, Gabriela Canedo and Alber Quispe. La Paz: Muela del Diablo Editores/CLACSO, 2011.

  2. Land use classification in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, C. E.; Brooner, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The Bolivian LANDSAT Program is an integrated, multidisciplinary project designed to provide thematic analysis of LANDSAT, Skylab, and other remotely sensed data for natural resource management and development in Bolivia, is discussed. Among the first requirements in the program is the development of a legend, and appropriate methodologies, for the analysis and classification of present land use based on landscape cover. The land use legend for Bolivia consists of approximately 80 categories in a hierarchical organization which may be collapsed for generalization, or expanded for greater detail. The categories, and their definitions, provide for both a graphic and textual description of the complex and diverse landscapes found in Bolivia, and are designed for analysis from LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data at scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000. Procedures and example products developed are described and illustrated, for the systematic analysis and mapping of present land use for all of Bolivia.

  3. Bolivia renewable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1997-12-01

    The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

  4. Bolivia. El país de la coca

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    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dossier Comunicación y Drogas. En Bolivia, la industria de la coca es un importante factor en su balanza de pagos. Esta nueva transnacional es una preocupación constante de países consumidores de dorga como Estados Unidos. Pero sus esfuerzos son vanos frente a esta próspera agroindustria clandestina, que pretende convertirse en directriz de la economía de ese país. ¡Y también de los comunicadores!

  5. Indigenous Competition for Control in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    91 Constitucion Politica de Bolivia 1967, Texto Reformada de 1995, art. 1, sec. 2. 92 J. Montgomery Roper, “Bolivian Legal Reforms and Local...Inc., 2003. Republica de Bolivia. Constitucion Politica de Bolivia 1967 con Texto Reformada de 1995. Roper, J. Montgomery. “Bolivian Legal

  6. CAPTURED : evaluación Bolivia : Bolivia Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana Halkyer, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    El presente informe contiene los resultados de la Evaluación en Bolivia y se produce como parte de la evaluación final del proyecto CAPTURED. El equipo AGRUCO logro formular una Programa de Formación Continua intercultural descolonizador, que va desde el técnico operativo, medio y superior,

  7. Iturralde Crater, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA scientists will venture into an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon to try and uncover the origin of a 5 mile (8 kilometer) diameter crater there known as the Iturralde Crater. Traveling to this inhospitable forest setting, the Iturralde Crater Expedition 2002 will seek to determine if the unusual circular crater was created by a meteor or comet. Organized by Dr. Peter Wasilewski of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., the Iturralde Crater Expedition 2002 will be led by Dr. Tim Killeen of Conservation International, which is based in Bolivia. Killeen will be assisted by Dr. Compton Tucker of Goddard. The team intends to collect and analyze rocks and soil, look for glass particles that develop from meteor impacts and study magnetic properties in the area to determine if the Iturralde site was indeed created by a meteor.This image was acquired on June 29, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  8. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

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    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  9. Pachakuti en Bolivia (2008-2010. Un diario personal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dunkerley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The writing of this personal Diary approaches crucial public “moments” in Bolivian history and connects them with present debates around the exercise of democracy in the context of the New Political Constitution of the State (2006 and of the recently founded Plurinational State (2010. In an effort to embrace a Pachakuti logic, the writing avoids a strict chronological order of the facts, rather unfolding a concern with the ‘historicity’ of where Bolivia now stands and where she might be ‘going.’ The Diary begins on February 7, 2009 (inauguration of the new Political Constitution of the State and concludes on February 13, 2010 (with a report of the British newspaper The Guardian commenting that the government of Evo Morales has created a Space Agency and plans to launch, in 2013, a satellite that will be called Tupac Katari.La escritura de este Diario personal aborda “momentos” públicos cruciales en la historia de Bolivia y los conecta con los debates actuales en torno al ejercicio de la democracia en el contexto de la Nueva Constitución Política del Estado (2006 y del recientemente fundado Estado Plurinacional (2010. En un esfuerzo por darle a la escritura una lógica de Pachakuti, no se sigue el orden cronológico de los hechos, más bien se despliega una preocupación por la historicidad de dónde está parada Bolivia y hacia dónde podría estar yendo.  El Diario se inicia el 7 de febrero de 2009 (inauguración de la nueva Constitución Política del Estado y concluye el 13 de febrero de 2010 (con un reporte del periódico británico The Guardian comentando que el gobierno de Evo Morales ha creado una Agencia Espacial y planea lanzar, en 2013, un satélite que se llamará Tupac Katari.

  10. The Decolonization of Bolivia's Antinarcotics Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Hesselroth

    2016-03-01

    Este artículo sostiene que, en el siglo XX, se desarrolló una forma peculiar de colonización en la política antinarcótica de Bolivia, compuesta por rasgos parecidos a los del colonialismo externo e interno. Por una parte, las instituciones internacionales y los Estados Unidos lograron imponer en el país un sistema de control y prohibición del cultivo y consumo de la hoja de coca. Por otra parte,  la élite gobernante apoyada por los EE.UU. impuso su poder y dominio sobre los cocaleros al introducir esta prohibición  y promover la erradicación forzosa de la coca con el auspicio de EE.UU., poniendo en severo peligro los derechos de los  cocaleros. A diferencia de anteriores gobiernos que aceptaron pasivamente las decisiones tomadas en foros internacionales acerca de la clasificación de la hoja de coca como droga ilegal y siguieron con rigor las instrucciones de los EE.UU. acerca de la erradicación de la coca, el gobierno de Evo Morales está actuando para cambiar la situación  en un doble esfuerzo internacional y nacional. Analizando las políticas de este gobierno entre 2006-2014, este artículo sostiene que en el manejo de la política antinarcótica está siguiendo un proceso particular de descolonización para defender los usos tradicionales de la hoja de coca y proteger los derechos sociales, económicos y culturales de las poblaciones andinas involucradas en su producción y/o consumo, y promover el desarrollo económico de las áreas donde se cultiva.

  11. Sistema de salud de Bolivia The health system of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ledo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las características generales del sistema de salud de Bolivia: su organización y cobertura; sus fuentes de financiamiento y gasto en salud; los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone; las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla, y el nivel que ha alcanzado la investigación en salud. También se discuten las innovaciones más recientes que se han llevado a cabo en los últimos años, incluyendo el Seguro Universal Materno Infantil, el Programa de Extensión de Cobertura a Áreas Rurales, el Modelo de Salud Familiar, Comunitaria e Intercultural y el programa de subsidios monetarios Juana Azurduy, dirigido a fortalecer la atención prenatal y del parto.This paper describes the Bolivian health system, including its structure and organization, its financing sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and humans resources, its stewardship activities and the its health research institutions. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations developed in Bolivia: the Maternal and Child Universal Insurance, the Program for the Extension of Coverage to Rural Areas, the Family, Community and Inter-Cultural Health Model and the cash-transfer program Juana Azurduy intended to strengthen maternal and child care.

  12. Descentralización y relaciones intergubernamentales en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carlos Arandia Ledezma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La mayor parte de los países latinoamericanos han optado por la descentralización como una alternativa para mejorar los niveles de eficacia, eficiencia y legitimidad en la administración pública. Estos cambios han determinado modificaciones en la estructura del Estado, marcado cambios fundamentales en el funcionamiento del aparato gubernamental y las formas de interacción entre sus diferentes instancias. En Bolivia, el proceso de descentralización, indisolublemente asociado a la municipalización, enfrenta la necesidad de importantes ajustes, principalmente en lo relacionado con los niveles intermedios de gobierno que, como articuladores de las políticas públicas locales y nacionales, han demostrado notables debilidades.

  13. Aeromagnetic and Bouger Gravity Data from Bolivia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a two-year assessment of the geology and mineral resources of the Altiplano and Cordillera Occidental, Bolivia, aeromagnetic and gravity data were...

  14. Institucionalidad y desarrollo en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Escóbar Llanos, Flavio; Vásquez Grandchant, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    El presente documento presenta una revisión de la reforma institucional en Bolivia entre 1982, año de la recuperación de la democracia, 1985, año de la aplicación de la economía de mercado y el año 2000. Es una revisión crítica asumiendo que la democracia y la economía de mercado no son compatibles per-se y requieren de mecanismos particulares en cada país para una aplicación más armoniosa. Si bien han habido avances importantes en el desarrollo boliviano en este período, sobre todo en la ins...

  15. An Energy Overview of Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2003-08-13

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy maintained a web site that was meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consisted of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There were also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these was a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Bolivia.

  16. La democracia directa en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Romero Ballivián

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Inexistente a principios del siglo XXI, el referéndum se ha convertido en Bolivia en un instrumento político de primer orden, lo que no va sin dificultades o contratiempos. El estudio de su importancia así como de los problemas que ha planteado es el objetivo del artículo, para lo cual realiza un análisis del marco legislativo, la estructura institucional, el marco regulador de la Corte Nacional Electoral, financiamiento, rendición de cuentas, dinámica de la campaña, la educación del elector y la actual propuesta de reforma a la legislación que regula esta figura de democracia directa.

  17. New Records of Lecanora for Bolivia. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwa Lucyna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the lichen genus Lecanora Ach. are important but still poorly known components of almost all vegetation types in Bolivia. In this paper, seven species new for Bolivia are presented: Lecanora bicincta Ramond, L. fulvastra Kremp., L. hagenii (Ach. Ach., L. muralis (Schreb. Rabenh., L. percrenata H. Magn., L. stramineoalbida Vain. and L. strobilina (Spreng. Kieff. Their distributions are described and information on their diagnostic characters and chemistry is given

  18. Medical applications for biomaterials in Bolivia

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.

  19. La (difícil construcción de autonomías indígenes en el Estado plurinacional de Bolivia. Consideraciones generales y una aproximación al caso de la Autonomía Guaraní Charagua Iyambae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Morell i Torra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the entry into force of the new Constitution (January 2009, Bolivia has experienced important political and institutional transformations, marked by the spotlight of indigenous peoples after decades of strong mobilizations. In the heart of these transformations, the proclamation of Bolivia as a “Plurinational State” and the extensive recognition of indigenous peoples’ collective rights feature prominently. Among these rights, the right to self-determination stands out, opening up the door to the establishment of indigenous autonomy systems. However, even when the Bolivian Constitution is the most advanced of Latin America in the field of the recognition of indigenous peoples’ collective rights, its implementation is facing many challenges. This situation creates a significant gap between the formal model of Plurinational State and the Plurinational State in practice, as it is attested by the existence of multiple burocratic hurdles posed to the indigenous autonomies prior to its full establishment. The long list of administrative requirements illustrate the lack of political will of the State, despite the fact that on 6 December 2009, 11 municipalites started the process of “conversion” to the autonomy. In this context, the present paper gives an account of the distance between the model and its implementation through an analysis of the system of indigenous autonomies, which draws on the case study of the Charagua Iyambae Guarani Autonomy and its new governance system.

  20. The oil and gas market in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Bolivia is becoming an important link in the South American energy trade given its large potential for oil and natural gas and the commissioning of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline. Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is the national oil and gas company in Bolivia. It has undergone a capitalization program and its exploration and production division was divided into two and sold to the private sector under the new names of Empresa Petrolera Andina SAM and Empresa Petrolera Chaco SAM. Shares from this division also went to the Bolivian people as part of a pension fund plan. Half of the transport and distribution division was also purchased in a joint venture. Major gas discoveries in August 1999 has prompted Bolivia to export large quantities of natural gas, primarily to Brazil's southern region, where demand has been exploding and a growing supply of Bolivian gas is much needed. This increased demand for natural gas has forced both Brazil and Bolivia to explore for other sources of gas and to conduct feasibility studies regarding the construction of gas pipelines. The recently constructed Santa Cruz-Rio Grande pipeline will not be sufficient to meet the growing demand. All the oil and gas sector investment from the private sector goes to the Bolivian government. Under Bolivian law, foreign companies are obliged to retain local representation for investment contracts, direct sales, and all government agency purchases.refs.

  1. Eastern Bolivia: The White Promised Land. IWGIA Document 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman

    The Indians of Bolivia, already exploited by a military dictatorship, will have to take up more of the white man's burden if South Africans and Rhodesians accept an invitation to colonize the country. White South Africans, accustomed to the excesses of their own police, will find much that is familiar in Bolivia. Bolivia is a poor country, its per…

  2. The TIPNIS Conflict in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Delgado

    Full Text Available Abstract Soon after the formation of the Plurinational State of Bolivia in 2009, the Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory (TIPNIS became the epicentre of a conflict over the construction of a road, initiated by Evo Morales’s administration, that would run through the park. Initially undertaken by the Brazilian company OAS, and funded by the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES, the project was justified on the grounds that it would link the departments of Beni and Cochabamba, and bring development to an isolated locality. However, indigenous peoples from the lowlands opposed the scheme, and, together with their counterparts in the Andean region, organised a march that was violently dispersed by the Bolivian armed forces. In this article, I analyse the political processes in this Andean country, notably the reconfiguration of power from 2011 onwards, in parallel with economic measures adopted by the government. I conclude with observations about the relation between the national and regional spheres, arguing that indigenous repression forms part of a new developmentalist agenda.

  3. Climate Variability and Trends in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiler, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate-related disasters in Bolivia are frequent, severe, and manifold and affect large parts of the population, economy, and ecosystems. Potentially amplified through climate change, natural hazards are of growing concern. To better understand these events, homogenized daily observations of

  4. Bolivia and the paradoxes of democratic consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salman, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In Bolivia from the 1990s on, two presidents were ousted by popular protests, and protests were rampant. The protests expressed a growing discontent not only with successive administrations and their policies but with politics itself. The polity failed to built trust in democracy, ignored or

  5. Democracy and New Social Forces in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The forced resignation of Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada from the presidency in October 2003 attests to the fragility of the process of democratization in Bolivia. A period of political and economic stability following the 1985 economic austerity measures prevailed for over ten years, but social discontent with the inadequacies of the political and…

  6. Fisheries, aquaculture and living well in Bolivia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    VIDA (PPV) alliance evaluated the potential contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to food security, developed recommended best practices, implemented pilot .... In: Proyecto Mejoramiento de la Legislación. Para la Pesca y Acuicultura. Tribunal Constitucional. Plurinacional, Bolivia. • FAO. (2014). The State of World ...

  7. Bolivia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Bolivian government's major challenge is to achieve economic growth, including for its indigenous people who form more than half of the population. Our assistance has focused on research to advance this goal. As a result, we've helped strengthen Bolivia's capacity to conduct research on issues such as healthcare ...

  8. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusi

  9. Four new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Bolivia and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-13

    Four new species of Cerambycidae are described: Sphaerion iuasanga (Elaphidiini), Glypthaga arena, Hypsioma albosericea (Onciderini) from Bolivia (Santa Cruz), and Hesycha jataiensis (Onciderini) from Brazil.

  10. Bolivia y la salida al mar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Caballero Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo aborda la reivindicación del gobierno de Evo Morales para conseguir una salida al mar. Se comentan tanto la vía jurídica en cortes internacionales, como la vía política en cumbres regionales. Y, finalmente, se concluye con las expectativas y reacciones generadas en Bolivia y en Chile.   Abstract: This paper tackles with the Evo Morales government claim on achieving an access to the sea. I present both the juridical path through international courts as well as the political one, mainly represented in regional summits. And finally I conclude with the expectations and reactions that have arisen in Bolivia and Chile.

  11. Desdolarización financiera en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio del Río Rivera; Casto Martín Montero Kuscevic

    2014-01-01

    Using data for the period 1990-2010 and a portfolio optimization approach, we identify the causes of the process of financial de-dollarization in Bolivia (bolivianization). Cointegration tests showed the existence of a long-run relationship between de-dollarization and the optimizing portfolio approach. Additionally, we found that the Tax to Financial Transactions and the exchange rate spread are the most influential variables to determine bolivianization.

  12. Trade, FDI, Growth and Poverty in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lykke E.; Osvaldo Nina; Dirk Willem te Velde

    2004-01-01

    After several decades of “state-capitalism” characterized by import substitution policies, Bolivia implemented in 1985 a New Economic Policy (NEP) following neo-liberal ideas of free trade, privatization, and liberalization of capital flows. It was hoped that the opening up of the economy would attract foreign direct investment (FDI) which in turn would help modernize Bolivian industry, improve productivity, increase exports, stimulate growth, and reduce poverty. This paper investigates to wh...

  13. Surnames in Bolivia: a study of the population of Bolivia through isonymy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Dipierri, José; Gomez, Emma Alfaro; Scapoli, Chiara; Mamolini, Elisabetta; Salvatorelli, Germano; De Lorenzi, Sonia; Carrieri, Alberto; Barrai, Italo

    2011-02-01

    In Bolivia, the Hispanic dual surname system is used. To describe the isonymic structure of Bolivia, the surname distribution of 12,139,448 persons registered in the 2006 census data was studied in 9 districts and 112 provinces of the nation, for a total of 23,244,064 surnames. The number of different surnames found was 174,922. Matrices of isonymic distances between the administrative units (districts and provinces) were constructed and tested for correlation with geographic distance. In the 112 provinces, isonymic distances were correlated with geographic distance (r = 0.545 ± 0.011 for Euclidean, 0.501 ± 0.012 for Nei's, and 0.556 ± 0.010 for Lasker's distance). The multiple regression of the surname effective number (α), equivalent to the allele effective number in a genetic system, was nonsignificant on latitude and longitude; however, it was highly significant and negative on altitude (r = -0.72). Because the Andes extend from north to south in west-central Bolivia, random inbreeding was lowest in the eastern districts, and highest in mountainous western Bolivia. Average α for the provinces was 122 ± 2; for the districts, it was 216 ± 29, and for the whole of Bolivia it was 213. The geographical distribution of α in the provinces is compatible with the settlement of subsequent groups of migrants moving from east and north toward the center and south of Bolivia. The relative frequency of indigenous surnames is correlated positively with altitude. This suggests that the country was populated by recent low-density demic diffusion over a low-density indigenous population. This may have been a common phenomenon in the immigration to tropical South America. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Conflictos anómicos en clave identitaria en la República de Bolivia : Influencia de los procesos sociales de origen étnico e identitario en la política exterior boliviana

    OpenAIRE

    Giusiano, Juan Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Hemos planteado como tema de esta tesis el conflicto intraestatal en Bolivia desde la perspectiva del componente identitario y cultural que lo caracteriza a partir de las demandas de reconocimiento planteadas por la organizaciones sociales y pueblos originarios. En función de ésto el problema que analizaremos es cómo un conflicto de esta naturaleza anómico e identitario, influye en la política exterior de Bolivia en relación con Estados Unidos, Con UNASUR y con los países del MERCOSUR que con...

  15. All projects related to Bolivia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Latin America, Mexico, Nicaragua, Uruguay. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 1,357,300.00. The Impact of Price, Tax, and Advertising Policies on Alcohol Use in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. Project. Alcohol consumption in the Americas ...

  16. All projects related to Bolivia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, West Indies, North and Central America, South America, Mexico, Nicaragua, Uruguay. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 1,357,300.00. The Impact of Price, Tax, and Advertising Policies on Alcohol Use in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru.

  17. All projects related to Bolivia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Bolivia, North and Central America, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay, Peru. Program: Think Tank Initiative. Total Funding: CA$ 128,700.00. The Bolivian public justice performance research study. Project. The Bolivian justice system obtains a conviction in less than 0. Region: Bolivia, Canada.

  18. All projects related to Bolivia | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-09-26

    Since the inception of the first Agrarian Reform Law in 1953, Bolivia has gone through a long and conflictive process related to land redistribution. Start Date: September 26, 2007. End Date: December 27, 2008. Topic: AGRICULTURAL LAND, LAND REFORM, LAND TENURE. Region: Bolivia, South America, North and ...

  19. Additions to the known Vesperidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-nine Cerambycidae and two Vesperidae species not previously recorded from Bolivia are listed along with the department(s) where they were collected, and are thus added to the known fauna. An additional 22 species gleaned from existing publications, but whose Bolivia distribution is not recor...

  20. Por el reconocimiento y justiciabilidad del derecho humano a la vivienda en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Elizabeth Jiménez C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el intento de contribuir a la discusión, análisis y reflexión sobre la exigibilidad del derecho a la vivienda en Bolivia, el presente trabajo hace referencia a los derechos humanos internacionales de las Naciones Unidas y otros instrumentos multilaterales y regionales como la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales, la Agenda Hábitat I, Hábitat II, Estambul + 5, la Declaración del Milenio y otros. Asimismo brinda una visión sobre la situación de la vivienda en Bolivia y sobre el derecho humano a la vivienda, soslayado de manera sistemática por el Estado Boliviano. Ausencia y resignación de obligaciones que han originado una barrera que debe ser superada con la exigibilidad del derecho inalienable e impostergable a una vivienda y hábitat adecuados para vivir con dignidad. La propuesta esbozada manifiesta con claridad la urgencia de incorporar en el nuevo texto constitucional "el derecho humano a la vivienda", así como la necesidad de conformar nuevas soluciones habitacionales que tomen en consideración los esfuerzos de la comunidad de bajos recursos, en base a un enfoque integral y en un marco de participación que propicie bienestar y dignidad humanos.

  1. Bolivia, historia de migraciones : pasado y presente

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia Ladino,Marcela

    2014-01-01

    En este apartado revisamos la historia migratoria de Bolivia en el contexto latinoamericano e internacional, entendiendo que los procesos migratorios internos, intrarregionales y extrarregionales no son procesos disociados y tienen como trasfondo los procesos socioeconómicos y coyunturas históricas de fines del siglo XX y principios del siglo XXI. La consideración de la historia es la que permite explicar la configuración actual del país andino y su constitución como país emisor de migrantes ...

  2. Mercado Laboral y Reformas en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Muriel; Luis Carlos Jemio

    2010-01-01

    El estudio presenta un panorama de las reformas sociales y económicas implementadas en Bolivia desde 1985, en su relación e incidencia con el funcionamiento del mercado de trabajo. Inicialmente, se destaca la efectividad de las llamadas Reformas Estructurales, aplicadas durante 1985-2005, en la generación de la estabilidad macroeconómica; en la captación de inversión extranjera directa, en la apertura de mercados y en la disminución de la pobreza (medida por Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas)...

  3. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia ...

  4. [Socioeconomic inequalities and infant mortality in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydana, Edgar; Serral, Gemma; Borrell, Carme

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate socioeconomic inequalities and its relation to infant mortality in Bolivia's municipalities in 2001. An ecological study based on data from the 2001 National Census on Population and Housing (Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda) covering the 327 municipalities in Bolivia's nine departments. The dependent variable was the infant mortality rate (IMR); the independent variables were indirect socioeconomic indicators (the percentage of illiterates older than 15 years of age, and the building materials and sanitation features of the houses). The geographic distribution of each indicator was determined and the associations between IMR and each socioeconomic indicator were calculate using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and adjusted with Poisson regression models. The resulting IMR for Bolivia in 2001 was 67 per 1000 live births. Rates ranged from <0.1 per 1000 live births in the Magdalena municipality, Beni department, to 170.0 per 1000 live births in the Caripuyo municipality, Potosí department. The mean rate of illiteracy per municipality was 17.5%; the mean percentage of houses without running water was 90.4%, and for those lacking sanitation services, 67.6%. The IMR was inversely associated with all of the socioeconomic indicators studied. The highest relative risk was found in housing without sanitation services. Multifactorial models adjusted for illiteracy showed that the following indicators were still strongly associated with the IMR: no sanitation services (Relative risk (RR)=1.54; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI)=1.38-1.66); adobe, stone, or mud walls (RR=1.54; 95%CI: 1.43-1.67); and, corrugated metal, straw, or palm branch roof (RR=1.34; 95%CI: 1.26-1.43). A significant association was found between poor socioeconomic status and high IMR in Bolivia's municipalities in 2001. The municipalities in the country's central and southeastern areas had lower socioeconomic status and higher IMR. The lack of education, absence of basic sanitation

  5. : Las nuevas constituciones de Bolivia y Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    La democracia en América Latina coexiste con estructuras sociales caracterizadas por desigualdades múltiples y masivas. Tal coexistencia significa que la igualdad política formal establecida por el sistema democrático no se traduce en un ejercicio real de los derechos políticos y civiles que fuera también (al menos relativamente) equitativo. Los proyectos políticos promovidos por los gobiernos de Evo Morales (Bolivia) y Rafael Correa (Ecuador) precisamente apuntan a cambiar esta situación. Un...

  6. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  7. “¡De empleada a ministra!”: despatriarcalización en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Agar Diaz Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el proceso de interpelación a los imaginarios de servilismo establecidoscomo horizontes de posibilidad para las mujeres indígenas aymaras yquechuas, a partir de la ocupación de cargos jerárquicos en los órganos del EstadoPlurinacional de Bolivia. Espacios que han sido históricamente restringidos para lasmujeres indígenas debido al colonialismo interno y a las relaciones de subalternizaciónexistentes. Se contextualiza dicho proceso en la historia reciente, desde el procesoconstituyente que deviene en la propuesta de despatriarcalización, la misma quegenera diversas, aunque aún iniciales, discusiones teóricas en torno al tema.

  8. Una larga lucha por conseguir la ciudadanía y el poder político de los indígenas en Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Arancibia Almendras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la participación de los indígenas en los movimientos sociales de Bolivia del siglo XX, para ello se describe los momentos más significativos a nivel de los movimientos indígenas y, de esta manera, se hace un análisis del poder político obtenido por los indígenas en el siglo XXI, con la llegada al poder del primer presidente indígena del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Evo Morales Ayma. En este sentido, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica para hacer un análisis tomando en cuenta la situación de la población indígena a lo largo de la historia de Bolivia y de sus luchas del siglo XX, con el fin de aportar a la sociología de los movimientos sociales de Bolivia

  9. Variabilidad interanual de las precipitaciones en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available LA VARIABILITE INTERANNUELLE DES PRECIPITATIONS EN BOLIVIE. La variabilité interannuelle des précipitations en Bolivie prend deux aspects : d’une part, on observe dans tout le pays un mode de variation pluridécennal, avec une sécheresse relative dans les années 1950 et 1960 et des pluies en excès ensuite. D’autre part, une variabilité annuelle liée à l’ENSO s’ajoute à la précédente : le déficit de la saison des pluies dans les Andes est confirmé durant une phase négative de l’ENSO il est suivi par une période pluvieuse dans tout le pays. Les changements de la température de surface des océans, leurs effets sur la circulation atmosphérique et les interactions, en Bolivie, entre circulations tropicale et polaire pourraient expliquer ces variabilités. La variabilidad interanual de las lluvias en Bolivia presenta dos aspectos: por un lado, se observa en todo el país un modo pluridecenal, con sequía relativa durante los años 1950 y 1960 y excesos relativos después. Por otro lado, a esta variación pluridecenal, se suma una variación anual ligada al ENSO: se confirma la existencia de una estación de lluvia más seca de lo normal, en los Andes, durante una fase negativa del ENSO y que es seguida por un período húmedo en todo el país. Los cambios de la temperatura de superficie de los océanos, sus efectos sobre la circulación atmosférica y las interacciones entre circulaciones tropical y polar que caracterizan a Bolivia, podrían explicar estas variabilidades. INTERANUAL VARIABILITY OF RAINFALL IN BOLIVIA. Interanual rainfall variability in Bolivia presents two main characteristics. On one side, a multi-decade variability is observed in the whole country, with a relative dryness during the 50' and 60' and exceeding rainfalls after. On the other side, the ENSO is responsible for a yearly variability it is confirmed that a negative phase of ENSO is associated with dryness in the Andes during the rainy season. And this

  10. GeoBolivia the initiator Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Plurinational State of Bolivia's Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Rodriguez, Raul Fernando; Lesage, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Started in 2011, the GeoBolivia project (www.geo.gob.bo)aims at building the Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (IDE-EPB by its Spanish initials), as an effort of the Vice Presidency of the State to give an open access to the public geographic information of Bolivia. The first phase of the project has already been completed. It consisted in implementing an infrastructure and a geoportal for accessing the geographic information through WMS, WFS, WCS and CSW services. The project is currently in its second phase dedicated to decentralizing the structure of IDE-EPB and promoting its use throughout the Bolivian State. The whole platform uses free software and open standards. As a complement, an on-line training module was developed to undertake the transfer of the knowledge the project generated. The main software components used in the SDI are: gvSIG, QGis, uDig as GIS desktop clients; PostGreSQL and PostGIS as geographic database management system; geOrchestra as a framework containing the GeoServer map server, the GeoNetwork catalog server and the OpenLayers and Mapfish GIS webclient; MapServer as a map server for generating OpenStreetMap tiles; Debian as operating system; Apache and Tomcat as web servers. Keywords: SDI, Bolivia, GIS, free software, catalog, gvSIG, QGIS, uDig, geOrchestra, OpenLayers, Mapfish, GeoNetwork, MapServer, GeoServer, OGC, WFS, WMS, WCS, CSW, WMC.

  11. La Política Energética de Bolivia y las Relaciones entre Bolivia y Brasil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2006-01-01

    I artiklen analyseres Bolivias nationalisering af energiforekomster i 2006 i et historisk lys. Med dette udgangspunkt går analysen til sit centrale fokus, nemlig betydningen af nationaliseringen for de bilaterale relationer mellem Bolivia og Brasilien, der er blevet "ramt" af nationaliseringen....... Dette fører til en diskussion af forskellige positioner i den brasilianske interne debat om Brasiliens politik over for Bolivia, hvor regeringen er blevet kritiseret for ikke at forsvare Brasiliens interesser godt nok af ideologiske grunde. I artiklen argumenterer jeg for, at Brasiliens politik på...

  12. First record of chytridiomycosis in Bolivia (Rhinella quechua; Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, J Sebastián; Aguayo, Rodrigo; Lavilla, Esteban O

    2008-11-20

    The finding of tadpoles of Rhinella quechua (Huayramayu River, Carrasco National Park, Cochabamba, Bolivia) with oral abnormalities caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis constitutes the first record of this fungal infection reported for Bolivian amphibians.

  13. Food Security, Land and Territorial Dynamics in Bolivia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Studies. Políticas públicas de desarrollo rural y seguridad alimentaria 2006 - 2011. Download PDF. Studies. Políticas públicas de seguridad alimentaria con soberanía en Bolivia. Download PDF ...

  14. All projects related to Bolivia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: YOUTH, YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, PUBLIC OPINION POLLS. Region: Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, North and Central America. Total Funding: CA$ 999,700.00. Democratic Governability in the Andean Region ...

  15. All projects related to Bolivia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Think Tank Initiative's (TTI) Phase 2 capacity development strategy focuses on strengthening policy research institutions to ensure long-term organizational sustainability. Region: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay, Peru, North and Central America. Program: Think Tank Initiative.

  16. Additions and deletions to the known cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An additional 137 species and two tribes are added to the known cerambycid fauna of Bolivia while 12 species are deleted. Comments and statistics regarding the growth of knowledge on the Bolivian Cerambycid fauna and species endemicity are included....

  17. Principio de oportunidad en delitos de corrupción pública en Bolivia: Fundamentos teóricos para su aplicación y políticas para su prohibición

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Terán, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Se estudian las iniciativas de lucha contra la corrupción en Bolivia, en particular la prohibición de la aplicación del Principio de oportunidad, las razones que explican su prohibición, para qué tipo de delitos y la realidad que impide su aplicación. Trabajo de Fin de Máster en Corrupción y Estado de Derecho. Curso 2008-2009.

  18. LAS RAZAS DE MANÍ DE BOLIVIA The peanut landraces from Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Bolivia se destaca como probable lugar de origen del maní cultivado y un centro de variación único en el mundo, lo que señala a Bolivia como una importante fuente de materiales para el mejoramiento de este cultivo de importancia mundial. En este estudio para maní se diferencian para Bolivia 62 razas de maní cultivado de las cuales, 42 pertenecen a Arachis hypogaea L subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea, 17 a A. hypogaea susbp. fastigiata Waldron var. fastigiata, 1 a A. hypogaea susbp. fastigiata var. vulgaris y 2 a A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. peruviana Krapov. & W. C. Gregory. Bolivia constituye un centro de variación independiente pues sus razas son exclusivas de su territorio, salvo muy pocas excepciones. Bolivia como unidad, se caracteriza por las razas "Crema", "Colorado San Simón", "Bayo americano", "Overo" y "Overo carenado", que se cultivan en todo el país. Se pueden delimitar algunas regiones de mayor diversidad: la región de los Yungas de La Paz, donde se coleccionaron 11 razas de las cuales 3 son exclusivas y la región montañosa de Santa Cruz y Cochabamba, con 18 razas de las cuales 6 son exclusivas. Estas dos regiones pertenecen a la cuenca del Amazonas. Una
    tercera región se encuentra en el Departamento de Tarija, perteneciente a la cuenca del Plata, donde se coleccionaron 14 razas, de las cuales 2 son exclusivas. Todas estas razas pertenecen a la var. hypogaea. La subsp. fastigiata, presenta un centro de variación muy notable en la cuenca del río Beni, donde en un área muy pequeña se coleccionaron 10 razas, de las cuales 9 son exclusivas. Se destaca Bolivia como un centro de variación único en el mundo y la gran variabilidad del maní señala a Bolivia como una importante fuente de posibilidades para el mejoramiento de este cultivo
  19. Linda C. Farthing and Benjamin H. Kohl. Evo’s Bolivia: Continuity and Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Fabricant

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Linda Farthing and Benjamin Kohl's Book "Evo's Bolivia: Continuity and Change" which explores the rise of Evo Morales and Bolivia's Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS.

  20. Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae, un nuevo taxon de Bolivia y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa, a new taxon for Bolivia and Brazil is described and illustrated.Se describe e ilustra Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa, taxon nuevo para Bolivia y Brasil.

  1. The silurian and devonian vertebrates of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1986-01-01

    à quelque Bradyodonte primitif. Les Actinoptérygiens ne sont représentés que par quelques écailles isolées, du Dévonien terminal, et qui évoquent le genre Moythomasia Les restes de Vertébrés les plus abondants dans les nodules du Dévonien de Bolivie sont d'étranges éléments osseux en forme de flûte de Pan qui sont ici attribués au genre Zamponiopteron n.g. Ces éléments, qui n'ont jamais été signalés ailleurs qu'en Bolivie, peuvent être interprétés comme des nageoires paires ankylosées de quelque Chondrichthyen inconnu Trois espèces ont été reconnues dans ce genre, mais elles correspondent seulement à des types morphologiques et il n'y a aucune certitude quant à leur appartenance à des espèces biologiques différentes. Toute conclusion générale d'ordre paléobiogéographique concernant cette faune serait prématurée Cependant, on doit noter qu'elle comprend un mélange de formes à vaste répartition (Rhénanides, quelques Acanthodiens, Actinoptérygiens de type Moythomasia, des formes dont les affinités sont transpacifiques (Acanthodiens proches de Sinacanthus et des formes peut-être endémiques (Pucapampella, Zamponiopteron. Se describen restos de Vertebrados silúricos y devónicos en varias localidades de Bolivia La mayor parte de los especimenes se conservan en concreciones fosfáticas procedentes del Devónico del Altiplano y de la región subandina Algunos especímenes aislados se encontraron en areniscas o lutitas. Los 'Agnathos' se conocen sólo por unas escamas de Thelodontes del final del Silúrico o Devónico inferior de Seripona, Chuquisaca. Todos los demás restos de Vertebrados se atribuyen a Gnathostomos, en particular a Acanthodios, Placodermos, Chondrichthyos y Actinopterygios. Los Acanthodios son representados por algunos huesos dentígeros de mandíbulas de Ischnacanthidos y por espinas y cinturones pectorales de Climatiidos. Son relativamente abundantes y casi no difieren de los restos de Acanthodios conocidos

  2. Procesos de privatización del agua en América Latina: análisis y seguimiento de la interacción estratégica entre movimientos sociales versus multinacionales en Bolivia, Uruguay y México. Período 2000 – 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Becerra, Lina María

    2013-01-01

    El presente escrito, constituye una aproximación a los procesos de privatización del agua en América Latina. Lo anterior, en el marco de la acción colectiva, específicamente de los movimientos sociales y su interacción estratégica con oponentes como las compañías multinacionales, las organizaciones financieras internacionales y el Estado. Tomando como referencia las luchas ocurridas en Bolivia, Uruguay y México, con especial énfasis en La Guerra del Agua en Cochabamba (Bolivia).

  3. 76 FR 74690 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Bolivia AGENCY: U... from Bolivia. The restrictions, which were originally imposed by Treasury Decision (T.D.) 01-86 and... ethnological material from Bolivia to which the restrictions apply. DATES: Effective Date: December 2, 2011...

  4. 77 FR 30584 - Notice of Termination of United States-Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Notice of Termination of United States--Bolivia Bilateral...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Government of Bolivia has delivered to the United States a notice of termination for... the United States Trade Representative, at (202) 395-9580. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Bolivia...

  5. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  6. Diversity of picornaviruses in rural Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, W. Allan; Khetsuriani, Nino; Peñaranda, Silvia; Maher, Kaija; Venczel, Linda; Cselkó, Zsuzsa; Freire, Maria Cecelia; Cisterna, Daniel; Lema, Cristina L.; Rosales, Patricia; Rodriguez, Jacqueline R.; Rodriguez, Wilma; Halkyer, Percy; Ronveaux, Olivier; Pallansch, Mark A.; Oberste, M. Steven

    2015-01-01

    The family Picornaviridae is a large and diverse group of viruses that infect humans and animals. Picornaviruses are among the most common infections of humans and cause a wide spectrum of acute human disease. This study began as an investigation of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in a small area of eastern Bolivia, where surveillance had identified a persistently high AFP rate in children. Stools were collected and diagnostic studies ruled out poliovirus. We tested stool specimens from 51 AFP cases and 34 healthy household or community contacts collected during 2002–2003 using real-time and semi-nested RT-PCR assays for enterovirus, parechovirus, cardiovirus, kobuvirus, salivirus, and cosavirus. Anecdotal reports suggested a temporal association with neurologic disease in domestic pigs, so six porcine stools were also collected and tested with the same set of assays, with the addition of an assay for porcine teschovirus. A total of 126 picornaviruses were detected in 73 of 85 human individuals, consisting of 53 different picornavirus types encompassing five genera (all except Kobuvirus). All six porcine stools contained porcine and/or human picornaviruses. No single virus, or combination of viruses, specifically correlated with AFP; however, the study revealed a surprising complexity of enteric picornaviruses in a single community. PMID:23804569

  7. Plasmodium vivax malaria during pregnancy, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Santalla, José; Schneider, Dominique; Avila, Juan Carlos; Deloron, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of illness in areas with low transmission of malaria in Latin America, Asia, and the Horn of Africa. However, pregnancy-associated malaria remains poorly characterized in such areas. Using a hospital-based survey of women giving birth and an antenatal survey, we assessed the prevalence rates of Plasmodium spp. infections in pregnant women in Bolivia, and evaluated the consequences of malaria during pregnancy on the health of mothers and newborns. P. vivax infection was detected in 7.9% of pregnant women attending antenatal visits, and placental infection occurred in 2.8% of deliveries; these rates did not vary with parity. Forty-two percent of all P. vivax malaria episodes were symptomatic. P. vivax-infected pregnant women were frequently anemic (6.5%) and delivered babies of reduced birthweight. P. vivax infections during pregnancy are clearly associated with serious adverse outcomes and should be considered in prevention strategies of pregnancy-associated malaria.

  8. Las comunidades afrodescendientes de Nor Yungas, Bolivia: una aproximación a su estudio antropogenético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Iudica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un estudio antropogenético realizado en las poblaciones afrodescendientes de la región de Nor Yungas, Bolivia. Se pone el énfasis en su encuadre sociohistórico, en la metodología de trabajo construida con las comunidades y personas participantes así como en la importancia de la devolución de los resultados. Nuestra propuesta consistió en acercar una herramienta científica que resultara un aporte en el proceso de reconstrucción histórico-cultural emprendido por las comunidades afrobolivianas desde hace dos décadas, en pos de una mayor visibilización como nación en el marco del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia. Se determinaron marcadores genéticos de herencia uniparental (ADN mitocondrial y STRs del cromosoma Y con la finalidad de estimar el origen geográfico de los pobladores afroyungueños. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las comunidades afrodescendientes estudiadas poseen una marcada ascendencia africana, observándose minoritariamente un proceso de mestizaje con pueblos nativos americanos y europeos.

  9. SLOANEA SUBGÉNERO QUADRISEPALA (ELAEOCARPACEAE EN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Palacios-Duque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis del subgénero Quadrisepala del género Sloanea, para Bolivia, en la que reconocen once especies (Sloanea fendleriana, S. garckeana, S. gentryi, S. grandis, S. latifolia, S. laxiflora, S. porphyrocarpa, S. rojasiae, S. subsessilis, S. terniflora y S. uniflora, destacando que S. latifolia, S. porphyrocarpa y S. rojasiae son nuevos registros para la flora de Bolivia. Adicionalmente, se complementa la descripción original de S. subsessilis con la incorporación de caracteres del fruto y se proponen lectotipos para S. grandis y S. porphyrocarpa.

  10. Subsidio al precio del gas licuado en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Medinaceli Monroy, Sergio Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    El presente documento analiza las consecuencias redistributivas de una posible eliminación del subsidio al precio del Gas Licuado de Petroleo (GLP) en Bolivia.A través de un procedimiento de microsimulación se estudió el cambio de comportamiento que tendrían las familias, según sea su nivel de ingreso y pobreza, ante un incremento en el precio del GLP Para alcanzar este objetivo se tomó como base de información la encuesta de hogares realizada en Bolivia a finales del año 2000. Los resultados...

  11. Bolivia. The new nuclear research center in El Alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2016-05-15

    Research reactors in Latin America have become a priority in public policy in the last decade. Bolivia wants to become the 8th country to implement peaceful nuclear technology in this area with the new Center for Research and Development in the Nuclear Technology. The Center will be the most advanced in Latin America. It will provide for a wide use of radiation technologies in agriculture, medicine, and industry. After several negotiations Bolivia and the Russian Federation signed the Intergovernmental Agreement on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy and the construction of the Nuclear Research and Technology Center.

  12. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia). Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Results Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55%) were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25%) and dermatological disorders (24%). Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47%) and acute diarrheal diseases (37%). The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. Conclusions The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The results presented can be

  13. Post-transplantation Infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arze, S; Arze, L; Abecia, C

    2016-03-01

    in Bolivia, we had no patients with reactivation or transmission through the graft even though many of the patients and donors were serologically positive for Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ¿Descolonización real o falsa descolonización en Bolivia? Corrientes de pensamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mamani Ramírez

    2016-03-01

    Este artículo propone que descolonizar es desmontar, de manera radical, el actual sistema de valores y las instituciones que los sustentan. En Bolivia, este es un sistema de dominación que es neocolonial y racista. Aunque se vive la descolonización de la sociedad, desde el año 2009 el gobierno del MAS quebró la posibilidad de una descolonización del Estado. Sin embargo, el gobierno proclama el triunfo de la descolonización sobre la base de que Evo Morales es un presidente indígena. Para dimensionar el alcance de estos debates, el artículo estudia otras corrientes de pensamiento acerca de la descolonización, tales como el indianismo y el katarismo, y el multiculturalismo de Xavier Albó.

  15. De las competencias de programación a una pedagogía educativa en La Paz Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Humberto Teran-Pomier

    2016-11-01

    El articulo se origina en una encuesta realizada a 20 docentes de programación de 7 universidades privadas y una pública. Muestra la situación en el enseñanza de la programación en la ciudad de La Paz, Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia mostrando la factibilidad de implementar esta metodología.. Los resultados evidencian que la retroalimentación de los resultados de las practicas están directamente relacionados a la tasa de aprobación. Situación que hace muy deseable aplicar la programación competitiva como una herramienta pedagógica en la enseñanza de la programación.

  16. Oil and gas market report. Bolivia. Panorama and perspective for business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mourik, J.A.M.

    1999-10-01

    Bolivia, with its large oil and natural gas potential, is becoming an increasingly important link in South American energy trade. With new fields and pipeline construction, the nation is becoming the natural gas hub for the Southern Cone. In 1998, Bolivia experienced 4,7% GDP growth, the fastest in South America, and Bolivia's best performance since 1988. In addition, Bolivia brought its inflation rate to a 2-decade low of 4,4 %. In addition to tight global capital markets, investments also is expected to decrease due to the completion of the Bolivia to Brazil gas pipeline. This extremely capital-intensive project accounted for a significant portion of Bolivia's investment for 1998 and 1999. Bolivia has made significant economic improvements over the past few years by adopting a series of free market policies. The mayor improvements in economic growth have been made possible primarily through the government's unique capitalization program of key national industries. In addition to the Capitalization Program, Bolivia's economic growth is a result of its involvement in several free trade associations. Bolivia, as well as Chile, is an associate partner of the Mercosur, whose members include Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Bolivia is also member of the Andean Pact, which comprises Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Bolivia's unique involvement in both of these trade groups is allowing it to become an important cornerstone in the integration of the South American continent. Specifically, Bolivia is increasingly becoming an important transport hub within the continent. Energy is one of the main products Bolivia is attempting to transport. According to the government, nearly $5 billion of investment is needed by 2005 so Bolivia can succesfully develop its oil and gas reserves, build pipelines, and construct power plants if it wishes to emerge as the regional hub.

  17. The «Proceso de Cambio» and the Seventh Year Crisis: Towards a Reconfiguration of the Relationship between State and Social Movements in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Belinda Fontana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available On 18th December 2012, Evo Morales celebrated his seventh anniversary as president of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. In 2005, this Aymara coca growers’ union leader was elected for the first time, with the support of social movements and, in particular, of the peasant and indigenous sectors, inaugurating a moment of political transition that raised many expectations for an in-depth transformation of the state-civil societal relationship. A complex reshaping that, as the popular belief suggests, was going to pass through a highly delicate moment: the seventh year. Relying upon an in-depth empirical research on social and land conflicts in Bolivia, this work aims to analyze the revitalization of new corporative struggles among collective rural actors (indigenous vs. peasant in light of the recent institutional and normative reforms. The latter have favored a reconfiguration of the relationship between the state and social sectors, inaugurating a new phase of fragmentation and conflict.El 18 diciembre de 2012, Evo Morales celebró su séptimo aniversario como presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia. Este líder cocalero aymara fue elegido en 2005 con el apoyo de los principales movimientos sociales, inaugurando un momento de transición política que generó muchas expectativas por una profunda transformación de la relación entre Estado y sociedad civil. Una relación evidentemente compleja que, como lo sugiere la creencia popular, está por entrar en un momento muy delicado: el séptimo año. A partir de un estudio empírico de los conflictos sociales y por la tierra en Bolivia, este trabajo da cuenta de la revitalización de nuevas luchas corporativas entre actores colectivos rurales (indígenas vs. campesinos a la luz de las recientes reformas institucionales y normativas. Estas últimas han favorecido un proceso de reconfiguración en la relación entre Estado y sectores sociales, abriendo paso a una fase de fragmentación y

  18. Present and Future of the United States-Bolivia Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Andean Trade Preference Act ATPDEA Andean Trade Preference and Drug Enforcement Act BID Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (Spanish for Inter...2009). 22Ernesto Justiniano, “En 2009, Bolivia y Brasil harán acciones antidroga conjuntas,” ErnestoJustiniano.org, http...

  19. Property rights, nationalization and extractive industries in Bolivia and Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat); C.F. Mena (Carlos); L. Pellegrini (Lorenzo); I.M. Radhuber (Isabella)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSince the election of the left-leaning leaders Morales in Bolivia and Correa in Ecuador, there have been highly contested changes regarding the role of the state in the extractive industries of these countries. While the content of these changes differ and have manifested themselves

  20. Bolivia: descentralización, crisis social y democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Zuazo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza los cambios producidos en la situación sociopolítica de Bolivia a partir de las elecciones de junio de 2002, en las que dos partidos (Movimiento al Socialismo, de Evo Morales, y Movimiento Indígena Pachacutí, de Felipe Quispe de corte indigenista alcanzaron 41 representantes en el Congreso Nacional.

  1. All projects related to Bolivia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    This grant will support a study of the factors (aspects, instruments, sectors and mechanisms) influencing the design and coordination of regional innovation policies by Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela). Start Date: February 15, 2009. End Date: ...

  2. Employment and Income in Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru : Analysis of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reports. Technical report on employment and income in Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay : analysis of the links between labor demand and supply in urban and rural areas (the Peruvian case); final technical report, May 2008 to July 2010. Download PDF. Reports. Reformas, crecimiento e informalidad : propuesta de política.

  3. Cultivating fish for better livelihoods in Bolivia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Fish are an important source of protein, micronutrients, and fatty acids, and have great potential to improve food security and rural livelihoods. Bolivia, a country without access to the sea, has one of the lowest rates of fish consumption in the world despite the high potential for fisheries and fish culture in the ...

  4. All projects related to bolivia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Role of the Private Sector in Reducing Corruption in Latin America. Project. This project will study private sector ... Region: North and Central America, South America, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay. Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  5. Education Reform in Bolivia: Transitions towards Which Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrueta, Jose Antonio; Avery, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the impact of educational reforms on young people in Bolivian society as they transition into adulthood, against the backdrop of globalisation and far-reaching structural changes. Ethnicity and cultural capital are linked in complex ways with social stratification in Bolivia. In a pluricultural society, the language of…

  6. Bilingual Intercultural Teacher Education: "Nuevos Maestros Para Bolivia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Educational reform efforts in Bolivia have created possibilities for teacher-training institutions to focus on bilingual intercultural education. How teacher trainers and future teachers embark upon this endeavor differs somewhat depending on the sociolinguistic, historical, and institutional contexts of each community. This article reports…

  7. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Annalisa; Gonzales, José Luis; Bonelli, Sara Irene; Valda, Ybar; Pieri, Angela; Segundo, Higinio; Ibañez, Ramón; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Tolari, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. PMID:21801630

  8. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...

  9. Poverty and Nutrition in Bolivia. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Judith; Lopez, Cynthia

    In Bolivia, malnutrition afflicts about 25 percent of children under 3 and 12-24 percent of women. It contributes to high death rates, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and low work productivity. Malnutrition and its effects are particularly severe among poor, rural, and indigenous populations. Malnutrition is both caused by and causes…

  10. Idiomas, Escuelas y Radios en Bolivia. Cuadernos de Investigacion 3. (Languages, Schools and Radios in Bolivia. Investigative Notes Number 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo, Javier

    Bolivia has a multilingual population divided among three language families: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara. In practice, however, the country has a monolingual system, since Spanish is the language of government, education, and professional and technical fields, and dominates in urban areas. Quechua and Aymara prevail in rural areas and in native…

  11. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroga Rodrigo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Results Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55% were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25% and dermatological disorders (24%. Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47% and acute diarrheal diseases (37%. The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. Conclusions The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The

  12. Estado y administración pública: paradojas en américa latina

    OpenAIRE

    Blutman, Gustavo; Cao, Horacio; Beers, Robert; Canto Sáenz, Rodolfo; Del Carpio, Omar; Castro, René; García Delgado, Daniel; González, Ivana; Lavena, Cecilia; Milanesi, Alejandro; Ramos, Conrado; Rosero, Robertho; Souza,Celina; Urquieta Pardo, Cecilia; Whittingham Munévar, María Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Pensamientos diversos en el complejo entramado que conforma la administración pública latinoamericana.Blutman, Gustavo y Cao, Horacio, con colaboración de Lavena, Cecilia y González, Ivana: Alimentando el debate de la gestión pública: la mesa está servida en América Latina.Urquieta Pardo, Cecilia : Modelo de gestión pública plurinacional Estado plurinacional de Bolivia.Souza, Celina : La nueva gramática política y burocrática del gobierno federal de Brasil.Whittingham Munévar, María Victoria ...

  13. Análisis del estado nutricional en adolescentes humahuaqueños (Jujuy, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Benavidez, Ariel C. R.

    2005-01-01

    Con el objetivo de indagar acerca del estado nutricional en adolescentes concurrentes a la Escuela Normal Superior "República de Bolivia" (Humahuaca, Jujuy), relevamos Talla total y Peso Corporal. Los datos corresponden a los años 2000 (n = 446) y 2001 (n = 610) a los que les aplicamos estandarización (respecto de la referencia argentina) y agrupamos por sexo e intervalo etario de un año de amplitud (13 a 19 años), estableciéndoles las respectivas frecuencias porcentuales. A cada velocidad de...

  14. Bolivia: hundimiento de la Asamblea Constituyente y naufragio del proyecto de Constitución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Zalles

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia cierra una coyuntura en el cual la Asamblea Constituyente no sirvió sino para acentuar los problemas estructurales de la sociedad. Un nuevo proyecto de Constitución, cuya filosofía reivindica el carácter multiétnico de la sociedad y la aspiración colectiva de justicia social, no ha podido lograr la forma de un pacto social nacional ni una formulación sencilla favorable a la construcción de un nuevo Estado. Los cambios anunciados están trabados por el centralismo que el MAS ejerce en la toma de decisiones, por la ineficacia táctica de sus operadores políticos y por la dependencia de su política internacional. A pesar de un escenario interior conflictivo, la crisis boliviana podría atemperarse gracias a la influencia de los factores externos regionales: Brasil, potencia emergente, secundado por Argentina y Chile aspiran consolidar una zona libre de conflictos en el Cono Sur.

  15. Bolivia: De la crisis económica al ciclo rebelde, 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío I. Restrepo Botero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El año de 1998 se recuerda por una crisis económica mundial que golpeó muy fuerte a Bolivia y socavó las bases económicas de la estabilidad política sobre la que se apoyó el neoliberalismo desde el año de 1986. El gobierno pretendió hacer pagar la crisis a los sectores populares, lo que desencadenó “el ciclo rebelde”, que derrotó primero en el 2000 la privatización trasnacional del agua, cercó las grandes ciudades varias veces en defensa de los sembrados de coca durante el primer lustro del siglo y reapropió para el Estado el servicio de gas en el año 2003. Al fragor de las luchas se construyó “la agenda de octubre”, que participó del conjunto de condiciones políticas necesarias para que las revueltas sociales se convirtieran en alternativa de poder, programa que llevaría a la victoria electoral de la presidencia de la república al indígena Evo Morales a finales del 2005.

  16. Alianzas cambiantes: relaciones reciprocas durante epocas de privacion economica en Bolivia urbano

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wutich, Amber

    2011-01-01

    ... extrema e inseguridad economica. Este articulo examina como la gente de bajos recursos mantiene relaciones reciprocas en villa Israel, una comunidad periurbana en la ciudad de Cochabamba, Bolivia...

  17. Educacion intercultural y Revolucion Educativa en Bolivia. Un analisis de procesos de esencializacion cultural

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osuna, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    El articulo presenta una reflexion sobre la llamada "Revolucion Educativa" en Bolivia, proceso de transformacion educativa que propone la educacion intercultural como uno de sus pilares fundamentales...

  18. Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae (Acari, Oribatida) from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-10

    Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae, Austrophthiracarus longisetosus sp. nov., Phthiracarus allocotos sp. nov., Protophthiracarus amboroensis sp. nov. from Bolivia are described and figured. A comparison of morphological similarities with the most closely related species is presented. Additional descriptions and taxonomical notes for three ptyctimous species: Acrotritia peruensis (Hammer, 1961), Acrotritia vestita (Berlese, 1913), and Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) sedecimus Niedbała, 2004 are added. A list of twenty six ptyctimous species from Bolivia is presented, ten of these species are new records for the fauna of Bolivia. A key to all species of ptyctimous mites of Bolivia is presented.

  19. Pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in marbled water frog Telmatobius marmoratus: first record from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, John; Lindquist, Erik; Craig, Heather; Luthman, Kyle

    2014-11-13

    The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with amphibian declines worldwide but has not been well-studied among Critically Endangered amphibian species in Bolivia. We sampled free-living marbled water frogs Telmatobius marmoratus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Isla del Sol, Bolivia, for Bd using skin swabs and quantitative polymerase chain reactions. We detected Bd on 44% of T. marmoratus sampled. This is the first record of Bd in amphibians from waters associated with Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. These results further confirm the presence of Bd in Bolivia and substantiate the potential threat of this pathogen to the Critically Endangered, sympatric Titicaca water frog T. culeus and other Andean amphibians.

  20. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  1. Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2015-02-24

    This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control and temporal homogenization procedure. Monthly average maps at the spatial resolution of 1 km were modeled by means of a regression-based approach using topographic and geographic variables as predictors. The monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and potential exoatmospheric solar radiation under clear sky conditions are used to estimate the monthly average atmospheric evaporative demand by means of the Hargreaves model. Finally, the average water balance is estimated on a monthly and annual scale for each 1 km cell by means of the difference between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand. The digital layers used to create the maps are available in the digital repository of the Spanish National Research Council.

  2. The Nation State v. Indianist Revitalization Dialectic in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since early in 2006, the republic of Bolivia has been ruled by the first indigenous president in that country’s history: the Aymara Evo Morales, union leader and first name in the ballot of the so-called “Movement for Socialism” (MAS. His political rise, electoral victory and government program have drawn considerable attention from international mass media and been the subject of valuable political and sociological analyses. From the perspective of comparative anthropology, the process can be understood as an instance, in the Andean cultural context, of what Anthony Wallace called a “revitalization movement,” triggered by the convergence, at a juncture of crisis begun in 1997, of a number of historical conditions of variable duration in Bolivia as a national project.

    Desde comienzos de 2006, la república de Bolivia cuenta con el primer presidente indígena de su historia: el aymara Evo Morales, dirigente sindical y cabeza de lista del llamado “Movimiento al Socialismo” (MAS. Su ascensión política, victoria electoral y programa de gobierno han llamado mucho la atención de los medios informativos internacionales y han sido objeto de valiosos análisis políticos y sociológicos. Desde la perspectiva de una antropología comparada, el proceso se ajusta bien, en el contexto cultural andino, a lo que Anthony Wallace llamara un “movimiento de revitalización”, desencadenado por la convergencia, en un periodo de crisis iniciado en 1997, de varias condiciones estructurales de duración histórica variable en Bolivia como proyecto nacional.

  3. Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Meekers, Dominique; Pallin, Sarah C; Hutchinson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Latin America has among the highest rates of intimate partner violence. While there is increasing evidence that intimate partner violence is associated with mental health problems, there is little such research for developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Bolivian women?s experiences with physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes. Methods This study analyzes data from the 2008 Bolivia Demog...

  4. Pragmatic idealism: Ernesto "Che" Guevara's strategic choice for Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Philip E.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Throughout history there are political and military decisions that appear, on the surface, to have been made without a proper assessment of the situation they are meant to address. These decisions are sometimes discounted as wrongheaded or foolish. Ernesto Che Guevara's decision to fight a guerrilla war in Bolivia is one such event. Focus on the failure of Guevara's Bolivian mission and his subsequent death at the hands of the Bolivian...

  5. Guaroa Virus Infection among Humans in Bolivia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Patricia V.; Morrison, Amy C.; Rocha, Claudio; Watts, Douglas M.; Beingolea, Luis; Suarez, Victor; Vargas, Jorge; Cruz, Cristhopher; Guevara, Carolina; Montgomery, Joel M.; Robert B. Tesh; Tadeusz J Kochel

    2010-01-01

    Guaroa virus (GROV) was first isolated from humans in Colombia in 1959. Subsequent isolates of the virus have been recovered from febrile patients and mosquitoes in Brazil, Colombia, and Panama; however, association of the virus with human disease has been unclear. As part of a study on the etiology of febrile illnesses in Peru and Bolivia, 14 GROV strains were isolated from patients with febrile illnesses, and 3 additional cases were confirmed by IgM seroconversion. The prevalence rate of GR...

  6. Mercury pollution in the Upper Beni River, Amazonian basin : Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Bourgoin, Laurence; Quiroga, I.; GUYOT,Jean-Loup; Malm, O

    1999-01-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, an...

  7. Social Movement Mobilization and Hydrocarbon Policy in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    students, and ordinary Cochabambans organized themselves into the Coordinadora de Defensa del Agua y de la Vida (Coalition in Defense of Water and Life...Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia FEJUVE Federación de Juntas Vecinales LPP Law of Popular Participation ASP Asamblea para la Soberanía de los...Indígenas del Beni CABI Capitanía del Alto y Bajo Izozog MIR Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionario APG Asamblea del Pueblo Guaraní TCO Tierras

  8. bolivia : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans le cadre de ce projet, on étudiera les efforts déployés par le secteur privé pour améliorer la conformité aux lois contre la corruption en Amérique latine. Sujet: CORRUPTION. Région: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru. Programme: Governance and Justice. Financement total : CA$ 622,300.00.

  9. [Therapeutic response of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Navarro-Costa, Dennis; Yucra, Omar; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Moscoso, Manuel; Arteaga, Ricardo; Nakao, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax infections improves the capacity for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance. The therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine as treatment was evaluated for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bolivia. An in vivo efficacy study of chloroquine was undertaken in three regions of Bolivia--Riberalta, Guayaramerín and Yacuiba. Two hundred and twenty-three patients (84, 80, and 59 in the three regions, respectively) aged over 5 years old were administered with chloroquine (25 mg/kg/three days) and followed for 28 days. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine were measured on day 2 and on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. The cumulative incidence of treatment failure was calculated using the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. The mean parasitemias (asexual) on day 0 were 6,147 parasites/μl of blood in the Riberalta population, 4,251 in Guayaramerín and 5,214 in Yacuiba. The average blood concentrations of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine during day 2 were 783, 817, and 815 ng/ml, respectively. No treatment failures were observed in Yacuiba, whereas in Riberalta and Guayaramerín, the frequencies of treatment failures were 6.2% and 10%. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in patients with treatment failure showed values below 70 ng/ml on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. Resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine was not demonstrated in three regions of Bolivia.

  10. Appraisal of snakebite incidence and mortality in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Postigo, Jorge R

    2014-06-01

    No information has been yet published on snakebite in Bolivia. The country includes very different ecological situations leading to various epidemiological risks. A study has been carried out to evaluate the incidence and location of snakebite, particularly in relation with altitude, in order to improve management. Investigations on snakebite epidemiology were based on a) cases treated in health facilities as reported by health authorities and b) household surveys carried out in areas with high variations of altitude, in various regions of Bolivia. An average of 700 bites was treated each year in Bolivia (national annual incidence = 8 bites per 100,000 people) with a great disparity between districts. Household surveys showed annual incidences ranged from 30 to 110 bites per 100,000 inhabitants depending on location. Annual mortality ranged 0.1-3.9 per 100,000 people. A significant and constant inverse correlation was shown between snakebite incidence and altitude, which may be explained by both snake and human distributions and activities. Notification of snakebite is useful for improving patient management and informing antivenom distribution. It should also involve the report of deaths and clinical details of envenomation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Searching for Status: New Elites in the New Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Salman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that those strategies enabling the recognition and distinction of the elite in Bolivia have collapsed since Evo Morales assumed the country’s presidency in early 2006. Not only have new political elites taken power, the established and inherited societal stratifications have also been affected. Reviewing three emergent groups potentially occupying new elite positions – the progressive blanco-mestizos, the wealthy urban indigenous sectors, and the social movement leaders with their politicized cadres – it is argued that in today’s Bolivia, the political dimensions of anti-elitism have raided the traditional material and culturalsymbolic domains of elite distinction. The political dimensions of anti-elitism might have altered or even largely disqualified the indicators traditionally considered valid in the material and culturalsymbolic domains. Resumen: A la búsqueda de status: las nuevas élites en la nueva BoliviaEn este ensayo se sostiene que en Bolivia las estrategias que permiten el reconocimiento y prestigio de las élites se han derrumbado desde que Evo Morales asumiera la presidencia del país a principios de 2006. No solamente nuevas élites políticas han asumido el poder, sino además se han visto afectadas las estratificaciones sociales establecidas. En la revisión de tres grupos emergentes que ocuparán potencialmente las posiciones de la nueva élite – los mestizos blancos progresistas, los sectores indígenas urbanos ricos y los líderes de movimientos sociales con sus cuadros politizados –, aquí se sostiene que en la Bolivia de hoy las dimensiones políticas del anti-elitismo se han apropiado del material tradicional y los dominios culturales y simbólicos de las distinciones de élite. Las dimensiones políticas del anti-elitismo pueden haber alterado e incluso descalificado en gran parte los indicadores considerados tradicionalmente válidos en los dominios material y simbólico-cultural.

  12. 75 FR 606 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout...)-- all native to Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia. This...

  13. 77 FR 43433 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered... Bolivia as Endangered Throughout Their Range AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final... species are native to Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia...

  14. Adolescents' Expectations for Higher Education in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forste, Renata; Heaton, Tim B.; Haas, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on status attainment models, the authors examine the effects of family, peer, and school factors on expectations to graduate from a university for a sample of high school students in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia. The expansion of higher education in these countries has followed different strategies. In Bolivia, the policy has been…

  15. Water Rights in Bolivia — After the Water War | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... Achieving Water Rights Consensus in Bolivia This was the challenge: help broker broad-based consensus on water legislation in Bolivia in the wake of violent social conflict over water rights — and after 32 previous attempts at introducing water legislation had failed. A daunting task, yet IDRC-supported ...

  16. Teacher Education Reform and Subaltern Voices: From Politica to Practica in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, the National Educational Reform in Bolivia instituted reforms that called for a model of education that held at its center the knowledge and languages of Indigenous people. The types of change called for by the reforms in Bolivia signify major transformations in teacher preparation practices and a concerted emphasis on training in…

  17. Is gender a risk factor for pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Hay-Younes, Jasmin; Condarco, Madelaine A

    2013-01-01

    This study compares gender differences regarding knowledge, practice, and symptoms of intoxication when handling pesticides in farming. Data were gathered in La Paz County, Bolivia, in 2008 and 2009. Poor knowledge on safe handling, hazardous working practices, and use of very toxic pesticides were...... symptoms. To minimize this gap, education and agricultural services should be made more accessible to female farmers in Bolivia....

  18. Contesting the notion of "The Pink Tide", Case studies of Bolivia and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Vibeke; Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Vi sammenligner venstredrejningen i Bolivia og Brasilien og diskuterer om disse landes udviklinger er en del af en venstredrejning i Latinamerika.......Vi sammenligner venstredrejningen i Bolivia og Brasilien og diskuterer om disse landes udviklinger er en del af en venstredrejning i Latinamerika....

  19. Desigualdades socioeconómicas y mortalidad infantil en Bolivia Socioeconomic inequalities and infant mortality in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Maydana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar las desigualdades socioeconómicas y su relación con la mortalidad infantil en los municipios de Bolivia en 2001. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico a partir de los datos del Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda de 2001 para los 327 municipios de los nueve departamentos de Bolivia. La variable dependiente fue la tasa de mortalidad infantil (TMI y las independientes fueron indicadores socioeconómicos indirectos (la proporción de analfabetos mayores de 15 años y las características constructivas y sanitarias de las viviendas. Se describió la distribución geográfica por indicador y se analizó la relación entre la TMI y los indicadores socioeconómicos mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman y el ajuste de modelos de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS: La TMI estimada para Bolivia en 2001 fue de 67 por 1 000 nacidos vivos. Las tasas fluctuaron entre OBJECTIVES: To evaluate socioeconomic inequalities and its relation to infant mortality in Bolivia's municipalities in 2001. METHODS: An ecological study based on data from the 2001 National Census on Population and Housing (Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda covering the 327 municipalities in Bolivia's nine departments. The dependent variable was the infant mortality rate (IMR; the independent variables were indirect socioeconomic indicators (the percentage of illiterates older than 15 years of age, and the building materials and sanitation features of the houses. The geographic distribution of each indicator was determined and the associations between IMR and each socioeconomic indicator were calculate using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and adjusted with Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The resulting IMR for Bolivia in 2001 was 67 per 1 000 live births. Rates ranged from < 0.1 per 1 000 live births in the Magdalena municipality, Beni department, to 170.0 per 1 000 live births in the Caripuyo municipality, Potosí department. The mean rate of

  20. Estado Transicional de Direito

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rafael de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Resumo: O presente estudo sustenta o surgimento de um novo paradigma do Estado de Direito, em razão da indispensável absorção pelo constitucionalismo das conquistas na seara da Justiça de Transição. Trata-se de uma nova perspectiva que, ao utilizar raciocínio hipotético-dedutivo e dados de natureza primária (acórdãos e leis) e secundária (entendimentos doutrinários), leva em consideração não apenas o Estado, mas também a sociedade civil, vislumbrando de forma simultânea os fatos ocorridos no ...

  1. del Estado Aragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselys Cintia Zerpa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostica la situación actual de los bienes que conforman al patrimonio histórico-cultural del Municipio Zamora, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. La Investigación es descriptiva y de campo, comprendió la elaboración de un inventario de los bienes inmuebles, festividades religiosas y manifestaciones artesanales del municipio. Se estudiaron la condición física y uso actual de estos bienes y los planes y proyectos existentes. Analizó el marco normativo que los rige. Se obtuvo la opinión de los representantes de organismos públicos relacionados con la actividad turística del Municipio, de los visitantes, cronistas e historiadores. Aportes: La mayoría de los bienes se encuentran en buen estado de conservación, Las manifestaciones culturales, festividades y la artesanía se desarrollan periódicamente pero no son aprovechadas turísticamente, Se determinó que existe un marco normativo para tales bienes y No existen propuestas actuales referentes a estos bienes. Se reflejó el interés de los sectores institucional y privado para la incorporación de estos bienes a la oferta turística del Municipio y del Estado

  2. Micología en Bolivia: Un tema Latente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pacasa-Quisbert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El reino de los hongos es uno de los más diversos grupos de organismos en el planeta, están ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza, principalmente en ambientes terrestres y en menor proporción en ambientes acuáticos. Muchos científicos sugieren que el Reino de los Hongos seria hiperdiverso y podría superar los 3.5 M de especies (O’Brien et al. 2005. Muchas especies aun no fueron descritas y podrían estar presentes en ecosistemas tropicales, en ambientes no explorados, aunque también existirían especies cripticas. Bolivia es considerada como uno de los países megadiversos a nivel mundial en riqueza animal, vegetal, insectos y microorganismos, en su amplio territorio contiene diversos ecosistemas que ofrecen una amplia variedad de hábitats de esta riqueza. Las investigaciones micológicas se han concentrado en las ramas médicas y afines, estudiando patógenos de humanos y animales, pero ¿Cuál es el avance de la ciencia micológica en Bolivia con relación con otras ciencias como la Agronomía, Ecología, Medio Ambiente, Fitopatología, entre otras? Se han conseguido importantes avances en la descripción de la diversidad de plantas, animales e insectos, en cambio investigaciones en microbiología del suelo se han concentrado en el uso o aplicación de algún microorganismo benéfico para el control de plagas, enfermedades y promoción del crecimiento de las plantas en nuestro país. El reino de los hongos es hiperdiverso, pero escasamente estudiados en nuestro país, buscando exhaustivamente recursos en Google search con las frases: “diversidad de microorganismos del suelo en Bolivia”, “hongos de Bolivia” y “diversidad de hongos en Bolivia”, hay muy pocas investigaciones y referencias de nuestro país, a pesar de su importancia, la diversidad taxonómica, distribución de especies y funciones que desempeñan en los ecosistemas son poco documentadas en Bolivia. La amplia variedad de ecosistemas de Bolivia podr

  3. Medios interactivos y cultura digital: Alfabetización hipermedia en Perú y Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mora Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se centra en las formas en que interfaces multimedia interactivas e hipermedia han cambiado las dinámicas clásicas de la comunicación y educación humanas creando un nuevo paradigma. Éste se origina en la interfaz, al permitir la multidireccionalidad comunicativa multimedia mediante la interacción con los elementos que la componen. Esta investigación describe los diferentes elementos estéticos, narrativos, emocionales y de valores integrados en las interfaces hipermedia culturales. Dichos elementos hipermedia son componentes fundamentales a tomar en cuenta durante la creación de productos multimedia interactivos educativos. Las funciones comunicativas son cambiantes entre emisor-receptor: autor-lecto-autor, creador-usuario, profesor-alumno... gracias a la introducción de expresiones multimedia interactivas e instrumentos tecnológicos que permiten distintos tipos de interacciones. Esta flexibilidad funcional genera nuevos modelos comunicativos así como dramáticos, de narrativa interactiva, donde la interacción de los receptores-emisores, lecto-autores, con las acciones narrativas se produce a nivel del personaje o avatar. Los componentes estéticos, narrativos, emocionales y de valores de la interfaz son estudiados, analizados y descritos en detalle gracias a un modelo innovador de análisis que sirve para la implementación y diseño de productos interactivos lúdico-educativos inmersivos. La aplicación de este modelo ayudó a la creación de interfaces de contenido cultural, permitiendo desarrollar no solo talleres educativos interactivos en Estados Unidos, Perú y Bolivia para más de 200 estudiantes, sino también una comunicación inmersiva multisensorial de calidad.

  4. Resistance of infection by Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Moscoso, Manuel; Laguna, Ángel; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Cuba, Mauren; Gutierrez, Sonia; Ascaso, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) over three days plus primaquine (PQ) for seven days is the treatment of choice of infections by Plasmodium vivax in Bolivia, where 95% of the cases of malaria are attributed to this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in this setting. Patients in the Amazon region of northern Bolivia, were included in the study from May to November 2011 and the therapeutic efficacy of CQ was evaluated over a 28-day follow-up period. Patients with P. vivax mono-infection received 25 mg/Kg body weight of CQ over three days. The concentrations of CQ + desethylchloroquine (DCQ) in blood were determined at days 7 and 28 of follow up; at follow-up and on the day of treatment failure was administered PQ. One hundred patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, two were lost to follow up and another two were later excluded for protocol violation. Of the 96 patients who completed the follow up 10 showed TF; one presented continued parasitaemia until day 7 of follow up, three on day 21 and six on day 28 of follow up. The geometric mean of CQ + DCQ on day 7 was 321.7 ng/ml (range 197-535 ng/ml). In six patients with TF the CQ + DCQ concentrations in blood on the day of TF were >100 ng/ml. The rate of resistance was 6.5%. The present study demonstrates the presence of resistance to CQ in the treatment of malaria by P. vivax in the Amazon region of Bolivia. New clinical trials are needed to establish alternative treatments against these parasites in this region of South America.

  5. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School

  6. The effectiveness of foreign aid in Bolivia: Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lykke E; Evia, José Luis

    2003-01-01

    During the last five years, Bolivia received more than $US 3,000 million in foreign aid and more than $US 3,500 million in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). The country also received debt relief with a net present value of $US 1,300 million and implemented a National Poverty Reduction Strategy. During the same period, however, the GDP growth rate fell from an average level of 4.7% between 1993 and 1998 to an average level of 1.7% between 1999 and 2002, relative and absolute poverty increased, ...

  7. Migración Municipal en Bolivia: Un Enfoque Espacial

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Martin

    2005-01-01

    At this work we study the increased migration streams at municipal level using information of the national census 2001, we used two types of analysis the first one based in classical regressions and the second one based in spatial expanded models. El presente trabajo estudia los flujos de migración reciente en Bolivia a nivel municipal, utilizando la información obtenida en el Censo Nacional 2001, son utilizados dos tipos de an´alisis de los flujos de migración: el análisis convencional...

  8. Las voces del coraje. Radios mineras de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gridvia Kuncar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las radios mineras bolivianas, uno de los casos más nítidos de autogestión comunicacional en el mundo y la conquista más sólida de espacios participativos por parte de los trabajadores de Bolivia, constituyen un fenómeno poco estudiado y difundido. A más de treinta años de vigencia de estas emisoras, sus protagonistas siguien avanzando en la experiencia de reconvertir el signo de una tecnología dominante -como la radio- en un instrumento para el desarrollo de su propia comunicación.

  9. El siglo XIX: Bolivia y América latina

    OpenAIRE

    Abendroth, Hans Huber; Albo, Xavier; Barragán, Rossana; Bridikhina, Eugenia; Cajías, Dora; Canqui, Roberto Choque; Chávez, Iván Ramiro Jiménez; Cusicanqui, Silvia Rivera; Demélas-Bohy, Marie-Danielle; Dufour, Gérard; F., Eduardo Cavieres; G., Cecilia Méndez; García, Aimer Granados; Garrido, Margarita; Gotkowitz, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Este libro es resultado del Primer Encuentro Internacional de Historia sobre "El Siglo XIX en Bolivia y América Latina", organizado por la Coordinadora de Historia y el Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos (IFEA) el año 1994 en la ciudad de Sucre en homenaje postumo a Gunnar Mendoza. Dedicado al siglo XIX, por ser un período poco abordado en general por la historiografía de los últimos años, tuvo el propósito de analizar, con mayor profundidad y rigor, tanto las continuidades coloniales como...

  10. A review of forest economics research in Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefee; Helles, Finn; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    Economic values play a significant role in social development, whether they are made explicit or just perceived by social actors. In this chapter we introduce a comprehensive concept of resource value. Considering direct use values, indirect use values and non-use values we attempt to encompass t...... the total value of forest resources. Taking Bolivia as an example, we present a review of forest and environmental economics literature, providing an overview of the state-of-the-art of this research field in an Andean country....

  11. Análisis de la participación del Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) en la coyuntura política de Bolivia (Tema Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Acevedo, Héctor

    2010-01-01

    La historia política de Bolivia en los últimos años se define por la participación de las organizaciones campesinas e indígenas que fueron articulando un proyecto político para llegar al poder y transformar el Estado; para ello conformaron el instrumento político Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS), que hoy es la primera fuerza política del país, y tiene como líder al presidente Evo Morales, conductor del proceso político “revolución democrática cultural”. Esta coyuntura implica la participación d...

  12. The genus Attalea (Arecaceae of Bolivia: regional ecologic system affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moraes R.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of the Neotropical species of the Arecaceae family, based on the recent contributions to its taxonomy and its relationship with natural landscapes, updates the spatial patterns to which they adapt in their range of distribution. In this case 121 records of specimens of the 11 species of the genus Attalea of Bolivia and their relationship with 30 ecological systems that approximate their scope of distribution at regional level are released. To this end, the geographical coordinates were systematized, verified and corrected. Localities of all the specimens collected from the genus Attalea in order to compare them with ecological systems, using the ArgGis tools. We then elaborate a dendrogram (species vs. ecological systems using the minimum distance method in the R program. The analysis of the relation of the species with the ecological systems highlights a species that does not compose to the southwest amazon: A. eichleri and that is native to ecological systems of the Cerrado. Among the SW Amazonian Attalea species, A. blepharopus (endemic to Bolivia is isolated from the others and the rest subgroup species according to their presence in forests and savannas, in addition to the subandean and alluvial, as it is for A. princeps, which is found in 17 systems (57%. Eight species of Attalea are common with Peru and 10 with Brazil. It is important to relate the hierarchical grouping of the Attalea species with ecological systems in function of landscape dynamics to document their space patterns and also for their conservation.

  13. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto F. Kometter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 50%, and, within a decade, a further 28% will be logged out. Approximately 15% of the mahogany range in these two countries is protected, but low densities and illegal logging mean that this overestimates the extent of mahogany under protection. The international community can support mahogany conservation by funding park management and by encouraging independent verification of the legality of mahogany in trade. Our findings demonstrate that a systematic expert survey can generate reliable and cost-effective information on the status of widespread species of concern and help to inform appropriate management policy.

  14. Urban transmission of Chagas disease in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Medrano-Mercado

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Bolivia. In the city of Cochabamba, 58% of the population lives in peripheral urban districts ("popular zones" where the infection prevalence is extremely high. From 1995 to 1999, we studied the demographics of Chagas infections in children from five to 13 years old (n = 2218 from the South zone (SZ and North zone (NZ districts, which differ in social, environmental, and agricultural conditions. Information gathered from these districts demonstrates qualitative and quantitative evidence for the active transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in urban Cochabamba. Seropositivity was high in both zones (25% in SZ and 19% in NZ. We observed a high risk of infection in children from five to nine years old in SZ, but in NZ, a higher risk occurred in children aged 10-13, with odds ratio for infection three times higher in NZ than in SZ. This difference was not due to triatomine density, since more than 1,000 Triatoma infestans were captured in both zones, but was possibly secondary to the vector infection rate (79% in SZ and 37% in NZ. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were found to be prevalent in children and pre-adolescents (SZ = 40%, NZ = 17%, indicating that under continuous exposure to infection and re-infection, a severe form of the disease may develop early in life. This work demonstrates that T. cruzi infection should also be considered an urban health problem and is not restricted to the rural areas and small villages of Bolivia.

  15. Elder Abuse in a Developing Area in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; Coimbra-Roca, Ana Isabel; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, M Aurora

    2015-10-06

    In many parts of the world, elder abuse happens almost unnoticed. Until recently, this serious social problem was hidden from public view and was regarded as an essentially private matter. However, there is growing evidence that elder abuse is an important problem of public health and in the society. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of abuse of elder and vulnerable people in the families and communities of Eastern Bolivia. With this end in mind, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample size of 210 60-year-old people coming from different health care areas. Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and Yaffe's Evaluation Form of Social Work were used. An abuse rate of 39% of the older adults was identified. The most common type of abuse observed was psychological abuse (32.4% of cases), followed by neglect (21.9%). Children were identified as triggers of the abuse in 66.7% of cases of abuse. The prevalence of elder abuse was similar to the prevalence of other types of abuse that exist in Bolivia, such as the gender-based abuse. Also, this prevalence is comparable to other developing countries and European countries. The profile of abused older adult is as follows: woman, widow, 70 years old, incomplete primary education, without an occupation, and an average of 4.59 children. The information obtained shows that dysfunctional families have a higher percentage of elder abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A quantitative analysis of surgical capacity in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Abraham; Barbero, Roxana; Leow, Jeffrey J; Groen, Reinou S; Skow, Evan J; Apelgren, Keith N; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2013-11-01

    This investigation aimed to document surgical capacity at public medical centers in a middle-income Latin American country using the Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PIPES) survey tool. We applied the PIPES tool at six urban and 25 rural facilities in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Outcome measures included the availability of items in five domains (Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies) and the PIPES index. PIPES indices were calculated by summing scores from each domain, dividing by the total number of survey items, and multiplying by 10. Thirty-one of the 32 public facilities that provide surgical care in Santa Cruz were assessed. Santa Cruz had at least 7.8 surgeons and 2.8 anesthesiologists per 100,000 population. However, these providers were unequally distributed, such that nine rural sites had no anesthesiologist. Few rural facilities had blood banking (4/25), anesthesia machines (11/25), postoperative care (11/25), or intensive care units (1/25). PIPES indices ranged from 5.7-13.2, and were significantly higher in urban (median 12.6) than rural (median 7.8) areas (P Bolivia's development status. Unfortunately, surgeons are limited in rural areas by deficits in anesthesia and perioperative services. These results are currently being used to target local quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A volta do Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Rattner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Após um quarto de século de reino absoluto do neoliberalismo, exaltando as virtudes do “mercado”, do livre comércio e da mobilidade irrestrita do capital que levaram à globalização celebrada no “Consenso de Washington” (1982 e qualificada por Francis Fukuyama como “O fim da História”, eis que a presença do Estado na economia está sendo exigida e até implorada por governos e empresas em todas as latitudes. O economista alemão, Georg Friedrich List (1789 – 1846 foi o precursor de uma corrente no pensamento econômico, defendendo o protecionismo pelo Estado de indústrias nascentes, sem condições de conter a concorrência de empresas estrangeiras. Sua obra inspirou os teóricos do desenvolvimento até o século XX e foi a mais traduzida com exceção dos livros de Karl Marx. 

  18. Dirigentes de migrantes andinos, empleados y funcionarios públicos ante "el Estado": Una mirada desde abajo para comprender procesos políticos locales (Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Canelo Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo explora representaciones acerca del Estado presentes entre dirigentes de migrantes del área andina central (Bolivia, Perú y noroeste argentino) residentes en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores, quienes poseen una trayectoria de lucha política caracterizada por la fuerte interlocución con un otro al que entienden como "el Estado". Me interesa indagar cómo esas representaciones se relacionan con las prácticas que dichos dirigentes realizan ante el gobierno porteño en vistas a ...

  19. A Contribution to the Lichen Family Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota of Bolivia. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefelbein Ulf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microlichens of the family Graphidaceae are important components of the lowland and montane tropical forests in Bolivia. In this paper we present new records for 51 taxa of the family in Bolivia. Leiorreuma lyellii (Sm. Staiger is reported as new for the Southern Hemisphere, while Diploschistes caesioplumbeus (Nyl. Vain., Graphis daintreensis (A. W. Archer A. W. Archer, G. duplicatoinspersa Lücking, G. emersa Müll. Arg., G. hossei Vain., G. immersella Müll. Arg. and G. subchrysocarpa Lücking are new for South America. Thirty taxa are reported for the first time from Bolivia. Notes on distribution are provided for most species.

  20. La política exterior argentina hacia Bolivia y Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Tini, María Natalia

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es investigar la política exterior argentina, hacia Bolivia y Paraguay. A través de nuestro análisis buscamos descubrir las razones del por qué ambos países fueron excluidos de la agenda de política exterior argentina, a pesar de la significación de ciertos temas como la cuestión gasífera con Bolivia, y el ámbito del MERCOSUR con Paraguay entre otros. El vínculo con Bolivia y Paraguay cobraron vida ocasionalmente en el transcurso de la evolución de los bilate...

  1. Recolecta: estado actual y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    López Medina, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Estado actual del Recolector de ciencia abierta español: Recolecta y proyectos de futuro. López Medina, A. (2010). Recolecta: estado actual y perspectivas. X Workshop Rebiun sobre proyectos digitales. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/8710.

  2. Hidrocarburos y procesos autonómicos en Bolivia. Factores intervinientes en su fragmentación social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ceppi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia es un claro ejemplo de una estructura social sumamente compleja donde conviven profundas desigualdades socio-económicas, culturales y étnicas. Las comunidades indígenas y campesinas -mayoría poblacional- han vivido históricamente relegadas de la participación de la estructura del Estado. Dicha exclusión fue potenciada durante los años noventa por las políticas implementadas que incrementaron tanto las fracturas como las tensiones sociales existentes. El ascenso de Evo Morales al poder fue acompañado de hechos de gran trascendencia: el proceso de nacionalización de los hidrocarburos y el nacimiento de la actual Constitución Política tras el referéndum nacional del 25 de enero de 2009. Esta última fue parte de situaciones críticas y conflictivas que demuestran las pujas materiales y simbólicas que subyacen entre el oficialismo y la oposición.

  3. Neoliberales y empresarios en la emergencia de la descentralización en la Bolivia de los 90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Indalecio Restrepo Botero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El gobierno de Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada (1993-1997 lideró un audaz proceso de descentralización en Bolivia en alianza con el primer vicepresidente aymara, Víctor Hugo Cárdenas. El próspero empresario minero, y conductor político del ajuste estructural de 1986, ofreció superar la época de los sufrimientos mediante la creación de cientos de municipios dotados de recursos a los que podrían acceder representantes indígenas y campesinos, hasta ahora carentes de derechos cívicos y políticos. “El gobierno del Gony y del indio” realizó a la vez una enorme privatización de cinco de los seis grandes monopolios estatales bajo el nombre de capitalizaciones. La hipótesis aquí defendida es que la descentralización y el reconocimiento indígena no fueron meras monedas de cambio para legitimar la segunda fase del ajuste macroeconómico neoliberal. Por el contrario, la arquitectura descentralizada del Estado hizo parte también del ideario programático institucional de los neoliberales, a la vez que era exigencia de los prósperos empresarios del Oriente que la necesitaban para ejercer un control estratégico sobre sus territorios.

  4. Neoliberales y empresarios en la emergencia de la descentralización en la Bolivia de los 90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Indalecio Restrepo Botero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El gobierno de Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada (1993-1997 lideró un audaz proceso de descentralización en Bolivia en alianza con el primer vicepresidente aymara, Víctor Hugo Cárdenas. El próspero empresario minero, y conductor político del ajuste estructural de 1986, ofreció superar la época de los sufrimientos mediante la creación de cientos de municipios dotados de recursos a los que podrían acceder representantes indígenas y campesinos, hasta ahora carentes de derechos cívicos y políticos. "El gobierno del Gony y del indio" realizó a la vez una enorme privatización de cinco de los seis grandes monopolios estatales bajo el nombre de capitalizaciones. La hipótesis aquí defendida es que la descentralización y el reconocimiento indígena no fueron meras monedas de cambio para legitimar la segunda fase del ajuste macroeconómico neoliberal. Por el contrario, la arquitectura descentralizada del Estado hizo parte también del ideario programático institucional de los neo-liberales, a la vez que era exigencia de los prósperos empresarios del Oriente que la necesitaban para ejercer un control estratégico sobre sus territorios.

  5. ¿Cooptación, cooperación o competencia? Microfinanzas y nuevas izquierdas en Bolivia, Ecuador y Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Bédécarrats

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La última década ha estado marcada por el resurgimiento de movimientos políticos izquierdistas en Latinoamérica. Sin embargo, la magnitud del alzamiento de estas “nuevas izquierdas” oculta a menudo la relación ambivalente entre estos movimientos y la sociedad, así como su lucha por encontrar alternativas al modelo de desarrollo prevaleciente. A lo largo del continente, el sector de las microfinanzas ha llenado el vacío dejado por los fallos de los bancos públicos, desarrollándose bajo una forma crecientemente comercial. Análisis de Nicaragua, Ecuador y Bolivia revelan que los nuevos gobiernos comparten su desconfianza hacia las IMF (instituciones de microfinanzas. Sin embargo, en la ausencia de alternativas viables para la provisión de servicios financieros, los gobiernos y las microfinanzas se ven obligados a coexistir. El medio en el cual lo hacen varía grandemente, dependiendo de políticas locales y factores institucionales. No obstante, algunas tendencias comunes pueden ser discernidas.

  6. La parte ideal de la crisis: Los mineros cooperativistas de Bolivia frente a la recesión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Absi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aun en las situaciones más precarias, las respuestas a las crisis económicas no se limitan a la resolución práctica de la supervivencia. Ellas movilizan imaginarios, representaciones morales, así como experiencias previas que dan sentido a los acontecimientos y organizan las estrategias. Partiendo de esta constatación, este artículo se propone analizar la parte “ideal” de la recesión global a través de la experiencia de los mineros cooperativistas de Bolivia, cuyas lógicas de interpretación coinciden poco con los análisis forjados desde el empleo asalariado y el centralismo del Estado. De esta manera, la crisis se revela como un contexto heurístico particularmente rico para entender las representaciones del mercado y del trabajo de los actores sociales. De hecho, veremos que para los mineros, el desmoronamiento del mercado minero fue menos desestructurante que la bonanza inédita que le precedió. Una constatación que recuerda que el enriquecimiento brutal es tanto una crisis del sistema liberal como la recesión.

  7. del estado Amazonas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Rondón-R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aporta información sobre 12 especies forestales de uso en la cestería por las comunidades de la etnia Piaroa del Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Los productos de cestería más comunes son los bolsos (Darúafa, catumares (Phäjphá, cesta o red de pesca (Máya, cesta de pescar (Kawita, esteras (Deaka guayares, manares (Rütújkä mapires (Dejäcke, petacas (Rútupja, sebucanes (ärá y yoperas (Daruwapja. Las especies vegetales de mayor uso en esta actividad correspondieron a la familia Arecaceae (Palmae con siete especies, mientras que, las familias Araceae, Maranthaceae, Annonaceae, Lecythidaceae y Malpighiaceae están representadas por una especie cada una.

  8. Estado y Estado de Bienestar: Coyuntura y perspectivas de futuro

    OpenAIRE

    Tortosa, José María

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es especular sobre los factores que pueden llevar a un posible retorno del Estado en general y del Estado de Bienestar en particular, después de la etapa neoliberal que podría haberse cerrado con las crisis contemporáneas. Se trata de ver si la tendencia hacia el «Estado mínimo» se ha revertido, cosa que ya pudo haberse iniciado a finales del siglo XX, e incluso si el conjunto de crisis mundiales acaecidas a principios del XXI no habrán acelerado tal tendencia...

  9. Problemas metodologicos en las investigaciones sobre VIH/SIDA en Bolivia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramirez Hita, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este trabajo es una reflexion sobre las dificultades metodologicas que arrastra la produccion cientifica, tanto epidemiologica como de ciencias sociales, relativa a la problematica del VIH/ SIDA en Bolivia...

  10. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romo, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents...

  11. ¿Qué ocurrió realmente en Bolivia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to dispute the explanations which assume that the process Bolivia is going through is similar to the processes other Latin–American countries are experiencing. These perspectives suggest the triumph of Evo Morales in the presidential elections of December 2005 was produced by the failure of the neoliberal policies carried out in this region during the period following the debt crisis of the eighties. Showing data that reveal that the bolivian economic performance in the neoliberal period was better compared to the performance of Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, this article offers an alternative explanation, which not denying the poverty of the bolivian majorities, asserts that the breakdown of the political system and the parties that alternated in power for twenty years is the main factor explaining the rise of the first indigenous president.

  12. Spatial Causality. An application to the Deforestation Process in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aliaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las causas de la deforestación para un conjunto representativo de municipios bolivianos. La literatura sobre economía ambiental insiste en la importancia de los factores físicos y sociales. Nos centramos en el último grupo de variables. Nuestro objetivo es identificar los mecanismos causales entre estos factores de riesgo y el problema de la deforestación. Con este fin, se presenta una estrategia de análisis para identificar mecanismos de causalidad espacial, basada en una secuencia de los multiplicadores de Lagrange. Los resultados que obtenemos para el caso de Bolivia confirman sólo parcialmente la visión tradicional del problema de la deforestación. De hecho, sólo encontramos signos inequívocos de causalidad en relación con la estructura de los derechos de propiedad.

  13. Movimientos etno-campesinos en Bolivia (1985-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Escárzaga

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los avances logrados por los distintos sectores etnocampesinos de Bolivia en la última década: los pueblos originarios del oriente, los campesinos cocaleros quechuas y los campesinos aymaras kataristas del altiplano. Cuyas movilizaciones aprovecharon, ignoraron o confrontaron la estrategia del gobierno del MNR (1993-1997 que reconoció la diversidad étnica y multicultural boliviana, en una marco jurídico y administrativo adecuado a las políticas neolioberales, a partir de la apropiación de una parte del viejo proyecto katarista y de su discurso indianista y la incorporación de algunos de sus dirigentes, para crear un neoindigenismo disfrazado de indianismo que neutralice el avance de los movimientos indígenas.

  14. Bolivia: New Presidential Electoral System and Political Parties Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the incentives generated by presidential electoral systems in Bolivia. The system that was in place until 2005 led to the formation of coalition governments that aimed at giving the Executive the majority in Congress. However, these coalitions gradually lost the electorate confidence, and citizens sought alternative political options to major parties from the early nineties on, giving rise to a social dissatisfaction with democracy. This, in turn, led to the resignation of Sánchez de Lozada and, later, to the triumph of Evo Morales. The new electoral system for electing the president, included in the 2009 Constitution, increases the likelihood that the elected government does not have a majority in Congress. Similar situations in the past led to political crisis and anticipation of elections. In a more favorable context characterized by greater satisfaction with democracy and their parties, the challenge is to take decisions inclusively, something unprecedented in Bolivian politics.

  15. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on child mortality, morbidity, and rotavirus-related hospitalizations in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchauste, Lucia; Patzi, Maritza; Halvorsen, Kjetil; Solano, Susana; Montesano, Raul; Iñiguez, Volga

    2017-08-01

    The public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in countries with high child mortality rates remains to be established. The RV1 rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Bolivia in August 2008. This study describes the trends in deaths, hospitalizations, and healthcare visits due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in rotavirus-related hospitalizations, among children Bolivia, as a measure for protecting children against AGE. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Discursos de otredad, conflictos políticos y movimientos sociales en Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne Marie Ejdesgaard

    2006-01-01

    Sociale bevægelser, demokrati, deltagelse og konflikt. Bogen undersøger de sociale bevægelsers rolle som aktører i de politiske forandringsprocesser i Bolivia i begyndelsen af det nye årtusind......Sociale bevægelser, demokrati, deltagelse og konflikt. Bogen undersøger de sociale bevægelsers rolle som aktører i de politiske forandringsprocesser i Bolivia i begyndelsen af det nye årtusind...

  17. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L

    2016-04-21

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P Bolivia should address hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors.

  18. New species and records of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Macrodactylini) from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Pérez, Roberto; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2014-08-28

    Two new species of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Bolivia are described and illustrated: M. megaphyllus new species (from Comarapa, Santa Cruz and Sehuenca, Cochabamba) and M. yunganus new species (from Mairana and Comarapa, Santa Cruz). In addition, the species Macrodactylus bolivianus Moser, M. gracilis Moser, and M. nobilis Frey are redescribed and illustrated to help facilitate identification of these species. A key to the 10 species of Macrodactylus presently known from Bolivia is provided. 

  19. Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Pallin, Sarah C; Hutchinson, Paul

    2013-06-26

    Latin America has among the highest rates of intimate partner violence. While there is increasing evidence that intimate partner violence is associated with mental health problems, there is little such research for developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Bolivian women's experiences with physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes. This study analyzes data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. 10,119 married or cohabiting women ages 15-49 are included in the analysis. Probit regression models are used to assess the association between intimate partner violence and mental health, after controlling for other demographic factors and partner characteristics. The questionnaire uses selected questions from the SRQ-20 to measure symptoms of mental health problems. Intimate partner violence is common in Bolivia, with 47% of women experiencing some type of spousal abuse in the 12 months before the survey. Women exposed to physical spousal violence in the past year are more likely to experience symptoms of depression, anxiety, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and psychotic disorders, after controlling for other demographic and partner characteristics. Women who experienced sexual abuse by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental health issues. Psychological abuse is also associated with an increased risk of experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychogenic seizures. Women who experienced only psychological abuse report mental health problems similar to those who were physically abused. This study demonstrates an urgent need for research on the prevalence and health consequences of psychological abuse in developing countries. Our findings highlight the need for mental health services for victims of intimate partner violence. Because physical and psychological violence are often experienced concurrently, it is recommended that health providers

  20. Somos nosotros, somos gobierno. Experiencia de movimientos sociales en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Quiroga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of social movements in the public arena had to do with neoliberalism´s negative consequences. Different actors with different interests worked together against the system, which became their “common antagonist”.  On the one hand, after years of autonomous organization, these social movements won social recognition and increased their power. On the other, political parties and trade unions lost legitimacy.  In December 2005, a faction of the Bolivian social movements won the general elections, and Evo Morales (the cocalero movement´s leader became the first Aymara president in Bolivian history. How to manage this government it is one of the majors challenges the social movements confront in today’s Bolivia. La emergencia de movimientos sociales en la esfera pública está ligada a las consecuencias negativas del neoliberalismo.  Actores sociales provenientes de distintos sectores y con intereses distintos unieron fuerzas contra un sistema que se convirtió en el “antagonista común”.  Después de años de organización autónoma, estos movimientos lograron reconocimiento político e incrementaron su poder de gestión, mientras los partidos políticos y los sindicatos perdían legitimidad.  En diciembre 2005 una facción de los movimientos sociales ganó las elecciones generales y Evo Morales (líder del movimiento cocalero se convirtió en el primer Presidente aymara de la historia de Bolivia. Cómo gestionar este gobierno constituye hoy día uno de los mayores retos que enfrentan los movimientos sociales.

  1. Planning and Executing the Neurosurgery Boot Camp: The Bolivia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Kim, Timothy; Gold-Markel, Judah; Germano, Isabelle M; Dempsey, Robert; Weaver, John P; DiPatri, Arthur J; Andrews, Russell J; Sanchez, Mary; Hinojosa, Juan; Moser, Richard P; Glick, Roberta

    2017-08-01

    The neurosurgical boot camp has been fully incorporated into U.S. postgraduate education. This is the first implementation of the neurosurgical boot in a developing country. To advance neurosurgical education, we developed a similar boot camp program, in collaboration with Bolivian neurosurgeons, to determine its feasibility and effectiveness in an international setting. In a collective effort, the Bolivian Society for Neurosurgery, Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, Solidarity Bridge, and University of Massachusetts organized and executed the first South American neurosurgical boot camp in Bolivia in 2015. Both U.S. and Bolivian faculty led didactic lectures followed by a practicum day using mannequins and simulators. South American residents and faculty were surveyed after the course to determine levels of enthusiasm and their perceived improvement in fund of knowledge and course effectiveness. Twenty-four neurosurgery residents from 5 South American countries participated. Average survey scores ranged between 4.2 and 4.9 out of 5. Five Bolivian neurosurgeons completed the survey with average scores of 4.5-5. This event allowed for Bolivian leaders in the field to unify around education, resulting in the formation of an institute to continue similar initiatives. Total cost was estimated at $40 000 USD; however, significant faculty, industry, and donor support helped offset this amount. The first South American neurosurgical boot camp had significant value and was well received in Bolivia. This humanitarian model provides a sustainable solution to education needs and should be expanded to other regions as a means for standardizing the core competencies in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bolivia: Del “proceso de cambio” a los cambios en el proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Ybarnegaray Ortiz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece un análisis detallado del conflicto en torno al TIPNIS desde la perspectiva de una consultora independiente y activista cultural radicada en Bolivia. En su desarrollo, el artículo contextualiza históricamente el conflicto del TIPNIS y lo sitúa dentro del proceso social y político que hoy vive Bolivia. La autora se detiene en el análisis de “lo que revela el conflicto” y en los desafíos políticos que le plantea al gobierno del MAS, problematizando sustancialmente el  “proceso de cambio” anunciado el año 2005, durante la campaña electoral que condujo a Evo Morales a la Presidencia de Bolivia.        This article offers a detailed analysis of the conflict around the TIPNIS from the point of view of an independent consultant and cultural activist based in Bolivia. In its development, the article historically contextualizes the conflict of the TIPNIS locating it within the social and political process that today lives Bolivia. The author pauses in the analysis of “which substantially reveals the conflict” and in the political challenges that it poses to the government of the MAS, problematizing the “process of change” announced in 2005, during the electoral campaign that lead to Evo Morales to the Presidency of Bolivia

  3. y Vigilancia del Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Gaytán Olmedo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia de los mecanismos tradicionales de rendición de cuentas ha dado lugar a que se desarrollen diversos esquemas para asegurar que la sociedad intervenga de forma eficiente y directa en el con trol de las actividades del gobierno: Comités de Vigilancia en Bolivia, Veedurías Ciudadanas en Colombia o Contraloría Social en México, entre otros. El éxito de esos programas usualmente se refiere al número de órganos creados. Sin embargo, el presente documento tiene como objetivo establecer, desde una perspectiva cualitativa, las características principales del modelo de contraloría so cial aplicado en el Estado de México. Los puntos centrales del análisis son: quiénes participan, cómo lo hacen, qué medios se utilizan para el ejercicio del con trol so cial y dónde se aplica.

  4. Economic approach of pipelines: TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Brasil-Bolivia) case; Analise economica de gasoduto: o caso TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Brasil-Bolivia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, Celso P.; Pettendorfer, Erick P. [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this paper is offer to the industry an example of successful project finance in an emergent country. The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline was projected to develop an industry of natural gas in Brazil. The total costs invested was around US$ 1, 5 billion (Brazilian side) and BID, BIRD, CAF, BEI, BNDES- Finame, Marubeni, Mediocredito with main lenders. There are tree contracts with Ship or Pay clauses that are the main guarantees of the project. We will describe the mains variables of this project and the economic model that was created to calculate the tariff and project all financial reports of Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline. (author)

  5. Environmental management programs of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Programa de gestao ambiental do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio Joaquim dos [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the largest South America's enterprises of energy integration of the Bolivia/Brazil gas pipeline in Brazilian side own and operated by TBG has interacted with 05 states, 137 districts and 06 environment governmental entities (IBAMA and States' department) of environment multilateral financial institutions and group of ten of other governmental and not governmental organizations. The level of approved investment was of the order of 1,5 billion dollars, of which about 29 million had been destined the ambient activities. Thus, without precedents in Brazil this work presents the plan of ambient management of the enterprise, created to develop and implement the ambient programs during the construction and operation of the gas pipeline stage. The work here presented will give prominence to the programs of ambient compensation and social communication inside Brazil. (author)

  6. Miranda en los estados unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    El estudio del contexto histórico de los EstadosUnidos durante los viajes de personajes clavespara la independencia de Colombia, en estecaso Francisco de Miranda, ayuda a entender laspolíticas y percepciones de los independentistasy luego estadistas que participaron en lasprimeras relaciones internacionales entre losdos países. Se propone en este trabajo darleuna dimensión histórica a las experiencias deMiranda en los Estados Unidos.

  7. Igrejas e Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Abel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo comparar o longo período de turbulência religiosa que marca o início da modernidade, envolvendo a Reforma e a Contrarreforma, com o período atual, em que a relação entre política e religião vem se redefinindo de outra maneira. Vemos que os maiores pensadores da filosofia política moderna, de Maquiavel e Calvino a Hob­bes e Milton, e de Spinoza e Bayle a Rousseau, tiveram de decidir sobre as relações entre o teológico e o político. Examinamos, também, os diferentes 'regimes' teológico-políticos expostos por Rousseau no final de seu Contrato Social (1762, comparando-os com os diferentes regimes que relacionam Igreja e Estado formulados pelo teólogo da resistência ao nazismo, Karl Barth, em texto de 1937.

  8. Estado Nutricional del Yodo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Vargas Uricoechea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: Los Desórdenes por Deficiencia de Yodo son un problema serio de salud pública, con cerca de 2 mil millones de personas a riesgo de padecerlos, pudiendo causar bocio neonatal, cretinismo, retardo mental, hipotiroidismo, entre otros. Estos desórdenes son aún prevalentes, y en algunos casos los esfuerzos para su erradicación se han traducido en aumento del riesgo de exceso poblacional de yodo y autoinmunidad tiroidea. En Colombia, se desconoce el estado real de yodo en la población. OBJETIVOS: Determinar la mediana de la yoduría en población escolar, y de los hábitos del consumo de sal, función y parámetros de autoinmunidad tiroidea, y cociente intelectual. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio basado en la comunidad, de corte transversal. Se evaluaron las variables sociodemográficas, la frecuencia de bocio y los niveles de TSH, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, anti-TSHR, yoduria, test de factor G de Cattell, y hábitos del consumo de sal. RESULTADOS: El consumo de sal promedio persona/día fue de 18,13 g. El 37,9% presentó bocio. 36,1% tenían un valor límite en el cociente intelectual. La mediana de yoduria fue de 510,3 μg/L. El 42,75% tuvo anti-TPO positivos, y el 2,87% anti-Tg positivos. El 10% presentó niveles de TSH elevados. CONCLUSIÓN: En escolares de zona urbana, hay un exceso en la mediana de yoduria, pudiendo explicarse por el alto consumo de sal. La alta prevalencia de autoinmunidad tiroidea y bocio, junto al alto nivel de la TSH, puede ser consecuencia del exceso en la ingesta de sal y de otros factores medioambientales/ hereditarios.

  9. Mochima, estado Sucre (Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Elisa Requena Mago

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En tiempos de recesión, los expertos nos bombardean con cifras relacionadas a la caída del producto interno bruto, al desempleo, entre otras. Dada la situación que presenta hoy en día Venezuela, aunado a la alta inflación y la devaluación de la moneda; el escenario resulta bastante complicado para el consumidor y las empresas proveedoras de bienes y servicios. En este sentido, las PyMES turísticas de Mochima, ubicadas en el Estado Sucre, Venezuela, se presentan como una alternativa para de alguna manera ayudar a disipar ese triste escenario, mediante sus bondades y en combinación con Internet. De allí que el presente artículo aborde desde los aspectos teóricos del turismo hasta las bondades naturales y culturales que ofrece esta zona oriental del país. Se utilizó una metodología de carácter descriptiva y una combinación de estrategia documental y de campo. Se aplicó un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional, seleccionando los elementos con base en criterios de los investigadores. De acuerdo al estudio, se diseñó la página web y se concluyó, que la implementación de la misma ayudaría en gran medida a mejorar los ingresos de la región y darse a conocer tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

  10. Reformas constitucionales y competencia política en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2017-03-01

    El presente artículo explica  las  causas  y  efectos del cambio institucional en contextos políticos en los que no hay garantía sobre el cumplimiento estricto de  las reglas.  Analizando  la  reforma  política  de  2005  que  posibilitó  (por primera vez  que   en   Bolivia   los   prefectos   o  gobernadores  puedan  ser elegidos por voto popular,  se  halla  evidencia  que  indica  que  cuando  hay crisis  de  legitimidad,  las  coaliciones  declinantes  impulsan  cambios inclu-yentes  que  reducen   sus   futuras   pérdidas  electorales  y  no  pueden  ser revertidos por las coaliciones ascendentes que llegan al poder. No obstante, éstas intentan limitar el grado de inclusión de las reglas a través de cambios normativos de menor nivel que disminuyen la competencia política.

  11. Geografía y clima de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available GEOGRAPHIE ET CLIMAT DE BOLIVIE. La Bolivie est divisée en sept unités physiographiques : la Cordillère Occidentale, la Cordillère Orientale, l’Altiplano, le Subandin, la Plaine, le Bouclier Brésilien, les Serranías Chiquitanas. Le climat en Bolivie est très varié et il est dépend essentiellement de la latitude, de l’altitude, de l’existence de montagnes élevées, de la présence de plaines et surtout de la circulation des alizés. La distribution des précipitations s’explique par le mouvement des principales masses d’air actives en Amérique du Sud. Les températures, selon la latitude, sont distribuées en trois régions : tropicale, subtropicale et tempérée. Dans le contexte de la physiographie et du climat, l’usage actuel de la terre en Bolivie est analysé en soulignant le potentiel productif des forêts, ainsi que des terres cultivées divisées en quatorze zones agroécologiques caractérisées par leur extension, leur production et le risque de sécheresse et de gelées. Le climat joue un rôle prépondérant surtout au niveau de l’agriculture de la région andine où les gelées d’origine statique et dynamique causent en permanence des dégâts aux plantes. Se describe con detalle las siete unidades fisiográficas en las que se divide el país: Cordillera Occidental, Cordillera Oriental, Altiplano, Subandino, Llanuras, Escudo Brasileño, Serranías Chiquitanas. El clima reinante en Bolivia es muy variado y depende fundamentalmente de la latitud, la altitud, la existencia de elevadas montañas, la presencia de zonas planas y sobre todo de la circulación de los alisios. La distribución de las precipitaciones se explica por el movimiento de las principales masas de aire activas en América del Sur. Las temperaturas se relacionan a tres regiones latitudinales climáticas: tropical, subtropical y templada. Dentro del contexto de la fisiografía y la climatología se remarca el uso que tiene actualmente la tierra en

  12. Youth at risk: identifying correlates of violence in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeffer, Zane; Dearden, Kirk A; de La Cruz, Natalie G; Crookston, Benjamin T; Jensen, J Daniel; Rees, Christopher; Quigley, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Although violence is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, in Latin America the prevalence of violence and factors associated with violent behavior among youth are largely unknown. We describe the prevalence of carrying a weapon among Bolivian adolescent males and identify risk factors associated with weapon carrying. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to a sample of teenagers 13-18 years of age (394 males and 182 females) from randomly selected schools in La Paz, Bolivia. The study is limited to males because of the small sample size for females. Frequencies and chi-square tests were calculated and logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with carrying a weapon in the past 30 days. Among the sample population, one-quarter of adolescent boys reported carrying a weapon in the previous 30 days. Ever having used cigarettes was the risk factor most strongly associated with weapon carrying. Additional risk factors included having participated in a physical fight, having used cocaine, and sniffing glue or other inhalants. Our results showed a link between weapon carrying and other risk behaviors, including smoking, drug use and fighting. Understanding the factors associated with carrying weapons among youth is an essential step in determining which risk behaviors should be included in comprehensive programs focused on youth violence prevention.

  13. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  14. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Marital Dissolution and Child Educational Outcomes in San Borja, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin

    2016-12-01

    Serial monogamy is likely an adaptive mating strategy for women when the expected future fitness gains with a different partner are greater than expected future fitness with one's current partner. Using interview data from more than 400 women in San Borja, Bolivia, discrete-time event history analyses and random effects regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors of marital dissolution, separated by remarriage status, and child educational outcomes. Male income was found to be inversely associated with women's risk of "divorce and remarriage," whereas female income is positively associated with women's risk of "divorce, but not remarriage." Children of women who divorce and remarry tend to have significantly lower educational outcomes than children of married parents, but women with higher incomes are able to buffer their children from the negative educational outcomes of divorce and remarriage. Counter to predictions, there is no evidence that women with kin in the community have a significant difference in likelihood of divorce or a buffering effect of child outcomes. In conclusion, predictors of divorce differ depending on whether the woman goes on to remarry, suggesting that male income may be a better predictor of a serial monogamy strategy whereas female income predicts marital dissolution only. Thus, women who are relatively autonomous because of greater income may not benefit from remarriage.

  16. Primary healthcare providers' views on improving sexual and reproductive healthcare for adolescents in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, L.; Orozco, M.; Ibarra, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To elicit the views of primary healthcare providers from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua on how adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) care in their communities can be improved. Methods: Overall, 126 healthcare providers (46 from Bolivia, 39 from Ecuador, and 41 from Nicarag...

  17. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Hribljan; D.J. Cooper; J. Sueltenfuss; E.C. Wolf; K.A. Heckman; Erik Lilleskov; R.A. Chimner

    2015-01-01

    The high-altitude (4,500+ m) Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia:...

  18. Las guerras olvidadas del Perú: formación del Estado e imaginario nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Méndez G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A diferencia de otros países americanos, el Perú carece de una memoria nacional de sus guerras civiles decimonónicas. Estas han sido opacadas por la avasalladora memoria de la Guerra del Pacífico, que el Perú y Bolivia perdieron ante Chile (1879-1883. El presente ensayo se propone rescatar del olvido a las guerras civiles peruanas del siglo XIX, empezando por las guerras de la independencia. Las preguntas que planteamos están motivadas por la guerra reciente que desató el Sendero Luminoso entre 1980 y fines de la década de 1990, en la que los campesinos andinos asumieron las funciones represivas del Estado al tomar las armas para derrotar a la insurgencia senderista. Esta situación exhibe interesantes paralelos con las guerras civiles del siglo XIX. Proponemos que el estudio de las guerras civiles decimonónicas del Perú, a la luz de la reciente guerra interna, ofrece una oportunidad fecunda para discutir las nociones de ciudadanía y pertenencia, la relación entre guerra y la constitución del Estado, así como los alcances y límites del concepto weberiano del Estado como el ente que monopoliza la violencia legítima. Subrayamos la importancia de la organización civil de las poblaciones rurales en el devenir de la guerra y, más ampliamente, en la construcción del Estado.

  19. La figura del llunk’u y el clientelismo en la Bolivia de Evo Morales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaya Makaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo pretende examinar el fenómeno del clientelismo en los gobiernos del Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS en la Bolivia actual (2006-2015, como una herramienta de cooptación y neutralización de los movimientos sociales. Se analizará el contexto socio-histórico del fenómeno clientelista en Bolivia, tomando en cuenta las determinaciones culturales. Por lo cual el clientelismo boliviano se inscribirá en el concepto local del “llunk’u” o “llunkerío”, relacionado con el mundo aymara-quechua. Se mostrarán los mecanismos estructurales del poder político en Bolivia que llevan al clientelismo y paternalismo estatal y sus consecuencias para la autonomía de los movimientos sociales y la calidad de la vida política del país.

  20. THE BRAZIL-BOLIVIA BORDER AND THE SECOND-HAND CLOTHING DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Carlos Machado Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The second-hand clothing trade started widely in Bolivia in 1994. This kind of trade usually involves popular globalization activities, whose practices are often identified by State agencies as illegal, although with natural popular acceptance. It is established within a complex system of networks, and takes advantage of distribution (stock and transfer meshes and knots, with the consequent conformation of connected territorial circuits. This paper aims at analyzing the second-hand clothing trade in three locations: Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Puerto Quijarro (Bolivia, and Corumbá (Brazil. The purpose is to identify the route and the nuances regarding the second-hand clothing distribution network from Santa Cruz de la Sierra to Corumbá, on the Bolivia-Brazil border.

  1. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. METHODS: To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers...... from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: This study...... spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. CONCLUSION: The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia...

  2. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  3. Governing extraction : regulation, the state and social struggles over minerals and hydrocarbons in Bolivia /

    OpenAIRE

    Andreucci, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Bibliografia La estrategia de acumulación ‘primario-exportadora' tradicionalmente adoptada en América Latina tiene consecuencias político-económicas y socio-ambientales problemáticas. En Bolivia, desde 2006, el gobierno de Evo Morales adoptó importantes planes—influenciados por movilizaciones populares e indígenas—para reestructurar la gobernanza de los recursos naturales y, en última instancia, superar el ‘extractivismo'. Una década más tarde, sin embargo, Bolivia ha profundizado su depen...

  4. Epidemiología del intento suicida en el Hospital Madre Obrera, Llallagua, Bolivia.

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez-Machado, Andrés; Guarachi-Catari, Dora

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Estudiar las características epidemiológicas de las personas que asistieron por intento suicida a un hospitalde Potosí, Bolivia. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio con 56 personas que acudieron al Hospital MadreObrera de Llallagua (Potosí, Bolivia) que tuvieron un intento suicida entre el 6 de junio de 2006 y el 31 de octubrede 2007. Mediante entrevistas individuales se determinaron las variables demográficas, métodos y motivos delintento suicida, antecedentes personales y fa...

  5. Sobre la presencia de Vitreorana oyampiensis (Lescure, 1975 (Amphibia: Centrolenidae en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Arturo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available República de Bolivia, departamento de Pando, provincia Federico Román, reserva de Vida Silvestre Bruno Racua, arroyo Tambaqui (9º 50' 15,3" S, 65º 33' 09,0" O. Fecha de colección: 16 y 17 noviembre, 2006. Colector: Arturo Muñoz. Colección de vertebrados Museo de Historia Natural Alcide d’Orbigny (MHNCA-1054, MHNCA-1057, MHNCA-1072, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Tres ejemplares adultos, machos (19,92; 20,56; 19,98 mm LHC respectivamente.

  6. Lógica y dinámica del rentismo en Bolivia durante el Siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Alberte Rivera, Eduardo Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Bolivia, país subdesarrollado perteneciente a la Comunidad Andina (CAN), ha adquirido a través del tiempo conductas rentistas, lo que ha provocado una serie de efectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el presente siglo. La presente investigación describe la lógica y dinámica del Rentismo en Bolivia durante el siglo XXI. La comparación entre los regímenes energéticos de Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada y Evo Morales Ayma ayuda a la descripción de la dinámica del Rentismo en Boliv...

  7. Las relaciones internacionales de Bolivia al comienzo del siglo XXI (Artículos Varios)

    OpenAIRE

    Araníbar, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Este artículo estudia la política exterior boliviana durante la década de los noventa e inicios del siglo XXI. Antonio Araníbar analiza los temas de la agenda internacional boliviana (política vecinal y reintegración marítima, cooperación internacional en la lucha contra el narcotráfico, e integración andina), los aportes de Bolivia a la agenda multilateral y se responde sobre las prioridades de la política exterior boliviana en los umbrales del siglo XXI. This article studies Bolivia's in...

  8. Fattige vandløb på Bolivias Andes-højslette

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2006-01-01

    Bolivias højslette, i 4.000 m højde, er selv uforurenede vandløb så fattige på arter af smådyr og fisk at biologisk bedømmelse af vandløbskvalitet ikke umiddelbart kan anvendes.......På Bolivias højslette, i 4.000 m højde, er selv uforurenede vandløb så fattige på arter af smådyr og fisk at biologisk bedømmelse af vandløbskvalitet ikke umiddelbart kan anvendes....

  9. Management of empty pesticide containers – An experience from Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2014-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huici, Omar; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Jørs, Erik

    The mismanagement of empty containers of pesticides, posing a risk to the environment and the health of people, has motivated the promotion of international policies and guidelines to mitigate the problems. Despite these guidelines the attention to this problem is inadequate in Bolivia. The objec......The mismanagement of empty containers of pesticides, posing a risk to the environment and the health of people, has motivated the promotion of international policies and guidelines to mitigate the problems. Despite these guidelines the attention to this problem is inadequate in Bolivia...

  10. Purging and load operations of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, C.; Senna, F.J.E. [Petrobras Transporte, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho de Faria, J.A. [TNG Pipeline, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of a new purge and load technique that was successfully used at the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline. The method used high-speed natural gas injection to expel air in the pipeline. As there are no pigs separating the products, an explosive mixture is formed. When the gas front reaches the end of a segment of pipe and all air has been purged, the gas pipeline section is considered to be gasified. A mathematical model was used to determine the minimum purge speed of the gas as well as the amount of time needed for the purge. The time required was calculated by the model through the use of flow equations to calculate friction loss and flow rate. Minimum purge speed was a direct function of the difference of density between the gases and the gas pipeline diameter. A nitrogen seal was interposed between the gas and the air to avoid the formation of explosive mixtures inside the gas pipeline. Gas used for the northern Brazilian branch gasification and pressurization was stored in the Bolivian pipeline side. A volume of 2000 m{sup 3} of nitrogen was injected at sections where the purge was being carried out. All the gas used for gasification and pressurization of the southern branch was provided by the northern branch. Natural gas injection was performed with pressure reduction in 2 stages. Pressure control of natural gas injection used an assembly of existing valves in an intermediate station interconnecting the pig receiver of the section upstream and the pig launcher at the next station. Pressure recorders, gauges, and gas analyzers were used to monitor and control all gasification procedures. It was concluded that the operation was a success. The nitrogen trapping procedure helped the project to avoid all the inconveniences typically encountered during pigging operations. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Valor monetario de la leche materna en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Aguayo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Estimar el volumen de leche materna consumido por los niños bolivianos de < 36 meses de edad y el valor monetario de la sustitución de dicho volumen de leche materna con sucedáneos comerciales. Métodos. Para el análisis se tuvieron en cuenta la distribución de la población infantil por grupos de edad, la prevalencia de las diferentes prácticas de lactancia materna (exclusiva o parcial en cada grupo de edad, el volumen promedio de leche materna consumido por los lactantes de un grupo de edad determinado y el costo de la producción y sustitución de la leche materna. Resultados. Los lactantes bolivianos consumen anualmente más de 161 millones de litros de leche materna, lo que representa un volumen promedio de 573 mL/día por cada lactante menor de un año. El valor monetario de la leche materna consumida por los lactantes bolivianos asciende a US$ 274 millones anuales. El costo promedio de sustituir la leche materna con sucedáneos comerciales en un lactante amamantado adecuadamente el primer año de vida asciende a US$ 407. Discusión. Para que la formulación y consolidación de políticas y programas de protección, promoción y apoyo a la lactancia materna sean una realidad, los líderes políticos de Bolivia han de tomar conciencia del enorme valor monetario de la leche materna.

  12. Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Caryn; Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; LaFuente, Carlos; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Calderon, Maritza; Pacori, Juan; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Aparicio, Hugo; Brady, Mark F.; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Angulo, Noelia; Marcus, Sarah; Sterling, Charles; Maguire, James H.

    2017-01-01

    Background We conducted a study of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Our objective was to apply new tools to identify weak points in current screening algorithms, and find ways to improve them. Methods Women presenting for delivery were screened by rapid and conventional serological tests. For infants of infected mothers, blood specimens obtained on days 0, 7, 21, 30, 90, 180, and 270 were concentrated and examined microscopically; serological tests were performed for the day 90, 180, and 270 specimens. Maternal and infant specimens, including umbilical tissue, were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the kinetoplast minicircle and by quantitative PCR. Results Of 530 women, 154 (29%) were seropositive. Ten infants had congenital T. cruzi infection. Only 4 infants had positive results of microscopy evaluation in the first month, and none had positive cord blood microscopy results. PCR results were positive for 6 (67%) of 9 cord blood and 7 (87.5%) of 8 umbilical tissue specimens. PCR-positive women were more likely to transmit T. cruzi than were seropositive women with negative PCR results (P < .05). Parasite loads determined by quantitative PCR were higher for mothers of infected infants than for seropositive mothers of uninfected infants (P < .01). Despite intensive efforts, only 58% of at-risk infants had a month 9 specimen collected. Conclusions On the basis of the low sensitivity of microscopy in cord blood and high rate of loss to follow-up, we estimate that current screening programs miss one-half of all infected infants. Molecular techniques may improve early detection. PMID:19877966

  13. Electrocardiographic observations in high altitude residents of Nepal and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Jeanne; Valeix, P.; Drouet, L.; Escourrou, P.; Durand, J.

    1981-09-01

    Parameters computed from electrocardiographic recordings (mean frontal QRS axis, â QRS, positive (R-S) difference in lead V1, incidence of atypical conduction pattern in V1) were compared: (1) in two populations residing at the same altitude (3 800 m) but in different geographical sites: Aymaras in Bolivia and Tibetans in Nepal, (2) in three groups of Bolivians dwellers, ethnically similar and fully acclimatized, at three altitudes (4 780 m, 3 800 m, 400 m). This work involved 661 subjects. Results: (a) The mean â QRS value in highlanders is shifted to the right when compared to that of lowlanders: the right axis deviation increases with altitude, (b) The mean â QRS value is identical in Bolivian and Tibetan groups living at the same altitude, (c) The axis deviates to the left with aging in all the environmental conditions. This migration is accompanied by a lower incidence of positive (R-S) difference in adults compared to younger subjects, (d) The mean â QRS value of the females is always situated to the left of that males for all age groups. This difference receives a possible confirmation by the lower incidence of atypical complexes in V1 in females, (e) The present values of â QRS as well as others found in the litterature and those of mean pulmonary arterial pressure reported by different authors have been plotted, both as a function of elevation: The two relationships can be described by two linear functions with a point of intersection. Such points suggest an altitude threshold above which a further decrease in barometric pressure results in marked cardiovascular responses. They are both located in the vicinity of 2 500 m.

  14. Medio ambiente, mercado y Estado

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    La fuerza del mercado frente a las falencias del Estado, como factores que explican las barreras para el desarrollo de la vacuna sintética contra la malaria en Colombia y la falta de control a las causas antrópicas del ecosidio de los chigüiros en el desierto de muerte del Casanare

  15. Taquicardias supraventriculares. Estado del arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Alfonso Gándara Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    El tratamiento de las taquicardias supraventriculares dependerá del estado hemodinámico del paciente, el cual definirá el requerimiento de terapia eléctrica o tratamiento médico. Se debe hacer una selección adecuada de los pacientes que requieren estudio electrofisiológico y ablación.

  16. Modelo de desarrollo y élites económicas en Bolivia: análisis de la concepción de desarrollo ancestral del presidente Evo Morales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Amaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia atraviesa un conflicto determinado por la tensión entre dos concepciones de desarrollo: la del presidente Evo Morales ―basada en la hibri-dación entre pensamiento ancestral con el socialismo― y la de la oposición, liderada por el Gobierno regional de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, fundada en la concepción capitalista transnacional de las élites tradicionales del país. Este proyecto analiza las relacio-nes existentes entre la concepción del desarrollo del presidente indígena, con su concepción socialista, y la incidencia de la ca-pacidad productiva de las élites santacruceñas en la puesta en marcha del modelo nacional de Morales.

  17. Genetic differences between mestizo populations of Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    plus grand assortiment de type caucasien chez les métisses péruviens rapportés dans la littérature. Ces découvertes pourraient avoir un impact en ce qui concerne l’efficacité de moyens d’immunisation modernes grâce aux vaccins d'ADN sur la population andine, et aussi en ce qui concerne l’identification de groupes à risque pour certaines conditions médicales. DIFERENCIAS GENÉTICAS ENTRE POBLACIONES MESTIZAS DE BOLIVIA Y PERÚ. Existe escasa información acerca del fondo genético de las poblaciones de Perú y Bolivia. Estudios han mostrado que los mestizos presentan varios alelos del sistema mayor de histocompatibilidad originalmente descritos en tribus amerindias genéticamente aisladas, y que los mestizos de Perú y Bolivia están genéticamente cercanamente relacionados. Mediante la técnica de transferencia de línea reversa, se realizó la tipificación de alelos de histocompatibilidad de Clase I (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-Cw así como de Clase II (HLA-DRB1 y HLA-DQB1 en 57 mestizos bolivianos. Los sujetos provinieron mayormente de La Paz (la ciudad principal en los Andes Bolivianos, además de otras tres ciudades importantes situadas en el Valle Central Boliviano (Sucre, Tarija y Tupiza. La comparación de la frecuencia de los alelos de los mestizos bolivianos con datos disponibles de la literatura acerca de mestizos peruanos, reveló que los alelos de Clase I HLA-Cw*01, y B*40 se encontraban en mayor proporción en el grupo de mestizos peruanos (Chi-cuadrado = 4.87 p<0,05 y chi-cuadrado = 7,56 p<0,01 respectivamente. Con respecto a los alelos de clase II, HLA-DRB1*1101 y DRB1*1302 se encontraron en mayor frecuencia en los mestizos peruanos (Chi-cuad = 5,12 p<.05 y chi-cuad = 3,8 p = 0.05 respectivamente, mientras que el alelo HLA-DQB1*0402 fue significativamente mayor en los mestizos bolivianos (Chi-cuad = 47,2 p<.0001. Las diferencias en las frecuencias de alelos encontradas, y la ausencia o presencia de algunos alelos en cualesquiera de los grupos, puede

  18. Inspection of Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline with MFL pig; Inspecao por pig instrumentado no trecho Paulinia-Guararema do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kiyoshi [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    After 7 years operating Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline, the TBG-Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., the owner and the operator of de pipeline, has considered the need of inspect the gas pipeline in the Paulinia-Guararema section, which is a branch of the mainline from Corumba, a city in Mato Grosso do Sul state to Canoas a city in Rio Grande do Sul state. This section has been chosen during first inspection stage, since it has electrical interferences by electrified transmission lines and other pipelines in the same area. This paper describes the TBG experiences on launching corrosion detection PIG, since the identification of necessity to analysis of what to do. (author)

  19. Re-emergencia de conflictos socioterritoriales y movimientos societales en los gobiernos “progresistas”. Los casos del TIPNIS en Bolivia y el Yasuní en Ecuador; Re-emergência dos conflitos socioterritoriais e os movimentos societais nos governo "progressistas". Os casos dos TIPNIS na Bolívia e o Yasuní no Equador; Re-emergence of Socio-territorial Conflicts and Social Movements in "Progressive" Governments. The Cases of TIPNIS in Bolivia and YASUNÍ in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabel Camilo López Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Los “procesos de cambio” que se proyectaron en la región en la década pasada fueron resultado de ‘movimientos societales’ de base comunitaria (indígenas y campesinos, generando procesos constituyentes e instalando imaginarios de descolonización yla construcción de ‘Estados Plurinacionales’, como en los casos de Bolivia y Ecuador. Estos movimientos de matriz comunitaria parecen constituir hoy, nuevamente, núcleos de resistencia socioterritorial frente a políticas neo-extractivistas de los gobiernos llamados “progresistas”. Se propone un abordaje a los actuales conflictos socioterritoriales en la región, a partir de los casos del TIPNIS en Bolivia y del YASUNÍ en Ecuador, donde se disputan imaginarios de cambio societal y visiones territoriales contrapuestas en torno a temáticas como la plurinacionalidad, el ‘buen vivir’ y la descolonización del Estado.   Palabras clave:       conflictos     socioterritoriales,     movimientos     societales, neoextractivismo.       Resumo: Os "processos de mudança" que se projetaram na região na década passada foram resultado de "movimentos societais" de base comunitária (indígenas e camponeses, gerando processos constituintes e instalando imaginários de descolonização e da construção de "Estados -plurinacionais", como nos casos da Bolívia e Equador. Esses movimentos de matriz comunitária       parecem construir hoje, novamente, núcleos de resistência socioterritoriais na região, a partir dos casos dos TIPNIS na Bolívia e YASUNÍ no Equador, onde se disputam imaginários de mudanças societais e visões territoriais contrapostas em torno de temáticas como a plurinacionalidade, o "bom viver" e a descolonização do Estado.   Palavras-chave: conflitos socioterritoriais, movimentos societais, neoextrativismo.       Abstract: The "Processes of change" projected in the region during the past decade were the result of community

  20. Circulating Practices: Migration and Translocal Development in Washington D.C. and Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Strunk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Migrant remittances are increasingly seen as a potential form of development in the global South, but the impact of international migration on sending regions is far from straightforward. In this article, I analyze migrant communities of origin in rural Bolivia as dynamic places that are constantly reproduced through connections with other places. I document the movement of migrant practices between Washington D.C. and Cochabamba and the influence of monetary and non-monetary flows on Bolivian cultural practices, politics, and development. I demonstrate how hometown associations and returning migrants have transferred organizational practices and political ideas about development from the United States to rural Bolivia. In addition, I explore migration’s role in struggles over belonging in Cochabamba, focusing on the efforts by migrants in Washington D.C. to stake their claim through transnational houses and collective remittance projects and on recent internal migration from other regions in Bolivia. Finally, I assess the sustainability of migrant-led development in Cochabamba. Although collaboration with migrants can strengthen the local state by providing more resources, it conditions the type of development that can take place and has yet to provide adequate opportunities for returning migrants or young people in rural Bolivia.

  1. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on child mortality, morbidity, and rotavirus-related hospitalizations in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Inchauste

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: The significant decrease in main AGE-related health indicators in children <5 years of age after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine provides evidence of a substantial public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in Bolivia, as a measure for protecting children against AGE.

  2. Education, Culture and Indigenous Rights: The Case of Educational Reform in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comboni Salinas, Sonia; Juarez Nunez, Jose Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Examines the implementation of intercultural bilingual education throughout Bolivia and its relationship to the linguistic and cultural rights of the majority indigenous population. Discusses institutional and curriculum reforms, particularly in rural schools; a new emphasis on students' learning needs; relationship to indigenous…

  3. Finance, growth and social fairness : Evidence for Latin America and Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sucre Reyes, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis explores the role of finance in promoting economic growth and social fairness. Our case studies concentrate on Latin America and the Caribbean, and on Bolivia, a developing region and a country for which the relationship between finance, growth, and social fairness turns out to be

  4. After the Water War — Achieving Water Rights Consensus in Bolivia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... This was the challenge: help broker broad-based consensus on water legislation in Bolivia in the wake of violent social conflict over water rights — and after 32 previous attempts at introducing water legislation had failed. A daunting task, yet IDRC-supported Bolivian researchers took it on and triumphed, ...

  5. Endemic wild potato (Solanum spp.) biodiversity status in Bolivia: Reasons for conservation concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadima Fuentes, X.; Zonneveld, van M.; Scheldeman, X.; Castaneda, N.; Patino, F.; Beltran, M.; Damme, van P.

    2014-01-01

    Crop wild relatives possess important traits, therefore ex situ and in situ conservation efforts are essential to maintain sufficient options for crop improvement. Bolivia is a centre of wild relative diversity for several crops, among them potato, which is an important staple worldwide and the

  6. Cinchona anderssonii (Rubiaceae), a new overlooked species from Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Persson, Claes; Albán, Joaquina

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona anderssonii, a new species from the Yungas forests of the Andes in Bolivia, is described and illustrated. It is unique in Cinchona by having the combination of elliptic leaf blades glossy above, distinct circular pit domatia at secondary vein axils, basipetally dehiscent capsules, and re...

  7. La Persistencia de la Pobreza Rural en Honduras, Nicaragua y Bolivia: un Fracaso del Neoliberalismo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kay (Cristóbal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLos documentos de estrategia de lucha contra la pobreza, preparados por los gobiernos mediante un proceso en el que participan instituciones internacionales y actores de la sociedad civil, no dieron los resultados previstos. El artículo analiza los casos de Honduras, Nicaragua y Bolivia

  8. Bolivia (Part II: Management for sustainable forestry in other tropical countries)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Guzman, R.; Dockry, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bolivia started to implement the Forestry Law (# 1700) in 1996. Since then the Bolivian forestry sector has changed significantly from an unplanned and exploitative logging regime to an organized system based on reduced impact logging techniques and management plans elaborated by trained forestry

  9. Strategies of the Poorest in Local Water Conflict and Cooperation - Evidence from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funder, M.; Bustamante Zenteno, R.R.; Cossio Rojas, V.; Huong, P.T.M.; Koppen, van B.; Mweemba, C.; Nyambe, L.; Phuong, L.T.T.; Skielboe, T.

    2012-01-01

    Media stories often speak of a future dominated by large-scale water wars. Rather less attention has been paid to the way water conflicts already play out at local levels and form part of people’s everyday lives. Based on case study studies from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia, this paper examines the

  10. The sensitivity of wet and dry tropical forests to climate change in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiler, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Kruijt, B.; Hickler, T.

    2015-01-01

    Bolivia's forests contribute to the global carbon and water cycle, as well as to global biodiversity. The survival of these forests may be at risk due to climate change. To explore the associated mechanisms and uncertainties, a regionally adapted dynamic vegetation model was implemented for the

  11. La producción de quinua en el sur de Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    In Bolivia, one of the world’s most important centres of plant domestication, there is growing awareness of the value of native Andean crops, both for domestic consumption and for market sale – notably the virtually boom-like consumer demand for quinoa around the world. The southern altiplano of ...

  12. Woodianthus, género nuevo de Malváceas de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen Woodianthus, nuevo género y W. Sotoi, nueva especie de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Se incluye una clave para mostrar la posición del nuevo género entre las tribus de las Malváceas

  13. Bolivia : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, North and Central America. Financement total : CA$ 999,700.00. Gouvernance démocratique dans la région andine : réformes politiques et institutionnelles et mouvements sociaux. Projet. Au cours des 15 dernières années, les pays andins, ...

  14. Impacts of Electricity Access to Rural Enterprises in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Annemarije; Clancy, Joy S.

    2010-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence to underpin strategies of poverty reduction through income generation in small scale rural enterprises through supplying energy. This paper reports on research findings from a three country study in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam which aimed to provide insights into

  15. Post-fire tree regeneration in lowland Bolivia: implications for fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. Gould; T.S. Fredericksen; F. Morales; D. Kennard; F.E. Putz; B. Mostacedo; M. Toldeo

    2002-01-01

    Tree regeneration was compared in burned and unburned portions of a tropical dry forest (1110 mm ppt/year) and a tropical humid forest (1542 mm ppt/year) in southeastern Bolivia. Both forests burned 5 years prior to our study, and both forests were also lightly selectively logged (intensity 3/ha)-the dry forest during the 1970 and 1980s...

  16. Bolivia | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Control of natural resources has long been at the forefront of Bolivian political conflicts. Access to water has been an especially divisive issue. Rural users ... Improved economic development planning. Decentralization in Bolivia has given municipalities greater responsibility for economic development. From 2002 to 2007, ...

  17. Transforming Pre-Service Teacher Education in Bolivia: From Indigenous Denial to Decolonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2012-01-01

    In line with a broader Latin American turn to the left, since 2006 Bolivia's "politics of change" of president Evo Morales includes a new "decolonising" education reform called "Avelino Sinani Elizardo Perez" (ASEP). With the aim to break down deep historical processes of indigenous denial and exclusion in education,…

  18. Emergence and clonal dissemination of carbapenem-hydrolysing OXA-58-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Elena; Fernández, Elena; Bustamante, Zulema; Zabalaga, Silvia; Rosales, Ikerne; Umaran, Adelaida; Gallego, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen and very little information is available regarding its imipenem resistance in Latin American countries such as Bolivia. This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile of 46 clinical strains from different hospitals in Cochabamba, Bolivia, from March 2008 to July 2009, and the presence of carbapenemases as a mechanism of resistance to imipenem. Isolates were obtained from 46 patients (one isolate per patient; 30 males,16 females) with an age range of 1 day to 84 years, and were collected from different sample types, the majority from respiratory tract infections (17) and wounds (13). Resistance to imipenem was detected in 15 isolates collected from different hospitals of the city. These isolates grouped into the same genotype, named A, and were resistant to all antibiotics tested including imipenem, with susceptibility only to colistin. Experiments to detect carbapenemases revealed the presence of the OXA-58 carbapenemase. Further analysis revealed the location of the bla(OXA-58) gene on a 40 kb plasmid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii isolates from Bolivia that is conferred by the OXA-58 carbapenemase. The presence of this gene in a multidrug-resistant clone and its location within a plasmid is of great concern with regard to the spread of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in the hospital environment in Bolivia.

  19. Meringodes Wappes and Lingafelter (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae), a new genus of Rhopalophorini from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringodes Wappes and Lingafelter, a monotypic new genus of Rhopalophorini, is described from Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Meringodes is most similar to Disaulax Audinet-Serville, although it also possesses characters of Thalusia Thomson and Cosmisoma Audinet-Serville. A diagnosis and descripti...

  20. Schooling and Critical Citizenship: Pedagogies of Political Agency in El Alto, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Sian

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the formation of citizenship as social practice in a school in El Alto, Bolivia. I examine interactions between "banking" forms of education, students' responses, and embodied practices of belonging and political agency, and argue that the seemingly passive forms of knowledge transmission so criticized by critical…

  1. New species of Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Graphocaeciliini) from Bolivia and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Stephania Sandoval; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García

    2017-03-20

    The genus Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan presently includes nine species, all described when the genus was erected; since then, no other species have been discovered. Here, we describe and illustrate one Bolivian and three Mexican species. This is the first record of Prolachesilla from Bolivia. A key to the species of the genus is included.

  2. A new genus and three new species of Pangoniini (Diptera: Tabanidae from Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Chainey

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Boliviamyia gen. nov. and it’s type species fairchildi sp. nov. are described. Two new species of Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia, griseipleura sp. nov. and gracilipalpis sp. nov. are described. Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia planaltina Fairchild is recorded from Bolivia.

  3. Transformative Teachers or Teachers to Be Transformed? The Cases of Bolivia and Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ritesh; Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Applying the Strategic Relational Approach, this paper analyses the circumstances behind and educators' strategies in response to education reforms in two nation-states undergoing socio-political transformation--Bolivia and Timor-Leste. Despite the starkly different histories and contemporary context of each nation, we suggest that transformation…

  4. Education Reform, Indigenous Politics, and Decolonisation in the Bolivia of Evo Morales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rosaleen

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between education reform and Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) for Bolivia's majority indigenous peoples, as this has evolved since the 1990s into the era of Evo Morales, Latin America's first indigenous president, elected in 2005. In order to bring out the significance of the new Education Bill awaiting…

  5. The emergence, growth and decline of political priority for newborn survival in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2014-12-01

    Bolivia is expected to achieve United Nations Millennium Development Goal Four, reducing under-five child mortality by two-thirds between 2021 and 2025. However, progress on child mortality reduction masks a disproportionately slow decline in newborn deaths during the 2000s. Bolivia's neonatal mortality problem emerged on the policy agenda in the mid-1990s and grew through 2004 in relationship to political commitments to international development goals and the support of a strong policy network. Network status declined later in the decade. This study draws upon a framework for analysing determinants of political priority for global health initiatives to understand the trajectory of newborn survival policy in Bolivia from the early 1990s. A process-tracing case study methodology is used, informed by interviews with 26 individuals with close knowledge of newborn survival policy in the country and extensive document analysis. The case of newborn survival in Bolivia highlights the significance of political commitments to international development goals, health policy network characteristics (cohesion, composition, status and key actor support) and political transitions and instability in shaping agenda status, especially decline-an understudied phenomenon considering the transitory nature of policy priorities. The study suggests that the sustainability of issue attention therefore become a focal point for health policy networks and analyses. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  6. Digital Inclusion of Secondary Schools' Subject Teachers in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Iskra; Fabre, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The government of Bolivia planned to introduce information technology in secondary education through establishing computer labs in schools and through granting each subject teacher a laptop. This initiative was tested for the first time in 2012 with three public schools in La Paz. Most of the subject teachers have never used a computer before. The…

  7. Morfología y biología de los estados inmaduros de Marilia cinerea y M. elongata, con redescripción del macho adulto de M. cinerea (Trichoptera: Odontoceridae Morphology and biology of the immature stages of Marilia cinerea and M. elongata, with redescriptions of adult male of M. cinerea (Trichoptera: Odontoceridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. Rueda Martín

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La fauna de Trichoptera de Las Yungas del noroeste de Argentina y sur de Bolivia es poco conocida en la actualidad. De las aproximadamente 30 especies Neotropicales para el género Marilia Muller, sólo se han podido asociar a sus respectivos adultos los estados preimaginales de cuatro especies, a pesar de su importancia ecológica y de ser éstos los estados más conspicuos y abundantes. En el presente trabajo se redescribe e ilustra la genitalia del macho adulto de M. cinerea Navás. Se usó el método del metamorfotipo y se realizaron las asociaciones de los estados inmaduros de M. cinerea y M. elongata Martynov, se incluyen descripciones, ilustraciones y datos sobre hábitat y biología de los mismos. M. cinerea se cita por primera vez para Bolivia y nuevas localidades del noroeste de Argentina. M. elongata y M. flexulosa Ulmer se registraron por primera vez para el noroeste Argentino.The Trichoptera fauna from Las Yungas from northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia is poorly known. There are 30 Neotropical species in the genus MariliaMüller, but only in four the adults have been associated with the immature stages in spite of their abundance and ecological importance. In this study the male genitalia of M. cinerea Navás is re-described and illustrated to complete the original description. The immature stages of M. cinerea and M. elongata Martynov were associated using the metamorphotype method. Illustrations, descriptions and biological observations are included. M. cinerea is a new record for Bolivia and new localities in northwestern Argentina. M. elongata and M. flexulosa Ulmer were registered for the first time for northwestern Argentina.

  8. Morfología y biología de los estados inmaduros de Marilia cinerea y M. elongata, con redescripción del macho adulto de M. cinerea (Trichoptera: Odontoceridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. RUEDA MARTÍN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La fauna de Trichoptera de Las Yungas del noroeste de Argentina y sur de Bolivia es poco conocida en la actualidad. De las aproximadamente 30 especies Neotropicales para el género Marilia Muller, sólo se han podido asociar a sus respectivos adultos los estados preimaginales de cuatro especies, a pesar de su importancia ecológica y de ser éstos los estados más conspicuos y abundantes. En el presente trabajo se redescribe e ilustra la genitalia del macho adulto de M. cinerea Navás. Se usó el método del metamorfotipo y se realizaron las asociaciones de los estados inmaduros de M. cinerea y M. elongata Martynov, se incluyen descripciones, ilustraciones y datos sobre hábitat y biología de los mismos. M. cinerea se cita por primera vez para Bolivia y nuevas localidades del noroeste de Argentina. M. elongata y M. flexulosa Ulmer se registraron por primera vez para el noroeste Argentino.

  9. Petrological imaging of an active pluton beneath Cerro Uturuncu, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Duncan D.; Blundy, Jon D.; Hutchinson, Michael C.; Rust, Alison C.

    2014-03-01

    Uturuncu is a dormant volcano in the Altiplano of SW Bolivia. A present day ~70 km diameter interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) anomaly roughly centred on Uturuncu's edifice is believed to be a result of magma intrusion into an active crustal pluton. Past activity at the volcano, spanning 0.89 to 0.27 Ma, is exclusively effusive and almost all lavas and domes are dacitic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, biotite, ilmenite and Ti-magnetite plus or minus quartz, and microlites of plagioclase and orthopyroxene set in rhyolitic groundmass glass. Plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions (MI) are rhyolitic with major element compositions that are similar to groundmass glasses. H2O concentrations plotted versus incompatible elements for individual samples describe a trend typical of near-isobaric, volatile-saturated crystallisation. At 870 °C, the average magma temperature calculated from Fe-Ti oxides, the average H2O of 3.2 ± 0.7 wt% and CO2 typically biotite phenocrysts and apatite microlites. That Fe-Ti oxide temperatures vary by ~50-100 °C in a single thin section indicates that magmas were not homogenised effectively prior to eruption. Phenocryst contents do not correlate with calculated magmatic temperatures, consistent with crystal entrainment from the mush during magma ascent and eruption. Microlites grew during ascent from the magma storage region. Variability in the proportion of microlites is attributed to differing ascent and effusion rates with faster rates in general for lavas >0.5 Ma compared to those mineral compositions, and the presence of mafic enclaves in lavas demonstrate that intrusion of more mafic magmas into the evolving, shallow plutonic mush also occurred further amplifying local temperature fluctuations. Crystallisation and resorption of accessory phases, particularly ilmenite and apatite, can be detected in MI and groundmass glass trace element covariation trends, which are oblique to WRs. Marked variability of Ba, Sr

  10. Evolution of crustal thickening in the central Andes, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Nathan; McQuarrie, Nadine; Ryan, Jamie; Karimi, Bobak; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George

    2015-09-01

    Paleoelevation histories from the central Andes in Bolivia have suggested that the geodynamic evolution of the region has been punctuated by periods of large-scale lithospheric removal that drive rapid increases in elevation at the surface. Here, we evaluate viable times and locations of material loss using a map-view reconstruction of the Bolivian orocline displacement field to forward-model predicted crustal thicknesses. Two volumetric models are presented that test assumed pre-deformation crustal thicknesses of 35 km and 40 km. Both models predict that modern crustal thicknesses were achieved first in the northern Eastern Cordillera (EC) by 30-20 Ma but remained below modern in the southern EC until ≤10 Ma. The Altiplano is predicted to have achieved modern crustal thickness after 10 Ma but only with a pre-deformation thickness of 50 km, including 10 km of sediment. At the final stage, the models predict 8-25% regional excess crustal volume compared to modern thickness, largely concentrated in the northern EC. The excess predicted volume from 20 to 0 Ma can be accounted for by: 1) crustal flow to the WC and/or Peru, 2) localized removal of the lower crust, or 3) a combination of the two. Only models with initial crustal thicknesses >35 km predict excess volumes sufficient to account for potential crustal thickness deficits in Peru and allow for lower crustal loss. However, both initial thickness models predict that modern crustal thicknesses were achieved over the same time periods that paleoelevation histories indicate the development of modern elevations. Localized removal of lower crust is only necessary in the northern EC where crustal thickness exceeds modern by 20 Ma, prior to paleoelevation estimates of modern elevations by 15 Ma. In the Altiplano, crustal thicknesses match modern values at 10 Ma and can only exceed modern values by 5 Ma, post-dating when modern elevations were thought to have been established. Collectively, these models predict that

  11. How to Decolonize Democracy: Indigenous Governance Innovation in Bolivia and Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rice

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the successes, failures, and lessons learned from the innovative experiments in decolonization that are currently underway in Bolivia and Nunavut, Canada. Bolivia and Nunavut are the first large-scale tests of Indigenous governance in the Americas. In both cases, Indigenous peoples are a marginalized majority who have recently assumed power by way of democratic mechanisms. In Bolivia, the inclusion of direct, participatory, and communitarian elements into the democratic system, has dramatically improved representation for Indigenous peoples. In Nunavut, the Inuit have also opted to pursue self-determination through a public government system rather than through an Inuit-specific self-government arrangement. The Nunavut government seeks to incorporate Inuit values, beliefs, and worldviews into a Canadian system of government. In both cases, the conditions for success are far from ideal. Significant social, economic, and institutional problems continue to plague the new governments of Bolivia and Nunavut. Based on original research in Bolivia and Nunavut, the paper finds that important democratic gains have been made. I argue that the emergence of new mechanisms for Indigenous and popular participation has the potential to strengthen democracy by enhancing or stretching liberal democratic conceptions and expectations. Este artículo analiza los éxitos, fracasos y lecciones aprendidas de los innovadores experimentos de descolonización que se están llevando a cabo actualmente en Bolivia y Nunavut, Canadá. Bolivia y Nunavut son los primeros experimentos de gobernanza indígena a gran escala en las Américas. En ambos casos, los pueblos indígenas son mayorías marginadas que recientemente han asumido el poder por medio de mecanismos democráticos. En Bolivia, la inclusión de elementos directos, participativos y comunitarios en el sistema democrático ha mejorado dramáticamente la representación de los pueblos indígenas. En

  12. Libertad religiosa y Estado Constitucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Abad Yupanqui

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente articulo pretende examinar la evolución del debate constitucional sobre las relaciones Estado–Iglesia en nuestro pais, el actual diseno de estas relaciones a partir de lo dispuesto por el texto constitucional vigente y el Acuerdo suscrito con la Iglesia Catolica en julio de 1980, asi como los alcances de un proyecto de ley que pretende regular la libertad e igualdad religiosas. Asumiendo tal perspectiva recordaremos algunos antecedentes constitucionales que nos muestran por donde se ha encaminado el debate; y examinaremos los principios que orientan la relacion Iglesia-Estado, desde un enfoque de derechos fundamentales y en el marco de la indispensable afirmacion de un Estado Constitucional de Derecho. Ello es particularmente relevante en un pais como el nuestro en donde determinadas concepciones religiosas pretenden establecerse como unico parametro para la adopcion de aquellas politicas publicas respecto a las cuales la Iglesia tiene una posicion definida.

  13. Reflexiones sobre los efectos del cambio climático en la agricultura de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura es altamente dependiente del clima, y los impactos del cambio climático se sentirán más en los países del Sur, agravando los problemas existentes de degradación de suelos y falta de agua. Las familias de agricultores de escasos recursos particularmente, se verán afectados por las pérdidas de sus cultivos y la posible erosión de su agrobiodiversidad. Esto se agravará porque no cuentan con recursos económicos y tecnologías adecuadas para adaptarse a las consecuencias de los efectos del cambio climático. Los efectos del cambio climático manifestados como el cambio de temperatura, mayor incidencia de sequía, helada, granizo y otros fenómenos naturales, tienen un impacto directo sobre los niveles de producción y rendimiento de los cultivos. El fenómeno niño/niña agudizó por ejemplo la sequía en el oriente boliviano, causando en el presente año dramáticos cambios en la agricultura de Santa Cruz, así en la soya de 290.000 ha sembradas en el año 2015, este año bajo la siembra a 40.000 ha, con una reducción de la superficie cultivada de 276.2%; asimismo hubo efectos catastróficos a nivel de rendimiento, ya que de 2.5 t/ha producidas, bajo a 1.5 t/ha. Similar situación ocurre con el sorgo, el trigo, el maíz, el arroz, el girasol y la chía; y lo mismo está pasando con cultivos de seguridad alimentaria, como la papa, la quinua y las hortalizas en el occidente boliviano. Esto obligará a que el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, tenga que posiblemente pensar en importar estos productos para el consumo de la población boliviana, porque sus efectos recién se sentirán en el año 2017. Es notorio el hecho que también habrá un impacto indirecto, ya que el ciclo de los cultivos resulta ser afectado por otros factores, como la proliferación de enfermedades y plagas; así como los cambios en la composición de los suelos, lo que implica que abra pérdida de microorganismos benéficos y menor contenido de materia org

  14. In the Name of the People: Democratization, Popular Organizations, and Populism in Venezuela, Bolivia, and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de la Torre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The regimes of Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales, and Rafael Correa undermine contestation while simultaneously increasing the material inclusion of the poor and the excluded. These regimes that are usually lumped together show distinct patterns in fostering participation. Whereas in Ecuador participation is reduced to voting in elections, participatory institutions were created in Venezuela and Bolivia. And whereas mobilization in Bolivia comes mostly from the bottom up, in Venezuela and Ecuador it comes from the top-down. To compare their divergent patterns this paper analyses: 1 the strength of subaltern organizations when these leaders were elected; 2 the confrontation between governments and the oppositions; and 3 the views of democratization of the coalitions that brought these regimes to power.Resumen: En nombre del pueblo: democratización, organizaciones populares y populismo en Venezuela, Bolivia y EcuadorLos regímenes de Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales y Rafael Correa atentan en contra del pluralismo a la vez que incluyen materialmente a los pobres y a los excluidos. Estos regímenes que por lo general son aglutinados en un mismo saco tienen diferentes patrones para promover la participación política. Es así que mientras que en Ecuador la participación se reduce a votar en elecciones, en Venezuela y Bolivia se crearon instituciones participativas. Mientras que en Bolivia la participación viene en gran medida desde las bases, en Ecuador y Venezuela viene desde arriba hacia abajo. Para comparar los diferentes patrones este trabajo estudia: 1 la fuerza de organizaciones de los subalternos cuando estos líderes fueron electos; 2 la confrontación entre el gobierno y las oposiciones; 3 las visiones sobre democratización de las coaliciones que llevaron al poder a estos líderes.

  15. Estado vegetativo-alfa persistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Oliveira-Souza

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Após revisão sumária dos conceitos de «coma» e «coma-alfa», relatamos o caso de uma paciente com doença de Pick provável que, nos estágios terminais da doença, permaneceu várias semanas em estado vegetativo com EEG de vigília normal e reativo à fotoestimulação. Enfatizamos (a algumas das implicações do aspecto dos olhos nesses pacintes, (b a importância de distinguir a atividade alfa do ritmo alfa verdadeiro e (c sugerimos que a categoria «coma-alfa» inclua apenas aqueles com afecções do tegmento da junção pontomesencefálica, de qualquer natureza, reservando a designação «estado vegetativo-alfa» persistente para os que se encontrem em estado vegetativo e exibam EEG em virgília idêntico ao normal.

  16. DISCURSO HISTÓRICO, MITOS Y ENSEÑANZA DE LA HISTORIA. EL CASO DE LAS RELACIONES DE CHILE, CON BOLIVIA Y PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL ANTONIO BUSTOS GONZÁLEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo propone una reflexión en torno a la manera de enfrentar la Educación en Historia, a partir del nuevo contexto que ofrece la globalización y el nuevo rol del Estado-Nación. Particularmente se centra en análisis en la relación entre Bolivia, Chile y Perú. Se diferencia la función cumplida por la enseñanza de la historia ante el desafío de la formación de identidad nacional-basada en la alteridad-con la que actualmente promueve la unidad y complementación. Este objetivo se lograría a través de un doble cambio de énfasis, privilegiando el rol del alumno y la importancia de la metodología, por sobre el rol del profesor y la importancia del contenido. Finalmente se propone un trabajo adecuado de la técnica del debate como ejemplo concreto para perseguir estos resultados.

  17. The socioeconomic context of the use of Euterpe precatoria Mart. and E. oleracea Mart. in Bolivia and Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Bussmann, Rainer W; Macia, Manuel J

    2017-01-01

    .... In this paper we seek to identify socio-economic factors that are related to the knowledge and use of two palm species in mestizo and indigenous communities in the Amazonian of Peru and Bolivia...

  18. Characteristics of ten tropical hardwoods from certified forests in Bolivia. Part I, Weathering characteristics and dimensional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Regis Miller; John Gangstad

    2001-01-01

    Ten tropical hardwoods from Bolivia were evaluated for weathering performance (erosion rate, dimensional stability, warping, surface checking, and splitting). The wood species were Amburana cearensis (roble), Anadenanthera macrocarpa (curupau), Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon (jichituriqui), Astronium urundeuva (cuchi), Caesalpinia cf. pluviosa (momoqui), Diplotropis...

  19. Road stabilization and drainage improvements in North Potosi, Bolivia : improving access to markets, clinics, schools, and facilitating future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    In a remote and extremely impoverished region of southwestern Bolivia, the only road connecting five communities to the outside world has been historically washed out multiple times per year. With the support of TRANSNOW, the University of Washington...

  20. Harvesting the Past: The Social Mobilization of Bolivia’s Indigenous Peoples. Strategic Insights v4 n5 May 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Amaru in Peru and the Tupamaros in Uruguay. In Ecuador , indigenous groups played a significant role in the January 2000 coup d’etat. In Brazil...insurgency in Latin America. He has served in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador . The views expressed in this article are his own and do not reflect the U.S...Producers,” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 33, no. 1 (Spring 1991): 98. 26. Constitucion Politica de Bolivia 1967, Texto

  1. Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline: a study on the economic viability; Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil: um estudo sobre a viabilidade economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabiano Ionta Andrade; Almeida, Isaque da Silva [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the year of 2003 the Brazilian government, as form of to stimulate the demand for natural gas in the country and to promote the success of the investment accomplished in the construction of the pipe line Bolivia-Brazil, it lowered the price of the Bolivian commodity' in US$0,85/MMBTU. In the end of 2005 and mainly in 2006, the current Bolivian president Evo Morales nationalized the energy reservations of your country. To main change it is related to the price of sale of the Bolivian input. The values stipulated in contract they were broken and new negotiations are in process. The maximum capacity of transport of natural gas was reached in 2007. However, before the crisis established due to the measure taken by the government from Bolivia, Brazil suspended the investments in compressors and the projections of increase of this capacity were stagnated. One of the forecasts was to increase in at least more 50% of the current capacity or even in 100% in a more promising scenery. Before this context this research makes the analysis of economical viability regarding the construction of the pipe line Bolivia-Brazil in agreement with three sceneries. The first of them suggests that the investments foreseen in compressors it was stopped and, this way, the pipe line will operate it ties the end of the amortization with your current maximum capacity. The second scenery already suggests that the investments were not interrupted, in other words, the current maximum capacity was overcome in 50%. Similarly to the previous ones, the third scenery makes reference the overrun of the current capacity in 100%. The methodology used for such an analysis it was lent of the financial mathematics and it is treated of the calculation of TIR and of VPL. Both studies show that in agreement with TIR (15%) and VPL the economical viability is satisfactory. The president of PETROBRAS is renegotiating the contract and the investments will probably be retaken. This measured it seeks to

  2. Sífilis materna y congénita en cuatro provincias de Bolivia Maternal and congenital syphilis in four provinces in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Revollo; Freddy Tinajeros; Carolina Hilari; Sandra G García; Lourdes Zegarra; Claudia Díaz-Olavarrieta; Carlos J Conde-González

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Calcular las frecuencias de sífilis materna y congénita, transmisión del agente etiológico de la madre al recién nacido, y variables asociadas con la enfermedad, en seis hospitales públicos en Bolivia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal de mayo a septiembre de 2004. Se administró la prueba rápida para sífilis Determine-TP y RPR cuantitativo a mujeres postparto sin RPR previo. Se incluyeron antecedentes demográficos y de atención prenatal de embarazos previos. A lo...

  3. Descentralización, Poderes Locales y Participación Social en Educación en Bolivia. Los Casos de Tarabuco y La Paz (1997-2003. Decentralization, Local Powers and Social Participation in Education in Bolivia: The Cases of Tarabuco and La Paz (1997-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Yapu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde la Declaración de ministros de educación de países iberoamericanos en Santa Fe de Bogotá, 4-6 de noviembre de 1992, la descentralización educativa ha sido un tema recurrente de las reformas educativas en los países iberoamericanos, donde en algunos de ellos las experiencias de descentralización antecedieron a esta Declaración y en otros fueron posteriores. Las reformas educativas desarrolladas en los últimos años asociaron la descentralización educativa a la participación social y la mejora de la calidad educativa, entre otros temas. Este artículo aborda precisamente estos aspectos, interrogándose sobre qué tipo de descentralización estaría vigente en Bolivia, cuáles serían sus características en cuanto a la participación social y cómo estaría incidiendo en la calidad educativa. Se ha optado por un enfoque de análisis de las micropolíticas y de las prácticas sociales de los actores, apoyándose metodológicamente en dos estudios de caso: La Paz y Tarabuco (Bolivia. El artículo sugiere que tanto las políticas de descentralización educativa como los enfoques teóricos de análisis desde las ciencias sociales han avanzado poco en explicar el fenómeno de las relaciones sociales de poder a nivel local que afecta a la naturaleza de cualquier proceso de descentralización, porque en los poderes centrales del Estado persiste una hegemonía del enfoque gerencialista y una visión esencialmente burocrática de la educación. Since the Declaration of ministers of education of iberoamerican countries held in Santa Fe de Bogotá, November 4-6, 1992, the decentralization of education has been a recurrent subject of educational reforms in Latin American countries, where in some of them the experiences of decentralization have preceded said Declaration while in others they have followed it. The educational reforms that have come about within the last years associate the decentralization of education with social participation

  4. BOLIVIA IN 1904. WHY DO THEY SIGN THE TREATY WITH CHILE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORETO CORREA VERA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates that Bolivia - despite the negotiations of 1895 and all the recent rhetoric - was not worried of the effective recovery of the coast until long after the signing of the 1904 Treaty, instead of that, the presidency of Ismael Montes and the rise of Liberals in the Bolivian state, prioritized the modernization of the country and the search for ways to get the production of tin at any cost, at that time, the main wealth of Bolivia. This text has the purpose of explaining –as a witness of the time-, what were the reasons that the Bolivian authorities wielded before their people to sign the Treaty of Peace with Chile. Following that logic and notwithstanding all the recent literature, it seems appropriate to go beyond the subjective line of interpretation to establish the sayings of the main actors.

  5. Cuba y Bolivia: dos procesos distintos, ¿una sola revolución verdadera?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Salazar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article claims that the Bolivian revolutionary process of 2000-2005 did not follow on the steps of the Cuban Revolution's strategy. The sheer strength and autonomy of its social mobilization, the absence of a maximum leader, and the meshing of democratic elections with mass mobilization have given a turn of the screw on revolutionary strategy in Latin America, producing stable majorities through a lock-in process, whose ultimate outcome has not been the assault on state power. The emergence of a dictator and a unique party in Cuba, and their absence in Bolivia, are explained by the size of their autonomous sociabilities: very large in Bolivia, and very weak in Cuba.

  6. [Adult mortality among indigenous and non-indigenous populations of Guatemala and Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, A

    1996-12-01

    "Use of the maternal orphanhood method permits comparison of adult female mortality levels between indigenous and non-indigenous population [in Guatemala and Bolivia].... Results show that in both countries adult female mortality is higher for the indigenous population. Comparison with infant mortality levels reveals differences in the mortality patterns between the two ethnic groups. In Guatemala--where estimates are more consistent--comparisons across time reveal a more rapid descent for infant than for adult mortality. As a consequence, differences in levels of adult mortality between indigenous and non-indigenous populations are higher than differences in infant mortality. In Bolivia estimates are not as consistent as in Guatemala." This paper was originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. (EXCERPT)

  7. Anticuerpos contra Trichinella spiralis en la población rural de la provincia Cordillera, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bartoloni

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico para determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Trichinella spiralis en el área rural de la provincia Cordillera del Departamento de Santa Cruz en Bolivia. Se examinaron 234 muestras de suero mediante el ensayo de inmunoabsorción enzimática (ELISA y se detectaron los anticuerpos en siete muestras (3%. Los resultados documentan por primera vez la presencia de infestación humana por Trichinella en Bolivia y sugieren la necesidad de fortalecer la vigilancia sanitaria de la triquinosis en los mataderos municipales, impedir la faena clandestina de animales y, sobre todo, lograr que los productores y pobladores tomen conciencia de los peligros de esta zoonosis.

  8. Una base impermeabilizante de los populismos: Bolivia y su historia reciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Pinto Ocampo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la idea de la presencia de líderes populistas exitosos en Bolivia en años recientes. Desarrolla la idea de que en Bolivia no hay incentivos estructurales para que se desarrolle un líder populista debido al hecho de que los populistas no crecen en un contexto de extrema organización popular independiente. En la primera parte presenta una discusión sobre el marco teórico de la noción de populismo y de la definición del autor; la segunda parte presenta el caso del populismo boliviano analizando los elementos históricos que contribuyen a la ausencia del mismo hoy (especialmente el tipo de

  9. Energy on the public agenda: changes in Bolivia with impact on adjoining countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ceppi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the rise of the energy issue in the relations of Bolivia with Argentina and Brazil during the first decade of the twenty first century from a comparative viewpoint. In this context, the nationalization of Bolivian hydrocarbons decreed by Evo Morales on 1 May 2006 became a central point of the analysis in that it became a target and a political tool of the Movement for Socialism party (MAS. It proposes to investigate, on the one hand, the actions derived from this Decree within Bolivia and, on the other, the similarities and differences that have arisen in the negotiation processes and their results in the Argentine-Bolivian and Bolivian-Brazilian ties.

  10. Derrick Hindery. From Enron to Evo. Pipeline Politics, Global Environmentalism, and Indigenous Rights in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Arana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From Enron to Evo is a long-term study of Enron and Shell’s construction of the Cuiabá pipeline in eastern Bolivia. The pipeline goes through the middle of the Chiquitano forest and affects a population of about 8,000. The project also has a negative impact on four critical ecoregions; the Gran Chaco and Cerrado, which are a mixture of grasslands and scattered trees, the Chiquitano dry forest, and the Pantanal wetlands. The Cuiabá pipeline has been highly contested by the thirty-four Chiquitano and two Ayoreo communities that live in the area. After years of field research, extensive interviews and document analyses, Dr. Hindery manages to expose the murky ways in which the hydrocarbon industry works in Bolivia. This is an industry where the powerful –mainly multinational oil companies and the Bolivian government– abuse the ecoregion and the indigenous populations that live on it.

  11. Forty years of USAID health cooperation in Bolivia. A lose-lose game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Herland; Closon, Marie-Christine; Paepe, Pierre De; Darras, Christian; Dessel, Patrick Van; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The present article proposes an analysis of the USA-Bolivia relationships in the health sector between 1971 and 2010 based on a grey and scientific literature review and on interviews. We examined United States Agency for International Development (USAID) interventions, objectives, consistency with Bolivian needs, and impact on health system integration. USAID operational objectives--decentralization, fertility and disease control, and maternal and child health--may have worked against each other while competing for limited Ministry of Health resources. They largely contributed to the segmentation and fragmentation of the Bolivian health system. US cooperation in health did not significantly improve health status while the USAID failed to properly tackle anti-drugs, political, and economic US interests in Bolivia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Possible health effects of living in proximity to mining sites near Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Sara; Das, Riva; Strosnider, William H J; Wilson, Robin Taylor

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the health effects of living downstream from mines in the Potosí region of Bolivia. Histories, physical examinations, and urinalyses were completed on adults recruited from mining and nonmining villages in Bolivia. Blood concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined in a subset of participants. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Mining region participants had significantly higher frequencies of hypertension, hematuria, and ketonuria. Hematuria was significantly elevated among those watering livestock downstream from mines and eating grains from their own farm (odds ratio = 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 17.7). Significantly higher blood concentrations of Pb were observed in a subsample of participants with hematuria (4.80 μg/dL vs 10.91 μg/dL; P = 0.026). Efforts to abate environmental exposure to toxic metals seem warranted.

  13. Deforestación en Bolivia: una aproximación espacial

    OpenAIRE

    Leguía, Jaime Daniel; Villegas, Horacio; Aliaga, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Este documento presenta evidencias de que las características ambientales, la infraestructura vial, los derechos propietarios y los aspectos demográficos son determinantes de la deforestación en Bolivia. Para ello se realizaron estimaciones por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, y posteriormente se comprobó la existencia de interdependencia entre las regiones examinadas, estimándose en este último caso un modelo espacial de retardos.

  14. Bolivia’s Left Turn Toward Rentier Plurinationalism And Its Effects On Ethnic Tensions And Solidarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    with Latin America ...................................43 x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xi LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Maternal and Infant... Latin America POR Revolutionary Workers’ Party / Partido Obrero Revolucionario RADEPA Reason for Homeland / Razon de Patria TCO Communal Lands of...Bolivia after the ‘Left Turn’: The Case of Oil Exploration in the North of La Paz Department,” Journal of Latin American Geography 11, no. 2 (2010

  15. Women's empowerment and education in Quechua communities in Villa Charcas, Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Rocìo Azurduy

    2012-01-01

    Education and empowerment are two concepts that are interwoven in the rhetoric of development. The main argument is that education leads to empowerment, enabling people to take control over their own lives. This research study explores people’s perception of education in Villa Charcas a Municipality located in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Moreover it seeks to find out if the gender equity transverse of the Bolivian Education Reform (ERL) of 1994 has had impact on women’s empowerment in...

  16. Women's empowerment and education in Quechua communities in Villa Charcas, Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Rocìo Azurduy

    2012-01-01

    Master thesis in development management- University of Agder, 2012 Education and empowerment are two concepts that are interwoven in the rhetoric of development. The main argument is that education leads to empowerment, enabling people to take control over their own lives. This research study explores people’s perception of education in Villa Charcas a Municipality located in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Moreover it seeks to find out if the gender equity transverse of the Bolivian Educ...

  17. Evaluación de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Martínez; Manuel Olivera; Carmen Quiroga; Isabel Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Since 1996 to 2003, we realized an inventory and obtained data on the natural history, trophic guilds and mi- gration patterns of the avifauna of La Paz (Bolivia), based on direct observation, random walks and captures with mist nets. A total of 136 species of birds in 30 localities of study were registered. Tyrannids, Emberizids and Furnariids were the families most representatives with 19, 16 and 15 species, respectively. Eighteen species of waterbirds and two species of passerine rush (cal...

  18. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 343–356. 22. Weissenbacher MC, Cura E, Segura EL, Hortal M, Baek LJ...et al. (1996) Serological evidence of human Hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 23. Pini N (2004...Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires) 62: 1–8. 26. Simonsen L

  19. Parasitological diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania b. braziliensis in Bolivia

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    Laure Dimier-David

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological diagnosis, using staned smears, culture and pathological examination of biopsy, was studied in 146 patients infected with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, in Bolivia and Peru. The most efficient parasite detecting technique appeared to be the smear examination in cutaneous lesions (33 % positive and the pathology in case of mucous lesions (28 % positive. In both, cutaneous and mucous lesions, the parasites were found most frequently in old lesions.

  20. Prevalence of Leishmania spp. infection in domestic dogs in Chapare, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, Rudy; Rojas, Ernesto; Delgado, Raúl; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Reithinger, Richard; Garcia, Ana Lineth

    2011-04-19

    Data on Leishmania spp. infection in dogs in Bolivia is scarce. Dogs from an area where 90% of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases are due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were screened for Leishmania infection using established enzyme-linked immunosorbent antibody test (ELISA) protocols. Although none of the 51 dogs surveyed had clinical lesions indicative of CL, 6 out of 51 (11.8%) sampled dogs tested positive by ELISA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. La "media luna" sobre Bolivia: nación, región y clase social

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    Willem ASSIES

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante los últimos años, se ha visto una serie de convulsiones sociales en Bolivia. Un aspecto de estas dificultades fue la aparición de discursos nacionalistas y regionalistas, los cuales dividían la parte oriental de la parte occidental del país, y al revés. Dichos discursos se han caracterizado por sus fuertes matices étnicos y acentuaban por un lado la identidad camba y por otro la identidad colla. No obstante, tales discursos tienen raíces muy distintas y reflejan proyectos y relaciones de clase muy diferentes. Partiendo de la metáfora de la «nevera al revés» (la nevera que genera calor hacia dentro y frío hacia afuera, este artículo busca elucidar la interrelación entre la política nacionalista/regionalista, la etnia y la clase social en la Bolivia contemporánea.ABSTRACT: Over the past years Bolivia has seen a series of «social convulsions». One aspect of these upheavals was the emergence of nationalist and regionalist discourses pitting the orient against the occident of the country, and vice versa. Such discourses were marked by strong ethnic overtones, accentuating either camba or colla identities. Nevertheless, such identity discourses have very different roots and reflect very different projects and class relations. Taking a lead from the «inverted fridge» metaphor –the fridge that generates warmth towards the «inside(r» and cold towards the «outside(r»– this paper seeks to elucidate the interrelation between the politics of nationalism/regionalism, ethnicity and class in contemporary Bolivia.

  2. The quinoa boom in Southern Altiplano of Bolivia : Agrarian transformations, discourses and socio-environmental tensions

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Pak, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) production began in the 1980s in the Southern Highlands of Bolivia. It has generated transformations in the agrarian system of the region questioning the production sustainability. The low quinoa yields experienced by quinoa producers within indigenous communities is a major issue for the different actors of the production chain, scientists, development institutions and policy makers. Today, they mainly attribute it to soil degradation. Consens...

  3. [Telemedicine in Bolivia: RAFT-Altiplano project, experiences, future prospects, and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Alejandro; Ugalde, Miguel; Vargas, Reynaldo; Narvaez, Ramiro; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the RAFT-Altiplano project (RAFT: Réseau en Afrique Francophone pour la Télémédecine, or African Francophone Telemedicine Network) is to evaluate the viability, potential, and risks of implementing and developing a telemedicine network in the context of a developing country-specifically, the Altiplano region of Bolivia-to improve access to medical care and continuing education in a rural area. The activities described in this report took place between 2011 and 2013. Digital telemedicine equipment was donated to the health centers and a Microsoft®-based platform capable of integration with other technologies (using standardized formats) was developed to manage documents and clinical content electronically. Health professionals were trained in teleconsultation and the teleconsultation workflow was designed. The tele-education system used is Dudal, which requires only a small bandwidth. After three years of implementation, an organized working structure of teleconsultation and tele-education tools, adapted to the Latin American context, is now in place and connections have been established with hospitals, institutions, and health centers. The project has improved access to specialized medical care in remote health centers and third-level hospitals in urban areas, and it has become the foundation for development of the national project "TeleSalud for Bolivia" promoted by the Ministry of Health, which involves use of the new Bolivian satellite, Túpac Katari. It is viable to develop and set up telemedicine tools to serve the population in remote regions of Bolivia when they are made available to government and municipal health institutions and communication between them and the health centers takes place in a coordinated manner. The sharing of experiences, challenges, and risks encountered is very useful in designing and implementing the telemedicine project "TeleSalud for Bolivia" on a national scale.

  4. Where are the NGOs and why? The distribution of health and development NGOs in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, Lindsay P; Corbett, Kitty K; Zeng, Leilei

    2012-11-23

    The presence and influence of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the landscape of global health and development have dramatically increased over the past several decades. The distribution of NGO activity and the ways in which contextual factors influence the distribution of NGO activity across geographies merit study. This paper explores the distribution of NGO activity, using Bolivia as a case study, and identifies local factors that are related to the distribution of NGO activity across municipalities in Bolivia. The research question is addressed using a geographic information system (GIS) and multiple regression analyses of count data. We used count data of the total number of NGO projects across Bolivian municipalities to measure NGO activity both in general and in the health sector specifically and national census data for explanatory variables of interest. This study provides one of the first empirical analyses exploring factors related to the distribution of NGO activity at the national scale. Our analyses show that NGO activity in Bolivia, both in general and health-sector specific, is distributed unevenly across the country. Results indicate that NGO activity is related to population size, extent of urbanization, size of the indigenous population, and health system coverage. Results for NGO activity in general and health-sector specific NGO activity were similar. The uneven distribution of NGO activity may suggest a lack of co-ordination among NGOs working in Bolivia as well as a lack of co-ordination among NGO funders. Co-ordination of NGO activity is most needed in regions characterized by high NGO activity in order to avoid duplication of services and programmes and inefficient use of limited resources. Our findings also indicate that neither general nor health specific NGO activity is related to population need, when defined as population health status or education level or poverty levels. Considering these results we discuss broader implications

  5. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Hynes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

  6. Evaluation of GCMs Historical Simulations of Monthly and Seasonal Climatology over Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Abadi Kamarei, A.; Oglesby, R. J.; Rowe, C. M.; Mawalagedara, R.

    2015-12-01

    Bolivia is one of the developing countries in South America with the potential of agricultural development, land use change, and industrialization in the future. It has been shown by past studies that this region is one of the most vulnerable areas in getting adapted to the climate change in South America. Due to the heterogeneity in topography in Bolivia, it is difficult to capture future impacts of the climate change with the coarse resolution of current GCMs. In order to represent these changes at a more appropriate scale, downscaled simulations using different GCMs are required. Prior to downscaling, evaluation of the GCMs is a necessary step to take to ensure physically meaningful results. This is the first part of the broader project on evaluating climate impacts on Bolivia. This evaluation has been done using climate variables including precipitation, temperature and wind and pressure components to assess climate patterns of the region. Climate processes such as the annual, seasonal and monthly positions of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), Bolivian High, Chaco Low and South American Low Level Jet (SALLJ) have been analyzed. Eight GCMs have been employed in this evaluation, those which have generated the climate patterns of South America closer to reality in the past different case studies. The result of this research will improve the accuracy of further regional downscaling outputs.

  7. Una base impermeabilizante de los populismos: Bolivia y su historia reciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Pinto Ocampo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la idea de la presencia de líderes populistas exitosos en Bolivia en años recientes. Desarrolla la idea de que en Bolivia no hay incentivos estructurales para que se desarrolle un líder populista debido al hecho de que los populistas no crecen en un contexto de extrema organización popular independiente. En la primera parte presenta una discusión sobre el marco teórico de la noción de populismo y de la definición del autor; la segunda parte presenta el caso del populismo boliviano analizando los elementos históricos que contribuyen a la ausencia del mismo hoy (especialmente el tipo de gobernability y el tipo de inclusión y el mecanismo que evita que Bolivia tenga un líder populista con presencia en un sector de la sociedad fuertemente organizado

  8. Trypanocidal activity of Brazilian plants against epimastigote forms from Y and Bolivia strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tomé Alves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the main public health problems in Latin America. Since the available treatments for this disease are not effective in providing cure, the screening of potential antiprotozoal agents is essential, mainly of those obtained from natural sources. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of the trypanocidal activity of 92 ethanol extracts from species belonging to the families Annonaceae, Apiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Verbenaceae against the Y and Bolivia strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Additionally, cytotoxic activity on LLCMK2 fibroblasts was evaluated. Both the trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated using the MTT method, in the following concentrations: 500, 350, 250, and 100 µg/mL. Benznidazole was used for positive control. The best results among the 92 samples evaluated were obtained with ethanol extracts of Ocotea paranapiacabensis (Am93 and Aegiphila lhotzkiana (Am160. Am93 showed trypanocidal activity against epimastigote forms of the Bolivia strain and was moderately toxic to LLCMK2 cells, its Selectivity Index (SI being 14.56, while Am160 showed moderate trypanocidal activity against the Bolivia strain and moderate toxicicity, its SI being equal to 1.15. The screening of Brazilian plants has indicated the potential effect of ethanol extracts obtained from Ocotea paranapiacabensis and Aegiphila lhotzkiana against Chagas disease.

  9. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangue, Julie; Roca Sanchez, Yelin; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Bessaud, Maël; Baronti, Cécile; Thirion-Perrier, Laurence; Mafayle, Roxana Loayza; Ardaya, Cinthia Avila; Aguilera, Gabriela Añez; Guzman, Jimmy Revollo; Riera, Javier Lora; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-02-24

    Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients.

  10. Indigenous traditional medicine and intercultural healthcare in Bolivia: a case study from the Potosi region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Maria Costanza; Hollenberg, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples have the worst socio-demographic indicators and the largest inequalities in terms of access to social services and health in the Latin American region, Bolivia included. In the last few years, attempts to implement policies that support indigenous people's health rights led to the development of intercultural health approaches. Yet, acceptance and integration of indigenous medicine into the biomedical health system presents a major challenge to intercultural health in Latin America. The objective of this article is to analyze the case of a health center in Tinguipaya, one of the first and few examples of intercultural health initiatives in Bolivia. This intercultural health project, which represents a pioneer experience with regard to the creation of intercultural health services in Bolivia, aims to create a network between local communities, traditional healers, and biomedical staff and offer a more culturally sensitive and holistic health service for indigenous people living in the area. The aim of this article is to critically assess this initiative and to analyze the main challenges met in the creation of a more effective intercultural health policy. The extent to which this initiative succeeded in promoting the integration between indigenous health practitioners and biomedical staff as well as in improving access to health care for local indigenous patients will also be examined.

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Yellow Fever in Bolivia from 1999 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronti, Cécile; Goitia, Norma Janeth Velasquez; Cook, Shelley; Roca, Yelin; Revollo, Jimmy; Flores, Jorge Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Yellow fever (YF) is a serious public health problem in Bolivia since at least the 19th century. Surprisingly, very limited information has been made available to date regarding the genetic characterisation and epidemiology of Bolivian YF virus (YFV) strains. Here, we conducted the genetic characterization of 12 human isolates of YFV collected in Bolivia between 1999 and 2008, by sequencing and analysis of two regions of the viral genome: a fragment encoding structural proteins “PrM” (premembrane and envelope) and a distal region “EMF,” spanning the end of the virus genome. Our study reveals a high genetic diversity of YFV strains circulating in Bolivia during the last decade: we identified not only “Peruvian-like” genotype II viruses (related to previously characterized Bolivian strains), but also, for the fist time, “Brazilian-like” genotype I viruses. During the complete period of the study, only cases of “jungle” YF were detected (i.e., circulation of YFV via a sylvatic cycle) with no cluster of urban cases. However, the very significant spread of the Aedes aegypti mosquito across Bolivian cities threatens the country with the reappearance of an urban YFV transmission cycle and thus is required a sustained epidemiological surveillance. PMID:20925524

  12. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babis, Deby

    2014-12-01

    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pertussis infections and vaccinations in Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico from 1980 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Colleen M; Czachor, John S

    2013-01-01

    Global coverage with three doses of the diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTP3) increased from less than 5% in 1974 to 82% in 2009 due to worldwide focus on universal vaccination. Nonetheless, pertussis remains the fifth-leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths. This study examines DTP3 vaccination from 1980 through 2009 in three countries within Latin America, Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico, selected for their distinct health care systems and vaccination strategies. Similar to global trends, these nations have achieved dramatic improvements in pertussis immunization. In Bolivia, immunization rates increased from 11% to 85%; in Brazil, rates increased from 37% to 97%; and in Mexico, the immunization rates increased from 44% to 72%. Pertussis infections have concomitantly decreased from 1980 to 2009. In Bolivia, cases decreased from 44.4 per 100,000 people to zero reported cases. In Brazil, the incidence decreased from 37.6 to 0.5 cases per 100,000. The incidence in Mexico decreased from 8.2 to 0.5 cases per 100,000. In order to increase vaccination rates further, health systems must continue to raise awareness about disease prevention, expand health surveillance systems, and improve access to health services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients at risk of drug resistance in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteserin, Johana; Camacho, Mirtha; Barrera, Lucía; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Ritacco, Viviana; Martin, Anandi

    2013-07-01

    Bolivia ranks among the 10 Latin American countries with the highest rates of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. In view of this, and of the lacking information on the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the country, we explored genotype associations with drug resistance and clustering by analyzing isolates collected in 2010 from 100 consecutive TB patients at risk of drug resistance in seven of the nine departments in which Bolivia is divided. Fourteen isolates were MDR, 29 had other drug resistance profiles, and 57 were pansusceptible. Spoligotype family distribution was: Haarlem 39.4%, LAM 26.3%, T 22.2%, S 2.0%, X 1.0%, orphan 9.1%, with very low intra-family diversity and absence of Beijing genotypes. We found 66 different MIRU-VNTR patterns; the most frequent corresponded to Multiple Locus Variable Analysis (MLVA) MtbC15 patterns 860, 372 and 873. Twelve clusters, each with identical MIRU-VNTR and spoligotypes, gathered 35 patients. We found no association of genotype with drug resistant or MDR-TB. Clustering associated with SIT 50 and the H3 subfamily to which it belongs (pBolivia. However, results should be taken cautiously because the sample is small and includes a particular subset of M. tuberculosis population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Marya; Demarco, Maria; Araneda, Juan Carlos; Cumsille, Francisco

    2015-05-15

    Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

  16. A historical case in the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline: slope on the Curriola River; Caso historico no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil: encosta no Rio Curriola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson Regis; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.593 kilometers since Rio Grande City in Bolivia until Canoas City, in south Brazil. The pipeline crosses a lot of types of geological fields and difficult topography. The south spread of the gas pipeline is the most interesting because of its hard topography combined with the variety of geological materials, such as, colluvium deposits and debris flow areas. Curriola River is located at the kilometer 408, north part of Parana State. In this area, the pipeline crosses slopes of 45 degrees of inclination. The down part of Curriola's slope is composed by a non-resistance material (clay and little rock blocks) with a high porosity. Every year, during the rainy seasons, tension cracks are observed evidencing the earth movement. The slope stability is above the minimum expected for pipeline operation. The aim of this paper is to present the site characterization of the Curriola River Slope, together with all the investigation made in order to supply the studies with condensed information for the slope stabilization. (author)

  17. A new species of Lentiella (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from Proechimys simonsi (Rodentia: Echimyidae in Bolivia Una especie nueva de Lentiella (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae de Proechimys (Rodentia: Echimyidae en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry R. Haverkost

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During a biodiversity survey of mammals and their parasites in the Beni, Bolivia in the summer of 2000, several spiny rats, Proechimys simonsi Thomas, 1900, were collected and examined for parasites. Herein we describe Lentiella lamothei n. sp. from one of these hosts. This species is can be distinguished from L. machadoi Rêgo, 1964 by having a greater total length but smaller maximum width, a greater number of segments, a smaller cirrus sac, a smaller scolex diameter, and in the eggs, a larger pyriform apparatus. In addition, we formally validate the genus Lentiella Rêgo, 1964, that had been placed in synonomy with Monoecocestus Beddard, 1914.Como parte del monitoreo de la biodiversidad de Bolivia, varias ratas espinosas (Proechimys simonsi Thomas, 1900 fueron examinadas en busca de parásitos durante el verano boreal del año 2000. En el presente trabajo se describe el céstodo Lentiella lamothei n. sp. recolectado en estos hospederos. Esta especie puede distinguirse de L. machadoi Rêgo, 1964 por tener una mayor longitud total pero menor ancho máximo, mayor número de proglótidos, bolsa del cirro más pequeña, escólex de menor diámetro, y un mayor aparato piriforme en los huevos. Además, se revalida formalmente al género Lentiella Rêgo, 1964, anteriormente sinonimizado con Monoecocestus Beddard, 1914.

  18. Sífilis materna y congénita en cuatro provincias de Bolivia Maternal and congenital syphilis in four provinces in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Revollo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Calcular las frecuencias de sífilis materna y congénita, transmisión del agente etiológico de la madre al recién nacido, y variables asociadas con la enfermedad, en seis hospitales públicos en Bolivia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal de mayo a septiembre de 2004. Se administró la prueba rápida para sífilis Determine-TP y RPR cuantitativo a mujeres postparto sin RPR previo. Se incluyeron antecedentes demográficos y de atención prenatal de embarazos previos. A los recién nacidos de madres con sífilis se les practicó Western Blot IgM p47 y ELISA IgM. Las pruebas serológicas se procesaron en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia (INLASA. Se realizó un análisis estadístico bivariado y multivariado para establecer asociaciones con el diagnóstico positivo a T. pallidum. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de sífilis entre 1 594 mujeres postparto fue de 7.2%, con una proporción de transmisión de infección de madres a recién nacidos de 15.7 por ciento. La prevalencia de sífilis congénita por serología fue de 1.1%; 94% de estos neonatos no presentaron sintomatología. A pesar de una cobertura de control prenatal de 70.5% en Bolivia, aún existen mujeres que acuden directamente al parto institucional sin contar con tamizaje previo para sífilis con pruebas de rutina. El bajo nivel de instrucción formal (OBJECTIVE: Assess frequencies of maternal and congenital syphilis, mother-child transmission and variables associated with syphilis in six urban hospitals in Bolivia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed between May and September 2004. We administered the Abbot Determine-TP rapid test and quantitative RPR to postpartum women without prior RPR. Sociodemographic variables and prior prenatal care visits were studied. Newborns of syphilis positive mothers were studied with Western Blot IgM p47 and ELISA IgM. Serum samples were analyzed at the Central Reference Laboratory (INLASA

  19. Guidelines for the Presentation of Clean Development Mechanism Projects in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, M.E.; Peres, A.; Jauregui, S.; Lorini, N.; Gonzales, J.; Sol Bagur, M. [National Climate Change Program, Clean Development Mechanism Office, La Paz (Bolivia)

    2004-03-01

    Bolivia ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1994 with its National Law Nr. 15761. The Kyoto Protocol (KP) was approved, and Bolivia ratified it through its National Law Nr. 1988 on 22nd July, 1999. The KP quantifies emission reductions of GHG for developed countries and countries with economies in transition (Annex I countries). The KP establishes that these reductions must be real, measurable, and long-term and that they should be achieved primarily through domestic efforts. However, the KP creates three flexibility mechanisms to mitigate climate change in a cost effective way: Joint Implementation allows claim credits for the emission reductions generated in projects between Annex I countries; GHG Emissions Trading allows the sale and purchase of emission certificates by Annex I countries; and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) contemplates to undertake projects of emissions reduction/offset of GHG in developing countries agreed that these projects support the sustainable development of host countries. The CDM gives Bolivia an opportunity to attract clean foreign investment to the forestry, energy, industrial and transport sectors as well as an entry channel to the GHG emission allowances market. To take advantage of these windows of opportunity, the National Climate Change Program established the National Clean Development Office (NCDMO) in March 2002. The NCDMO has, among its main purposes, the promotion, evaluation, operation and negotiation of climate change mitigation projects (in the CDM or in other schemes) in addition to the capacity building for social actors. The present guidelines define the criteria for submitting potential CDM projects to the Bolivian NCDMO, for the approval of the Designated National Authority (DNA), the Vice ministry for Natural Resources and the Environment, and their subsequent submission to the Executive Board of the CDM. This document has seven sections. The first three sections define the

  20. Health impact and economic analysis of NGO-supported neurosurgery in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Greene, Kevin R; Flores, Ivan; Capobianco, Fernando; Salas, Gueider; Uriona, Maria Ines; Weaver, John P; Moser, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Bolivia, one of the poorest countries in the world, ranks 108th on the 2013 Human Development Index. With approximately 1 neurosurgeon per 200,000 people, access to neurosurgery in Bolivia is a growing health concern. Furthermore, neurosurgery in nonindustrialized countries has been considered both cost-prohibitive and lacking in outcomes evaluation. A non-governmental organization (NGO) supports spinal procedures in Bolivia (Solidarity Bridge), and the authors sought to determine its impact and cost-effectiveness. In a retrospective review of prospectively collected data, 19 patients were identified prior to spinal instrumentation and followed over 12 months. For inclusion, patients required interviewing prior to surgery and during at least 2 follow-up visits. All causes of spinal pathology were included. Sixteen patients met inclusion criteria and were therefore part of the analysis. Outcomes measured included assessment of activities of daily living, pain, ambulation, return to work/school, and satisfaction. Cost-effectiveness was determined by cost-utility analysis. Utilities were derived using the Health Utilities Index. Complications were incorporated into an expected value decision tree. Median (± SD) preoperative satisfaction was 2.0 ± 0.3 (on a scale of 0-10), while 6-month postoperative satisfaction was 7 ± 1.4 (p Bolivia appears to be cost-effective, especially when compared with the conventional $50,000/QALY benchmark and the WHO endorsed country-specific threshold of $16,026/QALY. However, with a gross domestic product per capita in Bolivia equaling $4800 per year and 30.3% of the population living on less than $2 per day, this cost continues to appear unrealistic. Additionally, the study has several significant limitations, namely its limited sample size, follow-up period, the assumption that patients not receiving surgical intervention would not make any clinical improvement, the reliance on the NGO for patient selection and sustainable practices

  1. El Estado del bienestar postindustrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Toniolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflexión acerca de las repercusiones de la crisis económica ( 2007- en la esfera del Estado de Bienestar. Alberta Toniolo (Treviso, 1959 es profesora de Historia e Instituciones Económicas en la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. Ha participado en distintos proyectos de investigación tanto en Italia como en España acerca de los modelos de desarrollo pre-industrial e industrial en territorio italiano así como a nivel europeo. En la actualidad está inmersa en el estudio del surgimiento y consolidación de sistemas normativos complejos excluyentes en la Edad Moderna.

  2. Genetic structure and phylogeography of Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow-fever mosquito vector in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paupy, Christophe; Le Goff, Gilbert; Brengues, Cécile; Guerra, Mabel; Revollo, Jimmy; Barja Simon, Zaïra; Hervé, Jean-Pierre; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-08-01

    Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Africa, invaded the Americas, where it was successively responsible for the emergence of yellow fever (YF) and dengue (DEN). The species was eradicated from numerous American countries in the mid-20th century, but re-invaded them in the 1970s and 1980s. Little is known about the precise identities of Ae. aegypti populations which successively thrived in South America, or their relation with the epidemiological changes in patterns of YF and DEN. We examined these questions in Bolivia, where Ae. aegypti, eradicated in 1943, re-appeared in the 1980s. We assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. aegypti samples in order to deduce their genetic structure and likely geographic origin. Using a 21-population set covering Bolivia, we analyzed the polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (COI and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed a significant genetic structure among geographic populations (F(ST)=0.0627, PBolivia. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed the existence of two genetic lineages, one dominant lineage recovered throughout Bolivia, and the second restricted to rural localities in South Bolivia. Phylogenic analysis indicated that this minority lineage was related to West African Ae. aegypti specimens. In conclusion, our results suggested a temporal succession of Ae. aegypti populations in Bolivia, that potentially impacted the epidemiology of dengue and yellow fever. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Brote epidémico de denguevirus 2, genotipo Jamaica, en Bolivia Epidemic outbreak of dengue virus 2/subgroup Jamaica in Bolivia

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    Alberto Gianella

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Confirmar la presencia de brote de dengue en la ciudad de Santa Cruz, Bolivia, así como identificar el denguevirus causal, estimar la tasa de ataque y determinar la proporción de infecciones sintomáticas. Material y métodos. En marzo de 1997 se realizó una encuesta seroepidemiológica con muestreo aleatorio en un distrito céntrico de la ciudad. Se obtuvo información sobre episodios de enfermedad aguda, antecedentes de cuadro febril reciente y muestras de sangre venosa. Se determinó la presencia de IgM antidengue con el método MAC ELISA y se procedió a la tipificación del virus con tecnología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM en 6.5% de los adultos (IC95% 3.4-9.6 y 5.1% de los niños (IC 95% 2.0-8.2. El virus circulante fue identificado como dengue serotipo 2, genotipo Jamaica. Menos de la mitad de los niños infectados tuvieron una infección sintomática, contra casi 90% de los adultos. Conclusiones. La tasa de ataque estimada es compatible con una epidemia de dengue en Santa Cruz. La introducción del serotipo 2 - Jamaica en el país aumenta el riesgo de dengue hemorrágico.Objective. To confirm an epidemic outbreak of Dengue virus in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, and to determine the serotype of the virus, to estimate the rate of attack and the proportion of symptomatic infections. Material and methods. In March 1997, a seroepidemiological survey was conducted with random sampling in a central district of the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Information on recent acute illness and febrile episodes was gathered, and venous blood samples were obtained. Levels of antidengue IgM were determined by MAC Elisa and the virus was tipified with RT-PCR. Results. IgM antibodies were detected in 6.5% of adults (CI 95% 3.4-9.6 and 5.1% of children (CI 95% 2.0-8.2. Circulating virus was identified as Dengue serotype 2, subgroup Jamaica. Less than half of the infected children experienced

  4. ALGUNOS HONGOS MELIOLÁCEOS DEL ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO-BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miguel Vélez Zambrano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como propósito identificar y describir especies de Meliola (Meliolales/Ascomycetes/Ascomycota asociadas a plantas silvestres del Cerrado brasileño. Se analizaron muestras colectadas en la hacienda Pelicano del Parque Estatal Serra Ricardo Franco, situado en Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade en la frontera con Bolivia, y también en Barra do Garças, ambos sitios localizados en el Estado de Mato Grosso. A partir de la visualización de estructuras vegetativas y reproductivas de los hongos fueron montadas láminas de vidrio que contenían lactoglicerol y que fueron selladas con esmalte, para su posterior observación a través de microscopio estereoscópico y microscopio de luz. Se identificaron un total de 5 especies de Meliola, siendo estas M. alibertiae en Alibertia edulis, M. desmodii–laxiflori y M. stizolobii var. eriosematis en Desmodium spp., M. kernii en Casearia sp. Meliola voacangae en Aspidosperma nobile. Cada especie fue identificada basándose en la planta hospedera, morfología del ascoma, forma y dimensión de las ascosporas, ramificación de las hifas, distribución de los apresorios e hifopodios espermáticos en las hifas.

  5. Reconstructing paleo-precipitation amounts using a terrestrial hydrologic model: Lake Titicaca and the Salar de Uyuni, Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnery, J. A.; Baker, P. A.; Coe, M. T.; Fritz, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Peruvian/Bolivian Altiplano has provided many information-rich records bearing on the history of the South American summer monsoon (SASM), a large-scale circulation system that is responsible for much of the precipitation over the Amazon basin and the southern tropics and subtropics. Examples of these paleoclimate time series include long, drill core records from Lake Titicaca (extending back to ca. 400 Ka, Fritz et al., 2007), the long drill core record from Salar de Uyuni (> 250 Ka, Baker et al., 2001; Fritz et al., 2004), paleo-lake level records from the Salar de Uyuni (e.g. Bills et al., 2004; Placzek et al, 2006); drill core records from the Rio Desaguadero valley (Rigsby et al., 2003), and ice core records from Quelccaya, Illimani, and Sajama (Thompson et al., 2000; Ramirez et al., 2003). Several previous studies using energy and water balance models have been applied to these records in attempts to provide quantitative constraints on paleo-temperature and paleo-precipitation (e.g. Kessler, 1984; Hastenrath and Kutzbach, 1985; Cross et al, 2001; Rowe and Dunbar, 2004; Arnold, 2002; Blodgett et al., 1997). For example, Blodgett et al. concluded that high paleolake stands in the Bolivian Altiplano, dated at ca. 16,000 cal. Yr BP (Bills et al., 1994) required precipitation 20% higher than modern at temperatures 5°C colder than modern. However, their model did not take into account the major overflow from Lake Titicaca. Using the THMB hydrologic model, we show that overflow from Lake Titicaca is necessary to produce and sustain large lakes in the Salar de Uyuni basin. This hydrological connection (via the Rio Desaguadero) between the northern and southern Altiplano likely was only established about 60,000 years ago. Prior to that, there were no sustained, large and deep paleolakes on the southern Altiplano. Rather, drill core evidence indicates a very long sequence of shallow, hypersaline lakes and playas.

  6. First report of widespread wild populations of Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the valleys of La Paz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Rosio; Waleckx, Etienne; Bosseno, Marie-France; Zoveda, Faustine; Vidaurre, Pablo; Salas, Renata; Mamani, Elio; Noireau, François; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2010-04-01

    Wild populations of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in the Southern Cone countries, may be involved in reinfestation of human dwellings, limiting the success of vector-control campaigns in Bolivia. Knowledge of the distribution of these populations remains incomplete. We report here the detection of T. infestans wild populations in large areas in the department of La Paz, Bolivia. Among 18 sylvatic areas investigated, 17 were positive with T. infestans specimens. The infection rate of captured T. infestans with Trypanosoma cruzi was 85.7% in adult specimens. These results expand the geographical distribution of wild populations of T. infestans; it may be distributed throughout the Inter-Andean Dry Forest eco-region of Bolivia. The current information allows us to propose the hypothesis that a sylvatic origin of the reinfestation is located in the valleys of La Paz.

  7. First Report of Widespread Wild Populations of Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the Valleys of La Paz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Rosio; Waleckx, Etienne; Bosseno, Marie-France; Zoveda, Faustine; Vidaurre, Pablo; Salas, Renata; Mamani, Elio; Noireau, François; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2010-01-01

    Wild populations of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in the Southern Cone countries, may be involved in reinfestation of human dwellings, limiting the success of vector-control campaigns in Bolivia. Knowledge of the distribution of these populations remains incomplete. We report here the detection of T. infestans wild populations in large areas in the department of La Paz, Bolivia. Among 18 sylvatic areas investigated, 17 were positive with T. infestans specimens. The infection rate of captured T. infestans with Trypanosoma cruzi was 85.7% in adult specimens. These results expand the geographical distribution of wild populations of T. infestans; it may be distributed throughout the Inter-Andean Dry Forest eco-region of Bolivia. The current information allows us to propose the hypothesis that a sylvatic origin of the reinfestation is located in the valleys of La Paz. PMID:20348501

  8. Elaboration of sustainable capacity maps of Bolivia-Brazil pipeline; Elaboracao de cartas de capacidade sustentavel na area de influencia do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Gilberto L.S. [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Daitx, Elias C.; Rueda, Jairo J.R.; Caetano, Norton R. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Mattos, Juercio T. de [UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Arquitetura, Artes e Comunicacao

    2005-07-01

    The analysis of drainage net allows to identify features of relief symmetry and/or not symmetry and know its morpho structure (high and low structural). The interpretation of relief and drainage texture elements at Landsat/ETM7+ satellite images allows to identify the geo environmental zoning. The integration between morpho structural maps and geo environmental zones maps produces sustainable capacity maps. In the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline influence area, the evaluation of sustainable capacity shapes the interrelation among gas pipeline and physical environment and allows classify more geological and geotechnical favorable areas to gas pipeline maintenance. Gas pipeline regions located at 'High Sustainable Capacity' need few maintenance. However, gas pipeline regions at 'Low/Very Low Sustainable Capacity' need constant investment and monitoring. (author)

  9. hoteleras del Estado Nueva Esparta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisis Giménez Sifontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas hoteleras deben contar con modelos de costos para obtener información relevante en el proceso de toma de decisiones gerenciales; sin embargo, a través de estudio previo, aplicando un análisis univariante se determinó que las empresas hoteleras categorizadas del Estado Nueva Esparta se basan en un modelo inorgánico de costos. En este contexto, la presente investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar los factores que influyen en ese modelo para su proceso de toma de decisiones, para ello se realizó un diseño de campo y aplicó un análisis factorial exploratorio con el método de extracción de factores análisis de componentes principales concluyendo que entre los factores que lo explican se encuentran, el no manejar herramientas como: margen de contribución, costos estándares, margen de seguridad, apalancamiento operativo, contabilidad por área de responsabilidad, aspectos motivacionales y congruencias de metas.

  10. Without Distinguishing Color or Profession: Culture, Vatican II and the Long-Term Development of Credit Institutions in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Norris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By the late 20th and early 21st century, credit institutions in Bolivia had become more complex, resilient and popular that at any time previously in its history. Traditional economics analyses emphasize incentives created by laws such as those promulgated by the Kemmerer mission in Bolivia in the 1920s and 30s, or material factors, such as transportation costs. Yet neither of these explanations offers a compelling explanation for the magnitude of the flourishing of popular and complex credit institutions in Bolivia after the 1960s. Cultural changes, however, might offer a compelling complement to legal and material explanations of credit development. Vatican II represented an important mass change in Bolivian culture, and institutions associated with these reforms ushered in a new era of credit institution development in the country. A finales del siglo XX y comienzos del XXI, las instituciones crediticias en Bolivia se volvieron más complejas, elásticas y populares que en cualquier otro momento de su historia. Los análisis económicos tradicionales ponen de relieve los incentivos creados por leyes como las promulgadas por la misión Kemmerer en Bolivia en las décadas de 1920 y 1930, o factores materiales, tales como los costos de transporte. Con todo, ninguna de estas explicaciones ofrece una explicación convincente de la importancia del florecimiento de instituciones crediticias populares y complejas en Bolivia después de la década de 1960.  No obstante, los cambios culturales podrían ofrecer un complemento de peso a las explicaciones legales y materiales del desarrollo del crédito. El Concilio Vaticano II representa un importante cambio en la cultura boliviana, y las instituciones asociadas con sus reformas marcan el comienzo de una nueva era en el desarrollo de la institución crediticia en el país.

  11. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Zonneveld

    Full Text Available For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1 Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2 Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3 Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4 Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens. The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium. Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct

  12. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E.; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  13. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  14. Speciation of arsenic in bulk and rhizosphere soils from artisanal cooperative mines in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose A; Arocena, Joselito M; Faz, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Soils near artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) have high arsenic (As) contents due to the presence of arsenopyrite in gold ores and accelerated accumulations due to mine wastes disposal practices and other mining activities. We determined the content and speciation to understand the fate and environmental risks of As accumulations in 24 bulk and 12 rhizosphere soil samples collected in the Virgen Del Rosario and the Rayo Rojo cooperative mines in the highlands of Bolivia. Mean total As contents in bulk and rhizosphere soils ranged from 13 to 64 mg kg(-1) and exceeded the soil environmental quality guidelines of Canada. Rhizosphere soils always contained at least twice the As contents in the bulk soil. Elemental mapping using 4×5 μm synchrotron-generated X-ray micro-beam revealed As accumulations in areas enriched with Fe. Results of As-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (As-XANES) showed that only As(V) species was detectable in all samples regardless of As contents, size fractions and types of vegetation. Although the toxicity of As(V) is less than As(III), we suggest that As uptake of commonly-grazed vegetation by alpaca and llama must be determined to fully understand the environmental risks of high As in soils near ASGM in Bolivia. In addition, knowledge on the speciation of the As bio-accessible fraction will provide another useful information to better understand the fate and transfer of As from soils into the food chain in environments associated with the ASGM in Bolivia and other parts of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inheritance and heritability of deltamethrin resistance under laboratory conditions of Triatoma infestans from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; Pessoa, Grasielle D'Avila Caldas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Echeverria, Jorge Espinoza; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2015-11-16

    Over the last few decades, pyrethroid-resistant in Triatoma infestans populations have been reported, mainly on the border between Argentina and Bolivia. Understanding the genetic basis of inheritance mode and heritability of resistance to insecticides under laboratory conditions is crucial for vector management and monitoring of insecticide resistance. Currently, few studies have been performed to characterize the inheritance mode of resistance to pyrethroids in T. infestans; for this reason, the present study aims to characterize the inheritance and heritability of deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans populations from Bolivia with different toxicological profiles. Experimental crosses were performed between a susceptible (S) colony and resistant (R) and reduced susceptibility (RS) colonies in both directions (♀ x ♂ and ♂ x ♀), and inheritance mode was determined based on degree of dominance (DO) and effective dominance (D(ML)). In addition, realized heritability (h(2)) was estimated based on a resistant colony, and select pressure was performed for two generations based on the diagnostic dose (10 ng. i. a. /nymph). The F1 progeny of the experimental crosses and the selection were tested by a standard insecticide resistance bioassay. The result for DO and D(ML) (Bolivia. The lethal doses (LD50) increase from one generation to another rapidly after selection pressure with deltamethrin. This suggests that resistance is an additive and cumulative factor, mainly in highly structured populations with limited dispersal capacity, such as T. infestans. This phenomenon was demonstrated for the first time for T. infestans in the present study. These results are very important for vector control strategies in problematic areas where high resistance ratios of T. infestans have been reported.

  16. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  17. La Construcción del Poder Nacional en la Bolivia de Evo Morales (2006-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristián Faundes

    2015-01-01

    En atención al cumplimiento de dos periodos de gobierno de Evo Morales como Presidente de Bolivia en 2014 y a que ha sido reelecto para un tercer mandato (2015-2019), en un contexto de bonanza, estabilidad política y crecimiento relativamente alto, parece pertinente evaluar el proceso de construcción de poder en Bolivia. La inquietud se justifica en especial por el acelerado aumento del PIB y el consecuente aumento en el gasto en Defensa, todo lo anterior en un escenario político interno en q...

  18. Sustained Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccine Against Very Severe Rotavirus Disease Through the Second Year of Life, Bolivia 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kimberly D; Patzi, Maritza; Tate, Jacqueline E; Iniguez Rojas, Volga; Patel, Manish; Inchauste Jordan, Lucia; Montesano, Raul; Zarate, Adolfo; De Oliveira, Lucia; Parashar, Umesh

    2016-05-01

    In Bolivia, monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2008 and a previous evaluation reported a vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 77% with 2 doses of vaccine in children aged 5 years after its introduction in Bolivia. Although VE appears to wane in children aged ≥1 year, it still provides significant protection, and does not wane against severe disease. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. A new species of arboreal toad (Anura : Bufonidae : Chaunus) from Madidi National Park, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, J.M.; Reichle, S.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    A new arboreal species of the Chaunus veraguensis group is described for the humid montane forest of Madidi National Park, in northern Bolivia. The new species differs from other species in the group by the combination small size, long and slender extremities, webbed hands, conspicuous tympanic membrane, well developed parotoid glands, absence of large glands on dorsum and extremities, nuptial excrescences of males composed of pungent spines on dorsal surface of thumb, greenish-brown coloration on dorsum with red warts in life, and green iris. It is only known from two nearby localities in the Serran Eslabon, Department La Paz. An operational key for species in the C. veraguensis group is provided.

  20. Destitution through “Development”: A Case Study of the Laka Laka Project in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrum J. Shriar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined environmental and socioeconomic outcomes of a water project in rural Bolivia, and sought insights on how and why its planning was so flawed. The project destroyed an ancient, sustainable irrigation system, and replaced it with one that provides insufficient and diminishing quantities of water to many fewer people, appears to be causing land degradation and groundwater depletion, and has fueled conflicts. The study shows that even relatively small, NGO-led projects can generate significant negative impacts, and raises questions about the pressures on development agencies to charge ahead with projects, despite obvious potential for such impacts.

  1. Casuística de tétanos neonatal. Caranavi, La Paz, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Varela González; Dania Faxas Rodríguez; Yanailys Ortiz Lima

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de tres casos notorios de tétanos  neonatal,  durante un año en el Hospital de Caranavi, La Paz, Bolivia. Se analizaron los principales síntomas, así como las complicaciones y la técnica del cortar el cordón umbilical, se determinó el lugar de nacimiento y se evaluó la respuesta al tratamiento. Se arribó a conclusiones y se realizó una revisión del tema.

  2. Concepciones culturales del VIH/Sida de adolescentes de Bolivia, Chile y México

    OpenAIRE

    Torres López,Teresa Margarita; Reynaldos Quinteros,Carolina; Lozano González,Aldo Favio; Munguía Cortés,Jazmín Aranzazú

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comprender las dimensiones culturales del VIH/Sida de estudiantes adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudio antropológico cognitivo. Realizado en Cochabamba (Bolivia), Talca (Chile) y Guadalajara (México) entre 2007 y 2008. Un total de 184 jóvenes (de 14 y 19 años de edad) fueron seleccionados por muestreo propositivo en centros de estudios de educación media superior de cada país. Fueron utilizadas las técnicas de listados libres y el sorteo de montones. Se indagaron términos asociados al con...

  3. Protesta social y movilización de recursos para el desarrollo social en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Daroca Oller, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Desde la perspectiva de la movilización de recursos domésticos y su relación con el conflicto y la protesta social, el 2003 representa para Bolivia un año especialmente importante. Ello por la relevancia que tuvieron dos conflictos vinculados con el financiamiento del desarrollo, a saber: la reforma tributaria conocida como el impuestazo, que buscaba instaurar un impuesto directo al salario (febrero 2003) y la denominada guerra del gas (octubre 2003). Ambos conflictos produjeron los niveles m...

  4. Pobreza y activos en Bolivia: Qué rol juega el capital social?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Jiménez; George Gray-Molina; Ernesto Yáñez; Ernesto Pérez de Rada

    1999-01-01

    Análisis recientes de la pobreza en Bolivia muestran que, a pesar de un ligero descenso en el porcentaje de la población que vive en condiciones de pobreza a lo largo de la última década, el número absoluto de hogares pobres continúa en ascenso (Jiménez y Yañez 1997a y b; Vos et al. 1997; Banco Mundial 1996). El bajo nivel de crecimiento de los ingresos de los hogares más pobres sugiere que los esfuerzos sostenidos por mantener niveles de crecimiento económico moderados e incrementar la efici...

  5. Birds (Aves, Serrania Sadiri, Parque Nacional Madidi, Depto. La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessey, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the Serrania Sadiri for birds at elevations between 500-950m for a combined total of 15 days in threedifferent months. The area surveyed was along the Tumupasa/San Jose de Uchupiamones trail at the edge of ParqueNacional Madidi in Depto. La Paz, Bolivia. We report observations of 231 species of birds detected by sight and sound,including many outlying ridge specialists. We report and present photographs of a new species for Depto. La Paz(Caprimulgis nigrescens, the second Bolivian localities for Porphyrolaema prophyrolaema, Zimerius cinereicapillus,and Basileuterus chrysogaster, and five new species records for Parque Nacional Madidi.

  6. Telemedicina en Bolivia: proyecto RAFT-Altiplano, experiencias, perspectivas y recomendaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo del proyecto RAFT-Altiplano (RAFT, Red Africana Francófona de Telemedicina es evaluar la viabilidad, potencialidad y riesgos de la implementación y el desarrollo de una red de telemedicina en el contexto de un país en desarrollo, como es el caso del Altiplano de Bolivia, para mejorar el acceso a la atención médica y la formación continua en el área rural. En este estudio se describe el desarrollo de dicho proyecto entre 2011 y 2013. MÉTODOS: Se donaron equipos de telemedicina digitales a los centros de salud y se desarrolló una plataforma basada en tecnología Microsoft®integrable con otras tecnologías (con formatos estándares, para gestionar electrónicamente contenidos y documentos clínicos. Se ha capacitado a los profesionales de la salud para realizar las teleconsultas y se ha diseñado un flujo de trabajo de teleconsulta. El sistema de teleenseñanza utilizado es Dudal, porque requiere poco ancho de banda. RESULTADOS: Tras tres años de implementación se dispone de una estructura de trabajo organizada con los diferentes hospitales, instituciones y centros de salud adaptada al contexto latinoamericano para la implementación y utilización de herramientas de teleconsulta y teleenseñanza. El proyecto ha mejorado el acceso a la atención médica especializada en los centros de salud alejados y en los hospitales de tercer nivel de zonas urbanas y ha sido la antesala del desarrollo del proyecto nacional "TeleSalud para Bolivia" promovido por el Ministerio de Salud que contempla la utilización del nuevo satélite boliviano Túpac Katari. CONCLUSIONES: Es viable desarrollar e implementar herramientas de telemedicina en regiones remotas de Bolivia en beneficio de la población cuando se ponen a disposición de las instituciones gubernamentales y municipales de salud y el trabajo entre ellas y los centros asistenciales se realiza de forma coordinada. La comunicación de experiencias, dificultades y riesgos

  7. Wastewater management in small towns - understanding the failure of small treatment plants in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio, Claudia; McConville, Jennifer; Rauch, Sebastien; Wilén, Britt-Marie; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Mercado, Alvaro; Romero, Ana M

    2017-06-05

    Wastewater management in developing countries is a challenge, especially in small towns with rapid population growth. This study aims at assessing the performance and management of five treatment plants (TPs) in rural areas of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Pollutants' concentrations, wastewater flows, hydraulic and organic loads and hydraulic retention times were determined in three small treatment plants (2000-10,000 population equivalent [p.e.]; flow > 432 m(3)/d) and two very small treatment plants (small towns, thus providing needed information regarding technology selection, design, implementation and operation.

  8. Presidential rule in Latin America. The cases of Argentina, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niño Buitrago, Raúl Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article one thinks about how to identify if governments of different political tendencies have deepened the presidential rule, by means of constitutional reforms or the use of the extraordinary faculties with which the governments managed to increase its interference in other branches of the public power. For this analysis there is appealed to the political stage Latin American specified in the cases of Argentina with the government of Carlos Ménem (1989-1999, Peru with Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000, Ecuador with Rafael Correa (2007-present and Bolivia with Evo Morales (2006-present.

  9. La foglia di coca nella Bolivia di Evo Morales Ayma, fra tradizione e lotta al narcotraffico

    OpenAIRE

    Marzia Rosti

    2016-01-01

    L’articolo si propone di illustrare i risultati della nuova politica in materia di coltivazione di piante di coca promossa a livello nazionale e internazionale da Evo Morales, presidente della Bolivia dal 2006, che ha distinto l’uso della pianta e delle sue foglie, da una parte, per scopi legali nel rispetto delle tradizioni e della cultura nazionale e dunque da valorizzare e proteggere e, dall’altra parte, per scopi illegali/illeciti e quindi da proibire e punire. Parole chiave: piante d...

  10. Estimación del circulante en moneda extranjera en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Mendoza Patiño; Marco Antonio Laguna Vargas; Hugo Rodríguez Gonzales

    2010-01-01

    Debido a que Bolivia es una economía bimonetaria, es muy importante contar con una estimación del circulante en dólares. El documento expone la evolución del dinero en un contexto de dolarización financiera y presenta estimaciones del circulante en moneda extranjera con base a modelos estadísticos y un modelo contable. La consistencia económica de los resultados encontrados se analiza incorporando el circulante en dólares en una medida de circulante total. Los resultados indican que la cantid...

  11. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Romo, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P < .001), inadequate physical activity (AOR = 1.21; P = .001), and current tobacco use (hunger sometimes [AOR = 1.83; P < .001] or most of the t...

  12. El nuevo constitucionalismo latinoamericano y el giro decolonial: Bolivia y Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Médici, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del presente artículo es comenzar un análisis comparado de las nuevas constituciones de Bolivia y Ecuador, destacando sus aspectos innovadores para la teoría constitucional regional y los sistemas de derechos humanos. The object of the present paper is to begin a comparative analysis of the bolivian and ecuatorian new constitutions, making emphasis in its innovative aspects for constitucional theory and human rights systems in our region. Instituto de Cultura Jurídica (ICJ)

  13. De la BLAA: Novedades: Archivo de la empresa minera Frontino y Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Hernández Londoño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango pone al servicio de sus investigadores el archivo de la empresa minera Frontino and Bolivia Gold Mining Company, que puede ser consultado en nuestra sala de Libros Raros y Manuscritos. Este archivo, clave para la historia económica y empresarial del país, está compuesto por veinticuatro libros contables manuscritos que abarcan un periodo entre 1844 y 1878.

  14. Investigating the quality of expectorated sputum for tuberculosis diagnosis in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P; Punchak, M; Camacho, M; Hepple, P; McNerney, R

    2015-09-01

    A low-power microscope-based cytological system to assess the quality of expectorated sputum provided for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis was piloted in Bolivia. A total of 3688 samples were subjected to visual and cytological examination in nine laboratories: of these, 591 (16%) were misclassified by visual examination and 294 (8%) were found to be degraded. The degree of discordance varied between locations, and laboratories received a higher number of degraded specimens from isolated health clinics. Cytological assessment of sputum was found to be feasible and identified areas for improvement in the Bolivian diagnostic system for TB.

  15. LOS COMITÉS DE ÉTICA DE INVESTIGACIÓN BIOMÉDICA Y PSICOSOCIAL EN BOLIVIA OS COMITÊS DE ÉTICA DE PESQUISA BIOMÉDICA E PSICOSSOCIAL NA BOLIVIA BIOMEDICAL AND PSICOSOCIAL SCIENTIFIC ETHICAL REVIEW COMMITTEES IN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Zwareva Mashiri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reporta un estudio realizado en las ciudades de La Paz, Cochabamba y Santa Cruz en Bolivia. Interesaba saber cuál era la situación de la bioética en Bolivia y cómo se estaba protegiendo a los sujetos de investigación. Luego de revisar algunos conceptos bioéticos, la legislación boliviana y los métodos del estudio se dan a conocer los resultados del mismo, los cuales revelan gran desconocimiento respecto de cómo proteger los derechos de los sujetos, por la casi ausencia o el inadecuado funcionamiento de los comités de ética de la investigación.Este artigo reporta a um estudo realizado nas cidades de La Paz, Cochabamba, e Santa Cruz, na Bolivia. Interessava-se saber qual era a situação da bioética na Bolivia e como se estava protegendo os sujeitos de pesquisa. Ao revisar alguns conceitos bioéticos, a legislação boliviana e os métodos de estudo foi possível identificar os resultados pesquisados; esses revelaram grande desconhecimento a respeito de como garantir os direitos dos sujeitos de pesquisa, por conta da quase ausência e/ou do inadequado funcionamento dos comitês de ética de pesquisa.This article reports a study carried out in the cities of La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz in Bolivia. The interest was to know the situation of bioethics in Bolivia and how research subjects are being protected. After revising some bioethical concepts, Bolivian legislation and study methods, results revealed great lack of knowledge on how to protect research subjects, due to the almost absence or inadequate functioning of scientific ethical review committees.

  16. Gene flow and genetic diversity in cultivated and wild cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumacero de Schawe, Claudia; Durka, Walter; Tscharntke, Teja; Hensen, Isabell; Kessler, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The role of pollen flow within and between cultivated and wild tropical crop species is little known. To study the pollen flow of cacao, we estimated the degree of self-pollination and pollen dispersal distances as well as gene flow between wild and cultivated cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). We studied pollen flow and genetic diversity of cultivated and wild cacao populations by genotyping 143 wild and 86 cultivated mature plants and 374 seedlings raised from 19 wild and 25 cultivated trees at nine microsatellite loci. A principal component analysis distinguished wild and cultivated cacao trees, supporting the notion that Bolivia harbors truly wild cacao populations. Cultivated cacao had a higher level of genetic diversity than wild cacao, presumably reflecting the varied origin of cultivated plants. Both cacao types had high outcrossing rates, but the paternity analysis revealed 7-14% self-pollination in wild and cultivated cacao. Despite the tiny size of the pollinators, pollen was transported distances up to 3 km; wild cacao showed longer distances (mean = 922 m) than cultivated cacao (826 m). Our data revealed that 16-20% of pollination events occurred between cultivated and wild populations. We found evidence of self-pollination in both wild and cultivated cacao. Pollination distances are larger than those typically reported in tropical understory tree species. The relatively high pollen exchange from cultivated to wild cacao compromises genetic identity of wild populations, calling for the protection of extensive natural forest tracts to protect wild cacao in Bolivia.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Pallin, Sarah C; Hutchinson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing awareness that domestic violence is a major public health problem, existing studies focus on physical and sexual violence and give little attention to psychological violence. This study uses data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) to examine the prevalence and correlates of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner violence in Bolivia. The results show that psychological intimate partner violence is extremely common (affecting nearly one in two women) and often occurs in addition to physical violence. While physical, psychological and sexual intimate partner violence have several common predictors, there are factors that only affect some types of violence. Common risk factors include urban residence, respondent's employment status and having witnessed interparental violence in childhood. Although marital status is not a risk factor for physical violence, unmarried cohabitation is a strong risk factor for psychological intimate partner violence. Our findings highlight the need for research to assess the potential consequences of psychological intimate partner violence, particularly for women's mental health.

  18. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L.; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H.; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P.; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5–24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. PMID:26598569

  19. Poder y sociedad en los Andes: Manuel Isidoro Belzu, un caudillo popular. Bolivia, 1848-1855

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Ortíz Mesa

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo quiero referirme a un gobernante boliviano, Manuel Isidoro Belzu, presidente entre los años de 1848 y 1855. Con una larga carrera militar de casi 25 años, en un ambiente de permanente inestabilidad política y con una fascinante estrategia, Belzu ha sido percibido por algunos historiadores y literatos como un «Caudillo del Pueblo», otros lo calificaron como un demagogo y algunos más como el presidente para la Bolivia de entonces. Manuel Isidoro Belzu nació al tiempo que se vislumbraba la Bolivia Republicana en 1808. Fue un hombre pobre como muchos de sus conciudadanos, predominantemente indígenas. No obstante, Belzu fue un mestizo, expresión de los cambios raciales que desde la Colonia se produjeron en la población de la Audiencia de Charcas cuya sede y capital fue Chuquisaca o Sucre, donde tuvo asiento el emporio minero más importante y productivo de los Andes, el Cerro Rico de Potosí.

  20. Economics of secondary energy from GTL regarding natural gas reserves of Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Arzabe Maure, Jose Omar; Oliva, Cidar Ramon [Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2007-08-15

    This work aims the economics and the viability of Natural Gas Industrialization in Bolivia, by producing secondary fuels like gas to liquid (GTL)-diesel from natural gas (cleaner than the oil by-product), looking for a clean development with that environmentally well energy using this GTL process. Bolivia has resources that could fulfill these secondary energy resources from GTL. It is possible to process 30 MCMpd of gas obtaining profits from the gas and also from the liquid hydrocarbons that are found in it. Then the Bolivian GTL would present the following advantages: it would export diesel and/or gasoline and would not have to import it anymore.; the exportations of GTL-FT would reach 35 Mbpy, acquiring competitive prices; it would increase productive jobs not only due to the GTL itself, but also from secondary economy linked to GTL market; the use of GTL-FT diesel would bring a ''cleaner'' environment especially in the urban areas; finally, from the macroeconomic perspective, the investment in the plant construction and supporting works would generate a great amount of job offers. (author)

  1. A model for predicting the growth of Eucalyptus globulus seedling stands in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, G.; Morales, M.; Pukkala, T.; Miguel, S. de

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most planted species in the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia, where growing conditions are different from most places where eucalyptus have been studied. This prevents a straightforward utilization of models fitted elsewhere. In this study a distance-independent individual-tree growth model for E. globulus plantations in Bolivia was developed based on data from 67 permanent sample plots. The model consists of sub-models for dominant height, tree diameter increment, height-diameter relationship and survival. According to model-based simulations, the mean annual increment with the optimal rotation length is about 13 m3 ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 on medium-quality sites and 18 m{sup 3} ha{sup -}1 yr -1 on the best sites. A suitable rotation length for maximizing wood production is approximately 30 years on medium sites and 20 years on the most productive sites. The developed models provide valuable information for further studies on optimizing the management and evaluating alternative management regimes for the species. (Author) 22 refs.

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis serovars bolivia, vazensis and navarrensis meet the description of Bacillus weihenstephanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufiane, Brahim; Côté, Jean-Charles

    2010-05-01

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group comprises six related species: B. cereus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides and B. weihenstephanensis. Bacillus thuringiensis is a mesophile. It is distinguished from other members of the B. cereus group by the apparition of an inclusion body upon sporulation. B. weihenstephanensis, however, is a psychrotolerant. It grows at 7 degrees C but not at 43 degrees C. It is further characterised by the presence of specific signature sequences on two genes, the 16S rRNA gene (the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene) and cspA (encoding the major cold shock protein). Five B. thuringiensis serovars selected from previous studies, bolivia, vazensis, navarrensis, azorensis and asturiensis were studied here for their capability to grow at 7 degrees C but not at 43 degrees C. Next, their 16S rRNA and cspA genes were analysed for the presence of B. weihenstephanensis-specific signature sequences. Bacillus thuringiensis serovars bolivia, vazensis and navarrensis met the description of B. weihenstephanensis.

  3. [Health-worker barriers to syphilis screening in pregnant women in Bolivia's Los Andes network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinajeros, Freddy; Ares, Lucila Rey; Elías, Vanessa; Reveiz, Ludovic; Sánchez, Franz; Mejía, Martha; Hernández, Rosalinda; Revollo, Rita

    2017-05-25

    Identify health-worker barriers that keep pregnant women who receive prenatal care from being screened for syphilis (Los Andes Health Network, Bolivia). Semi-structured interviews were done with 46 health care providers and 249 clinical health records of pregnant women were analyzed in eight public health facilities in the Los Andes network. Health-worker barriers to syphilis screening in pregnant women included lack of time by personnel to raise awareness of the benefit of syphilis screening; some mentioned that syphilis tests should only be done in facilities that attend deliveries and have a laboratory; lack of communication between clinicians and laboratory personnel; and problems with provision of supplies and reagents. The clinical record review found that only 55.4% contained syphilis laboratory results and only 37.4% of perinatal clinical histories had records of laboratory results. The interviews found that providers believe that syphilis screening is done in 100% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care. Syphilis screening is not being done according to Bolivia's strategy for the elimination of congenital syphilis, and is not done on more than half of pregnant women in prenatal care with perinatal clinical history records. This is not perceived by health professionals and can become a barrier to syphilis screening in pregnant women.

  4. A view to educational reforms and the formation of citizenship in Bolivia (century XX and XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimar Iño

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article takes a historical look at the educational reforms implemented in Bolivia with reference to the formation of citizenship. For this purpose historical research was used and the bibliographic review was used to collect, describe and analyze the written sources. This in order to understand the relationship between State, education and citizenship, which identifies two aspects that guide educational policies and the formation of citizenship. In this way, we can also elucidate the types of citizens who projected these educational reforms in Bolivia during the 20th century: the liberal (1899-1920, the nationalist (1954-1964 and the neoliberal (1994-2004; And in the 21st century, the sociocommunity. In each of these reforms there are common characteristics, on the one hand, there is the centralization of public education at the hands of the State; On the other hand, the role given to education for civic formation and the construction of national identity, in this case Bolivianity; For example, for the indigenous majority was their assimilation to the national culture and homogenization, through education. Likewise, each reform sought the formation of a citizenship; In the case of the liberal raised the Bolivian identity; The nationalist point towards mestizaje as a citizen, neoliberal ideal for the construction of a pluricultural and multilingual citizenship; And the sociocommunity towards an intercultural and decolonized citizenship.

  5. Contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Bolivia. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flakus Adam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new records of 135 lichen taxa in Bolivia. Two species, Myriotrema laeviusculum (Nyl. Hale and Graphis tenoriensis Chaves & Lücking, are new for the Southern Hemisphere; two, Cladonia uncialis (L. Weber ex F. H. Wigg. and Thelocarpon laureri (Flot. Nyl., are new for South America; and 27 species are new for Bolivia: Acanthotrema brasilianum (Hale Frisch, Bulbothrix laevigatula (Nyl. Hale, B. leprieurii Aubel, Canoparmelia salacinifera (Hale Hale, Catolechia wahlenbergii (Flot. ex Ach. Körb., Chapsa alborosella (Nyl. Frisch, Coccocarpia dissecta Swinscow & Krog, Graphis apertoinspersa Rivas Plata & Lücking, G. cinerea Fée, G. globosa (Fée Spreng., G. haleana R. C. Harris, G. marginata Raddi, G. pilarensis Cáceres & Lücking, G. striatula (Ach. Spreng., Hemithecium oryzaeforme (Fée Staiger, Hypotrachyna protochlorina Sipman, Elix & T. H. Nash, H. sinuosella Elix, T. H. Nash & Sipman, H. tariensis Elix, Parmeliella isidiopannosa Jørg., Parmotrema conferendum Hale, P. enteroxanthum Hale, P. laciniellum (Ferraro & Elix Blanco et al., P. pilosum (Stizenb. Krog & Swinscow, P. recipiendum (Nyl. Hale, P. ruptum (Lynge Hale ex DePriest & Hale, Pyxine pungens Zahlbr. and Xanthoparmelia substenophylloides Hale. Notes on distribution are provided for the species. Bulbothrix goebelii (Zenker Hale is excluded from the list of Bolivian lichens; the record is referred to B. laevigatula.

  6. Integrity management of Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline to reduce risks due third party damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Monte, Oswaldo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colen, Eustaquio; Cunha, Roberto de Souza; Oliveira, Hudson Regis de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Rogerio de Souza [RSL Consultoria Geoprojetos (Brazil); Schultz Neto, Walter [Milton Braga Assessoria Tecnica (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.600 kilometers from Rio Grande City in Bolivia to Canoas City, in the south of Brazil. The right-of-way crosses a lot of types of topography and areas subjected to various kinds of anthropological actions, like areas in class locations 3, locals under agricultural activities, forests and minerals explorations, and near constructions of highway and railway, industrial constructions, new pipelines in the same right-of -way, channels, dams, that requires special projects to avoid that the gas pipeline could be subject to strengths that were not consider in the original design. The aim of this paper is to present the jobs developed by TBG during seven years of gas pipeline operations, as public awareness program, procedures to design, construct and inspect specials constructions along and near the right-of -way, control of mineral and forest explorations, monitoring and controlling of excavations on the right-of-way to install new pipelines and optical cables, to reduce risks of gas pipeline damage due third party, as a component of TBG' Managing Integrity Gas Pipeline Program. (author)

  7. Participatory communication for tuberculosis control in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbord, Silvio

    2010-03-01

    To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB) in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. Challenges to two central goals of TB control--early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy--were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews) and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed the largest number of male inmates in each country. Interviewees and focus group participants included program directors, administrative personnel, correctional health and security staff, and incarcerated people who were or had been under treatment for TB and had participated as 'peers' in health services. The findings showed a range of entrenched obstacles for adequate TB control. Stigmatizing attitudes and low knowledge about TB among inmates and key prison personnel discouraged people living in prisons from seeking diagnosis and treatment. Systemic problems in prison health services, along with squalid living conditions, lack of coordination between national TB programs and prison health systems, and insufficient allocation of resources to health prevented the provision of adequate TB prevention and care. In addressing the barriers to effective TB control in prison systems in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay, a participatory approach to communication is necessary.

  8. Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Delgado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá. RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

  9. Rotavirus genotype distribution during the pre-vaccine period in Bolivia: 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rosario; Forney, Kristen; Castro, Maria René; Rebolledo, Paulina A.; Mamani, Nataniel; Patzi, Maritza; Halkyer, Percy; Leon, Juan S.; Iñiguez, Volga

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives Rotavirus is the most important etiology of severe diarrhea in Bolivia. The monovalent attenuated human oral rotavirus vaccine Rotarix® was introduced in Bolivia in 2008. We describe the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains before vaccine introduction. Methods Two thousand one hundred thirty-five diarrheal samples were collected from hospitals in four Bolivian cities during 2007–2008. Forty-three percent (445 of 1030 rotavirus-positive samples) were analyzed for G and P genotypes. Among those, 331 were electropherotyped by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disease severity was quantified using a modified Vesikari scale. Results Among the 445 samples, five genotypes were found to be prevalent: G9P[8] (33%), G1P[6] (17%), G2P[4] (13%), G9P[6] (12%), and G1P[8] (4%). Co-infections with two or more strains accounted for 14% of samples. The most prevalent strain, G9, showed greater electropherotype diversity compared to other serogroups. Strain G1P[6] generally infected younger children and peaked later in the year than other strains. No particular genotype was associated with a higher severity score, though there was a significant difference in the duration of diarrhea between genotypes. Conclusions During the 2-year pre-vaccine period, substantial diversity of rotavirus co-circulating strains was observed. These data constitute a baseline against which changes in circulating strains post-vaccine introduction can be monitored. PMID:23688547

  10. Rotavirus genotype distribution during the pre-vaccine period in Bolivia: 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rosario; Forney, Kristen; Castro, Maria René; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Mamani, Nataniel; Patzi, Maritza; Halkyer, Percy; Leon, Juan S; Iñiguez, Volga

    2013-09-01

    Rotavirus is the most important etiology of severe diarrhea in Bolivia. The monovalent attenuated human oral rotavirus vaccine Rotarix(®) was introduced in Bolivia in 2008. We describe the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains before vaccine introduction. Two thousand one hundred thirty-five diarrheal samples were collected from hospitals in four Bolivian cities during 2007-2008. Forty-three percent (445 of 1030 rotavirus-positive samples) were analyzed for G and P genotypes. Among those, 331 were electropherotyped by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disease severity was quantified using a modified Vesikari scale. Among the 445 samples, five genotypes were found to be prevalent: G9P[8] (33%), G1P[6] (17%), G2P[4] (13%), G9P[6] (12%), and G1P[8] (4%). Co-infections with two or more strains accounted for 14% of samples. The most prevalent strain, G9, showed greater electropherotype diversity compared to other serogroups. Strain G1P[6] generally infected younger children and peaked later in the year than other strains. No particular genotype was associated with a higher severity score, though there was a significant difference in the duration of diarrhea between genotypes. During the 2-year pre-vaccine period, substantial diversity of rotavirus co-circulating strains was observed. These data constitute a baseline against which changes in circulating strains post-vaccine introduction can be monitored. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental control of Triatoma infestans in poor rural villages of Bolivia through community participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Depickère, Stéphanie; Aliaga, Claudia; Chavez, Tamara; Zambrana, Lilian

    2015-02-01

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone countries. Present control strategies based on indoor and outdoor residual insecticide spraying are not sufficient to control disease transmission, particularly in Bolivia. Techniques based on the management of the human environment may be good alternatives or supplements. Social and entomological surveys were carried out in four villages of Bolivia situated in the dry inter-Andean Valleys and the Chaco region. Risk factors for house infestation by T. infestans were identified, and an eco-health intervention based on education and community participation was carried out to reduce the risks of house infestation. It consisted of implementing simple and low cost vector control techniques such as coating of mud walls, cleaning activities and removal of poultry that enter rooms to lay eggs. The eco-health intervention significantly reduced the number of infested bedrooms, the mean abundance of T. infestans in bedrooms and beds, especially in the Chaco region. Mud wall coating was well accepted and could be proposed as a supplementary tool to the National Program of Chagas Disease Control to enhance the effects of insecticide sprayings. Even if cleaning activities were still neglected, community participation proved to be effective in reducing house infestation. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  12. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Conexiones revolucionarias: repercusiones de la expropiación petrolera mexicana en Bolivia, 1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Zuleta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo trata un tema relevante en la historiografía latinoamericana como es la expropiación petrolera mexicana durante el gobierno de Lázaro Cárdenas y aporta información original así como un enfoque innovador que desborda las historiografías estrictamente nacionales, intentando contribuir tanto a la historia de Bolivia como a la mexicana. La expropiación mexicana de 1938 alcanzó una dimensión trasnacional más allá de sus repercusiones diplomáticas: una experiencia percibida bajo muy diversos prismas en cada país latinoamericano. ¿Cómo fue vista la expropiación mexicana en los Andes bolivianos? Se argumenta que en la Paz, y en Sucre, diversos sectores de la sociedad leyeron esa expropiación tras los filtros del conflicto con la Standard Oil of Bolivia y del debate ideológico y político en torno a la recién creada YPFB, y cargaron de otro significado este episodio nacionalista al adaptarlo al contexto boliviano, dialogando simultáneamente con el sustrato previo de recepción de la revolución mexicana en la región, así como con el especial contexto político, económico y diplomático andino. Razones de orden nacional e internacional explican las reacciones ante el episodio petrolero mexicano en Bolivia, tanto como la percepción de estas por parte de la diplomacia mexicana.This article deals with a relevant subject in Latin American historiography, that being the Mexican oil expropriation during the Lázaro Cárdenas government and provides original information as well as an innovative approach that goes beyond strictly national historiographies, with the intention of contributing both to Bolivian and Mexican history. The Mexican expropriation of 1938 reached a transnational dimension beyond its diplomatic implications; an experience perceived through quite different prisms in each Latin American country. How was the Mexican expropriation viewed in the Bolivian Andes? We have argued that in La Paz and Sucre, various

  14. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a

  15. "The School, Whose Place Is This"? The Deep Structures of the Hidden Curriculum in Indigenous Education in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalsky, Pablo; Laurie, Nina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine state and indigenous education in Bolivia. Focusing on debates about the hidden curriculum, we conceptualize the school as a political space where tensions between the overlapping jurisdictional powers of the hispanicizing state and indigenous authorities are played out. Our analysis of these tensions highlights the…

  16. La Politica Social en Bolivia: Un análisis de los Programas Sociales (2006-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Morales

    2010-01-01

    En este estudio se hizo una revisión de la política social y sus programas enmarcados en el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Bolivia Digna, Soberana, Productiva y Democrática para Vivir Bien 2006-2011y el rol de los actores en la implementación de estos programas.

  17. The Role Of Women In Popular Education In Bolivia: A Case Study Of The "Oficina Juridica Para La Mujer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Judith M.; Hansman, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the Education Office of the "Oficina Juridica Para la Mujer" [Women's Legal Office] , a community-based popular education organization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works with women to address personal, legal, and policy issues through local leadership training and popular education methodology. We investigate the…

  18. Modos de utilización de las TICs por las organizaciones que operan en la Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Prado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar la utilización de las TICs (Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación por las organizaciones que operan en el espacio de la Mancomunidad de municipios de la Gran Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Se partirá, entonces, de la siguiente hipótesis: el uso de las TICs por parte de estas organizaciones, por causas económicas y estratégicas, está más orientado hacia la toma de contacto con otras organizaciones y determinados segmentos de la población, que a facilitar las comunicaciones del ciudadano común que habita en la Mancomunidad. Palabras clave: TICs; Bolivia; gobierno local. ABSTRACT The aim of this essay is to analyze the application of TIC (Information and Communication Technologies by organizations operating in the Municipalities of the Gran Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Its underlying hypothesis is that the application of TIC by these organizations, because of economic and strategic causes, is more oriented toward entering into contact with other organizations and certain population segments, than to facilitate the communications of common citizens belonging to the participating municipalities. Keywords: NIT; Bolivia; local governments.

  19. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  20. Stevesaltica, a new genus of moss and leaf-litter inhabiting flea beetles from Bolivia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus (Stevesaltica) with two new species (S. normi and S. perdita) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is similar to Exoceras Jacoby. An identification key for all flea beetle genera known to occur in mosses in the Western Hemisphere is provided....

  1. The Effect of Integrated Basic Education Programs on Women's Social and Economic Well-Being in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Haiyan; Burchfield, Shirley

    A large-scale longitudinal study in Bolivia examined the relationship between adult women's basic education and their social and economic well-being and development. A random sample of 1,600 participants and 600 nonparticipants, aged 15-45, was tracked for 3 years (the final sample included 717 participants and 224 controls). The four adult…

  2. Foundations, trusts and funds in near mine closure and post-closure environments: a case from Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    and when management of the FTF requires considerable input from the community it was meant to serve. This paper provides baseline results from research undertaken on the Inti Raymi Foundation in Bolivia. It analyses the community engagement practices and the programs used by both the foundation and its...

  3. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico Mountain, known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations, both of which have left a legacy of pollution. In this study...

  4. The Cost-Effectiveness of Interactive Radio Instruction for Improving Primary School Instruction in Honduras, Bolivia and Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, Thomas D.; And Others

    Findings are presented from studies on the use of radio for teaching primary school children mathematics in Honduras and Bolivia and English as a Second Language in Lesotho. Interactive radio instruction (IRI) is so called because of the active participation of the students. Although lessons are presented by conventional radio, scripts are written…

  5. Assessing impact and sustainability of health, water, and sanitation interventions in Bolivia six years post-project Evaluación de la repercusión y la sostenibilidad a seis años de las intervenciones relacionadas con salud, agua y saneamiento en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Eder

    2012-07-01

    .OBJETIVO: Evaluar la repercusión y la sostenibilidad de las intervenciones relacionadas con la salud, el abastecimiento de agua y el saneamiento en Bolivia seis años después de la realización del proyecto. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio de metodología mixta (cualitativa y cuantitativa en 12 comunidades rurales donde se efectuó la intervención y 2 de control en Bolivia en noviembre del 2008, seis años después de la finalización de las intervenciones enfocadas a mejorar el conocimiento y las prácticas relacionadas con la salud y la nutrición maternoinfantil, los sistemas de abastecimiento de agua comunitarios y las instalaciones de abastecimiento de agua y saneamiento domiciliarias. Se estudió, en particular, el grado en el cual los participantes continuaban realizando las prácticas domiciliarias y comunitarias promovidas por las intervenciones. Se efectuaron visitas a sitios de la comunidad para evaluar el estado (condición funcional y la sostenibilidad (estado de mantenimiento y reparación de la infraestructura de abastecimiento de agua y saneamiento domiciliaria y comunitaria. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas a informantes clave y análisis basados en grupos de discusión para evaluar el conocimiento, las prácticas y las percepciones acerca del valor de las intervenciones comunitarias. RESULTADOS: Seis años después del proyecto, los participantes continuaban llevando a cabo las prácticas promovidas en las intervenciones. La calificación promedio para la condición funcional de los sistemas de abastecimiento de agua comunitarios fue 42% más alta que la calificación promedio en las comunidades de control. Además, en más de dos terceras partes de los hogares se seguían poniendo en práctica ciertos hábitos relacionados con la salud maternoinfantil promovidos en las intervenciones (en comparación con menos de la mitad de los hogares en las comunidades de control. Las comunidades que recibieron inversiones integradas (desarrollo y salud parec

  6. La relación triangular China, América Latina, Estados Unidos: socios necesarios en medio de la competencia por el poder mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Ahmed Ghotme-Ghotme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito analizar la expansión de la influencia de China en América Latina en los ámbitos económico y militar, y la forma como Estados Unidos ha reaccionado a esta. Para ello se recurrirá a la metodología del estudio de caso -Venezuela, Bolivia y Ecuador-, ya que es allí donde China cuenta con una fuerte presencia y sobre todo porque son países que, al igual que la potencia asiática, tienen una política anti-estadounidense o soberanista que busca consolidar un orden mundial multipolar. El principal hallazgo es que China no representa una amenaza seria para Estados Unidos en el corto plazo, y que de hecho, la expansión de su influencia en la región ha sido percibida por el gobierno de Estados Unidos como una oportunidad. Ello se debe a varias razones: China ha implementado una política cautelosa y pragmática que busca consolidar sus objetivos nacionales sin desafiar directamente la hegemonía estadounidense en la región, actitud reforzada por limitaciones internas que llevan al liderazgo chino a optar por una actitud menos activista en la reorganización políti - co-militar del mundo. Por otro lado, gracias a que Estados Unidos, que se encuentra en una fase de declive de su hegemonía en la región, prefiere promover sus intereses en un marco cooperativo y no conflictivo, esperando sacar provecho de esta nueva situación.

  7. First records of five species of the genus Eleutherodactylus Duméril and Bibron, 1841 (Anura, Leptodactylidae for Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Riva, Ignacio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Five species of the genus Eleutherodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae are reported from Bolivia for the first time: E. altamazonicus from Departments Pando and La Paz; E. carvalhoi from Cochabamba; and E. ockendeni, E. skydmainos and E. zimmermanae from Pando. New departmental records are provided for other species: E. cruralis for Department Pando, E. danae for Beni and La Paz, E. platydactylus for Beni, E. toftae for Pando and La Paz and E. ventrimarmoratus for La Paz. Currently, 25 species of Eleutherodactylus are known in Bolivia. The taxonomic status of some species remains uncertain, new species are being described and others are still to be discovered. Therefore, the actual number of Bolivian Eleutherodactylus species is still unknown.En este trabajo se publican los primeros registros de cinco especies del género Eleutherodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae para Bolivia: E. altamazonicus en los Departamentos de Pando y La Paz; E. carvalhoi en Cochabamba; y E. ockendeni, E. skydmainos y E. zimmermanae en Pando. Además, se aportan las primeras citas de E. cruralis para el Departamento de Pando, de E. danae para Beni y La Paz, de E. platydactylus para Beni, de E. toftae para Pando y La Paz y de E. ventrimarmoratus para La Paz. La diversidad conocida de Eleutherodactylus en Bolivia es de 25 especies, aunque los problemas taxonómicos sin resolver, las especies en descripción y el alto número de especies aún no citadas que se considera probable encontrar, hacen que aún desconozcamos la verdadera diversidad de este género en Bolivia.

  8. Seismic Anisotropy due to Crust and Uppermost Mantle Deformation Beneath Southern Peru and Bolivia: Constraints from Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, N.; Long, M. D.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Tavera, H.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction systems play a key role in plate tectonics, but the deformation of the crust and uppermost mantle during subduction and orogenesis in continental subduction systems remains poorly understood. Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide important constraints on dynamic processes in the crust and uppermost mantle in subduction systems. The subduction zone beneath Peru and Bolivia, where the Nazca plate subducts beneath South America, represents a particularly interesting location to study subduction-related deformation, given the complex slab morphology and the along-strike transition from flat to normally dipping subduction. In particular, understanding the structure and deformation of the crust and mantle will yield insight into the relationship between the flat slab and the overriding continental lithosphere. In this study we constrain seismic anisotropy within and above the subducting slab (including the mantle wedge and the overriding plate) beneath southern Peru and Bolivia using transverse component receiver functions. Because anisotropic receiver function analysis can constrain the depth distribution of anisotropy, this analysis is complementary to previous studies of shear wave splitting in this region. We examine data from two dense lines of seismometers from the PULSE and CAUGHT deployments in Peru and Bolivia, each anchored by a long-running permanent station. The northern line overlies the Peru flat slab, while the southern line overlies the normally dipping slab beneath Bolivia. Beneath Peru, our investigation of anisotropic structure along the flat slab will help test the recently suggested hypothesis of a slab tear; beneath Bolivia, we aim to characterize the pattern of flow in the mantle wedge as well as the nature of deformation in the lower crust of the overriding plate.

  9. Accidentes de tránsito y el consumo de alcohol en una unidad de urgencia de La Paz, Bolivia Acidentes de trânsito e o consumo de álcool em unidade de urgência de La Paz, Bolívia Traffic accidents and alcohol consumption in an emergency unit of La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Magali Pelaez Mariscal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de tipo cuantitativo, descriptivo, observacional y transversal. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer la distribución y características de los accidentes de tránsito relacionados con el consumo de alcohol en una unidad de urgencias de un hospital de clínicas de La Paz, en Bolivia. La muestra estuvo conformada por 62 personas, choferes y peatones, mayores de 15 años, que estuvieron involucrados en accidentes de tránsito por estado de ebriedad, los cuales acudieron a la Unidad de Urgencias. Fue aplicado una encuesta elaborado por los investigadores para recolectar datos sociodemográficos y de morbilidad de las víctimas y datos que evalúan el consumo de alcohol del conductor responsable del accidente. Los resultados evidenciaron que 71% de los accidentados eran hombres; 32,3% presentaban edades entre 21 y 30 años; 29% eran estudiantes y 25.8% eran choferes. El estudio permitió la caracterización de las personas accidentadas, del consumo de alcohol e del accidente.Este é um estudo tipo quantitativo, descritivo, observacional, transversal. O objetivo foi conhecer a distribuição e as características dos acidentes de trânsito relacionados ao consumo de álcool em unidade de urgência de um hospital de clínicas de La Paz, Bolívia. A amostra foi constituída por 62 pessoas, motoristas e pedestres, maiores de 15 anos, envolvidos em acidentes de trânsito por estado de embriaguez, atendidos na unidade de urgência. Foi aplicado um questionário, elaborado pelos pesquisadores, para coletar dados sociodemográficos e de morbidade da vítima, e dados que avaliam o consumo de álcool do condutor responsável pelo acidente. Os resultados evidenciaram que 71% dos acidentados eram homens, 32,3% apresentavam idade entre 21 e 30 anos, 29% eram estudantes e 25,8% eram motoristas. O estudo permitiu a caracterização das pessoas acidentadas, do consumo de álcool e do acidente.The aim of this quantitative, descriptive, observational, cross

  10. Liberalismo, multiculturalismo y estado de bienestar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLE SELAMÉ G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina si las políticas de la diferencia son compatibles con las políticas de redistribución que caracterizan el Estado de Bienestar. Se muestra cómo Brian Barry construye una versión caricaturizada del multiculturalismo, y se indaga si la dicotomía entre liberalismo y multiculturalismo admite alguna conciliación. Para terminar, se revisa la pertinencia y potencia de la tesis que postula la compatibilidad entre multiculturalismo y el Estado de Bienestar.

  11. Analisis TLC entre Colombia y Estados Unidos: Estados de Virginia y Washington

    OpenAIRE

    Pulecio Leon, Gloria Daniela

    2016-01-01

    el punto central de esta investigación será identificar las principales fortalezas y oportunidades de las empresas colombianas frente al Tratado de Libre Comercio con Estados Unidos, con miras al desarrollo de un proceso de exportación no tradicional e internacionalización, en los estados de Virginia y Washington. Para esto debemos primero reconocer las oportunidades que el mercado colombiano ha aprovechado en los estados de Virginia y Washington, segundo revisar si el tratado de libre ...

  12. Dirigentes de migrantes andinos, empleados y funcionarios públicos ante "el Estado": Una mirada desde abajo para comprender procesos políticos locales (Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canelo Brenda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explora representaciones acerca del Estado presentes entre dirigentes de migrantes del área andina central (Bolivia, Perú y noroeste argentino residentes en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores, quienes poseen una trayectoria de lucha política caracterizada por la fuerte interlocución con un otro al que entienden como "el Estado". Me interesa indagar cómo esas representaciones se relacionan con las prácticas que dichos dirigentes realizan ante el gobierno porteño en vistas a alcanzar objetivos cuyo sentido también se vincula con esa particular imagen del Estado. Asimismo, examino el significado del Estado para empleados y funcionarios públicos del GCBA con quienes esos dirigentes interactúan, cómo esa idea se liga con su práctica cotidiana al interior de instituciones estatales y cómo, en definitiva, ponen en acción al Estado orientados por esas representaciones, constreñidos por diversas regulaciones y condiciones materiales y demandados por los agentes sociales con quienes su trabajo los vincula.Este artigo explora as representações sobre o Estado presentes entre os líderes dos emigrantes da região dos Andes Centrais (Bolívia, Peru e noroeste da Argentina residentes na cidade e nos subúrbios de Buenos Aires. Estes líderes têm um histórico de luta política marcado por uma forte interlocução entre eles e o que compreendem como "o Estado". Meu interesse é investigar como estas representações se relacionam com as práticas executadas por estes líderes perante o governo desta cidade, a fim de conseguir objetivos, cujo sentido esteja ligado também a essa imagem particular de Estado. Ademais, examino o significado do Estado para empregados e funcionários públicos do GCBA com quem estes líderes interagem, como essa idéia é ligada com sua prática diária dentro das instituições do Estado e como, orientados por estas representações, confinados por vários regulamentos e por circunst

  13. Manufacturing of glass from tin mining tailings in Bolivia; Obtencion de vidrio a partir de residuos de la mineria del estano en Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arancibia, J. r. H.; Alfonso, P.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Martinez, S.; Parcerisa, D.; Canet, C.; Romero, F. M.

    2013-06-01

    Tailings from mining activities in Bolivia represent an environmental problem. In the vicinity of the tin mines of Llallagua, Potosi department, there are large dumps and tailings. We present a study of the use of these wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of glass. This procedure aims to contribute to environmental remediation of mining areas through the vitrification, a process which offers an alternative for stabilization of hazardous waste. In addition, the marketing of the obtained product would provide an additional income to the mining areas. For this study three samples of mining waste, with grain size between sand and silt, were used. The chemical composition of these raw materials, determined by X-ray fluorescence, is granitic, with high contents of heavy metals. On the basis of its composition, glass were made from silica glass by adding CaCO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The thermal cycle has been determined from TDA. Tg values of glass range from 626 degree centigrade to 709 degree centigrade. Leaching tests of the obtained glasses confirm their capacity to retain heavy metals. (Author) 38 refs.

  14. Balance hidrico y clasificacion climatica del estado de Tabasco, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruiz-Alvarez, O; Arteaga-Ramirez, R; Vazquez-Pena, M.A; Ontiveros Capurata, R.E; Lopez-Lopez, R

    2012-01-01

    ... de este Estado con la metodologia de Thornthwaite. Del total de estaciones climatologicas del Estado, se seleccionaron 40 con datos promedios mensuales de temperatura y precipitacion, el resto no conto con ambas variables...

  15. Estrategias de (reapropiación urbana y disputa territorial en la conformación de los barrios alteños El Porvenir I y 16 de Julio (Bolivia, 1985-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Paula Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalmente la ciudad de El Alto (Bolivia es analizada como un núcleo urbano homogéneo. Eneste artículo se analiza la existencia de ejemplos de desarrollo urbano desigual y combinado. Elobjetivo principal es abordar las estrategias de acceso al hábitat y la (reapropiación del territoriourbano por parte de los migrantes aymaras residentes en el barrio periférico El Porvenir I y enel barrio céntrico 16 de Julio. Se presta atención a la disputa con los diversos actores sociales queparticipan en la dinámica de la construcción barrial: los loteadores informales y el Estado duranteel periodo 1985-2012.Para llevar a cabo este estudio se aplicó una metodología cualitativa que incluyó entrevistas semiestructuradasa la población migrante y a los informantes-clave y observación no participante,incorporando datos de fuentes secundarias.

  16. Caracterización clínica y etiológica de las diferentes discapacidades en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Taboada Lugo, Noel; Minaya Ramos, Graciela

    2012-01-01

    La discapacidad es una realidad humana percibida de manera diferente en diferentes períodos históricos y civilizaciones. El término, de uso frecuente, se refiere al funcionamiento individual e incluye discapacidad físico-motora, sensorial, visceral, cognitiva o intelectual, y discapacidad psíquica o mental. Objetivos: Identificar las frecuencias de los distintos tipos de discapacidad, así como las principales causas que la originaron. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo tra...

  17. Estado Plurinacional: entre el nuevo proyecto y la factualidad neocolonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mamani Ramirez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses the deep contradictions and paradoxes that indigenous social movements face in their struggles to reverse the republican colonial order in Bolivia and to share the exercise of political power with the two hundred year old elite groups.  Here the complexity is toask oneself about what type of society is being built in Bolivia. Are we moving toward a pluralist society of an Indian-popular type, toward a liberal multicultural mestizo-style society, or toward a monocultural society?Este trabajo expone y discute las profundas contradicciones y paradojas por las que atraviesan los movimientos sociales indios-originarios-campesinos en sus luchas por revertir el orden republicano colonial en Bolivia y compartir, con los grupos bicentenarios, el ejercicio del poder político. Aquí lo complejo es preguntarse por el tipo de sociedad que se está construyendo en Bolivia. ¿Nos encaminamos hacia una sociedad plural de tipo indio-popular, hacia una sociedad de estilo multicultural liberal mestizo, o hacia una sociedad monocultural?

  18. La influencia de los sub-complejos de seguridad regional en la evolución del problema de las drogas como amenaza a la seguridad hemisférica en el marco de la Organización de Estados Americanos. Periodo 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda Parra, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo monográfico es analizar la evolución del problema de las drogas dentro del marco de la Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA) durante el periodo comprendido entre los años 2003 y 2013. Se desarrolla un estudio sobre los dos grupos de países que más han participado en lo concerniente a este tema. Por un lado Estados Unidos, Canadá y México; y por otro lado Colombia, Perú y Bolivia son lo países que por sus lógicas y tendencias han impulsado este problema y su evol...

  19. Prevalencia de las infecciones por virus de las hepatitis B, C, D y E en Bolivia Prevalence of viral hepatitis B, C, D, and E in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar León

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available En Bolivia no se han realizado estudios específicos sobre los virus de la hepatitis, por lo que su prevalencia y patrones de circulación son prácticamente desconocidos. De 1992 a 1996 se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico con el fin de adquirir una primera visión de conjunto sobre las prevalencias de las infecciones por virus de la hepatitis B (VHB, C (VHC, D (VHD y E (VHE en distintas poblaciones de Bolivia. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en otros lugares de América Latina, se prestó atención especial al estudio de las comunidades autóctonas de la región amazónica. En las zonas rurales del altiplano andino, la infección por VHB presentó una prevalencia general que correspondería a una situación de endemia media o baja (11,2% y no se encontró ningún portador de anticuerpos contra VHC o VHD. En dos poblaciones de alto riesgo de la ciudad de Cochabamba (niños sin hogar y trabajadoras del sexo, la prevalencia de infección por VHB fue similar (11,6% y podría considerarse baja en comparación con la de otras poblaciones análogas de núcleos urbanos en América Latina. La correspondiente al VHC (un caso positivo, 0,5% sería parecida a la descrita en esas mismas poblaciones, si bien el escaso número de muestras estudiadas no permite extraer conclusiones más firmes. En concordancia con observaciones anteriores de comunidades similares de zonas tropicales de Suramérica, en las poblaciones autóctonas de la Amazonia boliviana la infección por VHB es sumamente endémica (prevalencia general de 74,0%, pero no se ha detectado la circulación de VHC. Se sabe que la transmisión de VHB es horizontal y tiene lugar desde edades muy tempranas, pero se desconocen los mecanismos de esa actividad. A los 10 años de edad, más de la mitad de la población ya ha experimentado la infección natural que, 10 años más tarde, se habrá difundido a prácticamente toda la población. La tasa muy baja de individuos positivos al HbsAg (1

  20. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-01-01

    .... Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru's soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such...

  1. PIGRAU SOLÉ, Antoni (ed.), Pueblos indígenas, diversidad cultural y justicia ambiental. Un estudio de las nuevas constituciones de Ecuador y Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Picó Reig, Laura; Lopes Ricarte, Thays

    2014-01-01

    PIGRAU SOLÉ, Antoni (ed.), Pueblos indígenas, diversidad cultural y justicia ambiental. Un estudio de las nuevas constituciones de Ecuador y Bolivia, Tirant Lo Blanch, Estudios Latinoamericanos, Valencia, 2013, 76

  2. ARGUMENTOS SOBRE EL ESTADO DE BIENESTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar de Jesús Briceño Rodón

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los grandes logros y aportes a la humanidad por parte de la civilización europea, fue el desarrollo e implementación del Estado de Bienestar. Hasta hoy dia, son muchas las naciones del mundo las que han adoptado y tratado de imitar lo acaecido en la Europa de la postguerra. El proposito de esta investigación es comprender sus origenes, características, tipos, objetivos, su legitimidad y momentos de crisis, así como tambien su futuro y lo concerniente al Estado de Bienestar en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Esta investigación esta enfocada en el paradigma cualitativo, fenomenológico e interpretativo. Como alternativa al capitalismo radical nace el Estado de Bienestar a fin de desarrollar políticas sociales con la finalidad de garantizar un adecuado nivel de desarrollo humano. Su permanencia esta vinculada con las condiciones socio-políticas del momento histórico-económico. En la República Bolivariana de Venezuela existen constitucionalmente acertados pilares de Estado Bienestar.

  3. Estado nutricional y asistencia alimentaria escolar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bejarano, Ignacio; Cabrera, Graciela

    2005-01-01

    ... la evaluación del estado nutricional de los escolares asistidos por el mismo. Se evaluaron antropométricamente (Peso en kg. y Talla en cm.), al principio del ciclo lectivo 2003,19430 escolares de 4 a 15...

  4. Estados Unidos: do Iraque ao Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca analisar os recentes temas recorrentes na política externa norte-americana, caracterizada pela “guerra contra o terror”, e seus impactos para a agenda a ser discutida na vindoura visita do presidente dos Estados Unidos, Geoge W. Bush, ao Brasil.

  5. Pasajes entre el Estado de excepción y el Estado-guerra

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Godoy, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación es una reflexión sobre los múltiples paradigmas que articulan el diagrama del biopoder contemporáneo. El análisis del Estado de excepción como figura que delimita lo político de lo jurídico, nos permite emprender una genealogía del Estado moderno y del concepto de soberanía en el cual se sustenta. Para comprender la profundidad filosófica que está en juego en el concepto de Estado de excepción iniciamos la primera parte, El pasaje del Estado de excepción, problematizand...

  6. Nacionalismo, Estado y nación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vizcaíno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hay un consenso general dentro del campo de las ciencias sociales en afirmar que el nacionalismo es una práctica usual de las elites políticas y culturales de un territorio, cuando movilizan fuerzas sociales latentes a través de su discurso simbólico; discursos y prácticas que se basan en elementos materiales y subjetivos, pero que solo a través del escenario público en el que se realiza el discurso nacionalista, logran un efecto lo suficientemente fuerte como para hacer creer a una comunidad que tienen los elementos distintivos de una nación, dichos elementos son: nación y el territorio, un enemigo externo, un enemigo interno, la unidad, la historia sagrada, la independencia y un conflicto a resolver. Frente a este discurso del nacionalismo se han tejido dos grandes hipótesis, una que opina que el nacionalismo solo se puede dar dentro del marco de! Estado nación moderno, es decir, en donde cultura se asimila con instituciones jurídico políticas; o un modelo étnico, en el que se resaltan los movimientos étnicos que quieren proclamarse como Estados autónomos o aquellos movimientos culturalmente subversivos frente al Estado que pretenden deslegitimarlo. La primera de esta posmra es defendida y proclamada por autores como Ernest Gellner y Hans Kohn, quienes conciben que la nacion es un fenómeno que empieza a aparecer después de la revolución francesa y su impulso a la consolidación de Estados racionales. La otra postura es la de Anthony Smith, quien ha encontrado en la historia comunidades nacionales no estatales o previas a la formación de los Estados, por 10 que construye una tipología de modelos nacionalistas que van desde la tribu hasta la nación. La postura de este artículo es construir un modelo teórico de nacionalismo que reconozca la nación en su modelo cultural, es decir étnico particularista, pero que al mismo tiempo pueda entender e! modelo estatal, o sea, que permita estudiar e! nacionalismo de las minorías y

  7. Population data of 15 autosomal STR markers from Afro-Bolivians of Nor Yungas Province (Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, María Laura; Iudica, Celia Estela; Lancelotti, Julio Lucio; Sambuco, Lorena Andrea; Jaureguiberry, Stella Maris; Avena, Sergio Alejandro; Carnese, Francisco Raúl

    2015-05-01

    Allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 15 autosomal loci included in the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler kit were estimated in a sample of 57 unrelated Afro-descendants from Nor Yungas (Bolivia). Buccal swabs samples were obtained from voluntary donors, after consent was given. All loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. D21S11 was the most informative locus, while the least discriminating locus was D3S1358. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion were >0.99999999 and >0.99997, respectively. The multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot generated by Rst matrix supported that Afro-Bolivians of Nor Yungas preserved a stronger African descent compared to other admixed Latin American populations. These results amplified the Bolivian databases of autosomal STR loci and may provide a useful tool for human identification tests and population genetic studies.

  8. Safe household water treatment and storage using ceramic drip filters: a randomised controlled trial in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, T; Brown, J; Suntura, O; Collin, S

    2004-01-01

    A randomised controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ceramic drip filters to improve the microbiological quality of drinking water in a low-income community in rural Bolivia. In four rounds of water sampling over five months, 100% of the samples were free of thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTC) compared to an arithmetic mean TTC count of 1517, 406, 167 and 245 among control households which continued to use their customary sources of drinking water. The filter systems produced water that consistently met WHO drinking-water standards despite levels of turbidity that presented a challenge to other low-cost POU treatment methods. The filter systems also demonstrated an ability to maintain the high quality of the treated water against subsequent re-contamination in the home.

  9. Factors affecting the diffusion of solar water disinfection: a field study in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heri, Simone; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-08-01

    This study examines a broad array of theory-based factors derived from diffusion research that affect the current and intended use of solar water disinfection (SODIS), a simple, low-cost technology for treating drinking water at the household level. The perceived attributes of an innovation, the nature of the social system in which it is diffused, the extent of change agents' promotional efforts in diffusing it, and the nature of the communication channels used were operationalized by 16 variables. The aim of the study is to determine the influence of each factor and its predictive power. Eight areas in Bolivia were visited, and 644 families were interviewed on the basis of a structured questionnaire. Simultaneous multiple regression analysis showed that 9 of the 16 factors derived from diffusion research contributed significantly to predicting the current use of SODIS. The implications of the findings for customizing future SODIS diffusion activities are outlined.

  10. The Transition Toward a Multinational State in Bolivia and Ecuador (1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin CRUZ RODRÍGUEZ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The declaration of Bolivia and Ecuador as Plurinational Unitary States in their new constitutions is a deep split in the national imagination and State-Indians relationship. This historical demand of indigenous movements does  not imply the fragmentation of Nation states but in reading their opponents and governments it was associated with national disintegration, limiting the scope of state reforms in the 90s. The movements must coordinate with different sectors that  led to power for Evo Morales and Rafael Correa to promote a constitutional reform. However, the new constitutions have left by law to resolve problems which are the core of the multinational state, such as territorial autonomy and representation.

  11. From Conflict to Collaboration: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Coca Cultivation in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Ledebur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon his presidential election, Bolivian coca grower leader Evo Morales adopted a policy of promoting consensual coca reduction through social control, a sophisticated coca monitoring system, and economic development. That strategy is paying off. In 2011, coca cultivation decreased by 13 per cent according to the U.S. government. The Morales administration has also made significant progress facing the ongoing challenges of drug production and trafficking. Seizures of coca paste and cocaine and destruction of drug laboratories have steadily increased since President Morales took office. Despite continued tensions in bilateral relations, U.S.-Bolivian counter-drug cooperation continues and the signing of a new framework agreement in 2011 should lead to an exchange of ambassadors. Internationally, Bolivia has successfully gained acceptance of the right to the traditional use of coca within its own territory. But Bolivia’s efforts must be carried out in tandem with effective demand reduction strategies to shrink the global cocaine market.

  12. ¿Ha cambiado la protesta? La coyuntura actual de movilizaciones en Bolivia y Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Martí i Puig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia y Ecuador atraviesan un proceso de cambios en el sistema político y una reconfiguración de lasfuerzas sociales y políticas. Frente a un nuevo escenario, las organizaciones, movimientos sociales y colectivoshan cambiado sus formas de acción y relacionamiento con los actuales gobiernos. La nueva estructura deoportunidades políticas fruto de la llegada al poder del Movimiento al Socialismo y de Alianza País produjoel desplazamiento de algunas redes y activistas de los movimientos sociales hacia la administración y otroshacia la protesta. Con ello, durante los últimos años se evidencia una menor capacidad de movilizaciónaunque también un repunte de las protestas. El presente artículo busca interpretar el fenómeno descrito.

  13. From Lemongrass to Ivermectin: Ethnomedical Management of Chagas Disease in Tropical Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Colin

    2017-07-31

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease; the only viable drugs are outdated and produce frequent side effects, and the overwhelming majority of cases are undiagnosed and untreated. Globally, people encounter numerous impediments to accessing biomedical treatment for Chagas disease. However, little is known about how people with Chagas disease manage their health outside the biomedical system. In this article, I discuss knowledge of ethnomedical treatments among marginalized patients in an endemic area of Bolivia. I interviewed 68 patients, 63 (93 percent) of whom had positive diagnoses for Chagas disease. Participants free listed 66 ethnomedical remedies either for Chagas disease (n = 39) or its cardiac symptoms. Participants stressed the accessibility of ethnomedical remedies in contrast to the multiple barriers to accessing biomedical treatment. Far from eroding in the face of globalization and sociopolitical marginalization, ethnomedical knowledge in the study area is dynamic and flexible, communicated through various channels.

  14. Middle Pleistocene age of the fossiliferous sedimentary sequence from Tarija, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Bruce J.; Zeitler, Peter K.; Anaya, Federico; Cottle, John M.

    2013-03-01

    The highly fossiliferous sediments of the Tolomosa Formation from Tarija, southern Bolivia, represent one of the most important localities in South America that documents the Great American Biotic Interchange. Over the past several decades, chronostratigraphic studies have indicated a middle Pleistocene age for the Tolomosa Formation from ~ 1.1 to 0.7 Ma. This interval correlates to the Ensenadan South American Land Mammal Age as it is characterized from classic localities in Argentina. Recently, however, a new interpretation based on AMS 14C ages indicates that the fossiliferous sediments from Tarija are latest Pleistocene, i.e., Pleistocene, and not latest Pleistocene. The age of the Tarija Fauna has significant implications with regard to the stage of evolution biochronology for Pleistocene fossil mammals in South America, and in particular, the classic and important reference sections in Argentina.

  15. Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Dengue Fever in Bolivia from 1998 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Yelin; Baronti, Cécile; Revollo, Roberto Jimmy; Cook, Shelley; Loayza, Roxana; Ninove, Laetitia; Fernandez, Roberto Torrez; Flores, Jorge Vargas; Herve, Jean-Pierre; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever was first recognized in Bolivia in 1931. However, very limited information was available to date regarding the genetic characterization and epidemiology of Bolivian dengue virus strains. Here, we performed genetic characterization of the full-length envelope gene of 64 Bolivian isolates from 1998 to 2008 and investigated their origin and evolution to determine whether strains circulated simultaneously or alternatively, and whether or not multiple introductions of distinct viral variants had occurred during the period studied. We determined that, during the last decade, closely related viruses circulated during several consecutive years (5, 6, and 6 years for DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, respectively) and the co-circulation of two or even three serotypes was observed. Emergence of new variants (distinct from those identified during the previous episodes) was identified in the case of DENV-1 (2007 outbreak) and DENV-2 (2001 outbreak). In all cases, it is likely that the viruses originated from neighboring countries. PMID:19505253

  16. Blaming Machismo: How the Social Imaginary is Failing Men with HIV in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnography of HIV care in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in this article I explore how the social imaginary surrounding gender relations shapes men's experiences of seeking care for and living with HIV. Popular understandings of gender relations, which draw heavily on the machismo concept, intersect with a global health master narrative that frames women as victims in the AIDS epidemic in a way that generates a strong sentiment of blaming machismo within local HIV/AIDS-related services. Statements such as, "it's because of machismo" are used to explain away epidemiological trends. Participant observation in the context of HIV care, coupled with illness narrative interviews, illuminate how blaming machismo shapes men's experiences of care and the ways that they feel excluded from various forms of support. Thus, the illness experiences of men with HIV problematize the machismo concept and how it is drawn upon in the context of care.

  17. Novel Strain of Andes Virus Associated with Fatal Human Infection, Central Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristhopher D.; Vallejo, Efrain; Agudo, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge; Blazes, David L.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2012-01-01

    To better describe the genetic diversity of hantaviruses associated with human illness in South America, we screened blood samples from febrile patients in Chapare Province in central Bolivia during 2008–2009 for recent hantavirus infection. Hantavirus RNA was detected in 3 patients, including 1 who died. Partial RNA sequences of small and medium segments from the 3 patients were most closely related to Andes virus lineages but distinct (1 hantaviruses; the highest prevalence was among agricultural workers. Because of the high level of human exposure to hantavirus strains and the severity of resulting disease, additional studies are warranted to determine the reservoirs, ecologic range, and public health effect of this novel strain of hantavirus. PMID:22515983

  18. Acepciones de la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Soto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo consiste en determinar las acepciones de la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado previstas en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999. La metodología utilizada es la investigación documental, sustentada en el método analítico y la técnica del análisis de contenido. Las fuentes para la recolección de información atienden a tres ámbitos: constitucional, doctrinal y jurisprudencial. Se concluye que la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado es un sistema de acepciones entendido como valor superior, principio general del derecho público, deber constitucional del Estado en ejercicio de cualquier función pública, derecho subjetivo público de fuerza, rango o valor constitucional, garantía constitucional perteneciente al particular o administrado,integrante de cualquier sociedad democrática y de justicia, para exigir por vía administrativa o jurisdiccional la indemnización de daños y perjuicios, materiales y morales, causados en su situación jurídica -derecho subjetivo e interés legítimo o interés jurídico actual- o en sus bienes muebles o inmuebles imputables al funcionamiento, normal o anormal, de los entes y órganos del Estado.El Tribunal Supremo de Justicia en Sala Político-Administrativa establece una doctrina jurisprudencial iuspublicista sobre las acepciones de la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado. El calificativo iuspublicista obedece a la circunstancia de que la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999 constituye el instrumento normativo contentivo de las determinadas acepciones o significados.

  19. Elevational Distribution and Conservation Biogeography of Phanaeine Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sebastian K.; Hamel-Leigue, A. Caroli; Larsen, Trond H.; Mann, Darren J.; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W.; Gill, Bruce D.; Edmonds, W. D.; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann’s and Rapoport’s rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann’s rule. Rapoport’s rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport’s and refutation of Bergmann’s rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for

  20. Identifying candidate sites for crop biofortification in Latin America: case studies in Colombia, Nicaragua and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Caldas, Emmanuel; Hyman, Glenn; Pachón, Helena; Monserrate, Fredy Alexander; Varela, Liliana Vesga

    2009-05-19

    Agricultural science can address a population's vitamin, amino acid and mineral malnutrition through biofortification - agronomy, plant breeding and biotechnology to develop crops with high nutrient contents. Biofortified crop varieties should be grown in areas with populations at risk of nutrient deficiency and in areas where the same crop is already grown and consumed. Information on the population at risk of nutrient deficiency is rarely available for sub-national administrative units, such as provinces, districts, and municipalities. Nor is this type of information commonly analyzed with data on agricultural production. This project developed a method to identify populations at risk of nutrient deficiency in zones with high crop production, places where biofortification interventions could be targeted. Nutrient deficiency risk data were combined with crop production and socioeconomic data to assess the suitability of establishing an intervention. Our analysis developed maps of candidate sites for biofortification interventions for nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results for Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia are presented in this paper. Interventions in northern Colombia appear promising for all crops, while sites for bean biofortification are widely scattered throughout the country. The most promising sites in Nicaragua are found in the center-north region. Candidate sites for biofortification in Bolivia are found in the central part of the country, in the Andes Mountains. The availability and resolution of data limits the analysis. Some areas show opportunities for biofortification of several crops, taking advantage of their spatial coincidence. Results from this analysis should be confirmed by experts or through field visits. This study demonstrates a method for identifying candidate sites for biofortification interventions. The method evaluates populations at risk of nutrient deficiencies for sub-national administrative regions, and

  1. Dos nuevas especies de Phrynopus(Anura: Leptodactylidae de los bosques nublados de Bolivia

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    Cidar Rodrigo Aguayo Vedia

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe dos nuevas especies de Phrynopus de la Ceja de monte Yungueña de Cochabamba, Bolivia, P. adenopleurus y P. iatamasi. Ambas especies son asignables al grupo peruanus y se diferencian de las otras cuatro especies que existen en el país por presentar el primer dedo más corto que el segundo, tener membrana basal y por sus colores y diseños dorsales y ventrales. La musculatura ha sido pocas veces descrita para especies de Phrynopus. Phrynopus adenopleurus, especie nueva, posee una inusual musculatura mandibular y del muslo, muy poco parecida a lo descrito para otras especies del género.We describe two new species of Phrynopus from cloud forests in Cochabamba, Bolivia. The new species are assigned to the P. peruanus group and are characterized by the presence of basal webbing, distinctive coloration, and by having the first finger shorter than the second. The first of these new species was collected near Montepunko in Parque Nacional Carrasco and is known from eight males and six females. Among its distinctive characteristics are round cream-colored glands on its flanks. A second species is known from one male and one female collected near "Zona de Aguirre" near the northwest border of the park. V and X-shaped blotches and a dorsum that is smooth except for dorsolateral and scapular folds characterize this species. Musculature has rarely been described for species of Phrynopus. The species from Montepunko has unusual gular and thigh musculature that is quite unlike other species of the genus.

  2. Supply-side harm reduction strategies: Bolivia's experiment with social control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Linda; Kohl, Benjamin

    2012-11-01

    Harm reduction approaches to drug control have almost exclusively focussed on consumers in northern countries. This article supports recent analysis that indicates that such policies also hold relevance for producer countries by drawing on recent policy innovations in Bolivia. When Evo Morales, the president of the national coca grower confederation, was elected the country's first indigenous president in 2005, he promised to fundamentally change 25 years of the U.S.-funded "drug war" that had generated repeated human rights violations. The new policy, which implicitly incorporates harm reduction principles combined with respect for human rights, recognizes coca leaf's traditional use and cultural importance and relies on vigorous local organizations to implement a community-based programme called social control. Results to date indicate that Bolivia's social control experience has reduced violence in coca growing communities, ensured small farmers a subsistence income from coca and increased sovereignty, while making a modest contribution to containing expansion of coca cultivation. The programme has registered 50,000 farmers who are allowed to cultivate limited quantities of coca to supply traditional users and helped them gain secure title to their land. This registration is combined with satellite surveillance to guarantee that farmers do not exceed limits established by law. To date, the programme's reach is incomplete and coca is still diverted to the drug trade. Nonetheless, the approach may offer lessons for other drug producer countries, particularly where strong socio-political organizations are found in combination with closeknit communities holding shared cultural values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Alissa

    2017-03-01

    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  4. Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mischler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL, low annual precipitation (45-250 mm, and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC area under the curve (AUC (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively, while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC. This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics.

  5. Household economic strategies and nutritional anthropometry of women in American Samoa and highland Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, James R; Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2002-04-01

    This study compares findings from research projects involving different genetic, environmental, and cultural contexts: a study of lifestyle and health from American Samoa (ASLS) and the Bolivian project. Reproduction and Ecology in Provincia Aroma (REPA). This paper presents analyses of varying economic strategies and their association with nutritional status indicators in each population. The ASLS sample includes 66 Samoan women and the REPA sample includes 210 Aymara women. Principle components analysis of household economic resources within each sample extracted two significant factors: one represents modernizing influences including education and occupational status, and the other represents ethnographically salient traditional economic behavior. The traditional pattern includes adding household members in Samoa and selling agricultural products in Bolivia. This analysis places each woman along two continua, traditional and modern, based on her household mobilization of economic resources, permitting an understanding of the patterns underlying household economic behavior that is not possible in univariate analyses of socioeconomic variables. For the Bolivian women the strategy involving more education and higher occupational status was associated with higher measures of several nutritional status indicators, including body mass index, arm muscle area, and peripheral skinfolds. But among the Samoan women, where substantial obesity was the norm, there were no significant differences in anthropometric measurements based on economic strategies. These data argue for the importance of directly measuring the potential consequences of variation in household economic strategies rather than merely inferring such, and of assessing ethnographically relevant aspects of household economic production rather than limiting analyses to non-context-specific economic indicators such as income. This focus on household strategy is likely to be fruitful especially where economic and

  6. Elevational distribution and conservation biogeography of phanaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sebastian K; Hamel-Leigue, A Caroli; Larsen, Trond H; Mann, Darren J; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W; Gill, Bruce D; Edmonds, W D; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann's and Rapoport's rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann's rule. Rapoport's rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport's and refutation of Bergmann's rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for identifying

  7. Microsatellites Reveal a High Population Structure in Triatoma infestans from Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Gilligan, Lauren M.; Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Background For Chagas disease, the most serious infectious disease in the Americas, effective disease control depends on elimination of vectors through spraying with insecticides. Molecular genetic research can help vector control programs by identifying and characterizing vector populations and then developing effective intervention strategies. Methods and Findings The population genetic structure of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the main vector of Chagas disease in Bolivia, was investigated using a hierarchical sampling strategy. A total of 230 adults and nymphs from 23 localities throughout the department of Chuquisaca in Southern Bolivia were analyzed at ten microsatellite loci. Population structure, estimated using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) to estimate FST (infinite alleles model) and RST (stepwise mutation model), was significant between western and eastern regions within Chuquisaca and between insects collected in domestic and peri-domestic habitats. Genetic differentiation at three different hierarchical geographic levels was significant, even in the case of adjacent households within a single locality (R ST = 0.14, F ST = 0.07). On the largest geographic scale, among five communities up to 100 km apart, R ST = 0.12 and F ST = 0.06. Cluster analysis combined with assignment tests identified five clusters within the five communities. Conclusions Some houses are colonized by insects from several genetic clusters after spraying, whereas other households are colonized predominately by insects from a single cluster. Significant population structure, measured by both R ST and F ST, supports the hypothesis of poor dispersal ability and/or reduced migration of T. infestans. The high degree of genetic structure at small geographic scales, inferences from cluster analysis and assignment tests, and demographic data suggest reinfesting vectors are coming from nearby and from recrudescence (hatching of eggs that were laid

  8. The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Monick L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Materials and methods Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005. These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37 and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay. The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Results Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5% samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%. Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. Conclusion HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70

  9. The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Monick L; Velarde-Dunois, Ketty G; Segurondo, David; Morgado, Mariza G

    2012-01-16

    Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005). These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt) and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37) and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay). The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5%) samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%). Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70.0%) or BF1 recombinant (23.8% vs 30.0%) samples from Bolivia.

  10. Design and stabilization works of the km 767 slope of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Projeto e obra de estabilizacao do talude do km 767 do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson R.; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline starts at Santa Cruz de La Sierra city, in Bolivia, and goes until Canoas City (RS) in Brazil, with a total extent of 3,150 km. The pipeline crosses in the 2,593 km established in Brazilian soil, the most diverse types of geology and geomorphology. Along the line, the right-of-way (ROW) also crosses a lot of roads, railways, rivers and lakes. During a routine inspection (foot patrol), signs of instability were detected at an embankment slope of a highway of the Santa Catarina state, at the pipeline crossing. An eventual failure of this slope could put the pipeline at risk. The aim of this paper is to present the aspects of the stabilizations phases, since field investigation, design, works, instrumentation, until monitoring. Emphasis is given to the design criteria to pipeline safety. The solution adopted is composite by soil nailing, a changing of slope inclination and superficial drainage system. (author)

  11. Calidad de los servicios de anticoncepción en El Alto, Bolivia The quality of contraception services in El Alto, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Velasco

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo evaluar la calidad de los servicios de anticoncepción en la ciudad de El Alto, Bolivia. En su diseño se han contemplado cuatro elementos: 1 las relaciones entre los proveedores de servicios y sus clientes, 2 la disponibilidad de métodos anticonceptivos, 3 las condiciones de los servicios, y 4 la satisfacción de las usuarias. También se han tenido en cuenta las opiniones de los proveedores y de las usuarias y no usuarias de estos servicios, quienes se clasificaron como gubernamentales o no gubernamentales, de acuerdo con la administración de la institución a la que pertenecían. Los datos provinieron de un análisis de la situación de dichos servicios y de testimonios obtenidos de las participantes durante 1995. En cuanto a las relaciones interpersonales, se encontró que los proveedores percibían el trato del médico más favorablemente que las clientas, en tanto que las no usuarias lo percibían desfavorablemente. La percepción de un trato igualitario se correlacionó positivamente con la vestimenta que usaban las clientas. En cuanto a la disponibilidad de los métodos anticonceptivos, 15 de las 36 instituciones encuestadas no disponían de métodos modernos, a pesar de la existencia de una política nacional para proveerlos a la población. La oferta de estos servicios a parejas y a adolescentes es escasa, principalmente en las instituciones gubernamentales. El análisis de las condiciones de los servicios demostró que en algunas instituciones había problemas graves en la provisión de una atención de mínima calidad. Finalmente, este trabajo describe cómo la mayoría de estas limitaciones en la prestación de servicios de anticoncepción en El Alto pueden subsanarse mediante estrategias de costo moderado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of contraception services in the city of El Alto, Bolivia. In the study design, four components were considered: 1 interpersonal

  12. LOS COMITÉS DE ÉTICA DE INVESTIGACIÓN BIOMEDICA Y PSICOSOCIAL EN BOLIVIA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwareva Mashiri, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo reporta un estudio realizado en las ciudades de La Paz, Cochabamba, y Santa Cruz en Bolivia. Interesaba saber cuál era la situación de la bioética en Bolivia y cómo se estaba protegiendo a los sujetos de investigación. Luego de revisar algunos conceptos bioéticos, la legislación boliviana y los métodos del estudio, se dan a conocer los resultados del mismo, los cuales revelan gran desconocimiento respecto de cómo proteger los derechos de los sujetos, por la casi ausencia o el inadecuado funcionamiento de los comités de ética de la investigación. PMID:20802822

  13. La Construcción del Poder Nacional en la Bolivia de Evo Morales (2006-2014

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    Cristián Faundes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En atención al cumplimiento de dos periodos de gobierno de Evo Morales como Presidente de Bolivia en 2014 y a que ha sido reelecto para un tercer mandato (2015-2019, en un contexto de bonanza, estabilidad política y crecimiento relativamente alto, parece pertinente evaluar el proceso de construcción de poder en Bolivia. La inquietud se justifica en especial por el acelerado aumento del PIB y el consecuente aumento en el gasto en Defensa, todo lo anterior en un escenario político interno en que surge una nueva elite que viene con el ánimo de ampliar las fronteras del país hacia el Pacífico bajo el argumento de la reivindicación.

  14. La revocatoria presidencial en América Latina. Ventajas y limitaciones. Los casos de Venezuela, Bolivia y Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Eberhardt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the institutional features of the revocation of the presidential mandate in the constitutions of Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador. It likewise examines the times when it was invoked against Hugo Chávez in Venezuela in 2004 and Evo Morales in Bolivia in 2008. Its aim is to learn about its impact on presidential regimes. In that respect, it stands as a mechanism of vertical accountability to remove presidents who are de-legitimized by a popular vote. In the same manner, this article evaluates its advantages and limitations as a tool for overcoming a crisis of governability in democratic settings, that is, as an alternative form of political judgment (horizontal accountability.

  15. LA FORMACIÓN EN EVALUACIÓN PSICOLÓGICA EN CARRERAS DE PSICOLOGÍA DE BOLIVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Marion K. Schulmeyer

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la formación que se realiza en Bolivia en el área de la evaluación psicológica en base a los Planes de Estudio de las carreras de Psicología y los Programas Analíticos de cuatro universidades públicas y cuatro universidades privadas. Se analizó el papel que cumplen las materias de esta área en los programas de Psicología en Bolivia, los contenidos que se transmiten, cómo se enseña a evaluar y en qué teorías y bibliografía se basa esta formación. Los r...

  16. Prevalence, seasonality and severity of disease caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli in children with diarrhoea in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Lucia; Joffre, Enrique; Rivera, Rosario; Sjöling, Åsa; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Iñiguez, Volga

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of infection caused by different categories of diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC) strains, including enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) E. coli, in children who suffered from diarrhoea (n = 3943) or did not have diarrhoea (n = 1026) were analysed in two areas in Bolivia over a period of 4 years. We also analysed the seasonality of DEC infections and severity of diarrhoea in children with DEC infection and compared antibiotic resistance in DEC strains isolated from children with and without diarrhoea. Stool samples were analysed for the presence of DEC by culturing followed by PCR. The most prevalent DEC categories in samples from the children were: EAEC (11.2 %); ETEC (6.6 %); EPEC (5.8 %); and EIEC and EHEC (Bolivia and may cause severe disease in children.

  17. Local sustainable development effects of forest carbon projects in Brazil and Bolivia: A view from the field

    OpenAIRE

    May,P.H.; Boyd, E; Veiga, F.; M. Chang

    2004-01-01

    This study on the socio-economic effects of four carbon sequestration projects in Brazil and Bolivia examines how these projects contribute to local development processes and what benefits accrue to local people. It draws on a number of lessons relating to project design, social networks, economic impacts, and relations with local communities. In particular, it stresses the importance of early information exchange before project formulation to help reflect local social demands. It goes on to ...

  18. Analysis of the Execution of Counter-Drug Strategy in Bolivia Using the Low Intensity Conflict Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    production and trafficking of illegal drugs. The CINCSOUTH’s area of responsibility (AOR) is immense; it includes all Latin America minus Mexico and...the drug threat. The Strategy finally assess the economic and political agenda for the 1990’s. 2. National Diug Control Strategy: On 5 SEP 89...country study was based primarily on the Historia Grafica de Bolivia by Mariano Baptista Gumucio, the area handbook series: ]lDDxia_.a Colltry Study

  19. Scaling-up a public health innovation: a comparative study of post-abortion care in Bolivia and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Deborah L; Crane, Barbara B; Benson, Janie; Solo, Julie; Fetters, Tamara

    2007-06-01

    Post-abortion care (PAC), an innovation for treating women with complications of unsafe abortion, has been introduced in public health systems around the world since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). This article analyzes the process of scaling-up two of the three key elements of the original PAC model: providing prompt clinical treatment to women with abortion complications and offering post-abortion contraceptive counseling and methods in Bolivia and Mexico. The conceptual framework developed from this comparative analysis includes the environmental context for PAC scale-up; the major influences on start-up, expansion, and institutionalization of PAC; and the health, financial, and social impacts of institutionalization. Start-up in both Bolivia and Mexico was facilitated by innovative leaders or catalyzers who were committed to introducing PAC services into public health care settings, collaboration between international organizations and public health institutions, and financial resources. Important processes for successful PAC expansion included strengthening political commitment to PAC services through research, advocacy, and partnerships; improving health system capacity through training, supervision, and development of service guidelines; and facilitating health system access to essential technologies. Institutionalization of PAC has been more successful in Bolivia than Mexico, as measured by a series of proposed indicators. The positive health and financial impacts of PAC institutionalization have been partially measured in Bolivia and Mexico. Other hypotheses--that scaling-up PAC will significantly reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, decrease abortion-related stigma, and prepare the way for efforts to reform restrictive abortion laws and policies--have yet to be tested.

  20. The socioeconomic context of the use of Euterpe precatoria Mart. and E. oleracea Mart. in Bolivia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Bussmann, Rainer W.; Mac?a, Manuel J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Traditional knowledge (TK) has enabled communities to adapt to changes in life conditions over centuries. However, this local context is being dramatically affected by recent changes through globalization and modernization of societies. In this paper we seek to identify socio-economic factors that are related to the knowledge and use of two palm species in mestizo and indigenous communities in the Amazonian of Peru and Bolivia. Both species are known in the region under the main ve...

  1. Normative changes and gender equity. From electoral quotas to parity in Latin America: the cases of Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida ARCHENTI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, aimed at analyzing the impact of institutional factors on the efficacy of gender parity policy in Latinamerica. It compares regulatory changes and electoral results in Bolivia and Ecuador, the only two countries in Latinamerica that have implemented parity on national elections. These data demonstrate the persistence of obstacles for gender political parity effectiveness derived from electoral systems and from party aligned strategies channeled by electoral rationality.

  2. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  3. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Okano, Kiyoshi; Ito, Naoko; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

  4. Relaciones públicas para los estados

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    Michael Kunchzik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor trata de sistematizar la teoría y práctica de la propaganda de un Estado. La mayor parte de la acciones de construcción de la imagen de una nación son hechas en forma velada o encubierta. Política y medios de comunicación son tal para cual. Las relaciones públicas se los Estados, se entiende como el esfuerzo por mejorar la imagen del país en otro u otros países, a través de la difusión de información de interés común.

  5. Crisis del etado y estado constitucional

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    Alfonso de Julios-Campuzano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available el Estado Constitucional comporta la aparición de un nuevo paradigma de Estado de Derecho que alcanza de lleno a los modelos teóricos de la Ciencia del Derecho y a las categoríasepist��micas sobre las que ésta se había construido. De otra parte, la globalización implica también una mutación profunda del paradigma jurídico dominante que provoca una crisis del modelo jurídico estatalista. En este contexto teórico y práctico emerge la pregunta sobre el futuro del Estado Constitucional y de sus contenidos emancipadores en una época de crisis del Estado y de la Ciencia jurídica que le había dado soporte, de creciente interdependencia y de disolución de las fronteras estatales. ¿En qué condiciones puede el constitucionalismo sobrevivir a estas transformaciones?Abstract: Constitutional State entails theappearance of a new paradigm of State that reachessquarely the theoretical models of Legal Scienceand epistemic categories on that this one had beenconstructed. On the other hand, globalizationimplies also a deep mutation of the juridicaldominant paradigm that provokes a crisis of thejuridical model of statalism. In this theoretical andpractical context, emerges the question on thefuture of the Constitutional State and of itsemancipating contents in an era of crisis of theState and the Legal Science model that had given itsupport, of increasing interdependence and ofdissolution of the state borders. In what conditionscan constitutionalism survive to thesetransformations?

  6. Ventajas y placeres secretos de estados depresivos

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    Günter Jursch

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Las depresiones y los estados depresivos varían de una persona a otra. Si se quiere trabajar para mejorar la situación de las víctimas de estos males, sería indicado saber en qué se distinguen los diferentes fenómenos y dónde se encuentra la causa. Pues las depresiones a menudo cumplen una función que suele aparecer camuflada.

  7. Balances de glaciares y clima en Bolivia y Perú: impacto de los eventos ENSO

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    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available BILANS GLACIAIRES ET CLIMAT EN BOLIVIE ET AU PÉROU : IMPACT DES ÉVÉNEMENTS ENSO. À partir d’une reconstruction faite pour le glacier de Zongo (Cordillère Royale, Bolivie avec des données hydrologiques et de l’application du modèle linéaire (Lliboutry sur les données des glaciers Yanamarey et Uruashraju (Cordillère Blanche, Pérou, on a pu disposer de séries de 15-20 ans de bilans de masse. En analysant parallèlement les données recueillies aux stations météorologiques proches, on met en évidence le rôle des températures dans la détermination de ces bilans. La variabilité des températures dépend de façon étroite des phénomènes ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation : pendant ces épisodes, les températures maximales et minimales augmentent sensiblement, ce qui affecte le terme ablation du bilan de masse. On vérifie sur ces séries de 20 ans que toutes les années ENSO sont associées à des bilans négatifs. Pendant la plupart des épisodes ENSO se produit au sud du Pérou et en Bolivie une réduction des précipitations, ce qui contribue à accentuer l’effet ENSO sur les bilans. Ces événements ont une grande influence sur l’évolution actuelle des glaciers andins, caractérisée par un recul rapide. La reconstrucción del balance hidrológico a partir de datos hidrométricos del glaciar de Zongo (Cordillera Real de Bolivia, así como la aplicación del modelo lineal (Lliboutry sobre los datos de balance de los glaciares Yanamarey y Uruashraju (Cordillera Blanca del Perú, ofrecen la posibilidad de disponer de series de 15-20 años de balance de masa. Analizando paralelamente los datos recogidos en estaciones meteorológicas cercanas, se puede evidenciar el rol de las temperaturas en la determinación de estos balances. La variabilidad de las temperaturas depende de una manera estrecha de los eventos ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation: durante estos eventos, las temperaturas máximas y mínimas aumentan

  8. Novedades taxonómicas y sinopsis del género Digitaria (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae en Bolivia

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    Andrea S. Vega

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Digitaria está representado en Bolivia por 27 taxones: 22 especies y 5 variedades. Se describe e ilustra a Digitaria argillacea var. nulliseta A. S. Vega & Rúgolo var. nov. Digitaria catamarcensis, D. ternata, D. setigera y D. aequiglumis var. laetevirens constituyen nuevas citas para este país y D. laxa representa una cita dudosa para Bolivia. Se confirma la identidad y la presencia de D. gerdesii var. boliviensis y D. similis en Bolivia. Digitaria neesiana, D. sanguinalis, D. violascens y D. corynotricha son excluídas de este tratamiento. Digitaria lanuginosa y D. setigera se ilustran con detalles y Digitaria fragilis es ilustrada por primera vez. El trabajo incluye la sinonimia, iconografía, distribución geográfica y ecología, usos, nombres vernáculos, exsiccata y observaciones. Se provee también una clave para la identificación de los taxones

  9. Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in urban and rural community settings in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Alessandro; Pallecchi, Lucia; Fernandez, Connie; Mantella, Antonia; Riccobono, Eleonora; Magnelli, Donata; Mannini, Dario; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Segundo, Higinio; Monasterio, Joaquin; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cabezas, César; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in rural and urban community settings of Bolivia and Peru. MRSA nasal carriage was investigated in 585 individuals living in rural and urban areas of Bolivia and Peru (one urban area, one small rural village, and two native communities, one of which was highly isolated). MRSA isolates were subjected to molecular analysis for the detection of virulence genes, characterization of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and genotyping (multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)). An overall very low prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage was observed (0.5%), with MRSA carriers being detected only in a small rural village of the Bolivian Chaco. The three MRSA isolates showed the characteristics of community-associated MRSA (being susceptible to all non-beta-lactam antibiotics and harboring the SCCmec type IV), were clonally related, and belonged to ST1649. This study provides an insight into the epidemiology of MRSA in community settings of Bolivia and Peru. Reliable, time-saving, and low-cost methods should be implemented to encourage continued surveillance of MRSA dissemination in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estado de Exceção

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    Angelita Matos Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Abordaremos duas obras de Giorgio Agamben - Homo Sacer (2002 e Estado de Exceção (2004. Nas duas obras a noção-chave é a de exceção, definida em relação à vida “política” dos indivíduos, mas na primeira (2002 interessa a exceção identificada à vida nua dos “súditos”, enquanto a segunda (2004 volta-se mais ao Estado, em sua dimensão biopolítica e (ahistórica. Recorreremos a Thomas Hobbes e Carl Schmitt a fim de melhor compreender o autor, indicando que, além da dívida para com Hobbes, sua idéia de exceção e a crítica ao estado de direito deve muito a Carl Schmitt.

  11. REESCALONAMENTO ESPACIAL DO ESTADO DESENVOLVIMENTISTA NO BRASIL

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    Marcos Barcellos de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende ofrecer una contribución al debate sobre la economía política urbana y regional en Brasil para explorar las relaciones entre las instituciones estatales y las escalas espaciales en la producción y regulación del desarrollo espacial desigual en el país. Para ello, sobre la base de las contribuciones re - cientes a la Geografía anglosajona, buscamos analizar las tensiones y crisis en las estrategias y proyectos de desarrollo espacial del Estado. En este sentido, tenemos la intención de adaptar algunos de los supuestos teóricos para el contexto brasileño, con el fin de incorporar su forma de Estado y los procesos de rescalo - namientos específicos. Adoptamos una metodología de procedimiento para analizar cómo la urbanización y el desarrollo regional terminan creando sus propios mecanismos de desplazamiento y generación de las crisis de regulación, así como de las correspondientes estrategias de intervención política para resolverlos. En este trabajo, se parte de la idea de que la hegemonía es disputada en múltiples escalas, lo que permite establecer las relaciones entre los cambios en el bloque hegemónico y las formas espaciales del Estado.

  12. Violencia y Estado. La posición de Hegel acerca del estado de naturaleza

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    Juan Ignacio Arias Krause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La dualidad entre “estado de naturaleza” y “Estado civil”, propuesta por los teóricos modernos del derecho natural, es asumida por G. W. F. Hegel sometiéndola a una crítica radical que deriva en su singular comprensión de política y derecho. Según el filósofo, ambos “estados” se encuentran operando activamente en distintos niveles de la realidad política sin constituir más que en apariencia una dualidad dicotómica. Lo que se propone mostrar es que [1] la violencia que caracteriza tradicionalmente al estado de naturaleza es un momento fundacional de la política; [2] la crítica a la presentación de un estado de naturaleza sustantivizado, para [3] concluir con la interiorización que hace Hegel de aquellos elementos que habían sido expuestos como exteriores, y que cumplen una función fundamental en el desarrollo del Estado.

  13. Programa 'nieves y glaciares tropicales' (NGT: resultados (1991-1996 obtenidos en Bolivia

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    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available PROGRAMME “NEIGES ET GLACIERS TROPICAUX” (NGT: RÉSULTATS (1991-1996 OBTENUS EN BOLIVIE. Depuis 1991, avec ses partenaires la COBEE, l’IHH et le SENAMHI, l’ORSTOM a progressivement équipé 2 glaciers de la Cordillère Royale de Bolivie, les glaciers de Chacaltaya et Zongo. Cet équipement a permis de réaliser les bilans glaciologiques des 2 glaciers et les bilans hydrologique et énergétique du glacier Zongo. Les principaux résultats, glaciologique, hydrologique et énergétique, sont fournis dans cette communication. Un premier modèle physique du fonctionnement du glacier Zongo a été réalisé, avec des premiers résultats qui permettent d’entreprendre un modèle plus élaboré susceptible d’être généralisé à d’autres glaciers. Des carottages de neige et glace à haute altitude ont confirmé la possibilité d’exploiter ces véritables archives climatologiques. Desde 1991, con sus contrapartes COBEE, IHH y SENAMHI, el ORSTOM ha equipado progresivamente 2 glaciares de la Cordillera Real de Bolivia, los glaciares de Chacaltaya y Zongo. Este equipo ha permitido realizar los balances glaciológicos de los 2 glaciares y los balances hidrológico y energético del glaciar Zongo. Los principales resultados, glaciológicos, hidrológicos y energéticos, son proporcionados en esta comunicación. Se realizó un primer modelo físico del funcionamiento del glaciar Zongo, con primeros resultados que permiten comenzar un modelo más elaborado capaz de ser generalizado a otros glaciares. Extracciones de testigos de nieve y hielo a gran altura confirmaron la posibilidad de aprovechar estos verdaderos archivos climatológicos. PROGRAM “SNOWS AND GLACIERS IN THE TROPICS” (NGT: PRINCIPAL RESULTS IN BOLIVIA (1991-1996. Since 1991, two glaciers of the Royal Cordillera of Bolivia, the glaciers of Chacaltaya and Zongo, have been equipped by ORSTOM with his partners COBEE, IHH and SENAMHI. That equipment allowed to carry out the glaciological

  14. La crisis de la integración andina durante los procesos de negociación de la biodiversidad en el TLC con los Estados Unidos

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    Catalina Toro Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios recientes en la geopolítica andina, debido en gran parte a la emergencia de nuevos gobiernos progresistas de Ecuador, Bolivia y Venezuela como resultado de la resistencia social de los pueblos andinos frente al proyecto del ALCA (Acuerdo de Libre Comercio de las Américas y los tratados de Libre Comercio que Estados Unidos quiso imponer en la región, plantean la necesidad de pensar el desarrollo de una nueva agenda de integración. El proceso de negociación de libre comercio entre Colombia y Perú con los Estados Unidos y más recientemente con la Unión Europea, revela, sin embargo, no sólo la crisis de los procesos de integración entre los gobiernos pertenecientes a la Comunidad Andina de Naciones, sino también el creciente aislamiento de estos dos países, de las nuevas dinámicas regionales emergentes en América Latina. En este ensayo, planteamos como el proceso de negociación de los tratados de Libre Comercio con Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea en materia de biodiversidad, propiedad intelectual y conocimiento tradicional revelan, no sólo la crisis de los procesos de integración en lo que refiere a los desarrollos legislativos y normativos existentes en la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN, sino también la situación de derechos colectivos de las comunidades indígenas y locales en la región.

  15. LA INCIDENCIA DEL CONCEPTO ESTADO DE DERECHO Y ESTADO SOCIAL DE DERECHO EN LA INDEPENDENCIA JUDICIAL

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    Luisa Fernanda García Lozano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo tiene como objetivo realizar un análisis de la incidencia del tipo de Estado en la independencia judicial. En la primera parte, se aborda de forma integral el concepto de Estado de derecho haciendo énfasis en las características históricas y neoinstitucionales que han sido el fundamento de imposición en los últimos años. En la segunda parte, se estudia la trasformación del paradigma jurídico colombiano con su consagración en un Estado Social de Derecho, sus alcances en el campo constitucional y, la necesidad de realizar un estudio específico de este tema.

  16. Comparison of transmission parameters between Anopheles argyritarsis and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in two ecologically different localities of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Aliaga, Claudia; Tejerina, Rosenka; Torrez, Libia

    2013-08-13

    Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis is a recognized malaria vector in the slopes of the Andes of Bolivia. There, other species might be involved in malaria transmission and one candidate could be Anopheles argyritarsis. Although it is generally admitted that this species is not a malaria vector in the neotropical region, its potential role in transmission is still controversial and this situation has to be cleared, at least for Bolivia. Comparing the vectorial efficiency of An. pseudopunctipennis with that of An. argyritarsis could solve the question. The two species were sampled throughout Bolivia to estimate their degree of co-existence in their distribution range. Vectorial efficiencies of the two species were compared in two ecologically different localities where the species were sympatric by analysing their vectorial capacities and components (i e, human biting rates, human biting index, survival, durations of the gonotrophic cycle and extrinsic cycle), and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR). Mosquitoes were sampled monthly during more than one year in the two localities. A monthly sample consisted in hourly captures in four houses (inside and outside) in each locality, during four consecutive nights. Climatic variables (temperature, humidity, potential evapo-transpiration and precipitations) were recorded to better understand variability in the entomological parameters. Relationships were analysed using multivariate methods. Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis are "altitude" species, sharing the same geographical distribution range in the Andes of Bolivia. No Plasmodium parasite was identified in An. argyritarsis and estimates of the vectorial capacity indicated that it is not a malaria vector in the two studied localities, unlike An. pseudopunctipennis which showed positive EIRs. This latter species, although not a very good malaria vector, exhibited better life traits values and better behavioural characteristics in favour of

  17. Análisis de la elección presidencial de 2005 en Bolivia

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    Salvador ROMERO BALLIVIÁN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Bolivia celebró en 2005 una elección presidencial anticipada que constituyó la respuesta a la grave crisis política y social que vivió el país en los años previos. El resultado de los comicios no tuvo precedentes en la historia democrática reciente pues por primera vez un candidato consiguió la mayoría absoluta y los partidos hasta entonces dominantes quedaron en una posición desairada. El triunfador, Evo Morales, encabezó una organización de izquierda que criticó con dureza el liberalismo económico, reivindicó el nacionalismo, prometió una reforma profunda de la política e hizo énfasis en la identidad étnica indígena. Superó por amplio margen al ex presidente Jorge Quiroga y conformó el primer gobierno monocolor desde el retorno a la democracia. El artículo busca ofrecer una explicación política y sociológica de los principales datos de la elección, interesándose en el desarrollo de la campaña y el comportamiento de los votantes.ABSTRACT: Bolivia celebrated in 2005 a presidential early election that constituted the response to the serious political and social crisis that lived through the country in the previous years. The result of the assemblies did not have precedents in the democratic recent history since for the first time a candidate obtained the absolute majority and the parties till then dominant stayed in a graceless position. The winner, Evo Morales, headed an organization of left side that criticized with hardness the economic liberalism, claimed the economic nationalism, promised a deep reform of the politics and did emphasis in the ethnic indigenous identity. He overcame for wide margin the ex-president Jorge Quiroga and the first government shaped monocolor from the return to the democracy. The article seeks to offer a political and sociological explanation of the principal information of the election, being interested in the development of the campaign and the behavior of the voters.

  18. Rural migration in Bolivia: the impact of climate change, economic crisis and state policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal, Carlos Balderrama; Tassi, Nico; Miranda, Ana Rubena; Canedo, Lucia Aramayo; Cazorla, Ivan

    2011-04-15

    This case study analyses current migration dynamics in two regions of Bolivia: Northern Potosi, one of the main areas of outmigration in Bolivia, and the municipality of San Julian in the Department of Santa Cruz, a major destination for internal migrants, some of whom come from Northern Potosi. The research was qualitative in nature, with specific attention to breadth and accuracy in the information and analysis. The methods used were participative and the research was done in collaboration with the rural and indigenous organisations in the two selected areas: the Federation of Indigenous Ayllus of Northern Potosi (Federacion de Ayllus Originarios Indigenas del Norte de Potosi Charka Qhara Qhara - FAOI-NP) and the Federation of Intercultural Communities of San Julian (Federacion de Comunidades Interculturales de San Julian). The information gathering process examined a wide range of factors that may trigger migration, including the possible influence of climate change and public policies on migration. The key challenge was to understand current patterns of migration, the processes involved and the social, cultural, economic and political causes and effects, taking into account issues that are increasing in importance, such as climate change, and seeking to discover the extent of their influence in the midst of other factors that drive migration. It is well known that migration is not a simple occurrence. In fact, it involves a series of processes, motivations, causes and decisions. Because it is a collective rather than an individual process, it takes on the character of a 'social phenomenon' that is historically and geographically determined. In many cases, there are cultural practices of transhumance, such as agriculture on different ecological levels or the use of winter and summer pastures. This involves people moving from one place to another, sometimes travelling long distances and crossing districts for several months at a time. These transhumance

  19. Modelo Vectorial para la Inferencia del Estado Cognitivo de Pacientes en Estados Derivados del Coma

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    Esteban Velásquez R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La forma tradicional de evaluar el estado de conciencia de un individuo, ha sido mediante la aplicación de estímulos y el análisis de sus respuestas, sin embargo, esta técnica se ve limitada cuando el individuo es incapaz de responder evidentemente ante un estímulo, como es el caso de los pacientes en estados derivados del coma. En estos casos, se requiere de una conexión directa con el cerebro del paciente para detectar una respuesta. Por consiguiente, en este artículo se desarrolla y analiza un modelo computacional basado en los principios de las máquinas de soporte vectorial (MSV, para inferir el estado cognitivo de pacientes en estados derivados del coma, mediante la utilización de un equipo de electroencefalografía comercial. Los resultados obtenidos, mostraron que el modelo logró clasificar correctamente una tarea cognitiva en al menos cuatro de cada cinco pruebas en pacientes de control, lo que se traduce en la obtención de un sistema de bajo costo para el análisis del estado de conciencia y para la posible comunicación con algunos pacientes en estados derivados del coma mediante protocolos médicos definidos. De esta manera, este sistema se presenta como un gran aporte para las clínicas y centros hospitalarios, como herramienta potencial de diagnóstico para este tipo de pacientes.

  20. Bolivia, la otra que quiero y que empezaba a desconocer. Reflexiones en torno al Informe de Desarrollo Humano en Bolivia 2000

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    Luis VERDESOTO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo —que comenta el Informe Desarrollo Humano de Bolivia 2000— se pregunta ¿qué significa globalizarse para un país? ¿Es posible medirla desde las dimensiones subjetivas de la interacción social? ¿Cuáles son los límites de la modificación de la "personalidad social" de las naciones? Para proyectarse en el mundo globalizado es necesario interactuar desde la definición de los intereses "propios". Hay que definir los cambios en los paradigmas de la subjetividad para asumir la comparación y examinar las aptitudes para conservar y modificar a la nación. En suma, ¿Estamos construyendo formas específicas de ser en la globalización? La forma de entendernos en los "poderes" de la globalización es disponer de un arsenal mínimo de "saberes". Es una medición de la autonomía para relacionarse. Permite "negociar" la inserción en la globalización, que plantea las formas de una construcción conjunta y conflictiva de los sentidos de la historicidad (compromisos. Acerca de las tareas pendientes, en el ámbito político, el artículo sostiene que deben fortalecerse las instituciones: cuando la sociedad asedia con su dinámica contradictoria, las instituciones no pueden construir su lógica valórica. En el ámbito económico, debe re-enrumbarse el sentido de la competitividad: ¿Se puede conducir la eficiencia hacia la solidaridad? En el ámbito social, debe superarse la extrema pobreza: existe una enorme incapacidad para producir un pacto nacional contra la pobreza ya que los pactos políticos no tienen pactos sociales de sustento.La educación aparece como la posibilidad de (re conocer a la inserción internacional como una oportunidad. Es una apuesta por la ciudadanización, ejercicio de la capacidad de elección de los usuarios de la democracia. La utilización de las instituciones de la democracia está sustentada en la implantación ininterrumpida de la ciudadanía. Para que los valores sean parte del desarrollo

  1. Fluid inclusion studies of the polymetallic hydrothermal ore deposits in bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaki, A.; Kojima, S.; Shimada, N.

    1988-01-01

    Homogenization temperature and salinity were determined for fluid inclusions in mostly quartz and partly sphalerite, cassiterite, and barite from the 28 tin-polymetallic ore deposits in Bolivia. Generally, the homogenization temperatures and salinities of these fluid inclusions are comparatively high for ore deposits formed by cassiterite mineralization, such as Morococala and Avicaya in the Oruro district, frequently indicating a temperature higher than 300°C and salinity higher than 20 equiv. wt% NaCl. Particularly, it is quite possible that tin deposits associated with the W-Bi and tourmaline mineralizations such as Viloco and Caracoles have been produced by such high-temperature hypersaline fluid ranging up to 500°C and 56 equiv. wt% NaCl, similar to the porphyry copper type. This feature reveals that the hydrothermal fluid related to the Sn-W-Bi mineralization may be of magmatic origin. Homogenization temperatures for the Pb-Zn deposits with no tin minerals are low, mostly ranging 170° 300°C. At the Avicaya-Bolivar mining area in the Oruro district as well as at the Tasna and Chocaya-Animas mining areas in the Quechisla district temperature gradients consistent with the zonal distributions of ore minerals were confirmed.

  2. Managing externally financed projects: the Integrated Primary Health Care Project in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homedes, N

    2001-12-01

    Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Health indicators are very poor, communicable diseases are prevalent and, coupled with malnutrition, remain the major killers of children under 5 years old. The Integrated Primary Health Care Project (PROISS) was a US$39 million project executed by the Ministry of Health (MOH), 50% financed by the World Bank and aimed at improving primary health care in the four largest Bolivian municipalities. The implementation of the project started in 1990 and ended in 1997. During implementation it went through three distinct phases: Phase 1 (1990-94) was a period characterized by conflict and confusion; Phase 2 (1995-mid-1996) documented major improvements in coverage and service quality; and Phase 3 (mid-1996-97) witnessed the decline of the project. This paper explores the factors that contributed to the success and the decline of the project, draws lessons for project managers and international agencies involved in the definition and implementation of social sector projects, and discusses the unlikelihood that externally financed projects can have a sustainable impact on the development of the health sector of recipient countries.

  3. Speculations Linking Monazite Compositions to Origin: Llallagua Tin Ore Deposit (Bolivia

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    Elizabeth J. Catlos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monazite [(Ce,ThPO4] from the Llallagua tin ore deposit in Bolivia is characterized by low radiogenic element contents. Previously reported field evidence and mineral associations suggest the mineral formed via direct precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. Monazite compositions thus may provide insight into characteristics of the fluids from which it formed. Chemical compositions of three Llallagua monazite grains were obtained using Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA, n = 64] and laser ablation mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS, n = 56. The mineral has higher amounts of U (123 ± 17 ppm than Th (39 ± 20 ppm (LA-ICP-MS, ±1σ. Grains have the highest amounts of fluorine ever reported for monazite (0.88 ± 0.10 wt %, EPMA, ±1σ, and F-rich fluids are effective mobilizers of rare earth elements (REEs, Y, and Th. The monazite has high Eu contents and positive Eu anomalies, consistent with formation in a highly-reducing back-arc environment. We speculate that F, Ca, Si and REE may have been supplied via dissolution of pre-existing fluorapatite. Llallagua monazite oscillatory zoning is controlled by an interplay of low (P + Ca + Si + Y and high atomic number (REE elements. We suggest monazite compositions provide insight into fluid geochemistry, mineral reactions, and tectonic settings of ore deposits that contain the mineral.

  4. Evaluación de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz, Bolivia

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    Omar Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 1996 al 2003, mediante métodos de observación directa, caminatas y capturas con redes niebla, realizamos un inventario y obtuvimos datos sobre la historia natural, gremios tróficos y patrones de migración de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz (Bolivia. Registramos 136 especies de aves en 30 localidades de estudio. Las familias más representativas fueron Tyrannidae, Emberizidae y Furnariidae con 19, 16 y 15 especies, re- spectivamente. Registramos 18 especies de aves acuáticas y dos especies (Tachuris rubrigastra y Phleocryptes melanops de passeriformes especialistas de totorales. Dos especies de furnáridos (Cranioleuca henricae y Upucerthia harterti fueron endémicas bolivianas. Detectamos 57 especies en alguna categoría de migración. Movimientos altitudinales inusuales fueron observados para cinco especies (e.g. Pitangus sulphuratus, Pyro- cephalus rubinus. Diecinueve especies fueron consideradas raras (e.g. Lesbia nuna, Poospiza boliviana. Los insectívoros y frugi-granívoros son los gremios tróficos mas representativos entre comunidades. El valle de la ciudad de La Paz es una ruta obligatoria para muchas aves migrantes latitudinales (boreales y australes y altitudinales, que provienen del Altiplano por el oeste y las especies de Yungas por el este.

  5. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: outbreak investigation and antibody prevalence study.

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    Joel M Montgomery

    Full Text Available We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1% of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans.

  6. "I Cannot Be Worried": Living with Chagas Disease in Tropical Bolivia.

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    Colin J Forsyth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD profoundly affects the social and emotional dimensions of patients' lives, and disproportionately impacts poor, marginalized populations in Latin America. Biomedical treatment for CD fails to reach up to 99% of the people affected, and in any case seldom addresses the emotional health or socioeconomic conditions of patients. This study examines patient strategies for coping with CD in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.In this ethnographic study, semistructured interviews took place from March-June 2013 with 63 patients who had previously tested positive for CD. During the fieldwork period, participant observation was conducted and patient family members, providers, community members, and public health officials were consulted.Patients often experienced emotional distress when diagnosed with CD, yet were generally unable to find biomedical treatment. Respondents stressed the need to avoid powerful emotions which would worsen the impact of CD symptoms. To manage CD, patients embraced a calm state of mind, described in Spanish as tranquilidad, which partially empowered them to return to a normal existence.In the perceived absence of biomedical treatment options, patients seek their own means of coping with CD diagnosis. Rather than fatalism or resignation, patients' emphasis on maintaining calm and not worrying about CD represents a pragmatic strategy for restoring a sense of normalcy and control to their lives. Programs focused on treatment of CD should remain mindful of the emotional and social impact of the disease on patients.

  7. Agrobiodiversity, Rural Transformations and Household Experiences of Globalised Change: A Case Study from Southern Bolivia

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    Katherine Turner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines reconfigurations of household economies and agrobiodiversity through the experiences and responses of rural households to local manifestations of globalisation and environmental change in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, from the 1950s to the present. Research participant narratives from seven study communities document a widely experienced regional shift from rain-fed agriculture and pastured livestock production for household consumption to market-oriented production of regionally-specialised commodities. Particularly important to this reconfiguration are changing land access and use regimes, household responses to changing opportunities, discourses and social requirements related with ‘modernising lifestyles’, market integration and dependence, changing environmental and ecological conditions, and greater availability of consumer goods and technologies. We analyse how these processes have combined to reconfigure the range of livelihood possibilities available to rural households, or their ‘landscapes of possibility’, in ways that favour transition to specialised commodity production. Patterns of change in household agrobiodiversity use, however, are entwined with threads of persistence, underscoring the contingent nature of rural transitions and the role of local agency and creativity in responding to and sometimes shaping how globalisation unfolds. Examining rural transition through the experiences of households in particular contexts over time offers insights for development policy and practice to support producers’ ability to respond to globalisation and environmental change in ways they see as desirable and beneficial to their livelihoods and wellbeing.

  8. Sujeto político, democracia y pueblo: Argentina y Bolivia frente al nuevo siglo

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    María Antonia Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El retorno del sujeto político en América Latina durante los primeros años del siglo XXI ha sido acompañado por la rearticulación de lo popular con lo democrático. Mientras el imperio de la democracia liberal en la tercera ola de las democracias suponía el protagonismo de figuras individuales (como el votante y el ciudadano, esta cuarta se sostuvo también sobre otras lógicas colectivas (el derecho y la soberanía popular. En Argentina y Bolivia, los movimientos asociados a demandas laborales y acceso a recursos básicos (como alimentos, subsidios, agua y gas lograron dislocar la escena pública. Además, tuvieron éxito en plantear un litigio en torno al rol de la soberanía po - pular, cobrando identidad frente a un enemigo común. No obstante, mientras en un caso tuvieron capacidad de establecer un programa común en contra de un enemigo, en otro caso no pudieron hacerlo. Las estrategias de los sujetos políticos fueron diferentes. Para mostrar estas diferentes se recuperan, de manera crítica, autores ligados al posestructuralismo como Laclau, Rancière y Zizek.

  9. Disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Villarroel, Richard; Uhart, Marcela M; Karesh, William B

    2004-01-01

    Samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia, were collected during June-August 1999. All 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. Gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus and four Leptospira interrogans serovars, with questionable results for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes 1 and 2. No antibodies were detected to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, Babesia odocoilei, bluetongue virus (serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17), bovine viral diarrhea virus, Brucella abortus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and parainfluenza-3 virus. Sixty-four percent (7/11) of the deer had endoparasites. Amblyomma spp. ticks were found on seven deer, flies of the family Hippoboscidae on six deer, and lice on six deer.

  10. The compatibility of agricultural intensification in a global hotspot of smallholder agrobiodiversity (Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerer, Karl S

    2013-02-19

    Integrating the conservation of biodiversity by smallholder farmers with agricultural intensification is increasingly recognized as a leading priority of sustainability and food security amid global environmental and socioeconomic change. An international research project investigated the smallholder agrobiodiversity of maize (corn) in a global hotspot (Bolivia) undergoing significant intensification. Peach-based intensification was pronounced (300-400%) and prolonged (2000-2010) in study areas. Intensification and maize agrobiodiversity were found to co-occur within smallholder landscapes. Interactions of these field systems did not trigger land-change tipping points leading to landrace extirpation. By 2010 maize landraces in the study areas still demonstrated high levels of taxonomic and ecological biodiversity and contributed significantly to this crop's agrobiodiversity at national (31%) and hemispheric (3%) scales. Social and ecological resilience and in situ conservation of the maize agrobiodiversity by Bolivian smallholders was enabled through robust linkages to off-farm migration; resource access and asset capabilities among both traditional and nontraditional growers; landrace agroecology and food uses; and innovative knowledge and skills. The smallholders' resilience resulting from these linkages was integral to the conditional success of the in situ conservation of maize agrobiodiversity. Environment-development interactions both enabled smallholders' agrobiodiversity resilience and influenced the limits and vulnerability of agrobiodiversity. Scientific policy recommendations regarding land-use planning and sustainability analysis are targeted to specific Río+20 priorities for agrobiodiversity.

  11. A New Snake Skull from the Paleocene of Bolivia Sheds Light on the Evolution of Macrostomatans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanferla, Agustín; Zaher, Hussam; Novas, Fernando E.; de Muizon, Christian; Céspedes, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Macrostomatan snakes, one of the most diverse extant clades of squamates, display an impressive arsenal of cranial features to consume a vast array of preys. In the absence of indisputable fossil representatives of this clade with well-preserved skulls, the mode and timing of these extraordinary morphological novelties remain obscure. Here, we report the discovery of Kataria anisodonta n. gen. n. sp., a macrostomatan snake recovered in the Early Palaeocene locality of Tiupampa, Bolivia. The holotype consists of a partial, minute skull that exhibits a combination of booid and caenophidian characters, being the presence of an anisodont dentition and diastema in the maxilla the most distinctive trait. Phylogenetic analysis places Kataria basal to the Caenophidia+Tropidophiidae, and represents along with bolyeriids a distinctive clade of derived macrostomatans. The discovery of Kataria highlights the morphological diversity in the maxilla among derived macrostomatans, demonstrating the relevance of maxillary transformations in the evolution of this clade. Kataria represents the oldest macrostomatan skull recovered, revealing that the diversification of macrostomatans was well under way in early Tertiary times. This record also reinforces the importance of Gondwanan territories in the history of snakes, not only in the origin of the entire group but also in the evolution of ingroup clades. PMID:23469206

  12. Tendencias clave para el tercer gobierno del MAS, Bolivia 2015-2019

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    Xavier Albó

    2016-03-01

    Esta presentación tiene como trasfondo el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y pretende resaltar algunos de los logros del presidente Evo Morales y los desafíos que enfrenta en su tercer gobierno (2015-2019. Comienza revisando información demográfica básica, según el Censo de 2012, para luego centrarse en la economía: los hidrocarburos, la minería, la producción agropecuaria y la ecología. El boom de la quinua, la expansión de la frontera agrícola y la suspensión de la construcción de una carretera que atraviese el TIPNIS son algunos de los temas que se discuten. Internacionalmente, hay motivos de optimismo con relación a la demanda marítima de Bolivia, mientras que, a nivel nacional, el MAS aseguró una victoria parlamentaria en el año 2014. Las reformas menos exitosas son las del órgano judicial. La presentación termina revisando los movimientos sociales que permitieron la formación la de Asamblea Constituyente y el asunto de la autonomía municipal, departamental e indígena.

  13. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici', a phytoplasma associated with 'hoja de perejil' disease in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha, Yaima; Antesana, Olivia; Montellano, Ernesto; Franco, Pablo; Plata, G; Jones, Phil

    2007-08-01

    New diseases known locally as 'hoja de perejil' of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and 'brotes grandes' of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were first recognized in surveys of production fields in Bolivia during 2000-2003. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) witches' broom and little leaf diseases of native weeds Morrenia variegata and mora-mora (Serjania perulacea) were also identified near to production fields. Phytoplasma aetiology was attributed to each of these diseases following detection and initial identification of aster yellows group (16SrI) phytoplasmas in all five diseased plant species. While potato, alfalfa and mora-mora plants contained indistinguishable 16SrI-B strains, 'hoja de perejil' (THP) and morrenia little leaf (MVLL)-associated phytoplasma strains shared 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' and related strains and <95 % similarity with all other 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the THP and MVLL phytoplasmas represent a novel lineage within the aster yellows (16SrI) group and, on the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose that THP and MVLL phytoplasmas represent 'Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici', with THP as the reference strain.

  14. Polygyny among the Tsimane of Bolivia: an improved method for testing the polygyny–fertility hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winking, Jeffrey; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Kurten, Jenna; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The polygyny–fertility hypothesis states that polygyny is associated with reduced fertility for women and is supported by a large body of literature. This finding is important, because theoretical models of polygyny often differentiate systems based on the degree to which women are forced or willingly choose to enter polygynous marriages. The fact that polygyny tends to be associated with reduced fertility has been presented as evidence that polygyny is often less favourable for women, and that women must, therefore, be pressured into accepting such arrangements. Previous studies, however, have been hampered by the non-random assignment of women into monogamous and polygynous unions (i.e. self-selection), as differences between these groups of women might explain some of the effects. Furthermore, the vast majority of such studies focus on sub-Saharan populations. We address these problems in our analysis of women's fertility in polygynous marriages among the Tsimane of Bolivia. We offer a more robust method for assessing the impact of polygynous marriage on reproductive outcomes by testing for intra-individual fertility effects among first wives as they transition from monogamous to polygynous marriage. We report a significant link between polygyny and reduced fertility when including all cases of polygyny; however, this association disappears when testing only for intra-individual effects. PMID:23407840

  15. Polygyny among the Tsimane of Bolivia: an improved method for testing the polygyny-fertility hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winking, Jeffrey; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Kurten, Jenna; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2013-04-07

    The polygyny-fertility hypothesis states that polygyny is associated with reduced fertility for women and is supported by a large body of literature. This finding is important, because theoretical models of polygyny often differentiate systems based on the degree to which women are forced or willingly choose to enter polygynous marriages. The fact that polygyny tends to be associated with reduced fertility has been presented as evidence that polygyny is often less favourable for women, and that women must, therefore, be pressured into accepting such arrangements. Previous studies, however, have been hampered by the non-random assignment of women into monogamous and polygynous unions (i.e. self-selection), as differences between these groups of women might explain some of the effects. Furthermore, the vast majority of such studies focus on sub-Saharan populations. We address these problems in our analysis of women's fertility in polygynous marriages among the Tsimane of Bolivia. We offer a more robust method for assessing the impact of polygynous marriage on reproductive outcomes by testing for intra-individual fertility effects among first wives as they transition from monogamous to polygynous marriage. We report a significant link between polygyny and reduced fertility when including all cases of polygyny; however, this association disappears when testing only for intra-individual effects.

  16. Small scale mining cooperatives in Bolivia: From lifeguard of the poor to machinery of political manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carrillo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that relations between social movements and organizations and the State are not only developed based on defended objectives and interests in political negotiations, but are also developed within particular situations, of specific cultures and histories. Our investigation about the relationship between mining cooperatives, their national organization, and the Bolivian State demonstrates the crucial importance of considering historical aspects, of collective memory, some regional and others within the organizations themselves. The traditions, memories, and abilities incorporated in the mining organizations and in the political realm will influence the way in which different parts relate to one another, design their strategies, and adapt to changing circumstances. This topic is illustrated firstly through a historical and contemporary account of mining in Bolivia focused in the sector of small scale mining. This is followed by outlining the position that cooperative mining occupies in the country and the strategies and self esteem that they display. Next, our case study is addressed: the ASOBAL cooperative. In the national outline, like in our case study, we connect the positions and strategieswith themes of identity, memory, and place.

  17. MULTILINGÜISMO Y LENGUAJE MEZCLADO EN LAS MINAS DE POTOSÍ (BOLIVIA

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    Pieter Muysken

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explora, utilizando la metodología de la sociolingüística histórica, el multilingüismo y el contacto de lenguas en las minas de Potosí (Bolivia en la época colonial. Potosí fue el destino de la inmigración masiva durante su florecimiento económico y una de las ciudades más grandes en el mundo occidental en 1610. En las minas se desarrollaba un código separado, con un léxico especializado que contenía palabras de lenguas diferentes. Este léxico fue tan distinto que el primer vocabulario de lengua de minas fue escrito en 1610, y muchos han seguido desde esa fecha. El quechua jugaba un papel clave como lengua intermediaria entre dos formas de hablar: el lenguaje minero indígena de los yanaconas y mingas, probablemente una mezcla de castellano y quechua, y el lenguaje de los mitayos, posiblemente una mezcla de aimara y quechua. Las semejanzas entre aimara y quechua deben haber contribuido a esta posibilidad de lengua intermediaria.

  18. Association of caspase-1 polymorphisms with Chagas cardiomyopathy among individuals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Katherine Yih-Jia; Zamudio, Roxana; Henderson-Frost, Jo; Almuedo, Alex; Steinberg, Hannah; Clipman, Steven Joseph; Duran, Gustavo; Marcus, Rachel; Crawford, Thomas; Alyesh, Daniel; Colanzi, Rony; Flores, Jorge; Gilman, Robert Hugh; Bern, Caryn

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection is usually acquired in childhood in endemic areas, leading to Chagas disease, which progresses to Chagas cardiomyopathy in 20-30% of infected individuals over decades. The pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy involves the host inflammatory response to T. cruzi, in which upstream caspase-1 activation prompts the cascade of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, cardiac remodeling, and myocardial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of two caspase-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cardiomyopathy. We recruited infected (Tc+, n = 149) and uninfected (Tc-, n = 87) participants in a hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Cardiac status was classified (I, II, III, IV) based on Chagas cardiomyopathy-associated electrocardiogram findings and ejection fractions on echocardiogram. Genotypes were determined using Taqman probes via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of peripheral blood DNA. Genotype frequencies were analyzed according to three inheritance patterns (dominant, recessive, additive) using logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. The AA allele for the caspase-1 SNP rs501192 was more frequent in Tc+ cardiomyopathy (classes II, III, IV) patients compared to those with a normal cardiac status (class I) [odds ratio (OR) = -2.18, p = 0.117]. This trend approached statistical significant considering only Tc+ patients in class I and II (OR = -2.64, p = 0.064). Caspase-1 polymorphisms may play a role in Chagas cardiomyopathy development and could serve as markers to identify individuals at higher risk for priority treatment.

  19. Controlled but not cured: Structural processes and explanatory models of Chagas disease in tropical Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Dressler (2001:456) characterizes medical anthropology as divided between two poles: the constructivist, which focuses on the "meaning and significance that events have for people," and the structuralist, which emphasizes socioeconomic processes and relationships. This study synthesizes structuralist and constructivist perspectives by investigating how structural processes impact explanatory models of Chagas disease in a highly endemic area. The research took place from March-June 2013 through the Centro Medico Humberto Parra, a non-profit clinic servicing low income populations in Palacios, Bolivia and surrounding communities. Semistructured interviews (n = 68) and consensus analysis questionnaires (n = 48) were administered to people dealing with Chagas disease. In the interview narratives, respondents link Chagas disease with experiences of marginalization and rural poverty, and describe multilayered impediments to accessing treatment. They often view the disease as incurable, but this reflects inconsistent messages from the biomedical system. The consensus analysis results show strong agreement on knowledge of the vector, ethnomedical treatment, and structural factors related to Chagas disease. In interpreting Chagas disease, respondents account for the structural factors which place them at risk and impede access to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Advances in Ethical, Social, and Economic Aspects of Chronic Renal Disease in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arze, S; Paz Zambrana, S

    2016-03-01

    Since 2005, great progress has been made in health care provision to patients with terminal renal failure in Bolivia. Access to dialysis and transplantation is regulated by the Ministry of Health, based on clinical criteria, applied equitably, without favoritism or discrimination based on race, sex, economic means, or political power. Until December 2013, there were no restrictions in dialysis and transplantation in Health Insurance institutions, but they covered only 30% of the population. Now the remaining 70% has access to free dialysis funded by the communities where patients live, with funds coming from the government and taxes on oil products. More than 2,231 people are getting dialysis, reaching a population growth of >60% annually. The number of hemodialysis units has increased by >200% (60 units), making access easier for end-stage renal failure patients. Treatment protocols have been drawn up to guarantee the best quality of life for the patients. The Law on Donation and Transplantation was enacted in 1996, and Supplementary Regulations were enacted in 1997 with various amendments over the past 5 years. A National Transplant Coordination Board, working under the National Renal Health Program, supervises and regulates transplants and promotes deceased-donor transplantation in an attempt to cover the demand for donors. Rules have been drawn up for accreditation of transplant centers and teams to guarantee the best possible conditions and maximum guaranties. Since January 2014, the National Renal Health Program has been providing free kidney transplants from living donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  2. Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes aegypti in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, G.; Revollo, J.; Guerra, M.; Cruz, M.; Barja Simon, Z.; Roca, Y.; Vargas Florès, J.; Hervé, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The natural transmission of dengue virus from an infected female mosquito to its progeny, namely the vertical transmission, was researched in wild caught Aedes aegypti during an important outbreak in the town of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. Mosquitoes were collected at the preimaginal stages (eggs, larvae and pupae) then reared up to adult stage for viral detection using molecular methods. Dengue virus serotypes 1 and 3 were found to be co-circulating with significant higher prevalence in male than in female mosquitoes. Of the 97 pools of Ae. aegypti (n = 635 male and 748 female specimens) screened, 14 pools, collected in February-May in 2007, were found positive for dengue virus infection: five DEN-1 and nine DEN-3. The average true infection rate (TIR) and minimum infection rate (MIR) were respectively 1.08% and 1.01%. These observations suggest that vertical transmission of dengue virus may be detected in vectors at the peak of an outbreak as well as several months before an epidemic occurs in human population. PMID:21894270

  3. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in Eastern Bolivia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Masuet-Aumatell; J M, Ramon-Torrell; A, Casanova-Rituerto; M, Banqué-Navarro; M, Dávalos-Gamboa; S L, Montaño-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is changing from high to intermediate endemicity in several Latin American countries, but the pattern in the Andean Latin American countries is unknown. A seroepidemiological survey (n = 436) of HAV in schoolchildren living in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia was conducted in 2010. A questionnaire was completed by parents to obtain demographic, socio-economic, and housing data, and blood samples were collected. The overall prevalence of HAV IgG was 95.4% (95% CI 93.5-97.4). The prevalence was higher in children aged 5-10 years (97%) and pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years (97.9%). The prevalence was also higher in subjects whose parents had a low level of education (99.4-99.5%), who lived in rural areas (98.7%), lived in municipalities with low urban development (99.1-100%), had water delivered at home from a tanker (99.4%), and spoke Quechua at home (99.5%). The descriptive and bivariate analysis suggested that no change in HAV epidemiology has occurred in Cochabamba. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. "I Cannot Be Worried": Living with Chagas Disease in Tropical Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Colin J

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) profoundly affects the social and emotional dimensions of patients' lives, and disproportionately impacts poor, marginalized populations in Latin America. Biomedical treatment for CD fails to reach up to 99% of the people affected, and in any case seldom addresses the emotional health or socioeconomic conditions of patients. This study examines patient strategies for coping with CD in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. In this ethnographic study, semistructured interviews took place from March-June 2013 with 63 patients who had previously tested positive for CD. During the fieldwork period, participant observation was conducted and patient family members, providers, community members, and public health officials were consulted. Patients often experienced emotional distress when diagnosed with CD, yet were generally unable to find biomedical treatment. Respondents stressed the need to avoid powerful emotions which would worsen the impact of CD symptoms. To manage CD, patients embraced a calm state of mind, described in Spanish as tranquilidad, which partially empowered them to return to a normal existence. In the perceived absence of biomedical treatment options, patients seek their own means of coping with CD diagnosis. Rather than fatalism or resignation, patients' emphasis on maintaining calm and not worrying about CD represents a pragmatic strategy for restoring a sense of normalcy and control to their lives. Programs focused on treatment of CD should remain mindful of the emotional and social impact of the disease on patients.

  5. Afro and Indigenous Life-Visions in/and Politics. (Decolonial Perspectives in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Walsh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ancestral cosmologies or “life visions” are increasingly visible today, both within the realm of Afro and Indigenous community-based struggles, and within the frame of State constitutions, rights, and politics. This article looks at what happens when ancestral life–visions are positioned as central principles of State and of State politics and public policies. Can these philosophies, rationalities and logics otherwise guide the remaking or re–founding of society and State, and how, particularly when the authority, organization, and practice of politics and State remain bound to Western frames and capitalist interests?Hoy día, las cosmologías o “visiones ancestrales de la vida” son cada vez más visibles tanto dentro del mundo de las luchas comunitarias Afro e indígenas, como dentro del marco de las constituciones políticas del Estado, de los derechos y de la política. Este artículo examina lo que sucede cuando las “visiones ancestrales de la vida” se convierten en principios centrales del Estado, de la política, y de los órdenes públicos. ¿Pueden estas filosofías, racionalidades y lógicas, dirigir de otra manera la renovación o la re-fundación de la sociedad y del Estado, particularmente cuando la autoridad, la organización, y la práctica de la política y del Estado siguen vinculadas a marcos occidentales y a intereses capitalistas?  

  6. A LÍNGUA EM ESTADO GASOSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M de Melo e Castro

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Guimarães Rosa, numa carta a João Condé publicada no Jornal de Letras e Artes de 21 de Julho de 1946 deixou esta sugestão: "Mas,ainda haveria mais, se possível (sonhar é fácil, João Condé, realizar é que são elas ...: além dos estados líquidos e sólidos, porque não tentartrabalhar a língua em estado gasoso?!"Nesta comunicação tratarei de averiguar o que possa ser o estado gasosoda língua quer sob o ponto de vista físico quer sob o ponto de vista metafórico.Sob o ponto de vista físico devem ser considerados dois momentos: o daciência geralmente divu lgada na época em que Guimarães Rosa fez essasugestão, c o da atua l ciência do Caos, tendo em consideração os movimentosbrownianos das moléculas descritos na teoria cin ética dos gases.Sob o ponto de vista metafórico, o uso de uma terminologia interd isciplinar,à luz dos referidos conceitos da ciência, pode contribu ir para delinearuma possível concepção linguística que esteja de acordo com aprática c o uso criativo diferenciados da língua portuguesa, não só noBrasil c em Portugal, mas também nos países africanos de língua portuguesa, configurando-se ass im uma possível teoria cinética da língua.

  7. La fatiga como estado motivacional subjetivo

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, D.; J. Conde-González; Perales, J C

    2017-01-01

    Actualmente no existe consenso sobre los factores que determinan la aparición de la fatiga. Hay factores que se derivan exclusivamente del esfuerzo físico, otros que dependen del esfuerzo mental que este lleva aparejado, y otros de los resultados de la tarea que se está realizando. Como consecuencia, se han desarrollado diferentes modelos explicativos que pretenden aunar las diferentes razones de su aparición. No obstante, la tendencia actual es entender la fatiga como un estado motivacion...

  8. Los "intelectuales" y el Estado Novo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís REIS TORGAL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El concepto de “intelectual” es difícil de definir y sin duda se debate constantemente. Sin embargo, es importante reflexionar sobre él a fin de comprender su significado y los problemas que implica. Sea como fuere, a un Estado autoritario “moderno” se le supone una única ideología que tiene que difundirse por medio de una propaganda bien organizada, proceso en el que los intelectuales desempeñan un papel significativo. El “Nuevo Estado” de Salazar encaja en esta categoría y sin duda el conocimiento acerca de sus “intelectuales” es fundamental. En este artículo, el objetivo es proporcionar algunos ejemplos interesantes de “intelectuales” o de simples “funcionarios políticos” con inclinación intelectual a fin de indicar el sentido y complejidad de un estudio con una dimensión distinta sobre este asunto. A este fin han sido seleccionadas tres personalidades responsables de la actividad ideológica y cultural de gran relieve en el Estado de Salazar: António Ferro, João Ameal y Costa Brochado. Palabras clave: Estado Novo; Authotitarianism; Salazar, António de Oliveira; Intellectuals; Ferro, António; Brochado, Idalino da Costa; Ameal, João. ABSTRACT: The concept of the “intellectual” is difficult to define and undoubtedly constantly debated. It is nevertheless important to reflect on it in order to understand its meaning and the problems involved with it. Be that as it may, a “modern” authoritarian State presumes a single ideology which has to be diffused by means of well-organised propaganda, in which process “intellectuals” play a significant role. Salazar’s “New State” fits this category and, undoubtedly, knowledge about its “intellectuals” is fundamental. The objective in this article is to provide some interesting examples of “intellectuals” or simple “political functionar- ies” with an intellectual bent so as to indicate the sense and complexity of a study of a

  9. Ciencias de la complejidad: estado actual

    OpenAIRE

    Cancino Quintero, David Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Los aportes teóricos y aplicados de la complejidad en economía han tomado tantas direcciones y han sido tan frenéticos en las últimas décadas, que no existe un trabajo reciente, hasta donde conocemos, que los compile y los analice de forma integrada. El objetivo de este proyecto, por tanto, es desarrollar un estado situacional de las diferentes aplicaciones conceptuales, teóricas, metodológicas y tecnológicas de las ciencias de la complejidad en la economía. Asimismo, se pretende analizar las...

  10. EL ESTADO Y LA POBREZA EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Hurtado Power

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo realiza un estudio del campo político venezolano, visto como espacio en el cual, dentro del estado y en torno a el, se da movimiento de los actores sociales y la organización de sus interes, en un marco histórico de conflicto. El análisis conduce a la consideración de los problemas de cambio de mentalidad, con incidencia en la educación formal y en los medios de comunicación, del desarrollo de destrezas productivas y de una racionalidad creativa para la construcción de una escala de valores.

  11. La fatiga como estado motivacional subjetivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cárdenas

    2017-03-01

    No obstante, la tendencia actual es entender la fatiga como un estado motivacional complejo cuyo origen tiene lugar en numerosos procesos fisiológicos y psicológicos que sirven para regular el esfuerzo y proteger al organismo de daños graves. Los objetivos de la presente revisión narrativa son analizar los diferentes enfoques existentes para el estudio y la explicación de la fatiga, establecer el vínculo con el concepto de carga de entrenamiento y justificar la importancia de evaluar las repercusiones de la carga mental para conseguir una adecuada planificación y control del proceso de entrenamiento.

  12. Remote monitoring of cathodic protection rectifiers of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline using low orbit satellite telephone; Monitoracao remota de retificadores de protecao catodica do Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil utilizando telefone via satelite de baixa orbita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Jorge Fernando Pereira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The present paper has for objective to present the information collected during definitions, development, implementation, testing and operation phases of the Pilot System for monitoring of the Cathodic Protection Rectifiers MS-10 and SP-09, installed on the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. The adopted solution for the Pilot System includes, basically, communication through low-earth satellite telephone, inter linked to the public telephone net, acquisition and data transmission system (Remote Terminal Unit) and data reception in the Supervision and Control Room. (author)

  13. UNA DÉCADA DEL GOBIERNO DEL M.A.S. EN BOLIVIA: UN BALANCE GLOBAL / A DECADE OF GOVERNMENT OF ‘MAS’ IN BOLIVIA: A GLOBAL BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Uharte Pozas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis about the government experience of the Movement to Socialism (MAS in Bolivia since Evo Morales became president in 2006 to the present, identifying the main changes and conflicts that have occurred in four areas: social policy, domestic policy, foreign policy, and economy. The methodology is based on the collection of documents from various sources (public and business institutions, researchers, and recognized research centers, and interviews with various social actors (academics, politicians. We conclude that there have been substantial advances in terms of national sovereignty and economic model (overcoming neoliberalism, despite the contradictions and conflicts with sectors of internal dissent.

  14. La crisis financiera de los Estados unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor J. Rubini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ofrece una visión comprehensiva de la presente crisis económica de los Estados Unidos, con énfasis en los determinantes y factores de riesgo que se encuentran en el sistema financiero de ese país.Se concluye que: a ha sido una crisis de desarrollo gradual, pero no prevista por la mayoría de los economistas, sorprendiendo pro su impacto recesivo y la diseminación internacional observada desde mediados de 2008, b es claro (ex post que Estados Unidos debe introducir reformas institucionales en su sistema financiero y en sus mercados de capitales, pero sus autoridades no parecen tener claro cuáles, c se trata de una crisis del sistema financiero, no de las instituciones jurídicas del capitalismo; d en materia macroeconómica, aún bajo el maquillaje de "reglas flexibles", es claro el fracaso de la discrecionalidad en la políticas monetaria, así como también el del implícito enfoque de la "autorregulación" de los mercados de la llamada "doctrina Greenspan", e Esta crisis ha evidenciado las notables falencias de la moderna macroeconomía dinámica basada en el paradigma de las expectativas racionales y de los mercados eficientes.

  15. Campesinato e o Estado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giralda Seyferth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são discutidos alguns aspectos do debate conceitual que cerca as noções de campesinato e sociedade camponesa e as transformações sociais no campo, ressaltando o problema da relação dos camponeses com o Estado. A análise destaca um exemplo significativo dessa relação, a colonização estrangeira, resultante de políticas públicas voltadas para a ocupação de terras devolutas, iniciada no sul do Brasil em 1824. Trata-se de um caso que permite observar o papel do Estado no controle de um processo de povoamento envolvendo imigrantes europeus e a consequente formação de um tipo de campesinato étnico diferenciado de outras realidades rurais brasileiras.This work discusses some aspects of the conceptual debate surrounding the notions of peasantry and peasant society and the social transformations affecting the rural world, emphasizing the problem of the relation between peasants and the State. The analysis highlights a significant example of this relation, foreign colonization, resulting in public policies designed to stimulate the occupation of empty lands, which began in the south of Brazil in 1824. The case allows us to observe the role of the State in controlling a process of populating the land with European immigrants and the consequent formation of a type of ethnic peasantry distinct from other Brazilian rural lifeworlds.

  16. Lineage Analysis of Circulating Trypanosoma cruzi Parasites and Their Association with Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Ramona; Nishizawa, Juan Eiki; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Iihoshi, Naomi; Roca, Yelin; Avilas, Cinthia; Gianella, Alberto; Lora, Javier; Gutierrez Velarde, Freddy Udalrico; Renjel, Luis Alberto; Miura, Sachio; Higo, Hiroo; Komiya, Norihiro; Maemura, Koji; Hirayama, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Background The causative agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, is divided into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTU): Tc I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId and IIe. In order to assess the relative pathogenicities of different DTUs, blood samples from three different clinical groups of chronic Chagas disease patients (indeterminate, cardiac, megacolon) from Bolivia were analyzed for their circulating parasites lineages using minicircle kinetoplast DNA polymorphism. Methods and Findings Between 2000 and 2007, patients sent to the Centro Nacional de Enfermedades Tropicales for diagnosis of Chagas from clinics and hospitals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, were assessed by serology, cardiology and gastro-intestinal examinations. Additionally, patients who underwent colonectomies due to Chagasic magacolon at the Hospital Universitario Japonés were also included. A total of 306 chronic Chagas patients were defined by their clinical types (81 with cardiopathy, 150 without cardiopathy, 100 with megacolon, 144 without megacolon, 164 with cardiopathy or megacolon, 73 indeterminate and 17 cases with both cardiopathy and megacolon). DNA was extracted from 10 ml of peripheral venous blood for PCR analysis. The kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA) was amplified from 196 out of 306 samples (64.1%), of which 104 (53.3%) were Tc IId, 4 (2.0%) Tc I, 7 (3.6%) Tc IIb, 1 (0.5%) Tc IIe, 26 (13.3%) Tc I/IId, 1 (0.5%) Tc I/IIb/IId, 2 (1.0%) Tc IIb/d and 51 (25.9%) were unidentified. Of the 133 Tc IId samples, three different kDNA hypervariable region patterns were detected; Mn (49.6%), TPK like (48.9%) and Bug-like (1.5%). There was no significant association between Tc types and clinical manifestations of disease. Conclusions None of the identified lineages or sublineages was significantly associated with any particular clinical manifestations in the chronic Chagas patients in Bolivia. PMID:20502516

  17. Lineage analysis of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi parasites and their association with clinical forms of Chagas disease in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona del Puerto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The causative agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, is divided into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTU: Tc I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId and IIe. In order to assess the relative pathogenicities of different DTUs, blood samples from three different clinical groups of chronic Chagas disease patients (indeterminate, cardiac, megacolon from Bolivia were analyzed for their circulating parasites lineages using minicircle kinetoplast DNA polymorphism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 2000 and 2007, patients sent to the Centro Nacional de Enfermedades Tropicales for diagnosis of Chagas from clinics and hospitals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, were assessed by serology, cardiology and gastro-intestinal examinations. Additionally, patients who underwent colonectomies due to Chagasic magacolon at the Hospital Universitario Japonés were also included. A total of 306 chronic Chagas patients were defined by their clinical types (81 with cardiopathy, 150 without cardiopathy, 100 with megacolon, 144 without megacolon, 164 with cardiopathy or megacolon, 73 indeterminate and 17 cases with both cardiopathy and megacolon. DNA was extracted from 10 ml of peripheral venous blood for PCR analysis. The kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA was amplified from 196 out of 306 samples (64.1%, of which 104 (53.3% were Tc IId, 4 (2.0% Tc I, 7 (3.6% Tc IIb, 1 (0.5% Tc IIe, 26 (13.3% Tc I/IId, 1 (0.5% Tc I/IIb/IId, 2 (1.0% Tc IIb/d and 51 (25.9% were unidentified. Of the 133 Tc IId samples, three different kDNA hypervariable region patterns were detected; Mn (49.6%, TPK like (48.9% and Bug-like (1.5%. There was no significant association between Tc types and clinical manifestations of disease. CONCLUSIONS: None of the identified lineages or sublineages was significantly associated with any particular clinical manifestations in the chronic Chagas patients in Bolivia.

  18. Elaine Levine , La migracion y los latinos en Estados Unidos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gracia Hernandez, Maximiliano

    2009-01-01

    ..., puntos de llegada y puntos de retorno; 2. Algunas percepciones en Mexico sobre la migracion y los migrantes; 3. Incorporacion laboral y social de los migrantes en Estados Unidos; 4. Algunas experiencias de los hijos de migrantes en las escuelas de Estados Unidos; y 5. Construyendo la identidad latina, politicas migratorias y participacion po...

  19. Relaciones bilaterales signadas por la agenda energética : La política exterior argentina con respecto a Bolivia y Chile

    OpenAIRE

    López,Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    La crisis energética argentina y las incertidumbres derivadas del decreto nacionalizador de los hidrocarburos el 1 de enero de 2006, por parte del gobierno boliviano han dominado las relaciones bilaterales entre Argentina, Bolivia y Chile, generando efectos diferenciales en sentido positivo en la relación Kirchner-Morales y negativo en la relación Kirchner-Bachelet. El estudio analiza el impacto que tuvo la nacionalización del gas en Bolivia en la política exterior de Argentina, con respec...

  20. Las chicas sólo quieren divertirse? Sexualidad, embarazo y maternidad en las adolecentes de Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Este estudio busca cuantificar actividad sexual, embarazo y maternidad adolescente en Bolivia utilizando la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud más reciente. Los resultados descriptivos sugieren que la actividad sexual, el embarazo y la maternidad adolescente son más prevalentes entre aquellas jóvenes que tienen mayor probabilidad de ser vulnerables y socialmente excluidas. Además, la alta tasa de incidencia de embarazos no deseados entre adolescentes bolivianas sugiere que es necesario introducir...

  1. Políticas compensatorias para la equidad de la educación superior en Argentina, Bolivia y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    René Pedroza Flores

    2009-01-01

    Estudio en torno de las políticas compensatorias para la educación superior aplicadas por Argentina, Bolivia y Venezuela. En particular describimos la atención que reciben los grupos menos favorecidos entre los que ubicamos a los indígenas, afrodescendientes, discapacitados y mujeres. El desarrollo de las políticas compensatorias es desigual en cada país; sin embargo, encontramos que en general se ha avanzado en materia jurídica, política, social y educativa para superar el problema de la ine...

  2. Caracterización de la Violencia Intrafamiliar en mujeres del municipio Santa Ana. Beni Bolivia Junio-Diciembre 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Yacquelynes Corona-Hechavarria; Caridad Mastrapa-Reyes; Liliana Rogaciana Leyva-Ruiz; Zoila Caridad Reyes-Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Abordó una investigación descriptiva en municipio Santa Ana, Beni en Bolivia para determinar el comportamiento de las mujeres que sufren violencia intrafamiliar en el 2010. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante la revisión de las fichas familiares e individuales, se realizaron encuestas directas a las mujeres que sufrían violencia intrafamiliar. Se concluyo que el grupo de edad más afectado fue el de 25-34, con nivel de escolaridad secundaria, predominaron las amas de casa, se encontraron paciente...

  3. The Possibilities for Biogas in Bolivia : Symbioses Between Generators of Organic Residues,  Biogas Producers and Biogas Users

    OpenAIRE

    Aue, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This master thesis investigates the potential use of biogas from organic residues in the area of the cities of La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia. The two cities have currently a contamination problem and biogas emerges as opportunity for both waste management and energy generation. There are approximately 274 500 tonnes/year of residue that can be used to produce biogas. This amount of residue can generate approximately 33,500,000 m3 of biogas. The advantages and disadvantages of five different d...

  4. Not only climate change: mobility, vulnerability and socio-economic transformations in environmentally fragile areas in Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia

    2011-02-15

    This paper argues that migration is better defined as an adaptive response to socio-economic, cultural, political and environmental transformations, in most instances closely linked to the need to diversify income sources and reduce dependency on natural resources. Drawing on case studies in Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania, it describes how environmental change at the local level interacts with other factors to shape migration patterns, and how such patterns in turn affect the livelihoods and resilience of individuals, households and communities in areas experiencing the impacts of climate change in the form of desertification, soil degradation, disrupted rainfall patterns and changes in temperature.

  5. Síndrome de dificultad respiratoria en el recién nacido. Hospital "Caranavi". La Paz, Bolivia. 2010- 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Varela González; Dania Faxas Rodríguez; Yanailys Ortiz Lima; Natacha Ortiz Avilés; Gloria Marrero Lugones

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento del Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria (SDR) en el Hospital Regional "Caranavi" de La Paz, Bolivia, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2011. El universo estuvo constituido por 513 recién nacidos (RN) vivos y 135 constituyeron la muestra con diagnóstico de SDR. Se confeccionó un formulario y se recogieron las variables relacionadas con el parto y el ...

  6. La distancia sobre la cercanía: la política exterior argentina hacia Bolivia y Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Tini, María Natalia

    2008-01-01

    La integración sudamericana ha sido uno de los ejes que a pesar de las diferencias y ensayos planteados en política exterior por los gobiernos democráticos en la Argentina aun perdura. En este contexto se inserta nuestro trabajo que tiene como propósito analizar la política exterior argentina, hacia Bolivia y Paraguay. A través de nuestro estudio buscamos descubrir las razones del por qué ambos países fueron excluidos de la agenda de política exterior argentina, a pesar de la significación de...

  7. Modos de utilización de las TICs por las organizaciones que operan en la Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia)

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, Roberto; Gabriel René Moreno

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar la utilización de las TICs (Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación) por las organizaciones que operan en el espacio de la Mancomunidad de municipios de la Gran Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia). Se partirá, entonces, de la siguiente hipótesis: el uso de las TICs por parte de estas organizaciones, por causas económicas y estratégicas, está más orientado hacia la toma de contacto con otras organizaciones y determinados segmentos de la población,...

  8. Tierras Bajas de Bolivia: II Jornadas de Antropología, Historia y Arqueología

    OpenAIRE

    Combès, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Las II Jornadas de Antropología, Historia y Arqueología de las tierras bajas de Bolivia y áreas adyacentes se desarrollaron del 14 al 16 de octubre en Santa Cruz de la Sierra, en los locales del Museo de Historia de la Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno (UAGRM). Este encuentro fue organizado por el Museo de Historia a través del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas y Antropológicas (CIHA), del Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos, del programa de posgrado en Historia de la Universidad...

  9. El Qaraku o wilancha: Prácticas y creencias religiosas entre los mineros de Huanuni, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Arrieta, A. Gloria

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo exploro el proceso de construcción de la deidad el Tío, durante el período colonial en Bolivia, y analizo las prácticas y creencias religiosas contemporáneas alrededor de de esta deidad entre los mineros de Huanuni, enfocándome en el sacrificio ritual denominado qaraku o wilancha. A través de este análisis busco mostrar que tanto el proceso de construcción cultural del Tío, como las prácticas rituales, en este caso el qaraku, pueden ser entendidas como campos de disputa de sen...

  10. Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Iannuzzi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii

  11. Soil organic carbon in Apolobamba (Bolivia): Quantity and quality of the reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M. Á.; Faz, A.

    2009-04-01

    Global carbon cycle mainly depends on the soil organic matter (SOM). Some reducction of climatic impact techiques are related to the increase of the soil organic carbon (SOC) contents in order to elevate atmospherical carbon inputs. Kinetic mechanisms of the SOC are differents due to the complex interation between biological, physical and chemical processes in the soil. For a full understanding of the SOM contribution to the carbon cycle in the soil, the SOC contents should be addressed. The vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) is an endangered species which belongs to camelid family. Its natural habitat is located in highland grasses in the Andes Montain Range, above 4,000 m.a.s.l. In Bolivia the vicuna is distributed around some andean regions such as Apolobamba. It is a protected area located in the Northwest of Bolivia where native inhabitants carry out a sustainable management of the vicuna. This activity is considered within a programme to improve economical conditions in the area. The vicuna lives in the same habitat than other cattle camelid like alpaca (Lama pacos). The soil is an essential natural resource in the vicuna development and the biodiversity conservation due to its role to support the native vegetation in Apolobamba. The objectives of this research were: (i) the quantification of SOC contents, (ii) the study of the SOC quality and (iii) the determination of the soil degradation degree in some zones in Apolobamba. Eight zones or census places, separated areas with geographic accidents, with different vicuna and alpaca densities were selected: Ulla-Ulla and Killu (low density), Ucha-Ucha and Wakampata (medium density), Sucondori and Caballchiñuni (high density) and Puyo-Puyo and Japu (very high density). One soil profile was taken and three sampling plots were determined in each zone. Three sampling points were selected in each plot and surface (0-5 cm) and subsurface samples (5-15 cm) were collected. Total carbon, total organic carbon (TOC) and water

  12. Pollution by Arsenic, Mercury and other Heavy Metals in Sunchulli mining district of Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Mita, Tania; Faz Cano, Angel; Muñoz, Maria Angeles; Millán Gómez, Rocio; Chincheros Paniagua, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. This is the case of the National Area of Apolobamba Integrated Management (ANMIN of Apolobamba) in La Paz, Bolivia, where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to the present, with very little gold extraction and very primitive mineral processing technology; in fact, mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes of the gold concentration, which is burned outdoors to recover the gold. Sunchullí is a representative mining district in ANMIN of Apolobamba where mining activity is mainly gold extraction and its water effluents go to the Amazonian basin; in this mining district the productivity of extracted mineral is very low but the processes can result in heavy-metal contamination of the air, water, soils and plants. Due to its high toxicity, the contamination by arsenic and mercury create the most critical environmental problems. In addition, some other heavy metals may also be present such as lead, copper, zinc and cadmium. These heavy metals could be incorporated in the trophic chain, through the flora and the fauna, in their bio-available and soluble forms. Inhabitants of this area consume foodcrops, fish from lakes and rivers and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the heavy metals pollution by gold mining activities in Sunchullí area. In Sunchullí two representative zones were distinguished and sampled. Zone near the mining operation site was considered as affected by mineral extraction processes, while far away zones represented the non affected ones by the mining operation. In each zone, 3 plots were established; in each plot, 3 soil sampling points were selected in a random manner and analysed separately. In each sampling point, two samples were taken, one at the surface, from 0-5 cm depth (topsoil), and the other between 5

  13. Mercury pollution by mining activities in Rayo Rojo mining district, Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran-Mita, T.; Faz Cano, A.; Muñoz, M.; Millán, R.; Salvador, F.

    2009-04-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important causes of the environmental degradation. This is the case of the Natural Integrated Management Area of Apolobamba (Department of La Paz, Bolivia), where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to present days, with very little gold extraction and very scarce mineral processing technology. In Apolobamba mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes and this might conduct to high Hg contents. Inhabitants of this area consume fish from lakes and rivers, and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate mercury impact into the soil-plant-water system. The Technical University of Cartagena, Spain, through the Research Group "Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and Water", carried out a research, in the most intense affected gold extraction zones in Apolobamba, among them Rayo Rojo, where mining activity is mainly gold extraction, although the extracted mineral volume and technology used is low. Rayo Rojo is located in the central part of ANMI - Apolobamba (in the andean region), inside of Pelechuco municipality; the area belongs biogeographically to the Altoandina and Puna. This district, located in Apolobamba mountain-range, where altitudes above 5.000 m.a.s.l are reached. Water, soil, sediment and plant samples were taken around the operations mining sites and total mercury analysed. Mercury content was determined by AMA-254 model, based on the thermal decomposition of the sample and collection of the Hg vapour on a gold amalgamator. The analysis is performed from solid samples without any further preparation. Samples are initially dried at 125°C and then thermally decomposed at the temperature of 550°C. Mercury vapour is then trapped on the gold amalgamator. AMA-254 method certificated standards were BCR 62-BCR 281. Preliminary results show high Hg concentrations

  14. El Estado Social de Derecho: ¿Mito o realidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Chamorro Fletes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un análisis descriptivo sobre lo que se debe entender por Estado Social, teniendo en cuenta lo prescrito en el Artículo 130 de la Constitución Política de Nicaragua. Se presenta el paso del Estado Liberal al Estado Social y sus diferencias fundamentales, así como la relación del Estado Social con la economía, con la sociedad, con el derecho y en definitiva con la comunidad política y social a la cual pretende regir. Por último, se muestra la necesidad de un salto cualitativo hacia el Estado Democrático de Derecho.

  15. Association of caspase-1 polymorphisms with Chagas cardiomyopathy among individuals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Yih-Jia Fu

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc infection is usually acquired in childhood in endemic areas, leading to Chagas disease, which progresses to Chagas cardiomyopathy in 20-30% of infected individuals over decades. The pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy involves the host inflammatory response to T. cruzi, in which upstream caspase-1 activation prompts the cascade of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, cardiac remodeling, and myocardial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of two caspase-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We recruited infected (Tc+, n = 149 and uninfected (Tc−, n = 87 participants in a hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Cardiac status was classified (I, II, III, IV based on Chagas cardiomyopathy-associated electrocardiogram findings and ejection fractions on echocardiogram. Genotypes were determined using Taqman probes via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of peripheral blood DNA. Genotype frequencies were analyzed according to three inheritance patterns (dominant, recessive, additive using logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: The AA allele for the caspase-1 SNP rs501192 was more frequent in Tc+ cardiomyopathy (classes II, III, IV patients compared to those with a normal cardiac status (class I [odds ratio (OR = −2.18, p = 0.117]. This trend approached statistical significant considering only Tc+ patients in class I and II (OR = −2.64, p = 0.064. CONCLUSIONS: Caspase-1 polymorphisms may play a role in Chagas cardiomyopathy development and could serve as markers to identify individuals at higher risk for priority treatment.

  16. Rural power supply with local management: Examples from Bolivia, India and Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerger, Aa.; Gullberg, M.

    1997-08-01

    Local management of rural power supply is being evaluated in a joint research project conducted by Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) and Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) on new approaches to management and organization of rural electrification. The study is based on literature, and on data from eight visited local organizations for management of power supply in Bolivia (4), India (1) and Nepal (3). Common for these countries is that the national, rural electrification programmes have encountered difficulties. Governments have failed to generate enough funds from existing power supply systems to cover the cost for a continued rural electrification. In cases where large private companies exist, they have had few incentives for expanding into rural areas since it is often not profit making. A third category may be defined as local initiators to power supply, private or co-operative. In all these countries, locally managed power supply systems have developed as a complement to governmental and other large scale programmes. The national policies pertaining to rural power supply in general and local management thereof in particular are described for each country. From the study, it appears that local management of rural power supply is a feasible approach in developing countries. Local management of rural power supply can slightly lower the costs of electrification, and it may help accelerate the pace of load development in newly electrified areas. For successful local organizations though, the most significant factor appears to be local peoples` willingness to develop their own area. Important though, is that proper financial and technical assistance is provided the local organizations. Crucial for sound external assistance is that the national rural electrification policies are clear and consistent. 53 refs, 1 fig, 11 tabs

  17. The Genomic Legacy of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Yungas Valley of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Tanja; Cárdenas, Jorge Mario; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Santos, Carla; Taboada-Echalar, Patricia; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Salas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (TAST) some enslaved Africans were forced to move to Upper Peru (nowadays Bolivia). At first they were sent to Potosí, but later to the tropical Yungas valley where the Spanish colonizers established a so-called "hacienda system" that was based on slave labor, including African-descendants. Due to their isolation, very little attention has been paid so far to 'Afro-Bolivian' communities either within the research field of TAST or in genetic population studies. In this study, a total of 105 individuals from the Yungas were sequenced for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and mitogenomes were obtained for a selected subset of these samples. We also genotyped 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIM) in order to investigate continental ancestry at the autosomal level. In addition, Y-chromosome STR and SNP data for a subset of the same individuals was also available from the literature. The data indicate that the partitioning of mtDNA ancestry in the Yungas differs significantly from that in the rest of the country: 81% Native American, 18% African, and 1% European. Interestingly, the great majority of 'Afro-descendant' mtDNA haplotypes in the Yungas (84%) concentrates in the locality of Tocaña. This high proportion of African ancestry in the Tocaña is also manifested in the Y-chromosome (44%) and in the autosomes (56%). In sharp contrast with previous studies on the TAST, the ancestry of about 1/3 of the 'Afro-Bolivian' mtDNA haplotypes can be traced back to East and South East Africa, which may be at least partially explained by the Arab slave trade connected to the TAST.

  18. Assessing adaptation – Climate change and indigenous livelihood in the Andes of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marolyn Vidaurre de la Riva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case study of Charazani – Bolivia, this article outlines the understanding of adaptive strategies to cope with climate change and its impact on environmental and socioeconomic conditions that are affecting rural livelihoods. Mainly qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze data following the framework for vulnerability assessments of a socio-ecological system. Climate data reveals an increase of precipitation and temperature during the last decades. Furthermore the occurrence of extreme weather events, particularly drought, frost, hailstorms and consequently landslides and fire are increasing. Local testimonies highlight these events as the principle reasons for agricultural losses. This climatic variability and simultaneous social changes were identified as the drivers of vulnerability. Yet, several adaptive measures were identified at household, community and external levels in order to cope with such vulnerability; e.g. traditional techniques in agriculture and risk management. Gradually, farmers complement these activities with contemporary practices in agriculture, like intensification of land use, diversification of irrigation system and use of artificial fertilizers. As part of a recent trend community members are forced to search for new off-farm alternatives beyond agriculture for subsistence. Despite there is a correspondingly large array of possible adaptation measures that families are implementing, local testimonies point out, that farmers often do not have the capacity and neither the economical resources to mitigate the risk in agricultural production. Although several actions are already considered to promote further adaptive capacity, the current target is to improve existing livelihood strategies by reducing vulnerability to hazards induced by climate change.

  19. An extended real-time flood impact forecasting system for the Chapare watershed in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lauro; Gabellani, Simone; Masoero, Alessandro; Dolia, Daniele; Rudari, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    All over the world a lot of cities are located in flood-prone areas and million of people are exposed to inundation risk. To cope with that the social safety demands efficient civil protection structures able to reduce flood risk by issuing warnings. This task requires civil protection organisms to adopt systems able to support their activities in predicting floods and rainfall impacts. For this reason flood early warning systems, based on rainfall observations and predictions, has become very useful because they are able to provide in advance a quantitative evaluation of possible effects in term of discharge and peak flow. Traditionally those forecasting systems use hydrologic models coupled with meteorological models to forecast discharge in relevant river sections and are called hydro-meteorological chains. In order to have a better representation of the flood dynamics, these hydro-meteorological chains can be expanded to include bi-dimensional hydraulic models where the level exposure is high or flow singularities (e.g. junctions, deltas, etc.) require more accurate investigation. That information allows the generation of real-time inundation scenarios that can be used by civil protection and authorities to estimate impact on population and take counter-measures. The new real-time flood impact forecasting chain consists of a suite of hydrometeorological tools that combines meteorological models, a disaggregation tool and a fully distributed hydrological model and a bidimensional hydraulic model that produces inundation scenarios in the most exposed river segments of the flood plain and a scenario tool that allows the assessment of assets involved. The complete modelling chain has been implemented in the Chapare watershed in Bolivia and it is managed by the Dewetra platform, which since 2013 is used by the Civil Defense and National Meteorological service as the main national Early Warning supporting tool.

  20. Constraining Glacial Runoff Contributions to Water Resources in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia using Environmental Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Warming temperatures in recent decades have contributed to substantial reductions in glaciers in many mountain regions around the globe, including the South American Andes. Melting of these glaciers taps water resources accumulated in past climates, and the diminishing ice marks a decrease in a nonrenewable water source that begs the question: how will future water supplies be impacted by climate change. Water resource management and climate adaptation efforts can be informed by knowledge of the extent to which glaciers contribute to seasonal streamflows, but remote locations and scant monitoring often limit this quantification. In Bolivia, more than two million people draw water from watersheds fed, in part, by glaciers. The amount to which these glaciers contribute to the water supply, however, is not well constrained. We apply elemental and isotopic tracers in an end-member mixing model to quantify glacial runoff contributions to local water supplies. We present oxygen and deuterium isotopes and major anion concentrations (sulfate and chloride) of shallow groundwater, streams, reservoirs, small arroyos, and glacial runoff. Isotopic and anion mixing models suggest between 45-67% of the water measured in high altitude streams originated from within the glacial footprint during the 2011 wet season, while glacial runoff contributed about 42-53% of the water in reservoirs in the 2012 dry season. Data also show that shallow groundwater is connected to glacial-fed streams. Any future decrease in glacial runoff may contribute to a reduction in surface water supplies and lower groundwater levels downstream, perhaps below the depth of hand-dug wells common in rural communities.