Sample records for saitekika ni tsuite

  1. Optimization of dynamic source depth for seismic surveys. Part 7; Dynamite shingen no hasshin shindo no saitekika ni tsuite (hyoso kozo no suitei (kusssetsuho jishin tansa oyobi denki denjiho tansa)). 7

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    Tanaka, H.; Murayama, R.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Ishikawa, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    For the improvement of quality of data collected by reflection aided seismic exploration using dynamite as the seismic source, information has to be collected about the surface layer structure before the charge depth is determined. For this purpose, refraction, electric, and electromagnetic exploration methods were tried. In the refraction method, an impactor was used as the seismic source. In the records, the surface wave prevails because vibration was generated on the surface. Analysis was made by the use of the initial travel time tomography. In the electric exploration, a double pole array was used to measure resistivity. The measured data was subjected to a fully automatic inversion for analysis. As the result, it was disclosed that it was useful to know the deep-level structure directly by use of tomographic methods in refraction seismic exploration so as to find the optimum charge level. Furthermore, about the electric and electromagnetic exploration techniques, it was found that these methods can be applied making use of resistivity to the evaluation of groundwater saturation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Statistical alloy design for superalloy. ; Especially quantitative estimation of physical properties. chotainetsu gokin no tokeiteki shuho ni yoru gokin sekkei. ; Tokuni butsuriteki seishitsu no teiryoteki yosoku ni tsuite

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    Tsuji, I. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    The statistical design method of heat resistant superalloys was studied. The data on both mechanical and physical properties of 50 kinds of Ni-base heat resistant superalloys were compiled from publications of alloy manufacturers and technical handbooks. Quantitatively predictive equations of superalloy properties were derived by regression analysis with independent variables of alloy compositions as Co and Ti and dependent variables of mechanical and physical properties. The statistical alloy design program was then derived to select the most suitable alloy compositions for target heat resistant superalloys. The composition of new Ni-base heat resistant superalloy was selected for gas turbine combustor material through the program, and the thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion and dynamic modulus of elasticity were measured of the 0.5 mm plate made of such alloy. As a result, measured values well agreed with values estimated by the program resulting in the high applicability of this method. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Space photovoltaic power generation. Uchu taiyo hatsuden ni tsuite

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    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Introduction is made of space photovoltaic power generation which is the ultimate clean energy source. This is a system to obtain electric energy from the solar cells placed on a geostatic orbit and transmit the power onto the earth by microwave. The US formulates a plan of placing 60[times]5GW power generation satellites to obtain 300GW power on the earth in 2000. As for the scale of space structure, the array of solar cells is dimensionally 10km[times]5km and the power transmitting antenna is 1km in diameter. The electric energy is amplified to microwave and power-transmitted by wireless onto the earth. The ground rectenna which receives it is dimensionally 10km[times]13km. The biggest difficulty consists in transportation of construction materials onto the orbit. In Japan, activity comprises three matters, which are research committee organized three years ago by the Agency of Industrial Science and technology, 10MW class model conceptually designed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, and experiment conducted by Kyoto University on the power transmission by wireless. Pertaining to the research on the space power generation, the following two points are judged still unclarified: Reason for which the electric power companies did not apply the power transmission by wireless regarded as high in transmission efficiency. Influence of the microwave on the ionosphere and biosystem. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Characteristics of an anechoic chamber; Denpa anshitsu ni okeru tokusei no sokuteirei ni tsuite

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    Ito, S. [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    An anechoic chamber for immunity test of electronic equipment for automobiles was constructed. This paper describes an outline of this chamber and some measurement results of basic characteristics. For the specification of immunity characteristics for electromagnetic waves, the magnetic field is more than 70 dB in the frequency range between 150 kHz and 30 MHz, and is more than 100 dB in the frequency range between 30 MHz and 10 GHz. The floor has electric wave reflection characteristics equivalent to the road surface so as to measure the radiation electromagnetic field from electronic equipment for automobiles in the future. Proper electric wave absorbers were fixed on the ceiling, walls and floor to satisfy the electromagnetic wave immunity characteristics and the site attenuation characteristics equivalent to the earth. Basic characteristics of this anechoic chamber were measured. Changes of electric field strength distribution were also measured during the irradiation of electromagnetic wave in the presence or absence of automobiles. These characteristics satisfied the design specification. It was found that the electric field strength changes in the presence of automobiles, and that the degree of change depends on the shape of automobile. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Study on the time-domain electromagnetic responses; TDEM ho ni okeru denji oto ni tsuite

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    Noguchi, K.; Endo, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering


    With an objective to perform three-dimensional analysis with high accuracy in using the electromagnetic exploration method, characteristics in electromagnetic response were analyzed, and conditions for acquiring necessary data were discussed. The discussion defined a parameter called `response anomaly` which uses response from media to standardize response only from substances with abnormal resistivity. The receivers were located uniformly on the same plane, and the response anomaly was derived from electromagnetic response from each of the three horizontal and vertical components at each receiving point, which was expressed as a contour map. The parameter for the abnormal body was consisted of location and resistivity contrast with media. Discussions using the contour map were given on the response when these factors for the parameter were varied. As a result, it was found that the response anomaly appears in the form that reflects the abnormal body, and the response anomaly of the horizontal component is superior in terms of being large. It was also referred that, as a requirement for the abnormal body which gives larger impact from the electromagnetic response, the abnormal body should have lower resistivity than that in the media, and resistivity contrast with the media should be greater. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. On the exploration of deep sea mineral resources. Shinkaitei kobutsu shigen no tansa kaihatsu ni tsuite

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    Fujioka, H. (Deep Ocean Resources Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper summarizes exploration and development of deep sea mineral resources. Manganese concretions, cobalt rich crusts, and ocean bottom hydrothermal beds are taken up currently as the objects of discussions. A manganese concretion is a lump of mono-layer metal oxides present on ocean bottoms as deep as 4000 m to 6000 m, composed of Mn at 25% and Fe at 6%. Cobalt rich crust consists of Fe and Mn as the main components, and one that is rich with Co is present in the form of crust and gravel in depths of 800 m to 2400 m. It contains Mn at 23%, Fe at 16%, and Co at 0.7%. Ocean bottom hydrothermal mineral beds consist of sulfide ores and oxide ores produced in relation with hot water eruption, and exist in depths of 1500 m to 2500 m. The main mineral constituents are iron pyrites, marcasites, and chalcopyrites, containing high-grade Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, and Ag. The Deep Ocean Resources Development Company has been established in Japan to carry out mineral resources investigations by executing investigative navigations. Agency of Industrial Science and Technology is discussing development of manganese concretions, and Metal Mining Agency of Japan is discussing recovery of useful metals from deep sea minerals.

  7. Mathematical structure of ocean container transport systems; Kaiyo container yuso system no suriteki kozo ni tsuite

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    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chikushi, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Mathematical structure of a vessel arrangement program was discussed in order to learn roles of container ships in ocean transport systems among China, NIES/ASEAN countries and Japan. Formulation is possible on a mathematical handling method for sailing route connection diagrams between ports, a transport network to indicate container movements, a service network to indicate sailing routes, and a network generalizing them. This paper describes an analysis made on the container transport system between Japan and China, taken as an example. Four ports were selected each from Japan and China, and the statistical database for fiscals 1996 and 1994 was utilized to set models for: (a) the liner network system with transshipment at the port of Shanghai and (b) the cruising route system going through the ports of Yokohama, Nagoya and Kobe. A hypothesis was set that a consortium (coordinated ship allocation) can be implemented ideally and completely. The transport network (a) is lower by 10% in total cost than the transport network (b), resulting in 1.6 times greater productivity. Actual service network is closer to the network (b), but the system can be utilized for discussing guidelines on vessel arrangement programs with which shipping companies pursue better management efficiency under a condition that the consortium can be formed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. New stage of clean coal technology in Japan; Clean coal technology no aratana tenkai ni tsuite

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    Kawaguchi, Y. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)


    The paper described the positioning and new development of clean coal technology. Coal is an important resource which supplies approximately 30% of the energy consumed in all the world. In the Asian/Pacific region, especially, a share of coal in energy is high, around 60% of the world, and it is indispensable to continue using coal which is abundantly reserved. Japan continues using coal as an important energy among petroleum substituting energies taking consideration of the global environment, and is making efforts for development and promotion of clean coal technology aiming at further reduction of environmental loads. Moreover, in the Asian region where petroleum depends greatly upon outside the region, it is extremely important for stabilization of Japan`s energy supply that coal producing countries in the region promote development/utilization of their coal resources. For this, it is a requirement for Japan to further a coal policy having an outlook of securing stable coal supply/demand in the Asian region. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Energy supply systems engineering tool (ESSE). Energy infura keikaku shien system (ESSE) ni tsuite

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    Itaya, T. (Shimizu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    The paper introduces the computer program software (ESSE: Eenrgy Supply Systems Engineering tool) whic can evaluate and work out comprehensivly and rapidly plans and basic programs for energy related infrastructure of districr cooling and heating facilities using municipal waste heat, cogeneration system, refuse incineration facilities, etc., in the initial stage of planning/ programming for the regiomal develpment. The program is composed roughly of two parts by function: Phase 1 and Phase 2. In the phase 1, calculated are cooling and heating load in the subject rehion of the plan, demands for electric power, gas and watre/ sewage, and municipal were heat in the areas where refuse incineration exhaust heat is utilized In Phase 2, the facility system supplying energy to the region is evaluated based of the result obtained in phase 1, in terms of annual energy consumption, degree of environmental effect and economic efficiency. Image samples of Phase 1 and Phase 2 are shown. 11 figs.

  10. High quality new type spark plug pressure sensor; Koseino plug gata shiatsu sensor ni tsuite

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    Urakawa, H.; Yanagihara, S.; Kawa, T. [Tsukasa Sokken Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Enomoto, Y. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T. [Dai Ichi Institute of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan); Gotthard, E.


    Investigations were made on a spark plug type pressure sensor using GaPO4 piezoelectric material developed recently by AVL Corporation. This sensor has the ignition electrode installed decentered to assure the installing position for the pressure sensor, where the small pressure sensor with a diameter of 4.4 mm, model GU12P is installed on the side. Experiments were performed on this sensor, a water cooled sensor for comparison, and a cooling-free type sensor for reference. The engine was operated at an outlet cooling water temperature maintained constant at 80 degC, and experimented in a normal combustion condition with full load at 2000 rpm and 4000 rpm, in a knocking condition with full load at 2000 rpm, and in a transient condition from full load at 4000 rpm to no load at 1300 rpm. As a result, it was made clear that the spark plug type pressure sensor showed an output of the same level as that with the water cooled sensor in the normal combustion pressure. Load change drift under the transient condition was found as good as 2.5% FS at maximum. No effect of columnar vibration was discovered, and a knocking waveform of 14 kHz was observed. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Geothermal gradients map of Hokkaido; Hokkaido no chion kobaizu ni tsuite

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    Akita, F.; Matsunami, T.; Wakahama, H. [Hokkaido Geological Survey, Sapporo (Japan)


    This paper outlines the newly prepared geothermal gradient map (GGM) of Hokkaido which is important for survey on geothermal and hot spring resources. The temperature data of 687 wells were compiled by data collection and field survey. The geothermal gradient was calculated from the ratio of the temperature difference between the bottom (deepest well log) and the ground surface (10degC) to a bottom depth. GGM was prepared using data of 85 wells which show real geothermal temperatures through conductive temperature profiles, or SBHT (static bottom hole temperature) calculation is possible. Geological profiles were classified into three types based on base rocks. The thermal structure of GGM was clearly divided into a high geothermal gradient over 10degC/100m, and a low one within 3degC/100m. The former showed active volcano and high geothermal areas, while the latter showed a volcanic front arc area. This underground temperature structure relates to the formation process of volcanos and the origin of magma, and is also similar to the trend of a crust thermal flow rate. The geothermal gradient increases with a decrease in Curie point depth. 26 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Launch operation of rockets; Rocket no uchiage seibi sagyo ni tsuite

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    Igo, H.; Ito, N.; Yokotsuka, Y. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the work from formation of the contract through launching that includes the launch operation, task organization of this operation, how the operation proceeded, and so on of the TR - IA rocket that Nissan is responsible for launching as the system integrator. The description of launching operations and count-down operations were clarified by examining the TR - IA launch operation which Nissan was experienced in. (author)

  13. About current space development plan; 1999 nendo uchu kaihatsu keikaku ni tsuite

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    Funabashi, H. [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper explains the situation of the space development project and the outline of the change in the project amended in March, 1999. The space development consists of the development of an artificial satellite and its launching rocket including that of the necessary facilities and equipment, and the development of a method, facilities and equipment required for the launching and tracking of satellites. The space development committee has amended the fundamental principles of the space development policy in 1996. The following are the 1999 space development projects and the change of launching years. The Selenological and Engineering Explorer (transition to development, 2003), the 22nd scientific satellite (transition to development and research, 2004), the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (2000), No.17 scientific satellite (1999), No.21 scientific satellite (2003), the next generation type Unmanned Space Experiment Recovery System (2001), the Manipulator Demonstration Satellite (2001), the H-2 Orbiting Plane-X (2003), the Japanese Experiment Module for the international space station (2001, 2002), and the technological demonstrator for a space station supply system (2002). (NEDO)

  14. Analysis of fluorine in coal. Sekitanchu no fusso bunseki ni tsuite

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    Oka, H.; Baba, H. (The Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))


    Analysis of fluorine in coal being not established in method at present, pointing out is made of large differential due to change in analysis method and other problems. Then, adoption being made of alkali fusion method, bomb method and combustion tube method as a pretreatment method, and lanthanum-alizarin complexone absorption spectrophotometry and ion electrode method, standardized per JIS K 0102 to test the exhaust water from the plant, as a quantitative analysis method, comparison was studied among 9 types of analysis method, selected by combining the above methods. As for test material, 27 oversea coal specimens (covering 7 places of production and 18 brands) and 1 standard material coal specimen were used, and distillation-operated, as influence of ash content was taken into consideration after the pretreatment, or mashed by adding reagent thereto. As a result, it was known that the skillfulness is required against a possible obtainment of lower value in case of using the alkali fusion method for the pretreatment and that the bomb method and combustion tube method for it give a comparatively good result. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Safety measure for the Nankai Tsunami on the Tachibana bay; Tachibanawan no tsunami taisaku ni tsuite

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    Yoshinaga, S. [Tokushima Prefectural Government Office, Tokushima (Japan)


    The response characteristics of coastal area attacked by the Nankai Tsunami are considered to be changed due to the changes of land layout with the reclamation of the Tachibana Bay. They are investigated using a numerical simulation. For the construction of model, submarine topographic data from the Shikoku-Oki via Kii-Suido and Osaka Bay to Tachibana Bay were made based on the data of Nankai Tsunami in 1946 and Chile Tsunami in 1960. The propagation was calculated by means of Leap-frog method, and two-dimensional attack of the Tsunami was calculated using an Euler`s coordinate system. Using this model, current and future topographic features were simulated. As a result, it was found that the maximum wave height increased from the entrance towards the inner part of the Bay, in which there were some points having two times or three times of wave height. The second or third wave might be recorded as the maximum wave height, and the Tsunami would be diminished after the fourth wave. Under the current conditions of land reclamation, the maximum wave height would increase at all the points in the Bay. For the topographic feature in future, the maximum wave height would decrease at northern side and increase at southern side of the Bay. 10 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Flat plate approximation in the three-dimensional slamming; Heiban kinji ni yoru sanjigen suimen shogeki keisanho ni tsuite

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    Toyama, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A slamming load generated by interactive motions between a ship body and water face is an important load in ensuring safety of the ship. A flat plate approximation developed by Wagner is used as a two-dimensional slamming theory, but it has a drawback in handling edges of a flat plate. Therefore, an attempt was made to expand the two-dimensional Wagner`s theory to three dimensions. This paper first shows a method to calculate water face slamming of an arbitrary axisymmetric body by using circular plate approximation. The paper then proposes a method to calculate slamming pressure distribution and slamming force for the case when shape of the water contacting surface may be approximated by an elliptic shape. Expansion to the three dimensions made clear to some extent the characteristics of the three-dimensional slamming. In the case of two dimensions or a circular column for example, the water contacting area increases rapidly in the initial stage generating large slamming force. However, in the case of three dimensions, since the water contacting area expands longitudinally and laterally, the slamming force tends to increase gradually. Maximum slamming pressure was found proportional to square of moving velocity in a water contacting boundary in the case of three dimensions, and similar to stagnation pressure on a gliding plate. 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Measurement of organic carbon quantity at chemoautorophic bacterium; Kagaku dokuritsu eiyo saikin ni okeru yuki tansoryo no sokutei ni tsuite

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    Tsuda, I.; Kato, K.; Nozaki, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Described herein is the method for analyzing quantity of organic carbon synthesized by chemoautotrophic bacterium. It is based on the combustion-infrared spectroscopy, which is normally adopted for quantitative analysis of organic carbon. The problems involved in the measurement of organic compounds synthesized by iron-oxidizing bacteria are noise by culture medium components, aging of gas analyzer and contamination with organic compounds from a silicon plug. The measures taken in this study against these problems include comparison of the results with a medium containing iron-oxidizing bacteria with those with a medium free of these bacteria, calibration with the standard solution for each measurement, and replacement of a silicone plug by a silicon cap. Organic carbon is measured by a TOC-5000 analyzer equipped with an automatic sample feeder ASI-5000. Biomass density is determined by the MPN method. It is confirmed that organic carbon quantity is almost in proportion to biomass density, a phenomenon which can be used to determine organic carbon quantity. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Fate of oil spill in the persian gulf. Persia wan ni okeru oil spill no unmei ni tsuite

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    Horiguchi, F.; Nakata, K. (National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan)); Kojima, T.; Kanemaki, S.; Sugioka, S. (Fuyo Ocean Development and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    In order to predict the fate of the oil spill in the Persian Gulf that has occurred during the Gulf War, a model to predict diffusion of oil mixed into water was applied to the waters. Calculations on the simulation to predict the oil spill diffusion were carried out for two cases; one with the oil spill mixed into the water, and the other not mixed. For the case of the oil spill not mixing into the water, the oil spill discharged at the end of the bay was predicted to diffuse over a certain area of the ocean surface, and then move down to the Oatar Peninsula along the west coast of the bay changing little the area. For the case of the oil spill mixed into the water, the oil will continue drifting on the ocean surface for a certain period of time. Thereafter, however, the oil grown emulsified will mix into the water and begin settling down. The diffusion will get weakened in places where the current is slow, and the oil spill will settle down and deposit on the ocean bottom, according to the prediction. 6 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  19. On noise, traffic and factory vibrations in Akita city; Akitashi ni okeru soon oyobi kotsu kojo shindo ni tsuite

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    Nogoshi, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Morino, T.; Sannohe, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education


    Noise and vibration were measured in Akita City. In 1994, noise and traffic-caused vibration were measured along the trunk lines and other roads across the entire Akita City area. In 1995, the effort centered on the Ibarashima manufacturing quarters, the important source of noise and vibration in Akita city. The general-purpose noise meter LA-220S was used to measure noise and the vibration level meter VR-5100 was used to measure vibration. The results of noise measurement carried out at 122 points in Akita City indicated that the noise level was high along Route 7, Route 13, and the southern line belonging to the newly built national highway, marking the highest of approximately 74dB. As compared with the measurement made in 1968, the value was higher by 3-13dB. A roughly similar trend was seen in vibration. The noise level measurement of 1995 accomplished at 100 points in the vicinity of Ibarashima district indicated that the factories were responsible for high levels of noise and vibration. It was found that the levels lowered in proportion to the increase in the distance from the factories. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Wave-free floating body forms for a shallow sea area; Senkaiiki no naminashi futai keijo ni tsuite

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    Kyozuka, Y.; Nariai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    In column footing or semi-submergible type marine structures, a vertical wave force vanishes at a specific period of waves. This phenomenon is called wave-free characteristics. This wave-free characteristics make it possible to design marine structures superior in oscillation performance in waves. Since Bessho`s wave-free theory is useful only for an infinite water depth, this paper studied the wave-free theory for a shallow sea area. On a wave-free singularity and required floating body form, 2-D and 3-D axisymmetric floating body forms were determined, and vertical wave force characteristics of the obtained body forms were calculated and verified experimentally. Since the source term of the wave-free singularity was weaker in a shallow sea area than an infinite deep water area, resulting in the narrow width of the obtained wave-free body forms in a shallow sea area. The wave-free theory for a shallow sea area was verified by both numerical calculation based on a singularity distribution method and model experiment for these floating body forms. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Geological evaluation on productibility of coal seam gas; Coal seam gas no chishitsugakuteki shigen hyoka ni tsuite

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    Fujii, K. [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Education


    Coal seam gas is also called coal bed methane gas, indicating the gas existing in coal beds. The gas is distinguished from the oil field based gas, and also called non-conventional type gas. Its confirmed reserve is estimated to be 24 trillion m {sup 3}, with the trend of its development seen worldwide as utilization of unused resource. For the necessity of cultivating relevant technologies in Japan, this paper considers processes of production, movement, stockpiling, and accumulation of the gas. Its productibility is controlled by thickness of a coal bed, degree of coalification, gas content, permeability, groundwater flow, and deposition structure. Gas generation potential is evaluated by existing conditions of coal and degree of coalification, and methane production by biological origin and thermal origin. Economically viable methane gas is mainly of the latter origin. Evaluating gas reserve potential requires identification of the whole mechanism of adsorption, accumulation and movement of methane gas. The gas is expected of effect on environmental aspects in addition to availability as utilization of unused energy. 5 figs.

  2. Kurokawa 150-kW wind turbine generator demonstration; 150 kW Kurokawa furyoku hatsudensho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, M.; Shinohara, M.; Sugiyama, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    This paper presents the 150kW wind turbine generator erected at a site near Kurokawa dam lake of Kansai Electric Power Co. in Hyogo prefecture. This generator is composed of a horizontal-axis propeller with 3 blades of 27m in diameter and 36/27rpm, and a tower of 30m high. Harmony with the environment was also considered because of the site in a natural park area. Its demonstration test started in Oct. 1996 at annual mean wind velocity of 2m/s. Soft start was realized by controlling inrush current and preventing voltage drop in system interconnection by use of a thyristor circuit. The dual operation system was adopted of a 30kW small generator at lower wind velocity and a 150kW large one at higher velocity. Two kinds of brakes are used, and rotor revolution was reduced by air brake (blade tip spoiler). Mechanical disk brake works for the stopped rotor or emergency stopping. Even if the wind turbine was stopped by exterior factor, if no anomaly of the turbine is found, it automatically re-starts after removal of the factor. The generator is controlled from a remote control station 150km apart through NTT communication line. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Present situation of wastes and the problems; Haiki butsu taisaku no genjo to mondai ten ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, S.


    The construction of socioeconomic system based on the environmental protection was decided as one of the following four long-term targets in the `basic environmental plan`. That is, (1) socioeconomic system based on the environment, (2) commensalism between nature and human being, (3) joining to the action as for environmental protection, and (4) promotion of the international cooperation. Countermeasures for waste and its recycling was taken up as one of the related individual policies, and the construction of a circulating social system which will be sustainable developed by the restraint of waste, the construction of a proper recycle system and the appropriate disposal and so on are required. The high standard of living, greatly advanced industry, diversification of life style and the change of consumer`s behavior have greatly increased both the general waste mainly consisting of municipal waste and the industrial waste. In this paper, taking up the case of the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example of these situation, the measures for waste proposed by some deliberative councils, the problem of incineration disposal method and the dioxin generated from the facilities, and so forth are described. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Prediction of strong acceleration motion depended on focal mechanism; Shingen mechanism wo koryoshita jishindo yosoku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Y.; Ejiri, J. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes simulation results of strong acceleration motion with varying uncertain fault parameters mainly for a fault model of Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. For the analysis, based on the fault parameters, the strong acceleration motion was simulated using the radiation patterns and the breaking time difference of composite faults as parameters. A statistic waveform composition method was used for the simulation. For the theoretical radiation patterns, directivity was emphasized which depended on the strike of faults, and the maximum acceleration was more than 220 gal. While, for the homogeneous radiation patterns, the maximum accelerations were isotopically distributed around the fault as a center. For variations in the maximum acceleration and the predominant frequency due to the breaking time difference of three faults, the response spectral value of maximum/minimum was about 1.7 times. From the viewpoint of seismic disaster prevention, underground structures including potential faults and non-arranging properties can be grasped using this simulation. Significance of the prediction of strong acceleration motion was also provided through this simulation using uncertain factors, such as breaking time of composite faults, as parameters. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. On the relationship between the irregular reflector and the data processing by stacking; Hanshamen keijo to jugo shori ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.; Yokota, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Rokukawa, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    An examination was made on the possibility of data processing by stacking with scattered waves assumed in a seismic exploration analysis (diffraction stacking method). In the examination, a CDP stacking method and the diffraction stacking method were compared through numerical experiments in the case of imaging a flat reflection surface and an irregular reflection surface. As a result, it was revealed that the CDP stacking method for stacking mirror reflection waves was merely a processing to raise S/N ratio while the diffraction stacking method for stacking with scattered waves assumed contained a migrational aspect as well as an aspect to raise S/N ratio. Consequently, it was shown that, if an oscillator was properly arranged, a structural imaging was possible not by the shape of a reflection surface but by the diffraction stacking method. Additionally, the diffraction stacking method revealed that the imaging effect varied by frequency with the stacking effect decreased at high frequencies, and that no stacking effect decreased at low frequencies but resolution lowered in horizontal direction. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Wave attenuation around a large pontoon-type floating structure; Pontoon gata choogata futai shui no haro gensui ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M.; Ishii, H.; Yamashita, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to identify actual conditions of wave attenuation at the bottom of an ultra-large floating structure, a model of a large pontoon-type floating structure was used to measure and discuss wave varying pressure distribution at the bottom of the floating structure subjected to regular waves. The experiment used a pontoon-type model having a length of 6.00 m and a depth of 1.20 m. A pressure sensor was embedded at the bottom of the floating body to measure the wave varying pressure. The experiment was performed in regular waves with wave amplitude kept constant nearly at 1.0 cm, and the wave cycle was changed between 0.475 and 1.000 sec. Angle of encounter with wave was set to four values of 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees. As a result of the experiment, it was verified that the wave varying pressure underneath the floating body agrees well with the linearity potential theoretical value, and the wave varying pressure attenuates to nearly zero inside the floating body from its end above waves to about one wave length. In addition, the pressure distribution in a direction perpendicular to waves was found nearly constant excepting the edges of the floating body. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Concerning anti-technological ideology. In the case of nuclear power generation; Hangijutsuteki ideorogi ni tsuite. Genshiryoku hatsuden no baai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kase, S. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan)


    Controversy over nuclear power is now an endless argument based on instinct and emotion, rather than a scientific debate on industrial safety, and has reached a level where logical persuasion is difficult with any of the opposing parties. An individual person being destined to be unconsciously subject to the will of the society, the issue has come to take on an aspect of an ideological dispute. Nuclear power generation is not dependent on oil that will be depleted, it does not pollute the air, it is already on the level where it is judged to be able to stand serviceable in view of the ordinary industrial safety standard, and its radioactive wastes can be buried safe in the ground. These signify that human intelligence will be expressed by choosing the optimal technology at a given time point. Accordingly, it is necessary to deploy a large-scale campaign to persuade people from the ideological dispute for the purpose of releasing nuclear power generation from conscious domination and ideological spellbinding. It is desired that the need of nuclear power generation will be explained flatly to people through vigorous PR activities and release of information. The recent trend in other Asian nations for building nuclear power generators is a source of useful knowledge, and making propositions in the international theater will also help. 13 refs.

  8. Evaluation of a countermeasure against wake galloping using wire connection method; Wake galloping ni taisuru seishin wire no yukosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T.; Mukai, H.; Sano, N. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A plurality of parallel cables have been recently employed for long-span cable-stayed bridges. Use of such parallel cables thereupon leads to a special type of wind-induced vibration called wake galloping (simply referred to as WG.) owing to air turbulence caused by upstream cables. This paper attempts to evaluate measures against the WG using a wire connecting method, and identifies the most important influencing factor and the validity of the measures through wind tunnel tests. The following results are hereby clarified. Even if the deformation rigidity of the cables is increased, it is impossible to raise the wind velocity of the WG. The wind velocity of the WG can not be reduced from a wind tunnel wind velocity using non-dimensional wind velocity. The wire connecting method proves to be more effective for reducing the amplitude of the vibration. Provided cables are coupled into a multi-stage using the wire connection method, overall vibration with a greater amplitude can be restricted. To the factor of the restriction additional deformation rigidity of the cables more contributes compared with additional weight of the cables. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Assignment/reassignment agreement for the offshore drilling rig acquisition (case history in the Kingdom of Cambodia); Cambodia ni okeru kaiyo kussaku rig no assignment keiyaku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Acquisition is introduced of a rig by Cambodian Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd. (CAMPEX) under an assignment/reassignment agreement. Such an agreement is defined as a contract under which an operator temporarily loans from another operator a drilling contract the latter concluded with a drilling contractor or service contracts the same concluded with various service contractors. Enterprise Oil Exploration Ltd. (Enterprise) had a contract to drill five wells in Cambodian and Vietnamese sea areas using a drill ship owned by a Canadian drilling contractor, but Enterprise had to keep the rig out of service due to lack of a drilling plan for one well that had been under an optional contract. Negotiations were conducted with Enterprise, and an assignment/reassignment agreement was signed for Enterprise to transfer to CAMPEX the rights and duties for the said one optionally contracted well. Thanks to the agreement, rig deployment and recovery expenses at a remote location were reduced for an extensive reduction in the drilling cost. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Estimation of performance of a high-speed boat by using the Rankine source method; Kosokutei no rankinsosuho ni yoru seino suitei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes estimation of performance of a high-speed boat by using the Rankine source method. An orthogonal coordinate system is considered, which uses the center of a hull as the zero point, and is made dimensionless by using the hull length. The catamaran boat or the single hull boat being the subject of the discussion is supposed to have a transom stern, and to be sailing at a constant speed in the -X direction. A governing equation and a border condition were formulated using disturbance speed potential and X-direction speed differentiation. An inverse specular image was employed as a specular image system upon considering attitude change in the high-speed boat. As to the division of hull surface, the portions protruded above the static water surface were cut off from among the panel data of boat CAD. Considering a high speed condition in which the water surface is completely separated at the transom section, the water level at the transom section was supposed to be at the same height as at the rear end of the hull. Blow-out intensity at the water surface was derived in such a way that a CAD panel of the rear end of the hull is searched and wave height agrees with the height of the transom in the Z direction. A resistance curve may be obtained easily by using a personal computer. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Necessity of irrigation for revegetation on reclaimed land with fly ash. Sekitanbai umetatechi ni okeru ryokuka no tameno kangai no hitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Tetsuo; Kozakai, Kazuki; Okabe, Katsumi.


    In view of the growing importance of revegetation measures of a reclaimed land with fly ash discharged from a coal burning thermal power plant, a study was made on necessity of irrigation in case of the positive execution of the above revegetation. This is a report of the above study. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) Comparing the available moisture amounts in terms of volume percentage of moisture, about 36% is for fly ash and about 34% for volcanic ash soil, but when fly ash is solidified, the above figure for fly ash becomes about 90% of that for volcanic ash soil. (2) The maximum water infiltration capacity of fly ash is 1/10-1/50 of that of volcanic ash soil and the surface run-off is much. The furrow or drip irrigation system is suitable. (3) The evaporation in fly ash is almost same as that in volcanic ash soil and the designed duty of water irrigation is considered to be 7-8mm/day (in case of cultivation of tangerine and pasture). (4) In case when the above reclaimed land is covered with volcanic ash soil, an aquifer is observed at the boundary layer between the surface soil coverage and the land. Hence draining measures such as underdrainage systems are desirable from the viewpoint of the growth of plants. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Hamada, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Development of multi-filter spectroradiometry; Filter hoshiki ni yoru bunka hosharyo no keisoku hoho to sono supekutoru no hyogen hoho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y.; Aoshima, T.; Minoda, T.; Kato, T.; Kondo, S. [Eiko Instruments Trading Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Described in this paper is a technique of solar radiation spectroradiometry in which high-resolution wavelength computation adds to a multi-filter method. The solar spectrum upon entering the atmosphere is scattered and absorbed by parameter-constituting elements such as gas, aerosol, cloud particles, etc., and its spectral contour is complicatedly deformed relative to wavelength. Taking advantage of the fact that the scattering and absorbing characteristics of some of the elements are constant relative to wavelength, a simple equation was constructed to enable high-resolution spectrum measurement wavelength-wise, and this compensates for the limit in measurable wavelength that the conventional multi-filter method suffers from. The new method discussed here is not so expensive as the grating method thanks to the employment of filters, is capable of determining spectral radiation quantities with a precision of {plus_minus}5%, and is reduced in terms of the capacity of memory for data storage. The new method enables data collection under various atmospheric conditions that the four seasons present, which the difficult-to-apply and expensive spectroradiometer fails. It is expected that this method will find its use in collecting basic data for the designing of photovoltaic power generation systems, in the study of photochemical reaction in agriculture, and in collecting basic data for daylight lighting. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Itokawa, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Study on behavior of organic substances in waste at landfill waste disposal site. Haikibutsuchu yukibutsu no umetate shobunjonai ni okeru kyodo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H.; Inoue, Y. (Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, Osaka (Japan))


    The report proposes a method to analyze the stabilization proces of waste based on measurements of the carbon content in waste sampled at a disposal site and in boring core samples. Waste transported to the disposal site is spread over a 50-ton stockyard and stirred by two power shovel cars, and 30-50 kg samples are collected for composition analysis. The waste sampled is weighed, dried and broken down into different components, namely, paper, fiber, wood/grass, plastics, miscellaneous articles, glass/stone, procelains, steel, non-ferrous metals, followed by composition analysis. Boring core samples are taken at every 80 cm depth, subjected to weighing and drying, and broken down in a similar way. Analysis is performed for total carbon content, organic carbon content and inorganic carbon content. Results show that there are significant differences among the three carbon contents, suggesting that this method can serve for rough estimation of the degree of decomposition of waste. It is also indicated that gas generation rate can be roughly estimated from a measured organic carbon content. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Effect of static magnetic fields on the metamorphosis of frogs; Kaeru no hentai katei ni oyobosu jiba no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiwaki, O. [Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    The effect of static magnetic fields on the metamorphosis of frogs was investigated to examine the effect of static magnetic fields on the internal secretion system and nerve system in a living body. In this experiment, the growth and metamorphosis of a Rana Japonica`s larva are inhibited inside the vessel in which a magnet whose upper surface is the N pole was put at the bottom. However, no remarkable change was recognized when a magnet whose upper surface is the S pole was put at the bottom. For a bullfrog, the same result as described above was obtained. The experiment result shows that the vertical upward fields inhibit the growth and metamorphosis of a frog`s larva, but the vertical downward fields do not remarkably act on them. As a result of this experiment, the growth and metamorphosis of a frog are considered to act on the internal secretion system of a tadpole in static magnetic fields when the control by thyroxin is considered. Since the existence of action varies depending on the polarity of vertical magnetic fields, the magnet in a living body is judged to be associated with the internal secretion system of a tadpole. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  17. On the muscle activity control in the hierarchy motor systems. Hierarchy undo system ni okeru kin no kassei seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, M.; Miyamoto, Y. (Osaka Industrial University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Excitory impulses for motor systems are controlled by the psychophysiological nervous systems in the body either autonomically or voluntarily. Involved in the voluntary control loop are motor cortex, basal gangalia, thalamus, cerebellum, etc. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether it is possible to reduce or emphasize the muscle contraction voluntarily through electromyogram (EMG) feedback training. EMG can indicate the excitory impulses of motor units. In the experiments, electrodes were placed on the skin above muscles. A significant reduction effect was observed for subjects trained in relaxation of the forehead musculature through EMG feedback. Results of the experiments suggested that biofeedback training for relaxation of the forehead tensional muscle might be effective in eliminating muscle contraction, and that feedback training for activation of damaged muscles might be effective in emphasizing muscle contraction. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Design and construction of landslide preventive construction at Yamasubara hydroelectric power plant site. Yamasubata hatsudensho chiten ni okeru jisuberi taisaku koji no sekkei seko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, H.; Ito, M.; Sakata, M. (The Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan))


    This paper reports the design and construction of landslide preventive construction at the site of the Yamasubara hydroelectric power plant (with a maximum output of 40,700 kW) and the result of slope stability verification after completion of the construction. The moderate slope on top of the primary slide has sands presumed to be colluvial deposit distributed with a depth of 10 m or more, where occurrence of a secondary slip was feared as triggered by the primary slide. The power plant protective constructions consisted of concrete walls to protect the entire power plant including buildings, and falling stone protective fences installed around the surge tanks. The temporary measures were so set that groundwater levels are lowered to a level that can assure the slide safety factor of 1.0 or more by means of drain boring using the down-the-hole hammer type. The permanent protective construction used rock anchors that are superior in constructability and economy. The stability of sliding slope faces was verified to confirm effects of the protective constructions. The verification included observations of groundwater level behavior, water well-up from drain holes, and movements in the slopes. The result showed that the protective constructions have give sufficient effects. Continued slope stability control is important. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuburaya, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujo, S.; Osato, K. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R.


    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Interpretation SP anomaly caused by subsurface fluid flow; Chika ryudokei ni yoru shizen den`i anomaly no kaishaku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Mogi, T.; Kawahira, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A PTSP simulator, developed by combining a fluid flow simulator and a simulator for computing the spontaneous potential (SP) out of flow velocity distribution, was used to investigate the impact of the distribution of terrain, permeability, and resistivity upon the ground surface SP. SP computation using simple models such as highlands or cliffs indicated that the terrain-caused SP anomaly was negatively dependent upon elevation. It was also indicated, however, that, in some types of resistivity distribution, the SP profile changes, the peak goes out of place, and even the apparent polarity may reverse in extreme cases. In the study of the SP profile for the Takeyu hot spa, Oita Prefecture, PTSP-aided modeling was carried out. It was then found that fluid flows caused by the terrain were not enough to explain the peak at the middle of the mountain, which suggested the existence of a fluid flow caused by temperature distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Changes in trade structure. Impacts of overseas advance on Japanese manufactures; Nihon kigyo no kaigai shinshutsu ni tomonau boeki kozo no henka. Seizogyo ni tsuite no jissho bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Y.; Hattori, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    The trend of overseas advance on recent Japanese manufactures and the change in trade structure were analyzed for each district and industry type to examine the impact of overseas advance on the trade structure. The rate of overseas production in the manufacturing industry significantly increased from 2.9% in 1980 to 8.6% in 1994. The spot manufacturer corporation that advanced into Asia has been recently activating the industrial trade. With the overseas advance of manufacturers, the trade in the same industry type has been growing prosperous between Japan and Asia. In the trade structure, the role of East Asia and capital goods has been rapidly expanding in weight. A remarkable change in structure is in progress. The income elasticities of exports vary depending on the district and item. The income elasticities of imports do not vary depending on the district more than for exports. The chemical product, iron steel, and electric machinery exports to Asia, and the general machinery exports to North America have a high export induced effect. The electric machinery imports from Asia have a high re-import effect. In 1990 to 1994, 79% of its trade surplus is caused by overseas production effects, and 27% by income effects. 7 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Computer graphics of numerical simulation of siltation using a three-dimensional display system. Computer graphics ni yoru siltation suchi keisan kekka no sanjigen hyoji ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruya, H.; Yoshinaga, H. (Port and Harbour Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan))


    A three-dimensional display system of siltation developed for estimating the mud sedimentation at the route and the roadstead from the multi-layer level model was reported. The system aimed at displaying rapidly and clearly the massive calculation results. The system is now working on the Sun SPARC station, displaying in color the topography, flow rate vector, particle trace, mud density, water level, and sedimentation. The siltation program can calculate the multi-layer part in detailed grids. It consists of calculation of flow field, wave field, and sedimentation. The input data of the display system are the results of calculation of siltation program. It includes the area data, grid data, layer thickness data, and water depth data. It was confirmed that the efficient calculation was possible because of easiness of displaying the calculation results in the course of calculation by preparing the display example of topography etc. 4 refs., 17 figs.

  4. Study of fuel control strategy based on an fuel behavior model for starting conditions; Nenryo kyodo model ni motozuita shidoji no nenryo hosei hosho ni tsuite no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Uchida, M.; Iwano, H.; Oba, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    We have applied a fuel behavior model to a fuel injection system which we call SOFIS (Sophisticated and Optimized Fuel Injection System) so that we get air/fuel ratio control accuracy and good driveability. However the fuel behavior under starting conditions is still not clear. To meet low emission rules and to get better driveability under starting conditions, better air/fuel ratio control is necessary. Now we have understood the ignition timing, injection timing, and injection pulse width required in such conditions. In former days, we analyzed the state of the air/fuel mixture under cold conditions and made a new fuel behavior model which considered fuel loss such as hydrocarbons and dissolution into oil and so on. Al this time, we have applied this idea to starting. We confirm this new model offers improved air/fuel ratio control. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Region associated Energium Park at Noshiro Thermal Power Palnt. Noshiro karyoku hatsudensho ni okeru chiiki kyoseigata 'Energium Part' ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aonuma, M.; Sakurai, Y. (The Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan))


    This paper introduces the plan outline for a publicity related facility (Energium Park) utilizing waste heat from the Noshiro Thermal Power plant (with two units each with an output of 600,000 kW). The facility has the entire area divided into four zones, of which nuclear facility comprises a tropic botanical garden and a publicity pavilion. Both facilities are integrated in a centrally located dome building. Arranged around the dome are the adventure square for children to play, the sports square and the Noshiro Nebunagashi (a folk performing art) pavilion. The publicity pavilion has an exhibition hall and a culture hall (a multi-purpose image hall) arranged on both sides inside it. Heat supply for heating the tropic botanical garden utilizes waste heat from the power plant. Hot water is made from steam after power generation using heat exchangers and supplied by heat pumps according to the plan. The tropic botanical garden adopts a mosque-shaped dome of aluminum-trussed structure. The dome can install ventilation windows on its top to provide better ventilation efficiency, and is harder for snow to accumulate than on ordinary type domes. 2 figs.

  6. Regulation of gene expression by carbohydrates. Part 1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene; Tansui kabutsu ni yoru idenshi hatsugen seigyo ( 1 ). Phosphoenolpyruvate san carboxykinase idenshi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)


    Focusing on Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), recent knowledge on the transcription regulating function by carbohydrates via hormone is introduced. PEPCK exists mainly in the liver, kidney, adipose tissue, and small intestine, and the synthetic rate of PEPCK protein is regulated virtually by the transcription of PEPCK gene. Most part of the change is regulated via insulin and glucagon, and glucagon accelerates transcription while insulin suppresses transcription. Suppression by insulin becomes smaller in transgenic mice having reporter genes which lack RE containing part, but sufficient suppression of PEPCK gene expression by high carbohydrate diet is observed. Fasting and high protein diet increase glucagon concentration in the blood to increase cAMP concentration in cells. High PEPCK gene expression is observed with diabetes, which is the main cause for the increase in the value of blood glucose in diabetes. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Encouraging chemical biology / international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education; Chemical biology no susume / monbusho ni yoru kokusai gakujutsu koryu no suishin ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Described herein is encouraging chemical biology. Chemistry to elucidate fundamental elementary reactions involved in various phenomena and actual conditions of key molecules must be supported by physics for understanding behavior of electrons. The research themes attracting attention recently include sex pheromones of insects, photosynthesis, reactions involving antigens or antibodies, recognition of molecules, memorizing and leaning, and so on. Fundamentals of the life-related phenomena are being elucidated from structures of the related substances and reaction mechanisms involved by the NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses to determine structures of these substances and also by theoretical quantum chemistry to understand electron transfer phenomena within life-related molecules. Also described are international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education. Academic researches for the pursuit of truth are crossing the borders in nature. International exchange to promote information exchange and joint researches by researchers of different nationalities pursuing common themes is indispensable for scientific development. The Ministry of Education has been promoting the international academic exchange programs by providing subsidies for international academic researches, promoting international exchange projects at various institutions, such as national universities, inter-university organizations and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and supporting scientific projects promoted by UNESCO. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  9. Design optimization of ideal non-imaging concentrators for solar collectors by use of yearly insolation model with frequency distribution; Dosu bunpu wo koryoshita nenkan nissha model ni yoru shunetsuyo riso hikessho shukoki no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Optimization was carried out for the 2D-CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) known as an ideal 2-dimensional non-imaging concentrator for its application to stationary solar heat concentrators. A non-imaging optical system is a system that has an angle for incident light called an acceptance angle, and is treated as an effective tool in the field of solar energy application. Analysis was conducted from the viewpoint of energy and exergy on the presumption of constant temperature operation. For the analysis of constant temperature heat concentration, it needs to be presumed that heat concentrators are in operation only in the presence of insolation that is more than a specified level (critical insolation). When the acceptance angle is fixed for optimization, energy efficiency does not have a peak with respect to the critical probability insolation intensity (in a probability model considering frequency distribution). On the other hand, for the optimization of exergy efficiency, the half-acceptance angle should be within a 35-40{degree} range (agreeing with the optimum angle cost-wise), and the critical probability insolation should be set at 250-300W/m{sup 2} (1/4 of the maximum insolation intensity). The obtained results are low in model dependency and are sufficiently reliable. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Optimizing control of basis weight profile in paper machines based on virtual slice-bolt position; Kaso suraisu boruto taio saitekika seigyo ni yoru shoshiki no tsuboryo purofuairu seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.; Matsuda, M. [Yokogawa Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Paper and Web System Engineering; Yamamoto, S. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical System Engieneering; Hashimoto, I. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    We have analyzed theoretically the virtual slice-bolt corresponding optimizing control of basis weight profile in paper machines that was previously devised by the authors. It has the following features: (1) Optimizing control of basis weight profile in slice-bolt position generates a saw tooth profile between slice bolts, and does not satisfy quality demand in actual plants. (2) We have devised a virtual slice bolt corresponding profile that is obtained by averaging the basis weight raw profile not only on the position at each slice bolt but also on the intermediate point between the slice bolts. We have applied a virtual slice bolt corresponding optimizing control that minimizes the square sum of the profile errors and succeeded in satisfying the quality demand of actual plants sufficiently. (author)

  11. On the development and tests of the experimental hovercraft for the Antarctic. Jikken prime yo nankyoku hovercraft no kaihatsu to shiken ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, R. (Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering); Takeuchi, S. (National Inst. of Polar Research, Tokyo (Japan)); Inaba, M. (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    For the purpose of obtaining technology data to build a practical hovercraft for the Antarctic, an experimental hovercraft was manufactured. Operation conditions were presupposed as follows: minimum tempreture of {minus} 20 centigrade under operation, and maximum wind speed of 10m/s at the time of running. The target speed was supposed to be 55km/h without wind on ice, and some 30km/h with head wind of 7.5m/s. This experimental hovercraft is a pressure chamber type with flexible skirts of about 0.6m in depth around it. For flotation, it keeps the part of pressurized air from the centrifugal fan under its bottom. It is propelled by air jet which blows the part of pressurized air from the propeller and centrifugal fan in the propeller duct toward its rear. As a result of speed trial at the Antarctic, the hovercraft satisfied the measured value of maximum speed of 55km/h. In the operation tests since 1981 to 1989, the following results were obtained; the control method, travelling performance, environmental applicability in the icy zone, parking method over the winter, and operation, maintenance, and repair in observation supports. 5 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure in waves. 2nd Report; Choogata futai no harochu dansei kyodo no suiteiho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    On the hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, a mutual interaction theory based on the area division method is used for the analysis of a fluid problem and a mode analysis method is used for the analysis of deformation. On the continuous deformation of a floating structure, the structure is considered as a set of partial structures obtained when the plane shape was divided into squares and discretely handled as a series of rigid motions in the small partial structures obtained by dividing the partial structures more finely. The experimental result in a water tank and the distribution method at a singular point were compared on the deformation of the elastic floating structure estimated by calculation based on this formulation. The result showed that the estimation method on the hydroelastic problem proposed in this paper is valid. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, various calculation examples indicate that the hydroelastic behavior is not only the relation between the structure length and wavelength, but also that the bending rigidity of a structure is a very important factor. For a huge floating structure in the 5,000 m class, up to shorter wavelength of about {lambda}/L = 1/100 must be investigated. 6 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. On an outline of investigation results of earthquake damage estimation for Akita prefecture; Akitaken jishin higai sotei chosa kekka no gaiyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education


    This paper reports an outline of investigation results of earthquake damage estimation carried out in Akita Prefecture. The basic policy for this investigation consists of the following: (1) an indication on existence of a blank area in the Akita off-coast earthquake shall be viewed so importantly that a fault model is set to estimate damages; (2) because most of the earthquakes in history of Akita Prefecture are inland earthquakes with magnitude of about M=7, four earthquakes in the past shall be adopted as the set model; and (3) the central Sea of Japan earthquake in 1983 was an earthquake occurred in the Sea of Japan side and caused a great deal of damages to Akita Prefecture, and its epicenter model and damages were investigated in detail, hence these data shall be utilized in verifying the procedure and method for estimating damages studied in the present investigation. This paper reports finally estimated human damages. With an assumed earthquake as strong as the Tencho earthquake in the year of 830, more than 1000 deaths will occur in the city of Akita; with an earthquake in the scale of the Noshiro earthquake in 1694, more than 50 deaths will be counted in the city of Noshiro; one as strong as the Rikuu earthquake in 1896 will cause about 300 deaths in the cities of Yokote and Omagari, respectively; one with the scale of the 1914 Goushu earthquake will result in about 300 people to be killed in the city of Omagari and about 200 people in the city of Yuzawa; and an earthquake estimated to occur in the blank area off the Akita coast will force 33% of the residents of the Kisakata town to be evacuated from their homes. 1 fig.

  14. On statistical properties of wave amplitudes in stormy sea. Effect of short-crestedness; Daihakoji no haro no tokeiteki seishitsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimoto, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    Since ocean waves encountered by ocean vessels or offshore structures in actual sea areas present extremely irregular variations, a stochastic method is necessary to estimate their statistical properties. This paper first shows a calculation method for probability density function for water level variation which strictly incorporates a secondary non-linear effect containing directional dispersibility by modeling ocean waves as short-crested irregular waves. Then, the paper specifically elucidates effects of the directional dispersibility of ocean waves on statistical amount of amplitudes by deriving the statistical amount of the amplitudes based on the probability density function of the water level variation and by using a numerical simulation. The paper finally takes up data of waves in stormy sea observed in an experiment in an actual sea area, compares the result with that of theoretical calculations, and evaluates reasonability of this method. With this estimation method, individual secondary components or components of difference and sum may be subjected to influence of the directional dispersibility, but they do not differ much from the case of long-crested irregular waves on the whole. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Method for calculating steady-state waves in an air cushion vehicle. Part 2; Air cushion vehicle no teijo zoha keisanho ni tsuite. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given on a method to estimate resistance constituents in wave resistance made in an air chamber of an air cushion vehicle (ACV). An orthogonal coordinate system is considered, which uses the center of a hull as the zero point and is made dimensionless by using cushion length. Flow around the ACV is supposed as an ideal flow, whereas speed potential is defined in the flow field. Then, a linear free surface condition is hypothesized on water surface Z = 0. Number and density of waves were used to introduce a condition to be satisfied by the speed potential. A numerical calculation method arranged a blow-out panel on the water surface, and used a panel shift type Rankine source method which satisfies the free surface condition at Z = 0. Cushion pressure distribution becomes a step-like discontinuous function, and mathematical infinity is generated in the differentiation values. Under an assumption that the pressure rises per one panel where pressure jump is present, the distribution was approximated by providing one panel with inclination of the finite quantity therein. Estimation on wave height distribution in the cushion chamber showed a tendency of qualitatively agreeing with the experimental result, but the wave heights shown in the experiment had the average level decreased as it goes toward the rear of the hull. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Development of melting system using oxy-coal combustion; Sekitan chokusetsu riyo kinzoku yoyu system gijutsu (NSR) (pilot setsubi unten jokyo ni tsuite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Suwa, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Iino, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Igarashi, H. [Nippon Sanso K.K., Tokyo (Japan)


    This metal melting system is a process to efficiently melt and regenerate scraps of aluminum, copper and iron by utilizing high-temperature energy obtained from pulverized coal-oxygen combustion. The process is intended to utilize coal in place of petroleum for reduced fuel cost. Joint studies have been carried out as a subsidy operation of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy with a schedule of six years starting fiscal 1992. Development tests are being performed using a 5-ton/ch pilot plant facility since fiscal 1995 after having gone through experiments using a 1-ton/ch bench scale furnace. This paper reports the results obtained to date. Using the pilot plant facility, fiscal 1995 has achieved the initial target values, such as thermal efficiency of 55% or higher, and yield of 96% or higher for non-ferrous metals and 94% or higher for iron. The melting behavior in the furnace has improved the thermal efficiency as a whole by retaining the conditions in the preheating step for an extended period of time. The thermal efficiency has been improved better than with the bench furnace as a result of upscaling effect. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of the performance in the solar assisted heat pump system; Taiyonetsu riyo heat pump system no seino hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y. [Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan)


    Performance of a solar heating system with a hydrothermal source heat pump was evaluated and compared with that of a direct solar heating system. The sun-dependency rates ({Sigma}D and {Sigma}H)of the direct system and heat pump (HP)-provided system were expressed as a function of the rate ({alpha}) of the auxiliary heat against the collected heat and as a function of the performance coefficient and {alpha}, respectively. When the sun-dependency rates are compared, it is found that the HP-provided system is the more advantageous when {Sigma}H/{Sigma}D>1. The relationship between the {alpha}`s of the two systems was clarified and computation was performed to compare the sun-dependency rates on condition that the two are equal in the heat collecting area. Although the sun-dependence rate cannot be elevated to 100% in the HP-provided system, it achieves a sun-dependency rate higher than that of the direct system even when the heat collecting area is small. In cases where the building is economically limited, for instance, with respect to the area for solar collector installation, it is advantageous to employ the HP-provided system. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Field test of trash removal screen utilizing current energy in irrigation canal; Ryusui energy wo riyoshita suisha jojinki no jissho shiken ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, M.; Katayama, S. [National Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A trash removal system working by current energy has been developed for agricultural waterway. It consists of a wheel, shaft, screen and conveyor to exhaust collected trash. Current energy is converted by the wheel into rotational power, which drives the screen lake and conveyor. It is installed in an agricultural water way, 1.2m wide, 1/5000 in gradient and 1m/s in flow speed. Observed in the field test were service conditions of the system and torque limiter, water level at each portion, wheel speed, and types and quantity of trash collected. It is found to be serviceable at a low cost. The troubles, such as noise and bent lake occurring when the chain is out of place, have been solved. The test also has clarified types of trash discarded in the waterway. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Observations and analysis of free groundwater levels and groundwater pressure in landslide slopes. Jisuberi shamen no jiyu chikasuii, chikasuiatsu no kansoku to kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S.; Nakano, T. (Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture); Inaba, K. (Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan). Graduate School); Sato, O. (Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan))


    It is well known that the landslides in Tertiary systems abundantly found in Niigata Prefecture, etc., frequently occur especially in the snow melting season or the heavy rain season. For studying the occurrence of such landslides, exploration of the actual condition of groundwater and evaluation of the strength of earth are very important even when the landslide occurring mechanism can be presumed in a relatively simple way about the soil mechanics. Therefore, great importance is attached to the observation and investigation on the groundwater level and pressure at landslide sites and stability analyses have been actively performed. However, it is considered that several fundamental problems still exist in the method for estimating the groundwater level and pressure in landslide slopes from the observation method and data on groundwater levels and pressure (pore pressure). In this paper, these fundamental problems are examined on the basis of concrete observations made by the writers on landslide slopes at Matunoyamagoe and Higashimusikame landslide sites in Niigata Prefecture for the past several years. 6 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Air pollution and allergy. ; Focusing on the relationship between nitrogen dioxide and bronchial asthma. Taiki osen to allergy. ; Tokuni nisanka chisso to kikanshi zensoku no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagawa, J. (Tokyo Women' s Medical College, Tokyo (Japan))


    Recently NO2 is drawing wide attention as a factor developing or worsening bronichial asthma. This paper describes the results of a study concerning this problem based on many survey data and statistics. There have been reported cases such as Tokyo-Yokohama asthma, Yokkaichi asthma, New Orleans asthma and a number of epidemiological investigations, but no sufficient clarification has not been given on the mechanism and the causal relation with respect to this problem. In animal experiments using NO2, naturally symptom-developing prompt type allergy is clearly recognized in dogs. Strong or weak infection resistance due to exposure to NO2 is confirmed in cavies. However, there is an example where the increase of disease rate is inversely correlated with the concentration of air pollutant and there are also some facts suggesting participation of factors other than air pollutant like ticks, mold and food. In order to obtain correct evaluation on the participation of NO2, it is indispensable to carry out investigations or experiments which can detect the effects due to NO2 by appropriately controlling these other factors. It can be said that there is small possibility of developing the symptom by being exposed to NO2 alone in the present level of atmospheric NO2 concentration. 68 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Drift data of the sea-gravity meter (SL-2) installed on the R/V Hakurei-maru; `Hakureimaru` senjo jurokei (SL-2) no drift ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshima, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports a rapid change in the drift of a sea-gravity meter SL-2 after 1987 and after its modification in 1993. In order to confirm the accuracy of the sea-gravity meter of the Hakurei-maru, changes in the lapse of time were summarized on the relative gravity value at the Funabashi base and on the drift rate in each voyage. The drift rates in the case of departing from and returning to Funabashi base were all less than 0.1mgal/day except the first year of 1987, which was presumably due to the growing stability of the gravimeter. The drift value of 1992 was 0.05mgal/day, producing an error of only 2mgal without drift compensation at the end of a 40 day voyage. The gravimeter after the total renewal of the control part in 1993 produced a large drift in the direction opposite to the conventional drift. The cause of these phenomena was supposed to be some kind of change in the spring property during the gap of one year; this large drift seemed to be settling down after the elapse of approximately one year. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Development of HTS power cable. Temperature dependence of the AC losses.; Koon chodendo keburu no kaihatsu -koryu sonshitsu no ondo izonsei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukoyama, S.; Miyoshi, K.; Tsubouchi, H. [The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (JP)] [and others


    It requires the result of being efficient (large capacity, low cost) more the underground power transmission line strengthened with the increase in electric power demand in urban area. Therefore, Tokyo Electric Power and Furukawa Electric advance the development of the compact superconductive electric power cable as an efficient transmission line. In one of the technical problems in advancing the development, there is the reduction of the ac loss. This time, it measured the ac loss of cable conductor, which constituted superconducting cable. (NEDO)

  3. 'Negligence = Oil Shortage' and international energy conditions in the future. 'Yudan' to kongo no kokusai energy josei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaiya, T.


    This paper introduced the Mr. Sakaiya's lecture on the 'Negligence = Oil Shortage' and international energy conditions in the future held at the 20th anniversary of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. The present Japan's conditions are very similar to those at the Oil Crisis. Japan is now in 'Negligence'. The prosperity brought about by the decline of oil price staggers Japan's intention of developing the nuclear power generation. There is no feeling of energy crisis all over the world. The demand/supply of oil resources, international relation, social and economical trend, and technical innovation after the Oil Crisis were explained. The pig cycle of economy can be clearly seen in energy, food, and gold price. The human being is apt to indulge into negligence in the experience in memory and the historical repetition. For the oil forecast, they say that it will be fine or cloudy and the rainfall probability is 15 %. The resources and energy requires a long term vision. The nuclear power generation is important. The social tolerance to the development of nuclear power generation is necessary to get rid of the oil dependency. Let's not repeat the trouble in railway construction. All the people have to be interested in nuclear power.

  4. Feature of drillship operation in Cambodia by CAMPEX and in Vietnam by MJC Petroleum Co. Ltd.; Kanbojia (CAMPEX) to Betonamu (MJC) ni okeru doriru shippu ni yoru sogyo no tokucho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The drilling of an experimental petroleum well was done in Cambodia in 1994 for the first time in 20 years. In the same year, the economic sanction by the USA against Vietnam was discontinued, and US oil companies, such as the Mobile Oil Corp. and the Occidental Petroleum Corp. have participated in the trial drilling operation for the first time in 19 years. All of these companies adopted drillship type rigs. The Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd. was engaged in the trial drilling operations of the Cambodian Petroleum Exploration Corp. (CAMPEX) in Cambodia and the MJC Petroleum Corp. in Vietnam, and experienced the drilling operation using drillships with these companies. This paper concretely shows differences between a drillship and a semisubmersible drilling rig, taking the cases of the drilling operations of CAMPEX in Cambodia and MJC in Vietnam. The paper describes the large load capacity and excellent mobility of the drillship as the advantages, and the large vessel motion and low stability with respect to a shallow gas in a low water depth area as the disadvantages. 3 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Relationship between the electric resistivity and the rain fall in discontinuity zone of rock slope by the continuous measurement; Renzoku tokei ni yoru ganban shamen no furenzokutaibu ni okeru mikake hiteiko henka to kou tono kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumi, H.; Nishida, K. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    The relationship between change in resistivity and rainfall was studied by continuously measuring resistivities of fracture zone and stratum boundary along the measuring line of 95m long from the top to bottom of rock slope. The measurement field was located on a hill of 150-200m high at the northern part of Arima-Takatsuki tectonic line. Electrodes of 30m in maximum measuring depth were arranged at 289 points by dipole-dipole method. Resistivity was continuously measured at time intervals of 6 hours. Apparent resistivity was hardly affected by rainfall at points with less infiltration of stormwater from the ground surface, while it decreased by rainfall at points on fracture zone, stratum boundary or bleeding channel. The change rate of apparent resistivity could be approximated with the exponential function of rainfall. In such case, the apparent resistivity under most dried condition at the concerned point should be used as reference maximum apparent resistivity. The change rate of apparent resistivity due to rainfall in fracture zone reflects infiltration of stormwater, suggesting to be useful for disaster prevention of slopes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Studies on reduction of fluid drag for athlete swimming suit by boundary layer control; Kyoeiyo mizugi ni kansuru kenkyu (kyokaiso seigyo ni yoru mizugi teiko no sakugen ni tsuite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y. [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Suzuki, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan); Mori, K. [Mizuno Corp., Osaka (Japan)


    Sport science progresses step by step in the world. The paper describes, the first, the relationships between fluid drag for a model of woman swimmer and the flow around it. The flow around the model swimmer is very complicated, and includes, for example, wave, some kinds of vortices, hydraulic jumping and so on. The complicated flows are visualized by the surface tufts method and so on. Second, the possibility of the reduction of fluid drag for a woman athlete swimming suit is challenged. The boundary layer control is applied to reduce the fluid drag. The separation occurs around the breast of a woman swimmer. The separation can be suppressed by the boundary layer control. Many beads are distributed on the breast area of a woman swimming suit. As the result, it is found that the fluid drag for the model swimmer can be reduced in a range of 1.5%--2% by the suit with the boundary layer control, which is carried out by many beads. 2 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Hinshitsu kogaku ni yoru saitekika sekkei hyoka gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    To take up methodology of quality engineering as ISO standards, the basic document was worked out which regulates general items for the method to evaluate the operation of various systems as function for proposal to ISO. A method is developed for evaluating the design quality by function and predicting/optimizing the quality of finished products. For the evaluation of slippage from ideal function, the SN ratio and Maharanobis`s distance are used. In the two basic working groups (WG), a document on general methods to evaluate function was made. To reinforce the basic document, WGs divided into five by content/business were set up. Each WG collected examples from the past, studied methods to evaluate function in each field, and recorded them in the document. Five experiments for each WG were conducted to verify effectiveness of the above-mentioned method to evaluate function recorded in the document. As a result, the draft to present to ISO was worked out since the experimental WGs proved the effectiveness of the method to evaluate function in each field. 85 refs., 147 figs., 185 tabs.

  8. Assessment of a Mega-Float on water quality and ecosystem in Tokyo bay; Choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ga Tokyowan no suishitsu to seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Y.; Hu, C.; Hasemi, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hikai, A.


    The effect on the marine environment in the bay when a Mega-Float is installed in a bay was investigated. The physical process such as a residual flow (including tidal currents, water temperature, salt, density, and density currents), and the ecosystem model for which floating organic matter and plankton are handled were incorporated to develop a program for water quality calculation in a bay. The program was used for Tokyo Bay and compared with the conventional calculation result and the oceanograhpic observation result. Simultaneously, the effect on the Mega-Float was considered. On the flow in Tokyo Bay in summer, the calculation result that comparatively coincided with the observation value in a residual flow level was obtained. The horizontal distribution of COD comparatively coincides with the existing observation result. The influence that the Mega-Float exerts on the flow, water temperature, water quality, and ecosystem in the ambient sea area was little and local in the calculation scale (L {times} B {times} d = 6 km {times} 3 km {times} 2 m) of this time. However, the difference occurring due to the design position must also be investigated in future. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Experimental investigation on wake galloping appeared in tandem cables of cable-stayed bridges subjected to wind in skewed direction; Normal narabini dimple tsuki heiretsu cable ni senpu ga sayoshita baai no wake galloping tokusei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M.; Miyachi, S.; Edamoto, K.; Mochizuki, H.; Setouchi, H. [Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    Concerning the smooth surface and dimpled surface cables, experiments were conducted to investigate relationship between their wake galloping characteristics and aerostatic force characteristics they demonstrate when exposed to wind blowing in a skewed direction. The wind tunnel used for the experiment was a closed type measuring wind tunnel, 2.0m wide, 2.5m high, and 15.0m long. In the wind tunnel, two cables were arranged with the distance between the cable centers three times as large as the cable diameter D, and with relative vertical difference of 0.25-0.50D, and spring-supported experiments for evaluating wake galloping characteristics and aerostatic force coefficient determining experiments were carried out. It was deemed as the result that turbulence exerts influence on the wake galloping characteristics of the dimpled surface cable more than on those of the smooth surface cable, that on a real bridge the effect of turbulence may be expected in case of exposure to natural wind of turbulence with intensity higher than 5-7%, and that therefore application of some damping by dampers will adequately damp wake galloping even in case of the 0.37D vertical difference. 12 refs., 23 figs.

  10. Estimation of subsurface structures in a Minami Noshiro 3D seismic survey region by seismic-array observations of microtremors; Minami Noshiro sanjigen jishin tansa kuikinai no hyoso kozo ni tsuite. Bido no array kansoku ni yoru suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, H.; Ling, S.; Ishikawa, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tsuburaya, Y.; Minegishi, M. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Japan National Oil Corporation Technology Research Center has carried out experiments on the three-dimensional seismic survey method which is regarded as an effective means for petroleum exploration. The experiments were conducted at the Minami Noshiro area in Akita Prefecture. Seismometer arrays were developed in radii of 30 to 300 m at seven points in the three-dimensional seismic exploration region to observe microtremors. The purpose is to estimate S-wave velocities from the ground surface to the foundation by using surface waves included in microtremors. Estimation of the surface bed structure is also included in the purpose since this is indispensable in seismic exploration using the reflection method. This paper reports results of the microtremor observations and the estimation on S-wave velocities (microtremor exploration). One or two kinds of arrays with different sizes composed of seven observation points per area were developed to observe microtremors independently. The important point in the result obtained in the present experiments is that a low velocity bed suggesting existence of faults was estimated. It will be necessary to repeat experiments and observations in the future to verify whether this microtremor exploration method has that much of exploration capability. For the time being, however, interest is addressed to considerations on comparison with the result of 3D experiments using the reflection method. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash; Sekitanbai wo riyoshita FGC shinso kongo shori koho ni yoru kairyodo no kogakuteki seishitsu to kongo no tenbo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Azuma, K.; Watanabe, M. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Japan currently produces about six million tons of coal ash annually, whose effective bulk utilization to earth engineering materials is an important issue of technological development. A slurry may be made by mixing the following three kinds of materials: fly ash discharged from power plants exclusively burning dust coal (F), gypsum generated as a by-product in a stack gas desulfurizing process (G), and commercially available cement (C). The slurry would be called an FGC slurry taking the first letters of the materials. This paper presents the results of laboratory tests, in-situ execution tests and centrifuge model testing on engineering characteristics of soils improved by the FGC slurry when the slurry is applied to implementing the deep mixing method. As a result, a large number of findings were obtained including the following matters: the FGC deep mixing method makes it possible to improve ground beds having small deformation coefficient with the same accuracy as in the cement-based deep mixing (CDM) method at strengths lower than 5 kg/cm {sup 2} which is difficult with the CDM method, not to speak of strengths equivalent to that is possible with the normal CDM method; and development of a ground bed with improved strength is possible without being governed by quality and kinds of the fly ash. 1 ref., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yago, K.; Endo, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Processing of the reflection seismic data which were acquired in the continental shelf off the north-west Australia; Australia hokusei tairikudana chiiki ni oite shutokusareta hanshaho chishitsu tansa data no shori ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Reflection exploration of earthquakes was conducted in the continental shelf off the north-west Australia, and a report is made concerning the processing of the acquired data. A GI gun was used as the vibration source, and a wave quite similar to a pulse was generated. Hydrophones were arranged with group intervals of 12.5m, and high-resolution field data were acquired. An analog low cut filter was used to suppress the large-amplitude swell noise attributable to sea conditions. A digital filter was designed for the purpose of eliminating coherent noises from other survey ships. At the ultimate stage the f-k filter was applied to each of the shot records, and the effectiveness was verified. The traverse line was as long as 6700km and therefore the design window was set relatively long at 2.0-4.0s in the residual static correction phase. It was found that this setup is effective in improving the continuity of the reflection surface. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Time domain electromagnetic method for petroleum exploration. Part 3. Case study in Yoneyama area; Sekiyu tansa ni okeru TDEM ho data shutoku to kaiseki ni tsuite. 3. Niigataken Yoneyama chiiki deno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H.; Mitsuhata, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shiga, N. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The result is reported of a TDEM method-based survey for oil exploration conducted in the Yoneyama district, Niigata Prefecture. The survey covered the southern part of the sedimentary basin in the prefecture, known for the poor quality of the seismic prospecting data that had been recorded. The purpose of the TDEM method-assisted survey was to probe the high-resistivity volcanic rock structure and low-resistivity sedimentary layer, and to know their details. The obtained data were subjected to interpretation by use of the 1D inversion method. A 4000m-deep level was subjected to interpretation, 34 data were inputted, and the early model consisted of 20 layers. As the result, it was found that there was a high-resistivity layer ranging from the ground surface down to a depth of approximately 500m, that a low-resistivity layer 2500-3000m in thickness lay thereunder, and that the lowest layer had a high resistivity of approximately 100 Ohm m. By comparing these data with the geological structure, structures were disclosed corresponding to the rock bed depth, Ukawa syncline, Ishiguro anticline, and Yoneyama mountain mass. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Method for estimating `K` value for a case where concentrated load acts upon a crack surface; Kiretsumen ni shuchu kaju ga sayosuru baai no K chi suiteiho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyosada, M.; Goto, K.; Niwa, T.; Maki, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A proposal was made on a method to estimate simply the `K` value where concentrated load acts upon a crack surface by utilizing results of stress analysis for the crack-free problem against one external load, and `K` value analysis against different crack lengths. If a `K` value is known when concentrated load acts upon a crack surface, `K` values due to each external load and remaining stress can be estimated. This is possible by using the superposition principle with which stress distribution and remaining stress distribution for the crack-free problem are given on a case where each external load acts upon, and the `K` value for the case when concentrated load acts upon a crack surface is integrated by considering the above distributions. For the case where concentrated load acts upon a crack surface of CT test pieces, the crack length and the position on which the concentrated load acts upon are varied, and the `K` value for the case where concentrated load acts upon a crack surface is derived by BEM, whereas the derived `K` value-related expression was expressed by a polynomial approximation. From these results, it was found that the `K` value can be estimated easily for the case where the concentrated load acts upon a crack surface at accuracy presenting no problems in practical use. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Evaluation by industrial circles of the COP3 outcome and their future response (America); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. COP3 no kekka ni taisuru sangyokai no hyoka oyobi kongo no taio ni tsuite (Beikoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Response in America to COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) is investigated. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) of America's Department of Energy conducts activities designed to protect environments and supports America's economic competitiveness. The scope of EE activities is quite wide, covering efforts at energy efficiency improvement and renewal energy utilization for all energy consuming sectors involving construction work and equipment for buildings, various industries and public utility works, and transportation. EE also supports and promotes the development of advanced industrial materials, electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, fuel cells, etc. In the field of renewable energy, it deals with the exploitation of sunlight, biomass, wind force, water power, geothermal energy, etc. It also supports efficiency improvement efforts being undertaken through studies of advanced power transmission and distribution, high-temperature superconduction, energy storage, etc. The said supports are provided not only by Federal Government but also by state governments, and include financial aids. A number of programs are under way, worked out and promoted by the respective bureaus and departments. They are evaluated, protected, and implemented through the partnership of official and civilian organizations. (NEDO)

  17. Regulation of gene expression by carbohydrates. Part 2. Pyruvate kinase and insulin genes; Tansui kabutsu ni yoru idenshi hatsugen seigyo ( 2 ). Pyruvate san kinase to insulin idenshi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Noguchi, T. [Fukui Medical Univ., Fukui (Japan)


    Transcription accelerating mechanism by glucose is discussed with relation to glycolysis enzyme rat L type pyruvate kinase isozyme (LPK) genes, whose expression is recognized in liver and {beta} cells, and rat insulin 1 genes whose expression is observed in {beta} cells of pancreas. Conspicuous increase of LPKmRNA amount in the liver is observed in the rats fed with high glucose diet. It is clarified that this effect depends on the insulin level in the blood and is caused by the transcription acceleration of LPK genes. Metabolism of glucose is considered to be necessary for this transcription acceleration. Synthesis and secretion of insulin in {beta} cells of the liver are also regulated by the glucose concentration in the blood. In any system, only one factor is not sufficient to respond to carbohydrates but interaction of multiple factors are required, and it is considered that they function as one unit. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  18. FY 1997 report on the research study for preparation of NEDO`s vision. Biomass energy; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (NEDO vision sakutei ni muketa chosa kenkyu). Biomass energy ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Research study was made on the current usage, technological development and future subjects of biomass energy. The current use of biomass energy over the world estimated to be nearly a billion t/y oil equivalent. This value is estimated to be only a part of a pure primary biomass yield of 73 billion t/y oil equivalent showing a large supply potential. The evaluation result of a biomass energy potential in the world by GLUE (Global Land Use and Energy Model) considering worldwide biomass flow and competition of land use showed that no change of land use form in advanced areas is predicted, and no production of new biomass energy from forests in advancing areas is also expected. Production of biomass energy from farm products is promising in advanced areas, while the potential of biomass residue is high in advancing areas showing the possibility of energy development. Development of new biotechnologies such as molecular control of bio-production functions is expected to increase biomass resources. 76 refs., 26 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Computer simulation analysis on EEVC pedestrian subsystem impact test. Evaluation of impact energy in upper legform test; EEVC hokosha hogo shikenhoan ni kansuru computer simulation kaiseki. Daitaibu shikenhoan de teiansareta shototsu energy no datosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konosu, A.; Ishikawa, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)


    EEVC upper legform test conditions are determined exclusively from car-front shapes, bonnet leading edge (LEH) and bumper lead (BL), without considering car-front stiffness. However, the car-front stiffness may affect the test conditions significantly. Furthermore, it seems that the EEVC test condition was obtained from computer simulation using a dummy-like pedestrian model, instead of a human-like pedestrian model. Our computer simulation results indicated that car-front-stiffness varied impact energy 300 J at maximum, and impact energy obtained using the dummy-like pedestrian model was 93 to 384 J higher as compared to those obtained from the human-like pedestrian model. In order to evaluate vehicle safety performance in car-pedestrian accidents appropriately, the current EEVC impact energy curve of upper legform test should be reconsidered. (author)

  20. FY 1997 report of survey on the intellectual property in international collaboration research project; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kokusai kyodo kenkyu ni okeru chiteki zaisanken ni tsuite no chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In promoting international collaboration research project, coordination of the patent system of each country which participants to the project belong to has broad implications in concluding the contract for the project. For example, in Japan, 100% of the patent belongs to the government for contrast or collaboration project with the government. While, in the USA, the patent developed by the private company belongs to the private company even for the contrast project. In Japan, the shared patent can not be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. While, in the USA, the shared patent can be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. Due to such a difference, some projects can not be established by ill coordination of intellectual property even when the meaning of the projects is well understood. In this survey, was investigated the outline of patent systems of major countries to study about what should well balanced treatment of intellectual property in international collaboration research project be in the future. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Study on heat transport rate of an osmotic heat pipe. 2nd Report. Flow in a membrane module; Shinto heat pipe no netsuyuso ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Maku module nai no ryudo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipposhi, S.; Imura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    An osmotic heat pipe is a top beat mode heat pipe driven by an osmotic force. Therefore, a concentration and a solution flow rate in a membrane module of the osmotic heat pipe are especially of great importance for the heat transport. Thus, the flow in the membrane module is7investigated in detail. As a result, with a ratio of a concentration on the membrane wall to a mixed mean concentration derived semi-theoretically, correlations for the mixed mean concentration, the concentration on the wall and the solution flow rate along the channel in the membrane module were proposed, which can correlate the experimental data from reference (2) within {+-}20% errors. In addition, a method of increasing in the osmotic pumping rate and heat transport rate was proposed. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Ni hombres ni mujeres providenciales


    Montaño Virreira, Sonia


    Debo advertir a la y el lector de este texto que lo que a continuación se presenta no es, ni de lejos, una propuesta realista, si por ella entendemos la traducción, enclave mujer, de las actuales tendencias de liderazgo político vigentes en la región. Por el contrario, intento argumentaren favor de un liderazgo que supere el caudillismo como estilo y se aproxime al máximo hacia el respeto de las formas, entendiendo que sin ellas no es posible construir la democracia. Para hacerlo reviso rápid...

  3. Design of the control system for fixed-point keeping in FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Offloading); FPSO no teiten hoji no tame no seigyokei no sekkei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijima, K.; Murata, W.; Furukawa, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The control system for keeping the fixed-point of ships against disturbance was designed by applying an ILQ (Inverse Linear Quadratic) control (possible to specify the response of controlled systems with time constant) theory, to study the effect of different time constants as design parameter on a fixed-point keeping performance. It was assumed that the controlled ship is equipped with two bow thrusters and one stern thruster of 30ton in output to generate a control force. For fixed-point keeping control, the state equation was derived to slave the controlled system to a target input. The ILQ design method uses the result of the inverse problem of optimum regulators. For designing control systems by using the ILQ control theory, the smallest time constant should be selected according to the most severe disturbance condition considering the response performance of controllers, to achieve fixed-point keeping of ships. In fixed-point keeping, it is also essential to put the initial position as close as possible to the target point. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Application of a temperature selective heat storage tank to a solar system. Part 3. Solar heat collecting system; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 3. Shunetsu hoshiki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan); Kanayama, K. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)


    The tank system and tank-less system when the temperature selective heat storage tank is applied to a solar system were considered. In the tank system, the simulation shows that the annual supplementary heat consumption is reduced as the tank capacity becomes lower. The most suitable operating time set for determining the reference time is about five hours in winter and about nine hours in summer. The annual operating time is about 6.5 hours. In the tank-less system, the most suitable minimum flow rate per solar collector area of a heating medium in Tokyo and its districts is 10 L/hm{sup 2} for both three-step flow control and constant flow control. The tank-less system is slightly lower in annual supplementary heat consumption than the tank system. For the three-step flow control, a change in the annual supplementary heat consumption is lower than that in the minimum flow rate. For the constant flow control, however, the annual supplementary heat consumption rapidly increases when the flow rate more decreases than the optimum value. The number of pump start/stop counts for the three-step flow control is less than two times as high as for the constant flow control. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Study on wind turbine for Yamagata wind energy institute. Comparison of the actual and estimate values for electric power; Yamagata furyoku hatsudensho no fusha ni tsuite. Hatsudenryo yosoku to jissekichi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, H. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, T. [Yamagata Wind Energy Institute, Yamagata (Japan)


    For two 400kW wind turbines erected in Jan. 1996 of Yamagata Wind Energy Institute, their estimated power output was compared with actual output for 7 months. AMeDAS data in 1985-94 were totaled every month to use as basic data. The altitude and surface roughness model necessary for WAsP analysis recommended by NEDO`s wind condition close inspection manual were prepared using 1/25,000 maps and aerial photographs. The obstacle model for estimating wind conditions at height of the wind turbine was prepared using the data obtained by field survey. Mean wind velocity and latent energy were determined by statistical analysis of wind velocity occurrence relative frequencies and Weibull distribution parameters. The power output of 717,700kWh was obtained for 7 months, which is equivalent to 88.5% of the estimated output of 810,730kWh for the same period. It was clarified from obtained characteristic wind conditions at the site that the wind power generation is promising at the site not only in winter but also in summer. Although the test period was too short, this method was effective as analytical method of output estimation in the planning stage of wind turbines. 3 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Study on the micro silicas. Part 2 (the correlation between the properties of the spherical silicas and the properties or the SBR compounds). Kyujo silica no seijo to gomu bussei tono kanren ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, S.; Kimora, H.; Hayashi, T. (Showa Rubber Co. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)); Maeno, M. (Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)); Yano, T. (Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Micro silica particles are used widely as a rubber reinforcing agent, but its reinforcing mechanism can not be said to have been determined completely, with few researches done particularly on those having a specific surface area of 400 m{sup 2}/g or more. This paper describes discussions on spherical silicas (specific surface area 1-700 m{sup 2}/g) prepared by means of a sol-gel method for its SBR reinforcing effect. The result may be summarized as follows: A small rubber transformation correlates with interactions among micro silica particles and their coagulation. A large transformation, the destructive strength and bound rubber correlate with interactions between silica particles and rubber molecules, and they increase with increasing specific surface area and oil absorption. The larger the hydrophilic index is as obtained from the equilibrium water content in the micro silica particles, the larger reinforcing effect is obtained for the small transformation. This enables estimating the haedness reduction phenomenon on a high specific surface sample. It was verified that silicas having higher specific surface area have the permanent compression distortion much more improved than the commercially available products. 12 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Effect of deep structure and surface layer (a) simulation study on the heavy damage belt of the 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu earthquake; Hado simulation wo mochiita `shinsai no obi` ni tsuite no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, S.; Ishikawa, K.; Kaji, Y. [Chuokaihatsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A simulation study was done to identify the causes for the so-called heavy damage belt observed as a result of the Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake. This study determines distributions of the maximum amplitudes on the ground surfaces, and discusses the effects of deep structures and low-velocity surface layers, based on the simulation by the wave equation with the underground model of Higashinada-ku and its vicinity in the north-south direction, observed seismic records and artificial waves. The two-dimensional scalar wave equation is used for the analysis. The velocity structure model used for the simulation is established, based on the elastic wave seismic survey results. The focus function is drawn by expanding or contracting the time scale, using the seismic records at Kobe Port Island and artificial waves. The analysis results show that the damage belt coincides with the areas at which the focusing zone of the deep structure overlap the amplification zone in the low-velocity ground surfaces, where relative density is amplified 1.5 to 2 times. It is also observed that large peaks repeat 2 to 3 times on the time scale. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Hydrogen embrittlement. Hydrogen embrittlement in steels from viewpoints of hydrogen diffusion and hydrogen absorption; Suiso zeisei. Suiso kakusan oyobi suiso kyuzo kyodo no kantenkara no tekko zairyo no suiso zeiseika ni tsuite no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushida, T.; Kudo, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    The hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) in situ measurement method was developed by combining an electrochemical hydrogen permeation method and an ultrasonic crack inspection method. This method was applied to the center segregated region of line pipes to quantify the HIC sensitivity of hardened textures, and also applied to sulfide stress cracking and delayed fracture. As a result, a threshold hydrogen permeation coefficient (THPC) and a diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in steel decreased with an increase in strength and amount of alloy elements. A threshold hydrogen content for cracking was nearly constant independently of the kind of steels although it decreased with an increase in stress, and an environmental hydrogen permeation coefficient (EHPC) was affected by not strength but composition and environment. Hydrogen embrittlement was observed as EHPC exceeded THPC, and EHPC allowed to determine the threshold applicability of materials from hydrogen embrittlement (HE). The steel superior in HE resistance was thus obtained by reducing the hydrogen content in steel based on the above results. 31 refs., 18 figs.

  9. Feature articles, thermal power and atomic power. Design and construction of the cargo unloading jetty of Misumi power station. Karyoku, genshiryoku. Misumi hatsudensho butsuyo sanbashi no sekkei/seko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, I.; Ishimoto, M.; Ichinose, Y. (Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))


    The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Ltd. is now constructing a cargo unloading jetty for bringing in materials and machines for the construction of the power station together with the coal unloading quay and the oil unloading quay at the east berth of the power station, as a part of the land reclamation work for Misumi power station in Shimane Prefecture. In this article, the design and construction of this jetty are to make the normal lines of these quays and the jetty aligned straight in order to allow a ship to lay alongside the two adjoining piers across their boundary, and to make its revetment portion with a water intake recede in the concave manner and adopt the flat slab structure supported with steel pipe piles to this portion in order to let this jetty function also as the deep water intaking facility for the condenser cooling water. Since the uplift pressure of the incident waves work on the slabs structurally, this effect has been reflected in the design after conducting an experiment using a hydromodel. Concerning steel pipe piles, driving of these piles into the bottom rock bed with the uniaxial compression pressure of 1,500kgf/cm[sup 2] in maximum has been conducted. On the front face of the above jetty, a curtain wall has been installed for intaking the deep water. It planned to complete the construction work in the end of 1994. 7 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. On limit state design method considering shear lag phenomenon of corner parts of steel rigid frames. Sendan okure gensho wo koryoshita kosei ramen sumikakubu no genkai jotai sekkeiho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, H. (Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Miki, T. (Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)); Hashimoto, Y. (Hanshin Expressway Public Corp., Osaka (Japan))


    A remarkable shear lag phenomenon develops in flange plates in beam and column members at corner parts of steel rigid frames. A design method considering the shear lag phenomenon was proposed on rigid frame corner parts to which the beam and column members with box-like cross section are connected perpendicularly. Firstly, mechanisms to transfer forces in the corner parts having been discussed previously and their experimental results were considered, so that the distribution characteristics of sectional forces working on the beam and column members at the corner parts and their vicinities can be explained with help of a simple beam theory. Secondly, a shear lag analysis was carried out on a model to show solutions of added bending moment corresponding to vertical stress. A simple and practicable calculation formula was yielded for a maximum added bending moment at the connecting points of the beam and column members to present a method to check stresses at the corner parts in a limit state. A proposition was made on an ultimate strength checking method based on the yields of flange plates in the beam and column members on webs at the corner parts or their vicinity. 15 refs., 15 figs.

  11. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)


    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  12. ZnNi data (United States)


    information only) BE AMERICA’S BEST STRENGTH AND HONOR Additional LHE Zn-Ni Hydrogen Re-Embrittlement Testing  The original LHE Zn-Ni test...follows:  LHE Zn-Ni tank contamination • Spring ‘09 Lab analysis showed organic contamination • The PVC tank liner had begun to break down and be replaced in the Summer ‘09 with a more robust grade of PVC liner • Two years operating with new liner with no problems  Inconsistent plating

  13. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush


    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  14. Study on unified fatigue strength assessment method for welded structure. Hot spot stress evaluating method for various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length; Yosetsu kozo no toitsutekina hiro kyodo hyokaho ni kansuru kenkyu. Itaatsu to yosetsu ashinaga no kumiawase ni taisuru hot spot oryoku sanshutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.; Inamura, F.; Koe, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    There has been tried to apply unified assessment method using hot spot stress, which is effective to evaluate fatigue strength of fillet welded structures for ships and marine structures. This method can be applied to complicated structures and is independent of welding processes. In this study, first, stress analysis has been conducted for two-dimensional fillet welded joint models with various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length of general fillet structures by means of boundary element method. Then, critical position, which is not affected by local stress concentration due to bead, was determined from the detailed stress distribution in the vicinity of weld toe. As a result, a general equation has been proposed to estimate the hot spot stress by one-point representative method. Second, the fatigue tests of typical fillet welded joints have been conducted by applying this method. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the unified fatigue strength can be evaluated by the S-N data based on hot spot stress range determined from the proposed equation, independent of structural stress concentration. 22 refs., 14 figs.

  15. Comparative analysis of thermal storage cooling and storage battery cooling using photovoltaic generation. Part 2. Research on architectural systematization of energy conversion devices; Taiyoko hatsuden ni yoru chikunetsu reibo to chikuden reibo ni tsuite. 2. Energy henkan no kenchiku system ka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, N.; Kimura, G.; Fukao, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sunaga, N.; Tsunoda, M.; Muro, K.; Yamanaka, S. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)


    For use in energy self-sufficient buildings, a system was studied capable of retaining for its own use the excess of power produced by a photovoltaic power generation system without releasing it to the commercial system. Summertime cooling was considered. The storage battery cooling system was provided with two solar cell systems and, in the daytime, one was used for cooling and the other for charging batteries for nighttime cooling. In the cold heat storage cooling system, cold heat accumulators (red bricks) were provided in the wall and floor, and under the floor, and the floor was a grating for proper ventilation between the room and underfloor space. With the solar cell-driven air conditioner out of operation, cold heat was fed to the room from the underfloor cold heat accumulators by a fan. In storage battery cooling, solar power covered 60% of what the air conditioner used. In the presence of sufficient power in storage, the air conditioner stayed on at night without buying commercial power, when the room temperature was 25{degree}C. In the cold heat accumulation cooling, 50% of the air conditioner power consumption was covered by solar power. It is recommended to install cold heat accumulators not in the room but in a separate space, such as the underfloor space, where they are exposed to the cooling cold air direct from an air conditioner for future retrieval of cold heat. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. How extending motor vehicle`s replacement cycle affects Japanese economy ? Impact assessment using macroeconometric and input-output simulations; Jidosha kaikae cycle no chokika ga kokunai keizai ni ataeru eikyo ni tsuite. Makuro keizai sangyo renkan model ni yoru hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, M.


    The motor vehicle industry, which has inspired domestic production activities since the 1960`s, is coming up against inevitable changes. One of the typical phenomena is that the domestic motor vehicle market is getting ripe. Since almost 80 percent of households in our country already have at least one motor vehicle and the population is going to reduce, it isn`t expected that the newly car demand will increase rapidly as it did before the end of 1980`s. It is strongly predicted that purchase of cars motivated mainly for replacement is going to take a leading part of domestic sales. In this paper, we calculate the impacts of extending motor vehicle`s replacement cycles, as one aspect of maturation of the domestic motor vehicle market, on Japanese economy. Reduction of new car demands affects production not only in the motor vehicle industry, but also in the various industries. It is because motor vehicles are manufactured goods those need many step of production by the time of selling. Using CRIEPI`s macroeconometric and input-output models, we clarified that retrenchment of car replacement would decrease 2.6 trillion yen of total industry output in 1990 constant price value added terms. The loss of output in the motor vehicle industry would be 381 billion yen, and in the retail and wholesale sector it would amount td 666 billion yen. Also, electric power industry would lose 47 billion yen`s takings. Considering low economic growth since 1990, this impact could have a great influence on our prospective growing process. (author)

  17. How extending motor vehicle's replacement cycle affects Japanese economy Impact assessment using macroeconometric and input-output simulations. Jidosha kaikae cycle no chokika ga kokunai keizai ni ataeru eikyo ni tsuite. Makuro keizai sangyo renkan model ni yoru hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, M.


    The motor vehicle industry, which has inspired domestic production activities since the 1960's, is coming up against inevitable changes. One of the typical phenomena is that the domestic motor vehicle market is getting ripe. Since almost 80 percent of households in our country already have at least one motor vehicle and the population is going to reduce, it isn't expected that the newly car demand will increase rapidly as it did before the end of 1980's. It is strongly predicted that purchase of cars motivated mainly for replacement is going to take a leading part of domestic sales. In this paper, we calculate the impacts of extending motor vehicle's replacement cycles, as one aspect of maturation of the domestic motor vehicle market, on Japanese economy. Reduction of new car demands affects production not only in the motor vehicle industry, but also in the various industries. It is because motor vehicles are manufactured goods those need many step of production by the time of selling. Using CRIEPI's macroeconometric and input-output models, we clarified that retrenchment of car replacement would decrease 2.6 trillion yen of total industry output in 1990 constant price value added terms. The loss of output in the motor vehicle industry would be 381 billion yen, and in the retail and wholesale sector it would amount td 666 billion yen. Also, electric power industry would lose 47 billion yen's takings. Considering low economic growth since 1990, this impact could have a great influence on our prospective growing process. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rey Sinning


    Full Text Available En este artículo se examina de forma sucinta la respuesta que los Chimilas dieron al proceso de usurpación de su territorio, mostrando cómo lograron resistir y lucharon por recuperar su espacio social, al tiempo que se señalan los efectos que tuvo sobre ellos el último proceso de ocupación territorial que, con fines capitalistas, el Estado colombiano y las economías privadas llevaron a cabo, pese al cual no fueron “ni aniquilados ni vencidos”. Finalizaremos este artículo señalando las características de las últimas fundaciones en territorio Chimila y su lucha por la supervivencia. Para su elaboración se reunió una variada información, a partir de diversos documentos históricos recolectados en archivos nacionales y regionales, diarios, cartas y crónicas de viajeros, además de las diversas reflexiones que han elaborado, antropólogos, sociólogos e historiadores sobre la temática.

  19. and ni(ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    with nickel(II) and cobalt(II) chloride in 2:1 mole ratio yielded Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes respectively. The synthesized compounds were characterized based on melting point/decomposition temperature, solubility, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility and infrared spectral analyses. The complexes have low molar ...



    Ajtnik, Mojca


    Pojem sovražnega govora izhaja iz anglosaškega sveta in temelji na prepričanju o manjvrednosti nekaterih ljudi, zaradi njihove pripadnosti določeni skupini. Sovražni govor je eden ključnih trenutkov v vzbujanju sovraštva do določenih skupin ljudi. Takšen govor je neizogibno povezan s predsodki, diskriminacijo in stereotipi. Je stalni spremljevalec človeške družbe, vedno večja prisotnost sovražnega govora v današnji družbi pa je posledica potrošniško in kapitalistično naravnane družbe. Na pora...

  1. Ni landsbyer i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Denne rapport beskriver en evaluering af statsstøttede forsøg med at styrke og udvikle mindre lokalsamfund. Forsøgene er gennemført i ni kommuner. Da der i disse år er stor opmærksomhed om de små byers og samfunds udviklingsmuligheder, har erfaringerne fra forsøgsprojekterne bred interesse. Forsø...

  2. Submicron particles of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 24; Issue 5 ... Magnetic Materials Volume 24 Issue 5 October 2001 pp 515-521 ... Magnetic sub-micron sized particles (with diameters in the range 100–600 nm) of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys, protected with polyvinylpyrrolidone have been prepared in gram quantities ...

  3. Research report for fiscal 1998. Industrial circles' evaluation of the outcome of COP3 and their response thereto (France); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. COP3 no kekka ni taisuru sangyokai no hyoka oyobi kongo no taio ni tsuite (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Since the CO{sub 2} emission reduction cost is high under the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) rulings, they have made it clear that they will positively resort to the flexibility mechanism. This is to reserve a room for freely selecting power generation methods other than nuclear technologies with their nuclear power plants scheduled for renovation in the neighborhood of 2010. But the industrial circles are slow in responding, failing to accept the carbon fund concept. As for measures for greenhouse gas emissions reduction, since they depend on energy saving for their success, the response specially of the transportation division will be the key. In the industrial division, success depends on a voluntary consensus among industries that consume much energy. As steps to economize the trend of people's energy consumption, an energy tax and environmental tax are scheduled to be imposed. An overall program for greenhouse gas emission reduction is being drafted by a government committee, with the outline to be made known in May 1999 for finalization in autumn the same year. A power market liberalization bill has already been prepared, and a decision will soon be made on a plan for the second phase targets. France with take part in COP5, Bonn, Germany, with a general proposal carrying what are stated above. (NEDO)

  4. Experimental model for architectural systematization and its basic thermal performance. Part 1. Research on architectural systematization of energy conversion devices; Kenchiku system ka model no gaiyo to kihon seino ni tsuite. 1. Energy henkan no kenchiku system ka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, N.; Ito, N.; Kimura, G.; Fukao, S.; Shimizu, T.; Tsunoda, M.; Muro, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)


    The outline of a model for architectural systematization of natural energy conversion and the experiment result on the basic thermal performance in winter are described. The model is about 20 m{sup 2} in floor space. Foam polystyrene of 100 mm and 200 mm thick was used for the outer wall as heat insulating materials. The model has a solar battery and air conditioner and uses red brick as a heat reservoir. An experiment was made on seven modes obtained when three elements (heating, heat storage, and night insulated door) are combined. The information obtained by the experiment showed that a model for architectural systematization has high heat insulation and tightness and can be used as an energy element or an evaluation model for architectural systematization. In this model for architectural systematization, the power consumption of an air conditioner in winter can be fully supplied by only the power generation based on a solar battery. In an architectural element, the heating energy consumption can be remarkably reduced and the indoor thermal environment can be greatly improved, by the combination of a heat reservoir and night heat insulated door. 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Evaluation by the industry on the result of COP3 and the future activities (Germany); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. COP3 no kekka ni taisuru sangyokai no hyoka oyobi kongo no taio ni tsuite (Doitsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A survey was carried out on activities taken in Germany. The industry has a strong opinion to take voluntary regulations rather than those by laws. The nation's activities are being moved forward centrally with the suppression policies that follow the declaration on the voluntary regulation by the German industry to prevent global warming, which had been submitted by the German Industry Federation to the federal government in 1996. The participation to the declaration, which is optional, covers 71% of the energy consumption by manufacturing industries and 99% of the public electric power consumption, but large-scale industrial departments such as machine and electric power sectors who have not participated can also been found. The plan calls for reduction of inherent CO2 and energy per added value production amount in the entire industry by as much as 20% of the result in 1990 by 2005. According to the third party monitoring system employed by the federal government, the industry submits results of periodical analyses to the government. According to the result, the industries participated in the voluntary regulation have achieved annual exhaust suppression of 42 million tons during the period of 1990 to 1996. The public electric power industrial department whose CO2 emission accounts for a little less than 30% of the nation's total emission amount has a great effect. The industry is making efforts to improve the power generation efficiency aiming at reduction of CO2 emission of 12% of the 1990 result by 2015. (NEDO)

  6. Stability of earth dredged from the sea bed to be spread on the ground. From experiences of large-sized earth disposal site constructing works at power plant on the Bay of Tachibana; Kaitei shunsetsudo no takamoritsuchi shori ni okeru anteisei ni tsuite. Tachibanawan hatsudensho daikibo tsuchisuteba koji no keiken kara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suesawa, H.; Okada, H.; Tachikawa, T. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan)


    The earth disposal site construction works for a power plant on the Bay of Tachibana were to spread earth on the ground to a height of around 50m. Of a total quantity of earth (around 2.2 million m{sup 3}) spread, around 1.2 million m{sup 3} of the earth is slurried, dredged from the sea bed and solidified with a solidification agent. It is reported that the solidified earth, an artificially cementation-treated slurry, shows mechanical behavior apparently similar to that associated with an excessively compacted slurry. When the solidified earth showing such characteristics is spread on the ground, it is necessary to investigate its mechanical characteristics, and to confirm its stability from various aspects, including stress/strain of the spread earth. In the design stage, the simultaneous FEM analysis was done for the relationship between stress/strain and permeating flow using an elastoviscous plastic model that represents the mechanical characteristics of the solidified earth, to predict horizontal displacement and sink. At the same time, they were actually measured as height of the spread earth increased, to assess and investigate stability of the earth. 5 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Niños investigadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Liebel


    Full Text Available EN LA SOCIOLOGÍA INFANTIL, EL PRINCIPIO DE HACER PARTICIPAR A NIÑAS Y NIÑOS en los procesos de investigación está ampliamente reconocido. Tomando como punto de partida ese principio de participación, el presente aporte analiza la pregunta de en qué medida y de qué manera los niños mismos pueden actuar como investigadores. A fin de apreciar en lo justo la perspectiva de los niños, el presente trabajo aboga por que –con el debido acompañamiento de personas adultas– la investigación esté en manos de los niños. Por medio de varios ejemplos de países del Sur, se muestra cómo poner en práctica esta forma de investigación encabezada por niños. Tomando en cuenta la desigualdad en las relaciones entre niñas, niños y personas adultas, el trabajo hace referencia a problemas de ética y práctica investigativa que surgen en el proceso de investigación y también en el tema del uso de los resultados. Finalmente, se explican los beneficios que niñas y niños pueden obtener de sus propias investigaciones.

  8. Oxidation behavior of Ni powder and Ni powder compact; Ni fun oyobi Ni fun atsufuntai no sanka kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, M.; Ochiai, S.; Watanabe, Y. [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to investigate reactions of metal powder and metal powder compact having open pores with gases, their oxidation behavior was elucidated by taking Ni powder and Ni powder compact as examples. Oxidation rate of the Ni powder can be expressed by the Jander equation, and activation energy for the oxidation was 0.948 times 10 {sup 5} J/mol. Oxidation rate of the Ni powder compact is equal to that of powder not made into compact in the initial stage of the oxidation, but it decreases as time elapses because of occurrence of packing of oxide. Difference in oxidation rate inside and outside the powder compact is very little. The oxidation rate of the powder compact was analyzed by using an improved Jander model. More specifically, a model was used, in which concentration difference of diffused components in the oxides decreases with progress of the oxidation, whereas 1.113 times 10 {sup 5} J/mol was derived as the activation energy of the oxidation. The cause for the activation energy for the oxidation of the powder and powder compact being about half of that for bulk Ni is because of low temperature oxidation of the powder, and tensile stress generated between metal particles and spherical shell shaped oxides, which make production of Ni {sup 2+} more difficult. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej


    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  10. Abnormal Intermetallic Compound Evolution in Ni/Sn/Ni and Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni Micro Solder Joints Under Thermomigration (United States)

    Zhao, N.; Deng, J. F.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, M. L.; Ma, H. T.


    Interfacial reactions in Ni/Sn/Ni and Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni micro solder joints during thermomigration (TM) have been studied by reflowing solder joints on a hot plate. Asymmetrical growth and transformation of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were clearly observed. The growth of the Ni3Sn4 IMC in the Ni/Sn/Ni solder joints was always fast at the cold end and relatively slow at the hot end. Only asymmetrical growth of the Ni5Zn21 IMC in the Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni solder joints occurred at the beginning because Zn was the dominant TM species; however, asymmetrical transformation of the Ni5Zn21 IMC also occurred under the combined effect of Zn depletion and Ni dissolution and migration, resulting in formation of a thin τ-phase layer at the hot end and a thick τ-phase/Ni5Zn21/τ-phase sandwich structure at the cold end. TM of Ni and Zn atoms was identified towards the cold end, being responsible for the abnormal IMC evolution. Addition of Zn was found to slow the TM-induced IMC growth and Ni dissolution.

  11. Electronic structure of Ni/sub 3/Al and Ni/sub 3/Ga alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pong, W F; Chang, Y K; Tsai, M H; Hsieh, H H; Pieh, J Y; Tseng, P K; Lee, J F; Hsu, L S


    This work investigates the charge transfer and Al(Ga) p-Ni d hybridization effects in the intermetallic Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy using the NiL/sub 3.2/- and K-edge and Al(Ga)K X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements. We find that the intensity of white-line features at the NiL/sub 3.2/-edge in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni /sub 3/Ga) alloy decreased in comparison with that of pure Ni, which can be attributed to the enhancement of Ni3d states filling and the depletion of the density of Ni 3d unoccupied states in the Ni/sub 3 /Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy. Two clear features are also observed in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) XANES spectrum at the Al(Ga) K-edge, which can be assigned to the Al(Ga) unoccupied 3p (4p) states and their hybridized states with the Ni 3d/4sp states above the Fermi level in Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga). The threshold at Al K-edge XANES for Ni/sub 3/Al clearly shifts towards higher photon energies relative to that of pure Al, indicating that Al loses charges upon forming Ni/sub 3 /Al. ...

  12. Measurement of 59Ni and 63Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; He, Ming; Ruan, Xiangdong; Xu, Yongning; Shen, Hongtao; Du, Liang; Xiao, Caijin; Dong, Kejun; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Xuran; Lan, Xiaoxi; Wu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Qingzhang; Cai, Li; Pang, Fangfang


    The long lived isotopes 59Ni and 63Ni can be used in many areas such as radioactive waste management, neutron dosimetry, cosmic radiation study, and so on. Based on the large accelerator and a big Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the measurement method for 59Ni and 63Ni is under development at the AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). By using the ΔE-Q3D technique with the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the isobaric interferences were greatly reduced in the measurements of 59Ni and 63Ni. A four anode gas ionization chamber was then used to further identify isobars. With these techniques, the abundance sensitivities of 59Ni and 63Ni measurements are determined as 59Ni/Ni = 1 × 10-13 and 63Ni/Ni = 2 × 10-12, respectively.

  13. ni potni list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krajnc


    Full Text Available Decembra 1994 je bila v Rimu velika mednarodna konferenca o permanentnem ali vse življenje trajajočem izobraževanju. Široki strokovni javnosti sta bila takrat prvič predstavljena tudi dva nova pojma: osebni učni načrt in učni potni list. Pri priči sta se prijela v teoriji in praksi - očitno sta bila oba predloga odsev potreb.

  14. Relation between shape of Ni-particles and Ni migration in Ni-YSZ electrodes – a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu


    pressure (pH2O) gradient as previously observed [1], but in the present cases Ni seems to migrate up the pH2O gradient. However, it is also observed that there is a preceding phase in this Ni-YSZ electrode degradation, namely that the Ni-particles closest to the YSZ electrolyte loose contact to each other...

  15. Comprehensive theoretical studies on the low-lying electronic states of NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI. (United States)

    Zou, Wenli; Liu, Wenjian


    The low-lying electronic states of the nickel monohalides, i.e., NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI, are investigated by using multireference second-order perturbation theory with relativistic effects taken into account. For the energetically lowest 11 lambda-S states and 26 omega states there into, the potential energy curves and corresponding spectroscopic constants (vertical and adiabatic excitation energies, equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants) are reported. The calculated results are grossly in very good agreement with those solid experimental data. In particular, the ground state of NiI is shown to be different from those of NiF, NiCl, and NiBr, being in line with the recent experimental observation. Detailed analyses are provided on those states that either have not been assigned or have been incorrectly assigned by previous experiments.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    We discuss the electronic state of Ni atoms in Ni metal and of Ni impurity in Cu and Au metals from the viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction (CI) using the Anderson impurity model including atomic multiplets. On the basis of the discussion, we give an interpretation for the Ni 2p-core X-ray

  17. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  18. Kinetics of Ni2Si growth from pure Ni and Ni(V) films on (111) and (100) Si (United States)

    Harith, M. A.; Zhang, J. P.; Campisano, S. U.; Klaar, H.-J.


    The kinetics of Ni2Si growth from pure Ni and from Ni0.93V0.07 films on (111) and (100) silicon has been studied by the combination of He+ backscattering, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The activation energies are 1.5 and 1.0 eV for pure Ni and Ni(V) films, respectively while the pre-exponential factors in Ni(V) are 4 5 orders of magnitude smaller than in the pure Ni case. The variations in the measured rates are related to the different grain size of the growing suicide layers. The vanadium is rejected from the silicide layer and piles up at the metalsilicide interface.

  19. Synthesis and catalytic performance of SiO2@Ni and hollow Ni microspheres (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Liu, Yanhua; Shi, Xueting; Yu, Zhengyang; Feng, Libang


    Nickel (Ni) catalyst has been widely used in catalytic reducing reactions such as catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds and catalytic reduction of organic dyes. However, the catalytic efficiency of pure Ni is low. In order to improve the catalytic performance, Ni nanoparticle-loaded microspheres can be developed. In this study, we have prepared Ni nanoparticle-loaded microspheres (SiO2@Ni) and hollow Ni microspheres using two-step method. SiO2@Ni microspheres with raspberry-like morphology and core-shell structure are synthesized successfully using SiO2 microsphere as a template and Ni2+ ions are adsorbed onto SiO2 surfaces via electrostatic interaction and then reduced and deposited on surfaces of SiO2 microspheres. Next, the SiO2 cores are removed by NaOH etching and the hollow Ni microspheres are prepared. The NaOH etching time does no have much influence on the crystal structure, shape, and surface morphology of SiO2@Ni; however, it can change the phase composition evidently. The hollow Ni microspheres are obtained when the NaOH etching time reaches 10 h and above. The as-synthesized SiO2@Ni microspheres exhibit much higher catalytic performance than the hollow Ni microspheres and pure Ni nanoparticles in the catalytic reduction of methylene blue. Meanwhile, the SiO2@Ni catalyst has high stability and hence it can be recycled for reuse.

  20. Formation of NiCrAlY/NiAl multi-layered coating by low pressure plasma spraying; Genatsu plasma yosha ni yoru NiCrAlY/NiAl tasomaku no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, H. [Industrial Res. Inst. of Nagano Pref., Nagano (Japan).; Yonehama, K.; Sugimoto, K.; Kobayashi, M. [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Education


    NiCrAlY/NiAl multi-layered coating was produced on SUS310S steel by means of mutual low pressure plasma spraying of NiCrAlY and Al powders which was accompanied with self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction of metal deposits. The NiAl layer contained Ni3Al particles and Cr2Al phase along the fine grain boundary. Also, Ni3Al was detected in the NiCrAlY layer with a small amount of NiAl particles. As the result, high hardness was obtained in both the layers, i.e., 650HV in NiAl layer and 450HV in NiCrAlY one at 673K. The structure of the multilayered coating changed hardly during annealing lower than 973K because enriched Cr at NiCrAlY/NiAl interface suppressed NiAl + Ni3Al{yields}Ni5Al3 peritectoid reaction. The SHS reaction time of an compressed Al droplet in diameter of 50{mu}m was calculated as 4.17times10{sup -3} second. 20 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosario Portilla Ramírez


    Full Text Available Este estudio explora la relación entre la escritura y la comprensión de la referencia a través de una tarea de sinonimia en niños entre 5 y 6 años de edad, de origen latinoamericano, escolarizados en Barcelona (España. Las variables relacionadas con la tarea de sinonimia fueron (a la comprensión de la entidad lingüística nombre y (b el nivel de conceptualización de la escritura de los niños y la presencia de etiquetas escritas durante la tarea. Para la tarea de sinonimia se utilizaron pares de sinónimos dialectales del español (de Latinoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados mostraron una diferenciación en el razonamiento de los niños, la cual dependía de la comparación entre lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito en el desarrollo de la tarea, evidenciando una mayor aceptación de la sinonimia en la modalidad de lenguaje oral que en la modalidad de lenguaje escrito.

  2. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B


    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  3. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Core industry creation type. Comprehensive research and development for reducing ABS (MABS) sensor system into small module for enhancing vehicle steering safety; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Koji no sharyo soansei wo jitsugensuru ABS (MABS) sensor system no kogata module ka ni tsuite no sogo kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The effort aims to develop a sensor system to enable overall VDC (vehicle dynamic control). The goal is to manufacture a small module type sensor system more than 20 times higher than the conventional type in responding speed and accuracy, which will use a novel ABS (anti-lock braking system) capable of direct and real-time measurement of axial forces in the four directions. The prototype module will be a package in which a system-on-a-chip accommodating peripheral circuits is integrated with a sensor. In the effort to develop a novel multi-axial sensing system (MASS) for a smaller ABS, a circuit optimization technology was developed. A dedicated IC (integrated circuit) was developed for a system to process a large volume of signals. In the effort to develop technologies for packaging the novel sensor system and for constructing modules, technologies were developed for integrating sensor components and an IC into one, module junctioning, module installation, simplification of the installation process, and for the manufacturing of modules. Developed in the effort to optimize MASS were technologies involving the selection and evaluation of sensor components and the enhancement of such processes, optimization of the sensor itself, and the improvement of the sensor system for higher efficiency in calculation. Sensor modules were tested aboard vehicles and the compatibility of the system-on-a-chip with the MASS module was confirmed. (NEDO)

  4. FY1998 survey on IEA international cooperation project on demonstration and survey of new load leveling methods (participation in the IEA/DSM task VI); 1998 nendo fuka heijunka shinshuho jissho chosa IEA kokusai kyoryoku jigyo 'IEA/DSM task 6 eno sanka ni tsuite' chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    It is intended to participate in the IEA international cooperation project related to DSA, exchange items of information, and promote demonstration and survey of new load leveling methods. The existing and newly proposed DSM mechanisms as the achievement of the previous tasks were put into order. The arena of information exchange and discussions was prepared through use of the Internet homepage for the IEA/DSM implementation agreement. Necessary official policies were also made available. Points of precautions when the mechanisms of other countries are used in Japan: the key to the success depends on social or cultural situations that work as the base; therefore, comparisons and analyses are necessary on such elements as customers as the object, energy projects and governments; compatibility of the situation and pattern of the demand side with the DSM technologies governs the reasonability thereof; the types of the mechanisms are narrowed down by size of the customer division, consumption pattern, electric power quality and safety, and needs on the flexibility; proliferation levels of the DSM technologies determine the appropriate mechanisms; and how the DSM is conceived against the final consumption is governed by the conception by both of the customers and the government. (NEDO)

  5. Energy technology transfer and energy situation in each county. Adequate technology cooperation in R and D (About wood drying system project by using solar energy). Energy gijutsu iten to kakkoku no energy jijo. Tekisei gijutsu kyodo kenkyu kaihatsu(Sora-energy riyo mokuzai kanso system project ni tsuite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, K. (Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan))


    The New Sunshine project aims at the oversea transfer of technology which has been developed in the Sunshine project and Moonlight project since 1974. Some technologies which are thought to be practically applicable are planned to be realized in developing countries, i.e., Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Malaysia. These technologies are to be fixed as 'adequate technologies' suitable for natural environment, social/economical conditions, and technological level of these countries. In details, the R and D is to be done in cooperation with these countries from the basic principle to the practical application as well as the operation test. At the same time, the training of the technical people will be performed. In this way, the utilization of transferred technology will be promoted. The very first project of the 'adequate technologies' is the cooperative R and D on solar energy system. 3 refs., 1 fig. 8 tabs.

  6. Reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction: hydrogenolysis of model compound using synthetic pyrite as catalysts. 7. Property change of synthetic pyrite catalyst with the time after production; Sekitan ekika hanno kiko (model kagobutsu no hanno). 7. Gosei ryukatetsu shokubai no keiji henka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H.; Meno, H.; Uemaki, O.; Shibata, T.; Tsuji, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    Reactions of various model compounds were investigated using synthetic pyrites for coal liquefaction. In this study, successive changes of the catalysts were investigated from the reactions of model compounds by using three different synthetic pyrites with the lapse of time after production. Benzyl phenyl ether, dibenzyl, and n-octylbenzene were used as model compounds. Reactions were conducted in an autoclave, into which sample, catalyst, decalin as solvent, and initial hydrogen pressure 10 MPa were charged. The autoclave was held at 450 or 475{degree}C of reaction temperature for 1 hour. The catalyst with a shorter lapse of time after production acted to hydrogen transfer, and inhibited the formation of condensation products due to the stabilization of decomposed fragment. It also acted to isomerization of materials by cutting alkyl side chains. When adding sulfur to the catalyst with longer lapse of time after production under these reaction conditions, it inhibited the formation of condensation products for the reaction of benzyl phenyl ether. However, it did not provide the effect for the reaction of n-octylbenzene. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Effect of air annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, K., E-mail: [Nanomagnetism and Nanotechnology Laboratory, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ullah, Asmat; Mushtaq, M.; Kamran, M.; Hussain, S.S. [Nanomagnetism and Nanotechnology Laboratory, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mumtaz, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan)


    We reported systematic study on structural and magnetic properties of nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) nanoparticles annealed under air atmosphere at different temperatures in the range 400–800 °C. The XRD spectra revealed two phases such as Ni and NiO. The average crystallite size increases with increasing annealing temperature. A phase diagram was developed between two phases versus annealing temperature using XRD analysis. At lower annealing temperatures, Ni phase is dominant which does not easily undergo oxidation to form NiO. The NiO phase increases with increasing annealing temperature. FTIR spectroscopy revealed an increase in the NiO phase content at higher annealing temperature, which is in agreement with the XRD analysis. SEM images showed that nanoparticles are well separated at lower annealing temperatures but get agglomerated at higher annealing temperatures. The ferromagnetic (FM) Ni phase content and saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) showed nearly the same trend with increasing annealing temperature. The nanoparticles annealed at 500 °C and 800 °C revealed highest and lowest M{sub s} values, respectively, which is in accordance with the XRD phase diagram. Coercivity showed an overall decreasing trend with increasing annealing temperature due to decreased concentration of FM Ni phase and increasing average crystallite size. All these measurements indicate that the structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the annealing temperature. - Highlights: • Air annealing effects on structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles have been studied. • The XRD spectra revealed two phases such as Ni and NiO. • A phase diagram was developed between two phases versus annealing temperature using XRD analysis. • The magnetic properties are well governed by ferromagnetic Ni phase.

  8. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase. (United States)

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien


    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.


    temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings......The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low......, the nickel aluminide layer was no longer adherent to the tube and was only found within the deposit. However, Ni2Al3 coatings had provided some protection compared to uncoated and Ni coated tubes. The formation of nickel chloride binds aggressive chlorine and slows down the active oxidation mechanism...

  10. Adherencia al tratamiento en niñas y niños con VIH


    Ana María Ruiz Navia; Sandra Liliana Enríquez Lara; Paula Andrea Hoyos Hernández


    Este artículo describe y determina el grado de adherencia al tratamiento en niños y niñas con VIH/ SIDA teniendo en cuenta los comportamientos y las variables asociadas a ésta. La muestra estuvo conformada por 1 niño y 5 niñas, diagnosticados con VIH, y su respectivo cuidador primario, quienes respondieron a la entrevista semiestructurada de evaluación de adherencia para niños y niñas con VIH/ SIDA ad hoc y a la entrevista semiestructurada de evaluación de adherencia para niños y niñas con VI...

  11. The Ni-Al-Hf Multiphase Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska J.


    Full Text Available The generalized Darken method was applied to simulate the diffusion between γ-Ni| γ’-Ni3Al and γ’-Ni3Al|β-NiAl interfaces. The results of calculations were compared with the experimental concentration’s profiles of nickel, aluminum and hafnium in aluminide and hafnium doped aluminide coatings deposited by the CVD and PVD methods on pure nickel. The method deals with the Wagner’s integral diffusion coefficients and thermodynamic data - activities of components. The experimental results agree with the simulated ones.

  12. Laser welding of NiTi wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gugel, H. [Institute for Materials, Materials Technology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany)], E-mail:; Schuermann, A.; Theisen, W. [Institute for Materials, Materials Technology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany)


    The special properties of nickel-titanium shape memory alloys are currently used in micro-engineering and medical technology. In order to integrate NiTi components into existing parts and modules, they often need to be joined to other materials. For this reason, the present contribution deals with the laser welding of thin pseudoelastic NiTi wires (100 {mu}m) with an Nd:YAG laser. Based on extensive parameter studies, faultless joints were produced. This study deals with the structural changes occurring in the fusion and heat-affected zones, the performance of the joints in static tensile tests and their functional fatigue. It can be shown that NiTi/NiTi joints reach about 75% of the ultimate tensile strength of pure NiTi wires. For welding NiTi to steel, no interlayer was used. The dissimilar NiTi/steel joints provide a bonding strength in the fusion and heat-affected zones higher than the plateau stress level. NiTi/steel joints of thin wires, as a new aspect, enable the possibility to benefit from the pseudoelastic properties of the NiTi component.

  13. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua


    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuum mechanics simulations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites during reduction and re-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas


    expansion, diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and microcracking due to excessive stress. In the Ni/NiO phase, nonelastic strains in terms of diffusional and power law creep were implemented, and additionally for NiO deformation due to microcracking and/or pseudoplasticity. Semi...

  15. Preparation and characterization of Cu(111)-Ni and Cu(110)-Ni surface alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, John W.; Mesters, C.M.A.M.; Wermer, G.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.


    The interaction of Ni(CO)4/CO gas mixtures with Cu(111) and Cu(110) single crystal surfaces has been studied with ellipsometry. Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED and argon ion depth profiling. At room temperature Ni atoms with some CO ligands remain at the surface. The amount of Ni that can be

  16. Contexto Familiar: Diferencias Conductuales entre Niños y Niñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aurelia Ramírez Castillo


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se investigan las diferencias por género en problemas de conducta. En una muestra de 200 sujetos (niños y niñas en tre 5 y 18 años de Granada (España, los resultados concluyen que los niños tienen más problemas de conducta delictiva que las niñas. Cuando existen conflictos matrimoniales y prácticas de crianza negativas, de nuevo los niños tienen más problemas externos que las niñas. En este trabajo se investigan las diferencias por género en problemas de conducta. En una muestra de 200 sujetos (niños y niñas en tre 5 y 18 años de Granada (España, los resultados concluyen que los niños tienen más problemas de conducta delictiva que las niñas. Cuando existen conflictos matrimoniales y prácticas de crianza negativas, de nuevo los niños tienen más problemas externos que las niñas.

  17. Structure-activity relations for Ni-containing zeolites during NO reduction. II. Role of the chemical state of Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosqueda Jimenez, B.I.; Jentys, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.


    The influence of the metal in Ni-containing zeolites used as catalysts for the reduction of NO with propane and propene was studied. In the fresh catalysts, Ni is located in ion exchange positions for Ni/MOR, Ni/ZSM-5, and Ni/MCM-22. The formation of carbonaceous deposits, the removal of Al from

  18. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin [University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) (United States); Claypoole, Leslie [Fairmont State University (United States); Bachas, Leonidas G., E-mail: bachas@uky.ed [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry (United States)


    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  19. .';.:NI~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nag was die terugtog van die Skotte, oor die woestyn, vir myle sigbaar soos die een ou krok na die ander opgegaan het in ligte laaie. Geen wonder dat luisteraars die volgende aand oor. Zeesenradio gehoor het hoe 8 Leer verslaan is dat hulle, in hulle dolIe vaart na die Delta, besig was om hulle voertuie te verband.

  20. Thermal neutron capture γ-ray spectroscopy of59Ni and61Ni (United States)

    Harder, A.; Michaelsen, S.; Lieb, K. P.; Williams, A. P.


    The γ-radiation emitted after thermal neutron capture in isotopically enriched58Ni and60Ni was measured at the ILL high flux reactor by means of Ge/NaI detectors operated in Compton suppression and pair spectrometer mode. The neutron binding energies were determined as B n (59Ni)=8999.15(23) keV and Bn(61Ni)=7820.07(20) keV; some 95% of the total γ-ray fluxes through59,61Ni were assigned. The γ-ray strength functions of the primary transitions and the level densities are discussed.

  1. Who is El Niño? (United States)

    Philander, S. George

    It is a curious story, about a phenomenon we first welcomed as a blessing but now view with dismay, if not horror [Philander, 1998]. We named it El Niño for the child Jesus, provided it with relatives—La Niña and ENSO—and are devoting innumerable studies to the description and idealization of this family. These scriptures provide such a broad spectrum of historical, cultural, and scientific perspectives that there is now confusion about the identity of El Niño. Trenberth [1997] summarizes the situation as follows.The atmospheric component tied to El Niño is termed the “Southern Oscillation.” Scientists often call the phenomenon where the atmosphere and ocean collaborate ENSO, short for El Niño-Southern Oscillation. El Niño then corresponds to the warm phase of ENSO. The opposite “La Niña” (“the girl” in Spanish) phase consists of a basinwide cooling of the tropical Pacific and thus the cold phase of ENSO. However, for the public, the term for the whole phenomenon is “El Niño.”

  2. nière's Disease (United States)

    ... disease. Why do people get Ménière’s disease? Many theories exist about what happens to cause Ménière’s disease, ... changes. Some people claim that caffeine, chocolate, and alcohol make their symptoms worse and either avoid or ...

  3. Capture of Hydrogen Using ZrNi (United States)

    Patton, Lisa; Wales, Joshua; Lynch, David; Parrish, Clyde


    Water, as ice, is thought to reside in craters at the lunar poles along with CH4 and H2 . A proposed robotic mission for 2012 will utilize metal/metal hydrides for H2 recovery. Specifications are 99% capture of H2 initially at 5 bar and 100C (or greater), and degassing completely at 300C. Of 47-systems examined using the van't Hoff equation, 4 systems, Mg/MgH2, Mg2Ni/Mg2NiH4, ZrNi/ZrNiH2.8, and Pd/PdH0.77, were considered likely candidates for further examination. It is essential, when selecting a system, to also examine questions regarding activation, kinetics, cyclic stability, and gas impurity effects. After considering those issues, ZrN1 was selected as the most promising candidate, as it is easily activated and rapidly forms ZrNiH 2.8 . In addition, it resists oxide poisoning by CO2, and H2O, while some oxidation by O2 is recommended for improved activation . The presence of hydrogen in the as received Zr-Ni alloy from Alfa Aesar posed additional technical problems. X-ray diffraction of the Zr-Ni powder (-325 mesh), with a Zr:Ni wt% ratio of 70:30, was found to consist of ZrH2, ZrNiH2.8, and ZrNi. ZrH2 in the alloy presented the risk that after degassing that both Zr and ZrNi would be present, and thus lead to erroneous results regarding the reactivity of ZrNi with H2 . Fortunately, ZrH2 is a highly stable hydride that does not degas H2 to any significant extent at temperatures below 300C. Based on equilibrium calculations for the decomposition of ZrH2, only 1 millionth of the hydride decomposed at 300C under a N2 atmosphere flowing at 25 ccm for 64 hours, the longest time for pretreatment employed in the investigation. It was possible, from the X-ray results and knowledge of the Zr:Ni ratio, to compute the composition of a pretreated specimen as being 76 wt% ZrNi and the balance ZrH2.

  4. Water dissociation on Ni(100), Ni(110), and Ni(111) surfaces: Reaction path approach to mode selectivity. (United States)

    Seenivasan, H; Jackson, Bret; Tiwari, Ashwani K


    A comparative study of mode-selectivity of water dissociation on Ni(100), Ni(110), and Ni(111) surfaces is performed at the same level of theory using a fully quantum approach based on the reaction path Hamiltonian. Calculations show that the barrier to water dissociation on the Ni(110) surface is significantly lower compared to its close-packed counterparts. Transition states for this reaction on all three surfaces involve the elongation of one of the O-H bonds. A significant decrease in the symmetric stretching and bending mode frequencies near the transition state is observed in all three cases and in the vibrational adiabatic approximation, excitation of these softened modes results in a significant enhancement in reactivity. Inclusion of non-adiabatic couplings between modes results in the asymmetric stretching mode showing a similar enhancement of reactivity as the symmetric stretching mode. Dissociation probabilities calculated at a surface temperature of 300 K showed higher reactivity at lower collision energies compared to that of the static surface case, underlining the importance of lattice motion in enhancing reactivity. Mode selective behavior is similar on all the surfaces. Molecules with one-quantum of vibrational excitation in the symmetric stretch, at lower energies (up to ∼0.45 eV), are more reactive on Ni(110) than the Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces. However, the dissociation probabilities approach saturation on all the surfaces at higher incident energy values. Overall, Ni(110) is found to be highly reactive toward water dissociation among the low-index nickel surfaces owing to a low reaction barrier resulting from the openness and corrugation of the surface. These results show that the mode-selective behavior does not vary with different crystal facets of Ni qualitatively, but there is a significant quantitative effect.

  5. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    the samples with impure nickel electrodes showed an initial increase toward a high constant polarisation resistance, whereas the samples with pure nickel electrodes showed a considerable decrease to a low constant polarisation resistance with time. For both types of nickel the polarisation resistance dropped......The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... of 97% H2/3% H2O. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at open circuit voltage (OCV) and at anodic and cathodic polarisations (100 mV) was performed. A correlation of the electrical data with the structure development and the chemical composition was attempted. Nickel wires with different impurity...

  6. Niño maltratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ivis Crespo Barrios


    Full Text Available Se presentan 200 niños maltratados que acuden al Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Juan Manuel Márquez" en el período comprendido de diciembre de 1990 a enero de 1992; éstos fueron seleccionados teniendo en cuenta los criterios de maltrato, y era el objetivo fundamental del estudio conocer cómo se comporta en nuestro medio. En los resultados se muestra que la forma más frecuente fue el tipo no intencional; la ingestión de tóxicos fue la forma de negligencia física más frecuente dentro del maltrato no intencional, ésta es más usual en los niños menores de 5 años; los trastornos psiquiátricos y el alcoholismo son favorecedores del maltrato intencional, la madre es la que más maltrata; la mortalidad por esta causa no fue elevada (5 fallecidos y los criterios de riesgo de maltrato tienen utilidad para su identificación.200 mistreated children who were seen at the "Juan Manual Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital from December, 1990 to January, 1992, are presented. These patients were selected taking into consideration the abuse criteria. The main objective of this paper was to know how these criteria behave in our enviroment. According to the results, the most common form was the non-intentional type. The ingestion of toxic agents was the most frequent form of physical neglect within the non-intentional mistreatment, and it is the most usual among children under 5. Psychiatric disorders and alcoholism favor the intentional mistreatment, and the mother mistreats the most. Mortality due to this cause was not high (5 deaths, and the abuse risk criteria are useful for its identification.

  7. Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor Based on In Situ Reduction of Ni/NiO-Graphene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang


    Full Text Available Ni/NiO nanoflower modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanocomposite (Ni/NiO-rGO was introduced to screen printed electrode (SPE for the construction of a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The Ni/NiO-rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ reduction process. Graphene oxide (GO hybrid Nafion sheets first chemical adsorbed Ni ions and assembled on the SPE. Subsequently, GO and Ni ions were reduced by hydrazine hydrate. The electrochemical properties of such a Ni/NiO-rGO modified SPE were carefully investigated. It showed a high activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium. The proposed nonenzymatic sensor can be utilized for quantification of glucose with a wide linear range from 29.9 μM to 6.44 mM (R = 0.9937 with a low detection limit of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3 and a high sensitivity of 1997 μA/mM∙cm−2. It also exhibited good reproducibility as well as high selectivity.

  8. Asymmetry of inter-El Niño and -La Niña diversity (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kug, J. S.


    Over the North Pacific, there is a distinctive asymmetry of inter-El Niño and -La Niña diversity in atmospheric teleconnection patterns, indicating a strong diversity during La Niña events. Recent studies suggested that the typical patterns of the extratopical teleconnections associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are predominantly explained by the relative roles of the equatorial central Pacific (CP) and western North Pacific (WNP) precipitation anomalies. We find that the diversity of WNP precipitation anomalies is greater during La Niña events than during El Niño events. It also implies that the diversity of WNP precipitation anomalies during La Niña events is responsible for the diversity in the extratropical teleconnection. Since the relationship of anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) to precipitation is quite sensitive for SST in the range of 27-28°C, the WNP precipitation differences located over the warm pool among La Niña events lead to considerable teleconnection changes. In addition, we find here that the CMIP5 models well simulate the overall diversity in the tropical precipitation and extratropical teleconnection patterns during La Niña events, but it fails to reproduce a detailed pattern difference of atmospheric teleconnection in inter-La Niña events.

  9. Engineering NiS/Ni2P Heterostructures for Efficient Electrocatalytic Water Splitting. (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Huang, Dekang; Fu, Yongqing; Wen, Ming; Jiang, Xingxing; Lv, Xiaowei; Li, Man; Gao, Lin; Liu, Shuangshuang; Wang, Mingkui; Zhao, Chuan; Shen, Yan


    Developing high-active and low-cost bifunctional materials for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) holds a pivotal role in water splitting. Therefore, we present a new strategy to form NiS/Ni2P heterostructures. The as-obtained NiS/Ni2P/carbon cloth (CC) requires overpotentials of 111 mV for the HER and 265 mV for the OER to reach a current density of 20 mA cm-2, outperforming their counterparts such as NiS and Ni2P under the same conditions. Additionally, the NiS/Ni2P/CC electrode requires a 1.67 V cell voltage to deliver 10 mA cm-2 in a two-electrode electrolysis system, which is comparable to the cell using the benchmark Pt/C||RuO2 electrode. Detailed characterizations reveal that strong electronic interactions between NiS and Ni2P, abundant active sites, and smaller charge-transfer resistance contribute to the improved HER and OER activity.

  10. Study of the central collisions in the reactions Ni + Al and Ni + Ni at 28 A.MeV; Etude des collisions centrales dans les reactions Ni + Al et Ni + Ni a 28 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, L.


    The work is in characterisation of mechanisms in the energy range of onset of multifragmentation (excitation energy of composed nucleus around 4 - 5 AMeV). This work focused on an experiment performed at the SARA facility, in Grenoble, using the AMPHORA multi detection array. I have been particularly interested in central collisions in the Ni + Al and Ni + Ni systems. The possibility to detect complete events for Ni + Al, and quasi-complete events for the Ni + Ni case, is the reason of this choice. Furthermore Ni + Ni presents the interest of a symmetrical system, for which the excitation energy per nucleon is maximum. The study of these reactions has been focused on the quasi-complete events (events for which at least 80 % of the total charge has been detected). Heavy ions produced in peripheral collisions are very likely emitted along the beam line or stopped in the plastic detectors, energy thresholds are too high for the quasi-target products detection, consequently by requiring complete or quasi-complete measurement of the total charge, we are able to detect mostly central events. The knowledge of informations like charge, energy or detection angles allows to isolate the source(s) and to reconstruct the size and the excitation energy of the source(s). Comparisons with simulations like sequential emission (GEMINI code), very deep inelastic collision or instantaneous emission (Berliner code) allows to characterise the first stage of the collision (binary collisions or central collisions) and the type of deexcitation of the source(s). Some calculations was also performed with the statistical model code MODGAN. Indeed azimuthal correlations seem to be a good tool in getting more information about involved reaction mechanisms. Comparisons with MODGAN provide information about angular momentum of the source and time delay between emissions of the two particles (separation between sequential or instantaneous process). (author). 69 refs.

  11. Ääniä tiloissa


    Rehn, Nicolas


    Opinnäytetyössäni esittelen keväällä 2013 Pop & Jazz Konservatorion lounasravintolan WC:ssä toteuttamani liveinstallaation Ääniä tiloissa. Analysoin teokseni kautta taiteen ja musiikin tekemisen motiiveja ja symboliikkaa, sekä tilan funktiota paikkana jossa toteuttaa musiikkia ja taidetta. Tavoitteenani opinnäytetyössäni oli toteuttaa performatiivinen esitys joka on vahvasti sidoksissa tiettyyn paikkaan, tilaan ja aikaan, ja jonka äänimateriaali saa muotonsa tässä nimenomaisessa tilassa ...

  12. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.


    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  13. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.; Hoghoj, P. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)


    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  14. Binary Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses (United States)

    Xia, L.; Li, W. H.; Fang, S. S.; Wei, B. C.; Dong, Y. D.


    We studied the glass forming ability of Ni-Nb binary alloys and found that some of the alloys can be prepared into bulk metallic glasses by a conventional Cu-mold casting. The best glass former within the compositional range studied is off-eutectic Ni62Nb38 alloy, which is markedly different from those predicted by the multicomponent and deep eutectic rules. The glass formation mechanism for binary Ni-Nb alloys was studied from the thermodynamic point of view and a parameter γ* was proposed to approach the ability of glass formation against crystallization.

  15. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siiri Latvala

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni and nickel oxide (NiO particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2 were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80-100 wt% for metallic Ni than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1-3 wt% for all particles. Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20-40 μg cm2 when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE. Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2. Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1 was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies.

  16. Ni nanoparticles prepared by simple chemical method for the synthesis of Ni/NiO-multi-layered graphene by chemical vapor deposition (United States)

    Ali, Mokhtar; Remalli, Nagarjuna; Gedela, Venkataramana; Padya, Balaji; Jain, Pawan Kumar; Al-Fatesh, Ahmed; Rana, Usman Ali; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.


    A new chemical method was used to obtain a high yield of nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs). The effect of solvent (distilled water, ethylene glycol, and ethanol) and surfactant (oleic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidinone) on the morphology and crystallinity of the synthesized Ni-NPs has been investigated. The experimental results revealed that among the solvents mentioned above, ethanol gives the best results in terms of complete reduction, controlled morphology and size distribution of Ni-NPs. The surfactants played an important role in impeding the agglomeration and surface oxidation of Ni-NPs. The surfactants also affected the morphology of the Ni-NPs. The synthesized Ni-NPs are found to be quite stable in air. The best of the synthesized Ni-NPs were effectively used as catalysts for the synthesis of Ni/NiO-multi-layered graphene using catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique.

  17. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  18. Fine Structure in Multi-Phase Zr8Ni21-Zr7Ni10-Zr2Ni7 Alloy Revealed by Transmission Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoting Shen


    Full Text Available The microstructure of an annealed alloy with a Zr8Ni21 composition was studied by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The presence of three phases, Zr8Ni21, Zr2Ni7, and Zr7Ni10, was confirmed by SEM/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy compositional mapping and TEM electron diffraction. Distribution of the phases and their morphology can be linked to a multi-phase structure formed by a sequence of reactions: (1 L → Zr2Ni7 + L’; (2 peritectic Zr2Ni7 + L’ → Zr2Ni7 + Zr8Ni21 + L”; (3 eutectic L” → Zr8Ni21 + Zr7Ni10. The effect of annealing at 960 °C, which was intended to convert a cast structure into a single-phase Zr8Ni21 structure, was only moderate and the resulting alloy was still multi-phased. TEM and crystallographic analysis of the Zr2Ni7 phase show a high density of planar (001 defects that were explained as low-energy boundaries between rotational variants and stacking faults. The crystallographic features arise from the pseudo-hexagonal structure of Zr2Ni7. This highly defective Zr2Ni7 phase was identified as the source of the broad X-ray diffraction peaks at around 38.4° and 44.6° when a Cu-K was used as the radiation source.

  19. Incorporation of alumina particles into reactively sintered Ni{sub 3}Al; Hanno shoketsu ni yoru Ni{sub 3}Al eno alumina no fukugoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, M.; Ochiai, S.; Arai, T. [Teikyo Univ. of Science and Tech., Yamanashi (Japan); Sakamoto, Y. [Teikyo Univ. of Science and Tech., Yamanashi (Japan)]|[NIKKOSHI Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Koyama, M. [Japan Space Utilization Promotion Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The Ni3Al having the structure of L1{sub 2} is attracting the attention of the people. As methods for preparing it, the reactive sintering method according to which Ni powders and Al powders are mixed first and then reacted at 700 degC to prepare the Ni2Al, and the combustion composition method are expected as the hopeful method. In this study, several processes for composing alumina while preparing the Ni3Al by reactively sintering Ni powders and Al powders, are compared. While dispersing alumina powders into Ni powders beforehand by mechanical dispersing (MD), the Ni3Al can be produced under the conditions as they are. As another method for producing the Ni3Al according to which NiO powders are mixed into Ni powders to oxidize surfaces of the Ni powders and then they react with the Al powders, the reactive sintering of the Ni3Al and the alumina generation by the thermit reaction progress simultaneously, but dispersion of the alumina is the worst and the void is too much. As for the method according to which the NiO powders in the Ni powders are mechanically dispersed and then reacted with Al powders, the resultant reactions hardly occur. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  20. An Ultrastable and High-Performance Flexible Fiber-Shaped Ni-Zn Battery based on a Ni-NiO Heterostructured Nanosheet Cathode. (United States)

    Zeng, Yinxiang; Meng, Yue; Lai, Zhengzhe; Zhang, Xiyue; Yu, Minghao; Fang, Pingping; Wu, Mingmei; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong


    Currently, the main bottleneck for the widespread application of Ni-Zn batteries is their poor cycling stability as a result of the irreversibility of the Ni-based cathode and dendrite formation of the Zn anode during the charging-discharging processes. Herein, a highly rechargeable, flexible, fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive electrochemical performance is rationally demonstrated by employing Ni-NiO heterostructured nanosheets as the cathode. Benefiting from the improved conductivity and enhanced electroactivity of the Ni-NiO heterojunction nanosheet cathode, the as-fabricated fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery displays high capacity and admirable rate capability. More importantly, this Ni-NiO//Zn battery shows unprecedented cyclic durability both in aqueous (96.6% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles) and polymer (almost no capacity attenuation after 10 000 cycles at 22.2 A g-1 ) electrolytes. Moreover, a peak energy density of 6.6 µWh cm-2 , together with a remarkable power density of 20.2 mW cm-2 , is achieved by the flexible quasi-solid-state fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery, outperforming most reported fiber-shaped energy-storage devices. Such a novel concept of a fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive stability will greatly enrich the flexible energy-storage technologies for future portable/wearable electronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Investigation of Characteristics of Sprayed Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Wc Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidijus Jarašūnas


    Full Text Available The article deals with the flame sprayed Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-WC coatings on construction S235 steel substrates. Before spraying, the surfaces of substrates were treated mechanically. Using the different chemical composition of Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-WC spraying powder and additional substrate heating till 250–290 °C, were sprayed coatings. The microstructure, porosity, hardness, elastic modulus, wear resistance of the Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-WC coatings were investigated in the work. The influence of the chemical composition and WC content of the coatings on the various physical and tribological properties of the coatings were evaluated. Also the dependence of these coatings characteristics was investigated.

  2. Structural analysis of Ni/NiO-water interface using X-ray reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Jin; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois (United States)


    These test revealed the epitaxial relationship between Ni substrate and the oxide layer as well as those structures. However, still the resolution of the initial structural data of interface between water and pre oxidized Ni(110) surface is not clear. Therefore, the objective in this study was to obtain detailed structural data between pre-oxidized Ni(110) and water interfaces to investigate the mechanism of growth the passive film formed on Ni(110) by In-situ high energy X-ray reflectivity study and simulated atomistic model. The surface treatment procedure to increase the surface crystallinity was developed to surface x-ray reflectivity measurement. The CTR data shows the surface pre-treatment procedure developed for Ni(110) was suitable for the surface X-ray study. Synchrotron X-ray experiments and analyses will be continued to identify the surface interface between Ni(110), water, and solution contained lead.

  3. Contexto Familiar: Diferencias Conductuales entre Niños y Niñas


    María Aurelia Ramírez Castillo


    En este trabajo se investigan las diferencias por género en problemas de conducta. En una muestra de 200 sujetos (niños y niñas) en tre 5 y 18 años de Granada (España), los resultados concluyen que los niños tienen más problemas de conducta delictiva que las niñas. Cuando existen conflictos matrimoniales y prácticas de crianza negativas, de nuevo los niños tienen más problemas externos que las niñas. En este trabajo se investigan las diferencias por género en problemas de condu...

  4. Ni Mineralization and PGE Characterization in the Kabanga and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indicate that the Luhuma is also potential for Ni-Cu sulfide deposits particularly on drill holes LUH05 and LUH13 where these samples were taken. In other words, if TiO2 increases then Ni-Cu sulfide increases and hence the potential for Ni-Cu mineralization. Key words: Tanzania, Kabanga, Luhuma, PGE, Ni-Cu sulfides ...

  5. Crystallographic Orientation Effect on Electromigration in Ni-Sn Microbump (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ting; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chakroborty, Subhendu; Wu, Albert T.


    This article addresses the reliability challenges regarding electromigration in developing three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs). The line-type sandwich structure of Ni/Sn3.5Ag(15 μm)/Ni was used to simulate microbumps to examine the reliability of electromigration in 3D-IC technology. The solder strip of Ni/Sn3.5Ag(15 μm)/Ni was stressed with a current density of 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 at 150°C. The current stressing enhanced the reaction between the solder and Ni to form Ni3Sn4, which occupied the entire joint and transformed into a Ni/Ni3Sn4/Ni structure when the solder was completely consumed. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to analyze the crystallographic characteristics of Sn and Ni3Sn4 as related to the electromigration effect. The results indicated that the crystallographic orientation of Sn plays a significant role in the Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni, whereas the orientation of Ni3Sn4 is the dominant factor of diffusion behavior in the Ni/Ni3Sn4/Ni.

  6. Site occupancy of Fe in ternary Ni 75-x

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of a detailed structural and magnetic study clearly indicate that regardless of the thermal history of the samples, Fe has a strong preference for the Ni sites in Ni-poor (non-stoichiometric) Ni75Al25 alloys. Fe substitution has a profound effect on the nature of magnetism in Ni75Al25.

  7. Synthesis of stochastic open cell Ni-based foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queheillalt, Douglas T.; Katsumura, Yasushi; Wadley, Haydn N.G


    Open cell, stochastic Ni-based foams have been synthesized on carbon foam templates by transient liquid phase bonding nickel based superalloy (Ni-21Cr-9Mo-4Nb) and Ni-25Cr-10P powders. The mechanical properties of these Ni-based foams were similar to those of other lower temperature metal foams of similar topology.

  8. Studies on the valence electronic structure of Fe and Ni in Fe Ni ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -to- X-ray intensity ratios of Fe and Ni in pure metals and in FeNi1- alloys ( = 0.20, 0.50, 0.58) exhibiting similar crystalline structure have been measured following excitation by 59.54 keV -rays from a 241Am point source, to understand as to why the properties of permalloy Fe0.2Ni0.8 is distinct from other alloy ...

  9. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.


    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  10. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon [Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others


    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  11. Metallic Ni3 P/Ni Co-Catalyst To Enhance Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution. (United States)

    Zhao, Jun Jie; Liu, Peng Fei; Wang, Yu Lei; Li, Yu Hang; Zu, Meng Yang; Wang, Chong Wu; Wang, Xue Lu; Fang, Li Jun; Zeng, Hui Dan; Yang, Hua Gui


    Metallic Ni3 P/Ni can be used as a co-catalyst to replace noble metal Pt for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, due to its excellent trapping-electron ability. The applications of metallic Ni3 P/Ni co-catalyst on CdS, Zn0.5 Cd0.5 S, TiO2 (Degussa P25) and g-C3 N4 are further confirmed, indicating its versatile applicability nature like Pt. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Actitudes afectivas hacia niños y niñas con necesidades educativas especiales


    Cárdenas Leitón, Helvetia


    En este artículo se analizan las actitudes afectivas de los compañeros de clase hacia niños y niñas con necesidades educativas especiales, integrados en el sistema de educación regular. Se parte de una investigación cualitativa realizada en cuatro secciones de I y II Ciclos de la Enseñanza General Básica, en Escuelas Urbano Marginales, donde se encontraban niños con necesidades educativas especiales. Se encontró que el tipo de relaciones que se suscitan con los niños integrados, están marcada...

  13. Niños y Violencia


    International Child Development Centre


    Este Innocenti Digest explora la violencia de los niños y hacia los niños, usando el marco de la Convención de los Derechos del Niño de las Naciones Unidas. Se centra en la violencia interpersonal, tanto intrafamiliar como extrafamiliar. Se incluye el abuso sexual y la explotación ya que a pesar de no implicar obligatoriamente violencia o coerción, la mayor parte de la evidencia demuestra su efectos dañinos tanto físicos como psicológicos. También se discute la implicación de los niños en los...

  14. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: An experimental and mechanistic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.


    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At

  15. Consequences of Surface Oxophilicity of Ni, Ni-Co, and Co Clusters on Methane Activation. (United States)

    Tu, Weifeng; Ghoussoub, Mireille; Singh, Chandra Veer; Chin, Ya-Huei Cathy


    This study describes a new C-H bond activation pathway during CH4-CO2 reactions on oxophilic Ni-Co and Co clusters, unlike those established previously on Ni clusters. The initial C-H bond activation remains as the sole kinetically relevant step on Ni-Co, Ni, and Co clusters, but their specific reaction paths vary. On Ni clusters, C-H bond activation occurs via an oxidative addition step that involves a three-center (H3C···*···H)⧧ transition state, during which a Ni-atom inserts into the C-H bond and donates its electron density into the C-H bond's antibonding orbital. Ni-Co clusters are more oxophilic than Ni; thus, their surfaces are covered with oxygen adatoms. An oxygen adatom and a vicinal Co-atom form a metal-oxygen site-pair that cleaves the C-H bond via a σ bond metathesis reaction, during which the Co inserts into the C-H bond while the oxygen abstracts the leaving H-atom in a concerted, four-center (H3C···*···H···O*)⧧ transition state. Similarly, Co clusters also catalyze the σ bond metathesis step, but much less effectively because of their higher oxophilicities, much stronger binding to oxygen, and less effective hydrogen abstraction than Ni-Co clusters. On Ni-Co and Co clusters, the pseudo-first-order rate coefficients are single-valued functions of the CO2-to-CO ratio (or H2O-to-H2 ratio), because this ratio prescribes the oxygen chemical potentials and the relative abundances of metal-oxygen site-pairs through the water-gas shift equilibrium. The direct involvement of reactive oxygen in the kinetically relevant step leads to more effective CH4 turnovers and complete elimination of coke deposition on Ni-Co bimetallic clusters.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    Highlights: • Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Both grain size and phase constitution of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are dependent on individual layer thickness. • The hardness of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers varies with individual layer thickness and annealing temperature. • 40 nm Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer exhibits excellent hardness at elevated temperature. - Abstract: Nano-structured Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni{sub 3}Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  17. Direct versus hydrogen-assisted CO dissociation over stepped Ni and Ni3Fe surfaces: a computational investigation. (United States)

    Yang, Kuiwei; Zhang, Minhua; Yu, Yingzhe


    The adsorption and dissociation of CO over stepped Ni and Ni3Fe surfaces were systematically studied using density functional theory slab calculations. Both (211)-like surface structure terminations (NiNi step and NiFe step, denoted as Ni3Fe(211)-AA and Ni3Fe(211)-AB) are considered for Ni3Fe. Direct scission of the C-O bond in CO is identified as the least likely one among the three proposed dissociation pathways and CO dissociation via a CHO intermediate appears to be most feasible at low CO coverage on pure and alloyed Ni(211) surfaces. The priority of H-assisted CO dissociation might originate from the more activated C-O bond in COH and CHO. Compared to Ni(211), the Ni3Fe(211)-AB surface could facilitate CO activation especially for the most possible CHO intermediate mechanism, whose rate-limiting step is found to be altered. The d-band center theory and Mulliken charge analysis are also employed to explain the activity difference between Ni3Fe(211)-AB and Ni3Fe(211)-AA. The significant structural sensitivity of CO dissociation highlights the importance of Fe locating in the step edge and the high reactivity of Ni3Fe(211)-AB is largely ascribed to the synergistic effect between Ni and Fe at the step edge.

  18. Single-crystalline Ni2Ge/Ge/Ni2Ge nanowire heterostructure transistors. (United States)

    Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Xiu, Faxian; Hong, Augustin J; Chen, Shengyu; Wang, Minsheng; Zeng, Caifu; Yang, Hong-Jie; Tuan, Hsing-Yu; Tsai, Cho-Jen; Chen, Lih Juann; Wang, Kang L


    In this study, we report on the formation of a single-crystalline Ni(2)Ge/Ge/Ni(2)Ge nanowire heterostructure and its field effect characteristics by controlled reaction between a supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) synthesized Ge nanowire and Ni metal contacts. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal a wide temperature range to convert the Ge nanowire to single-crystalline Ni(2)Ge by a thermal diffusion process. The maximum current density of the fully germanide Ni(2)Ge nanowires exceeds 3.5 × 10(7) A cm(-2), and the resistivity is about 88 μΩ cm. The in situ reaction examined by TEM shows atomically sharp interfaces for the Ni(2)Ge/Ge/Ni(2)Ge heterostructure. The interface epitaxial relationships are determined to be [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Back-gate field effect transistors (FETs) were also fabricated using this low resistivity Ni(2)Ge as source/drain contacts. Electrical measurements show a good p-type FET behavior with an on/off ratio over 10(3) and a one order of magnitude improvement in hole mobility from that of SFLS-synthesized Ge nanowire.

  19. Eutectic superalloys strengthened by delta Ni3Cb lamellae, and gamma prime, Ni3Al precipitates. (United States)

    Lemkey, F. D.; Thompson, E. R.


    Bivariant eutectic alloys, located on a liquidus surface within the Ni-Cb-Cr-Al quaternary, were identified which permitted the production of aligned delta Ni3Cb lamellae within a nichrome matrix containing the fcc precipitate gamma prime Ni3Al. The volume fraction of delta and gamma prime could be varied significantly by compositional changes. After directional solidification certain alloys possessed improved ductility and corrosion resistance with respect to the Ni3Al-Ni3Cb eutectic, while their values of tensile and creep strength approached or exceeded those for the Ni3Al-Ni3Cb pseudobinary system. The mechanical properties of the directionally solidified alloy, Ni-19.7 wt % Cb-6.0 wt % Cr-2.5 wt % Al, were evaluated. Its longitudinal strength in tension and creep was found to be superior to all advanced nickel base superalloys. It is thus demonstrated that useful properties for gas turbine airfoil applications can be achieved by reinforcing a strong and tough gamma nichrome matrix containing precipitated gamma prime by a strong lamellar intermetallic compound having greater strength at elevated temperature.

  20. Ni(salen): a system that forms many solvates with interacting Ni atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegler, M.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31411744X; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971


    Recrystallization of [N,N’-Ethylene-bis(salicylideneiminato)]-nickel(II) [Ni(salen)] has been carried out from a large selection of solvents. Crystals can be either solvent free or solvates. This study is based on X-ray crystal structure determinations, which include the redetermination of Ni(salen)

  1. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Splitting on NiO/Ni/Carbon Fiber Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyu Zhang


    Full Text Available Large-scale growth of low-cost, efficient, and durable non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts for water splitting is crucial for future renewable energy systems. Atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin coatings of electrocatalysts, which are useful in many technologies, including the splitting of water. In this communication, we report the growth of a NiO/Ni catalyst directly on carbon fiber paper by atomic layer deposition and report subsequent reduction and oxidation annealing treatments. The 10–20 nm NiO/Ni nanoparticle catalysts can reach a current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at an overpotential of 189 mV for hydrogen evolution reactions and 257 mV for oxygen evolution reactions with high stability. We further successfully achieved a water splitting current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at 1.78 V using a typical NiO/Ni coated carbon fiber paper two-electrode setup. The results suggest that nanoparticulate NiO/Ni is an active, stable, and noble-metal-free electrocatalyst, which facilitates a method for future water splitting applications.

  2. Adherencia al tratamiento en niñas y niños con VIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Ruiz Navia


    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y determina el grado de adherencia al tratamiento en niños y niñas con VIH/ SIDA teniendo en cuenta los comportamientos y las variables asociadas a ésta. La muestra estuvo conformada por 1 niño y 5 niñas, diagnosticados con VIH, y su respectivo cuidador primario, quienes respondieron a la entrevista semiestructurada de evaluación de adherencia para niños y niñas con VIH/ SIDA ad hoc y a la entrevista semiestructurada de evaluación de adherencia para niños y niñas con VIH/SIDA versión cuidador primario ad hoc, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran la presencia de conductas de adherencia en los participantes del estudio, evidenciando la influencia de una serie de variables determinantes para este comportamiento. Cinco de los participantes cumplieron más del 95% de adherencia, mientras que uno se ubicó por debajo de este porcentaje. Como aspectos centrales se destacan la influencia de los estados emocionales en la toma del medicamento y la importancia del rol del cuidador primario en la adherencia.

  3. Magnetic properties of monodispersed Ni/NiO core-shell nanoparticles. (United States)

    Seto, Takafumi; Akinaga, Hiroyuki; Takano, Fumiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Orii, Takaaki; Hirasawa, Makoto


    We have recently developed a method to fabricate monodispersed Ni/NiO core-shell nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation. In this report, the size-dependent magnetic properties of monodispersed Ni/NiO core-shell nanoparticles were investigated. These nanoparticles were formed in two steps. The first was to fabricate a series of monodispersed Ni nanoparticles of 5 to 20 nm in diameter using a combination of laser ablation and size classification by a low-pressure differential mobility analyzer (DMA). The second step was to oxidize the surfaces of the Ni particles in situ to form core-shell structures. A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer was used to measure the magnetic properties of nanostructured films prepared by depositing the nanoparticles at room temperature. Ferromagnetism was observed in the magnetic hysteresis loop of the nanostructured films composed of core-shell nanoparticles with core diameters smaller than the superparamagnetic limit, which suggests the spin of Ni core was weakly exchange coupled with antiferromagnetic NiO shell. In contrast, smaller nanoparticles with core diameters of 3.0 nm exhibited superparamagnetism. The drastic change in the hysteresis loops between field-deposited and zero-field-deposited samples was attributable to the strong anisotropy that developed during the magnetic-field-assisted nanostructuring process.

  4. Ab initio phonon calculations for Ll(2) Ni3Al and B2NiAl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaeva, E.I.; Lichtenstein, A.I.; Vekilov, Y.K.; Smirnova, E.A.; Abrikosov, I.A.; Simak, S.I.; Ahuja, R.; Johansson, B.


    The phonon spectra and phonon density of states of the Ni3Al and NiAl intermetallic compounds are calculated from first principles using the linear response method in conjunction with ultrasoft pseudopotentials. The calculated phonon dispersion curves are in good agreement with available

  5. Reactivity and wettability of SiC by Ni and Ni-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, C. [INPG, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France). LTPCM; Kalogeropoulou, S. [INPG, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France). LTPCM; Eustathopoulos, N. [INPG, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France). LTPCM


    Wettability of SiC by Ni and Ni-Si alloys was studied at 1633K by the sessile drop technique under high vacuum or pure He. It is shown that reactivity in this system can be controlled and even nearly suppressed while obtaining good wetting and strong interface. (orig.)

  6. Probing the semi-magicity of $^{68}$Ni via the $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni,$^{68}$Ni)p two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Franchoo, S; Mertzimekis, T; Darby, I G; Van de walle, J; Raabe, R; Elseviers, J; Gernhaeuser, R A; Sorlin, O H; Georgiev, G P; Bree, N C F; Habs, D; Chapman, R; Gaudefroy, L; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Axiotis, M; Huyse, M L; Patronis, N

    We propose to perform the two-neutron transfer reaction $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni, $^{68}$Ni)$p$ using the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam at 2.7 $A$ MeV and the MINIBALL + T-REX setup to characterize the 0$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ states in $^{68}$Ni.

  7. Ni(OH){sub 2} and NiO nano structures: Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghatforoush, Lotf Ali; Sanati, Soheila; Mehdizadeh, Robabeh [Payam Noor Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasanzadeh, Mohammad [Tabriz Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Hydrothermal route have been used in different conditions for preparation of Ni(OH){sub 2} nano structures. The NiO nanoparticles were obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor at 450 .deg. C for 2 h. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) as surfactant on the morphology and size of Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were discussed in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. The growth mechanism of the as-synthesized nano structures was also discussed in detail based on the experimental results. Coming up, the NiO nanoparticle modified carbon paste electrode was applied to the determination of captopril in aqueous solution.

  8. NiO Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahdar


    Full Text Available In the current paper,Nanostructured Nickel oxide (NiO were synthesized by co-precipitation method using Nickel(II Chloride Hexahydrate (NiCl2.6H2O and sodium hydroxide (NaOH as starting material. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic force microscope (AFM, UV–Vis absorption; Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM technique. The X-ray diffraction pattern studies revealed the NiO have a  face-centered cubic (FCC structure and confirmed the presence of high degree of crystallinity nature NiO nanoparticles that their average size is found to be 26 nm. The composition of nanostructures confirmed by analysis of FTIR spectra. The average size of the NiO nanoparticle observed from scanning electron microscopy images is found to be dimensions about 24 nm. Magnetic measurement confirmed the Nickel Oxide nanostructures superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature (RT after calcinations.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of α-Ni(OH){sub 2} and its conversion to NiO with electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yong; Ma, Jianmin, E-mail:; Wang, Taihong, E-mail:


    Highlights: • α-Ni(OH){sub 2} microspheres have been synthesized with triethanolamine. • The formation mechanism of α-Ni(OH){sub 2} microspheres is suggested. • NiO deriving from α-Ni(OH){sub 2} microspheres exhibits better electrochemical performances. -- Abstract: The paper reports the fabrication of microscale NiO matrixes with enhanced electrochemical properties through annealing the corresponding chrysanthemum-like α-Ni(OH){sub 2} microspheres. The precursor α-Ni(OH){sub 2} can be synthesized by a hydrothermal method using triethanolamine as the alkaline source. The formation mechanism of chrysanthemum-like α-Ni(OH){sub 2} microspheres is properly discussed. Furthermore, the electrochemical experiments demonstrate that the microscale NiO matrixes show superior electrochemical behavior in lithium-ion batteries due to their unique structures.

  10. Exchange bias effect in polycrystalline NiO/NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Cabral, A.J. [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA (Brazil); Peña Serna, J.; Rache Salles, B.; Novak, M.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, A.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha Remédios, C.M. [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA (Brazil)


    Highlights: • Antiferromagnetic NiO/ferrimagnetic NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide composites. • Grains are well faceted, indicating that the specimen was well crystallized. • The micrographs suggests that NiO and NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} may be stuck to each other. • EB effect in NiO/NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide composites. • EB effect increases with the amount of NiO. - Abstract: Calcination of aqueous solutions formed by different molar ratios between the nickel and manganese chlorides led to the formation of antiferromagnetic NiO/ferrimagnetic NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide composites, as determined by X-ray powder diffraction technique and Rietveld refinement. Low temperature zero field cooled and field cooled magnetic hysteresis cycles show an exchange bias effect, presumably due to interaction at the interfaces between the antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials.

  11. Hydrogenation of Amorphous and Crystalline RE-Ni Alloys


    AOKI, Kiyoshi; Shirakawa, Kiwamu; MASUMOTO, Tsuyoshi


    Amorphous alloys with the combination of a rare earth metal(RE=Y, La, Ce, Pr and Sm) and nickel were prepared around the composition at an eutectic point by the melt-quenching technique. Amorphous Y-Ni and Sm-Ni alloys absorbed a large amount of hydrogen even in the amorphous state, while the the other alloys in La-Ni, Ce-Ni and Pr-Ni systems were decomposed to a mixture of crystalline phase and hydride during hydrogenation at 323 K. An amorphous SmNi_2 phase was also synthesized by reaction ...

  12. Reduction of a Ni/Spinel Catalyst for Methane Reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Fløystad, Jostein Bø


    A nickel/spinel (Ni/MgAl2O4) catalyst, w(Ni) = 22 wt%, was investigated in situ during reduction with wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) in a laboratory setup and with anomalous small angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) at a synchrotron source. Complementary high resolution transmission electron...... microscopy (HRTEM) was performed on the fresh catalyst sample. The Ni particles in the fresh catalyst sample were observed to exhibit a Ni/NiO core/shell structure. A decrease of the Ni lattice parameter is observed during the reduction in a temperature interval from 413 – 453 K, which can be related...

  13. Evolution of Ni nanofilaments and electromagnetic coupling in the resistive switching of NiO (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Zhao, Diyang; Zhao, Yonggang; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Pengcheng; Guo, Minghua; Luo, Nannan; Jiang, Xingli; Miao, Peixian; Sun, Ying; Chen, Aitian; Lin, Zhu; Li, Jianqi; Duan, Wenhui; Cai, Jianwang; Wang, Yayu


    Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found that multi-nanofilaments are involved in the low resistance state and the nanofilaments become thin and rupture separately in the RESET process with subsequent increase of the rupture gaps. Theoretical calculations reveal the role of oxygen vacancy amount in the evolution of Ni nanofilaments. We also demonstrate electromagnetic coupling in this system, which opens a new avenue for multifunctional devices.Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found

  14. La niña proletaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartabia, Sabrina A.


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone trazar un paralelo entre el cuento de Osvaldo Lamborghini “El niño proletario”, el cual, según la autora del ensayo, introduce al lector en la lucha de clases y el sometimiento de los/as proletarios/as, que sufren las mujeres, en particular a través de la violencia sexual. De esa forma la autora se pregunta si el poder que ciertas clases detentan sobre otras no influye también sobre el sometimiento de la mujer. El ensayo analiza además cómo la violencia sexual es una herramienta que constituye la base de la desigualdad, el sometimiento y la degradación de la mujer, al igual que constituye una herramienta de opresión de otros grupos vulnerables como los niños y niñas.

  15. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenase chemistry. (United States)

    Wombwell, Claire; Caputo, Christine A; Reisner, Erwin


    The development of technology for the inexpensive generation of the renewable energy vector H2 through water splitting is of immediate economic, ecological, and humanitarian interest. Recent interest in hydrogenases has been fueled by their exceptionally high catalytic rates for H2 production at a marginal overpotential, which is presently only matched by the nonscalable noble metal platinum. The mechanistic understanding of hydrogenase function guides the design of synthetic catalysts, and selection of a suitable hydrogenase enables direct applications in electro- and photocatalysis. [FeFe]-hydrogenases display excellent H2 evolution activity, but they are irreversibly damaged upon exposure to O2, which currently prevents their use in full water splitting systems. O2-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases are known, but they are typically strongly biased toward H2 oxidation, while H2 production by [NiFe]-hydrogenases is often product (H2) inhibited. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are a subclass of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with a selenocysteine residue coordinated to the active site nickel center in place of a cysteine. They exhibit a combination of unique properties that are highly advantageous for applications in water splitting compared with other hydrogenases. They display a high H2 evolution rate with marginal inhibition by H2 and tolerance to O2. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are therefore one of the most active molecular H2 evolution catalysts applicable in water splitting. Herein, we summarize our recent progress in exploring the unique chemistry of [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases through biomimetic model chemistry and the chemistry with [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases in semiartificial photosynthetic systems. We gain perspective from the structural, spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties of the [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases and compare them with the chemistry of synthetic models of this hydrogenase active site. Our synthetic models give insight into the effects on the electronic properties and reactivity of

  16. Two-proton radioactivity of 48Ni (United States)

    Miernik, Krzysztof


    In experiment performed at NSCL facility we studied the decay of extremely neutron deficient isotope of 48Ni. Ions were implanted into a gaseuos detector, the Optical Time Projection Chamber which allows to record tracks of charged particles. Six events of 48Ni were observed, the two-proton radioactivity (four events) and the β-decay (two events) channels were clearly indentified. The half-life of 48Ni is determined to be T1 / 2 = 2.1-0. 4 + 1 . 4 ms. The results of three-dimensional events reconstruction as well as comparison of results with theoretical models will be presented. Research performed as a Eugene P. Wigner Fellow and staff member at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  17. Voz del niño


    Urra-Barandiarán, A. (Ainhoa); Vázquez-de-la-Iglesia, F. (Francisco); Fernandez-Gonzalez, S. (Secundino); Molina, M.T.


    En el curso de la vida la voz sufre diferentes cambios que obedecen a factores de desarrollo y en los que intervienen de manera decisiva el sistema nervioso y el sistema hormonal. La voz del niño y, por tanto la disfonía en el niño requiere una evaluación precisa y específica, no sólo desde el punto de vista instrumental sino también perceptual y en evaluación logopédica. Se insiste en la protocolización de elaboración de trastornos de voz en el niño, la revisión de los f...

  18. Microstructure evolution of electroless Ni P and Ni Cu P deposits on Cu in the presence of additives (United States)

    Lin, Kwang-Lung; Chang, Yu-Lan; Huang, Chiao-Chan; Li, Fang-I.; Hsu, Jen-Che


    The microstructures of electroless Ni-P and Ni-Cu-P deposits were investigated in the presence of thiourea and saccharin with AFM. The phosphorus contents and crystallinity of the deposits were investigated. Saccharin was found to refine the nodular structure of the Ni-Cu-P deposit, while not affecting the P% of the Ni-P and Ni-Cu-P deposits. On the other hand, thiourea was found to affect the P% and surface roughness of the Ni-P deposit. Thiourea does not exhibit nodular refining effect on the deposit.

  19. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin


    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  20. Hierarchical NiCo2 S4 Nanotube@NiCo2 S4 Nanosheet Arrays on Ni Foam for High-Performance Supercapacitors. (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Chen, Si; Shao, Hongyan; Li, Chao; Fan, Meiqiang; Chen, Da; Tian, Guanglei; Shu, Kangying


    Hierarchical NiCo2 S4 nanotube@NiCo2 S4 nanosheet arrays on Ni foam have been successfully synthesized. Owing to the unique hierarchical structure, enhanced capacitive performance can be attained. A specific capacitance up to 4.38 F cm(-2) is attained at 5 mA cm(-2) , which is much higher than the specific capacitance values of NiCo2 O4 nanosheet arrays, NiCo2 S4 nanosheet arrays and NiCo2 S4 nanotube arrays on Ni foam. The hierarchical NiCo2 S4 nanostructure shows superior cycling stability; after 5000 cycles, the specific capacitance still maintains 3.5 F cm(-2) . In addition, through the morphology and crystal structure measurement after cycling stability test, it is found that the NiCo2 S4 electroactive materials are gradually corroded; however, the NiCo2 S4 phase can still be well-maintained. Our results show that hierarchical NiCo2 S4 nanostructures are suitable electroactive materials for high performance supercapacitors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Radiation damage buildup and dislocation evolution in Ni and equiatomic multicomponent Ni-based alloys (United States)

    Levo, E.; Granberg, F.; Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.


    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations (;equiatomic;) have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity.

  2. Tipos especiales de niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rodrigo Bellido


    Full Text Available En las tres últimas lecciones han sido expuestas algunas consideraciones referentes a niños y adolescentes desde el nacimiento hasta el dintel de la juventud. En todas ellas hemos procurado poner de relieve la necesidad de individualizar el conocimiento de cada niño para obtener mejores resultados en su adaptación a su futura vida de adultos, En todas ellas  nos hemos referido al llamado niño normal. Nos corresponde en la lección de hoy ocuparnos can la superficialidad característica de estas charlas tipo-muestrario, de otras categorías de niños muy dignos de interés.. quienes unas por exceso, otros por defecto, otros por dificultades de adaptación por diferentes causas, se desvían de la línea media de la normalidad. Consideramos que no está fuera del lugar, aquí, el tema de los niños excepcionales y por el contrario que es necesario intensificar el estudio de los trastornos de la vida mental y emocional de los niños en la preparación de los estudiantes de Medicina. Y no es nuestra solo esta opinión; no hace mucho tiempo en la Medical School de Ia Universidad de Minnessota hemos sabido que se ha hecho un intento de considerar y evaluar factores emocionales ambientales sobre las mismas bases que los descubrimientos fisiológicos.

  3. Ni Foam-Ni3 S2 @Ni(OH)2 -Graphene Sandwich Structure Electrode Materials: Facile Synthesis and High Supercapacitor Performance. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiangjiang; Su, Yichang; Hao, Jin; Liu, Fanggang; Han, Shuang; An, Jian; Lian, Jianshe


    A novel Ni foam-Ni3 S2 @Ni(OH)2 -graphene sandwich-structured electrode (NF-NN-G) with high areal mass loading (8.33 mg cm(-2) ) has been developed by sulfidation and hydrolysis reactions. The conductivity of Ni3 S2 and Ni(OH)2 were both improved. The upper layer of Ni(OH)2 , covered with a thin graphene film, is formed in situ from the surface of the lower layer of Ni3 S2 , whereas the Ni3 S2 grown on Ni foam substrate mainly acts as a rough support bridging the Ni(OH)2 and Ni foam. The graphene stabilized the Ni(OH)2 and the electrochemical properties were effectively enhanced. The as-synthesized NF-NN-G-5mg electrode shows a high specific capacitance (2258 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) or 18.81 F cm(-2) at 8.33 mA cm(-2) ) and an outstanding rate property (1010 F g(-1) at 20 Ag(-1) or 8.413 F cm(-2) at 166.6 mA cm(-2) ). This result is around double the capacitance achieved in previous research on Ni3 S2 @Ni(OH)2 /3DGN composites (3DGN=three-dimensional graphene network). In addition, the as-fabricated NF-NN-G-5mg composite electrode has an excellent cycle life with no capacitance loss after 3000 cycles, indicating a potential application as an efficient electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. NiTi Expansion in Operated Unilateral Cleft Palate Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Y Poornima


    Conclusion : NiTi expansion in operated cleft patients, showed mainly orthodontic expansion. The significant change in the maxillary inter- molar region is due to the direct placement of NiTi palatal expander to 16, 26.

  5. Funciones cognoscitivas en niños y niñas con trastorno disocial comparados con niños y niñas sin el trastorno


    Urazán Torres, Gina Rocio


    Este proyecto de investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar y caracterizar las funciones cognoscitivas de un grupo de niños y niñas con Trastorno Disocial (TD), comparándolas con las de un grupo de niños y niñas normales. Se utilizó un diseño de casos y controles con una muestra de 39 niños y niñas entre 6 y 12 años de edad con TD y 39 niños y niñas del mismo rango de edades y los mismos estratos socioeconómicos. Los participantes fueron seleccionados de diferentes instituciones educativas de B...

  6. Enhancement of porous silicon photoluminescence using (Ni) treatment (United States)

    Nabil, M.; Elnouby, M.; Gayeh, N.; Sakr, A. H.; Motaweh, H. A.


    A new method has been developed to improve the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon (PS). Self-organized (PS) can be used in various fields. The deposition of metal nanoparticles (Ni) allows utilizing the obtained nano-composite for numerous applications such as sensor technology, biomedicine, and many more. (Ni/PS) nano-composite powders are prepared using Ni deposition on the PS powder surface. The (Ni/PS) powders became hydrophilic by the deposited Ni nanoparticles. At the different percentages of (Ni: PS), at a higher percentage than (3:1) the values of the crystallite size of Ni and PS are nearly equivalent which suggests the saturation case of PS surface by Ni particles. It also depends on the deposition time value. In this study, that is the commercialization of nanostructured materials, it is important that the manufacturing costs are appropriate and inexpensive for large scale production, in addition, the enhancement of the photoluminescence intensity of (PS).

  7. Hydrogenation of Ethyl Acetate to Ethanol over Ni-Based Catalysts Obtained from Ni/Al Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Jiang


    Full Text Available A series of Ni-based catalysts were prepared using hydrogen reduction of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (Ni/Al HTlcs synthesized by coprecipitation. The physico-chemical properties of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and the corresponding Ni-based catalysts were characterized using inductively coupled plasma (ICP, BET surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The results indicated that Ni/Al HTlcs with layered structures could be successfully prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the characteristic HTlcs reflections were also observed in the XRD analysis. The NiO and Ni0 phases were identified in all Ni-based catalysts, which displayed randomly interconnected pores and no layer structures. In addition, the studies also found the Ni/Al HTlcs and Ni-based catalysts had high specific surface areas, low pore volumes and low pore diameters. The catalytic hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol with Ni-based catalysts was also investigated. Among the studied catalysts, RE1NASH-110-3 showed the highest selectivity and yield of ethyl acetate to ethanol, which were 68.2% and 61.7%, respectively. At the same time, a major by-product, butyl acetate, was formed due to an ester-exchange reaction. A proposed hydrogenation pathway for ethyl acetate over Ni-based catalysts was suggested.

  8. Structural study of radiolytic catalysts Ni-Ce/Al2O3 and Ni-Pt/Al2O3 (United States)

    Seridi, F.; Chettibi, S.; Keghouche, N.; Beaunier, P.; Belloni, J.


    Ni-Ce and Ni-Pt bimetallic catalysts supported over α-Al2O3 are synthesized by using co-impregnation method, and then reduced, each via radiolytic process or thermal H2-treatment. For Ni-Ce/Al2O3, the structural study reveals that Ce is alloyed with Ni as Ce2Ni7 nanoparticles in the radiation-reduced catalysts, while it segregates to the surface in the form of CeO2 in the H2-reduced catalysts. For Ni-Pt/Al2O3 radiolytic catalysts, Ni, Pt, NiPt and Ni3Pt nanoparticles, which size is 3.5 nm, are observed. When the radiation-reduced samples are tested in the benzene hydrogenation, they both display high conversion rate. However, the Ni-Pt/Al2O3 is more efficient than Ni-Ce/Al2O3. The performance of the catalysts is correlated with the high dispersion of the metal and the presence of intermetallic Ni-Pt and Ni-Ce phases. It is compared to that of other radiolytic monometallic/oxide catalysts of the literature.

  9. Melting in the Fe-Ni system (United States)

    Lord, O. T.; Walter, M. J.; Vocadlo, L.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.


    The melting temperature of the Fe-rich core alloy at the inner core boundary (ICB) condition of 330 GPa is a key geophysical parameter because it represents an anchor point on the geotherm. An accurate knowledge of the melting curves of candidate alloys is therefore highly desirable. In spite of this, there is still considerable uncertainty in the melting point even of pure Fe at these conditions; estimates range from as low as 4850K based on one laser heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) study [1] to as high as 6900K based on recent quantum Monte Carlo calculations [2]. In reality we expect that the bulk core alloy may contain 5-10 wt% Ni (based on cosmochemical and meteoritic arguments) and up to 10 wt% of an as yet undetermined mix of light elements (with Si, S, C and O being the most likely candidates). While some recent studies have looked at the effects of light elements on the melting curve of Fe [e.g.: 3,4] with some of these studies including a small amount of Ni in their starting material, to date there has been no systematic study of melting temperatures in the Fe-Ni system. To address this issue, we have embarked upon just such a study. Using the LHDAC we have determined the melting curve of the pure Ni end-member to 180 GPa, and that of pure Fe to 50 GPa, using perturbations in the power vs. temperature function as the melting criterion [5]. Ar or NaCl were employed as pressure media while temperature was measured using standard spectroradiometric techniques [6]. In the case of Ni, perturbations were observed for both the sample and the Ar medium, allowing us to determine the melting curve of Ar and Ni simultaneously. Our results thus far for Ni and Ar agree closely with all of the available data, while extending the melting curves by a factor of two in pressure. In the case of Fe, our current dataset is also in good agreement with previous studies [2,7]. The agreement of all three melting curves with the literature data as well as other materials

  10. NiO Nanofibers as a Candidate for a Nanophotocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Macdonald


    Full Text Available p-type NiO nanofibers have been synthesized from a simple electrospinning and sintering procedure. For the first time, p-type nanofibers have been electrospun onto a conductive fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO surface. The properties of the NiO nanofibers have been directly compared to that of bulk NiO nanopowder. We have observed a p-type photocurrent for a NiO photocathode fabricated on an FTO substrate.

  11. Facile synthesis of monodisperse thermally immiscible Ag–Ni alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    to their synergistic effects. Using Ag–Ni ANPs, at the same time, is more economical than pure silver ANPs. According to the literature, metal-catalyst decoration can .... 1451. Figure 7. Schematic representation of the Ag–Ni ANP forma- tion. M stands for a metal element. Schematic representation of the Ag–Ni ANP formation.

  12. Fabrication of micro-Ni arrays by electroless and electrochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nickel micro-arrays were fabricated by electroless and electrochemical deposition in an etched porous aluminum membrane. The aluminum membrane with metal characteristic could be fabricated from high-purity aluminium by electrochemical method. The aluminum reduced Ni2+ into Ni and the formed Ni nuclei served as ...

  13. Optimization of process parameters for synthesis of silica–Ni ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optimumcombination of experimental variable, temperature, time of heat treatment under nitrogen atmosphere and amount of Ni-salt was delineated to find out the maximum yield of nanophase Ni in the silica gel matrix. The size of Ni in the silica gel was found to be 34 and 45 nm for the two chosen compositions, ...

  14. Energetic Mapping of Ni Catalysts by Detailed Kinetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørgum, Erlend; Chen, De; Bakken, Mari G.


    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO has been performed on supported and unsupported nickel catalysts. The unsupported Ni catalyst consists of a Ni(14 13 13) single crystal which has been studied under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The desorption energy for CO at low CO surface coverage w...... nicely with literature values, providing useful information for identifying active sites on supported Ni catalysts....

  15. New route for synthesis of electrocatalytic Ni (OH) 2 modified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immobilization of redox species like Ni(OH)2 onto the electrode surface is important in the application areas such as super capacitor, electrochromic displays and electrocatalysis. Nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) modified glassy carbon could be further derivatized with Ni(OH)2 by electrochemical cycling in alkali.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Co–Ni and Fe–Ni alloy nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, Vandana [Discipline of Natural Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design & Manufacturing Jabalpur, Dumna Airport Road, Madhya Pradesh 482005 (India); Lebedev, Oleg I. [Laboratoire CRISMAT, ENSICAEN UMR6508, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, Cedex 4, Caen 14050 (France); ITMO University, 49 Kronverksky Pr., St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Seikh, Md. Motin [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan, West Bengal 731235 (India); Mahato, Nihar K. [Discipline of Natural Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design & Manufacturing Jabalpur, Dumna Airport Road, Madhya Pradesh 482005 (India); Raveau, Bernard [Laboratoire CRISMAT, ENSICAEN UMR6508, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, Cedex 4, Caen 14050 (France); Kundu, Asish K., E-mail: [Discipline of Natural Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design & Manufacturing Jabalpur, Dumna Airport Road, Madhya Pradesh 482005 (India)


    The magnetic alloy nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method with a stable Pm-3m cubic structure. The Co–Ni and Fe–Ni alloy nanoparticles are highly crystalline and exhibit preferential low index <111> faceting as determined from HRTEM investigation. TEM images and EDX elemental mapping also confirm the nano-dimensional structure with core-shell structure, where the alloy forms the core and the shell is formed by amorphous carbon. The magnetization results of the alloy nanoparticles confirm the ferromagnetic nature at room temperature akin to their bulk metals with a significant value of field dependent isothermal magnetization at high temperature (390 K). - Highlights: • Synthesis of Co–Ni and Fe–Ni alloy nanoparticles by exploiting low temperature sol–gel process. • The nanoparticles are core–shell type with core ferromagnetic alloys and graphitic carbon shell. • Electron microscope study explains the higher stability at ambient conditions of the nanoparticles.

  17. Thermal stability of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers; an EBSD-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Gholinia, A.; Trimby, P.W.


    The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein recrystallisat......The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein...... recrystallisation occurs. The results are discussed in relation to the resolution of EBSD for the very fine grained electrodeposits and previous X-ray diffracton investigations....

  18. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.


    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  19. Ni (II) decorated nano silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ni(II) decorated nano silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieves-modified carbon paste electrode as an electrocatalyst for electrooxidation of methanol ... of Science, Babol University of Technology, Babol 47148-71167, Iran; Biofuel & Renewable Energy Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University ...

  20. Cancer en los niños


    Pereira, Fabio; Ramírez Wurttenberger, Óscar; Lotero, Viviana; Fundación Valle de Lili


    Epidemiología/ ¿Por qué se presenta el cáncer en los niños?/ ¿Cómo se realiza el diagnóstico?/ ¿Cómo es el tratamiento?/ ¿Resultados del tratamiento?/Recomendaciones/Otras formas de tratamiento: El trasplante de médula ósea.

  1. (ii) and ni (ii) complexes with n

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    II) complexes with a. Schiff base derived from. 4-dimetylamino benzaldehyde and primary amines. The chemical analysis data showed the formation of (1:1) metal - ligand ratio and a square planar geometry was suggested for Co(II) and Ni(II) ...

  2. Dissociative chemisorption of methane on Ni(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna Mohan, Gangadharan Prasanna


    In this thesis we attempt to understand several aspects of the gas-surface physics/chemistry of (a) the dissociative chemisorption of CH4 on the Ni(111) surface and (b) N2 dissociation over the Ru(0001) surface. Apart from their industrial importance, these systems are regarded as prototypes for

  3. Preparing of Ni-Cu-P Coating (United States)

    Shumei, Kang

    Ni-Cu-P coating by chemical plating has excellent corrosion resistance,wear resistance, thermal stability and electrical conductivity. In this paper, Ni-Cu-P was prepared by chemical deposition methods, the optimum process of chemical plating Ni-Cu-P. By using scanning electron microscopy(SEM), spectrum analyzer, Autolab workstation on the corrosion resistance of the coating. The results showed that: (1)after the specimen surface chemical plating nickelcopper phosphorus treatment, in the same corrosion potential, the corrosion current density was lower than that of Ni-P coating and substrate materials; (2)had a significant effect on corrosion resistance of quantity of citric acid sodium on nickel copper phosphorus alloy plating, coating corrosion resistance with increasing citric acid sodium content first increased and then decreased, and inaddition level of sodium citrate is 40g/L, the corrosion current density reaches a minimum, 14.51×10-6A/cm2; (3)under the same conditions, the Ni-Cu-P alloy coating pH impact is the biggest,the maximum impedance 1268.05Ω; (4)in the 3.5%NaCl solution, with the change of copper content, the main trend of the corrosion current is decreased first and then increased, and the content of copper in Energy spectrum analysis within 5.18Wt% corrosion current density of a minimum of 14.51×10-6A/cm2, the corrosion resistance. With the increase of Cu content in the coatings, the P content first increased and then decreased in the coating, the content of Ni decreased first and then increased; (5)the best technology:NiSO46H2O, CuSO4 25g/L, 5H2O 0.15g/L, C6H5Na3O7•2H2O 40g/L, NaH2PO2H2O 25g/L, CH3COONa 15g/L, KIO3 0.03g/L, C12H25NaO4SO3 0.01g/L, pH4.75 ± 0.01,temperature 80 ± 1 °C, deposition time of 2h.

  4. Elastic scattering of sup 58 Ni+ sup 64 Ni near the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanini, A.M.; Xu Jincheng; Corradi, L.; Montagnoli, G.; Moreno, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Mueller, L.; Narayanasamy, M.; Napoli, D.R.; Spolaore, P. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Legnaro); Beghini, S.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.F.; Soramel, F. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)); Signorini, C. (Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)); Esbensen, H.; Landowne, S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Physics Div.); Pollarolo, G. (Turin Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy))


    Elastic scattering angular distributions have been measured for {sup 58}Ni+{sup 64}Ni at three energies around the Coulomb barrier employing a new kinematic coincidence technique. The data are compared with the results of coupled-channels calculations including inelastic excitations as well as one- and two-neutron transfer reactions. The agreement is good and the calculations also agree well with the available transfer and fusion reaction data. (orig.).

  5. Geometric structures of thin film: Pt on Pd(110) and NiO on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Oden L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis is divided into 3 papers: dynamical low-energy electron- diffraction investigation of lateral displacements in topmost layer of Pd(110); determination of (1x1) and (1x2) structures of Pt thin films on Pd(110) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis; and structural determination of a NiO(111) film on Ni(100) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis.

  6. Effect of deposition technique of Ni on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, S., E-mail: [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey); Akbulut, A. [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey); Özdemir, M. [Marmara University, Physics Department, Göztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Yildiz, F., E-mail: [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey)


    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Si/Pt 3.5/(Co 0.3/Ni 0.6){sub n} /Co 0.3/ Pt 3 (all thicknesses are nm) multilayers were investigated for two different sample sets by using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetooptic Kerr effect (MOKE) techniques. In the first sample set all layers (buffer, cap, Co and Ni) were grown by magnetron sputtering technique while in the second sample set Ni sub-layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at high vacuum. Apart from deposition technique of Ni, all other parameters like thicknesses and growth rates of each layers are same for both sample sets. Multilayers in these two sample sets display PMA in the as grown state until a certain value of bilayer repetition (n) and the strength of PMA decreases with increasing n. Magnetic easy axis's of the multilayered samples switched from film normal to the film plane when n is 9 and 5 for the first and second sample sets, respectively. The reason for that, PMA was decreased due to increasing roughness with increasing n. This was confirmed by X Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements for both sample sets. Moreover, in the first sample set coercive field values are smaller than the second sample set, which means magnetic anisotropy is lower than the latter one. This stronger PMA is arising due to existence of stronger Pt (111) and Co/Ni (111) textures in the second sample set. - Highlights: • Effect of deposition techniques for Ni sub-layers on magnetic properties in [Co/Ni]{sub n} multilayered films was studied. • Ni sub-layers were deposited by two different techniques, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and magnetron sputtering. • Spin reorientation thickness and magnitude of the anisotropy are strongly depending on growing techniques.

  7. Epitaxial NiWO4 films on Ni(110): Experimental and theoretical study of surface stability (United States)

    Doudin, N.; Pomp, S.; Blatnik, M.; Resel, R.; Vorokhta, M.; Goniakowski, J.; Noguera, C.; Netzer, F. P.; Surnev, S.


    Despite the application potential of nickel tungstate (NiWO4) in heterogeneous catalysis, humidity and gas sensing, etc, its surfaces have essentially remained unexplored. In this work, NiWO4 nanoparticles and films with the wolframite structure have been grown via a solid-state reaction of (WO3)3 clusters and a NiO(100) film on a Ni(110) crystal surface and characterized by a variety of experimental techniques, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), combined with ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. NiWO4 grows initially as three-dimensional (3D) crystalline nanoparticles displaying mainly two crystalline facets vicinal to the (100) surface, which merge with increasing the (WO3)3 coverage into a quasi-continuous epitaxial film. The DFT results provide an account of the energetics of NiWO4 low index surfaces and highlight the role of faceting in the stabilization of extended polar (100) terraces. These combined experimental and theoretical results show that interaction with a metal substrate and vertical confinement may stabilize oxide nano-objects with high energy facets, able to enhance their reactivity.

  8. Weldability of spheroidal graphite ductile cast iron using Ni / Ni-Fe electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual, M.


    Full Text Available Weldability of spheroidal graphite ductile cast iron was established using a cheap Ni-Fe and a high purity Ni electrode. A preheating treatment at 350 °C and an annealing treatment at 850 °C were carried out to improve mechanical properties of welded pieces. The pure Ni electrode showed graphite diffusion in the bead with a uniform distribution of phases, improving weldability and decreasing fragility. Preheating and annealing treatments increased ductility and improved weldability.

    Se establece la soldabilidad de funciones dúctiles de grafito según las características mecánicas alcanzadas, utilizando un electrodo puro de Ni mientras se compara con uno más económico de Ni-Fe. Diferentes tratamientos t��rmicos son propuestos y analizados. El electrodo de Ni puro mostró difusión de grafito desde el material original al cordón de soldadura, dando como resultado una fase homogénea que mejoró la soldabilidad y redujo la fragilidad. Un pre tratamiento a 350 °C y un recocido a 850 °C incrementaron la ductilidad y mejoró la soldabilidad.

  9. Cold Spray Deposition of Ni and WC-Reinforced Ni Matrix Composite Coatings (United States)

    Alidokht, S. A.; Vo, P.; Yue, S.; Chromik, R. R.


    Ni-WC composites are ideal protective coatings against wear and are often fabricated using laser cladding and thermal spray processes, but the high temperatures of these processes result in decarburization, which deteriorates the performance of the coating. Cold spray has the potential to deposit Ni-WC composite coatings and retain the composition of the initial WC feedstock. However, the insignificant plastic deformation of hard WC particles makes it difficult to build up a high WC content coating by cold spray. By using three different WC powder sizes, the effect of feedstock powder size on WC retention was tested. To improve WC retention, a WC/Ni composite powder in mixture with Ni was also sprayed. Microstructural characterization, including the deformed structure of Ni splats, retention, distribution, and fragmentation of WC, was performed by scanning electron microscopy. An improvement in WC retention was achieved using finer WC particles. Significant improvement in WC particles retention was achieved using WC/Ni composite powder, with the WC content in the coating being close to that of the feedstock.

  10. Interfacial reaction of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic compound in Ni/SnAg solder/Ni system under thermomigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi-Shan; Yang, Chia-Jung; Ouyang, Fan-Yi, E-mail:


    The growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic compound (IMC) between liquid–solid interface in micro-scale Ni/SnAg/Ni system was investigated under a temperature gradient of 160 °C/cm at 260 °C on a hot plate. In contrast to a symmetrical growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on both interfaces under isothermally annealed at 260 °C, the interfacial Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC exhibited asymmetric growth under a temperature gradient; the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at cold interface was faster than that at hot side because of temperature gradient induced mass migration of Ni atoms from the hot end toward the cold end. It was found that two-stage growth behavior of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC under a temperature gradient. A growth model was established and growth kinetic analysis suggested that the chemical potential gradient controlled the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at stage I (0–120 min) whereas the dynamic equilibrium between chemical potential gradient and temperature gradient forces was attained at the hot end at stage II (120–210 min). When dynamic equilibrium was achieved at 260 °C, the critical length-temperature gradient product at the hot end was experimentally estimated to be 489.18 μm × °C/cm and the moving velocity of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} interface due to Ni consumption was calculated to be 0.134 μm/h. The molar heat of transport (Q*) of Ni atoms in molten SnAg solder was calculated to be +0.76 kJ/mol. - Highlights: • Interfacial reaction in Ni/SnAg solder/Ni system under thermal gradient. • Growth rate of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at cold end is faster than that at hot end. • Critical length-temperature gradient product at hot end is 489.2 μm°C/cm at 260 °C. • Velocity of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} moving interface is 0.134 μm/h during dynamic equilibrium. • Molar heat of transport (Q*) of Ni in molten SnAg was +0.76 kJ/mol.

  11. Microstructure, Mechanical Property, and Phase Transformation of Quaternary NiTiFeNb and NiTiFeTa Shape Memory Alloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yulong Liang; Shuyong Jiang; Yanqiu Zhang; Junbo Yu


    Based on ternary Ni45Ti51.8Fe3.2 (at %) shape memory alloy (SMA), Nb and Ta elements are added to an NiTiFe SMA by replacing Ni element, and consequently quaternary Ni44Ti51.8Fe3.2Nb1 and Ni44Ti51.8Fe3.2Ta1...

  12. Evaluation of the Antitumor Activity by Ni Nanoparticles with Verbascoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Chen


    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB has attracted a great deal of attention due to ITS pharmacological properties. In our study, we synthesized a multifunctional verbascoside coated Ni nanoparticles (VB-Ni. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC display the characteristics of VB-Ni nanoparticles. Compared with VB, VB-Ni has been proven to induce apoptosis and resist the growth of doxorubicin-resistant K562 cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, VB-Ni nanoparticles can be thought of as an ideal mode of cancer treatment.

  13. Atomistic modeling of ternary additions to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt and Ni-Ti-Hf shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, H.O., E-mail: [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Bozzolo, G. [Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Grosso, M.F. del [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina)


    The behavior of ternary and quaternary additions to NiTi shape memory alloys is investigated using a quantum approximate method for the energetics. Ternary additions X to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt, and Ni-Ti-Hf alloys, for X=Au, Pt, Ir, Os, Re, W, Ta,Ag, Pd, Rh, Ru, Tc, Mo, Nb, Zr, Zn, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, V, Sc, Si, Al and Mg are considered. Bulk properties such as lattice parameter, energy of formation, and bulk modulus of the B2 alloys are studied for variations due to the presence of one or two simultaneous additives.

  14. Nanoporous PdNi/C electrocatalyst prepared by dealloying high-Ni-content PdNi alloy for formic acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Rongfang [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory of Gansu Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Ji, Shan [South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)


    To improve the electrochemical performance of Pd-based catalysts for formic acid oxidation, a carbon supported nanoporous PdNi catalyst is prepared by dealloying high-Ni-content PdNi alloy nanoparticles in acid solution. The structure of nanoporous PdNi/C catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic results show that the activity of the nanoporous PdNi/C catalyst is higher than that of nonporous Pd/C catalyst. The results demonstrate that the carbon-supported nanoporous PdNi catalyst has a potential for application in direct formic acid fuel cells. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. State of Supported Nanoparticle Ni during Catalysis in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, Zizwe; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John; Camaioni, Donald; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Lercher, Johannes


    The state of Ni supported on HZSM-5 zeolite, silica, and sulfonated carbon was studied during aqueous-phase catalysis of phenol hydrodeoxygenation using in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. On sulfonated carbon and HZSM-5 supports, NiO and Ni(OH)(2) were readily reduced to Ni-0 under reaction conditions (approximate to 35bar H-2 in aqueous phenol solutions containing up to 0.5wt.% phosphoric acid at 473K). In contrast, Ni supported on SiO2 was not stable in a fully reduced Ni-0 state. Water enables the formation of Ni-II phyllosilicate, which is more stable, that is, difficult to reduce, than either -Ni(OH)(2) or NiO. Leaching of Ni from the supports was not observed over a broad range of reaction conditions. Ni-0 particles on HZSM-5 were stable even in presence of 15wt.% acetic acid at 473K and 35bar H-2.

  16. Intra-specific variation in Ni tolerance, accumulation and translocation patterns in the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum lesbiacum. (United States)

    Adamidis, G C; Aloupi, M; Kazakou, E; Dimitrakopoulos, P G


    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate inter-population variation in Ni tolerance, accumulation and translocation patterns in Alyssum lesbiacum. The in vitro results were compared to field data (soil bioavailable and leaf Ni concentrations) so as to examine any potential relationship between hydroponic and natural conditions. Seeds from the four major existing populations of A. lesbiacum were used for the cultivation of plantlets in solution cultures with incrementally increasing Ni concentrations (ranging from 0 to 250 μmol L(-1) NiSO4). Ni accumulation and tolerance of shoots and roots, along with initial seed Ni concentration for each population were measured. The ratio of root or shoot length of plantlets grown in NiSO4 solutions to root or shoot lengths of plantlets grown in the control solution was used as tolerance index. For the range of metal concentrations used, A. lesbiacum presented significant inter-population variation in Ni tolerance, accumulation and translocation patterns. Initial seed Ni concentration was positively correlated to shoot Ni accumulation. A significant positive relationship between tolerance and accumulation was demonstrated. Initial seed Ni concentration along with physiological differences in xylem loading and Ni translocation of each population, appear to be the determining factors of the significant inter-population variation in Ni tolerance and accumulation. Our results highlight the inter-population variation in Ni tolerance and accumulation patterns in the Ni-hyperaccumulator A. lesbiacum and give support to the suggestion that the selection of metal hyperaccumulator species with enhanced phytoremediation efficiency should be considered at the population level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NiCo2S4 nanosheet-decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode materials for all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor applications. (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Jayaseelan, Santhana Sivabalan; Seo, Min-Kang; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk


    Wire type supercapacitors with high energy and power densities have generated considerable interest in wearable applications. Herein, we report a novel NiCo2S4-decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode for high performance supercapacitor application. In this work, a facile method is introduced to fabricate a 3D, porous Ni film deposited on a Ni wire as a flexible electrode, followed by decoration with NiCo2S4 as an electroactive material. The fabricated NiCo2S4-decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode displays a superior performance with an areal and volumetric capacitance of 1.228 F cm-2 and 199.74 F cm-3, respectively, at a current density of 0.2 mA cm-1 with a maximum volumetric energy and power density (EV: 6.935 mW h cm-3; PV: 1.019 W cm-3). Finally, the solid state asymmetric wire type supercapacitor is fabricated using the fabricated NiCo2S4-decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire as a positive electrode and N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) as a negative electrode and this exhibits good areal and volumetric capacitances of CA: 0.12 F cm-2 and CV: 19.57 F cm-2 with a higher rate capability (92%). This asymmetric wire type supercapacitor demonstrates a low leakage current and self-discharge with a maximum volumetric energy (EV: 5.33 mW h cm-3) and power (PV: 855.69 mW cm-3) density.

  18. Martensitic Transformation in Ni-Mn-Sn-Co Heusler Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Deltell


    Full Text Available Thermal and structural austenite to martensite reversible transition was studied in melt spun ribbons of Ni50Mn40Sn5Co5, Ni50Mn37.5Sn7.5Co5 and Ni50Mn35Sn10Co5 (at. % alloys. Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns confirms that all alloys have martensitic structure at room temperature: four layered orthorhombic 4O for Ni50Mn40Sn5Co5, four layered orthorhombic 4O and seven-layered monoclinic 14M for Ni50Mn37.5Sn7.5Co5 and seven-layered monoclinic 14M for Ni50Mn35Sn5Co5. Analysis of differential scanning calorimetry scans shows that higher enthalpy and entropy changes are obtained for alloy Ni50Mn37.5Sn7.5Co5, whereas transition temperatures increases as increasing valence electron density.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, A.V., E-mail: [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zakharchuk, I.; Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Baidakov, K.V.; Knyazeva, S.S. [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ladenkov, I.V. [Joint-stock Company “Research and Production Company “Salut”, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders were prepared by the solid-state reaction at 1073 K. • The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. • The temperature dependences of magnetization exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior. - Abstract: Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders with nominal compositions Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by the solid-state reaction synthesis with periodic regrinding during the calcination at 1073 K. The structure of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was refined assuming space group F d-3m. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the average sizes of the crystalline ferrite particles are 130–630 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 140–350 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. The Curie temperature tends to increase upon Zn substitution by Co, as well. The temperature dependences of magnetization measured using zero-field cooled and field cooled protocols exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior.

  20. Peculiarities of thermoelectric half-Heusler phase formation in Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V., E-mail: [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Romaka, L.; Horyn, A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, University of Vienna, Währingerstrasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Stadnyk, Yu; Melnychenko, N. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Orlovskyy, M.; Krayovskyy, V. [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine)


    The phase equilibria in the Gd–Ni–Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems were studied at 873 K by X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. The interaction of the elements in the Gd–Ni–Sb system results the formation of five ternary compounds at investigated temperature: Gd{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), Gd{sub 5}NiSb{sub 2} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type), GdNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Gd{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5} (Y{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5}-type), and GdNi{sub 0.72}Sb{sub 2} (HfCuSi{sub 2}-type). At investigated temperature the Lu-Ni-Sb system is characterized by formation of the LuNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.56}Sb{sub 2.44} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type) compounds. The disordering in the crystal structure of half-Heusler GdNiSb and LuNiSb was revealed by EPMA and studied by means of Rietveld refinement and DFT modeling. The performed electronic structure calculations are in good agreement with electrical transport property studies. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure model and electron localization function of Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb phase diagrams were constructed at 873 K. • GdNiSb and LuNiSb are characterized by disordered crystal structure. • Crystal structure optimization with DFT calculations confirmed crystal structure disorder in GdNiSb and LuNiSb.

  1. Structural characterization of Ni and Ni/Ti ohmic contact on n-type 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siad, M., E-mail: [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon (Algeria); Abdesselam, M. [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, BP 32, El Alia, Bab Ezzouar (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon (Algeria); Chami, A.C. [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, BP 32, El Alia, Bab Ezzouar (Algeria)


    In this study, we report on the structural characterization of Ni layer and Ni/Ti bilayer contacts on n-type 4H-SiC. The resulting Ni-silicides and the redistribution of carbon, after annealing at 950 deg. C, in the Ni/SiC and the Ni/Ti/SiC contacts are particularly studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) at E{sub {alpha}} = 3.2 MeV, nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) at E{sub d} = 1 MeV, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) techniques.

  2. Evaluation of structure and mechanical properties of Ni-rich NiTi/Kapton composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohri, Maryam [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); PouryazdanPanah, Mohsen; Hahn, Horst [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Joint Research Labaratory Nanomaterials, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)


    NiTi thin films are usually sputtered on silicon wafers by magnetron sputtering. But the systems composed of thin film on flexible polymeric substrate are used in many applications such as micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Investigation on mechanical properties of thin films has attracted much attention due to their widespread applications. In this paper, the mechanical properties of 1 µm-thick crystallized Ni-49.2 at%Ti thin film alloy deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on Kapton substrate are investigated by using tensile test. The as-deposited thin films are in amorphous state, then for crystallization, the thin film was annealed at 450 °C for 30 min. Formation of the austenite phase after annealing was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The surface morphology of as deposited and crystallized thin films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stress-strain curves of the NiTi alloy thin film were obtained by subtracting of the stress-strain Kapton curves from the corresponding curves of the NiTi/Kapton composite. The XRD results revealed that the NiTi thin film deposited on the Kapton is austenitic and presents super-elastic effect at room temperature. This pseudo elastic effect leads to more recoverable strain in NiTi/Kapton composite film compared with Kapton foils on loading/unloading test. Furthermore, it was concluded that nanostructure of the NiTi thin film is responsible for remarkable improvement of ultimate tensile strength (1.4 GPa) at a strain of 30% compared with the bulk material.

  3. Mechanical alloying of Ni{sub 3}Fe in the presence of Ni{sub 3}Fe nanocrystalline germs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparchez, Z. [Materials Sciences and Technology Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105 Muncii Avenue, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chicinas, I. [Materials Sciences and Technology Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105 Muncii Avenue, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania) and Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, associe a l' Universite J. Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail:; Isnard, O. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, associe a l' Universite J. Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Pop, V. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Popa, F. [Materials Sciences and Technology Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105 Muncii Avenue, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, associe a l' Universite J. Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    The influence of nanocrystalline germs on the production of the Ni{sub 3}Fe intermetallic compound by mechanical alloying is reported. These germs consist in Ni{sub 3}Fe nanocrystalline particles previously obtained by mechanical alloying which have been added to the Ni-Fe mixture: 0.8(3Ni + Fe) + 0.2Ni{sub 3}Fe = Ni{sub 3}Fe. The powder mixture was milled in a planetary mill in argon atmosphere. Several milling times have been used ranging from 2 to 8 h. A Ni-Fe mixture at nominal composition of Ni{sub 3}Fe compound was milled in the same conditions, as blind samples. A heat treatment at 350 {sup o}C for 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h has been performed in order to remove the internal stresses induced by milling and to improve the solid-state reaction. The formation of the Ni{sub 3}Fe phase was checked by X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The germs inoculation improves the synthesis of the Ni{sub 3}Fe phase by combined mechanical alloying and annealing technique. This influence is more effective for short milling times (typically lower than 4 h). For samples milled more than 4 h the influence of the germs inoculation is more reduced, due to the Ni{sub 3}Fe germs self-formation by milling.

  4. Preparation of Ni-YSZ Cermet through Reduction of NiO-YSZ Ceramic for SOFC Anode (United States)

    Baity, P. S. N.; Budiana, B.; Suasmoro, S.


    Research on the synthesis of Nickel-Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (Ni-YSZ) cermet for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode has been performed. The preparation was carried out through the reduction process of the Nickel Oxide-Yttria stabilized Zirconia (NiO-YSZ) ceramic. NiO and YSZ were prepared separately, the NiO powder was prepared by calcination of CH4Ni3O7.xH2O at 500°C for 3 hours, while YSZ powder was prepared by calcination of 7mol% Y2O3 and 93mol% ZrO2 mixture at 1350°C for an hour. The NiO-YSZ ceramic preparation was carried outby mixing of YSZ and NiO powder with natural white starch by weight ratio NiO: YSZ: natural white starch = 4:6:1 followed by sintering at 1200°C for 4 hours. The completion of reduction process of NiO-YSZ ceramic was performed at 1000°C in flowing Argon (Ar) containing 10% Hydrogen (H2) up to 4 hours. The characterisations include thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XRD, SEM-EDX and Impedance Analyzer meter. The synthesised Ni-YSZ cermet at composition 33wt% Ni and 67wt% YSZ, shows relative density 70% and electrical conductivity 10-2 S/cm at 700°C, it qualifies as anode for SOFC.

  5. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of Ni/NiO nanoparticles as electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution (United States)

    Arunachalam, Prabhakarn; Ghanem, Mohamed A.; Al-Mayouf, Abdullah M.; Al-shalwi, Matar; Hamed Abd-Elkader, Omar


    Nickel/Nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) nanoparticles catalyst is prepared by microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition using ethylene glycol (EG) and water mixture under atmospheric conditions. The physicochemical characterizations of the catalyst carried out by surface area analyzer, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron microscopes measurements suggest the formation of crystalline nanoparticles structure of NiO. The surface area of Ni/NiO prepared using EG/water mixture reaches 70 m2 g-1 which is 2-fold enhsancement in surface area in comparison with NiO prepared in pure EG and an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk nickel prepared in pure water. The methanol electro-oxidation activity of the Ni/NiO nanoparticles obtained in EG/water mixture displayed more than 4-fold increase in oxidation current at 1.7 V versus RHE in comparison with NiO nanoparticles obtained in EG and 20-fold increase compared to bulk nickel catalyst concord with the enhancement of electro-active surface area. The results show the Ni/NiO nanoparticles produced by microwave assisted synthesis has superior activity for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution over the other nickel based catalysts and has potential for mass production.

  6. Role of Ni-tolerant Bacillus spp. and Althea rosea L. in the phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated soils. (United States)

    Khan, Waheed Ullah; Yasin, Nasim Ahmad; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Ali, Aamir; Ahmed, Shakil; Ahmad, Aqeel


    In our current study, four nickel-tolerant (Ni-tolerant) bacterial species viz, Bacillus thuringiensis 002, Bacillus fortis 162, Bacillus subtilis 174, and Bacillus farraginis 354, were screened using Ni-contaminated media. The screened microbes exhibited positive results for synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. The effects of these screened microbes on Ni mobility in the soil, root elongation, plant biomass, and Ni uptake in Althea rosea plants grown in Ni-contaminated soil (200 mg Ni kg(-1)) were evaluated. Significantly higher value for water-extractable Ni (38 mg kg(-1)) was observed in case of Ni-amended soils inoculated with B. subtilis 174. Similarly, B. thuringiensis 002, B. fortis 162, and B. subtilis 174 significantly enhanced growth and Ni uptake in A. rosea. The Ni uptake in the shoots and roots of B. subtilis 174-inoculated plants enhanced up to 1.7 and 1.6-fold, respectively, as compared to that in the un-inoculated control. Bacterial inoculation also significantly improved the root and shoot biomass of treated plants. The current study presents a novel approach for bacteria-assisted phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated areas.

  7. High Damping of Lightweight TiNi-Ti2Ni Shape Memory Composites for Wide Temperature Range Usage (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Luo, Zheng; Yuan, Bin; Liu, Jiangwen; Gao, Yan


    A bimodal porous TiNi-Ti2Ni shape memory alloy composite (SMAC) with 59% porosity was fabricated by sintering Ti-46at.%Ni elemental powders with pore-forming agent. The porous TiNi-Ti2Ni SMAC contains two irregular pores of about 400 and 120 μm. We investigated the microstructure and pore morphology correlated with the mechanical properties and damping capacities of the SMAC. Ti2Ni intermetallic phases with size of 1-3 μm were homogeneously distributed in the TiNi matrix. The porous TiNi-Ti2Ni SMAC exhibits exceptionally high inverse mechanical quality factor ( Q -1) of 0.25 at < 40 °C, which is among the highest value reported for porous/dense shape memory alloys or composites to best of our knowledge, and it shows very high compressive fracture strain of about 25%. Moreover, the fabricated porous SMAC at relatively low strain amplitude can exhibit considerable high Q -1 of 0.06 0.11 for a wide range of temperature between - 90 and 200 °C, which is attributed to the stress concentration distribution provided by the bimodal structure of pores and the massive interfaces between pore/matrix and TiNi/Ti2Ni. These porous SMACs can be an ideal candidate for using as a lightweight damping material in the energy-saving applications.

  8. Anti-corrosive and anti-microbial properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathy, Y.; Natarajan, K.A.; Srivastava, Chandan, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrodeposition yielded phase-segregated, nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings. • Ni-Ag alloys exhibited smaller Ni crystals compared to pure Ni. • Ultra fine Ni grains of size 12–14 nm favoured Ni-Ag solid solution. • Nanocrystalline Ag resisted bio-fouling by Sulphate Reducing bacteria. • Ni-Ag outperformed pure Ni in corrosion and bio-corrosion tests. - Abstract: Anti-corrosive and anti-bacterial properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings are illustrated. Pure Ni, Ni-7 at.% Ag, & Ni-14 at.% Ag coatings were electrodeposited on Cu substrate. Coating consisted of Ni-rich and Ag-rich solid solution phases. With increase in the Ag content, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating initially increased and then decreased. The initial increase was due to the Ni-Ag solid solution. The subsequent decrease was due to the increased galvanic coupling between the Ag-rich and Ni-rich phases. For all Ag contents, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating was higher than the pure Ni coating. Exposure to Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) revealed that the extent of bio-fouling decreased with increase in the Ag content. After 2 month exposure to SRB, the Ni-Ag coatings demonstrated less loss in corrosion resistance (58% for Ni-7 at.% Ag and 20% for Ni-14 at.% Ag) when compared pure Ni coating (115%).

  9. Effect of Ni Core Structure on the Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Ni/C in Methanol Oxidation (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Rongfang; Wang, Hui; Liao, Shijun; Key, Julian; Linkov, Vladimir; Ji, Shan


    Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C), were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA). While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous)/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells. PMID:28811402

  10. Effect of Ni Core Structure on the Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Ni/C in Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Linkov


    Full Text Available Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C, were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA. While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells.

  11. Hard X-ray MCD in GdNi/sub 5/ and TbNi/sub 5/ single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Galera, R M


    XMCD experiments have been performed at the R L/sub 2,3/ and Ni K- edges on magnetically saturated single crystals of GdNi/sub 5/ and Tb Ni/sub 5/ ferromagnetic compounds. The spectra present huge and well structured dichroic $9 signals at both the R L/sub 2,3/ and the Ni K- edges. Structures from the quadrupolar (2p to 4f) transitions are clearly observed at the R L/sub 2,3/-edges. Though Ni is not magnetic, large intensities, up to 0.4, are measured at the $9 Ni K- edge. The Ni K-edge XMCD shows a three-peak structure which intensities dependent on the rare earth. (7 refs).

  12. Shell-ferromagnetism in Ni-Mn-based Heuslers in view of ductile Ni-Mn-Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Çakır


    Full Text Available The present work deals with magnetic and structural phase instabilities in Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloys especially Ni-Mn-Al. The temper-annealed Ni50Mn45Al5 Heusler alloy decomposes into the full stoichiometric Ni2MnAl and NiMn phases. The decomposed stoichiometric Heusler forms precipitates in an anti-ferromagnetic NiMn matrix and exhibits shell-ferromagnetic properties when the temper-annealing is performed under magnetic field. The shell-ferromagnetism results from the magnetic proximity effect and is observed as vertically shifted magnetization loops. The presence of this property in Ni50Mn45Al5 adds the possibility of having a ductile material while preserving the shell-ferromagnetic properties.

  13. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others


    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, and wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.

  14. Niño, inteligencia, devenir


    Galindo Olaya, Juan Diego


    En este artículo nos proponemos mostrar cómo actúan en conjunto el plano de organización y el plano de consistencia que conforman el mapa del pensamiento en la escuela, según el cual, se puede afirmar que el pensamiento se escapa a la inhibición, la interpretación y la sujeción que provoca su traducción en términos de inteligencia, cuando, como resultado de la experimentación, se gesta un encuentro indeterminado con fuerzas que pueden conducir al devenir-niño del niño en la escuela. En este s...

  15. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)


    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  16. Fe-Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon of Caribbean Ni-laterite deposits: new insights from thermodynamic calculations (United States)

    Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Domènech, Cristina; Tauler, Esperança; Galí, Salvador; Tassara, Santiago; Proenza, Joaquín A.


    Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite horizon is the main Ni ores in hydrous silicate-type Ni laterites and formed by chemical weathering of partially serpentinized ultramafic rocks under tropical conditions. During lateritization, Mg, Si, and Ni are leached from the surface and transported downwards. Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+ and fixed as insoluble Fe-oxyhydroxides (mostly goethite) that incorporate Ni. This Ni is later leached from goethite and incorporated in secondary serpentine and garnierite. As a result, a serpentine-dominated saprolite horizon forms over the ultramafic protolith, overlapped by a Fe-oxyhydroxide-dominated limonite horizon. The serpentine from the protolith (serpentine I) is of hydrothermal origin and yields similar Ni (0.10-0.62 wt.% NiO) and lower Fe (mostly 1.37-5.81 wt.% FeO) concentrations than the primary olivine. In contrast, Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite (serpentine II) shows significantly higher and variable Fe and Ni contents, typically ranging from 2.23 to 15.59 wt.% Fe2O3 and from 1.30 to 7.67 wt.% NiO, suggesting that serpentine get enriched in Fe and Ni under supergene conditions. This study presents detailed mineralogical, textural, and chemical data on this serpentine II, as well as new insights by thermodynamic calculations assuming ideal solution between Fe-, Ni- and Mg-pure serpentines. The aim is to assess if at atmospheric pressure and temperature Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine can be formed by precipitation. Results indicate that the formation of serpentine II under atmospheric pressure and temperature is thermodynamically supported, and pH, Eh, and the equilibrium constant of the reaction are the parameters that affect the results more significantly.

  17. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of Ni-rich NiTi plates: functional behavior (United States)

    Oliveira, J. P.; Barbosa, D.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Miranda, R. M.


    It is often reported that, to successfully join NiTi shape memory alloys, fusion-based processes with reduced thermal affected regions (as in laser welding) are required. This paper describes an experimental study performed on the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 1.5 mm thick plates of Ni-rich NiTi. The functional behavior of the joints was assessed. The superelasticity was analyzed by cycling tests at maximum imposed strains of 4, 8 and 12% and for a total of 600 cycles, without rupture. The superelastic plateau was observed, in the stress-strain curves, 30 MPa below that of the base material. Shape-memory effect was evidenced by bending tests with full recovery of the initial shape of the welded joints. In parallel, uniaxial tensile tests of the joints showed a tensile strength of 700 MPa and an elongation to rupture of 20%. The elongation is the highest reported for fusion-welding of NiTi, including laser welding. These results can be of great interest for the wide-spread inclusion of NiTi in complex shaped components requiring welding, since TIG is not an expensive process and is simple to operate and implement in industrial environments.

  18. Distinct demagnetization dynamics of Ni and Fe magnetic moments in a NiFe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschenlohr, Andrea; Stamm, Christian; Pontius, Niko; Kachel, Torsten; Radu, Florin [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Radu, Ilie [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Radboud University Nijmegen, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rasing, Theo; Kimel, Alexey V. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    Ultrafast demagnetization has been approached from a variety of experimental and theoretical angles since the first observation of a sub-picosecond quenching of magnetization in Ni. Time constants of demagnetization have been established for elementary transition metals and rare earths. Their compounds and alloys, which are highly relevant for technological applications and for research into the microscopic origins of ultrafast demagnetization, are increasingly investigated with methods like TR-MOKE. Yet experimental methods which combine femtosecond time resolution with an element-sensitive measurement of the magnetization have so far been sparse. We bridge this gap by probing magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic NiFe alloys in an element-resolved way with 100 fs x-ray pulses generated by the Femtoslicing facility at BESSY II via XMCD. We find different demagnetization time constants for Ni (80 +/- 30 fs) and Fe (240 +/- 30 fs) in Ni50Fe50, evidence of a decoupling of the Ni and Fe dynamics on ultrafast timescales despite the exchange interaction between the two elements.

  19. Participar como niña o niño en el mundo social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Paulina Díaz


    Full Text Available En este artículo presento la participación como resultado de un trabajo investigativo realizado durante el año 2007, con niños y niñas escolarizados habitantes de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, cuyo objetivo fue analizar las representaciones sociales que ellos y ellas comparten sobre el ejercicio ciudadano. El análisis de la información tiene como ejes fundamentales, la salud colectiva, la sociología de la infancia y la participación en la niñez, en una aproximación que se realiza desde un enfoque cualitativo y etnográfico. En los hallazgos, sobresale cómo las niñas y niños se muestran preparados para ejercer su derecho a la participación como aspecto de sus vidas que se haría posible dentro del marco normativo existente, pero que aún no es asumido en prácticas sociales que los incluyan.

  20. NiTi superelasticity via atomistic simulations (United States)

    Chowdhury, Piyas; Ren, Guowu; Sehitoglu, Huseyin


    The NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) are promising candidates for the next-generation multifunctional materials. These materials are superelastic i.e. they can fully recover their original shape even after fairly large inelastic deformations once the mechanical forces are removed. The superelasticity reportedly stems from atomic scale crystal transformations. However, very few computer simulations have emerged, elucidating the transformation mechanisms at the discrete lattice level, which underlie the extraordinary strain recoverability. Here, we conduct breakthrough molecular dynamics modelling on the superelastic behaviour of the NiTi single crystals, and unravel the atomistic genesis thereof. The deformation recovery is clearly traced to the reversible transformation between austenite and martensite crystals through simulations. We examine the mechanistic origin of the tension-compression asymmetries and the effects of pressure/temperature/strain rate variation isolatedly. Hence, this work essentially brings a new dimension to probing the NiTi performance based on the mesoscale physics under more complicated thermo-mechanical loading scenarios.

  1. Multifunction of Ni/Ag Nanocompound Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Jung Kao


    Full Text Available An arc-submerged nanoparticle synthesis system (ASNSS is proposed and developed for fabricating Ni/Ag nanocompound fluid. In the development process, the positive and negative electrodes in the system are Ni and Ag, respectively. Applied electrical energy then produces heating source by generating an adequate arc with a high temperature that can melt and vaporize the two electrodes. The nanocompound fluid that is generated by the synthesis system is analyzed by morphological analysis, Zeta potential analysis, heat conductivity analysis, magnetic characteristic analysis, and UV-Vis absorption spectra analysis. Experimental results show that increasing the concentration of added particles and the higher temperature can be helpful to the enhancement of thermal conductivity. The Ni/Ag nanofluid not only preserves the magnetic character of the nickel and the ability of silver to absorb visible light but also enhances the thermal conductivity. The absorption occurs at 406 nm wavelength (redshift from 396 nm to 406 nm, which means that, under the excitement of visible light range (400~700 nm, it can let more easy electrons jump to the conductivity zone from the valence electron zone.

  2. Combining Ru, Ni and Ni(OH){sub 2} active sites for improving catalytic performance in benzene hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lihua, E-mail: [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Hanlei; Zheng, Jinbao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yu, Changlin, E-mail: [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Zhang, Nuowei [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Shu, Qing [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Chen, Bing H., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)


    In this study, the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts were successfully prepared by the simple methods of hydrazine-reduction and galvanic replacement, where 0.04/0.96 and T represented the Ru/Ni atomic ratio and reducing temperature of the catalyst in N{sub 2}+10%H{sub 2}, respectively. The nanostructures of the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96} nanoparticles in the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts were controlled by modulating their annealing temperature in N{sub 2}+10%H{sub 2} and characterized by an array of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) mapping and high-sensitivity low-energy ion scattering (HS-LEIS). The Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(30) catalyst, which was composed of Ru clusters or single atoms supported on Ni/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles, exhibited much better catalytic performance for benzene hydrogenation than the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts reduced at above 30 °C, such as Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(160) with the nanostructure of partial Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.9} alloy and Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(280) with the nanostructure of complete Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.9} alloy. The reason was that the synergistic effect of multiple active sites – Ru, Ni and Ni(OH){sub 2} sites was present in the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(30) catalyst, where hydrogen was preferentially activated at Ru sites, benzene was probably activated at Ni(OH){sub 2} surface and Ni acted as a “bridge” for transferring activated H{sup ∗} species to activated benzene by hydrogen spillover effect, hydrogenating and forming product – cyclohexane. This study also provided a typical example to illustrate that the synergy effect of multiple active sites can largely improve the catalytic hydrogenation performance. - Highlights: • The Ru

  3. Fabrications of High-Capacity Alpha-Ni(OH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young


    Full Text Available Three different methods were used to produce α-Ni(OH2 with higher discharge capacities than the conventional β-Ni(OH2, specifically a batch process of co-precipitation, a continuous process of co-precipitation with a phase transformation step (initial cycling, and an overcharge at low temperature. All three methods can produce α-Ni(OH2 or α/β mixed-Ni(OH2 with capacities higher than that of conventional β-Ni(OH2 and a stable cycle performance. The second method produces a special core–shell β-Ni(OH2/α-Ni(OH2 structure with an excellent cycle stability in the flooded half-cell configuration, is innovative and also already mass-production ready. The core–shell structure has been investigated by both scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The shell portion of the particle is composed of α-Ni(OH2 nano-crystals embedded in a β-Ni(OH2 matrix, which helps to reduce the stress originating from the lattice expansion in the β-α transformation. A review on the research regarding α-Ni(OH2 is also included in the paper.

  4. Ferromagnetic (Ni) nanoparticles–CuTl-1223 superconductor composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Irfan; Waqee-ur-Rehman, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences (FBAS), International Islamic University (IIU), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mumtaz, M., E-mail: [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences (FBAS), International Islamic University (IIU), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hussain, Ghulam; Nadeem, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences (FBAS), International Islamic University (IIU), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, Khurram [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    (Ni){sub x}/CuTl-1223 (x=0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 wt%) nanoparticles–superconductor composites were synthesized by the addition of ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in appropriate ratio to Cu{sub 0.5}Tl{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10−δ} (CuTl-1223) superconducting matrix. Structural, morphological, compositional and superconducting transport properties of these composites were studied by different experimental techniques. It was observed that the addition of Ni nanoparticles had not altered the crystal structure of host CuTl-1223 phase, which is somehow an evidence of the occupancy of these nanoparticles at the grain-boundaries. Suppression of superconducting properties was attributed to pair-breaking due to spin scattering across these ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles. The enhanced magnetization of ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles at reduced temperatures plays a significant role to reduce the diamagnetism of (Ni){sub x}/CuTl-1223 composites. Fluctuation induced conductivity (FIC) analysis of resistivity versus temperature data has explained very well the effects of Ni nanoparticles on superconductivity of CuTl-1223 phase. - Highlights: • (Ni){sub x}/CuTl-1223 composites were synthesized. • Crystal structure of CuTl-1223 phase was not affected by Ni nanoparticles. • Superconductivity of CuTl-1223 phase was suppressed by Ni nanoparticles addition. • Suppression of superconductivity was explained theoretically.

  5. Morphological instability of lamellar structures in directionally solidified Ni-Ni3Si alloys (United States)

    Wei, Lufeng; Zhao, Zhilong; Gao, Jianjun; Cui, Kai; Guo, Jingying; Chen, Sen; Liu, Lin


    The morphological instability of lamellar structures in Ni-Ni3Si eutectic and hypereutectic alloys directionally solidified at low growth rates was investigated. The first instability in large lamellar structures was zigzag instability, which formed curved lamellae. A zigzag pattern was first displayed in three dimensions. The diffusion-limited growth of the Ni3Si phase decreased phase width and spacing, consequently causing zigzag instability. The reduced spacing was observed at λ/λave = 0.9. After zigzag instability, the microstructure of the eutectic alloy turned into a labyrinth structure and lamellar fragmentation. However, in hypereutectic alloys, shape transition from lamellae to rods occurred, in turn, by the broken lamellae or elongated rods to dumbbell-shaped rods, peanut-shaped rods, and circular rods.

  6. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys (United States)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald


    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  7. Catalytic properties of amorphous NiZr alloys. Amorufasu NiZr gokin no shokubai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, H.; Shimogaki, Y.; Egashira, Y.; Sumiya, S. (The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo, (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    This paper investigated the catalytic properties of amorphous NiZr alloys. Amorphous alloys were used as ribbon, powder and ultra-fine powder (a-UFP) prepared by different processes as they are, or after chemically cleaved process. Catalytic reactions were measured by the gas chromatography for gas composition at the reactor outlet. The applied reactions were the hydrogenation of CO, acethylene and butadiene, and the hydrogenolysis of ethane. All amorphous alloys indicated similar reacting characteristics, independent of the preparation methods. It should reflect any common substance that amorphous alloy of nonequilibrium which can be different states by manufacturing process, show similar characteristics like this. The surface of amprphous alloys has strong affinity to Zr and O and Ni, Zr and O is thought to be highly dispersed, presumably at an atomic level, maintaining Ni as the stable oxidized condition. These catalysts are very interesting because such the characteristics cannot be realized in crystaline catalysts. 5 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Internal reforming of methane at Ni/YSZ and Ni/CGO SOFC cermet anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermann, H.; Fouquet, D.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffee, E. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik; Hennings, U.; Reimert, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institut, Bereich Gas, Erdoel und Kohle


    The internal reforming of methane on Ni/CGO and Ni/YSZ anodes was investigated with single cells operated at steam to carbon ratios from 0 to 3 and at temperatures of 800 C and 950 C. The incorporation of gas extraction ports allowed the measurement of the local gas composition in the anode gas compartment by gas chromatography. The methane conversion is presented as a function of feed gas composition, temperature, gas flow velocity, and electrical load. The impact of the anode material on the reforming reaction and on cell performance is shown. Methane conversion along the Ni/CGO anode was calculated with a one-dimensional model; the required kinetic parameters were obtained by data fitting. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Measurement of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 59}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry using characteristic projectile x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAninch, J.E.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Marchetti, A.A. [and others


    The long-lived isotopes of nickel ({sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni) have current and potential use in a number of applications including cosmic radiation studies, biomedical tracing, characterization of low-level radioactive wastes, and neutron dosimetry. Methods are being developed at LLNL for the routine detection of these isotopes by AMS. One intended application is in Hiroshima dosimetry. The reaction {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni has been identified as one of a small number of reactions which might be used for the direct determination of the fast neutron fluence emitted by the Hiroshima bomb. AMS measurement of {sup 63}Ni(t{sub 1/2} = 100 y) requires the chemical removal of {sup 63}Cu, which is a stable isobar of {sup 63}Ni. Following the electrochemical separation of Ni from gram-sized copper samples, the Cu concentration is further lowered to < 2 x 10{sup -8} (Cu/Ni) using the reaction of Ni with carbon monoxide to form the gas Ni(CO){sub 4}. The Ni(CO){sub 4} is thermally decomposed directly in sample holders for measurement by AMS. After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions are identified using characteristic projectile x-rays, allowing further rejection of remaining {sup 63}Cu. In a demonstration experiment, {sup 63}Ni was measured in Cu wires (2-20 g) which had been exposed to neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf source. We successfully measured {sup 63}Ni at levels necessary for the measurement of Cu samples exposed near the Hiroshima hypocenter. For the demonstration samples, the Cu content was chemically reduced by a factor of 10{sup 12} with quantitative retention of {sup 63}Ni. Detection sensitivity (3{sigma}) was {approximately}20 fg {sup 63}Ni in 1 mg Ni carrier ({sup 63}Ni/Ni {approx} 2 x 10{sup -11}). Significant improvements in sensitivity are expected with planned incremental changes in the methods. Preliminary results indicate that a similar sensitivity is achievable for {sup 59}Ni (t{sub 1/2} = 10{sup 5} y).

  10. Observation of Ni{sup 3+} acceptor in P-type Ni(P):SnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Po-Ming, E-mail:; Wu, Yen-Ju; Hsieh, Chih-Yi; Liao, Ching-Han; Liu, Yen-Shuo; Liu, Cheng-Yi


    Highlights: • In this work, Ni and Ni(P) was doped into the SnO{sub 2} oxide to form p-type SnO{sub 2} thin film. • The Ni{sup 3+}-Sn{sup 4+} substitution reaction produces electrical holes overwhelming the free electrons generated by oxygen vacancies. • We report that Ni{sup 3+}-Sn{sup 4+} substitution reaction only occurs, as P is co-doped with Ni in SnO{sub 2} thin film, which converts n-type SnO{sub 2} thin film to p-type conduction. • With the developed p-Ni(P):SnO{sub 2}, transparent p-Ni(P):SnO{sub 2}/i-SnO{sub 2}/n-ITO p-i-n structure was fabricated and characterized: low leakage-current (8.41 × 10{sup −5} A at −5 V), turn-on voltage (4.68 eV), good transmittance (85%), and small ideality-factor (1.73). - Abstract: Ni dopants typically exist as Ni{sup 2+} oxidation state in metal oxides. We report that as Ni is co-doped with P in Ni(P):SnO{sub 2}, P promotes Ni{sup 2+} into Ni{sup 3+}, which acts as acceptor and coverts n-type SnO{sub 2} to p-type conduction. Significant hole concentration (4.5 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}) of p-type Ni(P):SnO{sub 2} can be obtained. The chemical state of Ni{sup 3+} in Ni(P):SnO{sub 2} is verified by ultra-violet and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With the developed p-Ni(P):SnO{sub 2}, transparent p-Ni(P):SnO{sub 2}/i-SnO{sub 2}/n-ITO p-i-n structure was fabricated and characterized: low leakage-current (8.41 × 10{sup −5} A at −5 V), turn-on voltage (4.68 eV), good transmittance (85%), and small ideality-factor (1.73)

  11. NiO-Microflower Formed by Nanowire-weaving Nanosheets with Interconnected Ni-network Decoration as Supercapacitor Electrode (United States)

    Ci, Suqing; Wen, Zhenhai; Qian, Yuanyuan; Mao, Shun; Cui, Shumao; Chen, Junhong


    We propose a ‘weaving’ evolution mechanism, by systematically investigating the products obtained in controlled experiments, to demonstrate the formation of Ni-based ‘microflowers’ which consists of multiple characteristic dimensions, in which the three dimensional (3D) NiO ‘microflower’ is constructed by a two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet framework that is derived from weaving one-dimensional (1D) nanowires. We found such unique nanostructures are conducive for the generation of an electrically conductive Ni-network on the nanosheet surface after being exposed to a reducing atmosphere. Our study offers a promising strategy to address the intrinsic issue of poor electrical conductivity for NiO-based materials with significant enhancement of utilization of NiO active materials, leading to a remarkable improvement in the performance of the Ni-NiO microflower based supercapacitor. The optimized Ni-NiO microflower material showed a mass specific capacitance of 1,828 F g−1, and an energy density of 15.9 Wh kg−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. This research not only contributes to understanding the formation mechanism of such ‘microflower’ structures but also offers a promising route to advance NiO based supercapacitor given their ease of synthesis, low cost, and long-term stability. PMID:26165386

  12. High Density Arrayed Ni/NiO Core-shell Nanospheres Evenly Distributed on Graphene for Ultrahigh Performance Supercapacitor. (United States)

    Liu, Fanggang; Wang, Xiaobing; Hao, Jin; Han, Shuang; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing


    A novel NiO/Ni/RGO three-dimensional core-shell architecture consisting of Ni nanoparticles as core, NiO as shell and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as conductivity layer, has been constructed by redox reactions with hydrothermal method and heat treatment. High density arrayed nickel nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) semi-coated by a 3 nm thick layer of NiO are evenly distributed on the surface of graphene. This elaborate design not only uses abundant NiO surfaces to provide a wealth of active sites, but also bridges electrochemical active NiO shell and graphene by Ni core to construct an interconnected 3D conductive network. Since both electrochemical activity and excellent conductivity are reserved in this Ni/NiO core-shell/graphene layer 3D structure, the as-prepared electrode material exhibits an extremely high specific capacitance (2048.3 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1) and excellent cycle stability (77.8% capacitance retention after 10000 cycles at current density of 50 A g-1). The novel method presented here is easy and effective and would provide reference for the preparation of other high performance supercapacitor electrodes.

  13. On the Ni-Ion release rate from surfaces of binary NiTi shape memory alloys (United States)

    Ševčíková, Jana; Bártková, Denisa; Goldbergová, Monika; Kuběnová, Monika; Čermák, Jiří; Frenzel, Jan; Weiser, Adam; Dlouhý, Antonín


    The study is focused on Ni-ion release rates from NiTi surfaces exposed in the cell culture media and human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture environments. The NiTi surface layers situated in the depth of 70 μm below a NiTi oxide scale are affected by interactions between the NiTi alloys and the bio-environments. The finding was proved with use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electron microscopy experiments. As the exclusive factor controlling the Ni-ion release rates was not only thicknesses of the oxide scale, but also the passivation depth, which was two-fold larger. Our experimental data strongly suggested that some other factors, in addition to the Ni concentration in the oxide scale, admittedly hydrogen soaking deep below the oxide scale, must be taken into account in order to rationalize the concentrations of Ni-ions released into the bio-environments. The suggested role of hydrogen as the surface passivation agent is also in line with the fact that the Ni-ion release rates considerably decrease in NiTi samples that were annealed in controlled hydrogen atmospheres prior to bio-environmental exposures.

  14. Magnetic Excitations in the Stacked Quantum Magnets NaNiO2 and LiNiO2 (United States)

    Clancy, J. P.; Gaulin, B. D.; Ruff, J. P. C.; Ross, K. A.; van Gastel, G. J.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.


    NaNiO2 and LiNiO2 are isostructural stacked triangular lattice quantum magnets, in which magnetism is conventionally thought to arise due to spin 1/2 moments carried by Ni^3+ ions. Surprisingly, while NaNiO2 undergoes a cooperative Jahn-Teller transition at 480K and magnetically orders below TN ˜ 23K, LiNiO2 undergoes a glass transition at Tg ˜ 9K and remains disordered down to the lowest measured temperatures. The absence of long-range magnetic order in LiNiO2 has been attributed to either geometric frustration caused by mixing of the Li and Ni sublattices, or orbital degeneracy due to the absence of a coherent Jahn-Teller distortion. We have performed time of flight neutron scattering measurements on polycrystalline samples of NaNiO2 and LiNiO2 using the wide Angular-Range Chopper Spectrometer (ARCS) at the SNS. Our measurements reveal previously unobserved magnetic excitations at relatively high energy transfers, which we associate with ferromagnetic spin waves mediated by in-plane interactions. We also find evidence of critical scattering in NaNiO2 near the magnetic phase transition at TN. These results will be compared with previous measurements collected using the DCS at NIST.

  15. NiO-Microflower Formed by Nanowire-weaving Nanosheets with Interconnected Ni-network Decoration as Supercapacitor Electrode (United States)

    Ci, Suqing; Wen, Zhenhai; Qian, Yuanyuan; Mao, Shun; Cui, Shumao; Chen, Junhong


    We propose a ‘weaving’ evolution mechanism, by systematically investigating the products obtained in controlled experiments, to demonstrate the formation of Ni-based ‘microflowers’ which consists of multiple characteristic dimensions, in which the three dimensional (3D) NiO ‘microflower’ is constructed by a two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet framework that is derived from weaving one-dimensional (1D) nanowires. We found such unique nanostructures are conducive for the generation of an electrically conductive Ni-network on the nanosheet surface after being exposed to a reducing atmosphere. Our study offers a promising strategy to address the intrinsic issue of poor electrical conductivity for NiO-based materials with significant enhancement of utilization of NiO active materials, leading to a remarkable improvement in the performance of the Ni-NiO microflower based supercapacitor. The optimized Ni-NiO microflower material showed a mass specific capacitance of 1,828 F g-1, and an energy density of 15.9 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. This research not only contributes to understanding the formation mechanism of such ‘microflower’ structures but also offers a promising route to advance NiO based supercapacitor given their ease of synthesis, low cost, and long-term stability.

  16. Ni-based composite microstructures fabricated by femtosecond laser reductive sintering of NiO/Cr mixed nanoparticles (United States)

    Tamura, Kenki; Mizoshiri, Mizue; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi


    Ni-based composite micropatterns were fabricated by the femtosecond laser reductive sintering of NiO/Cr mixed nanoparticles. A NiO/Cr mixed nanoparticle solution including ethylene glycol and polyvinylpyrrolidone was irradiated with focused femtosecond laser pulses. The X-ray diffraction spectra of the fabricated micropatterns indicated that NiO nanoparticles were well reduced under atmospheric conditions in the laser scanning speed range of 5-15 mm/s. In contrast, micropatterns including NiO were formed at a laser scanning speed of 1 mm/s, indicating that the reduced Ni was reoxidized by overheating. These results were supported by those of energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis and the electrical resistivity of the micropatterns. The compositions such as Ni, NiO, Cr2O3, and Ni-Cr in the fabricated micropatterns depended on laser scanning speed. The selective fabrication of a ferromagnetic free microgear from the substrate and an axis fixed on the substrate was demonstrated by controlling the laser scanning speed. The fabrication process for Ni-based composite microstructures is useful for the fabrication of ferromagnetic microdevices.

  17. Influence of Ni doping on PtNi nanoparticles: Synthesis, electronic/atomic structure and photocatalyst investigations (United States)

    Varshney, Mayora; Sharma, Aditya; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Jeon, Tae-Yeol; Lee, Byeong-Hyeon; Chae, Keun-Hwa; Won, Sung Ok


    Carbon-supported Pt and PtNi nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using a borohydride reduction method. Structural properties were studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the size/shape of the NPs was determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). X-ray absorption spectroscopy with its two amendments; X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), has been employed to investigate the local electronic/atomic structure surrounding the Pt and Ni atoms. XANES results, at Pt L3-edge and Ni K-edge, have shown fractional oxidation of Pt and Ni atoms. The Pt3Ni1NPs have exhibited a lower bond distance of Pt-Ni shell and higher coordination number of Pt-Ni shells, indicating the alloy formation between Pt and Ni. We further have demonstrated that the Pt and PtNi NPs can serve as effective photocatalysts towards the degradation of water pollutant dye (methyl orange (MO)). By considering the interband charge-transfer of Pt (5d →6sp), a tentative mechanism is proposed to understand the photocatalytic degradation of MO dye molecules by Pt/PtNi NPs under the light irradiation.

  18. Validez judicial del testimonio del niño, niña o adolescente


    Quiñónez Franky, Franciny Orlando; Cuellar Pineda, Mónica Alexandra; López Andrade, Sandra Eugenia


    Este trabajo está encaminado a realizar un aporte a la investigación de delitos sexuales en los cuales resultan víctimas los niños, niñas y adolescentes - NNA, en orden a que el enjuiciamiento de estos casos responda a parámetros y a bases que metodológica y epistemológicamente conduzcan a conclusiones científicamente procuradas. Es evidente que la validez del testimonio proveniente de sujetos calificados como los menores de edad, sobre quienes recaen los poderosos efectos del int...

  19. Transmutation-induced embrittlement of V-Ti-Ni and V-Ni alloys in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapparo (Japan); Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Pawel, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others


    Vanadium, V-1Ni, V-10Ti and V-10Ti-1Ni (at %) were irradiated in HFIR to doses ranging from 18 to 30 dpa and temperatures between 300 and 600C. Since the irradiation was conducted in a highly thermalized neutron spectrum without shielding against thermal neutrons, significant levels of chromium (15-22%) were formed by transmutation. The addition of such large chromium levels strongly elevated the ductile to brittle transition temperature. At higher irradiation temperatures radiation-induced segregation of transmutant Cr and solute Ti at specimen surfaces leads to strong increases in the density of the alloy.

  20. Raman active modes of NiSi crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Li, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Wenzhou University (China); Tang Bo; Cheng Xinhong; Ren Yiming; Zhang Xuefei; Xu Dapeng; Luo Haijun; Huang Yunmi [Department of Physics, Wenzhou University (China)


    Raman scattering intensities of the NiSi Raman-active modes have been calculated with three Raman measurement configurations, which can be used for the symmetry assignment of the NiSi Raman peaks. Raman-active vibrations of the NiSi crystal have also been theoretically studied. Results show that the lattices with A{sub g} and B{sub 2g} modes vibrate only in the plane normal to the NiSi[0 1 0] direction while the lattices with B{sub 1g} and B{sub 3g} modes vibrate only along the NiSi[0 1 0] axis. Based on such study, the relationship between the anisotropic strain distribution in the NiSi thin film and the Raman peak shifts has been briefly discussed.

  1. Microstructure and martensitic transformation of Ni-Ti-Pr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chunwang [Inner Mongolia University of Technology, College of Science, Hohhot (China); Shanghai Maritime University, College of Arts and Sciences, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Shilei; Jin, Yongjun; Hou, Qingyu [Inner Mongolia University of Technology, College of Science, Hohhot (China); Guo, Shaoqiang [Beihang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement, Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Beijing (China)


    The effect of Pr addition on the microstructure and martensitic transformation behavior of Ni{sub 50}Ti{sub 50-x}Pr{sub x} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) alloys were investigated experimentally. Results show that the microstructures of Ni-Ti-Pr alloys consist of the NiTi matrix and the NiPr precipitate with the Ti solute. The martensitic transformation start temperature decreases gradually with the increase in Pr fraction. The stress around NiPr precipitates is responsible for the decrease in martensitic transformation temperature with the increase in Pr fraction in Ni-Ti-Pr alloys. (orig.)

  2. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on the NiO Photocathode. (United States)

    Li, Shengjun; Chen, Zeng; Kong, Wenping; Jia, Xiyang; Cai, Junhao; Dong, Shaokang


    In this study, a uniform nanoporous NiO film, with a thickness of up to 2.6 μm, was prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The addition of PEG significantly decreased the cracks in the NiO film and prevented the peeling of the NiO film from a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate. The NiO cathode was prepared using CdSeS quantum dots (QDs) as the sensitizer, with an optimized photoelectric conversion of 0.80%. The optimized QD-sensitized NiO films were first assembled with the TiO2 anode to prepared QD-sensitized p-n-type tandem solar cells. The open circuit voltage was greater than that obtained using the separated NiO cathode or TiO2 anode.

  3. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on the NiO Photocathode (United States)

    Li, Shengjun; Chen, Zeng; Kong, Wenping; Jia, Xiyang; Cai, Junhao; Dong, Shaokang


    In this study, a uniform nanoporous NiO film, with a thickness of up to 2.6 μm, was prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The addition of PEG significantly decreased the cracks in the NiO film and prevented the peeling of the NiO film from a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate. The NiO cathode was prepared using CdSeS quantum dots (QDs) as the sensitizer, with an optimized photoelectric conversion of 0.80%. The optimized QD-sensitized NiO films were first assembled with the TiO2 anode to prepared QD-sensitized p-n-type tandem solar cells. The open circuit voltage was greater than that obtained using the separated NiO cathode or TiO2 anode.

  4. Euhedral metallic-Fe-Ni grains in extraterrestrial samples (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.


    Metallic Fe-Ni is rare in terrestrial rocks, being largely restricted to serpentinized peridotites and volcanic rocks that assimilated carbonaceous material. In contrast, metallic Fe-Ni is nearly ubiquitous among extraterrestrial samples (i.e., meteorites, lunar rocks, and interplanetary dust particles). Anhedral grains are common. For example, in eucrites and lunar basalts, most of the metallic Fe-Ni occurs interstitially between silicate grains and thus tends to have irregular morphologies. In many porphyritic chondrules, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form rounded blebs in the mesostasis because their precursors were immiscible droplets. In metamorphosed ordinary chondrites, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form coarse anhedral grains. Some of the metallic Fe-Ni and troilite grains has also been mobilized and injected into fractures in adjacent silicate grains where local shock-reheating temperatures reached the Fe-FeS eutectic (988 C). In interplanetary dust particles metallic Fe-Ni most commonly occurs along with sulfide as spheroids and fragments. Euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains are extremely rare. Several conditions must be met before such grains can form: (1) grain growth must occur at free surfaces, restricting euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains to systems that are igneous or undergoing vapor-deposition; (2) the metal (+/-) sulfide assemblage must have an appropriate bulk composition so that taenite is the liquidus phase in igneous systems or the stable condensate phase in vapor-deposition systems; and (3) metallic Fe-Ni grains must remain underformed during subsequent compaction, thermal metamorphism, and shock. Because of these restrictions, the occurrence of euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains in an object can potentially provide important petrogenetic information. Despite its rarity, euhedral metallic Fe-Ni occurs in a wide variety of extraterrestrial materials. Some of these materials formed in the solar nebula; others formed on parent body surfaces by meteoroid

  5. Los niños y los videojuegos


    Orrego Gaviria, Jaime; Fundación Valle de Lili


    Los niños y los videojuegos / Efectos perjudiciales de la utilización de los videojuegos por los niños y adolescentes/ Efectos benéficos de la de la utilización de los videojuegos por los niños y adolescentes/ Recomendaciones para favorecer el uso adecuado/ Sistema de clasificación de los videojuegos

  6. Microstructures in rapidly solidified Ni-Mo alloys (United States)

    Jayaraman, N.; Tewari, S. N.; Hemker, K. J.; Glasgow, T. K.


    Ni-Mo alloys of compositions ranging from pure Ni to Ni-40 at. percent Mo were rapidly solidified by Chill Block Melt Spinning in vacuum and were examined by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Rapid solidification resulted in an extension of molybdenum solubility in nickel from 28 to 37.5 at. percent. A number of different phases and microstructures were seen at different depths (solidification conditions) from the quenched surface of the melt spun ribbons.

  7. Multicoloured electrochromic thin films of NiO/PANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonavane, A C; Patil, P S [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416 004 (India); Inamdar, A I [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Deshmukh, H P, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Y. M. College, Bharati Vidyapeeth, Erandwane, Pune (India)


    NiO/polyaniline (PANI) thin films have been prepared by a two-step process. NiO thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous solution of NiCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O at pH 7.5 on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates and a layer of PANI was formed on NiO thin films by chemical bath deposition. The films were characterized for their structural, optical, morphological and electrochromic properties. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of NiO and PANI, in which NiO is of cubic structure. Scanning electron micrographs represent porous granular NiO, which get uniformly carpeted with PANI, leading to a matty morphology of NiO/PANI samples. The electrochromic performance of NiO/PANI films has been studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry over the -1.2 to +2.2 V (versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE)) potential window in 1M LiClO{sub 4} + propylene carbonate. The NiO/PANI films exhibit electrochromism with colour that changes from pale yellow (leucoemeraldine base at -0.7 V versus SCE) to dark green (emeraldine salt at 0.4 V versus SCE) to purple (pernigraniline at 0.8 V versus SCE) in the reduced states and dark blue (nigraniline at 0.5 V versus SCE) to dark green (emeraldine salt at 0.1 V versus SCE) to light green (photoemeraldine at -0.3 V versus SCE) in its oxidized states. These colours, though akin to pure PANI, have higher contrast, high speed of operation and high stability, owing to the properties of NiO. The colouration efficiency of the NiO/PANI film was estimated to be 85 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1}.

  8. NiAl-based Polyphase in situ Composites in the NiAl-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) Systems (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.


    Polyphase in situ composites were generated by directional solidification of ternary eutectics. This work was performed to discover if a balance of properties could be produced by combining the NiAl-Laves phase and the NiAl-refractory metal phase eutectics. The systems investigated were the Ni-Al-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) alloys. Ternary eutectics were found in each of these systems and the eutectic composition, temperature, and morphology were determined. The ternary eutectic systems examined were the NiAl-NiAlTa-(Mo, Ta), NiAl-(Cr, Al) NiTa-Cr, and the NiAl-NiAlTa-V systems. Each eutectic consists of NiAl, a C14 Laves phase, and a refractory metal phase. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques in a levitation zone refiner to minimize alloy contamination. Room temperature fracture toughness of these materials was determined by a four-point bend test. Preliminary creep behavior was determined by compression tests at elevated temperatures, 1100-l400 K. Of the ternary eutectics, the one in the NiAl-Ta-Cr system was found to be the most promising. The fracture toughness of the NiAl-(Cr, Al)NiTa-Cr eutectic was intermediate between the values of the NiAl-NiAlTa eutectic and the NiAl-Cr eutectic. The creep strength of this ternary eutectic was similar to or greater than that of the NiAl-Cr eutectic.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of NiTi in artificial saliva. (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiu; Li, Nianxing; Rao, Guangbin; Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei


    This paper aimed to study the mechanism of the cracking of orthodontic NiTi wire. Two orthodontic NiTi wires were subjected: (1) optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the fracture surface; (2) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to determine the composition of the surface product; (3) anodic polarization to remove the surface product. Samples of NiTi alloy were subjected to the constant loading test to study the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy in artificial saliva. The results showed that there were three typical areas at the fracture surface of NiTi orthodontic wire. Area '1' was a tool-made notch. Crack initiated from the root of this notch and propagated to form Area '2', which was perpendicular to the wire axis and covered by surface film. This film consisted of Na, K, Cl, P, S and O except Ni and Ti. The cracking process of NiTi alloy under the constant loading test depended on the pH of saliva and applied stress. The crack length was about 262microm, the longest at 300MPa and pH 3.0. A tool-made notch in orthodontic NiTi wires can cause SCC. At high stress and low pH, this NiTi alloy was most sensitive to cracking.

  10. Structural and magnetic studies in Ni/Ti multilayers (United States)

    Porte, M.; Lassri, H.; Krishnan, R.; Kâabouchi, M.; Mâaza, M.; Sella, C.


    Structural and magnetic studies have been carried out on Ni/Ti multilayers prepared by DC triode sputtering. Both metal layers are crystalline with a (111) fibre structure when they are thicker than 20 Å. But for thinner layers one observes a solid solution with an amorphous-like structure. The magnetization decreases with t(Ni) and the analysis of the results at 5 K indicates the presence of a dead Ni layer about 12 Å thick. The t(Ni) dependence of the effective anisotropy shows the absence of surface anisotropy contribution.

  11. Design and fabrication of Ni nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures (United States)

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi


    We propose a concept for the design and fabrication of metal nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures inside the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using a sacrificial metal. In this study, nickel (Ni) and silver (Ag) were used as the base metal and the sacrificial metal, respectively. Alternating an applied potential between -0.4 and -1.0 V provided alternatively deposited Ni and Ag segments in a Ni-Ag `barcode' nanowire with a diameter of 18 or 35 nm. After etching away the Ag segments, we fabricated Ni nanowires with nanopores of 12 +/- 5.3 nm. Such nanostructure formation is explained by the formation of a Ni shell layer over the surface of the Ag segments due to the strong affinity of Ni2+ for the interior surfaces of AAO. The Ni shell layer allows the Ni segments to remain even after dissolution of the Ag segments. Because the electroplating conditions can be easily controlled, we could carefully adjust the size and pitch of the periodically hollow nanospaces. We also describe a method for the fabrication of Ni nanorods by forming an Ag shell instead of a Ni shell on the Ni-Ag barcode nanowire, in which the interior of the AAO surfaces was modified with a compound bearing a thiol group prior to electroplating.We propose a concept for the design and fabrication of metal nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures inside the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using a sacrificial metal. In this study, nickel (Ni) and silver (Ag) were used as the base metal and the sacrificial metal, respectively. Alternating an applied potential between -0.4 and -1.0 V provided alternatively deposited Ni and Ag segments in a Ni-Ag `barcode' nanowire with a diameter of 18 or 35 nm. After etching away the Ag segments, we fabricated Ni nanowires with nanopores of 12 +/- 5.3 nm. Such nanostructure formation is explained by the formation of a Ni shell layer over the surface of the Ag segments due to the strong affinity of Ni2+ for the

  12. Hydride Reactivity of Ni-II-X-Ni-II Entities : Mixed-Valent Hydrido Complexes and Reversible Metal Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Henrike; Metzinger, Ramona; Herwig, Christian; Intemann, Julia; Harder, Sjoerd; Limberg, Christian

    After the lithiation of PYR-H2 (PYR2-=[{NC(Me)C(H)C(Me)NC6H3(iPr)2}2(C5H3N)]2-), which is the precursor of an expanded beta-diketiminato ligand system with two binding pockets, its reaction with [NiBr2(dme)] led to a dinuclear nickel(II)bromide complex, [(PYR)Ni(mu-Br)NiBr] (1). The bridging bromide

  13. Viviendo con VIH/SIDA: Las voces ocultas de los niños y niñas afectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Adriana Aristizábal Becerra


    Full Text Available El VIH/SIDA no es solamente un problema de salud, sino también un problema social. Los primeros casos de VIH/SIDA en niños se describen en 1982 en Estados Unidos, y desde entonces el número de niños infectados y afectados continúa incrementándose, hasta convertirse en lo que en la actualidad se denota como una pandemia. Objetivo. Posibilitar un espacio para que los niños y niñas afectados por el VIH/SIDA, puedan expresar sus vivencias en torno al padecimiento propio y/o de sus padres. Metodología. Estudio de enfoque cualitativo con una orientación fenomenológica. Participaron 29 niños (68 % y 13 niñas (32 % de 4 a 17 años, quienes fueron visitados en sus entornos hogareños. Para evitar la revictimización se utilizaron estrategias lúdicas y juegos para conocer las voces ocultas de estos infantes. Resultados: los hallazgos se agruparon en tres categorías: 1. La orfandad, 2. Rechazo social, estigma y discriminación y 3. Servicios de Salud, donde en cada una se percibe la vivencia subjetiva de cada niño y niña entrevistado(a. Conclusiones: el estigma que ha revestido al VIH/SIDA dificulta considerablemente el desarrollo pleno de los niños y niñas, obstaculizando su libre expresión y crecimiento. Sus voces siguen estando ausentes en las políticas públicas, es por ello que este estudio resaltó las vivencias de los niños y niñas expresadas desde sus propias voces.

  14. Experimental study of the $^{66}$Ni$(d,p)^{67}$Ni one-neutron transfer reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Diriken, J.; Andreyev, A.N.; Antalic, S.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Darby, I.G.; De Witte, H.; Eberth, J.; Elseviers, J.; Fedosseev, V.N.; Flavigny, F.; Fransen, Ch.; Georgiev, G.; Gernhauser, R.; Hess, H.; Huyse, M.; Jolie, J.; Kröll, Th.; Krücken, R.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B.A.; Mertzimekis, T.; Muecher, D.; Orlandi, R.; Pakou, A.; Raabe, R.; Randisi, G.; Reiter, P.; Roger, T.; Seidlitz, M.; Seliverstov, M.; Sotty, C.; Tornqvist, H.; Van De Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.


    The quasi-SU(3) sequence of the positive parity $νg_{9/2}, d_{5/2}, s_{1/2}$ orbitals above the N=40 shell gap are assumed to induce strong quadrupole collectivity in the neutron-rich Fe (Z=26) and Cr (Z=24) isotopes below the nickel region. In this paper the position and strength of these single-particle orbitals are characterized in the neighborhood of $^{68}$Ni (Z=28,N=40) through the $^{66}$Ni($d,p$)$^{67}$Ni one-neutron transfer reaction at 2.95 MeV/nucleon in inverse kinematics, performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility in CERN. A combination of the Miniball $\\gamma$-array and T-REX particle-detection setup was used and a delayed coincidence technique was employed to investigate the 13.3-$\\mu$s isomer at 1007 keV in $^{67}$Ni. Excited states up to an excitation energy of 5.8 MeV have been populated. Feeding of the $νg_{9/2}$ (1007 keV) and $νd_{5/2}$ (2207 keV and 3277 keV) positive-parity neutron states and negative parity ($νpf$) states have been observed at low excitation energy. The extracted relativ...

  15. Transformation dynamics of Ni clusters into NiO rings under electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knez, Daniel, E-mail: [Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Thaler, Philipp; Volk, Alexander [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kothleitner, Gerald [Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Ernst, Wolfgang E. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Hofer, Ferdinand [Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria)


    We report the transformation of nickel clusters into NiO rings by an electron beam induced nanoscale Kirkendall effect. High-purity nickel clusters consisting of a few thousand atoms have been used as precursors and were synthesized with the superfluid helium droplet technique. Aberration-corrected, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy was applied to oxidise and simultaneously analyse the nanostructures. The transient dynamics of the oxidation could be documented by time lapse series using high-angle annular dark-field imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. A two-step Cabrera-Mott oxidation mechanism was identified. It was found that water adsorbed adjacent to the clusters acts as oxygen source for the electron beam induced oxidation. The size-dependent oxidation rate was estimated by quantitative EELS measurements combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings could serve to better control sample changes during examination in an electron microscope, and might provide a methodology to generate other metal oxide nanostructures. - Highlights: • Beam induced conversion of Ni clusters into crystalline NiO rings has been observed. • Ni clusters were grown with the superfluid He-droplet technique. • oxidizeSTEM was utilized to investigate and simultaneously oxidize these clusters. • Oxidation dynamics was captured in real-time. • Cluster sizes and the oxidation rate were estimated via EELS and molecular dynamics.

  16. Manejo del Niño Quemado


    José Edmundo Sánchez-López


    Las quemaduras en la población infantil constituyen un serio problema debido al alto riesgo de mortalidad, presencia delesiones invalidantes, funcionales y estéticas; siendo una causa importante de muerte accidental en los niños. Los pediatrasdesempeñan un papel importante, instruyendo a los padres para la prevención de las quemaduras más comunes en losniños.Las quemaduras pueden producirse por agentes químicos, biológicos y físicos; los últimos constituyen la causa más frecuentede quemaduras...

  17. Recipročni model izgorelosti (RMI)


    Pšeničny, Andreja


    Izgorelost bi najkrajše definirali kot kronično stanje skrajne psihofizične inčustvene izčrpanosti. Izgorevanje poteka v zaporednih fazah od stanja izčrpanosti preko stanja ujetosti do stanja adrenalne izgorelosti. Sindrom adrenalne izgorelosti je zadnja stopnja procesa izgorevanja, ko v telesu zaradi funkcionalne blokade hipotalamus-hipofizno-adrenalne osi nastopi sekundarna insuficienca kortizola. Izgorelost in depresija sta dve različni motnji, ki imata nekaj sorodnih simptomov, vendar obs...



    Žigon, Mihela


    Diplomsko delo zajema finančni trg, finančno krizo 2007-2009 in veliko depresijo, ki je sledila borznemu zlomu 1929. Zzajema delitev finančnega trga na trg kapitala in trg denarja, finančne instrumente, ki jih denarne in nedenarne inštitucije uporabljajo na finančnem trgu ter centralna banka, ki vodi denarno politiko in bi naj imela nadzor nad vsemi institucijami. Opisali smo obe krizi, njune začetke, kako sta se širili in razvijali ter kakšno vlogo so imele ZDA in politika njene centralne ba...

  19. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing


    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



    Šibila, Nina


    Diplomska naloga predstavlja pravni in etični vidik evtanazije ter kratek pregled stališč v današnjem času in skozi zgodovino. Sama beseda evtanazija je grškega izvora in v dobesednem prevodu pomeni lahko oziroma dobro smrt (eu - dobro, thanatos - smrt). V resnici gre za olajšanje trpljenja ali smrtnega boja umirajočega ali neozdravljivo bolnega na tak način, da umirajoči oziroma neozdravljivo bolni umre. To olajšanje trpljenja ali smrtnega boja je mogoče doseči tako, da bodisi nekaj stori...

  1. Dynamic properties of liquid Ni revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rio B. G.


    Full Text Available Liquid Ni has previously been studied by different approaches such as molecular dynamics simulations and experimental techniques including inelastic neutron and X-ray scattering. Although some puzzling results, such as the shape of the sound dispersion curve for q ≤ 1.0 Å−1, have already been sorted out, there still persist some discrepancies, among different studies, for greater q-values. We have performed ab initio simulation calculations which show how those differences can be reconciled. Moreover, we have found that the transverse current spectral functions have some features which, so far, had previously been shown by high pressure liquid metals.

  2. Suicidio en niños


    Alma Reyes G; José Lempira Escobar Y; Mayela Valerio H


    Trata de un estudio estadístico realizado en Costa Rica por los doctores Alma Reyes, Lempira Escobar y Mayela Valerio, quienes revisaron 16 años de autopsias (1980-1996), encontrando que de 28.584 autopsias, 26 correspondieron a suicidios de niños menores de 13 años de edad. De los 26 casos, el mayor número se presentó entre 1988 y 1991 con 11 casos (42%)de estos 5 casos (19%) se presentaron en 1990. Predominó el sexo masculino con 20 casos y 6 casos fueron del sexo femenino. El mayor grupo d...

  3. The design of underwater superoleophobic Ni/NiO microstructures with tunable oil adhesion (United States)

    Zhang, Enshuang; Cheng, Zhongjun; Lv, Tong; Li, Li; Liu, Yuyan


    Controlling oil adhesion in water is a fundamental issue in many practical applications for surfaces. Currently, almost all studies on underwater oil adhesion control are concentrated on regulating surface chemistry on polymer surfaces, and structure-dependent underwater oil adhesion is still rare, especially on inorganic materials. Herein, we report a series of underwater superoleophobic Ni/NiO surfaces with controlled oil adhesions by combining electro-deposition and heating techniques. The adhesive forces between an oil droplet and the surfaces can be adjusted from an extremely low (less than 1 μN) to a very high value (about 60 μN), and the tunable effect can be attributed to different wetting states that result from different microstructures on the surfaces. Moreover, the oil-adhesion controllability for different types of oils was also analyzed and the applications of the surface including oil droplet transportation and self-cleaning were discussed. The results reported herein provide a new feasible method for fabrication of underwater superoleophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion, and improve the understanding of the relationship between surface microstructures, adhesion, and the fabrication principle of tunable oil adhesive surfaces.Controlling oil adhesion in water is a fundamental issue in many practical applications for surfaces. Currently, almost all studies on underwater oil adhesion control are concentrated on regulating surface chemistry on polymer surfaces, and structure-dependent underwater oil adhesion is still rare, especially on inorganic materials. Herein, we report a series of underwater superoleophobic Ni/NiO surfaces with controlled oil adhesions by combining electro-deposition and heating techniques. The adhesive forces between an oil droplet and the surfaces can be adjusted from an extremely low (less than 1 μN) to a very high value (about 60 μN), and the tunable effect can be attributed to different wetting states that result from

  4. Low temperature diffusion coefficients in the Fe-Ni and FeNiP systems: Application to meteorite cooling rates (United States)

    Dean, D. C.; Goldstein, J. I.


    The interdiffusion coefficient of FeNi in fcc taenite (gamma) of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-0.2 P alloys was measured as a function of temperature between 600 and 900 C. This temperature range is directly applicable to the nucleation and growth of the Widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites and metal regions of stony and stony-iron meteorites. Diffusion couples were made from FeNi or FeNiP alloys which ensured that the couples were in the taenite phase at the diffusion temperature. The presence or absence of grain boundary diffusion was determined by measuring the Ni profile normal to the existing grain boundaries with the AEM. Ignoring any variation of interdiffusion coefficient with composition, the measured data was plotted versus the reciprocal of the diffusion temperature. The FeNi data generally follow the extrapolated Goldstein, et al. (1965) data from high temperatures. The FeNiP data indicates that small additions of P (0.2 wt%) cause a 3 to 10 fold increase in the FeNi interdifussion coefficient increasing with decreasing temperature. This increase is about the same as that predicted by Narayan and Goldstein (1983) at the Widmanstatten growth temperature.

  5. Ni ion release, osteoblast-material interactions, and hemocompatibility of hafnium-implanted NiTi alloy. (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Li, Yan; Zhao, Xinqing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Tao


    Hafnium ion implantation was applied to NiTi alloy to suppress Ni ion release and enhance osteoblast-material interactions and hemocompatibility. The auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscope results showed that a composite TiO(2)/HfO(2) nanofilm with increased surface roughness was formed on the surface of NiTi, and Ni concentration was reduced in the superficial surface layer. Potentiodynamic polarization tests displayed that 4 mA NiTi sample possessed the highest E(br) - E(corr), 470 mV higher than that of untreated NiTi, suggesting a significant improvement on pitting corrosion resistance. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry tests during 60 days immersion demonstrated that Ni ion release rate was remarkably decreased, for example, a reduction of 67% in the first day. The water contact angle increased and surface energy decreased after Hf implantation. Cell culture and methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium indicated that Hf-implanted NiTi expressed enhanced osteoblasts adhesion and proliferation, especially after 7 days culture. Hf implantation decreased fibrinogen adsorption, but had almost no effect on albumin adsorption. Platelets adhesion and activation were suppressed significantly (97% for 4 mA NiTi) and hemolysis rate was decreased by at least 57% after Hf implantation. Modified surface composition and morphology and decreased surface energy should be responsible for the improvement of cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pautas para fomentar la autoestima en niños y niñas con discapacidad motora


    Yagüe Lobo, Delia


    El informe aborda las pautas de actuación necesarias para trabajar la autoestima en niños y niñas con discapacidad motora y, por ello, se proponen pautas a desarrollar en distintos ámbitos, tanto en el aula como en el hogar. Se facilitan diferentes propuestas de actuación para la intervención individualiza-da en un aula ordinaria. Las pautas de actuación se han organizado a partir de los com-ponentes de la autoestima. Las mismas van dirigidas a cualquier niño o niña con disca-pacidad motor...

  7. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Properties of Ti-Ni-Si-O Nanostructures on Ti-Ni-Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li


    Full Text Available Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were successfully prepared on Ti-1Ni-5Si alloy foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol/glycerol solutions containing a small amount of water. The Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure films were investigated. It was found that, after anodization, three different kinds of Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures formed in the α-Ti phase region, Ti2Ni phase region, and Ti5Si3 phase region of the alloy surface. Both the anatase and rutile phases of Ti-Ni-Si-O oxide appeared after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h. The photocurrent density obtained from the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure photoanodes was 0.45 mA/cm2 at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in 1 M KOH solution. The above findings make it feasible to further explore excellent photoelectrochemical properties of the nanostructure-modified surface of Ti-Ni-Si ternary alloys.

  8. Amorphous NiFe-OH/NiFeP Electrocatalyst Fabricated at Low Temperature for Water Oxidation Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng


    Water splitting driven by electricity or sunlight is one of the most promising ways to address the global terawatt energy needs of future societies; however, its large-scale application is limited by the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). NiFe-based compounds, mainly oxides and hydroxides, are well-known OER catalysts and have been intensively studied; however, the utilization of the synergistic effect between two different NiFe-based materials to further boost the OER performance has not been achieved to date. Here, we report the rapid conversion of NiFe double hydroxide into metallic NiFeP using PH3 plasma treatment and further construction of amorphous NiFe hydroxide/NiFeP/Ni foam as efficient and stable oxygen-evolving anodes. The strong electronic interactions between NiFe hydroxide and NiFeP significantly lower the adsorption energy of H2O on the hybrid and thus lead to enhanced OER performance. As a result, the hybrid catalyst can deliver a geometrical current density of 300 mA cm–2 at an extremely low overpotential (258 mV, after ohmic-drop correction), along with a small Tafel slope of 39 mV decade–1 and outstanding long-term durability in alkaline media.

  9. Imaginarios sociales sobre el maltrato: Una mirada desde los niños y niñas


    Ayala Zúñiga, Paola Andrea


    Tesis (Maestría en Educación y Desarrollo Humano). Universidad de Manizales.CINDE, 2006 En Colombia, un país de sinsabores y violencias, el fenómeno social del maltrato infantil no es un asunto “menor”, sino un factor desequilibrante en el futuro de su tejido social. La investigación “Imaginarios sobre el maltrato: Una mirada desde los niños y niñas” parte de la pertinencia de observar y escuchar a nuestros niños y niñas, desde los modos como estos perciben, entienden y sufren la cotidia...

  10. Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonka, Lukas; Kubart, Tomas; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Abedin, Ahmad; Hellström, Per-Erik; Östling, Mikael; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Lavoie, Christian; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhen


    The authors have studied the reaction between a Ge (100) substrate and thin layers of Ni ranging from 2 to 10 nm in thickness. The formation of metal-rich Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 was found to precede that of the monogermanide NiGe by means of real-time in situ x-ray diffraction during ramp-annealing and ex situ x-ray pole figure analyses for phase identification. The observed sequential growth of Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 and NiGe with such thin Ni layers is different from the previously reported simultaneous growth with thicker Ni layers. The phase transformation from Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 to NiGe was found to be nucleation-controlled for Ni thicknesses <5 nm<5 nm, which is well supported by thermodynamic considerations. Specifically, the temperature for the NiGe formation increased with decreasing Ni (rather Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3) thickness below 5 nm. In combination with sheet resistance measurement and microscopic surface inspection of samples annealed with a standard rapid thermal processing, the temperature range for achieving morphologically stable NiGe layers was identified for this standard annealing process. As expected, it was found to be strongly dependent on the initial Ni thickness

  11. Ternary Pd-Ni-P hybrid electrocatalysts derived from Pd-Ni core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced formic acid oxidation activity. (United States)

    Liang, Xin; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Juntao; Lu, Siqi; Zhuang, Zhongbin


    Ternary Pd-Ni-P hybrid electrocatalysts were synthesized through low temperature phosphidation of Pd-Ni core-shell nanoparticles. They show enhanced formic acid electro-oxidation activity compared to Pd, Pd-Ni and Pd-P nanoparticles, which is ascribed to the synergistic effect of the Ni and P components with Pd.

  12. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of deformation behavior and load transfer in a Ti2Ni-NiTi composite (United States)

    Zhang, Junsong; Liu, Yinong; Ren, Yang; Huan, Yong; Hao, Shijie; Yu, Cun; Shao, Yang; Ru, Yadong; Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan


    The deformation behavior and load transfer of a dual-phase composite composed of martensite NiTi embedded in brittle Ti2Ni matrices were investigated by using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction during compression. The composite exhibits a stage-wise deformation feature and a double-yielding phenomenon, which were caused by the interaction between Ti2Ni and NiTi with alternative microscopic deformation mechanism. No load transfer occurs from the soft NiTi dendrites to the hard Ti2Ni matrices during the pseudoplastic deformation (detwinning) of NiTi, which is significantly different from that previously reported in bulk metallic glasses matrices composites.

  13. Fabrication and Gas-Sensing Properties of Ni-Silicide/Si Nanowires


    Hsu, Hsun-Feng; Chen, Chun-An; Liu, Shang-Wu; Tang, Chun-Kai


    Ni-silicide/Si nanowires were fabricated by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation on silicon-on-insulator substrates, selective wet etching, and reactive deposition epitaxy. Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire were formed by low- and high-coverage depositions of Ni, respectively. The Ni-silicide/Si Schottky junction and Ni-silicide region were attributed high- and low-resistance parts of nanowire, respectively, causing the re...

  14. NiO/LaNiO{sub 3} film electrode with binder-free for high performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xi; Du, Guo; Zhu, Jiliang, E-mail:; Zeng, Zifan; Zhu, Xiaohong


    Graphical abstract: This figure shows the charge-discharge curves of the P{sub 0}, P{sub 5}, P{sub 10} and P{sub 15} electrodes at the current density of 0.5 A/g in 2 M KOH electrolyte, respectively. From the figure, the specific capacitance of P{sub 10} electrode is as high as 2030 F/g. - Highlights: • Novel NiO/LaNiO{sub 3} film electrode with binder-free was prepared by spin-coating technique. • The NiO/LaNiO{sub 3} electrode with appropriate LNO content exhibited a high specific capacitance of 2030 F/g at 0.5A/g and superior cycling stability (83% retention of the initial capacitance after 1000 cycles) in 2 M KOH aqueous solution. • The NiO is directly anchored on the Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substratewith binder-free, which is favorable for obtaining a larger specific surface. - Abstract: NiO/LaNiO{sub 3} (NiO/LNO) film electrode was prepared by spin-coating technique on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrates. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic charge-discharge measurements were employed to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the electrode. The effect of LNO layer on the performance of the NiO/LNO electrode was also investigated. The NiO/LNO electrode with appropriate LNO content possesses high specific capacitance (2030 F/g at 0.5 A/g) and good cyclability (specific capacitance retention of 83% after 1000 cycles). The present study suggests that NiO/LNO film is a promising electrode material for supercapacitor.

  15. Realizing NiO nanocrystals from a simple chemical method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. MS received 25 June 2009; revised 28 August 2010. Abstract. Nanocrystalline NiO has been prepared successfully by a simple chemical route using NiCl2·6H2O and. NaOH aqueous solution at a temperature of 70°C. The prepared material has ...

  16. Large scale synthesis and characterization of Ni nanoparticles by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    of the parameters on the particle size of Ni nanoparticles were studied and the referential process parameters were obtained. The morphology and structure of the ... analysis and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The results show that Ni ... such uses, nanoparticles with different purity, size, shape and structure will greatly influence ...

  17. Violencia sexual contra hombres y niños


    Russell, Wynne


    Es bien sabido que los conflictos armados y la violencia sexual contra las mujeres y las niñas suelen ir de la mano. Lo que no se conoce tanto es que los conflictos armados y sus secuelas también suponen un peligro sexual para los hombres y los niños.

  18. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants (United States)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki


    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd.sub.0.54 Er.sub.0.46)AlNi alloys having a relatively constant .DELTA.Tmc over a wide temperature range.

  19. Structural study of Novel (superhard) material: NiO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have investigated the pressure-induced phase transition of NiO and other structural properties using three-body potential approach. NiO undergoes phase transition from B1 (rocksalt) to B2 (CsCl) structure associated with a sudden collapse in volume showing first-order phase transition. A theoretical study of ...

  20. Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu in the Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saager, Paul M.; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Howland, Robin J.


    Vertical profiles of dissolved Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu in the Northwest Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea) exhibit a nutrient type distribution also observed in other oceans. The area is characterized by strong seasonal upwelling and a broad oxygen minimum zone in intermediate waters. However, neither Cd, Zn, Ni

  1. "Dealloying" Phase Separation during Growth of Au on Ni(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. Pleth; Besenbacher, Flemming; Stensgaard, I.


    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and ion-scattering studies have revealed a new "dealloying" phase transition during the growth of Au on Ni(110). The Au atoms, which initially alloy into the Ni(110) surface, phase separate into a vacancy-stabilized Au dimer-trimer chain structure at Au...

  2. Sodium-dodecyl-sulphate-assisted synthesis of Ni nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stabilized nickel nanoparticles (SNNPs) were prepared using Ni(acac) 2 (acac = acetylacetonate) via a simplesolvothermal method. The synthesis of the nickel nanoparticles was performed in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate(SDS) of different concentrations (mole ratios of SDS:Ni(acac) 2 = 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1), as the ...

  3. Water dissociate on faceted NiO(111) (United States)

    Liu, Lixia; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Shuming; Guo, Qinlin; Guo, Jiandong

    The interaction of water with metal oxide surface is important in heterogeneous catalysis, geochemistry, electrochemistry and corrosion science. It has been reported that water molecules physically absorb on NiO(100) surface while they dissociate as OH on NiO(111) surface. As a typical polar surface, NiO(111) is instable, and the polar compensation may lead to surface reconstruction, segregation of oxygen vacancies, or formation of facets. Faceted NiO(111) surface, consisting of Ni(100) or NiO(110) facets, introduces new surface states and provides complex chemical environment for water adsorption and dissociation. We prepare faceted NiO(111) films with different thickness and observe water dissociation on the surface. The dissociated OH can be detected at high temperature up to 700K on the thin film surface, while on the surface of relative thick film, the OH amount is significantly reduced and the thermo stability lowered. The morphology characterization of the film shows that the size and number density of the facets are thickness dependent - the thinner the films is, the smaller the facets are, and the higher the density of facets is. We conclude that the boundary sites on NiO(111) facilitate the dissociative adsorption of water. Chinese NSFC (11474334 & 11274237). This work is supported by Chinese NSFC (11474334 & 11274237).

  4. Giant magnetoresistance of electrodeposited Cu–Co–Ni alloy films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrodeposition of CuCoNi alloys was performed in an acid–citrate medium. Nickel density parameter was varied in order to analyse its influence on the magnetoresistance. The structure and giant magneto- resistance (GMR) effect of CuCoNi alloys have been investigated. The maximum value for GMR ratio, at room ...

  5. Phytoremediation technologies for Ni ++ by water hyacinth | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (desorption) of Ni++, 3 M HNO3 was used. Desorption capacity was 3.71 μg/g of ash. The results of comparative study show order of nickel phytoremediation from soil to be greater than that from water by adsorption which was greater than that from water by hydroponic study. For phytoremoval of Ni++ from soil and water, ...

  6. PtNi nanoparticles embedded in porous silica microspheres as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supported Pt-based alloy nanoparticles have attracted greater attention in catalysis due to their high activity, reduced cost, and easy recycling in chemical reactions. In this work, mesoporous SiO₂ microspheres were employed as support to immobilize PtNi alloy nanocatalysts with different mass ratios of Pt and Ni (1:0, 3:1, ...

  7. Microemulsion prepared Ni88Pt12 for methane cracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu


    Monodispersed NiPt nanoparticles of 10 nm were synthesized by water-in-oil microemulsion. The Ni-Pt alloy structure was stable during the thermal treatment between 330 and 1037 °C, whereas the relatively low temperature range of 600-700 °C was favorable for methane cracking to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes.

  8. Electrolytic deposition and corrosion resistance of Zn–Ni coatings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zn–Ni coatings were deposited under galvanostatic conditions on steel substrate (OH18N9). The influence of current density of deposition on the surface morphology, chemical and phase composition was investigated. The corrosion resistance of Zn–Ni coatings obtained at current density 10–25 mA cm-2 are measured, ...

  9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-assisted synthesis of Ni nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-assisted synthesis of Ni nanoparticles: Electrochemical. 1 properties. 2. 3 ... presence of different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (mole ratios of. 4. SDS:Ni(acac)2 = 1:1, ..... In our previous work, we presented that DMF could be act as a unique reducing agent for the. 12 reduction of ...

  10. Mechanical alloying of Fe?Ni based nanostructured magnetic materials (United States)

    Du, S. W.; Ramanujan, R. V.


    Alloys with the composition Fe 40Ni 38B 18Mo 4, Fe 49Ni 46Mo 5 and Fe 42Ni 40B 18 were processed from elemental powders by mechanical alloying and the microstructure was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Nanocrystalline fcc solid solution was achieved as a result of mechanical alloying in all three alloy compositions and the grain size reduced to nanoscale but lattice strain was introduced. Molybdenum was found to affect the products of mechanical alloying, specifically, the Fe 3B phase formed in the Fe 42Ni 40B 18 alloy while no boride phase formed in the Fe 40Ni 38B 18Mo 4 alloy. SEM studies indicated that the presence of boron was found to make the milling process easier. Elemental mapping by SEM as well as XRD results showed that molybdenum does not dissolve easily in the Fe-Ni solid solution produced by milling. The DSC results suggested that an amorphous structure together with nanocrystals was obtained in the Fe 40Ni 38B 18Mo 4 and Fe 42Ni 40B 18 alloys. A two-stage crystallization process was found in the Fe 40Ni 38B 18Mo 4 and Fe 42Ni 40B 18 alloys, the presence of boron was found to make amorphization easier. TEM investigations were consistent with these XRD and DSC results. Heat-treated samples of the Fe 40Ni 38B 18Mo 4 and Fe 42Ni 40B 18 alloys milled for 100 h showed that molybdenum inhibited the grain growth. The saturation magnetization of the heat-treated Fe 40Ni 38B 18Mo 4 alloy milled for 100 h was stable, coercivity was reduced; on the other hand, the Ms of heat-treated Fe 42Ni 40B 18 alloy milled for 100 h decreased and the Hc increased. This difference in magnetic behavior is due to the alloying addition of molybdenum which affected the microstructural evolution during heat treatment, specifically by inhibition of the increase in grain size.

  11. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of NiAl (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bowman, Randy R.; Nathal, Michael V.


    Considerable research has been performed on NiAl over the last decade, with an exponential increase in effort occurring over the last few years. This is due to interest in this material for electronic, catalytic, coating and especially high-temperature structural applications. This report uses this wealth of new information to develop a complete description of the properties and processing of NiAl and NiAl-based materials. Emphasis is placed on the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms of single and polycrystalline NiAl and its alloys over the entire range of temperatures for which data are available. Creep, fatigue, and environmental resistance of this material are discussed. In addition, issues surrounding alloy design, development of NiAl-based composites, and materials processing are addressed.

  12. Estudo da eletrocristalização de Ni e Ni-P sobre ultramicroeletrodo de platina Study of electrocrystallization of Ni and Ni-P on platinum ultramicroelectrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katlin Ivon Barrios Eguiluz


    Full Text Available This work describes a comparative study of the electrocrystallization of Ni and Ni-P on Pt ultramicroelectrodes using chronoamperometric measurements. It was possible to confirm that in all cases a progressive nucleation was the predominant mechanism. Moreover, the application of the Atomistic Theory to the experimental rate of nuclei formation showed that the number of atoms in the critical nucleus was zero, except for Ni-P on Pt at low overpotentials were a value of one was observed. Furthermore, the physical characterisation of the different deposits on Pt by atomic force microscopy allowed observing the coalescence of the hemispherical nuclei of Ni and Ni-P at t max thus confirming the results obtained from the current-time analysis.

  13. Functional textiles driven by transforming NiTi wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller Luděk


    Full Text Available Over last ten years, we have carried out extensive research on the use of thin NiTi wires for advanced functional textiles. In this work we discuss general challenges and opportunities in the design, production and processing of NiTi textiles stemming from the fact that NiTi is martensitically transforming metal. As a case example, application of weft knitting technology to NiTi wires is discussed in detail covering technological aspects related to textile processing, shape setting as well as multiaxial thermomechanical properties of final products. Finally, two weft knitted NiTi textile proof-of-concepts with a promising application potential are presented. First, a textile based actuator with large strokes and low forces characteristics is introduced. Second, 3D textiles with temperature-adaptive cross-section height for applications in technical or protective textiles are described.

  14. Permeability studies on 3D Ni foam/graphene composites (United States)

    Yang, Zhuxian; Chen, Hongmei; Wang, Nannan; Xia, Yongde; Zhu, Yanqiu


    This study investigates the permeability of new 3D Ni foam/graphene composites (Ni foam covered with graphene) using compressed air, Ar and N2 as the probe gases. The results show that the introduction of graphene on the surface of Ni foam via in situ chemical vapour deposition is not detrimental to the permeability of the composites; on the contrary, in some cases it improves permeability. A modified Ergun-type correlation has been proposed, which represents very well the permeability of the Ni foam/graphene composites, especially at flow rates higher than 0.3 m s-1. Further studies show that graphene also helps to improve the thermal conductivity of the composite. These results suggest that the graphene involvement will make the Ni foam/graphene composite a good candidate for potential applications such as filters or heat exchangers suitable for working under harsh conditions such as at high temperatures, in corrosive environments, etc.

  15. Effect of amount of glycine as fuel in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO; Efeito da quantidade de glicina como combustivel na obtencao de nanocompositos Ni/NiO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, A.N.; Simoes, V.N.; Neiva, L.S.; Quirino, M.R.; Vieira, D.A.; Gama, L., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais


    This paper proposes to investigate the effect of the amount of glycine in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO synthesized by combustion reaction technique. The amount of glycine used was calculated on the stoichiometric composition of 50% and 100%. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption by the BET method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed with powder of Ni/NiO result. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed the presence of crystalline NiO phase in the presence of nickel as a secondary phase, whose amount increased with the amount of glycine. Increasing the concentration of glycine also caused an increase in surface area, which ranged from 1.1 to 1.4 m{sup 2}/g. The micrographs revealed the formation of soft agglomerates with porous appearance and easy dispersions. It can be concluded that the synthesis is effective to obtain nanosized powders. (author)

  16. Hydrides of CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and mixed CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakner, J.F.; Chow, T.S.


    Six intermetallic alloys (CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and a mixed alloy, CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/) were investigated with respect to their suitability to provide high hydrogen capacity and their potential for use in providing substantial hydrogen pressure at both low and high temperatures. A second phase of our investigation dealt with ball-milling and hydriding and dehydriding cycles to produce fine particles for use in hydride powder transfer studies. A summary of several Van't Hoff plots is also included for hydride-forming alloys.

  17. Absence of Ni on the outer surface of Sr doped La 2 NiO 4 single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Burriel, Mónica


    A combination of surface sensitive techniques was used to determine the surface structure and chemistry of La2-xSrxNiO 4+δ. These measurements unequivocally showed that Ni is not present in the outermost atomic layer, suggesting that the accepted model with the B-site cations exposed to the environment is incorrect. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Semitransparent Ni/Ag/Ni electrode for use as anode in flexible red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. (United States)

    Lee, Ho Won; Yang, Hyung Jin; Lee, Seok Jae; Lee, Song Eun; Koo, Ja Ryong; Yoon, Seung Soo; Park, Jaehoon; Kim, Young Kwan


    We suggested that Ni/Ag/Ni semitransparent electrodes for the exchange of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode, which is the most commonly used as a transparent electrode in spite of the structural defects, limited supply of indium, and toxic, could be apply on flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs). Red phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDs) using different types of electrodes as ITO and various conditions of Ni/Ag/Ni electrode were fabricated and analyzed. The electrical and optical properties of device using Ni/Ag/Ni electrode were improved than that of devices on ITO glass substrate at the 10,000 cd/m2 criterion due to the micro-cavity effect even though their transmittance has lower than ITO glass. In addition, we also fabricated red PHOLEDs of same structure on Ni/Ag/Ni flexible substrate of various conditions. As a result, flexible red PHOLED showed competitive characteristics compared to the device on a glass substrate. Therefore, this study could be suggested to additional research on flexible OLEDs display and light applications for ITO-free fabrication.

  19. Multilevel programming in Cu/NiO y /NiO x /Pt unipolar resistive switching devices (United States)

    Sarkar, P. K.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Barman, A.; Kanjilal, A.; Roy, A.


    The application of a NiO y /NiO x bilayer in resistive switching (RS) devices with x > y was studied for its ability to achieve reliable multilevel cell (MLC) characteristics. A sharp change in resistance brought about by sweeping the voltage, along with an improved on/off ratio (>103) and endurance (104) were achieved in the bilayer structure as compared to the single NiO x layer devices. Moreover, it was found that nonvolatile and stable resistance levels, especially the multiple low-resistance states of Cu/NiO y /NiO x /Pt memory devices, could be controlled by varying the compliance current. All the multilevel resistance states of the Cu/NiO y /NiO x /Pt bilayer devices were stable for up to 500 consecutive dc switching cycles, as compared to the Cu/NiO x /Pt single layer devices. The temperature-dependent variation of the high and low resistance states of both the bilayer and single layer devices was further investigated to elucidate the charge conduction mechanism. Finally, based on a detailed analysis of the experimental results, comparisons of the possible models for RS in bilayer and single layer memory devices have also been discussed.

  20. Carbon supported Pd-Ni and Pd-Ru-Ni nanocatalysts for the alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK


    Full Text Available Carbon supported Pd-Ni and Pd-Ru-Ni nanocatalysts were prepared by the chemical reduction method, using sodium borohydride and ethylene glycol mixture as the reducing agent. The catalytic activity towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium...

  1. Derechos de niños y niñas: del discurso a la política local

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ernesto Durán-Strauch


    ... cómo se han interpretado e incorporado los derechos de los niños y niñas en el diseño e implementación de la política, contrastando los hallazgos con lo planteado en la literatura como perspectiva de derechos...

  2. Studies on the valence electronic structure of Fe and Ni in FexNi1−x ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies on the valence electronic structure of Fe and Ni in FexNi1−x alloys. D K BASA1,∗. , S RAJ2, H C PADHI2, M POLASIK3 and F PAWLOWSKI3. 1Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751 004, India. 2Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005, India. 3Faculty of Chemistry, Nicholas Copernicus ...

  3. Exchange bias coupling in NiO/Ni bilayer tubular nanostructures synthetized by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, T., E-mail: [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Z.W.; Xu, Y.H. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Liu, Y. [Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, W.J. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Nie, Y.; Zhang, X. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xiang, G., E-mail: [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)


    In this paper, we reported the synthesis of NiO/Ni bilayer nanotubes by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation using anodic aluminum oxide templates. The morphology, structure, chemical composition and magnetic properties, especially magnetic exchange bias induced by subsequent magnetic field cooling, in this one-dimensional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic hybrid system were investigated. It was found that the effect of the annealing temperature, which mainly dominated the thickness of the NiO layer, and the annealing time, which mainly dominated the grain size of the NiO, on the exchange bias field showed competitive relationship. The optimized exchange bias field was achieved by the combination of the shorter annealing time and higher annealing temperature. - Highlights: • NiO-Ni bilayer tubular nanotubes were fabricated by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation. • The exchange bias effect in NiO-Ni nanotubes was induced by magnetic field cooling. • The competitive effect of annealing temperature and annealing time on the exchange bias coupling was analyzed.

  4. Moderated surface defects of Ni particles encapsulated with NiO nanofibers as supercapacitor with high capacitance and energy density. (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Park, Mira; Kim, Hak Yong; Park, Soo-Jin


    Nickel oxide is a promising material for supercapacitors owing to its high theoretical specific capacitance; however, its practical capacitance is far below the theoretical limit. In this work, we report a novel Ni/NiO composite supported by carbon nanofibers as a pseudocapacitor electrode. Characterization of this sample by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, and contact angle measurements revealed that Ni nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on the surface of the nanofibers, leading to strong metal-metal oxide interactions and the formation of oxygen vacancies. Such three dimensional hetero-Ni/NiO components afford high conductivity owing to efficient electron transport and abundant surface defects (oxygen vacancies), which result in enhanced supercapacitor performance and energy density (ED). A moderate concentration of oxygen vacancies is crucial for achieving optimized electrochemical activity. As-prepared Ni/NiO-3 nanofibers generated high capacitances of 526 and 400F/g at current densities of 1 and 10A/g, respectively, with good stability (80% of the initial capacitance retained after 1000 cycles). Moreover, an ED as high as 65.8Wh/kg was achieved at a power density of 900W/kg, which is higher than those of NiO-based supercapacitors. This work provides a strategy for improving the potential of metal oxides for energy storage applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nucleation and Growth of Tetrataenite (FeNi) in Meteorites (United States)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.; Zhang, J.


    The mineral tetrataenite (ordered FeNi) has been observed in chondrites, stony irons, and iron meteorites (1). FeNi is an equilibrium phase in the Fe-Ni phase diagram (Figure 1) and orders to tetrataenite at ~320 degrees C (2). The phase forms at temperatures at or below the eutectoid temperature (~400 degrees C) where taenite (gamma) transforms to kamacite (alpha) plus FeNi (gamma"). An understanding of the formation of tetrataenite can lead to a new method for determining cooling rates at low temperatures (transformation sequences for the formation of tetrataenite were observed. In either sequence, during the cooling process, the taenite (gamma) phase initially undergoes a diffusionless transformation to a martensite (alpha, bcc) phase without a composition change. The martensite then decomposes either above or below the eutectoid temperature (~400 degrees C) during cooling or upon subsequent reheating. During martensite decomposition above the eutectoid, the taenite (gamma) phase nucleates by the reaction alpha(sub)2 ---> alpha + gamma and grows under volume diffusion control. The Ni composition of the taenite increases continuously following the equilibrium gamma/alpha + gamma boundary while the Ni composition of the kamacite matrix decreases following the alpha/alpha + gamma phase boundary (2), see Figure 1. Below the eutectoid temperature, the precipitate composition follows the equilibrium gamma"/alpha + gamma" boundary and reaches ~52 wt% Ni, the composition of FeNi, gamma". The kamacite (alpha) matrix composition approaches ~4 to 5 wt% Ni. The ordering transformation starts at ~320 degrees C forming the tetrataenite phase. During martensite decomposition below the eutectoid temperature, FeNi should form directly by the reaction alpha2 --> alpha + gamma" (FeNi). If this transformation sequence occurs, then the composition of kamacite and tetrataenite should also be given by the alpha/alpha + gamma" and gamma"/alpha + gamma" boundaries of the Fe-Ni phase

  6. Pt content of Cu-Ni deposits and ore occurrences in the Stanovoi Ni-bearing province (Far East, Russia) (United States)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Strikha, V. E.; Moiseenko, V. G.


    Data on the Pt content in Cu-Ni deposits and ore occurrences of the Stanovoi Ni-bearing province of the Upper Amur Region are reported. Description and comparative analysis of the deposits and ore occurrences of the Pt-bearing Cu-Ni ores have been carried out taking into account new data on the ore geology, geochemistry, and material composition. We have described the formation prerequisites, forecast, and search criteria for large deposits of Pt-bearing Cu-Ni ores in the Upper Amur Region: the geotectonic and structural position, deep structure, formational features, magmatism of the mineralization period, hydrothermal alterations of the rocks, mineral and geochemical assemblages, PGM typomorphism, etc. This paper emphasizes the considerable potential of the Upper Amur Cu-Ni ores in relation to the complex of useful mineral resources such as gold, PGEs, sulfur, and cobalt.

  7. Characterization and leaching of NiCd and NiMH spent batteries for the recovery of metals. (United States)

    Pietrelli, L; Bellomo, B; Fontana, D; Montereali, M


    Since NiMH and NiCd batteries are still used in the electronic devices market, a treatment and recycling plant has many advantages both from the environmental and the economic points of view. Unfortunately, there is no relationship between shape, size and chemical composition of spent batteries, consequently the characterization and the leaching method of the starting material becomes an important step of the overall treatment process in choosing the best conditions for the selective separation of the metals by hydrometallurgy. Leaching at 20 degrees C with H(2)SO(4) 2M for about 2h seems to be a good solution in terms of cost and efficiency for both battery types. The hydroxide compounds can be readily leached while Ni present as metallic form requires more aggressive conditions due to kinetic constraints. In this paper, the characterization of NiMH and NiCd spent batteries and the results of leaching tests in different conditions are reported.

  8. Shape memory behavior of single crystal and polycrystalline Ni-rich NiTiHf high temperature shape memory alloys (United States)

    Saghaian, Sayed M.

    NiTiHf shape memory alloys have been receiving considerable attention for high temperature and high strength applications since they could have transformation temperatures above 100 °C, shape memory effect under high stress (above 500 MPa) and superelasticity at high temperatures. Moreover, their shape memory properties can be tailored by microstructural engineering. However, NiTiHf alloys have some drawbacks such as low ductility and high work hardening in stress induced martensite transformation region. In order to overcome these limitations, studies have been focused on microstructural engineering by aging, alloying and processing. Shape memory properties and microstructure of four Ni-rich NiTiHf alloys (Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20, Ni50.7Ti 29.3Hf20, Ni51.2Ti28.8Hf20, and Ni52Ti28Hf20 (at. %)) were systematically characterized in the furnace cooled condition. H-phase precipitates were formed during furnace cooling in compositions with greater than 50.3Ni and the driving force for nucleation increased with Ni content. Alloy strength increased while recoverable strain decreased with increasing Ni content due to changes in precipitate characteristics. The effects of the heat treatments on the transformation characteristics and microstructure of the Ni-rich NiTiHf shape memory alloys have been investigated. Transformation temperatures are found to be highly annealing temperature dependent. Generation of nanosize precipitates (˜20 nm in size) after three hours aging at 450 °C and 550 °C improved the strength of the material, resulting in a near perfect dimensional stability under high stress levels (> 1500 MPa) with a work output of 20-30 J cm- 3. Superelastic behavior with 4% recoverable strain was demonstrated at low and high temperatures where stress could reach to a maximum value of more than 2 GPa after three hours aging at 450 and 550 °C for alloys with Ni great than 50.3 at. %. Shape memory properties of polycrystalline Ni50.3Ti29.7 Hf20 alloys were studied via

  9. Neutron enrichment at midrapidity in {sup 58}Ni + {sup 58}Ni at 52 MeV/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.; Vallee, A.; Gingras, L.; Larochelle, Y.; Roy, R.; April, A.; Beaulieu, L.; Grenier, F.; Lemieux, F.; Moisan, J.; Samri, M.; Saint-Pierre, C.; Turbide, S. [Laval Univ., Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, Dept. de Physique, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Yennello, S.J.; Martin, E.; Winchester, E. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Cyclotron Inst.


    By combining data from a charged particle {sup 58}Ni + {sup 58}Ni experiment at 52 MeV/u with an {sup 36}Ar + {sup 58}Ni experiment at 50 MeV/u for which free neutrons have been detected, an increase in the neutron to proton ratio of the whole nuclear material at midrapidity has been experimentally observed in the reaction {sup 58}Ni + {sup 58}Ni at 52 MeV/u. The neutron to proton ratio is measured above the initial neutron to proton ratio of the system. Neutron to proton ratio of the quasi-projectile emission is analysed for the same reactions and is seen to decrease below the ratio of the initial system. (authors)

  10. Migración con rostro de niños, niñas y adolescentes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Álvaro Caballeros


    ... un panorama de la experiencia de la niñez migrante, las circunstancias del viaje, el proceso de deportación y de reinserción en sus países de origen. El autor señala que la atención y protección que reciben los niños, niñas y adolescentes por parte de autoridades migratorias y sociales ha mejorado considerablemente, sin embargo, no se adecúa al enfoque de derechos humanos. Palabras clave: Niñez migrante / deportación / Derechos Humanos 1. Introducción: la historia de Pablo Pablo1 es un niño migr...

  11. Influence of complex surface vibrations on the fusion of [sup 58]Ni+[sup 60]Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanini, A.M.; Ackermann, D.; Corradi, L.; Napoli, D.R.; Petrache, C.; Spolaore, P.; Bednarczyk, P.; Zhang, H.Q. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)); Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Mueller, L.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.F.; Soramel, F. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Istituto Nazionle di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Padova, I-35131, Padova (Italy)); Rowley, N. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom) Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH (United Kingdom))


    Fusion-evaporation cross sections for [sup 58]Ni+[sup 60]Ni have been measured with high accuracy in the energy range around the Coulomb barrier. The data yield an experimental distribution of fusion barriers'' around 13 MeV wide, which displays structure characteristic of strong phonon couplings with two large well resolved'' peaks, and a smaller peak at lower energies, which is essential for fitting the low-energy cross section. This is obtained only when the target and projectile double-phonon excitations are taken into account. This is the first time that such complex surface vibrations have been identified in a fusion experiment.

  12. Edge geometry effects on resonance response of electroplated cylindrical Ni/PZT/Ni magnetoelectric composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Yakubov


    Full Text Available Trilayer Ni/PZT/Ni cylindrical magnetoelectric (ME composites were prepared by electrodeposition, a process, which creates sub-millimeter raised edges due to current concentration near sharp points. The ME response in both axial and vertical modes was measured with the edges, with only outer edges removed, and with both outer and inner edges removed. The ME voltage coefficient improved at resonance by 40% and 147% without the edges in the vertical and axial modes, respectively. The observed improvements in three different samples were only present at the ME resonance and no changes were detected outside of the ME resonance. Mechanical quality factor at resonance also improved with no effect on the resonant frequency. Experimentally demonstrated minor geometry changes resulted in substantial ME improvement at resonant frequency. This study demonstrates device performance optimization. The observed effects have been attributed to improved vibrations in terms of decreased damping coefficient and enhanced vibration amplitude at resonance.

  13. Electrical permittivity of Ni and NiZn ferrite-polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzitte, A.C. [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica de Materiales Ceramicos Electronicos (LAFMACEL), Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Capital Fedcral 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail:; Fano, W.G. [Departamento de Electronica, Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Capital Fedcral 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jacobo, S.E. [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica de Materiales Ceramicos Electronicos (LAFMACEL), Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Capital Fedcral 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Electrical properties of polymers, well known for their insulating properties, may be improved by adding various functional fillers. Polymer-ferrite composites have been a subject of recent extensive research. Electric properties of such composites depend on the size, shape and amount of added filler in general. When polymer-ferrite composites are particularly used as electromagnetic wave absorbers and EMI shielding materials, it is very important to explain the variation of permeability and permittivity in the measured frequency ranges. In this paper, acrylic-Ni ferrite composites and acrylic-NiZn ferrite composites were used. The effects of the weight fraction of ferrite on the frequency dispersion characteristics of the complex permittivity are studied.

  14. Magnetoresistance Effect in NiFe/BP/NiFe Vertical Spin Valve Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Xu


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D layered materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging candidates for spintronic applications. Here, we report magnetoresistance (MR properties of a black phosphorus (BP spin valve devices consisting of thin BP flakes contacted by NiFe ferromagnetic (FM electrodes. The spin valve effect has been observed from room temperature to 4 K, with MR magnitudes of 0.57% at 4 K and 0.23% at 300 K. In addition, the spin valve resistance is found to decrease monotonically as temperature is decreased, indicating that the BP thin film works as a conductive interlayer between the NiFe electrodes.

  15. Active Pt3Ni (111) Surface of Pt3Ni Icosahedron for Oxygen Reduction. (United States)

    Zhu, Jianbing; Xiao, Meiling; Li, Kui; Liu, Changpeng; Zhao, Xiao; Xing, Wei


    Highly active, durable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts are extremely important for fuel cell applications. Herein, we provide an efficient way to synthesis of activity Pt 3 M icosahedra by the one-pot hydrothermal method in the presence of glucosamine which can well adjust the reduction rate of Pt 4+ and efficiently control the morphology of final catalysts. Compared to Pt/C, the Pt 3 Ni icosahedra show 32-fold and 12-fold enhancement in specific and mass activity, respectively. Furthermore, robust durability was also observed in the accelerated durability test. Thus, this Pt 3 Ni icosahedron is found among the best Pt-based ORR catalysts, moreover, the findings also demonstrate how to mimic active extended surfaces in nanoscale.

  16. Percepciones en salud bucal de los niños y niñas


    Catalina González-Penagos, Colombia.; Melissa Cano-Gómez, Colombia.; Edwin J. Meneses-Gómez, Colombia.; Annie M. Viva res-Builes, Colombia.


    (analítico): Identificamos las necesidades de salud bucal de los niños y niñas de 2 a 5 años del programa Buen Comienzo-Fantasías de las Américas, desde la percepción de las agentes educativas en la ciudad de Medellín, en el año 2013. Realizamos un estudio cualitativo, con enfoque histórico hermenéutico; la población de estudio correspondió a 65 agentes educativas. Los resultados preliminares reflejan necesidades relacionadas con el acceso y oportunidad de atención odontológica, la deficienci...

  17. Equidad entre niñas y niños: situaciones didácticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta cuatro situaciones didácticas para la educación primaria, de cuarto y quinto grado en especial, y un conjunto de principios educativos; su finalidad es esclarecer y ejemplificar claves del programa educativo Jugar y vivir los valores (jvlv, orientadas a propiciar la equidad y la armonía entre los géneros. En este trabajo se muestran actividades prácticas que buscan explícitamente favorecer en las aulas la equidad de género: cuentos, canciones, preguntas a los niños para propiciar diálogos y conceptualizaciones surgidas de ellos, tareas familiares y reflexiones sobre la didáctica aplicada en la comunidad educativa, comunidad que incluye a maestros, padres de familia, niños y a todo el personal de la escuela. El Programa jvlv se creó en el Departamento de Educación y Comunicación de la uam-x, y hoy se aplica en más de 1000 primarias oficiales del estado de Chiapas. El programa se experimentó como programa piloto primero en diez jardines de niñas y niños en el año escolar 2001-2002, posteriormente en seis primarias oficiales en 2003-2004 y hoy se desarrolla un nuevo programa piloto en 52 primarias en los municipios de Tuxtla Gutiérrez y Suchiapa. La concepción de equidad se tiende a identificar con la de justicia, entendida como dar beneficio a los demás, al medio ambiente y a uno mismo. La equidad de género supone centrar la atención en hacer bien tanto a hombres como a mujeres, sistemáticamente.

  18. Electronic ground state of Ni$_2^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Zamudio-Bayer, V; Bülow, C; Leistner, G; Terasaki, A; Issendorff, B v; Lau, J T


    The $^{4}\\Phi_{9/2}$ ground state of the Ni$_2^+$ diatomic molecular cation is determined experimentally from temperature and magnetic-field-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap, where an electronic and rotational temperature of $7.4 \\pm 0.2$ K was achieved by buffer gas cooling of the molecular ion. The contribution of the magnetic dipole term to the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spin sum rule amounts to $7\\, T_z = 0.17 \\pm 0.06$ $\\mu_B$ per atom, approximately 11 \\% of the spin magnetic moment. We find that, in general, homonuclear diatomic molecular cations of $3d$ transition metals seem to adopt maximum spin magnetic moments in their electronic ground states.

  19. Interface stress in Au/Ni multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweitz, K.O.; Böttiger, J.; Chevallier, J.


    The effect of intermixing on the apparent interface stress is studied in -textured dc-magnetron sputtered Au/Ni multilayers by use of two methods commonly used for determining interface stress. The method using profilometry and in-plane x-ray diffraction does not take intermixing...... into account and yields an apparent interface stress of -8.46 +/- 0.99 J m(-2). However, observed discrepancies between model calculations and measured high-angle x-ray diffractograms indicate intermixing, and by use of the profilometry and sin(2) psi method the real interface stress value of -2.69 +/- 0.43 J...... m(-2) is found. This method also reveals a significant and systematic change of the stress-free lattice parameter of both constituents as a function of modulation period which is shown to account for the difference between the two findings. The method using in-plane diffraction is thus shown...

  20. Residual stress in Ni-W electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    In the present work, the residual stress in Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4 and Na2WO4, is investigated. Citrate, glycine and triethanolamine were used as complexing agents, enabling complex formation between the nickel ion and tungstate. The results show that the type...... of complexing agent and the current efficiency have an influence on the residual stress. In all cases, an increase in tensile stress in the deposit with time after deposition was observed. Pulse plating could improve the stress level for the electrolyte containing equal amounts of citrate......,glycine and triethanolamine (TEA) as complexing agent. An additive as 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulphonic acid which has a grain refining effect, and chloride, which enables dissolution of metal during the anodic cycle, reduced crack occurrence in the electrodeposits....

  1. Ni/metal hydride secondary element (United States)

    Bauerlein, Peter


    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  2. Ignacio -Un niño especial-


    Barzi, Silvia; Puyen, Paola; Mertehikian, Alida


    Paciente de 17 años de edad con diagnóstico de Síndrome de Alagille y Rubeola congénita. Derivado del Hospital de Niños “Sor María Ludovica” de La Plata al consultorio de Hepatología del HIGA “Prof. Dr. R. Rossi” de la misma ciudad por cirrosis descompensada. El síndrome de Alagille, diagnosticado a los dos años de edad, es un trastorno genético caracterizado por colestasis crónica por hipoplasia de las vías biliares intrahepáticas asociada a otras alteraciones como facie caracterís...

  3. Microstructure and property of directionally solidified Ni-Si hypereutectic alloy (United States)

    Cui, Chunjuan; Tian, Lulu; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Shengnan; Liu, Lin; Fu, Hengzhi


    This paper investigates the influence of the solidification rate on the microstructure, solid/liquid interface, and micro-hardness of the directionally solidified Ni-Si hypereutectic alloy. Microstructure of the Ni-Si hypereutectic alloy is refined with the increase of the solidification rate. The Ni-Si hypereutectic composite is mainly composed of α-Ni matrix, Ni-Ni3Si eutectic phase, and metastable Ni31Si12 phase. The solid/liquid interface always keeps planar interface no matter how high the solidification rate is increased. This is proved by the calculation in terms of M-S interface stability criterion. Moreover, the Ni-Si hypereutectic composites present higher micro-hardness as compared with that of the pure Ni3Si compound. This is caused by the formation of the metastable Ni31Si12 phase and NiSi phase during the directional solidification process.

  4. Stoichiometry of LiNiO{sub 2} Studied by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenofontov, V.; Reiman, S.; Walcher, D.; Garcia, Y. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie (Germany); Doroshenko, N. [A. A. Galkin Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Guetlich, P. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie (Germany)


    From the {sup 61}Ni and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy data follows the cationic site assignment in Li{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 1+x}O{sub 2}. Our data explain the ferromagnetic properties of this material because of the appearance of Ni{sup 2+} (S=1) among Ni{sup 3+} (S=1/2) in Ni{sup 3+}O{sub 2} hexagonal planes. We have no evidence for the ferromagnetic interaction between the NiO{sub 2} layers through the excess Ni{sup 2+} ions substituting the Li{sup +} ions. The presence of Ni{sup 2+} found in the Ni{sup 3+}O{sub 2} planes explains the absence of the Jahn-Teller distortions probably because of the electronic transfer between the Ni{sup 3+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions.

  5. Study of the 66Ni(t,d)67Ni Transfer Reaction in Inverse Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Callens, Maarten

    The nickel isotopes with 28 protons are an interesting series in the study of nuclear structure. In the framework of the shell model nickel has a closed proton shell and the number of neutrons ranges from the magic numbers 20 to 50. The neutron-rich isotope $^{78}$Ni, is a waiting point in the nucleosynthesis r-process. In this process an intense neutron flux such as in supernovae results in the rapid capture of neutrons. The reaction sequence halts at $^{78}$Ni and waits for this nucleus to decay [Hea05]. For several decades the nickel isotopes have been studied extensively, particularly how the nuclear structure evolves when moving to the exotic boundaries of the nuclear chart. A remarkable feature was observed in $^{68}$Ni. This nucleus with 40 neutrons exhibits properties that are characteristic for doubly magic nuclei. Such as the energy of the first 2$^+$ state lies significantly higher than in neighbouring even-A isotopes, and is also higher than the energy of the second 0$^+$ state. Moreover also the ...

  6. Estilos parentales en niños y niñas con TDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío González


    Full Text Available Introducción: el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH es una de las alteraciones neuroconductuales más frecuentes en la infancia. La disfuncionalidad familiar es una variable de riesgo sobre la evolución de los síntomas. El objetivo fue analizar y comparar los estilos parentales en niños con y sin TDAH. Metodología: diseño expo facto con dos grupos, uno cuasi control. Se aplicaron dos escalas que evalúan estilos parentales. Resultados: tanto los niños con TDAH como sus padres perciben al estilo parental más rígido e indulgente y menos inductivo, caracterizado por una tendencia a manifestar mayor crítica y menor aceptación y afectuosidad por parte de los padres. Conclusiones: los hallazgos permiten el desarrollo de técnicas efectivas de disciplina y comunicación en la intervención clínica con familias de niños con TDAH.

  7. High-performance NiO/Ag/NiO transparent electrodes for flexible organic photovoltaic cells. (United States)

    Xue, Zhichao; Liu, Xingyuan; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xuanming; Wang, Haiyu; Guo, Xiaoyang


    Transparent electrodes with a dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) structure can be implemented in a simple manufacturing process and have good optical and electrical properties. In this study, nickel oxide (NiO) is introduced into the DMD structure as a more appropriate dielectric material that has a high conduction band for electron blocking and a low valence band for efficient hole transport. The indium-free NiO/Ag/NiO (NAN) transparent electrode exhibits an adjustable high transmittance of ∼82% combined with a low sheet resistance of ∼7.6 Ω·s·q(-1) and a work function of 5.3 eV after UVO treatment. The NAN electrode shows excellent surface morphology and good thermal, humidity, and environmental stabilities. Only a small change in sheet resistance can be found after NAN electrode is preserved in air for 1 year. The power conversion efficiencies of organic photovoltaic cells with NAN electrodes deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates are 6.07 and 5.55%, respectively, which are competitive with those of indium tin oxide (ITO)-based devices. Good photoelectric properties, the low-cost material, and the room-temperature deposition process imply that NAN electrode is a striking candidate for low-cost and flexible transparent electrode for efficient flexible optoelectronic devices.

  8. Alloy composition dependence of formation of porous Ni prepared by rapid solidification and chemical dealloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Zhen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Zhonghua [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail:; Jia Haoling [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Qu Yingjie [Shandong Labor Occupational Technology College, Jingshi Road 388, Jinan 250022 (China); Liu Guodong; Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)


    In this paper, the effect of alloy composition on the formation of porous Ni catalysts prepared by chemical dealloying of rapidly solidified Al-Ni alloys has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption experiments. The experimental results show that rapid solidification and alloy composition have a significant effect on the phase constituent and microstructure of Al-Ni alloys. The melt spun Al-20 at.% Ni alloy consists of {alpha}-Al, NiAl{sub 3} and Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3}, while the melt spun Al-25 and 31.5 at.% Ni alloys comprise NiAl{sub 3} and Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3}. Moreover, the formation and microstructure of the porous Ni catalysts are dependent upon the composition of the melt spun Al-Ni alloys. The morphology and size of Ni particles in the Ni catalysts inherit from those of grains in the melt spun Al-Ni alloys. Rapid solidification can extend the alloy composition of Al-Ni alloys suitable for preparation of the Ni catalysts, and obviously accelerate the dealloying process of the Al-Ni alloys.

  9. Diffusion couple studies of the Ni-Bi-Sn system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilev G.


    Full Text Available Investigations of Ni-Bi-Sn system were performed in order to inquire the phase diagram and to assess some diffusion kinetic parameters. For this purpose diffusion couples consisting of solid nickel (preliminary electroplated with tin and liquid Bi-Sn phase were annealed at 370 °C. Three compositions (0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 mole fractions Sn of the Bi-Sn melts were chosen. Annealing times from 24 to 216 h were applied. The phase and chemical compositions of the contact zone were determined by means of electron scanning microscope. It was confirmed that the diffusion layers consist mainly of Ni3Sn4 but other intermetallic phases grow as well. For the first time metastable Ni-Sn phases as NiSn and NiSn8 (NiSn9 were observed in metallurgical alloys (i.e. not in electroplated samples. The existence of a ternary compound previously reported in the literature was confirmed. More than one ternary Ni-Bi-Sn compounds might possibly be admitted. A growth coefficient of (2.29 ± 0.02 x 10-15 m2 s-1 was obtained. It was found that the apparent activation energy for diffusion layers growth (18 ± 8 kJ mol-1 is inferior to that one assessed at growth from solid state Bi-Sn mixtures (88 ± 12 kJ mol-1.

  10. LaBaNiO{sub 4}: a Fermi glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, A; Dell' Amore, R; Mueller, K A [Physics Institute of the Universitaet of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Karpinski, J; Bukowski, Z [Laboratory for Solid-State Physics, ETH Zuerich HPF F-7, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Medarde, M; Pomjakushina, E [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETHZ and PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail:


    Polycrystalline samples of LaSr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}NiO{sub 4} show a crossover from a state with metallic transport properties for x = 0 to an insulating state as x{yields}1. The end member LaBaNiO{sub 4} with a nominal nickel Ni 3d{sup 7} configuration might therefore be regarded as a candidate for an antiferromagnetic insulator. However, we do not observe any magnetic ordering in LaBaNiO{sub 4} down to 1.5 K, and despite its insulating transport properties several other physical properties of LaBaNiO{sub 4} resemble those of metallic LaSrNiO{sub 4}. Based on an analysis of electrical and thermal-conductivity data as well as magnetic-susceptibility and low-temperature specific-heat measurements, we suggest that LaBaNiO{sub 4} is a Fermi glass with a finite electron density of states at the Fermi level but these states are localized.

  11. Synthesis of FeCoNi nanoparticles by galvanostatic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budi, Setia, E-mail: [Potgraduate Program of Materials Science Study, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No.10, Rawamangun, Jakarta 13220 (Indonesia); Hafizah, Masayu Elita; Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: [Potgraduate Program of Materials Science Study, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)


    Soft magnetic nanoparticles of FeCoNi have been becoming interesting objects for many researchers due to its potential application in electronic devices. One of the most promising methods for material preparation is the electrodeposition which capable of growing nanoparticles alloy directly onto the substrate. In this paper, we report our electrodeposition studies on nanoparticles synthesis using galvanostatic electrodeposition technique. Chemical composition of the synthesized FeCoNi was successfully controlled through the adjustment of the applied currents. It is revealed that the content of each element, obtained from quantitative analysis using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), could be modified by the adjustment of current in which Fe and Co content decreased at larger applied currents, while Ni content increased. The nanoparticles of Co-rich FeCoNi and Ni-rich FeCoNi were obtained from sulphate electrolyte at the range of applied current investigated in this work. Broad diffracted peaks in the X-ray diffractograms indicated typical nanostructures of the solid solution of FeCoNi.

  12. Nano-sized Ni-doped carbon aerogel for supercapacitor. (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Jae; Jung, Ji Chul; Park, Sunyoung; Seo, Jeong Gil; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Yoon, Jung Rag; Yi, Jongheop; Song, In Kyu


    Carbon aerogel was prepared by polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde using sodium carbonate as a catalyst in ambient conditions. Nano-sized Ni-doped carbon aerogel was then prepared by a precipitation method in an ethanol solvent. In order to elucidate the effect of nickel content on electrochemical properties, Ni-doped carbon aerogels (21, 35, 60, and 82 wt%) were prepared and their performance for supercapacitor electrode was investigated. Electrochemical properties of Ni-doped carbon aerogel electrodes were measured by cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 10 mV/sec and charge/discharge test at constant current of 1 A/g in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Among the samples prepared, 35 wt% Ni-doped carbon aerogel (Ni/CA-35) showed the highest capacitance (110 F/g) and excellent charge/discharge behavior. The enhanced capacitance of Ni-doped carbon aerogel was attributed to the faradaic redox reactions of nano-sized nickel oxide. Moreover, Ni-doped carbon aerogel exhibited quite stable cyclability, indicating long-term electrochemical stability.

  13. Kinetics of Oxidation and Reduction of Ni/YSZ Cermet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, D.; Mueller, A.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffee, E.


    A cyclic reduction and oxidation of Ni/YSZ-cermet anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) resulted in an increase of the polarization resistance. Therefore, investigations concerning kinetics of oxidation/reduction and the impact of redox cycles on the microstructure of Ni/YSZ bulk ceramics were made. The reaction process of the basic system Ni/NiO was compared with cermet bulk samples and the influence of NiO and YSZ particle sizes and sintering temperatures on kinetics and microstructure was studied using thermogravimetry and dilatometry. The investigations on bulk ceramics indicated that no length change occurred during reduction, whereas reoxidation led to an increase in the length of the samples which strongly depended on the microstructure. It was shown that bulk samples sintered at temperatures below 1300{sup o}C can withstand redox cycles much better than those sintered at higher temperatures. Furthermore, it was found that by decreasing the NiO particle size and using a NiO/YSZ particle size ratio of approximately 3:2, a smaller length increase after reoxidation was achieved. An increase of the polarization resistance could be ascribed to the formation of cracks within the bulk sample which interrupt current paths and therefore reduce the amount of the active triple phase boundary. (author)

  14. Detection of {sup 59}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Per; Erlandsson, Bengt; Freimann, K.; Hellborg, R.; Stenstroem, K. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Larsson, Ragnar [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Chemical Engineering II; Skog, G. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Geology


    The aims of this project were to develop a method to measure the amount of {sup 59}Ni in stainless steel and to determine the detection limit for this method. {sup 59}Ni is produced by neutron activation in the construction material close to the core in a nuclear reactor and it is important to know the amount of {sup 59}Ni present as it governs the classification of the waste. If the amount of {sup 59}Ni is known at different locations in relation to the core, it is also possible to refine the calculation models of the neutron flux in the reactor. Accelerator mass spectrometry, an ultra-sensitive method for measuring small concentrations of radionuclides as well as stable nuclides, has been used in this investigation to determine the concentration of {sup 59}Ni (and thereby the activity) in stainless steel. As the cobalt content in stainless steel is the main contributor to the background in a measurement of {sup 59}Ni, a method for the chemical extraction of nickel from stainless steel, including a purification step to reduce the cobalt content in the sample, has been developed. The detection limit for {sup 59}Ni has been determined to 100{+-}30 Bq per gram nickel (100{+-}30 Bq/g) with the present status of the system 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Magnetic studies in evaporated Ni/Pd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafai, K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Micro-electronique, Automatique et Thermique (LPMMAT), Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Salhi, H. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Micro-electronique, Automatique et Thermique (LPMMAT), Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Laboratoire de Mecanique, Productique et Genie industriel (LMPG), Ecole superieure de technologie, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Lassri, H., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Micro-electronique, Automatique et Thermique (LPMMAT), Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Yamkane, Z.; Lassri, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Micro-electronique, Automatique et Thermique (LPMMAT), Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Abid, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Fondamentale et Appliquee (LPFA), Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite J. Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Krishnan, R. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et d' Optique, URA 1531, 45 Avenue des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)


    The magnetic properties of Ni/Pd multilayers, prepared by sequential evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum, have been studied. The Ni thickness dependence of the magnetization and magnetic anisotropy is discussed. The temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization is well described by a T{sup 3/2} law in all multilayers. A spin-wave theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization, and the approximate values for the exchange interactions for various Ni layer thicknesses have been obtained. - Research highlights: The magnetic properties of Ni/Pd multilayers, prepared by sequential evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum, have been studied. The temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization is well described by a T{sup 3/2} law in Ni/Pd multilayers. The spin-wave constant B was observed to depend on t{sub Ni} nonmonotonically. A spin-wave theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization. The approximate values for the exchange interactions for various Ni layer thicknesses have been obtained.

  16. Study of hyperfine interactions in intermetallic compounds Gd(Ni,Pd,Cu)In, Tb(Ni,Pd)In, Dy(Ni,Pd)In and Ho(Ni,Pd)In; Estudo de interacoes hiperfinas em compostos intermetalicos Gd(Ni,Pd,Cu)In, Tb(Ni,Pd)In, Dy(Ni,Pd)In e Ho(Ni,Pd)In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapolli, Andre Luis


    Systematic behavior of magnetic hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) in the intermetallic compounds Gd(Ni,Pd,Cu)In Tb(Ni,Pd)In, Dy(Ni,Pd)In and Ho(Ni,Pd)In was studied by Perturbed Gamma-Gamma Angular Correlation spectroscopy. The measurements of B{sub hf} were carried out at the rare earth atom and in sites using the nuclear probes {sup 140}Ce and {sup 11}'1Cd respectively. The variation of hyperfine field with temperature, in most cases, follows the Brillouin function predicted from the molecular field theory. The hyperfine field values at rare earth atom sites obtained from {sup 140}Ce probe as well as at in sites obtained from {sup 111}Cd probe for each series of compounds were extrapolated to zero Kelvin B{sub hf}(T=0) from these curves. These values were compared with the values of the literature for other compounds containing the same rare earth element and all of them show a linear relationship with the ordering temperature. This indicates that the main contribution to B{sub hf} comes from the conduction electron polarization (CEP) through Fermi contact interaction and the principal mechanism of magnetic interaction in these compounds can be described by the RKKY type interaction. The values of B{sub hf}(T=0) for each family of intermetallic compounds RNiIn and RPdIn when plotted as a function of 4f spin projection of rare earth element also shows a linear relationship. Exceptions are the results for the compounds RNiIn obtained with {sup 111}Cd probe where a small deviation from linearity is observed. The results of the measurements carried out with the {sup 111}Cd probe were also analyzed to obtain the hyperfine parameters of the quadrupole interaction as a function of temperature for RPdln and GdNiIn compounds. The results show that for the compound GdPdIn there might be some Gd-In disorder at high temperature. (author)

  17. In vitro bioactivity and osteoblast response of porous NiTi synthesized by SHS using nanocrystalline Ni-Ti reaction agent. (United States)

    Gu, Y W; Li, H; Tay, B Y; Lim, C S; Yong, M S; Khor, K A


    Porous NiTi with an average porosity of 55 vol % and a general pore size of 100-600 microm was synthesized by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) with the addition of mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline Ni-Ti as the reaction agent. The SHS of porous NiTi using elemental powders was also performed for comparison. To enhance the bioactivity of the metal surface, porous NiTi synthesized by nanocrystalline Ni-Ti was subjected to chemical treatment to form a layer of TiO(2) coating. The porous NiTi with TiO(2) coating was subsequently immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) to investigate its apatite forming ability. The effects of the addition of nanocrystalline Ni-Ti as reaction agent and the application of apatite coating on osteoblastic behavior were studied in primary cultures of human osteoblast cells. Results showed that the main phases in porous NiTi synthesized by elemental powders were NiTi, Ti(2)Ni, and unreacted free Ni. By using nanocrystalline Ni-Ti as reaction agent, the secondary intermetallic phase of Ti(2)Ni was significantly reduced and the free Ni was eliminated. TiO(2) coating with anatase phase was formed on the surface of porous NiTi after the chemical treatment. A layer consisting of nanocrystalline carbonate-containing apatite was formed on the surface of TiO(2) coating after soaking in SBF. The preliminary cell culture studies showed that the porous NiTi synthesized with the addition of nanocrystalline Ni-Ti attracted marked attachment and proliferation of the osteoblast cells. This gives the evidence of the potential biomedical applications of the porous NiTi.

  18. Nickel hexayttrium decaiodide, [NiY6]I10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Steinberg


    Full Text Available Comproportionation reactions of yttrium triiodide, yttrium and nickel led to the formation of the compound [NiY6]I10, which is isostructural with the prototypical [RuY6]I10. In particular, [NiY6]I10 is composed of isolated nickel centered yttrium octahedra (site symmetry -1 that are further surrounded by iodide ligands to construct a three-dimensional cluster complex framework. Although this compound has been previously detected by powder X-ray diffraction techniques [Payne & Corbett (1990. Inorg. Chem. 29, 2246–2251], details of the crystal structure for triclinic [NiY6]I10 were not provided.

  19. Abuso sexual en la niñez


    Ricardo García-Jaime


    El abuso sexual en la niñez se presenta en dos grandes modalidades: el abuso sexual familiar (también conocido como incesto), y la explotación sexual comercial de niños/as y adolescentes (conocida como trata de personas con fines sexuales). Ambas modalidades afectan a millones de niños/as en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una panorámica en torno al abuso sexual que ocurre al interior de las fami-lias. Para ello se revisan algunos conceptos en torno al abuso, sus princi...

  20. El niño preescolar como telespectador


    Domínguez Aguila, Carmen Lucía; Schade Yankovic, Nieves Irma


    Los medios de comunicación social y en especial la televisión, constituyen parte importante en la vida cotidiana de los niños. En Chile el 95% de los hogares posee televisión y un 97% de los menores señalan saber utilizar el televisor. El acceso a este medio de comunicación social ha posibilitado que ver televisión sea la principal actividad que realizan los niños chilenos en su tiempo libre. Si se considera que los discursos audiovisuales inciden en la construcción que los niños hac...

  1. Brasil: Favela, niños y video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise María Cogo


    Full Text Available La experiencia Video-Niños surgió en 1990 con un grupo de niños afro-brasileños de 8 a 14 años que mantienen vivos elementos de su cultura en la música y la religión. El trabajo abarcó la producción de una telenovela (Gente rica, un telediario (Niño-reportero y un show de variedades donde la creatividad y participación fueron evidentes.

  2. Varying the exchange interaction between NiO nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Mørup, Steen


    We demonstrate that exchange interactions between antiferromagnetic nanoparticles of 57Fe-doped NiO can be varied by simple macroscopic treatments. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of the superparamagnetic relaxation behaviour show that grinding or suspension in water of nanoparticles of NiO can si...... significantly reduce interparticle interactions. Slow drying of aqueous suspensions of NiO nanoparticles did not lead to enhanced interparticle interactions. This is opposite to the behaviour of α-Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles....

  3. Interaction of NiO with yttria-stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzjukevics, A.; Linderoth, Søren


    As-prepared and heat treated plasma-produced 8 and 10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders doped with 0, 5, 10 and 75 mol% NiO have been investigated by XRD. The as-prepared powders are mixtures of metastable tetragonal and cubic phases but they transform to a single YSZ phase upon heat...... treatment above 1200 degrees C. The solubility of NiO in yttria-stabilized zirconia is less than 2 mol% at 1600 degrees C and varies little within the investigated yttria concentration range. The solubility increases with increasing temperature and the total NiO concentration. The activation energy...

  4. Mechanical and structural properties of sputtered Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kumar, M.; Boeni, P.; Tixier, S.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Ni/Ti bilayers have been prepared by dc-magnetron sputtering in order to study their mechanical and structural properties. A remarkable reduction of stress is observed when the Ni layers are sputtered reactively in argon with a high partial pressure of air. The high angle x-ray diffraction studies show a tendency towards amorphisation of the Ni layers with increasing air flow. The low angle measurements indicate a substantial reduction of interdiffusion resulting in smoother interfaces with increasing air content. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  5. Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Ni Nanotubes and Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiqian


    Full Text Available Abstract Highly ordered Ni nanotube and nanowire arrays were fabricated via electrodeposition. The Ni microstructures and the process of the formation were investigated using conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Herein, we demonstrated the systematic fabrication of Ni nanotube and nanowire arrays and proposed an original growth mechanism. With the different deposition time, nanotubes or nanowires can be obtained. Tubular nanostructures can be obtained at short time, while nanowires take longer time to form. This formation mechanism is applicable to design and synthesize other metal nanostructures and even compound nanostuctures via template-based electrodeposition.

  6. 25 years in a nutshell--IMIA-NI, 1982 - 2007. (United States)

    Tallberg, M


    When invited to give an overview of nursing informatics I found it natural to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Medical Informatics Special Interests Group on Nursing Informatics (IMIA SIG NI) with a "mini history" from my own perspective The method is historical. Sources are from the IMIA-NI web site, conference proceedings and programs, my private archive and reminiscences. IMIA-NI has l "left its cradle" quite a while ago, and is now leading the nursing informatics world, thanks to its voluntary, enthusiastic and devoted leaders, WG chair persons, and national members. The newly reinforced executive also works hard to disseminate nursing informatics to the third world.

  7. Metal (Ni, Au)-vacancy complexes in GaN (United States)

    von Pezold, J.; Bristowe, P. D.


    The stability and electronic properties of metal (Ni, Au)-vacancy complexes in GaN were studied using density functional calculations. Two complexes (NiGa-VN and VGa-Aui-VN) were found to exhibit relatively low formation energies in their neutral charge state under p-type conditions and are predicted to act as deep acceptors in GaN. As such they are unlikely to contribute to the hole carrier concentration in p-GaN and are probably not responsible for the low electrical resistance of Au/Ni contacts. They may, however, act as compensation centres in n-GaN.

  8. Physicochemical investigation of NiAl with small molybdenum additions (United States)

    Troshkina, V. A.; Kucherenko, L. A.; Fadeeva, V. I.; Aristova, N. M.


    Specimens of four cast NiAl alloys, three of them containing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 at. % Mo., were homogenized for 10, 10, and 140 hr at 1373, 1523 and 1273 K, respectively, then kept at 1073, 1173 and 1323 K for 60, 120 and 3 hr, respectively, and quenched in icy water. The precipitation of a metastable Ni3Mo phase was observed at temperatures between 1073 and 1523 K. Molybdenum substituted for nickel was found to inhibit the lattice disordering in NiAl at 1073 and 1523 K.

  9. Minority anion substitution by Ni in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Silva, Daniel José; David-Bosne, Eric; Decoster, Stefan; da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André


    We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the $\\beta$− emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  10. Wetting - Dewetting Transitions of Au/Ni Bilayer Films (United States)

    Cen, Xi

    Thin films deposited at low temperatures are often kinetically constrained and will dewet the underlying substrate when annealed. Solid state dewetting is driven by the minimization of the total free energy of thin film-substrate interface and free surface, and mostly occurs through surface diffusion. Dewetting is a serious concern in microelectronics reliability. However, it can also be utilized for the self-assembly of nanostructures with potentials in storage, catalysis, or transistors. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the dewetting behavior of thin metal films is critical for improving the thermal stability of microelectronics and controlling the order of self-assembled nanostructures. Mechanisms for dewetting of single layer films have been studied extensively. However little work has been reported on multilayer or alloyed thin films. In the thesis, the solid state dewetting of Au/Ni bilayer films deposited on SiO2/Si substrates was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration corrected scanning TEM (STEM). Ex-situ SEM and TEM studies were performed with in-situ TEM heating characterization to identify the mechanisms during the dewetting process of Au/Ni bilayer films. The solid state dewetting of Au/Ni bilayer films from SiO2/Si substrates exhibits both homogeneous and localized dewetting of Ni and long-edge retraction for Au under isothermal annealing condition. The top Au layer retracts up to 1 mm from the edge of the substrate wafer to reduce the energetically unfavored Au/Ni interface. In contrast, Ni dewets and agglomerates locally due to its limited diffusivity compared to Au. Film morphology and local chemical composition varies significantly across hundreds of microns along the direction normal to the retracting edge. Besides long range edge receding, localized dewetting shows significant changes in film morphology and chemical distribution. Both Au and Ni shows texturing. Despite

  11. Determination of 63Ni and 59Ni in spent ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (United States)

    Taddei, M H T; Macacini, J F; Vicente, R; Marumo, J T; Sakata, S K; Terremoto, L A A


    A radiochemical method has been adapted to determine (59)Ni and (63)Ni in samples of radioactive wastes from the water cleanup system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The process includes extraction chromatographic resin with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as a functional group. Activity concentrations of (59)Ni and (63)Ni were measured, respectively, by X-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting, whereas the chemical yield was determined by ICP-OES. The average ratio of measured activity concentrations of (63)Ni and (59)Ni agree well with theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol using nanoscale Fe/Ni particles: role of nano-Ni and its size effect. (United States)

    Cheng, Rong; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jian-Long; Qi, Daoduo; Guo, Lin; Zhang, Wei-Xian; Qian, Yi


    The dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) using nano-Fe together with different size of nano-Ni particles (30, 50, 80, and 100nm) was investigated. The results indicated that nano-Ni particles could improve the dechlorination of PCP. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that nano-Ni particles might serve as catalyst for dechlorination. The decrease of nano-Ni particle size resulted in the increase of PCP transformation and chloride release. The accumulation of several intermediates, such as phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol indicated the probable changes of the reaction pathway for PCP dechlorination. The corrosion products of Fe were detected using XRD analysis. In the system without nano-Ni particles, they were lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) and/or maghemite (Fe(2)O(3)), however, in the systems with nano-Ni particles, they were still magnetite/maghemite but no lepidocrocite existed. The size of nano-Ni particles might affect the crystallization of corrosion products of Fe, but did not affect the species distribution of corrosion products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of yttrium and lanthanum-doped Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn spinel ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stergiou, Charalampos, E-mail: [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas, 57001, Thermi (Greece); Litsardakis, George, E-mail: [Laboratory of Materials for Electrotechnics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)


    Rare earth doping of Co-rich spinel ferrites is investigated through the preparation of two groups of polycrystalline Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn ferrites, where Fe is partly substituted by Y and La. The characterization of the sintered ferrites by means of X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld profile analysis, indicates the subtle expansion of the spinel unit cell and the cation redistribution in the doped ferrites in order to accommodate the incorporation of Y and La in the lattice. The impurity traces, detected only in the Ni-Co-Zn group, is ascribed to the Zn population in the tetrahedral A-sites impeding the cation transfer. Moreover, the examined microstructure of the doped Ni-Co samples comprises enlarged and more homogeneous grains, whereas grain growth is moderated in the doped Ni-Co-Zn ferrites. The discussed characteristics of the crystal and magnetic structure along with the morphological aspects define the impact of Y and La doping on the static magnetic properties of Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn ferrites, saturation magnetization MS and coercivity HC, which were extracted from the respective hysteresis loops.

  14. In Situ Synthesis and Electrophoretic Deposition of NiO/Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles and Its Application as Pseudocapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Yus


    Full Text Available A simple, low cost and transferable colloidal processing method and the subsequent heat treatment has been optimized to prepare binder-free electrodes for their application in supercapacitors. NiO/Ni core–shell hybrid nanostructures have been synthetized by heterogeneous precipitation of metallic Ni nanospheres onto NiO nanoplatelets as seed surfaces. The electrophoretic deposition (EPD has been used to shape the electroactive material onto 3D substrates such as Ni foams. The method has allowed us to control the growth and the homogeneity of the NiO/Ni coatings. The presence of metallic Nickel in the microstructure and the optimization of the thermal treatment have brought several improvements in the electrochemical response due to the connectivity of the final microstructure. The highest specific capacitance value has been obtained using a thermal treatment of 325 °C during 1 h in Argon. At this temperature, necks formed among ceramic-metallic nanoparticles preserve the structural integrity of the microstructure avoiding the employment of binders to enhance their connectivity. Thus, a compromise between porosity and connectivity should be established to improve electrochemical performance.

  15. Crystalline NiCo2S4 nanotube array coated with amorphous NiCoxSy for supercapacitor electrodes. (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Zhang, Mingyi; Yao, Yunhe; Gao, Hong


    Hierarchical NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy core/shell nanoarrays grown on carbon cloth were successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal route and following an electrodeposition process. Compared with bare NiCo2S4, the electrochemical performance of NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy nanoarrays have been apparently improved, which shows areal capacitance as high as 3.9F/cm(2) at a constant current density of 1mA/cm(2). And the composite material exhibits excellent rate capability that a high areal capacitance of 2.9F/cm(2) is still retaining as the current density increase to 50mA/cm(2). The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the reasonably designed core/shell hierarchical structure of NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy nanoarrays, which would be promising for high-performance supercapacitor materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Ni-5%RExOy Composite Additives on Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Performances of Mg2Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Guo-fang


    Full Text Available The Ni-5%RExOy (CeO2, La2O3, Eu2O3 as composite additives, Mg2Ni-Ni-5%RExOy composites were prepared by the ball milling method. The effects of different additives on the structure, morphology, electrochemistry and kinetic properties of Mg2Ni alloy were studied systematically. The results show that composite additives can improve the proportion of amorphous and nanocrystalline structure of Mg2Ni alloy. The particle size is homogeneous but the agglomeration is observed in the sample with Ni-5%CeO2 additives. The composites with additives show higher maximum discharge capacity and better cycle stabilities. All of these three kinds of composite additives can improve the kinetic properties of the composites effectively, including optimizing the charge-transfer ability, the reversibility of the electrochemical reaction on the alloy surface, and enhancing the diffusion coefficients of H atoms in the bulk of alloy. Among these three kinds of additives, Ni-5%CeO2 additive shows the best catalysis effect on promoting the kinetic properties of the composites.

  17. Pressure-induced development of bonding in NiAs type compounds and polymorphism of NiP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dera, Przemyslaw; Lazarz, John D.; Lavina, Barbara (UC); (UNLV)


    A reversible, displacive, pressure-induced structural phase transition has been found to occur in nickel monophosphide NiP at approximately 3.5 GPa by means of in situ synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The new phase, with Pearson symbol oC56, assumes an orthorhombic structure with Cmc2{sub 1} space group and unit cell parameters a=23.801(2) {angstrom}, b=5.9238(6) {angstrom}, and c=4.8479(4) {angstrom} at 5.79 GPa. The high-pressure phase is a superstructure of the ambient, oP16 phase with multiplicity of 3.5. The phosphorous sublattice gradually converts from the net of isolated P{sub 2} dimers found in the ambient NiP, towards zig-zag polymeric P{infinity} chains found in MnP-type structures. The transformation involves development of triatomic phosphorous clusters and interconnected Ni slabs with diamondoid topology. The high-pressure phase, which represents intermediate polymerization step, is a commensurately modulated superstructure of the NiAs aristotype. The phase transformation in NiP bears resemblance to the effect of successive substitution of Si or Ge in place of P found in the series of stoichiometric inhomogeneous linear structures in ternary NiP{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} and NiP{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} systems.

  18. Mechanochemical synthesis of Ni(OH){sub 2} and the decomposition to NiO nanoparticles: Thermodynamic and optical spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Aidong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Zheng [Department of Inorganic Materials, School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ouyang, Jing, E-mail: [Department of Inorganic Materials, School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yang, Huaming, E-mail: [Department of Inorganic Materials, School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)


    Highlights: • Mechanochemical route is efficient to prepare NiO nanoparticles. • Thermodynamic in the formation procedure is carefully investigated. • Size of the NiO nanoparticles can be easily controlled by changing heat temperature. - Abstract: Nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH){sub 2}) was prepared through a mechanochemical route using simple manual milling. NiO nanoparticles were obtained through subsequent calcinations. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric (DTA/TG), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), Fourier transforming infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet to visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) were adopted to characterize the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the obtained NiO products. Intensive study to the DTA curves of the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor was conducted to understand the thermal behavior and derive the activation energy, for which the Flynn–Wall–Ozawa and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose methods were introduced and were applied respectively. The average activation energy required to de-composite the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor in ambient condition was 117.8 kJ/mol, which determined that the decomposition is controlled by the chemical reaction. NiO with cubic shape was obtained. Size of the products increased from 8.3 nm at 350 °C to 43.4 nm at 600 °C. Carbonates were found to co-exist with the product, which were generated in the preparing procedures. Band gap energy of the NiO was in the range of 3.30 ± 0.11 eV, which have no obvious relationship with the preparing conditions.

  19. Magnetoimpedance of thin film meander with composite coating layer containing Ni nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijk, K. J.; Fernandez, E.; Garcia-Arribas, A.; Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Lepalovskij, V. N.; Safronov, A. P.; Kooi, B. J.


    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) [FeNi/Cu](4)/FeNi/Cu/[FeNi/Cu](4)/FeNi sensing meander elements were designed and tested aiming to develop a new instrumentation for characterization of polymer/magnetic nanoparticles composites. Acrylic copolymer of 95% of butyl methacrylate and 5% of methacrylic acid

  20. Optimal synthesis of a Ni(II)-dimethylglyoxime ion-imprinted polymer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Ni(II)-dimethylglyoxime ion-imprinted polymer {Ni(II)-DMG IIP} was optimised by the uniform design experimental method and used to adsorb Ni(II) ions from water, soil and mine tailing samples. This aimed to improve the performance of this ion-imprinted polymer in trapping Ni(II) ions from soil and mine tailing samples ...

  1. Relation Between Ni Particle Shape Change and Ni Migration in Ni–YSZ Electrodes – a Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu


    This paper deals with degradation mechanisms of Ni–YSZ electrodes for solid oxide cells, mainly solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs), but also to some extent solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Analysis of literature data reveals that several apparently different and even in one case apparently...... contradicting degradation phenomena are a consequence of interplay between loss of contact between the Ni–YSZ (and Ni–Ni particles) in the active fine-structured composite fuel electrode layer and migration of Ni via weakly oxidized Ni hydroxide species. A hypothesis that unravels the apparent contradiction...

  2. Hierarchically porous Ni monolith@branch-structured NiCo2O4 for high energy density supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjie Xu


    Full Text Available A variety of NiCo2O4 nanostrucutures ranging from nanowire to nanoplate and branched structures were successfully prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. The experimental results show that NiCo2O4 with branched structures possesses the best overall electrochemical performance. The improvement of energy density was explored in terms of hierarchically three-dimensional (3D metal substrates and a high specific area capacitance, and area energy density is obtained with hierarchically porous Ni monolith synthesized through a controlled combustion procedure.

  3. Probing the semi-magicity of $^{68}$Ni via the $^{66}$Ni(t,p)$^{68}$Ni two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079390; Van Duppen, Piet

    The region around the nucleus $^{68}$Ni, with a shell closure for its protons at Z=28 and a harmonic oscillator shell gap for its neutrons at N=40, has drawn considerable interest over the past decades. $^{68}$Ni has properties that are typical for a doubly-magic nucleus, such as a high excitation energy and low B($E2:2^{+} \\rightarrow 0^{+}$) transition probability for the first excited 2$^{+}$ level and a 0$^{+}$ level as the first excited state. However, it has been suggested that the magic properties of $^{68}$Ni arise due to the fact that the N=40 separates the negative parity $pf$-shell from the positive parity 1$g_{9/2}$ orbital, and indeed, recent mass measurements have not revealed a clear N = 40 energy gap. Despite all additional information that was acquired over the last decade the specific role of the N=40 is not yet understood and a new experimental approach to study $^{68}$Ni was proposed. Namely, a two-neutron transfer reaction on $^{66}$Ni to characterize and disentangle the structure of the ...

  4. Corrosion resistance of amorphous and crystalline Pd40Ni40P20 alloys in aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Y.F.; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Chu, J.


    The corrosion behaviors of amorphous and crystalline Pd40Ni40P20 alloys in various aqueous solutions are reported in this paper. The corrosion resistance of crystalline (annealed) Pd40Ni40P20 is better than that of amorphous Pd40Ni40P20 in various corrosive solutions, due to crystalline Pd40Ni40P20...... and mainly consists of inert Pd5P2, NI3P, Ni2Pd2P and noble Pd phases. These inert and noble properties result in a higher corrosion resistance in crystalline Pd40Ni40P20....

  5. The phase system Fe-Ni-S at 900 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.


    analyses on 32 binary runs. There are two important three-phase associations in the system: mss Fe48.6Ni1.1S50.3 - gamma Fe65.0Ni35.0 - melt similar to Fe42.0Ni15.0S43.0 and vaesite Ni0.91Fe0.09S2 - mss Ni0.54Fe0.33S - S Partition coefficient D-Ni (mss/melt) was determined to be equal to (at.% Ni(mss)(0...

  6. Laboratory Investigations of Ni-Al Coatings Exposed to Conditions Simulating Biomass Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Duoli; Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Dahl, Kristian Vinter


    Fireside corrosion is a key problem when using biomass fuels in power plants. A possible solution is to apply corrosion resistant coatings. The present paper studies the corrosion and interdiffusion behaviour of a Ni-Al diffusion coating on austenitic stainless steel (TP347H). Ni-Al coatings were...... corrosion attack. Interdiffusion was studied by isothermal heat treatment in static air at 650˚C or 700˚C for up to 3000h. The Ni2Al3 gradually transformed into NiAl and Ni3Al during the interdiffusion process. Porosity developed at the interface between the Ni-Al coating and the Ni layer and expanded...

  7. Effect of Ti seed and spacer layers on structure and magnetic properties of FeNi thin films and FeNi-based multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalov, A.V., E-mail: [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81} films and FeNi-based multilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • The samples were deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature. • Ti/FeNi films exhibit good (1 1 1) texture and crystallinity. • The thick Cu seed increases the coercive force of the magnetic layer. • The thin Ti spacer restores the magnetic softness of the Cu/Ti/FeNi multilayers. - Abstract: The microstructure and magnetic properties of sputtered permalloy films and FeNi-based multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering have been studied. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that Ti/FeNi films exhibit good (1 1 1) texture and crystallinity. Ti/FeNi bilayers with high crystallographic quality have relatively low resistivity. The Ti seed layer does not influence the magnetic properties of FeNi film in Ti/FeNi bilayers, but the thick Cu seed layer leads to an increase of the coercive force of the magnetic layer. For the FeNi films deposited on thick Cu seed layer, the (0 1 0) and (0 0 2) diffraction peaks of hcp nickel were clearly observed. The thin Ti spacer between Cu and FeNi layers prevents the formation of the nickel phase and restores the magnetic softness of the FeNi layer in the Cu/Ti/FeNi sample. Obtained results can be important for the development of multilayer sensitive elements for giant magnetoimpedance or magnetoresistance detectors.

  8. Catalytic properties of Ni-Zn alloy prepared by mechanical alloying for steam reforming from methanol (United States)

    Park, Jeshin; Kim, Wonbaek; Suh, Changyoul; Kim, Sangbae


    Amorphous Zn65Ni35 alloy, the composition of which lies between β1-NiZn and γ-NiZn phases, was prepared by mechanical alloying for 200 hours. The alloy was heat treated at various temperatures and leached in NaOH solution in an effort to enhance the catalytic properties for hydrogen production from methanol. X-ray diffraction study revealed that the amorphous phase crystallized during the heat treatment to the equilibrium β1-NiZn and γ-NiZn phases. It was found that Zn65Ni35 alloy leached after heat treatment at 928 K showed the highest catalytic activity for steam reforming of methanol. It is believed that the enhanced catalytic activity of the Zn65Ni35 alloy heat treated at 928 K is due to the dispersed Ni particles on β1-ZnNi matrix which was formed during leaching of the γ-Zn21Ni5 phase.

  9. Magnetic exchange at realistic CoO/Ni interfaces (United States)

    Grytsyuk, S.; Cossu, F.; Schwingenschlögl, U.


    We study the CoO/Ni interface by first principles calculations. Because the lattice mismatch is large, a realistic description requires a huge supercell. We investigate two interface configurations: in interface 1 the coupling between the Ni and Co atoms is mediated by O, whereas in interface 2 the Ni and Co atoms are in direct contact. We find that the magnetization (including the orbital moment) in interface 1 has a similar value as in bulk Ni but opposite sign, while in interface 2 it grows by 164%. The obtained magnetic moments can be explained by the local atomic environments. In addition, we find effects of charge transfer between the interface atoms. The Co 3 d local density of states of interface 2 exhibits surprisingly small deviations from the corresponding bulk result, although the first coordination sphere is no longer octahedral.

  10. El Niño causes coral bleaching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Showstack, Randy


    El Niño's extremely warm waters in the Pacific Ocean have caused coral “bleaching” in the waters around the Galapagos Islands, Baja California, and Pacific coast of Panama, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  11. Physical characterisation of endodontic instruments in NiTi alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L. [Messina Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; Marco, G. di [Ist. di Tecniche Spettroscopiche del CNR, Messina (Italy)


    NiTi based endodontic instruments are investigated in functionality and wear. The instrument surfaces have been studied applying Auger electron spectroscopy, mechanical analysis, differential-scanning calorimetry, wear tests, and scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  12. Martensitic transformation in nanostructured Fe-Ni alloys (United States)

    Meng, Q.; Rong, Y.; Hsu, T. Y. Xu Zuyao


    In Fe-Ni thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, the bcc structure can exist stably in a larger range of Ni-content than that in Fe-Ni equilibrium diagram. Furthermore, the experiment verified that the bcc structure forms directly from collision of atoms during the sputtering process, rather than the product of fcctobcc martensitic transformation. The starting temperature for bcctofcc transformation in thin films is near to that of bulk Fe-Ni alloys. Theoretical calculations show that the nucleation barrier of martensitic transformation and the critical size of the martensitic embryo increase with decreasing grain size within the nanometer scale, implying that the martensitic transformation in nano-sized grains would be suppressed. Moreover, the autocatalytic tendency of martensitic transformation is significantly weakened within a transformed grain or within its neighboring grain due to the reduction of probability of martensite nucleation or the drop of the stress field at grain boundary produced by martensitic transformation.

  13. Growth mechanism and magnon excitation in NiO nanowalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chun


    Full Text Available Abstract The nanosized effects of short-range multimagnon excitation behavior and short-circuit diffusion in NiO nanowalls synthesized using the Ni grid thermal treatment method were observed. The energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping technique was used to characterize the growth mechanism, and confocal Raman scattering was used to probe the antiferromagnetic exchange energy J 2 between next-nearest-neighboring Ni ions in NiO nanowalls at various growth temperatures below the Neel temperature. This study shows that short spin correlation leads to an exponential dependence of the growth temperatures and the existence of nickel vacancies during the magnon excitation. Four-magnon configurations were determined from the scattering factor, revealing a lowest state and monotonic change with the growth temperature. PACS: 75.47.Lx; 61.82.Rx; 75.50.Tt; 74.25.nd; 72.10.Di

  14. Magnetic exchange at realistic CoO/Ni interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Grytsiuk, Sergii


    We study the CoO/Ni interface by first principles calculations. Because the lattice mismatch is large, a realistic description requires a huge supercell. We investigate two interface configurations: in interface 1 the coupling between the Ni and Co atoms is mediated by O, whereas in interface 2 the Ni and Co atoms are in direct contact. We find that the magnetization (including the orbital moment) in interface 1 has a similar value as in bulk Ni but opposite sign, while in interface 2 it grows by 164%. The obtained magnetic moments can be explained by the local atomic environments. In addition, we find effects of charge transfer between the interface atoms. The Co 3d local density of states of interface 2 exhibits surprisingly small deviations from the corresponding bulk result, although the first coordination sphere is no longer octahedral. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

  15. NiAl-based approach for rocket combustion chambers (United States)

    Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Gayda, John (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor)


    A multi-layered component, such as a rocket engine combustion chamber, includes NiAl or NiAl-based alloy as a structural layer on the hot side of the component. A second structural layer is formed of material selected from Ni-based superalloys, Co-based alloys, Fe-based alloys, Cu, and Cu-based alloys. The second material is more ductile than the NiAl and imparts increased toughness to the component. The second material is selected to enhance one or more predetermined physical properties of the component. Additional structural layers may be included with the additional material(s) being selected for their impact on physical properties of the component.

  16. Magnetoimpedance of FeNi-based asymmetric sensitive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlenova, A.A., E-mail: [Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensorics, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg, Russian Ferderation (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Science and Technology Park “Fabrica”, Gaidara str. 6, Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Svalov, A.V.; Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensorics, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg, Russian Ferderation (Russian Federation); Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Volchkov, S.O. [Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensorics, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg, Russian Ferderation (Russian Federation)


    [Ti/FeNi]{sub 5}/Ti/Cu/Ti/[FeNi/Ti]{sub x} (x=0–5) multilayers were prepared by sputtering. Their magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance were studied focusing on future technological applications. Both (ΔZ/Z){sub max} and (ΔR/R){sub max} values showed a tendency to decrease with a decrease of the number of magnetic layers of the top multilayer. Such a parameter as an even or odd number of layers is important for the MI value. In the field interval of technological interest all [Ti/FeNi]{sub 5}/Ti/Cu/Ti/[FeNi/Ti]{sub x} structures show similar sensitivities of about 70%/Oe for ΔR/R ratios but the lower the number of magnetic layers in the top multilayer, the higher the operating frequency. - Highlights: • Giant magnetoimpedance effect. • Non-symmetric multilayers sructure. • Biosensing.

  17. Single chamber microbial fuel cell with Ni-Co cathode (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Paweł P.; Kalinichenko, Antonina


    The possibility of wastewater treatment and the parallel energy production using the Ni-Co alloy as cathode catalyst for single chamber microbial fuel cells is presented in this research. The research included a preparation of catalyst and comparison of COD, NH4+ and NO3- reduction in the reactor without aeration, with aeration and with using a single chamber microbial fuel cell with Ni-Co cathode. The reduction time for COD with the use of microbial fuel cell with the Ni-Co catalyst is similar to the reduction time with aeration. The current density (2.4 A·m-2) and amount of energy (0.48 Wh) obtained in MFC is low, but the obtained amount of energy allows elimination of the energy needed for reactor aeration. It has been shown that the Ni-Co can be used as cathode catalyst in single chamber microbial fuel cells.

  18. NiCo2S4@NiMoO4 Core-Shell Heterostructure Nanotube Arrays Grown on Ni Foam as a Binder-Free Electrode Displayed High Electrochemical Performance with High Capacity (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Jie; Zheng, Yayun; Zhang, Yingjiu; Hu, Xing; Xu, Tingting


    Core-shell-structured system has been proved as one of the best architecture for clean energy products owing to its inherited superiorities from both the core and the shell part, which can provide better conductivity and high surface area. Herein, a hierarchical core-shell NiCo2S4@NiMoO4 heterostructure nanotube array on Ni foam (NF) (NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF) has been successfully fabricated. Because of its novel heterostructure, the capacitive performance has been enhanced. A specific capacitance up to 2006 F g-1 was obtained at a current density of 5 mA cm-2, which was far higher than that of pristine NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays (about 1264 F g-1). More importantly, NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF and active carbon (AC) were congregated as positive electrode and negative electrode in an asymmetric supercapacitor. As-fabricated NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF//AC device has a good cyclic behavior with 78% capacitance retention over 2000 cycles, and exhibits a high energy density of 21.4 Wh kg-1 and power density of 58 W kg-1 at 2 mA cm-2. As displayed, the NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF core-shell herterostructure holds great promise for supercapacitors in energy storage.

  19. Fracturas de cadera en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro A. Vanegas


    Full Text Available Se hizo una evaluación retrospectiva de los resultados finales obtenidos en 37 niñas y 34 niños, de 2 a 16 años, con fractura de cadera, tratados por el grupo de Ortopedia Infantil de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia y el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de
    Paúl, entre 1976 y 1986.

  20. Cu–Ni nanoalloy phase diagram – Prediction and experiment


    Sopoušek Jiří; Vřešťál Jan; Pinkas Jiří; Brož Pavel; Buršík Jiří; Stýskalík Aleš; Škoda David; Zobač Ondřej; Lee Joonho


    The Cu-Ni nanoalloy phase diagram respecting the nanoparticle size as an extra variable was calculated by the CALPHAD method. The samples of the Cu-Ni nanoalloys were prepared by the solvothermal synthesis from metal precursors. The samples were characterized by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP/OES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The n...

  1. Négation et coordination: la conjonction ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de


    Dans cet article, nous étudions la position de ni dans le système de la négation en français moderne. Notre point de départ réside dans l'observation que ni est une conjonction de coordination (section 1), qui sert à unir deux phrases ou syntagmes négatifs (section 2). Sur la base de la

  2. Ni-cd Battery Life Expectancy in Geosynchronous Orbit (United States)

    Broderick, R. J.


    The feasibility of using nickel cadmium batteries as an alternate if flight qualified NiH2 batteries are not available is explored. Battery life expectancy data being a key element of power system design, an attempt is made to review the literature, life test data and in orbit performance data to develop an up to date estimate of life expectancy for NiCd batteries in a geosynchronous orbit.

  3. Ni-catalyzed reductive addition of alkyl halides to isocyanides. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Dai, Yijing; Tong, Weiqi; Gong, Hegui


    This paper highlights Ni-catalyzed reductive trapping of secondary and tertiary alkyl radicals with both electron-rich and electron-deficient aryl isocyanides using zinc as the terminal reductant, affording 6-alkylated phenanthridine in good yields. The employment of carbene ligands necessitates the alkyl radical process, and represents the first utility in the Ni-catalyzed reductive conditions for the generation of unactivated alkyl radicals from the halide precursors.

  4. Remedio para una niñez descarriada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria D'hers


    Full Text Available ¿Cómo una manifestación conductual pasa a convertirse en una enfermedad? ¿Alguien (un niño está enfermo porque se mueve demasiado o habla mucho? Desde estas preguntas y su contextualización, MN Míguez nos interpela con datos que deberían alarmarnos: un 30% de los niños uruguayos son medicados a base de risperidona, metilfenidato, valproato, clonazepam y sertralina. ¿Está tan enferma la niñez uruguaya? Mejor observemos y analicemos las mediaciones del saber/poder en la distinción entre enfermedad y salud. Así, nos propone un camino que se articula rastreando este uso y abuso de psicofármacos en la niñez, a la vez que analiza el discurso de niños, padres, familias, referentes de la salud y la educación, quienes se ven involucrados en este presente de la niñez uruguaya patologizada. Pero no se trata de hablar en términos de “buenos” ni “malos”, dirá, sino de evidenciar un problema analizando la sociedad uruguaya como colectivo: “en ese 30% de la niñez uruguaya medicalizada lo que se cuestiona es la subjetividad inmanente en los diagnósticos que apelan extrema objetividad científica.” Consecuentemente, Míguez despliega su investigación desde una posición ética específica, rescatando la voz de los considerados “no calificados”, y asumiendo un proceso reflexivo respecto de su propia indagación/posición.

  5. Sensitization of p-type NiO using n-type conducting polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavhan, S.D.; Abellon, R.D.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Koetse, M.M.; Sweelssen, J.; Savenije, T.J.


    We report on the sensitization of a p-type inorganic semiconductor, NiO, by n-type conjugated polymers. NiO thin films were deposited using RF sputtering in pure Ar (NiO A) or in Ar + O2 (90% + 10%) (NiO B). XPS and Kelvin probe measurements indicate the incorporation of oxygen in NiO B

  6. Intrinsic unpredictability of strong El Ni\\~no events

    CERN Document Server

    Guckenheimer, John; Timmermann, Axel; Dijkstra, Henk


    The El Ni\\~no-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a mode of interannual variability in the coupled equatorial ocean/atmosphere Pacific. El Ni\\~no describes a state in which sea surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific increase and upwelling of colder, deep waters diminishes. El Ni\\~no events typically peak in boreal winter, but their strength varies irregularly on decadal time scales. There were exceptionally strong El Ni\\~no events in 1982-83, 1997-98 and 2015-16 that affected weather on a global scale. Widely publicized forecasts in 2014 predicted that the 2015-16 event would occur a year earlier. Predicting the strength of El Ni\\~no is a matter of practical concern due to its effects on hydroclimate and agriculture around the world. This paper presents a new robust mechanism limiting the predictability of strong ENSO events: the existence of an irregular switching between an oscillatory state that has strong El Ni\\~no events and a chaotic state that lacks strong events, which can be induced by very weak seas...

  7. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of nanosized Ni complexed aminoclay (United States)

    Ranchani, A. Amala Jeya; Parthasarathy, V.; Devi, A. Anitha; Meenarathi, B.; Anbarasan, R.


    A novel Ni complexed aminoclay (AC) catalyst was prepared by complexation method followed by reduction reaction. Various analytical techniques such as FTIR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, DSC, TGA, SEM, HRTEM, EDX, XPS and WCA measurement are used to characterize the synthesized material. The AC-Ni catalyst system exhibited improved thermal stability and fiber-like morphology. The XPS results declared the formation of Ni nanoparticles. Thus, synthesized catalyst was tested towards the Schiff base formation reaction between various bio-medical polymers and aniline under air atmosphere at 85 °C for 24 h. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was studied by varying the % weight loading of the AC-Ni system towards the Schiff base formation. The Schiff base formation was quantitatively calculated by the 1H-NMR spectroscopy. While increasing the % weight loading of the AC-Ni catalyst, the % yield of Schiff base was also increased. The k app and Ti values were determined for the reduction of indole and α-terpineol in the presence of AC-Ni catalyst system. The experimental results were compared with the literature report.

  8. Revisiting Mg–Mg2Ni System from Electronic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qian


    Full Text Available Both Mg and Mg2Ni are promising electrode materials in conversion-type secondary batteries. Earlier studies have shown their single-phase prospects in electro-devices, while in this work, we have quantitatively reported the electronic properties of their dual-phase materials, that is, Mg–Mg2Ni alloys, and analyzed the underlying reasons behind the property changes of materials. The hypoeutectic Mg–Mg2Ni alloys are found to be evidently more conductive than the hypereutectic Mg–Mg2Ni system. The density functional theory (DFT calculations give the intrinsic origin of electronic structures of both Mg2Ni and Mg. The morphology of quasi-nanoscale eutectics is another factor that can affect the electronic properties of the investigated alloy system; that is, the electrical property change of the investigated alloys system is due to a combination of the intrinsic property difference between the two constituting phases and the change of eutectic microstructures that affect electron scattering. In addition, regarding the Mg–Mg2Ni alloy design for device applications, the electronic property and mechanical aspect should be well balanced.

  9. The influence of Ni(II) on brushite structure stabilization (United States)

    Guerra-López, J. R.; Güida, J. A.; Ramos, M. A.; Punte, G.


    Brushite samples doped with Ni(II) in different concentrations, from 5% to 20%, were prepared in aqueous solution at pH = 7 and at two temperatures: 25 and 37 °C. The solid samples were characterized by chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Chemical analysis has shown Ni(II) almost complete incorporation to the solid phase up to 15%. X-ray diffraction patterns have allowed to identify brushite phase with almost no modification of the line breadth and only small shifts of lines positions with increasing Ni(II) incorporation up to 15%. For larger Ni(II) concentration, in solution, a mixture of phases has been detected. Infrared spectra have supported diffraction results. For Ni(II) 20% and over the characteristic bands of HPO42- anions tend to vanish, and the typical shaped PO43- bands are observed. These results have allowed to establish that the presence of low levels of Ni in the synthetic process not only helps brushite formation; but, also prevents brushite from apatite conversion and, in addition, preserves brushite crystallinity. According to these findings, it is possible to propose that nickel traces present in the urinary system might be a trigger to brushite stone formation and/or growth, rather than the expected brushite conversion to hydroxyapatite. This outcome would explain the recurrent detection of difficult to treat brushite stones, observed in the last three decades.

  10. Reduction of nitrate by bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles. (United States)

    Kang, Haiyan; Xiu, Zongming; Chen, Jiawei; Cao, Wenping; Guo, Yifei; Li, Tielong; Jin, Zhaohui


    Bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles were synthesized and their nitrate reduction capacity was studied. Nitrate (354 mg L(-1), equal to 5.71 mmol L(-1)) reduction was performed using Fe/Ni nanoparticles with various Ni contents (1.0, 5.0, 10 and 20%) in an unbuffered condition. Optimum nitrate reduction rate (1.03 +/- 0.087 x 10(-4) mol x min(-1) x greduc(-1)) was obtained with 5.0% nano-scale Fe/Ni, while only 25% nitrate (1.05 +/- 0.091 x 10(-5) mol x min(-1) x greduc(-1)) was transformed by nano-scale Fe(0) within the same reaction time, which means that these bimetallic nanoparticles are obviously more reactive than monometallic nano-scale Fe(0). For this bimetallic system a near-neutral initial pH (6.5) is more favourable than an acidic condition (2.0 and 4.0). Relatively air-stable nano-scale Fe/Ni particles were developed by slowly aging them for 22 h and exhibited similar reactivity to freshly synthesized nano-scale Fe(0). Although undesirable transformation of nitrate (91.0 +/- 0.37%) to ammonium was observed in this study, Fe/Ni particles showed a much higher nitrate reduction rate and an optimum reduction rate at near-neutral pH, which may have important implications for nitrate-contaminated site remediation.

  11. Thickness dependent crystallographic transition in Fe/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggstroem, Lennart [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Department of Materials Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 530, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Soroka, Inna [Department of Materials Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 530, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Kamali, Saeed, E-mail: lennart.haggstrom@fysik.uu.s [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, Cal. 95616 (United States)


    The crystallographic transition between bcc- and fcc-structures has been studied in Fe/Ni multilayers with Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Layered structures have been confirmed and the structures depends both on individual layer thickness and the ratio of the constituents. Two sets of samples are made: the Fe layer thickness kept constant to 12 monolayer (ML) and 24ML, while the Ni layer thicknesses varied from 3 to 12ML. When the Ni layer is thin, the Fe/Ni multilayers have the bcc phase. When the thickness of Ni layer reaches 6ML and larger, a gradual transition to the fcc phase occurs. Moessbauer spectroscopy studies confirm the existence of a magnetic Fe bcc phase with in-plane magnetization in all samples, two magnetic fcc phases with fields of 28 T and 10 T and small amounts of nonmagnetic fcc phases in the thicker films. The observed behaviour can be attributed to the existence of two types of interfaces which are not necessary overlapping each other: An elemental interface between Fe and Ni and a structural interface between fcc and bcc phases.

  12. Joseph Miceu: grammairien niçois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Rouchoux


    Full Text Available En 1840, paraît à Nice la grammaire nissarde de I'Abbé Jòusè Micèu. Grammatica Nissarda, per empara en pòou de temp lo Patouas dòou Pais. De D. Giausep Miceu, Curat de Sant'Estève, Nissa. C'est alors la première grammaire nissarde en langue nissarde. 1. Joseph Micèu est né le 17 avril 1796, Rue du Bon Air, dans le Vieux Nice. C'est un Niçois de vieille souche de ce Comté. La «noble» famille Micèu, qui est d'un milieu social moyennement élevé, donne une éducation convenable à ses enfants, en particuliers à Joseph qui entreprend de longues études au séminaire. En 1822, il est nommé recteur, puis curé de St. Etienne dans la campagne de Nice. Il y restera jusqu'à sa mort, le 14 juin 1877.

  13. Preliminary Microstructural and Microscratch Results of Ni-Cr-Fe and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings on Magnesium Substrate (United States)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Lupescu, S.; Benchea, M.; Vizureanu, P.


    Thermal coatings have a large scale application in aerospace and automotive field, as barriers improving wear mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance. In present research, there have been used two types of coatings, Ni-Cr-Fe, respectively Cr3C2-NiCr which were deposited on magnesium based alloys (pure magnesium and Mg-30Y master alloy). There have been investigated the microstructural aspects through scanning electronic microscopy and XRD analysis and also a series of mechanical characteristics through microscratch and indentation determinations. The results revealed the formation of some adherent layers resistant to the penetration of the metallic indenter, the coatings did not suffer major damages. Microstructural analysis highlighted the formation of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr3Ni2, Cr7Ni3, FeNi3, Cr-Ni phases. Also, the apparent coefficient of friction for Ni-Cr-Fe coatings presents superior values than Cr3C2-NiCr coatings.

  14. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Liu


    Full Text Available The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h−1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  15. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy and Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhang, Ming-Yi [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Xue, Can, E-mail:, E-mail: [Solar Fuels Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)


    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  16. Migración con rostro de niños, niñas y adolescentes


    Álvaro Caballeros


    El artículo presenta un análisis descriptivo de los niños, niñas y adolescentes migrantes no acompañados que fueron deportados y atendidos por el Hogar Casa Nuestras Raíces de la Secretaría de Bienestar Social de la Secretaría de Bienestar Social de Guatemala. La información presentada se deriva de los registros del Centro, de entrevistas realizadas con los niños, niñas y adolescentes atendidos en el mismo, y en datos oficiales del Instituto Nacional de Migración de México. El artículo presen...

  17. Synthesis of FeNi-Ceramic composite by carbothermal reduction from Fe2O3-WO3-Ni system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutham Niyomwas


    Full Text Available FeNi-Ceramics (Fe3W3C, Fe6W6C composite powder was synthesized by carbothermal reduction of Fe2O3-WO3-Ni mixture under argon gas atmosphere at 1200oC temperature. The standard Gibbs energy minimization method was used to calculate the equilibrium composition of the reacting species. Effects of synthesis milling time of precursors on the FeNi-Ceramics conversion were investigated. The resulted product phases and morphologies were identified using XRD and SEM methods. The synthesized products showed composite of ceramic (Fe3W3C, Fe6W6C and iron-nickel alloy (FeNi phases.

  18. Las transiciones escolares: una oportunidad de desarrollo integral para niños y niñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Victoria Alvarado


    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos los resultados de una investigación sobre las transiciones educativas del hogar al centro de cuidado y de éste al preescolar y la primaria en niños y niñas indígenas de la comunidad Embera Chamí en Riosucio, Caldas, Colombia. Conceptualizamos las transiciones como momentos críticos de cambio que viven los niños y las niñas al pasar de un ambiente a otro, abriendo oportunidades para su desarrollo humano y su aprendizaje para la vida y la escuela, en un estudio de caso cualitativo con enfoque histórico hermenéutico. Los resultados aportan elementos importantes para comprender diversas visiones sobre las transiciones, evidenciando distanciamientos y tensiones entre actores, escenarios y prácticas. Concluimos que las articulaciones son un elemento clave en este proceso.

  19. Justificaciones morales de los niños y niñas acerca de la sexualidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bolívar Bonilla


    Full Text Available En este artículo sintetizo una investigación sobre las justificaciones morales acerca de la sexualidad, realizada con dos grupos de niños y niñas, pertenecientes a una institución educativa pública y a una privada, de la ciudad de Neiva (Colombia. Acudo para ello a un enfoque epistemológico cualitativo. En las conclusiones propongo la hipótesis de un pluralismo moral infantil sobre la sexualidad y la imposibilidad de encasillar la complejidad del juicio moral en un único sendero teórico. Durante la interpretación de las justificaciones morales ofrezco una comparación de lo hallado entre géneros e instituciones educativas. Finalmente, formulo algunas sugerencias para la educación moral y sexual de los niños y niñas.

  20. Depresión en niños y niñas con cáncer


    González Hernández, Yolanda del Refugio


    La depresión infantil existe y está presente en muchos niños y niñas hoy en día, principalmente porque se han incrementando los factores de riesgo para su aparición. Uno de estos grandes factores es la pérdida de la salud, la amenaza de daño a la propia estructura física, psicológica y social del niño o la niña. El cáncer infantil logra romper esta estructura. La presente revisión bibliográfica pretende exponer aquellos estudios que se han realizado sobre la depresión infantil, su relación co...

  1. Justificaciones morales de los niños y niñas acerca de la sexualidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bolívar Bonilla


    Full Text Available En este artículo sintetizo una investigación sobre las justificaciones morales acerca de la sexualidad, realizada con dos grupos de niños y niñas, pertenecientes a una institución educativa pública y a una privada, de la ciudad de Neiva (Colombia. Acudo para ello a un enfoque epistemológico cualitativo.En las conclusiones propongo la hipótesis de un pluralismo moral infantil sobre la sexualidad y la imposibilidad de encasillar la complejidad del juicio moral en un único sendero teórico. Durante la interpretación de las justificaciones morales ofrezco una comparación de lo hallado entre géneros e instituciones educativas. Finalmente, formulo algunas sugerencias para la educación moral y sexual de los niños y niñas.

  2. Spin-glass transition in Ni carbide single crystal nanoparticles with Ni3C − type structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fujieda


    Full Text Available Hexagonal shaped nanoparticles about 60 nm in size were successfully synthesized in tetraethylene glycol solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone. By the analysis of the electron diffraction pattern, these were identified as a single crystal of Ni carbide with Ni3C − type structure. Their magnetization curve at 5 K was not completely saturated under a magnetic field of 5 T. The thermomagnetization curves after zero-field cooling and after field cooling exhibited the magnetic cooling effect at low temperatures. Furthermore, the 2nd order nonlinear term of AC magnetic susceptibility exhibited a negative divergence at about 17 K. It is concluded that Ni carbide single crystal nanoparticles with the Ni3C − type structure exhibit spin-glass transition at low temperatures.

  3. Catalysts characteristics of Ni/YSZ core-shell according to plating conditions using electroless plating (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Wook; Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, Jong-Heun; Hwang, Hae-jin; Lee, Mi-Jai


    This study aims to develop an anode catalyst for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using electroless nickel plating. We have proposed a new method for electroless plating of Ni metal on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particles. We examine the uniformity of the Ni layer on the plated core-shell powder, in addition to the content of Ni and the reproducibility of the plating. We have also evaluated the carbon deposition rate and characteristics of the SOFC anode catalyst. To synthesize Ni-plated YSZ particles, the plated powder is heat-treated at 1200 °C. The resultant particles, which have an average size of 50 μm, were subsequently used in the experiment. The size of the Ni particles and the Ni content both increase with increasing plating temperature and plating time. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the growth of Ni particles. After heat-treatment, Ni is oxidized to NiO, leading to the co-existence of Ni and NiO; Ni3P is also observed due to the presence of phosphorous in the plating solution. Following heat treatment for 1 h at 1200 °C, Ni is mostly oxidized to NiO. The carbon deposition rate of the reference YSZ powder is 135%, while that of the Ni-plated YSZ is 1%-6%.

  4. A new family of 1D, 2D and 3D frameworks aggregated from Ni5, Ni4 and Ni7 building units: synthesis, structure, and magnetism. (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Hui; Lu, Li-Ping; Zhu, Miao-Li; Feng, Si-Si; Su, Feng


    Three new Ni(ii)-clusters based on a Y-shaped ligand (biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate, H3BPT), [Ni5(HBPT)4(OH)2(H2O)12]n (), [Ni4(BPT)2(OH)2(H2O)6]n·4nH2O (), and [Ni7(BPT)2(1,4-bib)2(OH)6(HCO2)2]n·3nH2O () (1,4-bib = 1,4-bi(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. They were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and magnetochemistry. The complexes contain low nuclear Ni-clusters as building units (BUs). Structurally, in , the cluster BUs of [Ni5(μ3-OH)2](8+) can be viewed as two reverse triangles sharing a common vertex, which are connected by the partially deprotonated μ2-η(1):η(1)-HBPT(2-) forming 1D chains. The BUs of [Ni4(μ3-OH)2](6+) clusters in can be considered as two reverse triangles sharing a common edge and extended by deprotonated μ6-η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(2)-BPT(3-) constructing a 2D framework. The 3D framework of complex consists of a [Ni7(μ3-OH)4(R-COO)7(HCO2)3] cluster BUs with fully deprotonated μ5-η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1)-BPT(3-) and 1,4-bib ligands. In addition, TGA reveals that the complexes are stable in the range of 293-548 K. Magnetostructural analyses indicate ferromagnetic coupling of J1 = 1.85(3) and J2 = 2.25(4) cm(-1) in and J = 5.76(6) cm(-1) in , whereas magnetic parameters J1 = -2.64(3), J2 = -23.22(19) and J3 = 12.02(5) cm(-1) indicate an alternating magnetic chain (AF/F) in .

  5. Characterization of Sputtered Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) (United States)


    ARL-TR-7526 ● NOV 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally...ARL-TR-7526 ● NOV 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally...10/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi

  6. Plasticity and microstructure of epitaxial Ag/Ni multilayers; Mechanische Eigenschaften und Mikrostruktur epitaktischer Ag/Ni-Multilagenschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias K.


    To meet the still increasing technical demands of new materials, it is required to improve basic knowledge of thin films and multilayers. This thesis describes the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of thin epitaxial Ag/Ni-multilayers. Former investigations were only done on polycrystalline multilayers or epitaxial single layers. The manufacture of epitaxial Ag/Ni-multilayers on (111) orientated Si-substrates was performed by a magnetron sputtering technique under ultra high vacuum (UHV). The thickness of the alternating Ag- and Ni-layers varies between 100 and 400 nm, the thickness of the whole film varies between 200 and 800 nm. Hardness and flow stress of Ag/Ni-multilayers were measured with a nanoindentation technique, a substrate curvature method and by X-ray diffraction. The hardness of these multilayers varies between 1.5 and 2.0 GPa. The Ag single film hardness is 0.5 GPa and Ni film 1.8 GPa. The flow stress of the Ag/Ni-multilayers varies between 350 and 800 MPa. The Ag single layer shows a flow stress of 100 MPa and Ni of 450 MPa. Both hardness and flow stress increase with decreasing layer thickness. In situ TEM and HRTEM experiments showed a semicoherent Ag/Ni-interface. It was observed that these interfaces act as sources and sinks. Dislocation loops formed at the interface expand and shrink according to the stress state. They combine with loops from the opposite interface or with the interface itself and form threading dislocations. Dislocation loops penetrating an interface were not observed. Results were compared with various models which simulate flow stress in thin films and multilayers. The most important models are calculated by Nix-Freund, the Source-model after von Blanckenhagen and the Hall-Petch-model. (orig.)

  7. Embedding the Ni-SOD mimetic Ni-NCC within a polypeptide sequence alters specificity of the reaction pathway (United States)

    Krause, Mary E.; Glass, Amanda M.; Jackson, Timothy A.; Laurence, Jennifer S.


    The unique metal abstracting peptide (MAP) asparagine-cysteine-cysteine (NCC) binds nickel in a square planar 2N:2S geometry and acts as a mimic of the enzyme nickel superoxide dismutase (Ni-SOD). The Ni-NCC tripeptide complex undergoes rapid, site-specific chiral inversion to DLD-NCC in the presence of oxygen. Superoxide scavenging activity increases proportionally with the degree of chiral inversion. Characterization of the NCC sequence within longer peptides with absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and magnetic CD (MCD) spectroscopies and mass spectrometry (MS) shows that the geometry of metal coordination is maintained, though the electronic properties of the complex are varied to a small extent due to bis-amide, rather than amine/amide, coordination. In addition, both the Ni-tripeptides and Ni-pentapeptides have a −2 charge. The study here demonstrates that the chiral inversion chemistry does not occur when NCC is embedded in a longer polypeptide sequence. Nonetheless, the superoxide scavenging reactivity of the embedded Ni-NCC module is similar to that of the chirally inverted tripeptide complex, which is consistent with a minor change in reduction potential for the Ni-pentapeptide. Together, this suggests that the charge of the complex could affect the SOD activity as much as a change in primary coordination sphere. In Ni-NCC and other Ni-SOD mimics, changes in chirality, superoxide scavenging activity, and oxidation of the peptide itself all depend on the presence of dioxygen or its reduced derivatives (e.g., superoxide), and the extent to which each of these distinct reactions occurs is ruled by electronic and steric effects that emenate from the organization of ligands around the metal center. PMID:23214928

  8. Monodisperse core/shell Ni/FePt nanoparticles and their conversion to Ni/Pt to catalyze oxygen reduction. (United States)

    Zhang, Sen; Hao, Yizhou; Su, Dong; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V T; Wu, Yaoting; Li, Jing; Sun, Shouheng; Murray, Christopher B


    We report a size-controllable synthesis of monodisperse core/shell Ni/FePt nanoparticles (NPs) via a seed-mediated growth and their subsequent conversion to Ni/Pt NPs. Preventing surface oxidation of the Ni seeds is essential for the growth of uniform FePt shells. These Ni/FePt NPs have a thin (≈1 nm) FePt shell and can be converted to Ni/Pt by acetic acid wash to yield active catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Tuning the core size allows the optimization of their electrocatalytic activity. The specific activity and mass activity of 4.2/0.8 nm core/shell Ni/FePt after acetic acid wash reach 1.95 mA/cm(2) and 490 mA/mgPt at 0.9 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode), which are much higher than those of benchmark commercial Pt catalyst (0.34 mA/cm(2) and 92 mA/mgPt at 0.9 V). Our studies provide a robust approach to monodisperse core/shell NPs with nonprecious metal core, making it possible to develop advanced NP catalysts with ultralow Pt content for ORR and many other heterogeneous reactions.

  9. Three-Dimensionally Hierarchical Ni/Ni3S2/S Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Battery. (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Shiguo; Zhang, Jiaheng; Xu, Miao; Tatara, Ryoichi; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi


    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted interest as a promising energy-storage technology due to their overwhelming advantages such as high energy density and low cost. However, their commercial success is impeded by deterioration of sulfur utilization, significant capacity fade, and poor cycle life, which are principally originated from the severe shuttle effect in relation to the dissolution and migration of lithium polysulfides. Herein, we proposed an effective and facile strategy to anchor the polysulfides and improve sulfur loading by constructing a three-dimensionally hierarchical Ni/Ni3S2/S cathode. This self-supported hybrid architecture is sequentially fabricated by the partial sulfurization of Ni foam by a mild hydrothermal process, followed by physical loading of elemental sulfur. The incorporation of Ni3S2, with high electronic conductivity and strong polysulfide adsorption capability, can not only empower the cathode to alleviate the shuttle effect, but also afford a favorable electrochemical environment with lower interfacial resistance, which could facilitate the redox kinetics of the anchored polysulfides. Consequently, the obtained Ni/Ni3S2/S cathode with a sulfur loading of ∼4.0 mg/cm2 demonstrated excellent electrochemical characteristics. For example, at high current density of 4 mA/cm2, this thick cathode demonstrated a discharge capacity of 441 mAh/g at the 150th cycle.

  10. Microstructure and Properties of Ni and Ni/Al2O3 Coatings Electrodeposited at Various Current Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góral A.


    Full Text Available The study presents investigations of an influence of various direct current densities on microstructure, residual stresses, texture, microhardness and corrosion resistance of the nickel coatings electrodeposited from modified Watt’s baths. The properties of obtained coatings were compared to the nano-crystalline composite Ni/Al2O3 coatings prepared under the same plating conditions. The similarities and differences of the obtained coatings microstructures visible on both their surfaces and cross sections and determined properties were presented. The differences in the growth character of the Ni matrix and in the microstructural properties were observed. All electrodeposited Ni and Ni/Al2O3 coatings were compact and well adhering to the steel substrates. The thickness and the microhardness of the Ni and Ni/Al2O3 deposits increased significantly with the current density in the range 2 - 6 A/dm2. Residual stresses are tensile and they reduced as the current density increased. The composite coatings revealed better protection from the corrosion of steel substrate than pure nickel in solution 1 M NaCl.

  11. Chemical and electrical characteristics of annealed Ni/Au and Ni/Ir/Au contacts on AlGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoepe, P.N.M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa); Meyer, W.E.; Auret, F.D.; Omotoso, E.; Diale, M. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa); Swart, H.C.; Duvenhage, M.M.; Coetsee, E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)


    The evolution of Ni/Au and Ni/Ir/Au metal contacts deposited on AlGaN was investigated at different annealing temperatures. The samples were studied with electrical and chemical composition techniques. I–V characteristics of the Schottky diodes were optimum after 500 and 600 °C annealing for Ni/Au and Ni/Ir/Au based diodes, respectively. The depth profiles of the contacts were measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. These chemical composition techniques were used to examine the evolution of the metal contacts in order to verify the influence the metals have on the electrical properties of the diodes. The insertion of Ir as a diffusion barrier between Ni and Au effected the electrical properties, improving the stability of the contacts at high temperatures. Gold diffused into the AlGaN film, degrading the electrical properties of the Ni/Au diode. At 500 °C, the insertion of Ir, however, prevented the in-diffusion of Au into the AlGaN substrate.

  12. Ni-P and Ni-Cu-P modified carbon catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation in KOH solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, R.M. Abdel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); El-Khatib, K.M. [Chem. Eng. and Pilot Plant Department Engineering Division, National Research center, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)


    The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol was studied on Ni-P and Ni-Cu-P supported over commercial carbon electrodes in 0.1 M KOH solution. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques were employed. Electroless deposition technique was adopted for the preparation of these catalysts. The effect of the electroless deposition parameters on the catalytic activity of the formed samples was examined. They involve the variation of the deposition time, pH and temperature. The scanning electron micrography showed a compact Ni-P surface with a smooth and low porous structure. A decreased amount of nickel and phosphorus was detected by EDX analysis in the formed catalyst after adding copper to the deposition solution. However, an improvement in the catalytic performance of Ni-Cu-P/C samples was noticed. This is attributed to the presence of copper hydroxide/nickel oxyhydroxide species. It suppresses the formation of {gamma}-NiOOH phase and stabilizes {beta}-NiOOH form. Linear dependence of the oxidation current density on the square root of the scan rate reveals the diffusion controlled behaviour. (author)

  13. El concepto de tiempo en niños y niñas de primer a sexto grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa León


    Full Text Available En este artículo resumo los resultados de mi tesis doctoral sobre el tema de la construcción del concepto tiempo en niños y niñas de 1° a 6° grado de la educación general básica, particularmente desde el aprendizaje que se da de éste en los Estudios Sociales en Costa Rica. Utilicé en el estudio un diseño mixto; en este caso, reporto solamente los resultados del componente cuantitativo y la aplicación de un cuestionario con 148 niños y niñas. Encontré que se da un dominio creciente de los diversos componentes del concepto tiempo conforme se avanza en el sistema educativo, pero que el dominio depende más de las experiencias que de los aprendizajes formales, y que aún en 6to grado muchos niños y niñas tienen dificultades con nociones básicas del concepto.

  14. The constitution of the ternary system Ti-Ni-C; Die Konstitution des Dreistoffes Ti-Ni-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, J.C.; Du, Y. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie


    The system Ti-Ni-C was completely re-examined taking a new approach applying XRD, DTA, SEM-EDX and light microscopy, for elaboration of a complete thermodynamic description of the system. The carbon solubility in the binary Ti-Ni compounds is of significance only in the Ti{sub 2}Ni phase, and was found to be 4 at% at 900 C. The thermodynamic description thus achieved enables precise determination of the solubilities of Ti and C in solid or liquid nickel. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das System Ti-Ni-C wurde mittels XRD, DTA, SEM-EDX und Lichtmikroskopie umfassend neu untersucht mit dem Ziel, eine komplette thermodynamische Beschreibung zu ermoeglichen. Die Kohlenstoffloeslichkeit in den binaeren Ti-Ni Verbindungen ist nur fuer die Phase Ti{sub 2}Ni signifikant. Bei 900 C betrug sie 4 at% C. Die erarbeitete thermodynamische Beschreibung erlaubt eine praezise Darstellung der Ti- und C-Loeslichkeiten in festem und fluessigem Nickel. (orig.)

  15. Neutron-capture rates for explosive nucleosynthesis: the case of 68Ni(n, γ)69Ni (United States)

    Spyrou, A.; Larsen, A. C.; Liddick, S. N.; Naqvi, F.; Crider, B. P.; Dombos, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Couture, A.; Crespo Campo, L.; Lewis, R.; Mosby, S.; Mumpower, M. R.; Perdikakis, G.; Prokop, C. J.; Quinn, S. J.; Renstrøm, T.; Siem, S.; Surman, R.


    Neutron-capture reactions play an important role in heavy element nucleosynthesis, since they are the driving force for the two processes that create the vast majority of the heavy elements. When a neutron capture occurs on a short-lived nucleus, it is extremely challenging to study the reaction directly and therefore the use of indirect techniques is essential. The present work reports on such an indirect measurement that provides strong constraints on the 68Ni(n, γ)69Ni reaction rate. This is done by populating the compound nucleus 69Ni via the β decay of 69Co and measuring the γ-ray deexcitation of excited states in 69Ni. The β-Oslo method was used to extract the γ-ray strength function and the nuclear level density. In addition the half-life of 69Co was extracted and found to be in agreement with previous literature values. Before the present results, the 68Ni(n, γ)69Ni reaction was unconstrained and the purely theoretical reaction rate was highly uncertain. The new uncertainty on the reaction rate based on the present experiment (variation between upper and lower limit) is approximately a factor of 3. The commonly used reaction libraries JINA-REACLIB and BRUSLIB are in relatively good agreement with the experimental rate. The impact of the new rate on weak r-process calculations is discussed.

  16. Percolation Phase Transition of Surface Air Temperature Networks under Attacks of El Niño/La Niña. (United States)

    Lu, Zhenghui; Yuan, Naiming; Fu, Zuntao


    In this study, sea surface air temperature over the Pacific is constructed as a network, and the influences of sea surface temperature anomaly in the tropical central eastern Pacific (El Niño/La Niña) are regarded as a kind of natural attack on the network. The results show that El Niño/La Niña leads an abrupt percolation phase transition on the climate networks from stable to unstable or metastable phase state, corresponding to the fact that the climate condition changes from normal to abnormal significantly during El Niño/La Niña. By simulating three different forms of attacks on an idealized network, including Most connected Attack (MA), Localized Attack (LA) and Random Attack (RA), we found that both MA and LA lead to stepwise phase transitions, while RA leads to a second-order phase transition. It is found that most attacks due to El Niño/La Niña are close to the combination of MA and LA, and a percolation critical threshold Pc can be estimated to determine whether the percolation phase transition happens. Therefore, the findings in this study may renew our understandings of the influence of El Niño/La Niña on climate, and further help us in better predicting the subsequent events triggered by El Niño/La Niña.

  17. The effects of Ta on the formation of Ni-silicide in Ni{sub 0.95x}Ta{sub x0.05}/Si systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongwon [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, Kihoon [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Dae-Hong [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail:; Choi, Siyoung [Process Development Team, Semiconductor R and D Division, Samsung Electronics Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Ja-Hum [Process Development Team, Semiconductor R and D Division, Samsung Electronics Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Cheol-Woong [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    We investigated a comparative study on the silicide formation in the Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05}/Si alloy systems and Ni/Si systems. Ni and Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05} films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrate by DC magnetron sputtering and processed at various silicidation temperatures. The sheet resistance of the silicide from the Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05}/Si alloy systems was obtained at lower values than those in pure Ni/Si systems at any temperature. Using RBS and TEM analyses, we confirmed the presence of a Ta rich layer at the top of the Ni-silicide layer and the presence of small amounts of Ta in the silicide layer. The stability of the silicide layer for the Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05} systems is explained by the presence of the Ta rich layer on top of the Ni-silicide layer, as well as by the presence of the small amount of Ta in the Ni-silicide layer. The Ni-silicide using Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05}/Si system displayed a stable sheet resistance value of {approx}5 {omega}/sq which was maintained during the anneal process at 600 deg. C.

  18. Hierarchical Heterostructures of NiCo2O4@XMoO4 (X = Ni, Co) as an Electrode Material for High-Performance Supercapacitors (United States)

    Hu, Jiyu; Qian, Feng; Song, Guosheng; Wang, Linlin


    Hierarchical heterostructures of NiCo2O4@XMoO4 (X = Ni, Co) were developed as an electrode material for supercapacitor with improved pseudocapacitive performance. Within these hierarchical heterostructures, the mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays directly grown on the Ni foam can not only act as an excellent pseudocapacitive material but also serve as a hierarchical scaffold for growing NiMoO4 or CoMoO4 electroactive materials (nanosheets). The electrode made of NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 presented a highest areal capacitance of 3.74 F/cm2 at 2 mA/cm2, which was much higher than the electrodes made of NiCo2O4@CoMoO4 (2.452 F/cm2) and NiCo2O4 (0.456 F/cm2), respectively. Meanwhile, the NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 electrode exhibited good rate capability. It suggested the potential of the hierarchical heterostructures of NiCo2O4@CoMoO4 as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  19. Hierarchical Heterostructures of NiCo2O4@XMoO4 (X = Ni, Co) as an Electrode Material for High-Performance Supercapacitors. (United States)

    Hu, Jiyu; Qian, Feng; Song, Guosheng; Wang, Linlin


    Hierarchical heterostructures of NiCo2O4@XMoO4 (X = Ni, Co) were developed as an electrode material for supercapacitor with improved pseudocapacitive performance. Within these hierarchical heterostructures, the mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays directly grown on the Ni foam can not only act as an excellent pseudocapacitive material but also serve as a hierarchical scaffold for growing NiMoO4 or CoMoO4 electroactive materials (nanosheets). The electrode made of NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 presented a highest areal capacitance of 3.74 F/cm(2) at 2 mA/cm(2), which was much higher than the electrodes made of NiCo2O4@CoMoO4 (2.452 F/cm(2)) and NiCo2O4 (0.456 F/cm(2)), respectively. Meanwhile, the NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 electrode exhibited good rate capability. It suggested the potential of the hierarchical heterostructures of NiCo2O4@CoMoO4 as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  20. Template-assisted electrodeposition of Ni and Ni/Au nanowires on planar and curved substrates (United States)

    Guiliani, Jason; Cadena, John; Monton, Carlos


    We present a variant of the template-assisted electrodeposition method that enables the synthesis of large arrays of nanowires (NWs) on flat and curved substrates. This method uses ultra-thin (50 nm–10 μm) anodic aluminum oxide membranes as a template. We have developed a procedure that uses a two-polymer protective layer to transfer these templates onto almost any surface. We have applied this technique to the fabrication of large arrays of Ni and segmented composition Ni/Au NWs on silicon wafers, Cu tapes, and thin (0.2 mm) Cu wires. In all cases, a complete coverage with NWs is achieved. The magnetic properties of these samples show an accentuated in-plane anisotropy which is affected by the form of the substrate (flat or curve) and the length of the NWs. Unlike current lithography techniques, the fabrication method proposed here allows the integration of complex nanostructures into devices, which can be fabricated on unconventional surfaces.

  1. Niños, niñas, y mujeres: Una amalgama vulnerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad De León-Torres


    Full Text Available El objetivo central de este trabajo es examinar las condiciones de vida de niños que r esiden en instituciones de asistencia social denominadas “Casa-hogar”. Los hallazgos pr esentados aquí se basan en la aplicación de metodologías cualitativas (observación dir ecta, etnografía, entr evistas estructuradas en una ciudad del centr o de México, con una perspectiva sincrónica. El principal r esultado de este trabajo es la documentación de las desventajas estructurales que caracterizan a la migración interna femenina y de los efectos que estos movimientos de población ejer cen sobr e los hijos de las mujer es migrantes. El trabajo concluye que el estudio de la vulnerabili dad a la que son expuestos los niños acogidos por instituciones de asistencia social, debe tomar en cuenta las formas de exclusión social femenina y las tensiones que se derivan de las políticas públicas orientadas a la infancia.

  2. Percepciones en salud bucal de los niños y niñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González-Penagos, Colombia.


    Full Text Available (analítico: Identificamos las necesidades de salud bucal de los niños y niñas de 2 a 5 años del programa Buen Comienzo-Fantasías de las Américas, desde la percepción de las agentes educativas en la ciudad de Medellín, en el año 2013. Realizamos un estudio cualitativo, con enfoque histórico hermenéutico; la población de estudio correspondió a 65 agentes educativas. Los resultados preliminares reflejan necesidades relacionadas con el acceso y oportunidad de atención odontológica, la deficiencia en las acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención de las enfermedades prevalentes en salud bucal, el desconocimiento y la falta de motivación de los hábitos de higiene bucal, su importancia en la prevención de las patologías bucales y su implicación con el crecimiento y desarrollo, y con la salud general de los menores y las menores.

  3. Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO2 reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Biausque, Gregory


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for NiPt nanoparticles, compositions and supports including NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making NiPt nanoparticles, methods of supporting NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  4. Ni-YSZ Substrate Degradation during Carbon Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinšek, Marjan


    Full Text Available Carbon deposition on various Ni-YSZ catalytic composites with average Ni particle size from 0.44 mm to 0.98 μm was studied under dry CH4-Ar and humidified CH4-Ar conditions. The change in the catalytic activity was monitored both as a mass gain due to carbon deposition and hydrogen evolution due to CH4 dehydrogenation on Ni-YSZ. Regarding the start of methane decomposition and subsequent catalyst deactivation rate, composites with smaller Ni-grains were much more active in comparison to those with relatively large grains. Dry methane conditions always caused coking of the catalyst substrate with substantial activity loss. In contrast, under humidified methane atmosphere conditions with a steam to carbon (S/C ratio of 0.82, catalytic activity of the Ni-YSZ composites remained nearly undiminished after 2,000 minutes at chosen deposition temperatures (600–800 °C. On the catalyst surface, some encapsulation of Ni with the deposited carbon was noticed while carbon filaments grew inside the treated samples. The dimensions of C-filaments were influenced by treatment conditions and Ni-YSZ substrate morphology.

    La deposición de carbón en diferentes compuestos catalizadores Ni-YSZ con un tamaño promedio de partícula Ni de 0.44 mm a 0.98 μm fue estudiado bajo condiciones secas: CH4-Ar y húmedas: CH4-Ar. El cambio de la actividad catalítica fue monitoreado tanto como una ganancia de masa debida a la deposición de carbón y una evolución de hidrógeno debido a la deshidrogenación de CH4 en Ni-YSZ. En cuanto al comienzo de descomposición del metano y a la subsiguiente desactivación del catalizador, aquellos compuestos con granos Ni menores fueron mucho más activos en comparación a aquellos con granos relativamente mayores. Las condiciones secas del metano siempre causaron coquificación del sustrato del catalizador con una sustancial pérdida de actividad. Por el

  5. Magnetic interactions in martensitic Ni-Mn based Heusler systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Seda


    In this work, magnetic, magnetocaloric and structural properties are investigated in Ni-Mn-based martensitic Heusler alloys with the aim to tailor these properties as well as to understand in detail the magnetic interactions in the various crystallographic states of these alloys. We choose Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} as a prototype which undergoes a martensitic transformation and exhibits field-induced strain and the inverse magnetocaloric effect. Using the structural phase diagram of martensitic Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloys, we substitute gallium and tin for indium to carry these effects systematically closer to room temperature by shifting the martensitic transformation. A magneto-calorimeter is designed and built to measure adiabatically the magnetocaloric effect in these alloys. The temperature dependence of strain under an external magnetic field is studied in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 50-x}Z{sub x} (Z: Ga, Sn, In and Sb) and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16-x}Z{sub x} (Z: Ga and Sn). An argument based on the effect of the applied magnetic field on martensite nucleation is adopted to extract information on the direction of the magnetization easy axis in the martensitic unit cell in Heusler alloys. Parallel to these studies, the structure in the presence of an external field is also studied by powder neutron diffraction. It is demonstrated that martensite nucleation is influenced by cooling the sample under a magnetic field such that the austenite phase is arrested within the martensitic state. The magnetic interactions in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 40}Sb{sub 10} are characterized by using neutron polarization analysis. Below the martensitic transformation temperature, M{sub s}, an antiferromagnetically correlated state is found. Ferromagnetic resonance experiments are carried out on Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} to gain more detailed information on the nature of the magnetic interactions. The experimental

  6. Mechanical alloying of Fe-Ni based nanostructured magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, S.W. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, B1k N4.1, Nanyang Ave., Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, B1k N4.1, Nanyang Ave., Singapore 639798 (Singapore)]. E-mail:


    Alloys with the composition Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}B{sub 18}Mo{sub 4}, Fe{sub 49}Ni{sub 46}Mo{sub 5} and Fe{sub 42}Ni{sub 40}B{sub 18} were processed from elemental powders by mechanical alloying and the microstructure was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Nanocrystalline fcc solid solution was achieved as a result of mechanical alloying in all three alloy compositions and the grain size reduced to nanoscale but lattice strain was introduced. Molybdenum was found to affect the products of mechanical alloying, specifically, the Fe{sub 3}B phase formed in the Fe{sub 42}Ni{sub 40}B{sub 18} alloy while no boride phase formed in the Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}B{sub 18}Mo{sub 4} alloy. SEM studies indicated that the presence of boron was found to make the milling process easier. Elemental mapping by SEM as well as XRD results showed that molybdenum does not dissolve easily in the Fe-Ni solid solution produced by milling. The DSC results suggested that an amorphous structure together with nanocrystals was obtained in the Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}B{sub 18}Mo{sub 4} and Fe{sub 42}Ni{sub 40}B{sub 18} alloys. A two-stage crystallization process was found in the Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}B{sub 18}Mo{sub 4} and Fe{sub 42}Ni{sub 40}B{sub 18} alloys, the presence of boron was found to make amorphization easier. TEM investigations were consistent with these XRD and DSC results. Heat-treated samples of the Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}B{sub 18}Mo{sub 4} and Fe{sub 42}Ni{sub 40}B{sub 18} alloys milled for 100 h showed that molybdenum inhibited the grain growth. The saturation magnetization of the heat-treated Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}B{sub 18}Mo{sub 4} alloy milled for 100 h was stable, coercivity was reduced; on the other hand, the M {sub s} of heat-treated Fe{sub 42}Ni{sub 40}B{sub 18} alloy milled for 100 h decreased and the H {sub c} increased. This difference in magnetic

  7. Preparation of one-step NiO/Ni-CGO composites using factorial design; Efeitos do processamento e do teor de formador de poros na microestrutura de cermets Ni-CGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, A.J.M. de; Sousa, A R.O. de; Camposa, L.F.A.; Macedo, D.A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Loureiro, F. J.A.; Fagg, D.P., E-mail: [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)


    This work deals with the synthesis, processing and characterization of NiO/Ni- CGO composite materials as potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The particulate materials were obtained by a one-step synthesis method and characterized by thermal analysis (prior to calcination) and X-ray diffraction (calcined powder). The ceramic processing of samples containing from 30 to 70 wt.% NiO was carried out by factorial design. Besides the NiO content controlled during the chemical synthesis, the impacts of the pore-former content (citric acid, used in proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 wt.%) and the sintering temperature (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C) were also investigated. The open porosity of NiO-CGO composites and reduced Ni-CGO cermets was modeled as a function of factors (NiO content, citric acid content and sintering temperature) and interaction of factors. (author)

  8. en niños hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Aguilera Pérez


    Full Text Available Este estudio investigó la relación del nivel de ansiedad y el evento de hospitalización en una población mexicana de niños de 7 a 11años de edad. El estudio se basó en el Modelo de Adaptación de Roy. El diseño fue descriptivo y correlacional, el muestreo fue probabilístico,sistemático con inicio aleatorio. La muestra (n=155 con un nivel de significancia de 0,05, para una diferencia de media de 1,6 y un efectode potencia de 80. El instrumento utilizado fue el cuestionario fi¿Cómo me siento?fi (C-1 del State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children,STAIC de Spielberger. Presentó una Alpha de Cronbach de ,94. Se utilizó la prueba Anova para mediciones repetidas que resultósignificativa (F (2, 308 = 1327,09, p < 0,001. La edad osciló entre 7 y 11 años de edad. La muestra (54% corresponde al sexo masculino,el 49,3% señaló haber tenido admisión previa hospitalaria. La prueba de Kolmogorov Smirnov no mostró distribución normal. El coeficientede correlación de Spearman mostró correlación negativa significativa en el momento tres. Para cada momento se ajustó un modelo deregresión lineal múltiple donde las variables independientes fueron sexo, edad y admisiones previas sobre el índice de ansiedad, el modelosignificativo ocurrió en el tercer momento en cuanto a la edad, es decir, a mayor edad menor nivel de ansiedad.

  9. Magnetic ordering in Ni-Cd ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Suman Kumar [Department of Physics, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna-9203 (Bangladesh); Maria, Kazi Hanium [Department of Physics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Noor, Saroaut; Sikder, S.S. [Department of Physics, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna-9203 (Bangladesh); Hoque, S.Manjura [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Hakim, M.A., E-mail: [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)


    A series of Ni{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.0{<=}x{<=}0.8) were prepared by conventional double sintering ceramic method and sintered at 1200 Degree-Sign C for 6 h. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase spinel structures of all the samples. The Curie temperature decreases linearly with increasing Cd content, which is explained due to the weakening of the A-B exchange interaction. The sample with x=0.7 shows re-entrant type of spin glass phase transitions. The magnetic moment and saturation magnetization at 20 K are found to increase with Cd content up to x=0.5 and then tends to decrease for x>0.5. The increase in magnetic moment with cadmium is attributed to Neel's two sublattice (A- and B-sublattice) collinear models according to which the magnetic moment is the vector sum of the lattice magnetic moment. The decrease in magnetization for x>0.5 obeys the Yafet-Kittel (Y-K) model. The increase in Y-K angles for x>0.3 indicates the increased tendency for triangular spin arrangements on B-sites. This suggests the existence of a canted spin structure in the ferrite system with higher content of Cd. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRD gives us the single phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear decrease of Curie temperature with Cd content is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample with x=0.7 shows re-entrant type of spin glass phase transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slight difference of magnetic moment between theoretical and experimental has been found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decrease in magnetization for x>0.5 obeys the Yafet-Kittel (Y-K) model.

  10. Urolitiasis en el niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandalio Durán Álvarez

    Full Text Available La litiasis del tracto urinario es una condición que, por lo general, se asocia a alteraciones metabólicas como hipercalciuria, hipocitraturia, hiperfosfaturia, hiperuricosuria, hiperoxaluria, cistinuria y defecto de acidificación urinaria, pero su etiología es multifactorial, e intervienen en su formación la predisposición genética y los factores ambientales, entre los que la dieta y la baja ingestión de líquidos contribuyen a la formación de los cálculos. En niños y adolescentes las causas genéticas y anatómicas son las principales. La hipercalciuria idiopática es la causa más frecuente en estos grupos etarios, aunque, como en el adulto, los factores ambientales (ingestión dietética de sal, proteínas, calcio y otros nutrientes pueden ganar importancia para su incremento. Entre los factores locales de la orina que favorecen la formación del cálculo se encuentran, la disminución del volumen urinario, el pH urinario bajo, la tendencia al estancamiento y las infecciones. En esta revisión se analizan brevemente las distintas causas que pueden producir litiasis, valorando la importancia de la ingestión adecuada de líquidos en general, las modificaciones dietéticas que deben realizarse en cada tipo de enfermedad litiásica, las diferentes medidas terapéuticas que deben utilizarse en el cólico nefrítico producido por litiasis, en los casos asintomáticos con litiasis demostrada y en los casos en que la litiasis pueda provocar obstrucción al flujo urinario.

  11. Explosive device of conduit using Ti Ni alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kolobov


    Full Text Available Presently, materials have been developed which are capable at changing temperate to return significant inelastic deformations, exhibit rubber-like elasticity, convert heat into mechanical work, etc. The aggregate of these effects is usually called the shape memory effect.At present a great number of compounds and alloys with a shape memory effect has been known.These are alloys based on titanium nickelide (TiNi, copper-based alloys (Cu-Al, Cu-Sn, Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Zn-Si, etc., gold and silver (Ag-Cd, Au-Ag-Cd, Au-Cd-Cu, Au-Zn-Cu, etc., manganese (Mn-Cr, Fe-Cu, Mn-Cu-Ni, Mn-Cu-Zr, Mn-Ni, etc., iron (Fe-Mn, Fe-Ni, Fe-Al, etc., and other compounds.The alloys based on titanium nickelide (nitinol are the most widely used.Alloys with shape memory effect find various applications in engineering and medicine, namely connecting devices, actuators, transformable design, multipurpose medical implants, etc.There is a task of breaking fuel conduit during separating the spacecraft from the rocket in space technology.The paper examines the procedure for design calculation of the separating device of conduit with the use of Ti-Ni alloy. This device can be used instead of the pyro-knives.The device contains two semi-rings from Ti-Ni alloy. In the place of break on the conduit an annular radius groove is made.At a temperature of martensite passage the semi-rings undergo deformation and in the strained state are set in the device. With heating to the temperature of the austenitic passage of bushing macro-deformation the energy stored by the nitinol bushing is great enough to break the conduit on the neck.The procedures of design calculation and response time of device are given.

  12. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in antiferromagnetic NiO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patta Ravikumar


    Full Text Available We report systematic investigations of structural, vibrational, resonance and magnetic properties of nanoscale NiO powders prepared by ball milling process under different milling speeds for 30 hours of milling. Structural properties revealed that both pure NiO and as-milled NiO powders exhibit face centered cubic structure, but average crystallite size decreases to around 11 nm along with significant increase in strain with increasing milling speed. Vibrational properties show the enhancement in the intensity of one-phonon longitudinal optical (LO band and disappearance of two-magnon band due to size reduction. In addition, two-phonon LO band exhibits red shift due to size-induced phonon confinement effect and surface relaxation. Pure NiO powder exhibit antiferromagnetic nature, which transforms into induced ferromagnetic after size reduction. The average magnetization at room temperature increases with decreasing the crystallite size and a maximum moment of 0.016 μB/f.u. at 12 kOe applied field and coercivity of 170 Oe were obtained for 30 hours milled NiO powders at 600 rotation per minute milling speed. The change in the magnetic properties is also supported by the vibrational properties. Thermomagnetization measurements at high temperature reveal a well-defined magnetic phase transition at high temperature (TC around 780 K due to induced ferromagnetic phase. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR studies reveal a good agreement between the EPR results and magnetic properties. The observed results are described on the basis of crystallite size variation, defect density, large strain, oxidation/reduction of Ni and interaction between uncompensated surfaces and particle core with lattice expansion. The obtained results suggest that nanoscale NiO powders with high TC and moderate magnetic moment at room temperature with cubic structure would be useful to expedite for spintronic devices.

  13. Effect of Ni interlayer on diffusion bonding of a W alloy and a Ta alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Ruxia; Wei, Qinqin; Luo, Guoqiang; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng [Wuhan Univ. of Technology (China). The State Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing


    The combination of W and Ta is expected to be highly beneficial for many applications from aerospace, weapons, military and nuclear industry. In this paper, W and Ta alloys were successfully diffusion bonded with Ni interlayer. The process of the formation of W/Ni/Ta diffusion bonded joints was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction system, electron probe micro-analyzer, energy dispersive spectrometry and shear strength measurement. The results show that the shear strength increases when the bonding temperature increases and exhibits a maximum value of 244 MPa at 930 C. The bonding of W/Ni can be attributed to the bonding of Ni to tungsten grains and the bonding of Ni to a Ni-Fe-binder mainly by elemental diffusion. The fracture takes place in the Ni/Ta interface and Ni{sub 3}Ta and Ni{sub 2}Ta intermetallic compounds are formed on the fracture surfaces.

  14. LaNi5-Assisted Hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the Hybrid Structures of La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Denys


    Full Text Available This work focused on the high pressure PCT and in situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the LaMg2Ni9-H2 (D2 system at pressures up to 1,000 bar. LaMg2Ni9 alloy was prepared by a powder metallurgy route from the LaNi9 alloy precursor and Mg powder. Two La3−xMgxNi9 samples with slightly different La/Mg ratios were studied, La1.1Mg1.9Ni9 (sample 1 and La0.9Mg2.1Ni9 (sample 2. In situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 deuterides were performed at 25 bar D2 (1 and 918 bar D2 (2. The hydrogenation properties of the (1 and (2 are dramatically different from those for LaNi3. The Mg-containing intermetallics reversibly form hydrides with DHdes = 24.0 kJ/molH2 and an equilibrium pressure of H2 desorption of 18 bar at 20 °C (La1.09Mg1.91Ni9. A pronounced hysteresis of H2 absorption and desorption, ~100 bar, is observed. The studies showed that LaNi5-assisted hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the LaMg2Ni9 hybrid structure takes place. In the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 (a = 5.263/5.212; c = 25.803/25.71 Å D atoms are accommodated in both Laves and CaCu5-type slabs. In the LaNi5 CaCu5-type layer, D atoms fill three types of interstices; a deformed octahedron [La2Ni4], and [La(Mg2Ni2] and [Ni4] tetrahedra. The overall chemical compositions can be presented as LaNi5H5.6/5.0 + 2*MgNi2H1.95/2.2 showing that the hydrogenation of the MgNi2 slab proceeds at mild H2/D2 pressure of just 20 bar. A partial filling by D of the four types of the tetrahedral interstices in the MgNi2 slab takes place, including [MgNi3] and [Mg2Ni2] tetrahedra.

  15. Electron microscopy study of Ni induced crystallization in amorphous Si thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radnóczi, G. Z.; Battistig, G.; Pécz, B., E-mail: [Institute for Technical Physics and Matl. Sci., Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Budapest, Konkoly-Thege u. 29-33 (Hungary); Dodony, E. [Institute for Technical Physics and Matl. Sci., Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Budapest, Konkoly-Thege u. 29-33, Hungary and Doctoral School of Physics at Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 (Hungary); Vouroutzis, N.; Stoemenos, J.; Frangis, N. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kovács, A. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 (Germany)


    The crystallization of amorphous silicon is studied by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of Ni on the crystallization is studied in a wide temperature range heating thinned samples in-situ inside the microscope. Two cases of limited Ni source and unlimited Ni source are studied and compared. NiSi{sub 2} phase started to form at a temperature as low as 250°C in the limited Ni source case. In-situ observation gives a clear view on the crystallization of silicon through small NiSi{sub 2} grain formation. The same phase is observed at the crystallization front in the unlimited Ni source case, where a second region is also observed with large grains of Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. Low temperature experiments show, that long annealing of amorphous silicon at 410 °C already results in large crystallized Si regions due to the Ni induced crystallization.

  16. Preparation and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Mg-Rich Mg-Ni Ultrafine Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Zou


    Full Text Available In the present work, Mg-rich Mg-Ni ultrafine powders were prepared through an arc plasma method. The phase components, microstructure, and hydrogen storage properties of the powders were carefully investigated. It is found that Mg2Ni and MgNi2 could be obtained directly from the vapor state reactions between Mg and Ni, depending on the local vapor content in the reaction chamber. A nanostructured MgH2 + Mg2NiH4 hydrogen storage composite could be generated after hydrogenation of the Mg-Ni ultrafine powders. After dehydrogenation, MgH2 and Mg2NiH4 decomposed into nanograined Mg and Mg2Ni, respectively. Thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC analyses showed that Mg2NiH4 phase may play a catalytic role in the dehydriding process of the hydrogenated Mg ultrafine particles.

  17. Concepciones de justicia en niños y niñas que habitan contextos urbanos violentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Victoria Alvarado


    Full Text Available Este artículo, resultado de la investigación cualitativa hermenéutica “Concepciones Políticas y Transformación de Actitudes frente a la Equidad en Niños y Niñas de sectores de alto riesgo social del Eje Cafetero”, somete a discusión tres categorías sobre las concepciones sobre justicia en niños y niñas de 8 a 10 años de contextos violentos: justicia como “equidad” (perspectiva social-cultural, como “cumplimiento de normas y sanciones” (perspectiva moral-jurídica, y como “ejercicio de la democracia” (perspectiva política. Estas categorías provienen del análisis de 360 respuestas a las preguntas “¿Qué es para ustedes la justicia?” y “¿Podrían ustedes dar ejemplos de situaciones o hechos que les hayan parecido justos e injustos en su familia, su escuela, el barrio o el país?” El marco teórico del estudio parte de la socialización política, entendida interdisciplinariamente como mediadora en la construcción de la subjetividad política –específicamente en la construcción de actitudes y concepciones políticas– y definida como proceso a través del cual niños y niñas se vinculan al “pacto social”, adoptando o renegociando reglas de convivencia y concepciones, actitudes y conductas consideradas legítimas. La discusión de los resultados pone énfasis en el papel activo del sujeto, en las diferencias interindividuales y el potencial de cambio de las sociedades a partir de procesos intencionados de sus actores sociales; reafirma el papel definitivo que juegan las circunstancias socio-históricas y la forma particular de apropiación que niños y niñas hacen de ellas en la construcción de sus actitudes, valores y comportamientos políticos y analiza la manera particular como se forma la subjetividad política en los niños y las niñas

  18. Concepciones de justicia en niños y niñas que habitan contextos urbanos violentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Victoria Alvarado


    Full Text Available Este artículo, resultado de la investigación cualitativa hermenéutica “Concepciones Políticas y Transformación de Actitudes frente a la Equidad en Niños y Niñas de sectores de alto riesgo social del Eje Cafetero”, somete a discusión tres categorías sobre las concepciones sobre justicia en niños y niñas de 8 a 10 años de contextos violentos: justicia como “equidad” (perspectiva social-cultural, como “cumplimiento de normas y sanciones” (perspectiva moral-jurídica, y como “ejercicio de la democracia” (perspectiva política. Estas categorías provienen del análisis de 360 respuestas a las preguntas “¿Qué es para ustedes la justicia?” y “¿Podrían ustedes dar ejemplos de situaciones o hechos que les hayan parecido justos e injustos en su familia, su escuela, el barrio o el país?” El marco teórico del estudio parte de la socialización política, entendida interdisciplinariamente como mediadora en la construcción de la subjetividad política –específicamente en la construcción de actitudes y concepciones políticas– y definida como proceso a través del cual niños y niñas se vinculan al “pacto social”, adoptando o renegociando reglas de convivencia y concepciones, actitudes y conductas consideradas legítimas. La discusión de los resultados pone énfasis en el papel activo del sujeto, en las diferencias interindividuales y el potencial de cambio de las sociedades a partir de procesos intencionados de sus actores sociales; reafirma el papel definitivo que juegan las circunstancias socio-históricas y la forma particular de apropiación que niños y niñas hacen de ellas en la construcción de sus actitudes, valores y comportamientos políticos y analiza la manera particular como se forma la subjetividad política en los niños y las niñas.

  19. Mechanical and thermodynamic properties of intermetallic compounds in the Ni-Ti system (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Tang, S. L.; Gao, Y. M.; Ma, S. Q.; Zheng, Q. L.; Cheng, Y. H.


    The mechanical and thermodynamic properties of intermetallic compounds in the Ni-Ti system are studied by first-principles calculations. All phases show anisotropic elasticity in different crystallographic directions, in which Ni3Ti and NiTi2 are approaching the isotropy structure. The elastic moduli and Vicker’s hardness of Ni-Ti system intermetallic compounds decrease in the following order: Ni3Ti > B2_NiTi > B19‧_NiTi > NiTi2, and Ni3Ti shows the best mechanical properties. The intrinsic ductile nature of Ni-Ti compounds is confirmed by the obtained B/G ratio. The temperature dependence of linear thermal expansion coefficients (LTECs) of the compounds is estimated by the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) method. Ni3Ti shows the largest values among all Ni-Ti intermetallic compounds. At room temperature, the LTEC for Ni3Ti is 8.92 × 10‑6 K‑1, which falls in between the LTEC of zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) (7.0-9.5 × 106 K‑1) and iron matrix (9.2-16.9 × 106 K‑1); i.e., the thermal matching of the ZTA/iron composite will be improved by introducing Ni3Ti intermetallic compound into their interface. Other thermodynamic properties such as sound velocity and Debye temperature are also obtained.

  20. Cavitation resistance of surface composition "Steel-Ni-TiNi-TiNiZr-cBNCo", formed by High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel spraying (United States)

    Blednova, Zh. M.; Dmitrenko, D. V.; Balaev, E. U. O.


    The object of the study is a multilayered surface composition "Steel - a Multicomponent material with Shape Memory Effect - a wear-resistant layer" under conditions of cavitation effects in sea water. Multicomponent TiNi-based coatings with addition of alloying elements such as Zr in an amount up to 10% mass, allow to create a composite material with a gradient of properties at the interface of layers, which gives new properties to coatings and improves their performance significantly. The use of materials with shape memory effect (SME) as surface layers or in the composition of surface layered compositions allows to provide an effective reaction of materials to the influence of external factors and adaptation to external influences. The surface composite layer cBN-10%Co has high hardness and strength, which ensures its resistance to shock cyclic influences of collapsing caverns. The increased roughness of the surface of a solid surface composite in the form of strong columnar structures ensures the crushing of vacuum voids, redistributing their effect on the entire surface, and not concentrating them in certain zones. In addition, the gradient structure of the multilayer composite coating TiNi–Ti33Ni49Zr18–cBN-10%Co Co makes it possible to create conditions for the relaxation of stresses created by the variable impact load of cavitation caverns and the manifestation of compensating internal forces due to thermo-elastic martensitic transformations of SME materials. The cavitation resistance of the coating TiNi–Ti33Ni49Zr18–cBN-10%Co according to the criterion of mass wear is 15-20 times higher than that of the base material without coating and 10-12 times higher than that of the TiNi-TiNiZr coating. The proposed architecture of the multifunctional gradient composition, "steel-Ni-TiNi– Ti33Ni49Zr18–cBN-10%Co", each layer of which has its functional purpose, allows to increase the service life of parts operating under conditions of cavitation

  1. Surface properties of nanostructured NiO undergoing electrochemical oxidation in 3-methoxy-propionitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonomo, Matteo [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Marrani, Andrea Giacomo, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Novelli, Vittoria [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Awais, Muhammad [Department of Industrial Engineering, “King Abdulaziz” University, Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Dowling, Denis P. [Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vos, Johannes G. [School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University (DCU), Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Dini, Danilo [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)


    Highlights: • NiO porous thin films were prepared via RDS technique. • NiO electrodes were characterized in a nitrile based electrochemical cell. • NiO electrodes were studied by means of XPS. • The XP spectra excluded the formation of phases other than NiO. • The presence of ClO{sub 4}{sup −} as charge balancing species was evidenced. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) was deposited in the configuration of thin film (thickness, l = 2–6 μm) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via plasma-assisted rapid discharge sintering (RDS). Electrochemical cycling of RDS NiO in 3-methoxy-propionitrile (3-MPN) revealed two characteristic peaks of NiO oxidation which were associated to the surface-confined redox processes Ni(II) → Ni(III) and Ni(III) → Ni(IV). Grazing angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted ex-situ on NiO electrodes in both pristine and oxidized states. Oxidized NiO samples for XPS experiments were obtained in the potentiostatic mode through the polarization of NiO at its two characteristic potentials of oxidation. The XPS analysis allowed to ascertain the electronic structure of the nanoporous NiO framework, and verify the adsorption of perchlorate and chloride anions onto NiO surface due to the compensation of the charge stored in oxidized NiO. XPS also revealed that the spectrum within the region characteristic of Ni 2p ionization does not vary considerably with the state of charge of the nickel centres. This finding is in evident contrast to what has been observed for the same system when it undergoes electrochemical oxidation in aqueous electrolyte.

  2. Concepciones de ciudadanía en niñas y niños del municipio de Marquetalia, Caldas


    Carmona González, Diana Esperanza


    Tesis (Maestría en Educación y Desarrollo Humano). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas. CINDE, 2008 El presente informe final se deriva de la investigación “Concepciones de ciudadanía en niñas y niños del municipio de Marquetalia Caldas”, cuyo propósito principal consistía en analizar la ciudadanía desde una mirada de la niñez, lo cual implica describir y comprender las concepciones que un grupo de niñas y niños escolarizados tiene con respecto a l...

  3. Changes in the cephalopod diet of southern elephant seal females at King George Island, during El Niño - La Niña events


    Piatkowski, Uwe; Vergani, Daniel F.; Stanganelli, Zulma B.


    Possible effects of ‘El Niño’ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) components ‘El Niño’ and ‘La Niña’ on populations of southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, were analysed. Changes in the cephalopod diet composition of moulting females at King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula were considered. The diet of female elephant seals sampled in 1991–1992 and 1992–1993 (El Niño years) were compared with those taken in 1995–1996 (La Niña year) at the same site and employing the same methodology. The squi...

  4. Supergene neoformation of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni alloys: multistage grains explain nugget formation in Ni-laterites (United States)

    Aiglsperger, Thomas; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Baurier-Aymat, Sandra; Galí, Salvador; Lewis, John F.; Longo, Francisco


    Ni-laterites from the Dominican Republic host rare but extremely platinum-group element (PGE)-rich chromitites (up to 17.5 ppm) without economic significance. These chromitites occur either included in saprolite (beneath the Mg discontinuity) or as `floating chromitites' within limonite (above the Mg discontinuity). Both chromitite types have similar iridium-group PGE (IPGE)-enriched chondrite normalized patterns; however, chromitites included in limonite show a pronounced positive Pt anomaly. Investigation of heavy mineral concentrates, obtained via hydroseparation techniques, led to the discovery of multistage PGE grains: (i) Os-Ru-Fe-(Ir) grains of porous appearance are overgrown by (ii) Ni-Fe-Ir and Ir-Fe-Ni-(Pt) phases which are overgrown by (iii) Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni mineral phases. Whereas Ir-dominated overgrowths prevail in chromitites from the saprolite, Pt-dominated overgrowths are observed within floating chromitites. The following formation model for multistage PGE grains is discussed: (i) hypogene platinum-group minerals (PGM) (e.g. laurite) are transformed to secondary PGM by desulphurization during serpentinization; (ii) at the stages of serpentinization and/or at the early stages of lateritization, Ir is mobilized and recrystallizes on porous surfaces of secondary PGM (serving as a natural catalyst) and (iii) at the late stages of lateritization, biogenic mediated neoformation (and accumulation) of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni nanoparticles occurs. The evidence presented in this work demonstrates that in situ growth of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni alloy nuggets of isometric symmetry is possible within Ni-laterites from the Dominican Republic.

  5. Nonlinearities in the Evolutional Distinctions Between El Niño and La Niña Types (United States)

    Ashok, K.; Shamal, M.; Sahai, A. K.; Swapna, P.


    Using the HadISST, SODA reanalysis, and various other observed and reanalyzed data sets for the period 1950-2010, we explore nonlinearities in the subsurface evolutional distinctions between El Niño types and La Niña types from a few seasons before the onset. Cluster analysis carried out over both summer and winter suggests that while the warm-phased events of both types are distinguishable, several cold phased events are clustered together. Further, we apply a joint Self-Organizing Map (SOM) analysis using the monthly sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) and thermocline-depth anomalies in tropical Pacific (TP). Results reveal that the evolutionary paths of El Niño Modoki (EM) and El Niño (EL) are, broadly, different. Subsurface temperature composites of EL and EM show different onset characteristics. During an EL, warm anomaly in the west spreads eastward along the thermocline and reaches the surface in the east in March-May of year(0). During an EM, warm anomaly already exists in the central tropical Pacific and then reaches the surface in the east in September-November of year(0). Composited SSTAs during La Niña (LN) and La Niña Modoki (LM) are distinguishable only at 80% confidence level, but the composited subsurface temperature anomalies show differences in the location of the coldest anomaly as well as evolution at 90% confidence level. Thus, the El Niño flavor distinction is potentially predictable at longer leads.

  6. Nuevo cuestionario de emociones positivas para niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beatriz Oros


    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue diseñar y validar un nuevo instrumento para medir la experiencia emocional positiva de niños de 8 a 12 años de edad. La muestra piloto estuvo conformada por 445 niños (n= 221 y niñas (n = 224, con una media de edad de 9.54 años (DT= 1.25, pertenecientes a diferentes provincias argentinas. La muestra definitiva estuvo integrada por 1046 niños (n= 540 y niñas (n= 505 con un promedio de edad de 9.74 años (DT= 1.33. Luego de ser analizado según diferentes parámetros de validez y fiabilidad, el cuestionario definitivo quedó conformado por 23 ítems y cuatro dimensiones: (a alegría y gratitud (a = .92; (b serenidad (a = .75; (c simpatía (a = .64; y (d satisfacción personal (a = .71. El Alpha de Cronbach para la escala total fue de .90. Los resultados del estudio psicométrico fueron adecuados, observándose un buen poder discriminativo de los ítems, una elevada consistencia interna y una estructura factorial coherente.

  7. Coadsorption of potassium and nitrogen on the Ni(100) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Scantlebury, M J


    R-factor analysis carried out over a wide area of parameter space has yielded structural parameters as deep as the third Ni layer. Simulations of data obtained for Ni(100)-(K+N) were not attempted due to the similarity of the PD curves with those of the Ni/N system. From the point of view of PD, there are no structural differences between the pure N and the K coadsorbed systems, in contrast to the SPA-LEED and ARUPS results. A scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) study has been performed on the Ni(100)-(K+N) system. By gradually dosing the Ni/N surface with K, it was possible to observe the K atoms initially adsorbing preferentially along [001] step edges, before forming protrusions approx 10 A in diameter on the terraces at higher coverages. The disturbance of the substrate underlying these protrusions has been imaged and suggests a local interaction of K with the surface. As the K coverage increased to 0.5 ML, the protrusions appear to coalesce. The K atoms have also been shown to be immobile on the surface...

  8. Experimentally validated thermal model of thin film NiTi (United States)

    Favelukis, Jenna E.; Lavine, Adrienne S.; Carman, Gregory P.


    The primary focus of this work is to develop a new analytical approach for thermal modeling of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy membranes undergoing both phase transformation and large deflections. This paper describes a thermal model of a NiTi plate or thin film, including all the modes of heat loss and latent heat dissipation during the phase transformation. This model is used to predict the NiTi temperature during cooling. The results are compared with experiments conducted on a NiTi plate and thin film (3 micrometers thick), and very good agreement is found. The thermal model is also used to predict the temperature response of a bubble actuator proposed for use in a forced flow environment. Using a 3 mm diameter, 3 micrometers thickness bubble under forced airflow conditions it is possible to achieve a frequency response faster than 300 Hz. Additional calculations were made to verify the structural stability of the actuator system. Predictions indicated that for specific geometries a pressure of at least 35 kPa can be supported by the NiTi membrane. Deflections of a bubble actuator are shown to be on the order of 10% of its diameter while the strain remains below 4%.

  9. An Update on NiCE Support for BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Billings, Jay Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deyton, Jordan H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wojtowicz, Anna [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation program (NEAMS) from the Department of Energy s Office of Nuclear Energy has funded the development of a modeling and simulation workflow environment to support the various codes in its nuclear energy scientific computing toolkit. This NEAMS Integrated Computational Environment (NiCE) provides extensible tools and services that enable efficient code execution, input generation, pre-processing visualizations, and post-simulation data analysis and visualization for a large portion of the NEAMS Toolkit. A strong focus for the NiCE development team throughout FY 2015 has been support for the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) and the NEAMS nuclear fuel performance modeling application built on that environment, BISON. There is a strong desire in the program to enable and facilitate the use of BISON throughout nuclear energy research and industry. A primary result of this desire is the need for strong support for BISON in NiCE. This report will detail improvements to NiCE support for BISON. We will present a new and improved interface for interacting with BISON simulations in a variety of ways: (1) improved input model generation, (2) embedded mesh and solution data visualizations, and (3) local and remote BISON simulation launch. We will also show how NiCE has been extended to provide support for BISON code development.

  10. Sterilization of rotary NiTi instruments within endodontic sponges. (United States)

    Chan, H W A; Tan, K H; Dashper, S G; Reynolds, E C; Parashos, P


    To determine whether the following can be sterilized by autoclaving - endodontic sponges, rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments within endodontic sponges, and rotary NiTi instruments with rubber stoppers. Sixty-four samples of eight different endodontic sponges (n = 512) were placed into brain heart infusion broth (BHI) for 72 h. An aliquot of this was then spread onto horse blood agar and cultured aerobically and anaerobically to test sterility at purchase. Bacterial suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus in BHI were used to contaminate sterile sponges and rotary NiTi instruments (with and without rubber stoppers) inserted into sponges. The various samples were autoclaved and then cultured aerobically and anaerobically. Success of sterilization was measured qualitatively as no growth. The experiment was repeated with clinically used rotary NiTi instruments (n = 512). All experiments were conducted in quadruplicate. No sponges on purchase had microbial growth when anaerobically cultured but some did when aerobically cultured. All autoclaved sponges and instruments (within or without sponges, and with or without rubber stoppers) were associated with no microbial growth. All nonautoclaved positive control samples showed microbial growth. Autoclaving was effective in the sterilization of sponges and endodontic instruments. Endodontic sponges should be autoclaved before clinical use. For clinical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, rotary NiTi instruments can be sterilized in endodontic sponges without removal of rubber stoppers. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Equilibrium ion exchange studies of Ni2+ on homoionic forms of clinoptilolite


    Joshua Gorimbo; Blessing Taenzana; Kutemba Kapanji; Linda L. Jewell


    A natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) that is mined in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was evaluated for the removal of Ni2+ from wastewater. In particular, the effect of zeolite modification on Ni2+ removal from synthetic wastewater was investigated. The natural clinoptilolite was pretreated with 2 M metal chlorides for 24 h to yield near homoionic Na+, K+ and Ca2+ forms. A comparison of the isotherms for the Na+-Ni2+, K+-Ni2+, Ca2+-Ni2+ and natural-Ni2+ systems gave insight into how the displaced...

  12. Order-disorder transitions in NiCr2S4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaqueiro, P.; Powell, A.V.; Lebech, B.


    Order–disorder transitions in NiCr2S4 have been investigated by high-temperature powder neutron diffraction. At 835(5)°C, NiCr2S4 transforms from the monoclinic Cr3S4 structure to a hexagonal cation-deficient NiAs structure.......Order–disorder transitions in NiCr2S4 have been investigated by high-temperature powder neutron diffraction. At 835(5)°C, NiCr2S4 transforms from the monoclinic Cr3S4 structure to a hexagonal cation-deficient NiAs structure....

  13. Chemical Ni-C Bonding in Ni-CNT Composite by a Microwave Welding Method and Its Induced High-frequency Radar Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Absorption. (United States)

    Sha, Linna; Gao, Peng; Wu, Tingting; Chen, Yujin


    In this work, a microwave welding method has been used for the construction of chemical Ni-C bonding at the interface between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and metal Ni in order to provide a different surface electron distribution, which determined the electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption properties based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mechanism. Through a serial of detailed examinations, such as XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XPS and Raman spectrum etc., the as-expected chemical Ni-C bonding between CNTs and metal Ni has been confirmed. And the BET and surface Zeta potential measurements uncovered the great evolution of structure and electronic density compared with CNTs, metal Ni and Ni-CNT composite without Ni-C bonding. Correspondingly, except the EM absorption due to CNTs and metal Ni in the composite, another wide and strong EM absorption band ranging from 10 GHz to 18 GHz was found, which was induced by the Ni-C bonded interface. The absorption bandwidth with reflection loss less than -10 dB is up to 6.5 GHz (in the frequency range of 10.1-16.6 GHz). With a thinner thickness and more exposed Ni-C interfaces, the Ni-CNT composite displayed a minimum reflection loss, which means that more than 99% EM wave energy attenuated by the absorber.

  14. Mechanistic aspects of the ethanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production on Pt, Ni, and PtNi catalysts supported on gamma-Al2O3. (United States)

    Sanchez-Sanchez, Maria Cruz; Navarro Yerga, Rufino M; Kondarides, Dimitris I; Verykios, Xenophon E; Fierro, Jose Luis G


    Mechanistic aspects of ethanol steam reforming on Pt, Ni, and PtNi catalysts supported on gamma-Al(2)O(3) are investigated from the analysis of adsorbed species and gas phase products formed on catalysts during temperature-programmed desorption of ethanol and during ethanol steam reforming reaction. DRIFTS-MS analyses of ethanol decomposition and ethanol steam reforming reactions show that PtNi and Ni catalysts are more stable than the Pt monometallic counterpart. Ethanol TPD results on Ni, Pt, and NiPt catalysts point to ethanol dehydrogenation and acetaldehyde decomposition as the first reaction pathways of ethanol steam reforming over the studied catalysts. The active sites responsible for the acetaldehyde decomposition are easily deactivated in the first minutes on-stream by carbon deposits. For Ni and PtNi catalysts, a second reaction pathway, consisting in the decomposition of acetate intermediates formed over the surface of alumina support, becomes the main reaction pathway operating in steam reforming of ethanol once the acetaldehyde decomposition pathway is deactivated. Taking into account the differences observed in the mechanism of ethanol decomposition, the better stability observed for PtNi catalyst is proposed to be related with a cooperative effect between Pt and Ni activities together with the enhanced ability of Ni to gasify the methyl groups formed by decomposition of acetate species. On the contrary, monometallic catalysts are believed to dehydrogenate these methyl groups forming coke that leads to deactivation of metal particles.

  15. Electroless deposition of NiWB alloy on p-type Si(1 0 0) for NiSi contact metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhin, A. [Department of Physical Electronics, Engineer Faculty, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv 69978 (Israel)], E-mail:; Sverdlov, Y. [Department of Physical Electronics, Engineer Faculty, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Feldman, Y. [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Shacham-Diamand, Y. [Department of Physical Electronics, Engineer Faculty, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv 69978 (Israel)


    Recently, we have proposed a novel method to form NiSi contacts using electroless plating of Ni-alloys (NiP, NiWP, NiWB) on p-type Si(1 0 0) modified by aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) activated with Pd-citrate [A. Duhin, Y. Sverdlov, Yishay Feldman, Y. Shacham-Diamand, Microelectron. Eng. 84 (2007) 2506]. In this work we focus on NiWB thin films that were formed by this method. Alkali metal free electroless plating was developed using dimethylamine-borane (DMAB) and tungstatic acid (H{sub 2}WO{sub 4}) as a reducing agent and a source of tungsten ions, respectively. Using this method we succeeded to receive relatively high tungsten concentration (maximum value of 19-21 at%) in the electroless deposited NiWB films with good adhesion to the Si-substrate. In this paper, the advantages of using the APTS activated with Pd-citrate for NiWB alloy deposition on the Si substrate is discussed. The chemically deposited NiWB samples were annealed for 1-2 h in vacuum (<10{sup -6} Torr) forming the silicide layer. The annealing temperatures were 650 deg. C for NiWB alloys. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement confirmed the presence of NiSi phase after annealing. In addition the WSi{sub 2} phase was formed. The results are reported and summarized.

  16. Controlled Pyrolysis of Ni-MOF-74 as a Promising Precursor for the Creation of Highly Active Ni Nanocatalysts in Size-Selective Hydrogenation. (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Kazuki; Yoshii, Takeharu; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi


    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous organic-inorganic crystalline materials that have attracted much attention as H 2 storage devices and catalytic supports. In this paper, the synthesis of highly-dispersed Ni nanoparticles (NPs) for the hydrogenation of olefins was achieved by employing Ni-MOF-74 as a precursor. Investigations of the structural transformation of Ni species derived from Ni-MOF-74 during heat treatment were conducted. The transformation was monitored in detail by a combination of XRD, in situ XAFS, and XPS measurements. Ni NPs prepared from Ni-MOF-74 were easily reduced by the generation of reducing gases accompanied by the decomposition of Ni-MOF-74 structures during heat treatment at over 300 °C under N 2 flow. Ni-MOF-74-300 exhibited the highest activity for the hydrogenation of 1-octene due to efficient suppression of excess agglomerated Ni species during heat treatment. Moreover, Ni-MOF-74-300 showed not only high activity for the hydrogenation of olefins but also high size-selectivity because of the selective formation of Ni NPs covered by MOFs and the MOF-derived carbonaceous layer. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Electrodeposition of Ni on Bi2Te3 and Interfacial Reaction Between Sn and Ni-Coated Bi2Te3 (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chen; Lee, Hsuan; Hau, Nga Yu; Feng, Shien-Ping; Chen, Chih-Ming


    Bismuth-telluride (Bi2Te3)-based compounds are common thermoelectric materials used for low-temperature applications, and nickel (Ni) is usually deposited on the Bi2Te3 substrates as a diffusion barrier. Deposition of Ni on the p-type (Sb-doped) and n-type (Se-doped) Bi2Te3 substrates using electroplating and interfacial reactions between Sn and Ni-coated Bi2Te3 substrates are investigated. Electrodeposition of Ni on different Bi2Te3 substrates is characterized based on cyclic voltammetry and Tafel measurements. Microstructural characterizations of the Ni deposition and the Sn/Ni/Bi2Te3 interfacial reactions are performed using scanning electron microscopy. A faster growth rate is observed for the Ni deposition on the n-type Bi2Te3 substrate which is attributed to a lower activation energy of reduction due to a higher density of free electrons in the n-type Bi2Te3 material. The common Ni3Sn4 phase is formed at the Sn/Ni interfaces on both the p-type and n-type Bi2Te3 substrates, while the NiTe phase is formed at a faster rate at the interface between Ni and n-type Bi2Te3 substrates.

  18. Ni-Co nanoparticles immobilized on a 3D Ni foam template as a highly efficient catalyst for borohydride electrooxidation in alkaline medium (United States)

    Guo, Meisong; Cheng, Yu; Yu, Yanan; Hu, Jingbo


    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells have drawn a great deal of attention due to the rapidly growing energy consumption. Recently, Ni- and Co-based materials have been considered as promising electorcatalysts owing to their multi-functionality. In this work, Ni and Co nanoparticles are directly immobilized on a three-dimensional Ni foam substrate (Ni-Co/NF) without any conductive agents or polymer binder by a facile ion implantation method. The structure and morphology of the Ni-Co/NF electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the Ni-Co/NF electrode in the electrochemical oxidation of NaBH4 is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The Ni-Co/NF electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and good stability during electrochemical reactions. These properties are attributed to the 3D porous structure of the Ni foam and the synergistic effect of Ni and Co nanoparticles. The enhanced electrocatalytic performance in NaBH4 electrooxidation compared with either Ni or Co nanoparticles alone suggests that the Ni-Co/NF is promising for fuel cell applications.

  19. Effect of the physical and the chemical structures of Ni nanocrystals on the nonvolatile memory characteristics for small-molecule nonvolatile memorycells embedded with Ni nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Woo-Sik; Park, Jea-Gun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We determined the effects of the evaporation rate of the Ni layer and the presence of in-situ O{sub 2} plasma oxidation on the physical and the chemical structures of Ni nanocrystals embedded in small molecule (Alq{sub 3}: aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)) memorycells. The Ni nanocrystals produced by an evaporation rate of 0.1 A/s for the Ni layer with in-situ O{sub 2} plasma oxidation were well isolated from one another by a NiO tunneling barrier. The small-molecule memorycell embedded with isolated Ni nanocrystals surrounded by a NiO tunneling barrier demonstrated a memory margin (I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio) of {approx}1 x 10{sup 3}, a retention time of more than 10{sup 5} sec, and an endurance of more than 2 x 10{sup 2} erase-and- program cycles.

  20. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of deformation behavior and load transfer in a Ti{sub 2}Ni-NiTi composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junsong; Hao, Shijie; Yu, Cun; Shao, Yang; Ru, Yadong; Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing 102249 (China); Liu, Yinong [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Ren, Yang [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Huan, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics (LNM), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    The deformation behavior and load transfer of a dual-phase composite composed of martensite NiTi embedded in brittle Ti{sub 2}Ni matrices were investigated by using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction during compression. The composite exhibits a stage-wise deformation feature and a double-yielding phenomenon, which were caused by the interaction between Ti{sub 2}Ni and NiTi with alternative microscopic deformation mechanism. No load transfer occurs from the soft NiTi dendrites to the hard Ti{sub 2}Ni matrices during the pseudoplastic deformation (detwinning) of NiTi, which is significantly different from that previously reported in bulk metallic glasses matrices composites.