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Sample records for saitama tunable heavy ion linac

  1. Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Benaroya, R.; Clifft, B.E.; Jaffey, A.H.; Johnson, K.W.; Khoe, T.K.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, Y.Z.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the status of a project to develop and build a small superconducting linac to boost the energy of heavy ions from an existing tandem electrostatic accelerator. The design of the system is well advanced, and construction of major components is expected to start in late 1976. The linac will consist of independently-phased resonators of the split-ring type made of niobium and operating at a temperature of 4.2/sup 0/K. The resonance frequency is 97 MHz. Tests on full-scale resonators lead one to expect accelerating fields of approximately 4 MV/m within the resonators. The linac will be long enough to provide a voltage gain of at least 13.5 MV, which will allow ions with A less than or approximately 80 to be accelerated above the Coulomb barrier of any target. The modular nature of the system will make future additions to the length relatively easy. A major design objective is to preserve the good quality of the tandem beam. This requires an exceedingly narrow beam pulse, which is achieved by bunching both before and after the tandem. Focusing by means of superconducting solenoids within the linac limit the radial size of the beam. An accelerating structure some 15 meters downstream from the linac will manipulate the longitudinal phase ellipse so as to provide the experimenter with either very good energy resolution (..delta..E/E approximately equal to 2 x 10/sup -4/) or very good time resolution (..delta.. t approximately equal to 30 psec).

  2. Initial operation of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    Initial operation and recent development of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac are discussed. The linac has been developed in order to demonstrate a cost-effective means of extending the performance of electrostatic tandem accelerators. The results of beam acceleration tests which began in June 1978 are described. At present 7 of a planned array of 22 resonators are operating on-line, and the linac system provides an effective accelerating potential of 7.5 MV. Although some technical problems remain, the level of performance and reliability is sufficient that appreciable beam time is becoming available to users.

  3. Status of the Argonne superconducting-linac heavy-ion energy booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aron, J.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Henning, W.; Johnson, K.W.; Nixon, J.M.; Markovich, P.; Shepard, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting linac is being constructed to provide an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem. By late 1980 the linac will consist of 24 independently-phased superconducting resonators, and will provide an effective accelerating potential of more than 25 MV. While the linac is under construction, completed sections are being used to provide useful beam for nuclear physics experiments. In the most recent run with beam (June 1979), an eight resonator array provided an effective accelerating potential of 9.3 MV. Operation of a 12 resonator array is scheduled to begin in October 1979.

  4. Heavy-ion LINAC development for the US RIA project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, IL, 18–22 June 2001 (to be published) http://pacwebserver.fnal.gov/papers/Thursday/PM Oral/ROPA002.pdf. [5] K W Shepard, The U.S. RIA Project SRF LINACS, presented in the 10th Int. Workshop on RF. Superconductivity, Paper TA003, Tsukuba, Japan, 6–11 September 2001.

  5. A superconducting CW-LINAC for heavy ion acceleration at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Winfried; Aulenbacher, Kurt; Basten, Markus; Dziuba, Florian; Gettmann, Viktor; Miski-Oglu, Maksym; Podlech, Holger; Yaramyshev, Stepan

    2017-03-01

    Recently the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) serves as a powerful high duty factor (25%) heavy ion beam accelerator for the ambitious experiment program at GSI. Beam time availability for SHE (Super Heavy Element)-research will be decreased due to the limitation of the UNILAC providing Uranium beams with an extremely high peak current for FAIR simultaneously. To keep the GSI-SHE program competitive on a high level and even beyond, a standalone superconducting continuous wave (100% duty factor) LINAC in combination with the upgraded GSI High Charge State injector is envisaged. In preparation for this, the first LINAC section (financed by HIM and GSI) will be tested with beam in 2017, demonstrating the future experimental capabilities. Further on the construction of an extended cryo module comprising two shorter Crossbar-H cavities is foreseen to test until end of 2017. As a final R&D step towards an entire LINAC three advanced cryo modules, each comprising two CH cavities, should be built until 2019, serving for first user experiments at the Coulomb barrier.

  6. Superconducting, energy variable heavy ion linac with constant β, multicell cavities of CH-type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Minaev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An energy variable ion linac consisting of multigap, constant-β cavities was developed. The effect of phase sliding, unavoidable in any constant-β section, is leading to a coherent rf phase motion, which fits well to the H-type structures with their long π-mode sections and separated lenses. The exact periodicity of the cell lengths within each cavity results in technical advantages, such as higher calculation accuracy when only one single period can be simulated, simpler manufacturing, and tuning. This is most important in the case of superconducting cavities. By using this concept, an improved design for a 217 MHz cw superconducting heavy ion linac with energy variation has been worked out. The small output energy spread of ±3  AkeV is provided over the whole range of energy variation from 3.5 to 7.3 AMeV. These capabilities would allow for a competitive research in the field of radiochemistry and for a production of super heavy elements (SHE, especially. A first 19-cell cavity of that type was designed, built, and rf tested successfully at the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP Frankfurt. A 325.224 MHz, seven-cell cavity with constant β=0.16 is under development and will be operated in a frequency controlled mode. It will be equipped with a power coupler and beam tests with Unilac beams at GSI are foreseen.

  7. A Single Pulse Beam Emittance Measurement for the CERN Heavy Ion Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M

    1995-01-01

    A new device for transverse emittance measurement has been installed in the 4.2 MeV/u filter region of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (Linac 3). It allows to obtain pulse-to-pulse (every 1.2 sec) visualisation of the Linac 3 beam parameters in order to tune the machine and to match the beam for injection into the first circular accelerator, the PS Booster. The system is based on the "multi-slit" technique similar to the well-known "pepper pot" method. A plate with a series of horizontal or vertical slits is placed in the beam, defining positions in the phase plane. Particles pass through the slits and drift to a scintillator screen where they produce light. The screen is looked at by an externally triggered high resolution CCD camera. For each slit position the light intensity distribution, in the limit of infinitesimal slit aperture, is proportional to the angle distribution of the particles and therefore, provides the angular distribution in the phase plane. The video signal from the camera is digitised and the r...

  8. Design of 57.5 MHz cw RFQ for medium energy heavy ion superconducting linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear science community considers the construction of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA facility as a top priority. The RIA includes a 1.4 GV superconducting linac for production of 400 kW cw heavy ion beams. The initial acceleration of heavy ions delivered from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source can be effectively performed by a 57.5 MHz 4-m long room temperature RFQ. The principal specifications of the RFQ are (i formation of extremely low longitudinal emittance, (ii stable operation over a wide range of voltage for acceleration of various ion species needed for RIA operation, and (iii simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states of uranium ions. cw operation of an accelerating structure leads to a number of requirements for the resonators such as high shunt impedance, efficient water cooling of all parts of the resonant cavity, mechanical stability together with precise alignment, reliable rf contacts, a stable operating mode, and fine tuning of the resonant frequency during operation. To satisfy these requirements a new resonant structure has been developed. This paper discusses the beam dynamics and electrodynamics design of the RFQ cavity, as well as some aspects of the mechanical design of the low-frequency cw RFQ.

  9. Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

    2006-04-28

    This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 μs pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA/cm2 at 30 cm from the source and with strongly axially directed ion energy of about 80 eV, and sub-eV transverse temperature. The source has good reproducibility and spatial uniformity. Control of the current density during the pulse has been demonstrated with a novel modulator coil method which allows attenuation of the ion current density without significantly affecting the beam quality. This project was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 used source configurations adapted from light ion sources to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase 2 the performance of the source was enhanced and quantified in greater detail, a modulator for controlling the pulse shape was developed, and experiments were conducted with the ions accelerated to >40 kV.

  10. Alternating Phase Focusing in Low-Velocity Heavy-Ion Superconducting Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, P N

    2004-01-01

    The low-charge-state injector linac of the RIA post-accelerator is based on ~60 independently phased SC resonators providing total ~70 MV accelerating potential. The low charge-state beams, however, require stronger transverse focusing, particularly at low velocities, than is used in existing SC ion linacs. For the charge-to-mass ratios considered here (q/A = 1/66) the proper focusing can be reached by the help of strong SC solenoid lenses with the field up to 15 T. Magnetic field of the solenoids can be reduced to 9 T applying an Alternating Phase Focusing (APF). A method to set the rf field phases has been developed and studied both analytically and by the help of the three-dimensional ray tracing code. The paper discusses the results of these studies.

  11. Two-beam interdigital-H-type radio frequency quadrupole linac with direct plasma injection for high intensity heavy ion acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ishibashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a two-beam interdigital-H-type radio frequency quadrupole (IH-RFQ linac as a prototype of a multibeam IH-RFQ for high intensity heavy ion acceleration in the low energy region. This linac has two sets of RFQ electrodes within an IH-type resonant frequency cavity that is a power-efficient structure for low energy beam acceleration. The linac can accelerate two beams in parallel in one cavity with a reduction in the coulomb repulsive force (the space charge effect between the accelerated heavy ion particles. The resonance frequency and the Q factor of the linac were found to be 47 MHz and 5900, respectively. We also developed a two-beam laser ion source with a direct plasma injection scheme as an injection system for the two-beam IH-RFQ linac and built a system to demonstrate the use of the two-beam IH-RFQ linac. Using this linac system, we were able to accelerate carbon ions from 5 to 60  keV/u and generate an output beam current of about 108 mA (2×54  mA/channel. A coherency between the two beams, derived from the imbalance of the beam loading, was observed in the acceleration test with carbon ions.

  12. Asymptotic analysis of the longitudinal instability of a heavy ion induction linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.P.; Smith, L.

    1990-09-01

    An Induction Linac accelerating high ion currents at sub-relativistic energies is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations at low frequencies. The instability is driven by the interaction between the beam and complex impedance of the induction modules. In general, the detailed form of the growing disturbance depends on the initial perturbation and ratio of pulse length to accelerator length, as well as the specific form of the impedance. An asymptotic analysis of the several regimes of interest is presented. 1 ref.

  13. An Induction Linac Driver For A 0.44 MJ Heavy-Ion Direct Drive Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, P.A.; Lee, E.P.; Bangerter, R.O.; Faltens, A.

    2010-02-08

    The conceptual design of a heavy ion fusion driver system is described, including all major components. Particular issues emerging from this exercise are identified and discussed. The most important conclusion of our study is that due to stringent requirements on ion pulse phase space, we are unable to find a credible accelerator design that meets the requirements of the example target. Either the target design must be modified to accept larger ion ranges and larger focal spot sizes, or we must consider other target options.

  14. An overview of LINAC ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Roderich [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses ion sources used in high-duty-factor proton and H{sup -} Linacs as well as in accelerators utilizing multi-charged heavy ions, mostly for nuclear physics applications. The included types are Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) sources as well as filament and rf driven multicusp sources. The paper does not strive to attain encyclopedic character but rather to highlight major lines of development, peak performance parameters and type-specific limitations and problems of these sources. The main technical aspects being discussed are particle feed, plasma generation and ion production by discharges, and plasma confinement.

  15. A 25.5 MHz double-coaxial lambda/4-resonator as a rebuncher in heavy ion linac system

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, K; Hashimoto, Y; Masuda, H; Niki, K

    1999-01-01

    A 25.5 MHz double-coaxial lambda/4-resonator has been constructed to be used as a rebuncher between a 25.5 MHz RFQ linac and a 51 MHz interdigital-H linac for the acceleration of short-lived nuclei. By employing a double coaxial structure, the resonator length is only 130 cm; the length of the natural lambda/4-resonator is 294 cm. The resonator, 69 cm in inner diameter, has six acceleration gaps. The bare shunt impedance is 40.6 M OMEGA/m. The ions with a charge-to-mass ratio 1/10 can be rebunched by feeding an rf power of 1.4 kW.

  16. Development of a silicon detector monitor for the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting upgrade of the REX-ISOLDE heavy-ion linac

    CERN Document Server

    Zocca, F; Bravin, E; Pasini, M; Voulot, D; Wenander, F

    2012-01-01

    A silicon detector monitor has been developed and tested in the framework of the beam diagnostics development program for the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting upgrade of the REX-ISOLDE heavy-ion linac at CERN. The monitor is intended for beam energy and timing measurements aimed at the phase tuning of the superconducting cavities. Tests were performed with a stable ion beam, composed of carbon, oxygen and neon ions accelerated to energies from 300keV/u to 2.82MeV/u. The energy measurements performed allowed for beam spectroscopy and ion identification with a resolution of 1.4%-0.5% rms in the measured energy range. The achieved resolution is suited for a fast phase tuning of the cavities, which was demonstrated with the third REX 7-gap resonator. The time structure of the beam, characterised by a bunch period of 9.87ns, was measured with a resolution better than 200ps rms. This paper describes the results from all these tests and provides details of the detector set-up.

  17. Development of a Silicon Detector Monitor for the Superconducting Upgrade of the REX-ISOLDE Heavy-Ion Linac at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Zocca, F; Voulot, D; Wenander, F; Pasini, M; Fraser, MA

    2011-01-01

    A silicon detector monitor has been developed and tested in the frame of the beam diagnostics development program for the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting upgrade of the REX-ISOLDE heavy-ion linac at CERN. The monitor is intended for beam energy and timing measurements as well as for phase scanning of the superconducting cavities. Tests have been performed with a stable ion beam, composed of carbon, oxygen and neon ions accelerated to energies from 300 keV/u to 2.85 MeV/u. The energy measurements performed allowed for beam spectroscopy and ion identification with a resolution of 1.3 % rms. The achieved resolution is suited for cavity phase scanning, which was demonstrated with the REX 7-gap resonator. The time structure of the beam, characterized by a bunch period of 9.87 ns, was measured with a resolution better than 200 ps. This paper describes the results from all these tests as well as providing details of the detector setup.

  18. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  19. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  20. Frequency jump in an ion linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Duperrier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Frequency jumps in an ion linac use to be made in order to provide a large transverse acceptance in the low-energy part and a high accelerating gradient in the high-energy part. This frequency jump may induce a discontinuity in the average longitudinal force per focusing period and shrink the longitudinal acceptance of the linac if this transition is not performed carefully. In this paper, three techniques are developed which produce a “certain” continuity of the channel at the transition between. The continuity type is discussed. It is demonstrated that the longitudinal acceptance can be preserved whatever the frequencies of the cavities in the linac. This point is very important when comparisons between different cavity types are made (spoke and elliptical cavities for, instance. A few examples are shown to illustrate the performances of the three techniques.

  1. Superconducting heavy-ion accelerating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    This paper briefly reviews the technical history of superconducting ion-accelerating structures. Various superconducting cavities currently used and being developed for use in ion linacs are discussed. Principal parameters and operational characteristics of superconducting structures in active use at various heavy-ion facilities are described.

  2. Oxygen ion source and RFQ for Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by an RFQ. In the foreground at the right is the oxygen ion source. A 90 deg bending magnet selects O6+ ions which are preaccelerated in an RFQ and enter Linac 1, at the far left. In the background is the proton and negative hydrogen ion source, followed by the 520 keV RFQ-1 and a bending magnet towards the entrance of Linac 1.

  3. Three-dimensional thermal simulations of thin solid carbon foils for charge stripping of high current uranium ion beams at a proposed new heavy-ion linac at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive numerical study of heating of thin solid carbon foils by 1.4  MeV/u uranium ion beams to explore the possibility of using such a target as a charge stripper at the proposed new Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac. These simulations have been carried out using a sophisticated 3D computer code that accounts for physical phenomena that are important in this problem. A variety of beam and target parameters have been considered. The results suggest that within the considered parameter range, the target will be severely damaged by the beam. Thus, a carbon foil stripper does not seem to be a reliable option for the future Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac, in particular, at FAIR design beam intensities.

  4. Status report on the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory heavy ion fusion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, D.; Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.

    1978-11-01

    This status report is presented in three sections: (1) a design and cost procedure for heavy-ion induction LINACS, (2) theoretical activities, and (3) the experimental program on heavy ion fusion at LBL. (MOW)

  5. Design and Beam Dynamics Studies of a Multi-Ion Linac Injector for the JLEIC Ion Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Plastun, A. S.; Mustapha, B.; Conway, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    The electron-ion collider (JLEIC) being proposed at JLab requires a new ion accelerator complex which includes a linac capable of delivering any ion beam from hydrogen to lead to the booster. We are currently developing a linac which consists of several ion sources, a normal conducting (NC) front end, up to 5 MeV/u, and a SC section for energies > 5 MeV/u. This design work is focused on the beam dynamics and electrodynamics studies performed to design efficient and cost-effective accelerating structures for both the NC and SC sections of the linac. Currently, we are considering two separate RFQs for the heavy-ion and light-ion beams including polarized beams, and different types of NC accelerating structures downstream of the RFQ. Quarter-wave and half-wave resonators can be effectively used in the SC section.

  6. Parametic Study of the current limit within a single driver-scaletransport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ~0.2 μC/m) over long pulse durations (4 μs) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (~80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  7. European heavy ion ICF driver development

    CERN Document Server

    Plass, Günther

    1996-01-01

    Approaches in Europe to heavy ion induced Inertial Confinement Fusion are oriented toward the linac-plus- storage ring technique. Despite the very limited support of this work, technical pro gress was achieved in some important areas. For the immediate future, a substantial intensity upgrade of the GSI accelerator facilities at Darmstadt is being implemented, leading to specific energy depositions of the order of 100 kJ/g and plasma temperatures of 10 to 20 eV. For the longer term, a conceptual design study of a heavy ion based Ignition Facility is being initiated.

  8. Status and Operation of the Linac4 Ion Source Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Hatayama, A; Nishida, K; Shibata, T; Yamamot, T; Otha, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 45 kV H- ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2MHz RF- plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H- beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the LEBT, RFQ and chopper of Linac4.

  9. Superconducting LINAC booster for the Mumbai pelletron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LINAC), to boost the energy of heavy ion beams from the 14UD Pelletron accelerator, at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. The accelerating structures in the LINAC are quarter wave resonators (QWR) coated with lead which is ...

  10. Superconducting Hadron Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating–focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are ta...

  11. Linac 1, inner structure

    CERN Multimedia

    1968-01-01

    This photo shows the inner structure of Linac 1. As injector to the PS, and later to the Booster, Linac 1 accelerated protons to 50 MeV, but it has also accelerated heavier ions. Fitted with a 520 keV RFQ pre-injector (instead of the original Cockcroft-Walton generator), it delivered protons and heavy ions to LEAR, from 1982 to 1992. After 33 years of faithful service, Linac 1 was dismantled in 1992 to make room for Linac 3 (Pb ions).

  12. Commissioning of the LINAC4 Ion Source Transverse Emittance Meter

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Dutriat, C; Lokhovitsky, A; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F; Scrivens, R; Zorin, E

    2010-01-01

    LINAC4 is the first step in the upgrade of the injector chain for the LHC, and will accelerate H- ions from 45 keV to 160 MeV. Currently the ion source is installed in a test setup and its commissioning started at the end of 2009. A slit-grid system is used to measure the transverse emittance of the beam at the exit of the source. The results of the measurements have been compared with analytical and numerical predictions of the performance of the emittance meter, addressing the system resolution, accuracy and sensitivity. The outcome of this analysis has been used to improve the design of a new slit-grid system foreseen for the commissioning of LINAC 4 at higher energy locations.

  13. An intense ECR ion source for proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Cui Bao Qun; Bao Yi We; Jiang Wei; Wang Rong

    2002-01-01

    An intense electron cyclotron resonance ion source for proton linac has been developed. At 30 keV, 100 mA hydrogen beam is extracted from the source. The proton ratio is greater than 85% and the beam density of 340 mA/Cm sup 2 is achieved. The rms emittance of the beam is around 0.11 pi mm centre dot mrad. The source has passed 100 h reliability test

  14. Status and Operation of the Linac4 Ion Source Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Hatayama, A; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O’Neil, M; Ohta, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Yamamoto, T

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 45 kV H- ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2MHz RF- plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H- beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator and chopper of Linac4.

  15. A magnetized Einzel lens electron dump for the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, O; Kronberger, M; Lettry, J; Pereira, H; Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator which will inject negative hydrogen ions (H−) into CERN’s Proton Synchrotron Booster, a required upgrade to improve the beam brightness in the LHC injector chain. A volume production RF ion source, based on the design of the DESY RF source was implemented, but showed considerable electron dump ablation during operation at 45 keV beam energy. To reduce the electron beam power density in the dump, a magnetized Einzel lens is designed that reduces the beam energy to 10 keV before permanentmagnets dump the electrons on a tungsten surface. Presented in this paper are simulations of the design using IBSimu, the tunable range of parameters depending on the extracted H− and electron current, as well as details of the implementation, the choice of pulsed power converters and the electrode alignment system. In addition, simulations of proton extraction from this source will be shown.

  16. ECR ion source for high current linac

    CERN Document Server

    Cui Bao Qun; Jiang Wei; LiLiQiang; WangRongWen

    2002-01-01

    An intense ECR ion source for ADS (accelerator driven sub-critical system) is described. Two configurations of the source has been developed and tested. 100 mA hydrogen beam has been extracted from the ion source at 30 keV, the proton ratio is greater than 85%, estimated emittance is 0.11 pi mm centre dot mrad, the maximum extracted beam density is 340 mA/cm sup 2 . A 100 hours reliability test of the source is also described

  17. Superconducting linacs: some recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper is a review of superconducting linacs that are of interest for heavy-ion acceleration. Most of the paper is concerned with energy boosters for projectiles from tandem electrostatic accelerators, the only application for which superconducting linacs are now used for heavy-ion acceleration. There is also a brief discussion of the concept of a superconducting injector linac being developed as a replacement of the tandem in a multi-stage acceleration system. Throughout, the emphasis is on the technology of the superconducting linac, including some attention to the relationships between resonator design parameters and accelerator performance characteristics. 21 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. High-Energy Ion Linacs Based on Spoke Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, K W; Ostromov, P N

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of superconducting TEM-class spoke cavities to high-energy ion linacs is discussed, and detailed designs for two TEM-class, triple-spoke-loaded superconducting niobium resonant cavities are presented. The 345 MHz cavities have a velocity range of 0.4linac is discussed in detail.

  19. High intensity ion beams in rf undulator linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Masunov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a radio frequency undulator field to accelerate a high intensity ion beam in a linac is discussed. Such an accelerator can be realized using the periodical interdigital H-type resonator structure. The accelerating force is produced by an electric field which is a combination of two or more spatial harmonics, none of them being synchronous with the ion beam. The value of this force is proportional to the squared charge. The equations of motion in Hamiltonian form are derived by means of smooth approximation. The analysis of the 3D effective potential function allows finding the conditions of the beam focusing and acceleration. Two ways to increase ion beam intensity are considered: (i to enlarge beam cross section; (ii to neutralize the beam space charge by accelerating ions with opposite charge signs within the same bunch. The basic results are confirmed by a numerical simulation.

  20. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  1. Status of IH and RFQ linacs in the Daejeon Ion Accelerator Complex at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sung Ryul; Chang, Dae Sik; Hwang, Churl Kew; Lee, Seok Kwan; Jin, Jeong Tae; Oh, Byung Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Daejeon ion accelerator complex (DIAC) is being built at Korea atomic energy research institute (KAERI) in order to fulfill an increasing demand for heavy ion beam facilities for various purposes including structural material study, biological research and nanomaterial treatment. Based on devices of the Tokai radioactive ion accelerator complex (TRIAC) given from the high energy accelerator research organization (KEK), Japan, the dedicated accelerators in the DIAC are designed to produce stable heavy ion beams with energies up to 1 MeV/u and beam currents up to 300 μA. In this article, recent construction status of the DIAC are presented and discussed. From the successful full-power test results, we confirmed that the IH and RFQ linacs work properly and then they are ready to accelerate heavy ions up to 1.09 MeV/nucleon. The construction of lead shields on DIAC devices is now in progress, and the beam tuning and test will be done soon until the end of this year.

  2. LEXUS heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sang Yong Jeon

    1997-01-01

    We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus- nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: all the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: Linear EXtrapolation of Ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon Scattering to heavy ion collisions. (11 refs).

  3. Ultrarelativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Studies with ultrarelativistic heavy ions combine aspects of cosmic ray physics, particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmogenesis. The leading theoretical concerns are the behavior of matter at very high-energy density and flux, the general behavior of space time in collisions, relativistic nuclear theory, and quantum chromodynamics. The field has developed over a period of more than thirty years, since the first observation of heavy nuclei in cosmic rays and the major developments of understanding of high-energy collisions made by Fermi and Landau in the early fifties. In the late sixties the discovery of the parton content of nucleons was rapidly followed by a great extension of high-energy collision phenomenology at the CERN ISR and subsequent confirmation of the QCD theory. In parallel the study of p-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies, especially at the CERN PS, Fermilab and the Bevalac, and in cosmic rays demonstrated that studies involving the nucleus opened up a new dimension in studies of the hadronic interaction. It is now at a high level of interest on an international scale, with major new accelerators being proposed to dedicate to this kind of study.

  4. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  5. Autopilot regulation for the Linac4 H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgarakis, G.; Lettry, J.; Mattei, S.; Lefort, B.; Costa, V. J. Correia

    2017-08-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV H- linear accelerator part of the upgrade of the LHC injector chain. Its cesiated surface H- source is designed to provide a beam intensity of 40-50mA. It is operated with periodical Cs-injection at typically 30 days intervals [1] and this implies that the beam parameters will slowly evolve during operation. Autopilot is a control software package extending CERN developed Inspector framework. The aim of Autopilot is to automatize the mandatory optimization and cesiation processes and to derive performance indicators, thus keeping human intervention minimal. Autopilot has been developed by capitalizing on the experience from manually operating the source. It comprises various algorithms running in real-time, which have been devised to: • Optimize the ion source performance by regulation of H2 injection, RF power and frequency. • Describe the performance of the source with performance indicators, which can be easily understood by operators. • Identify failures, try to recover the nominal operation and send warning in case of deviation from nominal operation. • Make the performance indicators remotely available through Web pages.Autopilot is at the same level of hierarchy as an operator, in the CERN infrastructure. This allows the combination of all ion source devices, providing the required flexibility. Autopilot is executed in a dedicated server, ensuring unique and centralized control, yet allowing multiple operators to interact at runtime, always coordinating between them. Autopilot aims at flexibility, adaptability, portability and scalability, and can be extended to other components of CERN's accelerators. In this paper, a detailed description of the Autopilot algorithms is presented, along with first results of operating the Linac4 H- Ion Source with Autopilot.

  6. Six tesla analyzing magnet for heavy-ion beam transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.P.; Bollinger, L.; Erskine, J.; Genens, L.; Hoffman, J.

    1980-01-01

    A superconducting analyzer magnet for particle beam deflection has been designed and is being fabricated for use at the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). This six tesla magnet will provide 45/sup 0/ of deflection for the heavy-ion beams from the ATLAS tandem electrostatic accelerator and together with its twin will replace the existing conventional 90/sup 0/ analyzer magnet which will become inadequate when ATLAS is completed.

  7. RF Plasma modeling of the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Kawamura, Y; Yasumoto, M; Schmitzer, C

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the modelling of the ICP RF-plasma in the Linac4 H− ion source currently being constructed at CERN. A self-consistent model of the plasma dynamics with the RF electromagnetic field has been developed by a PIC-MCC method. In this paper, the model is applied to the analysis of a low density plasma discharge initiation, with particular interest on the effect of the external magnetic field on the plasma properties, such as wall loss, electron density and electron energy. The use of a multi-cusp magnetic field effectively limits the wall losses, particularly in the radial direction. Preliminary results however indicate that a reduced heating efficiency results in such a configuration. The effect is possibly due to trapping of electrons in the multi-cusp magnetic field, preventing their continuous acceleration in the azimuthal direction.

  8. Linac4 H{sup −} ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J., E-mail: Jacques.lettry@cern.ch; Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; David, N.; Chaudet, E.; Fink, D. A.; Garlasche, M.; Grudiev, A.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Haase, M.; Jones, A.; Koszar, I.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lombardi, A. M.; Machado, C. [CERN-ABP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2016-02-15

    CERN’s 160 MeV H{sup −} linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H{sup −} source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H{sup −} source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described.

  9. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  10. A tunable, linac based, intense, broad-band THz source forpump-probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerge, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Adolphsen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Corbett, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Durr, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fazio, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Frisch, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gaffney, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Guehr, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hettel, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoffmann, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hogan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Holtkamp, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kirchmann, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Limborg, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lindenberg, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Maxwell, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nilsson, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Raubenheimer, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Reis, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ross, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shen, Z. -X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stupakov, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Xiang, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yakimenko, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    We propose an intense THz source with tunable frequency and bandwidth that can directly interact with the degrees of freedom that determine the properties of materials and thus provides a new tool for controlling and directing these ultrafast processes as well as aiding synthesis of new materials with new functional properties. This THz source will broadly impact our understanding of dynamical processes in matter at the atomic-scale and in real time. Established optical pumping schemes using femtosecond visible frequency laser pulses for excitation are extended into the THz frequency regime thereby enabling resonant excitation of bonds in correlated solid state materials (phonon pumping), to drive low energy electronic excitations, to trigger surface chemistry reactions, and to all-optically bias a material with ultrashort electric fields or magnetic fields. A linac-based THz source can supply stand-alone experiments with peak intensities two orders of magnitude stronger than existing laser-based sources, but when coupled with atomic-scale sensitive femtosecond x-ray probes it opens a new frontier in ultrafast science with broad applications to correlated materials, interfacial and liquid phase chemistry, and materials in extreme conditions.

  11. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  12. Heavy ion fusion--Using heavy ions to make electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-03-15

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring {approx}100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris.

  13. Heavy ions: Report from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review selected highlights from the experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) exploring the QCD phase diagram. A wealth of new results appeared recently from RHIC due to major recent upgrades, like for example the Υ suppression in central nucleus-nucleus collisions which has been discovered ...

  14. LINAC 4

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 13 March, a beam of negative hydrogen ions was injected into the first accelerator module of Linac 4, the linear accelerator which will replace Linac 2. The beam was created in the new source built for Linac 4 and accelerated from 45 kEV to 3 MeV by a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module, the first link in the Linac 4 accelerator chain. This crucial phase went off without a hitch. The video above shows the new Linac 4 ion source, the low-energy transfer line and the RFQ, with running commentary by Giulia Bellodi and Carlo Rossi from the Beams Department.

  15. Heavy ion linear accelerator for radiation damage studies of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey V.; Mustapha, Brahim; Ostroumov, Peter N.; Nolen, Jerry; Barcikowski, Albert; Pellin, Michael; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2017-03-01

    A new eXtreme MATerial (XMAT) research facility is being proposed at Argonne National Laboratory to enable rapid in situ mesoscale bulk analysis of ion radiation damage in advanced materials and nuclear fuels. This facility combines a new heavy-ion accelerator with the existing high-energy X-ray analysis capability of the Argonne Advanced Photon Source. The heavy-ion accelerator and target complex will enable experimenters to emulate the environment of a nuclear reactor making possible the study of fission fragment damage in materials. Material scientists will be able to use the measured material parameters to validate computer simulation codes and extrapolate the response of the material in a nuclear reactor environment. Utilizing a new heavy-ion accelerator will provide the appropriate energies and intensities to study these effects with beam intensities which allow experiments to run over hours or days instead of years. The XMAT facility will use a CW heavy-ion accelerator capable of providing beams of any stable isotope with adjustable energy up to 1.2 MeV/u for U-238(50+) and 1.7 MeV for protons. This energy is crucial to the design since it well mimics fission fragments that provide the major portion of the damage in nuclear fuels. The energy also allows damage to be created far from the surface of the material allowing bulk radiation damage effects to be investigated. The XMAT ion linac includes an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, a normal-conducting radio-frequency quadrupole and four normal-conducting multi-gap quarter-wave resonators operating at 60.625 MHz. This paper presents the 3D multi-physics design and analysis of the accelerating structures and beam dynamics studies of the linac.

  16. Heavy ion linear accelerator for radiation damage studies of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsaev, Sergey V.; Mustapha, Brahim; Ostroumov, Peter N.; Nolen, Jerry; Barcikowski, Albert; Pellin, Michael; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2017-03-01

    A new eXtreme MATerial (XMAT) research facility is being proposed at Argonne National Laboratory to enable rapid in situ mesoscale bulk analysis of ion radiation damage in advanced materials and nuclear fuels. This facility combines a new heavy-ion accelerator with the existing high-energy X-ray analysis capability of the Argonne Advanced Photon Source. The heavy-ion accelerator and target complex will enable experimenters to emulate the environment of a nuclear reactor making possible the study of fission fragment damage in materials. Material scientists will be able to use the measured material parameters to validate computer simulation codes and extrapolate the response of the material in a nuclear reactor environment. Utilizing a new heavy-ion accelerator will provide the appropriate energies and intensities to study these effects with beam intensities which allow experiments to run over hours or days instead of years. The XMAT facility will use a CW heavy-ion accelerator capable of providing beams of any stable isotope with adjustable energy up to 1.2 MeV/u for 238U50+ and 1.7 MeV for protons. This energy is crucial to the design since it well mimics fission fragments that provide the major portion of the damage in nuclear fuels. The energy also allows damage to be created far from the surface of the material allowing bulk radiation damage effects to be investigated. The XMAT ion linac includes an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, a normal-conducting radio-frequency quadrupole and four normal-conducting multi-gap quarter-wave resonators operating at 60.625 MHz. This paper presents the 3D multi-physics design and analysis of the accelerating structures and beam dynamics studies of the linac.

  17. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned. (GHT)

  18. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2017-01-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  19. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.B.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Hoglund, D.E.; Hudson, E.D.; Juras, R.C.

    1986-02-15

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility has been in routine operation since July 1982. Beams have been provided using both the tandem accelerator alone and a coupled mode in which the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron is used as an energy booster for tandem beams. The coupled mode has proved to be especially effective and has allowed us to provide a wide range of energetic beams for scheduled experiments. In this report we discuss our operational experience and recent development activities.

  20. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.B.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Hoglund, D.E.; Hudson, E.D.; Juras, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility has been in routine operation since July 1982. Beams have been provided using both the tandem accelerator alone and a coupled mode in which the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron is used as an energy booster for tandem beams. The coupled mode has proved to be especially effective and has allowed us to provide a wide range of energetic beams for scheduled experiments. In this report we discuss our operational experience and recent development activities.

  1. Heavy-ion Physics (ATLAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Przybycien, Mariusz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has undertaken a broad physics program to probe and characterize the hot nuclear matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. This talk presents recent results on production of electroweak bosons and quarkonium, charged particles and jets, bulk particle collectivity and electromagnetic processes in ultra-peripheral collisions, from Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions.

  2. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification -- both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  3. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    525–533. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics. AKIRA OZAWA. RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. Abstract. Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large ...

  4. BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES FOR A COMPACT CARBON ION LINAC FOR THERAPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastun, A.; Mustapha, B.; Nassiri, A.; Ostroumov, P.

    2016-05-01

    Feasibility of an Advanced Compact Carbon Ion Linac (ACCIL) for hadron therapy is being studied at Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with RadiaBeam Technologies. The 45-meter long linac is designed to deliver 109 carbon ions per second with variable energy from 45 MeV/u to 450 MeV/u. S-band structure provides the acceleration in this range. The carbon beam energy can be adjusted from pulse to pulse, making 3D tumor scanning straightforward and fast. Front end accelerating structures such as RFQ, DTL and coupled DTL are designed to operate at lower frequencies. The design of the linac was accompanied with extensive end-to-end beam dynamics studies which are presented in this paper.

  5. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  6. Heavy Ion Physics at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    In the present proceedings recent heavy ion results from the Compact Muon Solenoid collaboration at the LHC are presented. These contain comparisons between small and large collision systems, as well as studies of energy evolution, thus include data collected in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV (2015 and 2016), proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at 5 TeV (2015), and proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV and 8 TeV (2016) center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair. They provide new insights into the properties of the extremely high density and high temperature matter created in heavy ion collisions, while pointing out similarities and differences in comparison to smaller collision systems. These include gluon distribution functions in the lead nucleus; the azimuthal anisotropy of final state particle distributions in all the three different collision systems; charge separation signals from proton-lead collisions and consequences for the Chiral Magnetic Effect; new studies of parton energy loss and its dependence on...

  7. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  8. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Lettry, Jacques; Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H(-) beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  9. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  10. heavy ion acceleration at shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. I.; Galinsky, V.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical study of alpha particle acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock due to interaction with Alfven waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model [1]. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or dumped and hence particles will be pitch--angle scattered as well as the change of the wave energy due to instability or damping. It includes in consideration the total distribution function (the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no any assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. In previous studies heavy ions were treated as perfect test particles, they only experienced the Alfven turbulence excited by protons and didn’t contribute to turbulence generation. In contrast to this approach, we consider the ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves. It is important for alpha particles with their relatively large mass-loading parameter that defines efficiency of the wave excitation by alpha particles. The energy spectra of alpha particles is found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation. [1] Galinsky, V.L., and V.I. Shevchenko, Astrophys. J., 669, L109, 2007.

  11. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino

    2005-01-01

    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  12. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-04-10

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  13. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: Experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The field of relativistic heavy-ion physics is reviewed with emphasis on new results and highlights from the first run of the relativistic heavy-ion collider at BNL and the 15 year research programme at the super proton synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and the AGS at BNL.

  14. Single pass electron beam cooling of gold ions between EBIS LINAC and booster is theoretically possible!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam cooling is examined as an option to reduce momentum of gold ions exiting the EBIS LINAC before injection into the booster. Electron beam parameters are based on experimental data (obtained at BNL) of electron beams extracted from a plasma cathode. Many issues, regarding a low energy high current electron beam that is needed for electron beam cooling to reduce momentum of gold ions exiting the EBIS LINAC before injection into the booster, were examined. Computations and some experimental data indicate that none of these issues is a show stopper. Preliminary calculations indicate that single pass cooling is feasible; momentum spread can be reduced by more than an order of magnitude in about one meter. Hence, this option cooling deserves further more serious considerations.

  15. Fast Beam-ion Instabilities in CLIC Main Linac Vacuum Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Specifications for the vacuum pressure in the CLIC electron Main Linac are determined by the onset of the fast beam-ion instability (FBII). When the electron beam is accelerated in the Main Linac, it ionizes the residual gas in the chamber through scattering ionization. If the density of ions around the beam exceeds a certain threshold, a resonant motion between the electron beam and the ions can be excited. A two-stream instability appears and as a result the beam acquires a coherent motion, which can quickly lead to beam quality degradation or even complete loss. Thus, the vacuum pressure must be kept below this threshold to prevent the excitation of FBII. The CLIC Main Linac poses an additional challenge with respect to previous FBII situations, because the gas ionization does not solely occur via scattering. The submicrometric beam sizes lead to extremely high electric fields around the beam and therefore result in field ionization beyond a certain threshold. The residual gas in the corresponding volume a...

  16. Superconducting low-velocity linac for the Argonne positive-ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Markovich, P.K.; Zinkann, G.P.; Clifft, B.; Benaroya, R.

    1989-01-01

    A low-velocity superconducting linac has been developed as part of a positive-ion injector system, which is replacing a 9 MV tandem as the injector for the ATLAS accelerator. The linac consists of an independently phased array of resonators, and is designed to accelerate various ions over a velocity range .008 < v/c < .06. The resonator array is formed of four different types of superconducting interdigital structures. The linac is being constructed in three phases, each of which will cover the full velocity range. Successive phases will increase the total accelerating potential and permit heavier ions to be accelerated. Assembly of the first phase was completed in early 1989. In initial tests with beam, a five-resonator array provided approximately 3.5 MV of accelerating potential and operated without difficulty for several hundred hours. The second phase is scheduled for completion in late 1989, and will increase the accelerating potential to more than 8 MV. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Heavy-ion induced desorption yields of cryogenic surfaces bombarded with 4.2 MeV/u lead ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Evans, L; Kollmus, H; Küchler, D; Scrivens, R; Severin, D; Wengenroth, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    The ion-induced desorption experiment, installed in the CERN Heavy-Ion Accelerator LINAC 3, has been used to study the dynamic outgassing of cryogenic surfaces. Two different targets, bare and goldcoated copper, were bombarded under perpendicular impact with 4.2 MeV/u Pb54+ ions. Partial pressure rises of H2, CH4, CO, and CO2 and effective desorption yields were measured at 300, 77, and 6.3 K using single shot and continuous ion bombardment techniques. We find that the heavy-ion-induced desorption yield is temperature dependent and investigate the influence of CO gas cryosorbed at 6.3 K. The gain in desorption yield reduction at cryogenic temperature vanishes after several monolayers of CO are cryosorbed on both targets. In this paper we describe the new cryogenic target assembly, the temperature-dependent pressure rise, desorption yield, and gas adsorption measurements.

  18. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  19. Split ring resonator for the Argonne superconducting heavy ion booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    A split-ring resonator for use in the ANL superconducting heavy-ion linac was constructed and is being tested. The electromagnetic characteristics of the 98-MHz device are the same as the unit described earlier, but the housing is formed of a new material consisting of niobium sheet explosively bonded to copper. The niobium provides the superconducting path and the copper conducts heat to a small area cooled by liquid helium. This arrangement greatly simplified the cryogenic system. Fabrication of the housing was relatively simple, with the result that costs have been reduced substantially. The mechanical stability of the resonator and the performance of the demountable superconducting joints are significantly better than for the earlier unit.

  20. Heavy-ion LINAC development for the US RIA project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Nuclear Science Community in the Unites States has unanimously concluded that developments in both nuclear science and its supporting technologies make building a world-leading Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility for production of radioactive beams the top priority. The RIA development effort involves several ...

  1. Studies of Limits on Uncontrolled Heavy Ion Beam Losses for Allowing Hands-On Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginald M. Ronningen; Igor Remec

    2010-09-11

    Dose rates from accelerator components activated by 1 W/m beam losses are obtained semiempirically for a 1 GeV proton beam and by use of Monte Carlo transport codes for the proton beam and for 777 MeV/u 3He, 500 MeV/u 48Ca, 86Kr, 136Xe, and 400 MeV/u 238U ions. The dose rate obtained by the semi-empirical method, 0.99 mSv/h (99 mrem/h) at 30 cm, 4 h after 100 d irradiation by a 1-GeV proton beam, is consistent with studies at several accelerator facilities and with adopted hands-on maintenance dose rate limits. Monte Carlo simulations verify this result for protons and extend studies to heavy ion beam losses in drift-tube linac and superconducting linac accelerating structures. The studies indicate that the 1 W/m limit imposed on uncontrolled beam losses for high-energy proton beams might be relaxed for heavy ion beams. These studies further suggest that using the ratio of neutrons produced by a heavy ion beam to neutrons produced by a proton beam along with the dose rate from the proton beam (for thin-target scenarios) should allow an estimate of the dose rates expected from heavy ion beam losses.

  2. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.

  3. LINAC4

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The film illustrates CERN’s new linear accelerator for negative hydrogen ions (H-) Linac4. The klystron hall is shown. In the linac4 tunnel: the H- source, the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), Drift tube (DTL), CCDTL and Pi-mode accelerating structure are shown. The H- dump and transfer line gallery towards the PS-booster are shown. Eventually the bird’s eye view of the booster and PS ring accelerators are shown.

  4. Experimental benchmark of the NINJA code for application to the Linac4 H‑ ion source plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S.; Mattei, S.; Rauner, D.; Lettry, J.; Tran, M. Q.; Fantz, U.

    2017-10-01

    For a dedicated performance optimization of negative hydrogen ion sources applied at particle accelerators, a detailed assessment of the plasma processes is required. Due to the compact design of these sources, diagnostic access is typically limited to optical emission spectroscopy yielding only line-of-sight integrated results. In order to allow for a spatially resolved investigation, the electromagnetic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code NINJA has been developed for the Linac4 ion source at CERN. This code considers the RF field generated by the ICP coil as well as the external static magnetic fields and calculates self-consistently the resulting discharge properties. NINJA is benchmarked at the diagnostically well accessible lab experiment CHARLIE (Concept studies for Helicon Assisted RF Low pressure Ion sourcEs) at varying RF power and gas pressure. A good general agreement is observed between experiment and simulation although the simulated electron density trends for varying pressure and power as well as the absolute electron temperature values deviate slightly from the measured ones. This can be explained by the assumption of strong inductive coupling in NINJA, whereas the CHARLIE discharges show the characteristics of loosely coupled plasmas. For the Linac4 plasma, this assumption is valid. Accordingly, both the absolute values of the accessible plasma parameters and their trends for varying RF power agree well in measurement and simulation. At varying RF power, the H‑ current extracted from the Linac4 source peaks at 40 kW. For volume operation, this is perfectly reflected by assessing the processes in front of the extraction aperture based on the simulation results where the highest H‑ density is obtained for the same power level. In surface operation, the production of negative hydrogen ions at the converter surface can only be considered by specialized beam formation codes, which require plasma parameters as input. It has been demonstrated

  5. Improved beam extraction for a negative hydrogen ion source for the LHC injector chain upgrade, Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    In the scope of an upgrade of the injector chain of CERN’s accelerator complex, a new linear accelerator, Linac4, is under construction. This accelerator will replace the existing 50 MeV proton linac, Linac2. By increasing the beam energy to 160 MeV, Linac4 makes it possible to double the brightness in the PSB, and ultimately increase the luminosity in the LHC. Linac4 will accelerate beams of negative hydrogen (H-) to be injected into the PSB by multi-turn, charge exchange injection. The ion source was initially based on the non-caesiated RF-volume source from DESY. However, the beam extraction from this source could not handle the 45 keV beam energy required by the RFQ. A new beam extraction system has therefore been designed, via IBSimu simulations [1], to extract and transport the H- ion beam respecting the Linac4 requirements. Key features of the extraction system is a tuneable puller voltage to adapt the extraction field to the ion and electron beam currents, and a magnetized Einzel lens to dump the co...

  6. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  7. Thermal Analysis of the Linac3 GTS-LHC ECR Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Fichera, Claudio; Toivanen, Ville Aleksi; Kuchler, Detlef; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The Linac3 ion source produces lead beams by the vaporization of solid samples inside internal ovens. The geometry, materials and surface state of the oven elements are critical parameters influencing the temperature distribution in the environment, and thus the performance of the source. A finite element approach is proposed to evaluate the thermal response of the system at increasing heating powers. Comparisons between the simulations results and experimental measurements are given in order to validate the numerical model. Based on the obtained results, improvements to the existing setup are suggested.

  8. Development of niobium spoke cavities for a superconducting light-ion Linac.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-11-18

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz niobium superconducting cavities for the velocity range 0.2< v/c <0.6. Such cavities could be used to form a linac of exceptional flexibility, capable of efficiently accelerating beams of either protons, deuterons, or any of a wide range of light ions, at intensities sufficient for a production beam for a radioactive beam facility. Results of numerical modeling for several resonator geometries are presented. The design and construction status of prototype niobium cavities is discussed.

  9. Development of niobium spoke cavities for a superconducting light-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K W; Kedzie, M; Delayen, J R; Piller, C

    1998-08-01

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz niobium superconducting cavities for the velocity range 0.2 < v/c < 0.6. Such cavities could be used to form a linac of exceptional flexibility, capable of efficiently accelerating beams of either protons, deuterons, or any of a wide range of ions, at intensities sufficient for a production beam for a radioactive facility. Results of numerical modeling for several resonator geometries are presented. The design and construction status of prototype niobium cavities is discussed.

  10. Heavy ions: Report from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-12

    Oct 12, 2012 ... heavy flavour decays is compatible with RAA of charged mesons at high pT. Therefore, no significant mass dependence is exhibited in the data. These data challenge the theo- retical models and show the importance of a separate measurement of charm and beauty yields in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, ...

  11. Holifield heavy ion research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.B.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Hoglund, D.E.; Hudson, E.D.; Juras, R.C.

    1988-05-20

    Development of the Holifield facility has continued with resulting improvements in the number of ion species provided, in the ion energy for tandem-only operations, and in utilization efficiency. In this report, we describe our recent operational experience, development activities, and future development plans.

  12. Data acquisition for the HILI (Heavy Ion Light Ion) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, K.M.; Shapira, D.; McConnell, J.W.; Kim, H.; Novotny, R.

    1987-01-01

    A large acceptance, multi-segmented detector system capable of the simultaneous detection of heavy and light ions has been constructed. The heavy ions are detected with a segmented gas ionization chamber and a multiwire proportional counter while the light ions are detected with a 192 element plastic phoswich hodoscope. Processing the large number of signals is accomplished through a combination of CAMAC and FASTBUS modules and preprocessors, and a Host minicomputer. Details of the data acquisition system and the reasons for adopting a dual standards system are discussed. In addition, a technique for processing signals from an individual hodoscope detector is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  14. Plasma ignition and steady state simulations of the Linac4 H(-) ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, S; Ohta, M; Yasumoto, M; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Grudiev, A

    2014-02-01

    The RF heating of the plasma in the Linac4 H(-) ion source has been simulated using a particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision method. This model is applied to investigate the plasma formation starting from an initial low electron density of 10(12) m(-3) and its stabilization at 10(18) m(-3). The plasma discharge at low electron density is driven by the capacitive coupling with the electric field generated by the antenna, and as the electron density increases the capacitive electric field is shielded by the plasma and induction drives the plasma heating process. Plasma properties such as e(-)/ion densities and energies, sheath formation, and shielding effect are presented and provide insight to the plasma properties of the hydrogen plasma.

  15. Plasma ignition and steady state simulations of the Linac4 H$^{-}$ ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Yasumoto, M; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Grudiev, A

    2014-01-01

    The RF heating of the plasma in the Linac4 H- ion source has been simulated using an Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision method (PIC-MCC). This model is applied to investigate the plasma formation starting from an initial low electron density of 1012 m-3 and its stabilization at 1018 m-3. The plasma discharge at low electron density is driven by the capacitive coupling with the electric field generated by the antenna, and as the electron density increases the capacitive electric field is shielded by the plasma and induction drives the plasma heating process. Plasma properties such as e-/ion densities and energies, sheath formation and shielding effect are presented and provide insight to the plasma properties of the hydrogen plasma.

  16. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær

    2010-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact....... As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions...

  17. Jets in heavy ion collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Salur, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics in heavy ion collisions is a rich field which has been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back-to-back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. Latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications to heavy ion environments are discussed with an emphasis given on experimental results from CMS experiment.

  18. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G.; Schiff, D.; Hristov, P.; Menaud, J.M.; Hrivnacova, I.; Poizat, P.; Chabratova, G.; Albin-Amiot, H.; Carminati, F.; Peters, A.; Schutz, Y.; Safarik, K.; Ollitrault, J.Y.; Hrivnacova, I.; Morsch, A.; Gheata, A.; Morsch, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Lauret, J.; Nief, J.Y.; Pereira, H.; Kaczmarek, O.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Guernane, R.; Stocco, D.; Gruwe, M.; Betev, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Rapp, B.; Masoni, A.; Stoicea, G.; Brun, R

    2005-07-01

    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop.

  19. Heavy Flavor Production in Heavy Ion Collisions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Heavy flavor production are of great interest in heavy ion collisions. In the produced medium, the binding potential between a quark and antiquark in quarkonium is screened by surrounding light quarks and antiquarks. Thus, the various quarkonium states are expected to be melt at different temperatures depending on their binding energies, which allows us to characterize the QCD phase transition. In addition, open heavy flavor production are relevant for flavor-dependence of the in-medium parton energy loss. In QCD, gluons are expected to lose more energy compared to quarks when passing through the QGP due to the larger color charge. Compared to light quarks, heavy quarks are expected to lose less radiative energy because gluon radiation is suppressed at angles smaller than the ratio of the quark mass to its energy. This dead cone effect (and its disappearance at high transverse momentum) can be studied using open heavy flavor mesons and heavy flavor tagged jets. With CMS detector, quarkonia, open he...

  20. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.

    2004-05-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  1. High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Prost

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the U.S. program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2  μC/m over long pulse durations (4  μs in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo, and electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K^{+} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius for which the transverse phase space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (≈80% is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  2. The heavy-ion magnetic spectrometer PRISMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanini, A.M. E-mail: alberto.stefanini@lnl.infn.it; Corradi, L.; Maron, G.; Pisent, A.; Trotta, M.; Vinodkumar, A.M.; Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.F.; De Rosa, A.; Inglima, G.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Pollarolo, G.; Latina, A

    2002-04-22

    PRISMA is a magnetic spectrometer for heavy ions under construction at Legnaro, with very large solid angle (80 msr), wide momentum acceptance ({+-} 10%) and good mass resolution via TOF measurement; it will be dedicated to the study of nuclear dynamics and nuclear structure with stable and exotic ion beams. This is a review of its main features and of the present status of the project.

  3. The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.B.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Hoglund, D.E.; Hudson, E.D.; Juras, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Development of the Holifield facility has continued with resulting improvements in the number of ion species provided, ion energy for tandem-only operations, and utilization efficiency. The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and operated as a national user facility for research in heavy ion science. The facility operates two accelerators: an NEC pelletron tandem accelerator designed to operate at terminal potentials up to 25 MV and the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) which has been modified to serve as an energy booster for beams from the tandem accelerator. The principal experimental devices of the facility include a broad range spectrograph (ME/q/sup 2/ = 225) equipped with a vertical drift chamber detector system, a 4..pi.. spin spectrometer equipped with 72 NaI detectors (Ge detectors and BGO compton-suppression units can be used in place of the NaI detectors), a time-of-flight spectrometer, a 1.6-m scattering chamber, a heavy-ion/light-ion detector (HILI) which will be used for studying inverse reactions, a split-pole spectrograph, and a velocity filter. In this report, we will discuss our recent development activities, operational experience, and future development plans.

  4. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Working group report: Heavy ion physics. Coordinator: JAN-E ALAM1. Contributors: K Assamagan2, S Chattopadhyay1, R Gavai3, Sourendu Gupta3,. B Layek4, S Mukherjee3, R Ray3, Pradip K Roy5 and A Srivastava4. 1Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064, India. 2Brookhaven National ...

  5. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India during January 5–16, 2004. One of the four working groups, group III was dedicated to QCD and heavy ion physics (HIC). The present manuscript gives a summary of the activities of group III ...

  6. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  7. Metastable states of highly excited heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, D. J.; Griffin, P. M.; Sellin, I. A.; Smith, W. W.; Donnally, B.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the method used and results obtained in an experimental study of the metastable states of highly stripped heavy ions, aimed at determining the lifetimes of such states by the rates of autoionization and radiation. The significance and limitations of the results presented are discussed.

  8. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: Experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    highlights from the first run of the relativistic heavy-ion collider at BNL and the 15 year research programme at the super ... The energy dependence of the charged particle density dNch/dη, normalized to the num- ..... meson both in the dropping mass and the collision broadening scenarios, is almost as high at RHIC as at ...

  9. Multifragmentation and dynamics in heavy ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A midrapidity zone formed in heavy-ion collisions has been investigated through special selections of light .... lished from analysing charged particles emitted at velocities between those characteristic of projectilelike .... only, one low and one high, are displayed (more complete results are given in [15]). For the QP source ...

  10. Quarkonium production in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldi Roberta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of quarkonium states plays a crucial role among the probes to investigate the formation of the plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP in heavy-ion collisions. A review of the charmonium and bottomonium production, mainly focussing on the latest results from the LHC experiments, is presented.

  11. Heavy-Ion Physics in a Nutshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano Tetsufumi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The physics of quark gluon plasma (QGP and heavy ion collisions at the collider energies is briefly reviewed. We first discuss about the discovery of a nearly perfect fluidity of the QGP. We also highlights recent topics on responses of the QGP to initial deformation and propagation of a jet.

  12. Exotic hadrons from heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungtae; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Maeda, Saori; Miyahara, Kenta; Morita, Kenji; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Song, Taesoo; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are excellent ways for producing heavy hadrons and composite particles, including the light (anti)nuclei. With upgraded detectors at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it has become possible to measure hadrons beyond their ground states. Therefore, heavy ion collisions provide a new method for studying exotic hadrons that are either molecular states made of various hadrons or compact system consisting of multiquarks. Because their structures are related to the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), studying exotic hadrons is currently one of the most active areas of research in hadron physics. Experiments carried out at various accelerator facilities have indicated that some exotic hadrons may have already been produced. The present review is a summary of the current understanding of a selected set of exotic particle candidates that can be potentially measured in heavy ion collisions. It also includes discussions on the production of resonances, exotics and hadronic molecular states in these collisions based on the coalescence model and the statistical model. A more detailed discussion is given on the results from these models, leading to the conclusion that the yield of a hadron that is a compact multiquark state is typically an order of magnitude smaller than if it is an excited hadronic state with normal quark numbers or a loosely bound hadronic molecule. Attention is also given to some of the proposed heavy exotic hadrons that could be produced with sufficient abundance in heavy ion collisions because of the significant numbers of charm and bottom quarks that are produced at RHIC and even larger numbers at LHC, making it possible to study them in these experiments. Further included in the discussion are the general formalism for the coalescence model that involves resonance particles and its implication on the present estimated yield for resonance production. Finally

  13. The future of heavy ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Oliver; Karger, Christian P; Debus, Jürgen

    2008-12-01

    Currently, there is an increasing interest in heavy ion radiotherapy (RT) and a number of new facilities are being installed in Europe and Japan. This development is accompanied by intensive technical, physical, and clinical research. The authors identify six research fields where progress is likely and propose a thesis on the expected achievements for each of the fields: (1) Synchrotrons with active energy variation and three-dimensional beam scanning will be the standard in ion beam RT. (2) Common standards for precise measurement, prescription, and reporting of dose will be available. (3) Intensity-modulated particle therapy will be state-of-the-art. (4) Time-adaptive treatments of moving targets will be feasible. (5) Therapeutic effectiveness of heavy ions will be known for the most important indications while cost effectiveness will remain to be shown. (6) The potential of high-linear energy transfer radiation will be known. The rationale for each of these theses is described.

  14. Issues concerning high current lower energy electron beams required for ion cooling between EBIS LINAC and booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch,A.

    2009-03-01

    Some issues, regarding a low energy high current electron beam that will be needed for electron beam cooling to reduce momentum of gold ions exiting the EBIS LINAC before injection into the booster, are examined. Options for propagating such an electron beam, as well as the effect of neutralizing background plasma on electron and ion beam parameters are calculated. Computations and some experimental data indicate that none of these issues is a show stopper.

  15. Heavy flavour production at CMS in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We review recent results relating to beauty production in heavy-ion collisions, in both the closed and open heavy flavor sectors, from the CMS experiment at the LHC. The sequential suppression of the ° states in PbPb collisions is thought to be evidence of the dissociation of quarkonia bound states in deconfined matter. Data from pPb collisions demonstrate that while cold nuclear effects appear to be subdominant in minimum bias collisions, there exists a non-trivial dependence on collision multiplicity that remains to be understood. The suppression of high p T particles in heavy-ion collisions, relative to the expectation from pp collisions, is typically interpreted in terms of energy loss of hard scattered parton in the dense nuclear medium. The flavor dependence of the energy loss may be accessed via measurements of b hadrons and b-tagged jets. Measurement of B mesons, via non-prompt J = y , at relatively low p T indicate a smaller suppression factor than D meson or inclusive charged hadrons. Data on b jet...

  16. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  17. Tunable sieving of ions using graphene oxide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jijo; Vasu, Kalangi S.; Williams, Christopher D.; Gopinadhan, Kalon; Su, Yang; Cherian, Christie T.; Dix, James; Prestat, Eric; Haigh, Sarah J.; Grigorieva, Irina V.; Carbone, Paola; Geim, Andre K.; Nair, Rahul R.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene oxide membranes show exceptional molecular permeation properties, with promise for many applications. However, their use in ion sieving and desalination technologies is limited by a permeation cutoff of ˜9 Å (ref. 4), which is larger than the diameters of hydrated ions of common salts. The cutoff is determined by the interlayer spacing (d) of ˜13.5 Å, typical for graphene oxide laminates that swell in water. Achieving smaller d for the laminates immersed in water has proved to be a challenge. Here, we describe how to control d by physical confinement and achieve accurate and tunable ion sieving. Membranes with d from ˜9.8 Å to 6.4 Å are demonstrated, providing a sieve size smaller than the diameters of hydrated ions. In this regime, ion permeation is found to be thermally activated with energy barriers of ˜10-100 kJ mol-1 depending on d. Importantly, permeation rates decrease exponentially with decreasing sieve size but water transport is weakly affected (by a factor of method to obtain graphene-based membranes with limited swelling, which exhibit 97% rejection for NaCl.

  18. Heavy Ions in 2011 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, J; Bruce, R; Carli, C; Manglunki, D; Mertens, T; Wollmann, D

    2011-01-01

    The LHC's first heavy ion run set - and tested - the operational pattern for 2011 and later years: a rapid commissioning strategy intended to ensure delivery of integrated luminosity despite the risks associated with the short time-frame. It also gave us hard data to test our understanding of the beam physics that will limit performance. The 2010 experience is fed into the commissioning plan, parameter choices and projected performance for 2011. The prospects for future stages of the LHC ion program, Pb-Pb collisions at higher energy and luminosity, hybrid collisions and other species, depend critically on the scheduling of certain hardware upgrades.

  19. Jet Physics in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salur, Sevil

    2017-09-01

    Jet studies in heavy ion collisions have been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back to back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms, complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. In this talk, with an emphasis on experimental results from LHC, we will discuss the latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications on new jet structure observables in heavy ion environments. These new measurements could be used to differentiate whether the medium affects the jet formation process from the hard process through hadronization, or whether the parton loses energy to the medium with the showers only affected at much later stages.

  20. The holifield heavy ion research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. M.; Alton, G. D.; Ball, J. B.; Biggerstaff, J. A.; Dowling, D. T.; Erb, K. A.; Haynes, D. L.; Hoglund, D. E.; Hudson, E. D.; Juras, R. C.; Lane, S. N.; Ludemann, C. A.; Martin, J. A.; Mosko, S. W.; Olsen, D. K.; Richardson, E. G.; Stelson, P. H.; Ziegler, N. F.

    1986-02-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility has been in routine operation since July 1982. Beams have been provided using both the tandem accelerator alone and a coupled mode in which the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron is used as an energy booster for tandem beams. The coupled mode has proved to be especially effective and has allowed us to provide a wide range of energetic beams for scheduled experiments. In this report we discuss our operational experience and recent development activities.

  1. Heavy Ion Physics with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Takai, H

    2003-01-01

    I guess the first thing that comes to people's mind is why is an experiment such as ATLAS interested in heavy ion physics. What is heavy ion physics anyway? The term heavy ion physics refers to the study of collisions between large nuclei such as lead, atomic number 208. But why would someone collide something as large and extensive as lead nuclei? When two nuclei collide there is a unique opportunity to study QCD at extreme energy densities. This said why do we think ATLAS is a good detector to study this particular physics? Among many of the simultaneous collisions that takes place when two nuclei encouter, hard scattering takes place. The unique situation now is that before hadronization partons from hard scattering may feel the surrounding media serving as an ideal probe for the matter formed in these collisions. As a consequence of this, jets may be quenched and their properties, e.g. fragmentation function or cone radius, modified when compared to proton-proton collisions. This is precisely where ATL...

  2. The search for super-heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Grévy, S

    2003-01-01

    The present the search for heavy nuclei, they briefly draw a historical review of the production of heavy isotopes and then describe the means and possibilities the French GANIL (national great accelerator of heavy ions) facility offers. The different steps of the experimental process are described: production, selection, detection and identification. The production cross-sections are so weak that every parameter involved in the production process has to be optimized. It appears that the limit of our technological knowledge has been reached and unless an important technical step forward it seems impossible to go down below the pico-barn (10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 *10 sup - sup 2 sup 4 cm sup 2) for production cross-sections. The 2 remaining ways to improve the situation are: 1) to increase the intensity of the incident particle beam (today we have < 10 sup 1 sup 3 pps), this implies that an important development about accelerators and ion sources has to be achieved, 2) the other way is to use radioactive ion be...

  3. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Carneiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of H^{-} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H^{-} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  4. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  5. Highlights from STAR heavy ion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorokov, Vitalii

    2017-10-01

    Recent experimental results obtained in STAR experiment at the Relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) with ion beams will be discussed. Investigations of different nuclear collisions in some recent years focus on two main tasks, namely, detail study of quark-gluon matter properties and exploration of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram. Results at top RHIC energy show clearly the collective behavior of heavy quarks in nucleus-nucleus interactions. Jet and heavy hadron measurements lead to new constraints for energy loss models for various flavors. Heavy-ion collisions are unique tool for the study of topological properties of theory as well as the magneto-hydrodynamics of strongly interacting matter. Experimental results obtained for discrete QCD symmetries at finite temperatures confirm indirectly the topologically non-trivial structure of QCD vacuum. Finite global vorticity observed in non-central Au+Au collisions can be considered as important signature for presence of various chiral effects in sQGP. Most results obtained during stage I of the RHIC beam energy scan (BES) program show smooth behavior vs initial energy. However certain results suggest the transition in the domain of dominance of hadronic degrees of freedom at center-of-mass energies between 10-20 GeV. The stage II of the BES at RHIC will occur in 2019-2020 and will explore with precision measurements in the domain of the QCD phase diagram with high baryon densities. Future developments and more precise studies of features of QCD phase diagram in the framework of stage II of RHIC BES will be briefly discussed.

  6. Numerical study of the inductive plasma coupling to ramp up the plasma density for the Linac4 H(-) ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, M; Mattei, S; Yasumoto, M; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J

    2014-02-01

    In the Linac4 H(-) ion source, the plasma is generated by an RF antenna operated at 2 MHz. In order to investigate the conditions necessary for ramping up the plasma density of the Linac4 H(-) ion source in the low plasma density, a numerical study has been performed for a wide range of parameter space of RF coil current and initial pressure from H2 gas injection. We have employed an Electromagnetic Particle in Cell model, in which the collision processes have been calculated by a Monte Carlo method. The results have shown that the range of initial gas pressure from 2 to 3 Pa is suitable for ramping up plasma density via inductive coupling.

  7. High current injector for heavy ion fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W. W.

    1993-05-01

    A 2 MV, 800 mA, K(+) injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 micro-s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (less than 5k Omega) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large (approximately 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 micro-s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented.

  8. QCD and Heavy Ions RHIC Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the most violent heavy ion collisions available to experimental study occur at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. There, gold ions collide at psNN = 200 GeV. The early and most striking RHIC results were summarised in 2005 by its four experiments, BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR, in their so-called white papers [1, 2, 3, 4] that will be largely referenced thereafter. Beyond and after this, a wealth of data has been collected and analysed, providing additional information about the properties of the matter created at RHIC. It is categorically impossible to give a comprehensive review of these results in a 20 minutes talk or a 7 pages report. Here, I have made a selection of some of the most striking or intriguing signatures: jet quenching in Section 2, quarkonia suppressions in Section 3 and thermal photons in Section 4. A slightly longer and older version of this review can be found in [5]. Some updates are given here, as well as emphasis on new probes ...

  9. Heavy Ion results from RHIC-BNL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esumi Shinlchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent results from heavy ion collision experiments from RHIC at BNL are presented and discussed in terms of Quark Gluon Plasm properties, such as partonic collectivity and partonic energy loss. The experimental results with direct photons and heavy quarks have given important additional insights of the plasma on top of what has been known with light hadrons. Higher order event anisotropies and the related results have provided the geometrical, temporal and dynamical information of the plasma. The beam energy dependence of the various measurements could reveal the structure of QCD phase diagram and possibly the critical point in the diagram, where the properties of phase transition are expected to change drastically.

  10. Basic atomic interactions of accelerated heavy ions in matter atomic interactions of heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstikhina, Inga; Winckler, Nicolas; Shevelko, Viacheslav

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the recent experimental and theoretical results on interactions of heavy ions with gaseous, solid and plasma targets from the perspective of atomic physics. The topics discussed comprise stopping power, multiple-electron loss and capture processes, equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state fractions in penetration of fast ion beams through matter including relativistic domain. It also addresses mean charge-states and equilibrium target thickness in ion-beam penetrations, isotope effects in low-energy electron capture, lifetimes of heavy ion beams, semi-empirical formulae for effective cross sections. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in atomic, plasma and accelerator physics.

  11. Direct photons in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern

    2010-12-13

    Direct photon emission from heavy-ion collisions has been calculated and compared to available experimental data. Three different models have been combined to extract direct photons from different environments in a heavy-ion collision: Thermal photons from partonic and hadronic matter have been extracted from relativistic, non-viscous 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. Thermal and non-thermal photons from hadronic interactions have been calculated from relativistic transport theory. The impact of different physics assumptions about the thermalized matter has been studied. The models used for the determination of photons from both hydrodynamic and transport calculations have been elucidated and their numerical properties tested. The origin of direct photons, itemised by emission stage, emission time, channel and baryon number density, has been investigated for various systems, as have the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow patterns of direct photons. Taking into account the full (vacuum) spectral function of the rho-meson decreases the direct photon emission by approximately 10% at low photon transverse momentum. In all systems that have been considered -- heavy-ion collisions at E{sub lab}=35 AGeV and 158 AGeV, (s{sub NN}){sup 1/2}=62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV -- thermal emission from a system with partonic degrees of freedom is greatly enhanced over that from hadronic systems, while the difference between the direct photon yields from a viscous and a non-viscous hadronic system (transport vs. hydrodynamics) is found to be very small. Predictions for direct photon emission in central U+U-collisions at 35 AGeV have been made. (orig.)

  12. Hyperons polarization in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baznat Mircea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure of vorticity and hydrodynamic helicity fields in peripheral heavy-ion collisions using the kinetic Quark-Gluon Strings Model. The angular momentum which is a source of P-odd observables is preserved within this model with a good accuracy. We observe the formation of specific toroidal structures of vorticity field. Their existence is mirrored in the polarization of hyperons of the percent order. The observed qualitative energy dependence of polarization was predicted earlier and is quantified now.

  13. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmund, P., E-mail: sigmund@sdu.dk [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schinner, A. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul’s data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  14. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of swift heavy ion induced metal silicide is a new advancement in materials science research. We have investigated the mixing at Co/Si interface by swift heavy ion beam induced irradiation in the electronic stopping power regime. Irradiations were undertaken at room temperature using 120 MeV Au ions at the ...

  15. Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briefi, S., E-mail: stefan.briefi@physik.uni-augsburg.de [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Fink, D.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [Linac4 Ion Source Team, CERN-ABP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fantz, U. [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (T{sub e} ≈ 1.2 eV, n{sub e} ≈ 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, and n{sub H}/n{sub H{sub 2}} ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal “hockey-stick” rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients.

  16. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  17. Statistics of heavy-ion stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Glazov, L G; Schinner, A

    2002-01-01

    Energy-loss straggling of swift heavy ions penetrating through matter has been analysed on the basis of binary stopping theory as well as the modified Bohr model allowing for projectile screening. A program has been written which evaluates the generalized Bothe-Landau formula governing the energy-loss spectrum for penetration through a thin layer, allowing for charge exchange involving an arbitrary number of charge states. This program was generated on the basis of calculational schemes developed originally for swift light ions. Projectile screening and multiple-shell structure of target atoms are allowed for. Explicit energy-loss spectra are given for oxygen in carbon for charge states 6-8 and foil thickness 2, 10 and 50 mu g/cm sup 2. It is also demonstrated that frozen-charge straggling depends only weakly on charge state.

  18. Response of silicon position sensitive detectors to heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, P.M.; Rotberg, V.H. (UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Nuclear Physics Div.); Tolfree, D.W.L.; Groves, J. (Science Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.)

    1983-01-15

    The pulse height response characteristics of surface barrier and ion implanted position sensitive detectors have been measured. Surface barrier detectors with junctions formed using oxidation by potassium dichromate exhibit small heavy ion pulse height defects indicating thin entrance windows. Ion implanted detectors give considerably larger defects because of penetrating tails in the distribution of implanted ions and electrically active defects.

  19. The response of silicon position sensitive detectors to heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, P. M.; Rotberg, V. H.; Tolfree, D. W. L.; Groves, J.

    1983-01-01

    The pulse height response characteristics of surface barrier and ion implanted position sensitive detectors have been measured. Surface barrier detectors with junctions formed using oxidation by potassium dichromate exhibit small heavy ion pulse height defects indicating thin entrance windows. Ion implanted detectors give considerably larger defects because of penetrating tails in the distribution of implanted ions and electrically active defects.

  20. Hard Probes in Heavy-Ion Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    The aim of ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is to study collectivity and thermodynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) by creating a transient small volume of matter with extreme density and temperature. There is experimental evidence that most of the particles created in such a collision form indeed a thermalized system characterized by collective response to pressure gradients. However, a numerically small subset of high transverse momentum ($P_T$) processes takes place independent of the bulk, with the outgoing partons subsequently propagating through the bulk medium. Understanding the modification of such 'hard probes' by the bulk medium is an important part of the efforts to determine the properties of hot and dense QCD matter. In this paper, current developments are reviewed.

  1. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: three lectures

    CERN Document Server

    McLerran, L

    2007-01-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to the physics issues which are being studied in the collisions of ultrarelativistic heavy ions. The lectures are focused on the production of new states of matter. The quark-gluon plasma is thermal matter which once existed in the Big Bang. The colour glass condensate is a universal form of high energy density gluonic matter which is part of a hadron wavefunction and which controls the high-energy limit of strong interactions. The glasma is matter produced in the collisons of high-energy hadrons which evolves into a quarkgluon plasma. The glasma has interesting topological properties and may be responsible for the early thermalization seen at RHIC. I introduce the student to these topics, discuss results from experiments, and comment upon future opportunities.

  2. Application of hydrodynamics to heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felsberger, Lukas

    2014-12-02

    The Bjorken model is a simple tool for making rough predictions of the hydrodynamic evolution of the thermalized matter created in a heavy ion collision. The advantage of the model clearly lies in its simplicity, rather than accuracy. As it is still used for making rough estimations 'by hand', in this thesis, I investigate in which cases the Bjorken model gives useful results and in which it is not recommended. For central collisions, I show which critical size the nuclei should have so that the Bjorken model can be applied. For non-central collisions, I demonstrate that using Glauber initial conditions combined with the Bjorken evolution, leads to reasonable results up to large impact parameters. Finally, I study the case of a non-ideal (viscous) description of the thermalized matter which leads to strongly differing results if first- or second-order hydrodynamics is applied.

  3. Heavy ion Physics with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    White, S N

    2006-01-01

    Soon after the LHC is commissioned with proton beams the ATLAS experiment will begin studies of Pb-Pb collisions with a center of mass energy of ?sNN = 5.5 TeV. The ATLAS program is a natural extension of measurements at RHIC in a direction that exploits the higher LHC energies and the superb ATLAS calorimeter and tracking coverage. At LHC energies, collisions will be produced with even higher energy density than observed at RHIC. The properties of the resulting hot medium can be studied with higher energy probes, which are more directly interpreted through modification of jet properties emerging from these collisions, for example. Other topics which are enabled by the 30-fold increase in center of mass energy include probing the partonic structure of nuclei with hard photoproduction (in UltraPeripheral collisions) and in p-Pb collisions. Here we report on evaluation of ATLAS capabilities for Heavy Ion Physics.

  4. Electromagnetic probes in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Hees H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their penetrating nature, electromagnetic probes, i.e., lepton-antilepton pairs (dileptons and photons are unique tools to gain insight into the nature of the hot and dense medium of strongly-interacting particles created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, including hints to the nature of the restoration of chiral symmetry of QCD. Of particular interest are the spectral properties of the electromagnetic current-correlation function of these particles within the dense and/or hot medium. The related theoretical investigations of the in-medium properties of the involved particles in both the partonic and hadronic part of the QCD phase diagram underline the importance of a proper understanding of the properties of various hadron resonances in the medium.

  5. Beam loss mechanisms in relativistic heavy-ion colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Gilardoni, S; Wallén, E

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest particle accelerator ever built, is presently under commissioning at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It will collide beams of protons, and later Pb82+ ions, at ultrarelativistic energies. Because of its unprecedented energy, the operation of the LHC with heavy ions will present beam physics challenges not encountered in previous colliders. Beam loss processes that are harmless in the presently largest operational heavy-ion collider, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, risk to cause quenches of superconducting magnets in the LHC. Interactions between colliding beams of ultrarelativistic heavy ions, or between beam ions and collimators, give rise to nuclear fragmentation. The resulting isotopes could have a charge-to-mass ratio different from the main beam and therefore follow dispersive orbits until they are lost. Depending on the machine conditions and the ion species, these losses could occur in loca...

  6. Heavy Ion physics in ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kodolova, Olga

    2008-01-01

    We will present the capabilities of the ATLAS and CMS experiments to explore the heavy-ion physics programme offered by the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The collisions of lead nuclei at energies $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 5.5 TeV, will probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction (QCD) in extreme conditions of temperature, density and low parton momentum fraction. The current paper will give an overview of the potential of ATLAS and CMS to carry out a set of representative Pb-Pb measurements. These include ``bulk'' observables, like charged hadron multiplicity, low $p_{\\rm T}$ inclusive hadron identified spectra and elliptic flow -- which provide information on the collective properties of the system; as well as perturbative processes, such as quarkonia, heavy-quarks, jets, $\\gamma$-jet, and high $p_{\\rm T}$ hadrons --- which yield ``tomographic'' information of the hottest and densest phases...

  7. Low-background prebunching system for heavy-ion beams at the Tokai radioactive ion accelerator complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel beam-bunching technique has been implemented at a heavy-ion linear accelerator facility by installing a compact two-gap prebuncher and a multilayer beam chopper. A pulsed beam of 2 to 4 MHz, having kinetic energy up to 1.1  MeV/u, is realized by bunching a 2  keV/u continuous beam just upstream of the linac. Around 40% of the continuous beam particles are successively gathered in a single microbunch with a time width of around 15 ns in full width at one-tenth maximum. The number of background beam particles over 250 ns just before the bunched beam is well suppressed to less than 10^{-4} of the number of bunched particles. This technique has been adopted to generate intense α-particle beams for nuclear astrophysics experiments.

  8. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-29

    Apr 29, 2015 ... Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider. Subrata Pal. Volume 84 Issue 5 May 2015 pp ... Subrata Pal1. Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  9. Heavy ions at the LHC: Physics perspectives and experimental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is entering the new era of collider experiments with the start-up of RHIC at BNL and construction for detectors at LHC well under way. At this crossroads, the article will give a summary of the experimental program and our current view of heavy ion physics at the LHC, concentrating ...

  10. Heavy ions: Results from the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The LHC worked exceedingly well during its one month of operation with heavy ions, delivering about 10 −1 of data, with peak luminosity reaching to L O = 2 × 10 25 cm-2 s-1 towards the end of the run. Three experiments, ALICE, ATLAS and CMS, recorded their first heavy-ion data, which were analysed in a record time.

  11. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    at pH 6 they are found to be Cd(II) and Cr(VI) selective. Metal ion uptake properties of resins follow Freundlich's equation. The resins are recyclable and are therefore employed for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from industrial waste water. Keywords. Uptake properties; heavy metal ion; selectivity; recyclability. 1.

  12. Utilization of Plant Refuses as Component of Heavy Metal Ion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste materials like fruit and vegetable refuses were utilized as component of sensors capable of detecting heavy metals like lead ions and mercury ions by electrochemical method. The ability of the fabricated sensors to detect the presence of heavy metals was analyzed using electrochemical methods like cyclic ...

  13. Theoretical Concepts for Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran,L.

    2009-07-27

    Various forms of matter may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These are the Quark GluonPlasma, the Color Glass Condensate , the Glasma and Quarkyoninc Matter. A novel effect that may beassociated with topological charge fluctuations is the Chiral Magnetic Effect. I explain these concepts andexplain how they may be seen in ultra-relatvistic heavy ion collisions

  14. Heavy-ion induced desorption yields of amorphous carbon films bombarded with 4.2 MeV/u lead ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Küchler, D; Scrivens, R; Costa Pinto, P; Yin Vallgren, C; Bender, M

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, intense experimental studies on the heavy-ion induced molecular desorption were performed in several particle accelerator laboratories worldwide in order to understand and overcome large dynamic pressure rises caused by lost beam ions. Different target materials and various coatings were studied for desorption and mitigation techniques were applied to heavy-ion accelerators. For the upgrade of the CERN injector complex, a coating of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) vacuum system with a thin film of amorphous carbon is under study to mitigate the electron cloud effect observed during SPS operation with the nominal proton beam for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since the SPS is also part of the heavy-ion injector chain for LHC, dynamic vacuum studies of amorphous carbon films are important to determine their ion induced desorption yields. At the CERN Heavy Ion Accelerator (LINAC 3), carbon-coated accelerator-type stainless steel vacuum chambers were tested for desorption using 4.2 Me...

  15. Experimental review of quarkonium production in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Wangmei; Tang, Zebo

    2017-08-01

    Quarkonium provides a sensitive probe to the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Its production yield in heavy-ion collisions is modified by the color-screening effect, heavy quark (re)combination effect and cold nuclear matter effects. These effect have different sensitivity to various properties of the medium. Using quarkonium to experimentally study the properties of the QGP requires comprehensive measurements in heavy-ion collisions. In this article, we review the recent experimental measurements of different quarkonium states in heavy-ion collisions at the RHIC and the LHC.

  16. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Galinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail, so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  17. Status of the relativistic heavy ion collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    At the present time, commissioning of the 3.8 kilometer Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in full swing. On July 16, 1999, the commissioners were successful in circulating a Gold Ion Beam for the first time, in the Blue Ring, as power supplies were being checked out for beam into the Yellow Ring. The commissioning schedule is to accelerate beam in the Blue Ring, then spiral and accelerate beam in the Yellow Ring, then if all goes well, obtain some collisions, all before a fast approaching shutdown in mid-August. The four experimental regions, Star, Phenix, Brahms and Phobos are gearing up for their maiden beam runs and much effort is being spent to make the thirst glimpse of the beam an exciting one. Our Alignment Group has been working closely with the experimenters in these areas, mostly with MANCAT type component pre-surveys and in the near future installing and locating these various components relative to the RHIC Beam Line. (author)

  18. Imaging instrument for positron emitting heavy ion beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llacer, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Jackson, H.C.; Lin, J.C.; Zunzunegui, M.V.

    1978-10-01

    The design and performance of an instrument for the imaging of coincidence annihilation gamma rays emitted from the end point of the trajectories of radioactive high-energy heavy ions is described. The positron-emitting heavy ions are the result of nuclear fragmentation of accelerated heavy ions used in cancer therapy or diagnostic medicine. The instrument constructed is capable of locating the ion beam trajectory end point within 1 mm for an injected activity of 200 nanoCi in a measurement time of 1 sec in some favorable conditions. Limited imaging in three dimensions is also demonstrated.

  19. H$^{-}$ ion source for CERN's Linac4 accelerator: simulation, experimental validation and optimization of the hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, Stefano; Lettry, Jacques

    2017-07-25

    Linac4 is the new negative hydrogen ion (H$^-$) linear accelerator of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Its ion source operates on the principle of Radio-Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma (RF-ICP) and it is required to provide 50~mA of H$^-$ beam in pulses of 600~$\\mu$s with a repetition rate up to 2 Hz and within an RMS emittance of 0.25~$\\pi$~mm~mrad in order to fullfil the requirements of the accelerator. This thesis is dedicated to the characterization of the hydrogen plasma in the Linac4 H$^-$ ion source. We have developed a Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC) code to simulate the RF-ICP heating mechanism and performed measurements to benchmark the fraction of the simulation outputs that can be experimentally accessed. The code solves self-consistently the interaction between the electromagnetic field generated by the RF coil and the resulting plasma response, including a kinetic description of charged and neutral species. A fully-implicit implementation allowed to si...

  20. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four

  1. Studies of the QCD Phase Diagram with Heavy-Ion Collisions at J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Hiroyuki

    To clarify phase structures in the QCD phase diagram is an ultimate goal of heavy-ion collision experiments. Studies of internal structures of neutron stars are also one of the most important topics of nuclear physics since the discovery of neutron stars with two-solar mass. For these physics goals, J-PARC heavy-ion project (J-PARC-HI) has been proposed, where extremely dense matter with 5-10 times the normal nuclear density will be created. Heavy-ion beams up to Uranium will be accelerated to 1-19 AGeV/c, with the designed world's highest beam rate of 1011 Hz. The acceleration of such high-rate beams can be realized by a new heavy-ion linac and a new booster ring, in addition to the existing 3-GeV and 50-GeV proton synchrotrons. To study the above physics goals, following physics observables will be measured in extremely high statistics expected in J-PARC-HI. To search for the critical point, high-order event-by-event fluctuations of conserved charges such as a net-baryon number, an electric charge number, and a strangeness number will be measured. To study the chiral symmetry restoration, dilepton spectra from light vector meson decays will be measured. Also, collective flows, particle correlations will be measured to study the equation of state and hyperon-hyperon and hyperon-nucleon interactions related to neutron stars. Strange quark matter (strangelet) and multi-strangeness hypernuclei will be searched for which may be related directly to the matter constituting the neutron star core. In this work, the physics goals, the experimental design, and expected physics results of J-PARC-HI will be discussed.

  2. Radiation Physics and Chemistry in Heavy-ion Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ions, such as carbon and oxygen ions, are classified as high-LET radiations, and produce a characteristic dose-depth distribution different from that of low-LET radiations such as γ-rays, xrays and electrons. Heavy ions lose less energy at the entrance to an irradiated biological system up to some depth than the low-LET radiations, while they deposit a large amount of dose within a very narrow range at a certain depth, producing the characteristic sharp peak called the Bragg peak. Therefore, by controlling the Bragg peak, it becomes possible to irradiate only the tumor region in a pin-point manner, while avoiding irradiation of the normal tissue, thus making heavyion therapy ideal for deep-seated tumor treatment. Clinical results on more than 2400 patients are very encouraging. However, very little is known about what is going on in terms of physics and chemistry inside the Bragg peak. In this paper the current status of our understanding of heavy-ion interactions and remaining problems of physics and chemistry for the heavy-ion treatment are explored, particularly in the Bragg peak region. Specially, the survey of the basic physical quantity, the mean energy required to form an ion pair (Wvalue for heavy ions of interest for radiotherapy is presented. Finally, the current clinical status of heavy-ion therapy is presented.

  3. Electromagnetic Radiations from Heavy Ion Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we have discussed the different sources of photons and dileptons produced in heavy ion collision (HIC. The transverse momentum (pT spectra of photons for different collision energies are analyzed with a view of extracting the thermal properties of the system formed in HIC. We showed the effect of viscosity on pT spectra of produced thermal photons. The dilepton productions from hot hadrons are considered including the spectral change of light vector mesons in the thermal bath. We have analyzed the pT and invariant mass (M spectra of dileptons for different collision energies too. As the individual spectra are constrained by certain unambiguous hydrodynamical inputs, so we evaluated the ratio of photon to dilepton spectra, Rem, to overcome those quantities. We argue that the variation of the radial velocity extracted from Rem with M is indicative of a phase transition from the initially produced partons to hadrons. In the calculations of interferometry involving dilepton pairs, it is argued that the nonmonotonic variation of HBT radii with invariant mass of the lepton pairs signals the formation of quark gluon plasma in HIC. Elliptic flow (v2 of dilepton is also studied at sNN=2.76 TeV for 30–40% centrality using the (2+1d hydrodynamical model.

  4. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Bangerter, R.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bock, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  5. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bock, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  6. Strange Particles and Heavy Ion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassalleck, Bernd [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fields, Douglas [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-04-28

    This very long-running grant has supported many experiments in nuclear and particle physics by a group from the University of New Mexico. The gamut of these experiments runs from many aspects of Strangeness Nuclear Physics, to rare Kaon decays, to searches for exotic Hadrons such as Pentaquark or H-Dibaryon, and finally to Spin Physics within the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC. These experiments were performed at a number of laboratories worldwide: first and foremost at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), but also at CERN, KEK, and most recently at J-PARC. In this Final Technical Report we summarize progress and achievements for this award since our last Progress Report, i.e. for the period of fall 2013 until the award’s termination on November 30, 2015. The report consists of two parts, representing our two most recent experimental efforts, participation in the Nucleon Spin Physics program of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL – Task 1, led by Douglas Fields; and participation in several Strangeness Nuclear Physics experiments at J-PARC, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Center in Tokai-mura, Japan – Task 2, led by Bernd Bassalleck.

  7. A radial TPC for heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Garabatos, C

    2000-01-01

    The CERES experiment at the CERN SPS has been recently upgraded with a TPC with radial drift field, the first one of its sort. Constructed during 1998, it has been successfully operated in commissioning and physics runs, with muon, proton, and heavy-ion beams. A high voltage electrode of about 0.5 m radius is surrounded by sixteen 2 m long readout chambers, placed at a radius of 1.3 m, with chevron-shaped readout pads. The field cage is enclosed by two low-mass voltage degraders at each end of the cylindrical structure. A Ne-CO/sub 2/ [80-20] gas mixture allows for a safe operation and good transport properties under drift fields ranging from 200 to 600 V/cm. A spatial resolution better than 700 microns and 350 microns in r and rdelta (phi), respectively, has been achieved in a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field. Details of its construction as well as results of the operation and performance in a high multiplicity environment are presented. (0 refs).

  8. CHICO, a heavy ion detector for Gammasphere

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, M W; Wu, C Y; Gray, R W; Teng, R; Long, C

    2000-01-01

    A 4 pi position-sensitive heavy-ion detector system, CHICO, has been developed primarily for use in conjunction with the 4 pi gamma-ray facility, Gammasphere. The CHICO detector comprises an array of 20 Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs) covering 12 deg.

  9. Reaction mechanisms in heavy ion fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubian J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the reaction mechanisms involved in heavy ion fusion. We begin with collisions of tightly bound systems, considering three energy regimes: energies above the Coulomb barrier, energies just below the barrier and deep sub-barrier energies. We show that channel coupling effects may influence the fusion process at above-barrier energies, increasing or reducing the cross section predicted by single barrier penetration model. Below the Coulomb barrier, it enhances the cross section, and this effect increases with the system’s size. It is argued that this behavior can be traced back to the increasing importance of Coulomb coupling with the charge of the collision partners. The sharp drop of the fusion cross section observed at deep sub-barrier energies is addressed and the theoretical approaches to this phenomenon are discussed. We then consider the reaction mechanisms involved in fusion reactions of weakly bound systems, paying particular attention to the calculations of complete and incomplete fusion available in the literature.

  10. Residual activity induced by heavy ions and beam-loss criteria for heavy-ion accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of FLUKA simulations of the residual activity induced by heavy ions in two target configurations representing: (1 a beam pipe of an accelerator and (2 a bulky accelerator structure like a magnet yoke or a coil. The target materials were stainless steel and copper representing the most common construction materials used for basic accelerator components. For these two materials, the inventory of the induced isotopes depends mainly on the target material and much less on the projectile species. Time evolution of the induced activity can be described by means of a generic curve that is independent from the projectile mass. Dependence of the induced residual activity on selected ion beam parameters was studied. The main goal of the study was establishing a scaling law expanding the existing proton beam-loss tolerance to heavy-ion beams. This scaling law enables specifying beam-loss criteria for projectile species from proton up to uranium at energies from 200  MeV/u up to 1  GeV/u.

  11. ATLAS: a proposal for a precision heavy ion accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    The objective of the proposed Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is to provide precision beams of heavy ions for nuclear physics research in the region of projectile energies comparable to nuclear binding energies (5-25 MeV/A). By using the demonstrated potential of superconducting rf technology, beams of exceptional quality and flexibility can be obtained. The system is designed to provide beams with tandem-like energy resolution and ease of energy variation, the energy range is comparable to that of a approx. 50 MV tandem and, in addition, the beam will be bunched into very short (approx. 50 psec) pulses, permitting fast-timing measurements that can open up major new experimental approaches.

  12. Heavy ion action on single cells: Cellular inactivation capability of single accelerated heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, M.; Pross, H.D.; Russmann, C.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.; Kraft, G.; Lenz, G.; Becher, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung m.b.H., Darmstadt (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Heavy ions (HZE-particles) constitute an important part of radiation in space. Although their number is small the high amount of energy transferred by individual particles may cause severe biological effects. Their investigation requires special techniques which were tested by experiments performed at the UNILAC at the GSI (Darmstadt). Diploid yeast was used which is a suitable eucaryotic test system because of its resistance to extreme conditions like dryness and vacuum. Cells were placed on nuclear track detector foils and exposed to ions of different atomic number and energy. To assess the action of one single ion on an individual cell, track parameters and the respective colony forming abilities (CFA) were determined with the help of computer aided image analysis. There is mounting evidence that not only the amount of energy deposited along the particle path, commonly given by the LET, is of importance but also the spatial problem of energy deposition at a submicroscopical scale. It is virtually impossible to investigate track structure effects in detail with whole cell populations and (globally applied) high particle fluences. It is, therefore, necessary to detect the action of simple ions in individual cells. The results show that the biological action depends on atomic number and specific energy of the impinging ions, which can be compared with model calculations of recent track structure models.

  13. Heavy ion action on single cells: Cellular inactivation capability of single accelerated heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, M.; Pross, H.-D.; Russmann, C.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.; Kraft, G.; Lenz, G.; Becher, W.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ions (HZE-particles) constitute an important part of radiation in space. Although their number is small the high amount of energy transferred by individual particles may cause severe biological effects. Their investigation requires special techniques which were tested by experiments performed at the UNILAC at the GSI (Darmstadt). Diploid yeast was used which is a suitable eucaryotic test system because of its resistance to extreme conditions like dryness and vacuum. Cells were placed on nuclear track detector foils and exposed to ions of different atomic number and energy. To assess the action of one single ion on an individual cell, track parameters and the respective colony forming abilities (CFA) were determined with the help of computer aided image analysis. There is mounting evidence that not only the amount of energy deposited along the particle path, commonly given by the LET, is of importance but also the spatial problem of energy deposition at a submicroscopical scale. It is virtually impossible to investigate track structure effects in detail with whole cell populations and (globally applied) high particle fluences. It is, therefore, necessary to detect the action of simple ions in individual cells. The results show that the biological action depends on atomic number and specific energy of the impinging ions, which can be compared with model calculations of recent track structure models.

  14. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  15. HOM Consideration of 704 MHz and 2.1 GHz Cavities for LEReC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Binping [RIKEN BNL; Belomestnykh, Sergey [SUNY, Stony Brook; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [RIKEN BNL; Blaskiewicz, Michael [RIKEN BNL; Brennan, Joseph [RIKEN BNL; Brutus, Jean Clifford [RIKEN BNL; Fedotov, Alexei [RIKEN BNL; Hahn, Harald [RIKEN BNL; McIntyre, Gary [RIKEN BNL; Pai, Chien [RIKEN BNL; Smith, Kevin [RIKEN BNL; Tuozzolo, Joseph [RIKEN BNL; Veshcherevich, Vadim [Cornell U., CLASSE; Wu, Qiong [RIKEN BNL; Xin, Tianmu [RIKEN BNL; Xu, Wencan [RIKEN BNL; Zaltsman, Alex [RIKEN BNL

    2016-06-01

    To improve RHIC luminosity for heavy ion beam energies below 10 GeV/nucleon, the Low Energy RHIC electron Cooler (LEReC) is currently under development at BNL. The Linac of LEReC is designed to deliver 2 MV to 5 MV electron beam, with rms dp/p less than 5·10⁻⁴. The HOM in this Linac is carefully studied to ensure this specification.

  16. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  17. Failure Analysis of Heavy-Ion-Irradiated Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Topper, Alyson D.; Campola, Michael J.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we use high- and low-magnitude optical microscope images, infrared camera images, and scanning electron microscope images to identify and describe the failure locations in heavy-ion-irradiated Schottky diodes.

  18. Silicon Carbide Power Device Performance Under Heavy-Ion Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Topper, Alyson; Wilcox, Edward; Phan, Anthony; Ikpe, Stanley; LaBel, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion induced degradation and catastrophic failure data for SiC power MOSFETs and Schottky diodes are examined to provide insight into the challenge of single-event effect hardening of SiC power devices.

  19. Polysiloxane based CHEMFETs for the detection of heavy metal ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, R.J.W.; Antonisse, M.M.G.; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1996-01-01

    The development of polysiloxane based chemically modified field effect transistors (CHEMFETs) for heavy metal ions is described. Different polar siloxane copolymers have been synthesized via an anionic copolymerization of hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane,

  20. Background Effects on Jet Detection in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukerman, Alexander; Hughes, Charles; Krobatch, Thomas; Matyja, Adam; Nattrass, Christine; Neuhas, James; Sorensen, Soren; Witt, Will

    2017-09-01

    Heavy ion collisions performed at the LHC and RHIC at large energy scales produce a liquid of quarks and gluons known as a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Jets, which are collimated bunches of particles emitted from highly energetic partons, are produced at the early stages of these collisions, and can provide information about the properties of the QGP. Partonic energy loss in the medium can by quantified by measurements of fragmentation functions. However, the high background energies resulting from emissions uncorrelated to the initial hard scatterings in the heavy ion collisions place limitations on jet detection methods and fragmentation measurements. For the purpose of investigating the limitations on these current jet detection methods we generated a heavy ion background based on charged hadron data. We explore the behavior of a jet finding algorithm with our generated background to examine how the presence of a heavy ion background may affect the measurements of jet properties.

  1. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Feasibility of gamma-ray spectroscopy at relativistic energies with exotic heavy-ions and new generation of germanium detectors (segmented Clover) is discussed. An experiment with such detector array and radioactive is discussed.

  2. Heavy Ions at the LHC Physics Perspectives and Experimental Program

    CERN Document Server

    Schükraft, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is entering the new era of collider experiments with the start-up of RHIC at BNL and construction for detectors at HC well under way. At this crossroads, the article will give a summary of the experimental program and our current view of heavy ion physics at the LHC, concentrating in particular on physics topics that are different or unique compared to current facilities.

  3. Current experimental situation in heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.K.

    1978-06-01

    A detailed survey of the present experimental situation in heavy-ion physics is presented. The discussion begins by considering the simple excitation of discrete states in elastic scattering, transfer, and compound-nucleus reactions; it then turns to more drastic perturbations of the nucleus high in the continuum through fusion, fission, and deeply inelastic scattering, and concludes with the (possibly) limiting asymptotic phenomena of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. 138 figures, 5 tables, 451 references. (RWR)

  4. Heavy-ion physics at high baryon densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friese Volker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several experimental programmes, both at existing and at future accelerator facilities, aim at investigating strongly interacting matter with nuclear collisions at energies below top SPS energy. These activities complement the heavy-ion experiments conducted at the highest available energies at the RHIC and LHC accelerators. In this report, we discuss the motivation for and prospects of the low-energy heavy-ion programmes.

  5. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... Buah, W. K. and Dankwah, J. R. (2016), “Sorption of Heavy Metals from Mine Wastewater by Activated. Carbons Prepared ... A study on sorption of heavy metal ions: Lead (Pb2+), Copper (Cu2+) and Cadmium (Cd2+) from mine wastewater by activated ... (Pb), having relatively high densities and are toxic.

  6. Recent relativistic heavy ion collider results on photon, dilepton and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large baryon density, the so-called quark gluon plasma. We focus on a specific category of observables: the electromagnetic probes which cover a large spectrum of experimental studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; relativistic heavy ion collider; photon; vector meson; thermal dilepton; heavy quarks. PACS No. 25.75.Cj.

  7. Optimization of High-Current Ion Beam Acceleration and Charge Compensation in Two Cusps of Induction Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Karas, Vyacheslav I

    1996-01-01

    Results of the numerical simulation of the hollow high-current ion beam (HHCIB) dynamics in two magnet-isolated accelerat- ing gaps separated by the drift gap are presented. The previous study has shown that the good charge and current compensations of the ion beam by the specially injected electron beam occur in the accelerating gaps of the i nduction linac. However in the drift gap the high positive electric potential due to the positive space charge of HHCIB was obtained because the essential dif- ference between the electron and ion drift velocities exists un- der this compensation method. This disadvantage impairing the brightness of the ion beam can be considerably reduced by the additional injection of the thermal electrons into the drift region. In present report the some cases of the cold electron injection into drift gap are considered. The more optimal regime for the effec- tive charge and current compensations of HHCIB without loss in the stability of ion beam was found

  8. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type.

  9. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs.

  10. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R.; Dytlewski, N.

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few {mu}m. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials. 86 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  11. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Geoffr-Ey-Kraff

    2003-01-01

    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams FR-om an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible FR-om either a conventional linac, or FR-om storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend FR-om high power FR-ee-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  12. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  13. Heavy ion accelerator and associated developments in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. 59, No. 5. — journal of. November 2002 physics pp. 703–712. Heavy ion accelerator and associated developments in India. G K MEHTA. University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002, India. Abstract. Developments of ion accelerator and associated facilities in India are presented. Various.

  14. Photoluminescence and Raman studies in swift heavy ion irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Swift heavy ions (SHI) cause intense electronic excita- tions along the ion trajectory when they pass through material that may result in defect production or amorphiza- tion or phase transformation on nanometer scale (Bolse et al 2004; Wang et al 2004). Thus, it is interesting to know the effect of strong electronic excitation ...

  15. Highlights from STAR heavy ion program arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Okorokov, V.A.

    Recent experimental results obtained in STAR experiment at the Relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) with ion beams will be discussed. Investigations of different nuclear collisions in some recent years focus on two main tasks, namely, detail study of quark-gluon matter properties and exploration of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram. Results at top RHIC energy show clearly the collective behavior of heavy quarks in nucleus-nucleus interactions. Jet and heavy hadron measurements lead to new constraints for energy loss models for various flavors. Heavy-ion collisions are unique tool for the study of topological properties of theory as well as the magneto-hydrodynamics of strongly interacting matter. Experimental results obtained for discrete QCD symmetries at finite temperatures confirm indirectly the topologically non-trivial structure of QCD vacuum. Finite global vorticity observed in non-central Au+Au collisions can be considered as important signature for presence of various chiral effects in ...

  16. Luminescent ion pairs with tunable emission colors for light-emitting devices and electrochromic switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Huang, Tianci; Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Yang, Huiran; Han, Jianmei; Zhao, Qiang; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Most recently, stimuli-responsive luminescent materials have attracted increasing interest because they can exhibit tunable emissive properties which are sensitive to external physical stimuli, such as light, temperature, force, and electric field. Among these stimuli, electric field is an important external stimulus. However, examples of electrochromic luminescent materials that exhibit emission color change induced by an electric field are limited. Herein, we have proposed a new strategy to develop electrochromic luminescent materials based on luminescent ion pairs. Six tunable emissive ion pairs ( IP1-IP6 ) based on iridium(iii) complexes have been designed and synthesized. The emission spectra of ion pairs (IPs) show concentration dependence and the energy transfer process is very efficient between positive and negative ions. Interestingly, IP6 displayed white emission at a certain concentration in solution or solid state. Thus, in this contribution, UV-chip (365 nm) excited light-emitting diodes showing orange, light yellow and white emission colors were successfully fabricated. Furthermore, IPs displayed tunable and reversible electrochromic luminescence. For example, upon applying a voltage of 3 V onto the electrodes, the emission color of the solution of IP1 near the anode or cathode changed from yellow to red or green, respectively. Color tunable electrochromic luminescence has also been realized by using other IPs. Finally, a solid-film electrochromic switch device with a sandwiched structure using IP1 has been fabricated successfully, which exhibited fast and reversible emission color change.

  17. Track Reconstruction in Heavy Ion Events using the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, Christof

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will collide protons at sqrt{S}=14 TeV and lead ions at sqrt{S_{NN} =5.5 TeV. The study of heavy ion collisions is an integral part of the physics program of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS). Central heavy ion events at LHC energies are expected to produce a multiplicity of 1500 to 4000 charged particles per unit of rapidity. The CMS detector features a large acceptance and high resolution silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detector layers. In this note the algorithms used for pattern recognition in the very high track density environment of heavy ion collisions will be described. Detailed studies using the full detector simulation and reconstruction are presented and achieved reconstruction efficiencies, fake rates and resolutions are discussed.

  18. Performance of the CERN Heavy Ion production complex

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, D; Bartosik, H; Bellodi, G; Blas, A; Bohl, T; Carli, C; Carlier, E; Cettour Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Damerau, H; Efthymiopoulos, I; Findlay, A; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Jowett, JM; Kuchler, D; Maury, S; O'Neil, M; Papaphilippou, Y; Pasinelli, S; Scrivens, R; Tranquille, G; Vandorpe, B; Wehrle, U; Wenninger, J

    2012-01-01

    The second LHC ion run took place at 1.38 A TeV/c per beam in autumn 2011; more than 100 inverse microbarns were accumulated by each of the experiments. In addition, the LHC injector chain delivered primary Pb and secondary Be ion beams to fixed target experiments in the SPS North Area. This paper presents the current performance of the heavy ion production complex, and prospects to further improve it in the near future.

  19. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. The present work deals with the mixing of iron and silicon by swift heavy ions in high-energy range. The thin film was deposited on a n-Si (111) substrate at 10. –6 torr and at room temperature. Irradia- tions were undertaken at room temperature using 120 MeV Au. +9 ions at the Fe/Si interface to investigate ion.

  20. New beam for the CERN fixed target heavy ion programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C E; O'Neill, M

    2002-01-01

    The physicists of the CERN heavy ion community (SPS fixed target physics) have requested lighter ions than the traditional lead ions, to scale their results and to check their theories. Studies have been carried out to investigate the behaviour of the ECR4 for the production of an indium beam. Stability problems and the low melting point of indium required some modifications to the oven power control system which will also benefit normal lead ion production. Present results of the source behaviour and the ion beam characteristics will be presented.

  1. Clinical trial of cancer therapy with heavy ions at heavy ion research facility in lanzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong

    With collaborative efforts of scientists from the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences and hospitals in Gansu, initial clinical trial on cancer therapy with heavy ions has been successfully carried out in China. From November 2006 to December 2007, 51 patients with superficially-placed tumors were treated with carbon ions at Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) within four beam time blocks of 6-11 days, collaborating with the General Hospital of Lanzhou Command and the Tumor Hospital of Gansu Province. Patients and Methods: There were 51 patients (31 males and 20 females) with superficially-placed tumors (squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma of the skin, malignant skin melanoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, breast cancer, metastatic lymph nodes of carcinomas and other skin lesions). The tumors were less than 2.1 cm deep to the skin surface. All patients had histological confirmation of their tumors. Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) of all patients was more than 70. The majority of patients were with failures or recurrences of conventional therapies. Median age at the time of radiotherapy (RT) was 55.5 years (range 5-85 years). Patients were immobilized with a vacuum cushion or a head mask and irradiated by carbon ion beams with energy 80-100 MeV/u at spread-out Bragg peak field generated from HIRFL, with two and three-dimensional conformal irradiation methods. Target volume was defined by physical palpation [ultrasonography and Computerized tomography (CT), for some cases]. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the gross total volume GTV with a 0.5-1.0cm margin axially. Field placement for radiation treatment planning was done based on the surface markings. RBE of 2.5-3 within the target volume, and 40-75 GyE with a weekly fractionation of 7 × 3-15 GyE/fraction were used in the trial. Patients had follow-up examinations performed 1 month after treatment, in 1 or 2 months for the first 6 months, and 3

  2. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsässer, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  3. The Holyfield heavy ion research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. M.; Alton, G. D.; Ball, J. B.; Biggerstaff, J. A.; Dowling, D. T.; Erb, K. A.; Haynes, D. L.; Hoglund, D. E.; Hudson, E. D.; Juras, R. C.; Lane, S. N.; Ludemann, C. A.; Martin, J. A.; Meigs, M. J.; Mosko, S. W.; Olsen, D. K.; Ziegler, N. F.

    1988-05-01

    Development of the Holifield facility has continued with resulting improvements in the number of ion species provided, in the ion energy for tandem-only operations, and in utilization efficiency. In this report, we describe our recent operational experience, development activities, and future development plans.

  4. The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.B.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Hoglund, D.E.; Hudson, E.D.; Juras, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Development of the Holified facility has continued with resulting improvements in the number of ion species provided, ion energy for tandem-only operations, and utilization efficiency. In this report, we describe our recent operational experience, development activities, and future development plans.

  5. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{92+} and partially stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{28+} ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers. Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad–x.

  6. Wastewater treatment from ions of heavy and non-ferrous metals by ion-exchange adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevara Babazhanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental research on wastewater treatment from ions of heavy and non-ferrous metals by ion exchange adsorption. The object of investigation was a model solution containing ions of heavy and non-ferrous metals and prepared of wastewater from Turkestan locomotive depot. As a sorbent, phosphorus–acidic cationite KRF-10P was used. The impact of the cation exchanger mass, reaction time of cationite and temperature of the solution on the degree of wastewater treatment from ions of heavy and non-ferrous metals (Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+ were studied. On the basis of experiments, optimal conditions of wastewater treatment from ions of heavy and non-ferrous metals were established: mKRF-10P = 2.0 g, t = 1.0 h, T = 55°C. At the optimized conditions, the degree of wastewater treatment from zinc ions reached 96.1%, the degree of removal of lead ions reached 89%, the degree of removal of cadmium ions reached 95%. Experimental results showed the possibility of wastewater treatment from ions of heavy and nonferrous metals by ion exchange adsorption using phosphorus–acidic cationite KRF-10P.

  7. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  8. Effect of electron disruption in the energy recovery linac based electron ion collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Beam-beam effects present one of the major factors limiting the luminosity of colliders. In the energy recovery linac (ERL based eRHIC design, the electron beam, accelerated in a superconducting ERL, collides with the proton beam circulating in the RHIC ring. During such collisions the electron beam undergoes a very strong beam-beam interaction with the protons, which warrants careful examination. We evaluated transverse disruption and linear mismatch effects in the electron beam caused by collisions and considered several countermeasures to mitigate the emittance growth from these interactions. The minimum required aperture of transport lines is calculated that should allow the transport of the electron beam during the deceleration process.

  9. Radiocesium contents in foodstuffs sampled at Saitama Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Takahashi, Syuhei; Osawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki (Saitama Institute of Public Health, Konan (Japan)); Miyazawa, Masaharu

    1991-12-01

    Since 1988, the Saitama Prefecture Administration has started a survey for radiosecium contents in foodstuffs. This reprot deals with the results of surveys performed in 1988 and 1989. During a two-year period, spaghetti was analyzed in terms of the relationship between the date of production and the concentration of radioactivity. Eighty-one and 93 food samples, including candies, cereals and grains, vegetables, and fish, were collected during 1988 and 1989, respectively. In foodstuffs collected in 1988, Cs-134 was detected in dried mushroom (Shiitake) and spaghetti, and Cs-137 was detected in 8 samples, including leaves, and green teas. For the 1989 samples, Cs-134 was not detected, but Cs-137 was detected in 12 samples, such as green teas and spaghetti. Of a total of 174 foodstuffs collected during a 2-year period, Cs-134 was detected in 2 (1.1%) and Cs-137 was detected in 22 (12.6%). According to foodstuffs, radiosecium was commonly found in spaghetti, green teas, and nuts. In monthly survey for radiosecium contents in spaghetti, the Chernobyl accident may influence the content of both Cs-134 and Cs-137. (N.K.).

  10. Quantum Electrodynamical Shifts in Multivalent Heavy Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupitsyn, I I; Kozlov, M G; Safronova, M S; Shabaev, V M; Dzuba, V A

    2016-12-16

    The quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections are directly incorporated into the most accurate treatment of the correlation corrections for ions with complex electronic structure of interest to metrology and tests of fundamental physics. We compared the performance of four different QED potentials for various systems to access the accuracy of QED calculations and to make a prediction of highly charged ion properties urgently needed for planning future experiments. We find that all four potentials give consistent and reliable results for ions of interest. For the strongly bound electrons, the nonlocal potentials are more accurate than the local potential.

  11. Resonance propagation in heavy-ion scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also observe that, for not so heavy nuclear systems and/or for fast moving resonances, the shape, magnitude and peak position of the invariant mass distribution is substantially different if the contributions from the resonance decay inside and outside are summedup at the amplitude level (coherently) or at the cross ...

  12. Resonance propagation in heavy-ion scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of about 120 MeV is required. We also observe that, for not so heavy nuclear systems and/or for fast moving resonances, the shape, magnitude and peak position of the invariant mass distribution is substantially different if the contributions from the resonance decay inside and outside are summed- up at the amplitude level ...

  13. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions: the first billion seconds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baym, Gordon

    2016-12-15

    I first review the early history of the ultrarelativistic heavy ion program, starting with the 1974 Bear Mountain Workshop, and the 1983 Aurora meeting of the U.S. Nuclear Science Committtee, just one billion seconds ago, which laid out the initial science goals of an ultrarelativistic collider. The primary goal, to discover the properties of nuclear matter at the highest energy densities, included finding new states of matter – the quark-gluon plasma primarily – and to use collisions to open a new window on related problems of matter in cosmology, neutron stars, supernovae, and elsewhere. To bring out how the study of heavy ions and hot, dense matter in QCD has been fulfilling these goals, I concentrate on a few topics, the phase diagram of matter in QCD, and connections of heavy ion physics to cold atoms, cosmology, and neutron stars.

  14. <span class="hlt">Heavy-Ion</span> Imaging Applied To Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J. I.; Tobias, C. A.; Capp, M. P.; Benton, E. V.; Holley, W. R.; Gray, Joel E.; Hendee, William R.; Haus, Andrew G.; Properzio, William S.

    1980-08-18

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  15. Elucidating Jet Energy Loss in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, N

    2008-01-01

    Very soon the LHC will provide beams for heavy ion collisions at 5.52 TeV/nucleon. This center-of-mass energy results in a large cross-section for producing high-$E_T$ ($>$ 50 GeV) jets that are distinct from the soft, underlying event. This brings with it the possibility of performing full jet reconstruction to directly study jet energy loss in the medium produced in heavy ion collisions. In this note, we present the current state of jet reconstruction performance studies in heavy ion events using the ATLAS detector. We also discuss the possibilities of energy loss measurements available with full jet reconstruction: single jet $R_{AA}$ and di-jet and $\\gamma$-jet correlations.

  16. arXiv Heavy ions at the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Dainese, A.; Armesto, N.; d'Enterria, D.; Jowett, J.M.; Lansberg, J.P.; Milhano, J.G.; Salgado, C.A.; Schaumann, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Albacete, J.L.; Andronic, A.; Antonioli, P.; Apolinario, L.; Bass, S.; Beraudo, A.; Bilandzic, A.; Borsanyi, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Chen, Z.; Cunqueiro Mendez, L.; Denicol, G.S.; Eskola, K.J.; Floerchinger, S.; Fujii, H.; Giubellino, P.; Greiner, C.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.F.; Ko, C.M.; Kotko, P.; Krajczar, K.; Kutak, K.; Laine, M.; Liu, Y.; Lombardo, M.P.; Luzum, M.; Marquet, C.; Masciocchi, S.; Okorokov, V.; Paquet, J.F.; Paukkunen, H.; Petreska, E.; Pierog, T.; Ploskon, M.; Ratti, C.; Rezaeian, A.H.; Riegler, W.; Rojo, J.; Roland, C.; Rossi, A.; Salam, G.P.; Sapeta, S.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Stachel, J.; Uphoff, J.; van Hameren, A.; Watanabe, K.; Xiao, B.W.; Yuan, F.; Zaslavsky, D.; Zhou, K.; Zhuang, P.

    2017-06-22

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode, seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. Operating such machine with heavy ions is an option that is being considered in the accelerator design studies. It would provide, for example, Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 39 and 63 TeV, respectively, per nucleon-nucleon collision, with integrated luminosities above 30 nb^-1 per month for Pb-Pb. This is a report by the working group on heavy-ion physics of the FCC Study. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, of gluon saturation, of photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with other fields of high-energy physics.

  17. Studying heavy-ion collisions with FAUST-QTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cammarata P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-ion collisions at lower energies provide a rich environment for investigating reaction dynamics. Recent theory has suggested a sensitivity to the symmetry energy and the equation of state via deformations of the reaction system and ternary breaking of the deformed reaction partners into three heavy fragments. A new detection system has been commissioned at Texas A&M University in an attempt to investigate some of the observables sensitive to the nuclear equation of state.

  18. Fragmentation of very high energy heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgini, M

    2001-01-01

    A stack of CR39 (C12H18O7)n nuclear track detectors with a Cu target was exposed to a 158 A GeV lead ion beam at the CERN-SPS, in order to study the fragmentation properties of lead nuclei. Measurements of the total, break-up and pick-up charge-changing cross sections of ultrarelativistic Pb ions on Cu and CR39 targets are presented and discussed.

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Interest in energetic heavy ions is rapidly increasing in the field of biomedicine. Heavy ions are normally excluded from radiation protection, because they are not normally experienced by humans on Earth. However, knowledge of heavy ion biophysics is necessary in two fields: charged particle cancer therapy (hadrontherapy), and radiation protection in space missions. The possibility to cure tumours using accelerated heavy charged particles was first tested in Berkeley in the sixties, but results were not satisfactory. However, about 15 years ago therapy with carbon ions was resumed first in Japan and then in Europe. Heavy ions are preferable to photons for both physical and biological characteristics: the Bragg peak and limited lateral diffusion ensure a conformal dose distribution, while the high relative biological effectiveness and low oxygen enhancement ration in the Bragg peak region make the beam very effective in treating radioresistant and hypoxic tumours. Recent results coming from the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba (see the paper by Dr Tsujii and co-workers in this issue) and GSI (Germany) provide strong clinical evidence that heavy ions are indeed an extremely effective weapon in the fight against cancer. However, more research is needed in the field, especially on optimization of the treatment planning and risk of late effects in normal tissue, including secondary cancers. On the other hand, high-energy heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic radiation and, although they are rare as compared to protons, they give a major contribution in terms of equivalent dose to the crews of manned space exploratory-class missions. Exploration of the Solar System is now the main goal of the space program, and the risk caused by exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is considered a serious hindrance toward this goal, because of the high uncertainty on late effects of energetic heavy nuclei, and the lack of effective countermeasures. Risks

  20. Heavy Ion Injection Into Synchrotrons, Based On Electron String Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E E; Syresin, E M

    2004-01-01

    A possibility of heavy ions injection into synchrotrons is discussed on the base of two novel ion sources, which are under development JINR during last decade: 1) the electron string ion source (ESIS), which is a modified version of a conventional electron beam ion source (EBIS), working in a reflex mode of operation, and 2) the tubular electron string ion source (TESIS). The Electron String Ion Source "Krion-2" (VBLHE, JINR, Dubna) with an applied confining magnetic field of 3 T was used for injection into the superconducting JINR synchrotron - Nuclotron and during this runs the source provided a high pulse intensity of the highly charged ion beams: Ar16+

  1. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  2. Quark vs Gluon jets in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Drauksas, Simonas

    2017-01-01

    The project concerned quark and gluon jets which are often used as probes of Quantum Chromodynamics(QCD) matter created in nuclear collisions at collider energies. The goal is to look for differences between quark and gluon jets, study their substructure, look for distinguishing features in unquenched (pp collisions) and quenched (heavy ion collisions) jets by using multi-variate analysis which was carried out with the help of ROOT's \\href{https://root.cern.ch/tmva}{TMVA} tool. Mapping out the modification of jets due to medium interactions could give valuable input to constraining the time evolution of the Quark Gluon Plasma created in heavy ion collisions.

  3. Heavy ion observation with MIDORI satellite: trapped ACR

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, T; Yamagiwa, I; Kato, C; Goka, T; Matsumoto, H

    1999-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Telescope (HIT) on board the Japanese earth observation satellite MIDORI (ADEOS) has observed energetic heavy ions at the circular sun-synchronous orbit with an altitude of 800 km and an inclination of 98 deg. . Geomagnetically trapped oxygen and nitrogen at L=2 are clearly observed which is similar to the results of SAMPEX. Their geographical distribution at a long belt from the southern tip of South America to that of Africa is also very close to the SAMPEX observation. The adiabaticity parameter epsilon sub m sub a sub x can be deduced as <=0.1.

  4. Heavy-ion performance of the LHC and future colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, Michaela

    2015-04-29

    In 2008 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its experiments started operation at the European Centre of Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva with the main aim of finding or excluding the Higgs boson. Only four years later, on the 4th of July 2012, the discovery of a Higgs-like particle was proven and first published by the two main experiments ATLAS and CMS. Even though proton-proton collisions are the main operation mode of the LHC, it also acts as an heavy-ion collider. Here, the term ''heavy-ion collisions'' refers to the collision between fully stripped nuclei. While the major hardware system of the LHC is compatible with heavy-ion operation, the beam dynamics and performance limits of ion beams are quite different from those of protons. Because of the higher mass and charge of the ions, beam dynamic effects like intra-beam scattering and radiation damping are stronger. Also the electromagnetic cross-sections in the collisions are larger, leading to significantly faster intensity decay and thus shorter luminosity lifetimes. As the production cross-sections for various physics processes under study of the experiments are still small at energies reachable with the LHC and because the heavy-ion run time is limited to a few days per year, it is essential to obtain the highest possible collision rate, i.e. maximise the instantaneous luminosity, in order to obtain enough events and therefore low statistical errors. Within this thesis, the past performance of the LHC in lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions, at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair, is analysed and potential luminosity limitations are identified. Tools are developed to predict future performance and techniques are presented to further increase the luminosity. Finally, a perspective on the future of high energy heavy-ion colliders is given.

  5. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater.

  6. Electron cloud studies for heavy-ion and proton machines

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, F; Weiland, Th

    2013-01-01

    Electron cloud effects are a known problem in various accelerator facilities around the world. Electron clouds cause instabilities and emittance growth in positron and proton beams as well as in heavy ion beams. Most of the hadron machines experience the build-up of EC due to the multipacting. In LHC and in positron machines production of electrons due to the synchrotron radiation becomes as important as the build-up due to the secondary emission. The main source of seed electrons in heavy ion machines is the residual gas ionization. FAIR facility in Darmstadt will operate with heavy-ion and proton beams. However, the beam parameters are such that the multipacting will start to play a role only for the unconditioned wall with the secondary emission yieldmore than 1.8. In this paperwe study the electron cloud build-up and its effect on the beam stability for FAIR heavy-ion coasting beams. These beams will be used during slow extraction. Electron scattering on the beam ions and its effect on the final neutraliz...

  7. Ion irradiation effects on lithium niobate etalons for tunable spectral filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garranzo, D.; Ibarmia, S.; Alvarez-Herrero, A.; Olivares, J.; Crespillo, M.; Díaz, M.

    2017-11-01

    Solar Orbiter is a mission dedicated to solar and heliospheric physics. It was selected as the first mediumclass mission of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. Solar Orbiter will be used to examine how the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere, the vast bubble of charged particles blown by the solar wind into the interstellar medium. One of the scientific payload elements of Solar Orbiter is the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). The PHI instrument consists of two telescopes, a High Resolution Telescope (HRT) that will image a fraction of the solar disk at a resolution reaching {150 km at perihelion, and a Full Disk Telescope (FDT) to image the full solar disk during all phases of the orbit. PHI is a diffraction limited, wavelength tunable, quasi-monochromatic, polarisation sensitive imager. These capabilities are needed to infer the magnetic field and line-of-sight (LOS) velocity of the region targeted by the spacecraft. For the spectral analysis, PHI will use an order-sorting filter to isolate a bandpass of the order of 100 mÅ . The FilterGraph (FG) contains an etalon in single pass configuration as tunable spectral filter located inside a temperature stabilized oven. This filter will be made by means of a z-cut LiNbO3 crystal (about 300 microns thick) and multilayer coatings including a conductive one in order to apply a high voltage (up to 5 kV) and induce the required electric field to tune the filter. Solar Orbiter observing mission around the Sun will expose the PHI instrument to extreme radiation conditions, mainly dominated by solar high-energy particles released during severe solar events (protons with energies typically ranging from few keV up to several GeV) and the continuous isotropic background flux of galactic cosmic rays (heavy ions, from Z=1 to Z=92). The main concerns are whether the cumulated radiation damage can degrade the functionality of the filter or, in the worst case, the impact of a single highly ionizing particle

  8. Heavy Quarkonium Dissociation Cross Sections in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.-Y. Wong; Eric Swanson; Ted Barnes

    2001-12-01

    Many of the hadron-hadron cross sections required for the study of the dynamics of matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be calculated using the quark-interchange model. Here we evaluate the low-energy dissociation cross sections of J/{psi}, {psi}', {chi}, {Upsilon}, and {Upsilon}' in collision with {pi}, {rho}, and K, which are important for the interpretation of heavy-quarkonium suppression as a signature for the quark gluon plasma. These comover dissociation processes also contribute to heavy-quarkonium suppression, and must be understood and incorporated in simulations of heavy-ion collisions before QGP formation can be established through this signature.

  9. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Scintillating screens study for LEIR/LHC heavy ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, C; Lefèvre, T; Scrivens, R; Taborelli, M

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed on different machines that scintillating ceramic screens (like chromium doped alumina) are quickly damaged by low energy ion beams. These particles are completely stopped on the surface of the screens, inducing both a high local temperature increase and the electrical charging of the material. A study has been initiated to understand the limiting factors and the damage mechanisms. Several materials, ZrO2, BN and Al2O3, have been tested at CERN on LINAC3 with 4.2MeV/u lead ions. Alumina (Al2O3) is used as the reference material as it is extensively used in beam imaging systems. Boron nitride (BN) has better thermal properties than Alumina and Zirconium oxide (ZrO2). BN has in fact the advantage of increasing its electrical conductivity when heated. This contribution presents the results of the beam tests, including the post-mortem analysis of the screens and the outlook for further measurements. The strategy for the choice of the screens for the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), currently under ...

  11. Photoluminescence and Raman studies in swift heavy ion irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photoluminescence and Raman studies in swift heavy ion irradiated polycrystalline aluminum oxide ... Polymers Volume 32 Issue 5 October 2009 pp 515-519 ... A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission with peak at ∼447 nm and two sharp emissions with peak at ∼ 679 and ∼ 695 nm are observed in pristine when ...

  12. Quark-gluon plasma: Status of heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    produce such energy densities, thereby providing us a chance to test the above prediction. After a brief introduction of the .... bone of the analyses seeking to extract information from the data on whether QGP did form in the heavy ion ..... A similar exercise for S+Au or Pb+Au reveals an enhancement in the low mass region ...

  13. Theory of heavy ion collision physics in hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.

  14. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review the transport models that are widely used to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We show that transport model analysis of two important and complementary observables, the anisotropic flow of bulk hadrons and suppression of ...

  15. What have we learned from relativistic heavy-ion collider?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What do we hope and expect to learn in the future? 1. Introduction. The goal of the heavy ion program at the RHIC at Brookhaven National Laboratory is to make and study new forms of matter at energy densities in excess of ten times that of nuclear matter. I will describe the status of this program from a theorist's perspective.

  16. Recent studies in heavy ion induced fission reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    channel spins. Recently studies have been carried out on the spin distributions of fission fragments through the gamma ray multiplicity measurements. ... Heavy ion fission; angular distributions; fragment spin; mass; energy. ... neutrons and protons (magic numbers), and also resulting in deformed ground state shapes.

  17. Systematics of elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main goal of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions is to understand the behavior of. QCD under extreme ... collective motion of particles are called as flow and are identified as radial, sideward and elliptic flow. ... expands it becomes more spherical, quenching the driving force that produces the elliptic flow. The elliptic flow ...

  18. What have we learned from relativistic heavy-ion collider?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this talk, I present what I believe we have learned from the recent RHIC heavy ion experiments. The goal of these experiments is to make and study matter at very high energy densities, greater than an order of magnitude larger than that of nuclear matter. Have we made such matter? What have we learned about the ...

  19. Hydrodynamic modelling for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nz. 1. Introduction. The quark gluon plasma (QGP) is formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at Relativis- .... To obtain final hadrons, pure hydrodynamic simulations assume free hadron resonances directly emitted ... models is realized by a Monte-Carlo event generator, which transforms the hydrody- namic output into ...

  20. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) with extremely heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, J.S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Currie, P.J. [Royal Tyrrell Museum, Drumheller, Alberta T0J 0Y0 (Canada); Davies, J.A. [Accelerator Laboratory, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Siegele, R. [Accelerator Laboratory, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Wallace, S.G. [Accelerator Laboratory, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Zelenitsky, D. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    1996-06-01

    Extremely heavy-ion beams such as {sup 209}Bi in elastic recoil detection (ERD) make ERD a uniquely valuable technique for thin-film analysis of elements with mass {<=}100. We report ERD measurements of compositional analysis of dinosaur eggshells and bones. We also show the capability of the ERD technique on studies of thin-film, high-temperature superconductors. (orig.).

  1. Quarkonia at finite temperature in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... ... is reviewed. After a detailed discussion of the current theoretical understanding of quarkonia in a static equilibriated plasma, we discuss quarkonia yield from the fireball created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision experiments. We end with a brief discussion of the experimental results and outlook.

  2. From Heavy-Ion Collisions to Quark Matter course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Overview of the experimental activity going on at CERN (SPS and LHC) and at RHIC in view of the understanding of the properties of QCD matter (quark gluon plasma) at high temperatures and densities, through the study of heavy-ion collisions at very high energies.

  3. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    search. We have investigated the mixing at Co/Si interface by swift heavy ion beam induced irradiation in the ... films are often employed in semiconductor technology and are used as ... rements at Co/Si interface were carried out online in the.

  4. HARD PHOTON INTENSITY INTERFEROMETRY IN HEAVY-ION REACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OSTENDORF, R; SCHUTZ, Y; MERROUCH, R; LEFEVRE, F; DELAGRANGE, H; MITTIG, W; BERG, FD; KUHN, W; METAG, [No Value; NOVOTNY, R; PFEIFFER, M; BOONSTRA, AL; LOHNER, H; VENEMA, LB; WILSCHUT, HW; HENNING, W; HOLZMANN, R; MAYER, RS; SIMON, R; ARDOUIN, D; DABROWSKI, H; ERAZMUS, B; LEBRUN, C; SEZAC, L; LAUTRIDOU, P; QUEBERT, J; BALLESTER, F; CASAL, E; DIAZ, J; FERRERO, JL; MARQUES, M; MARTINEZ, G; NIFENECKER, H; FORNAL, B; FREINDL, L; SUJKOWSKI, Z; MATULEWICZ, T

    1992-01-01

    The present experimental knowledge on hard photon production in heavy ion collisions is summarized. An attempt to measure for the first time the intensity interference using photons in the MEV range is described. The effect is interpreted in terms of spatial and temporal extent of the photon's

  5. Heavy ion collisions at collider energies – Insights from PHENIX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ken 305-0801, Japan. 15Korea University, Seoul ... early stages of high energy heavy-ion collisions where quark matter is expected to form. .... PHENIX has published spectra of charged pions, kaons, protons and their anti-particles over a broad ...

  6. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 57, No. 1. — journal of. July 2001 physics pp. 161–164. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions. SAMIT MANDAL, J GERL, H GEISSEL, K HAUSCHILD. ¿. , M HELLSTR ¨OM, ... large [2,3] to perform a meaningful high spin decay spectroscopy of exotic nuclei. At the same time relativistic Coulomb ...

  7. Calculating Fragmentation Functions in Heavy Ion Physics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Charles; Aukerman, Alex; Krobatsch, Thomas; Matyja, Adam; Nattrass, Christine; Neuhaus, James; Sorensen, Soren; Witt, William

    2017-09-01

    A hot dense liquid of quarks and gluons called a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) is formed in high energy nuclear collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider. The high energy partons which scatter during these collisions can serve as probes for measuring QGP bulk properties. The details of how partons lose energy to the QGP medium as they traverse it can be used to constrain models of their energy loss. Specifically, measurements of fragmentation functions in the QGP medium can provide experimental constraints on theoretical parton energy loss mechanisms. However, the high background in heavy ion collisions limits the precision of these measurements. We investigate methods for measuring fragmentation functions in a simple model in order to assess their feasibility. We generate a data-driven heavy ion background based on measurements of charged hadron transverse momentum spectra, charged hadron azimuthal flow, and charged hadron rapidity spectra. We then calculate fragmentation functions in this heavy ion background and compare to calculations in proton-proton simulations. We present the current status of these studies.

  8. Physics Opportunities in Ultraperipheral Heavy Ion Collisions at LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, G.

    2001-01-01

    Due to coherence, there are strong electromagnetic fields of short duration in very peripheral heavy ion collisions. They give rise to photon-photon and photon-nucleus collisions with high flux. Photon-photon and photon-hadron physics at various invariant mass scales are discussed.

  9. Heavy ions: Results from the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... accelerator, designed to address some of the most fundamental questions of recent times such as, whether Higgs ... Knowledge of the space-time evolution of the system produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions .... The information about the freeze-out volume and lifetime of the created system in p–p.

  10. Subthreshold photons in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, G

    1998-01-01

    In the present talk, I discuss about the properties of the energetic photons produced in heavy-ion reactions. I show that they are sensitive to the maximum density reached in the first stage of the nuclear reaction. Then, the existence of a thermal contribution to the photon differential

  11. Electromagnetic dissociation effects in galactic heavy-ion fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for calculating cross sections for the breakup of galactic heavy ions by the Coulomb fields of the interacting nuclei are presented. By using the Weizsacker-Williams method of virtual quanta, estimates of electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for a variety of reactions applicable to galactic cosmic ray shielding studies are presented and compared with other predictions and with available experimental data.

  12. Classical simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions and weakly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This model is extended to simulate heavy-ion reactions such as 6Li + 209Bi involving the weakly-bound projectile considered as a weakly-bound cluster of deuteron and 4He nuclei, thus, simulating a 3-body system in 3S-CMD model. All the essential features of breakup reactions, such as complete fusion, incomplete fusion ...

  13. Heavy metal ions adsorption from mine waters by sawdust

    OpenAIRE

    G. Bogdanović; Milan Gorgievski; Dragana Božić; Velizar Stanković

    2009-01-01

    In this work the results on the batch and column adsorption of copper and some associated ions by employing linden and poplar sawdust as a low-cost adsorbent are presented. The mine water from a local abandoned copper mine, as well as synthetic solutions of those ions which are the main constituents of the mine water were both used as a model-system in this study. The adsorption ability of the chosen sawdust to adsorb heavy metal ions is considered as a function of the initial pH of the solut...

  14. Mass and Charge Measurements on Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between mass and charge has been a crucial topic in mass spectrometry (MS) because the mass itself is typically evaluated based on the m/z ratio. Despite the fact that this measurement is indirect, a precise mass can be obtained from the m/z value with a high m/z resolution up to 105 for samples in the low mass and low charge region under 10,000 Da and 20 e, respectively. However, the target of MS has recently been expanded to the very heavy region of Mega or Giga Da, which includes large particles and biocomplexes, with very large and widely distributed charge from kilo to Mega range. In this region, it is necessary to evaluate charge and mass simultaneously. Recent studies for simultaneous mass and charge observation and related phenomena are discussed in this review. PMID:29302406

  15. Heavy-ion radiation induced bystander effect in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Changna

    2012-07-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, Low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic, metabolomics and proteomics play significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male mice head were exposed to 2000mGy dose of 12C heavy-ion radiation and the distant organ liver was detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. MSAP was used to monitor the level of polymorphic DNA methylation changes. The results show that heavy-ion irradiate mouse head can induce liver DNA methylation changes significantly. The percent of DNA methylation changes are time-dependent and highest at 6h after radiation. We also prove that the hypo-methylation changes on 1h and 6h after irradiation. But the expression level of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is not changed. UPLC/Synapt HDMS G2 was employed to detect the proteomics of bystander liver 1h after irradiation. 64 proteins are found significantly different between treatment and control group. GO process show that six of 64 which were unique in irradiation group are associated with apoptosis and DNA damage response. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo.

  16. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  17. Heavy-ion performance of the LHC and future colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)696614; Stahl, Achim; Jowett, John M

    2015-10-09

    In 2008 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its experiments started operation at the European Centre of Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva with the main aim of finding or excluding the Higgs boson. Only four years later, on the 4th of July 2012, the discovery of a Higgs-like particle was proven and first published by the two main experiments ATLAS and CMS. Even though proton–proton collisions are the main operation mode of the LHC, it also acts as an heavy-ion collider. Here, the term “heavy-ion collisions” refers to the collision between fully stripped nuclei. While the major hardware system of the LHC is compatible with heavy-ion operation, the beam dynamics and performance limits of ion beams are quite different from those of protons. Because of the higher mass and charge of the ions, beam dynamic effects like intra-beam scattering and radiation damping are stronger. Also the electromagnetic cross-sections in the collisions are larger, leading to significantly faster intensity decay and thus shorter l...

  18. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablinsky, Clarissa; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, T. R.

    2015-05-14

    We have examined microstructural evolution in irradiated ceria (CeO2) using swift heavy ion irradiation, electron microscopy, and atomistic simulation. CeO2, a UO2 fuel surrogate, was irradiated with gold ions at an energy of 1 GeV to fluences up to 1x1014 ions/cm2. Transmission electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that the ion tracks were of similar size at all fluences, and that there was no chemical change in the ion track core. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at the lower energy and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  19. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  20. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Peter A., E-mail: paseidl@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US (United States); Barnard, John J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, US (United States); Faltens, Andris [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US (United States); Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, US (United States); Waldron, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  1. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrík, P., E-mail: p.katrik@gsi.de [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany); Mustafin, E. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, D-64289 (Germany); Pavlovič, M. [FEI STU Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, SK-81219 (Slovakia); Strašík, I. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u {sup 238}U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  2. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d' Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise

  3. Improved ion guide for heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dendooven, P; Beraud, R; Chabanat, E; Emsallem, A; Honkanen, A; Huhta, M; Jokinen, A; Lhersonneau, G; Oinonen, M; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Wang, J.C.; Aysto, J

    1998-01-01

    The ion guide for heavy-ion-induced reactions developed originally for the SARA facility in Grenoble has been implemented at the Jyvaskyla IGISOL facility. For the Cd-116(Ar-40, 6n)Dy-150 reaction an efficiency of 0.5% relative to the number of reaction products entering the stopping chamber was

  4. Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geithner, O.

    2006-07-26

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio (s{sub w,air}) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe- Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. Optional MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data were included. The fragmentation model was verified using all available experimental data and some parameters were adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Additional to the calculations of stopping power ratios, s{sub w,air}, the influence of fragments and I-values on s{sub w,air} for carbon ion beams was investigated. The value of s{sub w,air} deviates as much as 2.3% at the Bragg peak from the recommended by TRS-398 constant value of 1.130 for an energy of 50 MeV/u. (orig.)

  5. The design of a radio frequency quadrupole LINAC for the RIB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Hirosawa 2-1, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. £Email: vaishali@veccal.ernet.in. Abstract. A radio frequency quadrupole LINAC has been designed for the VECC-RIB project for an input beam energy of 1.0 keV/u and q A. 1 16. The output energy will be about 90 keV/u ...

  6. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, A; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, S; Jincho, K; Okada, T; Yamamoto, M; Hattori, T G; Biri, S; Baskaran, R; Sakata, T; Sawada, K; Uno, K

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C/sup 4+/ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e mu A for C/sup 4+/ and 1.1e mA for Ar/sup 8+/, respectively. (14 refs).

  7. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pakarinen, Janne [Inst. for Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol, (Belgium); Gan, Jian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Severin, Daniel [GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Trautmann, Christina [GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Allen, Todd R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Energy Physics Dept.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  8. Anti-biofilm activity of Fe heavy ion irradiated polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, R.P. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Hareesh, K., E-mail: appi.2907@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Bankar, A. [Department of Microbiology, Waghire College, Pune 412301 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalore 574166 (India); Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Arun Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Dahiwale, S.S.; Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-10-01

    Highlights: • PC films were irradiated by 60 and 120 MeV Fe ions. • Irradiated PC films showed changes in its physical and chemical properties. • Irradiated PC also showed more anti-biofilm activity compared to pristine PC. - Abstract: Polycarbonate (PC) polymers were investigated before and after high energy heavy ion irradiation for anti-bacterial properties. These PC films were irradiated by Fe heavy ions with two energies, viz, 60 and 120 MeV, at different fluences in the range from 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. UV-Visible spectroscopic results showed optical band gap decreased with increase in ion fluences due to chain scission mainly at carbonyl group of PC which is also corroborated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic results. X-ray diffractogram results showed decrease in crystallinity of PC after irradiation which leads to decrease in molecular weight. This is confirmed by rheological studies and also by differential scanning calorimetric results. The irradiated PC samples showed modification in their surfaces prevents biofilm formation of human pathogen, Salmonella typhi.

  9. Solar wind heavy ions from energetic coronal events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bame, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Ions heavier than those of He can be resolved in the solar wind with electrostatic E/q analyzers when the local thermal temperatures are low. Ordinarily this condition prevails in the low speed solar wind found between high speed streams, i.e. the interstream, IS, solar wind. Various ions of O, Si and Fe are resolved in IS heavy ion spectra. Relative ion peak intensities indicate that the O ionization state is established in the IS coronal source regions at approx. 2.1 x 10/sup 6/K while the state of Fe is frozen in at approx. 1.5 x 10/sup 6/K farther out. Occasionally, anomalous spectra are observed in which the usually third most prominent ion peak, O/sup 8 +/, is depressed as are the Fe peaks ranging from Fe/sup 12 +/ to Fe/sup 7 +/. A prominent peak in the usual Si/sup 8 +/ position of IS spectra is self-consistently shown to be Fe/sup 16 +/. These features demonstrate that the ionization states were frozen in at higher than usual coronal temperatures. The source regions of these hot heavy ion spectra are identified as energetic coronal events including flares and nonflare coronal mass ejections. 24 references.

  10. HIBRA: A computer code for heavy ion binary reaction analysis employing ion track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam; Manzoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Collisions of heavy ions many times result in production of only two reaction products. Study of heavy ions using ion track detectors allows experimentalists to observe the track length in the plane of the detector, depth of the tracks in the volume of the detector and angles between the tracks on the detector surface, all known as track parameters. How to convert these into useful physics parameters such as masses, energies, momenta of the reaction products and the Q-values of the reaction? This paper describes the (a) model used to analyze binary reactions in terms of measured etched track parameters of the reaction products recorded in ion track detectors, and (b) the code developed for computing useful physics parameters for fast and accurate analysis of a large number of binary events. A computer code, HIBRA (Heavy Ion Binary Reaction Analysis) has been developed both in C++ and FORTRAN programming languages. It has been tested on the binary reactions from 12.5 MeV/u 84Kr ions incident upon U (natural) target deposited on mica ion track detector. The HIBRA code can be employed with any ion track detector for which range-velocity relation is available including the widely used CR-39 ion track detectors. This paper provides the source code of HIBRA in C++ language along with input and output data to test the program.

  11. An Experimental Review on Elliptic Flow of Strange and Multistrange Hadrons in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusu Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strange hadrons, especially multistrange hadrons, are good probes for the early partonic stage of heavy ion collisions due to their small hadronic cross sections. In this paper, I give a brief review on the elliptic flow measurements of strange and multistrange hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC and Large Hadron Collider (LHC.

  12. Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1979-01-01

    It was built to obtain higher intensities and better stability than with the original Linac 1. Construction and running-in were completed in 1979, routine operation began in 1980. One sees its 3 tanks, with, at the top, the electrical connections for the quadrupoles (which are inside the drift-tubes) and watercooling. As Linac 1, Linac 2 is driven at 202.56 MHz and accelerates protons to 50 MeV for injection into the 4 rings of the PS Booster.

  13. Heavy ion storage ring without linear dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ikegami

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A possible method to realize a dispersion-free storage ring is described. The simultaneous use of a magnetic field B and an electric field E in bending regions, where the two fields are set perpendicular to each other, enables us to control the effect of momentum dispersion. When the relation (1+1/γ_{0}^{2}E(ρ=-v_{0}×B is satisfied for a beam with the velocity v_{0}, the linear dispersion can be completely eliminated all around the ring. It is shown that the acceleration and deceleration induced by the electrostatic deflector counteracts the heating mechanism due to the shearing force from dipole magnets. The dispersion-free system is thus beneficial to producing ultracold beams. It looks probable that the technique will allow one to achieve three-dimensional crystalline beams. At ICR Kyoto University, an ion cooler storage ring S-LSR oriented for various beam physics purposes is now under construction. The application of the present idea to S-LSR is discussed and the actual design of the dispersionless bend is given.

  14. Progress in Induction Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J

    2000-09-27

    This presentation will be a broad survey of progress in induction technology over the past four years. Much work has been done on accelerators for hydrodynamic test radiography and other applications. Solid-state pulsers have been developed which can provide unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format and accelerating voltage for both ion and electron induction machines. Induction linacs can now be built which can operate with MHz repetition rates. Solid-state technology has also made possible the development of fast kickers for precision control of high current beams. New insulator technology has been developed which will improve conventional induction linacs in addition to enabling a new class of high gradient induction linacs.

  15. Response of the pixel detector Timepix to heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Jakubek, Jan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Koester, Ulli [Institute Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Platkevic, Michal; Pospisil, Stanislav [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    The response of the pixel detector Timepix to ions in the 4-110 MeV kinetic energy range and A=3-136 mass range has been studied at the fission-fragment separator Lohengrin of the Institute Laue Langevin in Grenoble. Timepix detects single ions measuring their position, kinetic energy, and time of arrival. Heavy ions with energy above several tens of 10 MeV produce a distortion of the electronic pixel signal response which arises when the energy collected is, under conventional detector settings, of around {approx}1 MeV per pixel. This effect can be suppressed, and the detector energy range extended, by suitable pixel signal baseline and threshold levels, together with optimally low sensor chip bias voltage. Reasonable results are achieved within the range of ion mass and energy studied extending the linearity level of per pixel measured energy up to {approx}2 MeV.

  16. Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Microchannel plate based detector for a heavy ion beam spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.I.

    1979-10-01

    The design parameters and operating characteristics of the detector used in the Brutus and Fannie heavy ion beam spectrometers at the SuperHILAC facility are described. The detector utilizes a 25 mm diameter microchannel plate array to obtain gains of 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 8/ with a linear dynamic range of 10/sup 3/. It has had over three years of almost maintenance-free service, detecting ion beams from carbon to xenon with energies between 1.2 and 8.5 MeV per nucleon.

  18. Influence of heavy ion implantation on the microhardness of lif

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Alazm, S M

    2003-01-01

    The paper presented microhardness measurements for pure lithium fluoride (LiF) implanted with Ar, Kr and Xe at doses ranged from 10 sup 9 up to 10 sup 1 2 ion/cm sup 2. Measurements were also performed for the microhardness after irradiation by electron and gamma rays. The data exhibited a large increase of microhardness of LiF using heavy ions in comparison with the unimplanted and irradiated samples with electrons and gamma rays. The influence of annealing the samples on the microhardness is also studied. The obtained results were interpreted according to the formation of F-centers in LiF.

  19. Probing the nuclear symmetry energy with heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filippo E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ion collisions (HIC have been widely used to extract the parametrization of symmetry energy term of nuclear equation of state as a function of barionic density. HIC in fact are a unique tool in terrestrial laboratories to explore the symmetry energy around the saturation density (ρ0 = 0.16fm−3 from sub-saturation densities (Fermi energies towards compressed nuclear matter (ρ > 2 − 3ρ0 that can be reached at relativistic energies, as a function of different conditions of temperature, mass asymmetry and isospin. One of the main study at present is to reach a coherent description of EOS of asymmetric nuclear matter from heavy ion collisions of stable and exotic nuclei, nuclear structure studies and astrophysical observations. In this work an overview of the current status of the research is shortly reviewed together with new perspectives aimed to reduce the present experimental and theoretical uncertainties.

  20. Particle Correlations with Heavy Ions at LHC Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Erazmus, B; Roy, C; Werner, K; Lednicky, R; Lyuboshitz, V L; Mikhailov, K; Stavinsky, A V; Pluta, J; Sinyukov, Yu M

    1998-01-01

    The ALICE detector will offer very good conditions to study the space-time characteristics of particle production in heavy-ion collisions at LHC from measurements of the correlation function of identical and non-identical particles at small relative velocities. The correlations - induced by Coulomb and nuclear final-state interactions - of non-identical particles appear to be directly sensitive to the space-time asymmetries of particle production allowing, in particular, a measurement of the mean relative delays in particle emission at time scales as small as few fm/c. The problem of Coulomb interaction of the correlated particles is particularly important in the case of the large effective volumes formed in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion reactions.

  1. Spiraling Beam Illumination Uniformity on Heavy Ion Fusion Target

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosaki, T; Noguchi, K; Koseki, S; Barada, D; Ma, Y Y; Ogoyski, A I; Barnard, J J; Logan, B G

    2012-01-01

    A few percent wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF) by a spiraling beam axis motion in the paper. So far the wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs illumination nonuniformity. The wobbling HIBs can be generated in HIB accelerators and the oscillating frequency may be several 100MHz-1GHz. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations presented here show that the few percent wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates successfully with the same wobbling HIBs frequency.

  2. What have we learned from jets in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Christine

    2017-09-01

    The Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is created in high energy heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The properties of this medium is transparent to electromagnetic probes but nearly opaque to colored probes. Hard partons fragment and hadronize into a collimated spray of particles called a jet. The partons lose energy as they traverse the medium, a process called jet quenching. Most of the lost energy is still correlated with the parent parton, contributing to particle production at larger angles and lower momenta relative to the parent parton than in proton-proton collisions. This partonic energy loss can be measured through several observables, each of which give different insights into the degree and mechanism of energy loss. The measurements to date are summarized and the path forward is discussed.

  3. Probing subnucleon scale fluctuations in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, Heikki; Schenke, Björn

    2017-09-01

    We show that introducing subnucleon scale fluctuations constrained by HERA diffractive J / Ψ production data significantly affects the incoherent diffractive J / Ψ production cross section in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions. We find that the inclusion of the additional fluctuations increases the ratio of the incoherent to the coherent cross section approximately by a factor of 2, and modifies the transverse momentum spectra of the produced J / Ψ at momenta larger than the scale that corresponds to the distance scale of the subnucleonic fluctuations. We present predictions for J / Ψ production in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV at the LHC and 200 GeV at RHIC.

  4. Probing subnucleon scale fluctuations in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Mäntysaari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that introducing subnucleon scale fluctuations constrained by HERA diffractive J/Ψ production data significantly affects the incoherent diffractive J/Ψ production cross section in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions. We find that the inclusion of the additional fluctuations increases the ratio of the incoherent to the coherent cross section approximately by a factor of 2, and modifies the transverse momentum spectra of the produced J/Ψ at momenta larger than the scale that corresponds to the distance scale of the subnucleonic fluctuations. We present predictions for J/Ψ production in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV at the LHC and 200 GeV at RHIC.

  5. Probing transverse momentum broadening in heavy ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Mueller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the dijet azimuthal de-correlation in relativistic heavy ion collisions as an important probe of the transverse momentum broadening effects of a high energy jet traversing the quark–gluon plasma. We take into account both the soft gluon radiation in vacuum associated with the Sudakov logarithms and the jet PT-broadening effects in the QCD medium. We find that the Sudakov effects are dominant at the LHC, while the medium effects can play an important role at RHIC energies. This explains why the LHC experiments have not yet observed sizable PT-broadening effects in the measurement of dijet azimuthal correlations in heavy ion collisions. Future investigations at RHIC will provide a unique opportunity to study the PT-broadening effects and help to pin down the underlying mechanism for jet energy loss in a hot and dense medium.

  6. Heavy ion physics : Exhibition Lepton-Photon 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    High-energy Heavy Ion Physics studies strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities.QCD predicts that at such densities hadronic matter turns into a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons,the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP).Matter in the Universe must have existed in this state up to about 10 ms after the Big Bang.Today QGP might exist in the c re of neutron stars.The study of the phase diagram of matter is a new approach to investigate QCD at its natural scale,L QCD ,and to address the fundamental questions of confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking.The combined results obtained by the SPS heavy ion experiments,in particular those obtained with the Pb beam,pr vide compelling evidence for the existence of a new state of matter featuring many of the characteristics predicted for the QGP.The ALICE experiment will carry this research into the LHC era.

  7. Imprint reduction in rotating heavy ions beam energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); ETSI Industriales, Universidad Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Piriz, A.R., E-mail: Roberto.Piriz@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Tahir, N.A., E-mail: n.tahir@gsi.de [GSI Darmstadt, Plankstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The compression of a cylindrical target by a rotating heavy ions beam is contemplated in certain inertial fusion schemes or in heavy density matter experiments. Because the beam has its proper temporal profile, the energy deposition is asymmetric and leaves an imprint which can have important consequences for the rest of the process. In this paper, the Fourier components of the deposited ion density are computed exactly in terms of the beam temporal profile and its rotation frequency Ω. We show that for any beam profile of duration T, there exist an infinite number of values of ΩT canceling exactly any given harmonic. For the particular case of a parabolic profile, we find possible to cancel exactly the first harmonic and nearly cancel every other odd harmonics. In such case, the imprint amplitude is divided by 4 without any increase of Ω.

  8. Jet studies in heavy ion collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Slovak, Radim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. ATLAS has provided a quantification of this jet suppression by the jet Raa measurement in run 1 of LHC. A factor of two suppression was seen in central heavy ion collisions with respect to pp collisions. The Raa exhibited only a week, if any, rapidity dependence, and a slow rise with increasing jet momentum. This talk summarizes the run 1 results on the inclusive jet production and the new results on dijet measurements.

  9. The threshold anomaly for heavy-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The real parts of optical potentials deduced from heavy-ion scattering measurements become rapidly more attractive as the bombarding energy is reduced close to the top of the Coulomb barrier. This behavior is explained as a coupled-channels effect, and is related to the corresponding reduction in the absorptive potential through a dispersion relation which expresses the consequences of causality. Another manifestation of this ''anomaly'' is the striking enhancement observed for the near- and sub-barrier fusion of two heavy ions. The barrier penetration model of fusion is examined critically in this context. It is also stressed that similar anomalies could appear in the energy dependence of nonelastic scattering. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Scaled beam merging experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Seidl

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Transverse beam combining is a cost-saving option employed in many designs for heavy ion fusion drivers. However, the resultant transverse phase space dilution must be minimized so as not to sacrifice focusability at the target. A prototype combining experiment has been completed employing four 3-mA Cs^{+} beams injected at 160 keV. The focusing elements upstream of the merge consist of four quadrupoles and a final combined-function element (quadrupole and dipole. Following the merge, the resultant single beam is transported in a single alternating gradient channel where the subsequent evolution of the distribution function is diagnosed. The results are in fair agreement with particle-in-cell simulations. They indicate that for some heavy ion fusion driver designs, the phase space dilution from merging is acceptable.

  11. Charged Hadron Multiplicity Distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews facts and problems concerning charge hadron production in high energy collisions. Main emphasis is laid on the qualitative and quantitative description of general characteristics and properties observed for charged hadrons produced in such high energy collisions. Various features of available experimental data, for example, the variations of charged hadron multiplicity and pseudorapidity density with the mass number of colliding nuclei, center-of-mass energies, and the collision centrality obtained from heavy-ion collider experiments, are interpreted in the context of various theoretical concepts and their implications. Finally, several important scaling features observed in the measurements mainly at RHIC and LHC experiments are highlighted in the view of these models to draw some insight regarding the particle production mechanism in heavy-ion collisions.

  12. Thermodynamic interpretation of multiparticle emission in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, A.M.; Raha, S.

    1980-02-01

    The scattering of the heavy ion Ne from NaF is analyzed at relativistic energy. The spectra of the emission fragments are studied for evidence of a thermodynamic-hydrodynamic collective motion. The spectra of pion, deuteron, and proton emission are fitted for fixed beam and target. The fit is consistent with an interpretation of an expanding hot fluid of interacting nucleons. 2 figures.

  13. New operational beam for the CERN heavy ion program

    CERN Document Server

    Chamings, J A; Hill, C E; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; O'Neill, M; Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    The use of indium beams in place of lead beams for the CERN heavy ion program was studied. It was found that the Indium beam emittance was measured downstream of the spectrometer by a quadrupole sean. The frequency of source adjustments to keep the beam current at a certain level was also studied. Results shows that the oven-resistance fluctuations were partially solved by using the oven power controller. (Edited abstract) 4 Refs.

  14. Nanopolysaccharides for adsorption of heavy metal ions from water

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    With population expansion and industrialization, heavy metal has become one of the biggest and most toxic water pollutants, which is a serious problem for human society today. The aim of this work is to explore the potential of nanopolysaccharides including nanocellulose and nanochitin to remove metal ions from contaminated water. The above nano-polysaccharides are of interest in water purification technologies due to their high surface area, high mechanical properties, and versatile surface ...

  15. Heavy-ion Results of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Boimska, B

    2016-01-01

    An overview of selected heavy-ion results of the CMS experiment is presented. Jet quenching, quarkonia suppression and two-particle angular correlation results are discussed. The measurements have been performed for lead–lead, proton–lead and proton–proton data samples recorded for Run 1 of the LHC accelerator. In the correlation analysis, low pile-up proton–proton collisions at an energy of 13 TeV (from Run 2) have been used as well

  16. Thermalization in the initial stage of heavy ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high density non-abelian matter produced in heavy ion collisions is extremely anisotropic. Prethermal dynamics for the anisotropic and weakly coupled matter is discussed. Thermalization is realized with the effective kinetic theory in the leading order accuracy of the weakly coupled expansion. With the initial condition from color glass condensate, hydrodynamization time for the LHC energies is realized to be about 1 fm/c, while the thermalization happens much later than the hydrodynamization.

  17. Results from the first heavy ion run at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schukraft, J

    2012-01-01

    Early November 2010, the LHC collided for the first time heavy ions, Pb on Pb, at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV/nucleon. This date marked both the end of almost 20 years of preparing for nuclear collisions at the LHC, as well as the start of a new era in ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics at energies exceeding previous machines by more than an order of magnitude. This contribution summarizes some of the early results from all three experiments participating in the LHC heavy ion program (ALICE, ATLAS, and CMS), which show that the high density matter created at the LHC, while much hotter and larger, still behaves like the very strongly interacting, almost perfect liquid discovered at RHIC. Some surprising and even puzzling results are seen in particle ratios, jet-quenching, and Quarkonia suppression observables. The overall experimental conditions at the LHC, together with its set of powerful and state-of-the-art detectors, should allow for precision measurements of quark-gluon-plasma parameters like v...

  18. The Heavy-Ion Physics Programme with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rosselet, L

    2008-01-01

    The CERN LHC will collide lead ions at $\\sqrt{s}=5.5$ TeV per nucleon pair and will provide crucial information about the formation of a quark--gluon plasma at the highest temperatures and densities ever created in the laboratory. We report on an updated evaluation of the ATLAS potential to study heavy--ion physics. The ATLAS detector will perform especially well for high $p_T$ phenomena even in the presence of the high--multiplicity soft background expected from lead-lead collisions, and most of the detector subsystems retain their nearly full capability. ATLAS will study a full range of observables which characterize the hot and dense medium formed in heavy--ion collisions. In addition to global measurements such as particle multiplicities and collective flow, heavy--quarkonia suppression, jet quenching and the modification of jets passing in the dense medium will be accessible. ATLAS will also study forward physics and ultraperipheral collisions using Zero Degree Calorimeters.

  19. The Heavy-Ion Physics Programme with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rosselet, L

    2008-01-01

    The CERN LHC will collide lead ions at sqrt(s)=5.5 TeV per nucleon pair and will provide crucial information about the formation of a quark gluon plasma at the highest temperatures and densities ever created in the laboratory. We report on an updated evaluation of the ATLAS potential to study heavy-ion physics. The ATLAS detector will perform especially well for high pT phenomena even in the presence of the high-multiplicity soft background expected from lead-lead collisions, and most of the detector subsystems retain their nearly full capability. ATLAS will study a full range of observables which characterize the hot and dense medium formed in heavy-ion collisions. In addition to global measurements such as particle multiplicities and collective flow, heavy-quarkonia suppression, jet quenching and the modification of jets passing in the dense medium will be accessible to ATLAS. ATLAS will also study forward physics and ultraperipheral collisions using Zero Degree Calorimeters.

  20. Results from the first heavy ion run at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukraft, J.

    2012-09-01

    Early November 2010, the LHC collided for the first time heavy ions, Pb on Pb, at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV/nucleon. This date marked both the end of almost 20 years of preparing for nuclear collisions at the LHC, as well as the start of a new era in ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics at energies exceeding previous machines by more than an order of magnitude. This contribution summarizes some of the early results from all three experiments participating in the LHC heavy ion program (ALICE, ATLAS, and CMS), which show that the high density matter created at the LHC, while much hotter and larger, still behaves like the very strongly interacting, almost perfect liquid discovered at RHIC. Some surprising and even puzzling results are seen in particle ratios, jet-quenching, and Quarkonia suppression observables. The overall experimental conditions at the LHC, together with its set of powerful and state-of-the-art detectors, should allow for precision measurements of quark-gluon-plasma parameters like viscosity and opacity.

  1. Preliminary results from the heavy ions in space experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.; Tylka, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment has two primary objectives: (1) to measure the elemental composition of ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays, beginning in the tin-barium region of the periodic table; and (2) to study heavy ions which arrive at LDEF below the geomagnetic cutoff, either because they are not fully stripped of electrons or because their source is within the magnetosphere. Both of these objectives have practical as well as astrophysical consequences. In particular, the high atomic number of the ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays puts them among the most intensely ionizing particles in Nature. They are therefore capable of upsetting electronic components normally considered immune to such effects. The below cutoff heavy ions are intensely ionizing because of their low velocity. They can be a significant source of microelectronic anomalies in low inclination orbits, where Earth's magnetic field protects satellites from most particles from interplanetary space. The HIIS results will lead to significantly improved estimates of the intensely ionizing radiation environment.

  2. Simple estimates of excitation energy sharing between heavy and light fragments in heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasso, C.H.; Lozano, M.; Pollarolo, G.

    1985-12-01

    Qualitative arguments are used to estiamte the ratio of excitation energies between heavy and light fragments for asymmetric heavy-ion collisions. The value of this quantity is linked to the relative role played by inelastic and transfer degrees of freedom and thereby to an approximate function of the total kinetic energy loss. A numerical analysis that confirms the trends anticipated by the simple arguments is performed for the reactions /sup 56/Fe+ /sup 238/U and /sup 86/Kr+ /sup 208/Pb at bombarding energies in the laboratory of 476 and 1565 MeV, respectively.

  3. Conceptual design of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider: RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, Nicholas P.

    1986-05-01

    The complete Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility will be a complex set of accelerators and beam transfer equipment connecting them. A significant portion of the total facility either exists or is under construction. Two existing Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators will serve for the initial ion acceleration. Ions with a charge of -1 would be accelerated from ground to +15 MV potential, pass through a stripping foil, and accelerate back to ground potential, where they would pass through a second stripping foil. From there the ions will traverse a long transfer line to the AGS tunnel and be injected into the Booster accelerator. The Booster accelerates the ion bunch, and then the ions pass through one more stripper and then enter the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), where they are accelerated to the top AGS energy and transferred to the collider. Bending and focusing of ion beams is to be achieved by superconducting magnets. The physics goals behind the RHIC are enumerated, particularly as regards the study of quark matter and the characteristics of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The design of the collider and all its components is described, including the injector, the lattice, magnet system, cryogenic and vacuum systems, beam transfer, injection, and dump, rf system, and beam instrumentation and control system. Also given are cost estimates, construction schedules, and a management plan. (LEW)

  4. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  5. Open heavy flavor and quarkonia measurements in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielcik Jaroslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the hot and dense nuclear matter produced at RHIC in heavy-ion collisions can be investigated in multiple ways by heavy flavor production. The STAR and PHENIX experiments have excellent capability to study both open heavy flavor and quarkonia. Heavy quarks are produced in early stage of the collisions and the mechanisms of their interaction with nuclear matter are not yet well understood. The open heavy flavor hadrons can be studied using electrons from their semileptonic decays or via direct reconstruction through their hadronic decay channels. The heavy quarkonia production is expected to be sequentially suppressed depending on the temperature of the produced nuclear matter. However, cold nuclear matter effects play an important role and have to be well understood. In this paper we report recent results from the RHIC heavyion program on non-photonic electrons, direct reconstruction of charm mesons, J/ψ as well as ϒ in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV.

  6. Heavy ion-acoustic rogue waves in electron-positron multi-ion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, N A; Mannan, A; Hasan, M M; Mamun, A A

    2017-09-01

    The nonlinear propagation of heavy-ion-acoustic (HIA) waves (HIAWs) in a four-component multi-ion plasma (containing inertial heavy negative ions and light positive ions, as well as inertialess nonextensive electrons and positrons) has been theoretically investigated. The nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. It is found that the NLS equation leads to the modulational instability (MI) of HIAWs, and to the formation of HIA rogue waves (HIARWs), which are due to the effects of nonlinearity and dispersion in the propagation of HIAWs. The conditions for the MI of HIAWs and the basic properties of the generated HIARWs are identified. It is observed that the striking features (viz., instability criteria, growth rate of MI, amplitude and width of HIARWs, etc.) of the HIAWs are significantly modified by the effects of nonextensivity of electrons and positrons, the ratio of light positive ion mass to heavy negative ion mass, the ratio of electron number density to light positive ion number density, the ratio of electron temperature to positron temperature, etc. The relevancy of our present investigation to the observations in space (viz., cometary comae and earth's ionosphere) and laboratory (viz., solid-high intense laser plasma interaction experiments) plasmas is pointed out.

  7. Dislocation loop formation by swift heavy ion irradiation of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khara, Galvin S.; Murphy, Samuel T.; Duffy, Dorothy M.

    2017-07-01

    A coupled two-temperature, molecular dynamics methodology is used to simulate the structural evolution of bcc metals (Fe and W) and fcc metals (Cu and Ni) following irradiation by swift heavy ions. Electronic temperature dependent electronic specific heat capacities and electron-phonon coupling strengths are used to capture the full effects of the variation in the electronic density of states. Tungsten is found to be significantly more resistant to damage than iron, due both to the higher melting temperature and the higher thermal conductivity. Very interesting defect structures, quite different from defects formed in cascades, are found to be created by swift heavy ion irradiation in the bcc metals. Isolated vacancies form a halo around elongated interstitial dislocation loops that are oriented along the ion path. Such configurations are formed by rapid recrystallization of the molten cylindrical region that is created by the energetic ion. Vacancies are created at the recrystallization front, resulting in excess atoms at the core which form interstitial dislocation loops on completion of crystallization. These unique defect structures could, potentially, be used to create metal films with superior mechanical properties and interesting nanostructures.

  8. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-10-01

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  9. Measurements of ϕ φ meson production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelev, B.I.; Bai, Y.; Botje, M.A.J.; Braidot, E; Snellings, R.J.M.; Mischke, A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Russcher, M.J.; Peitzmann, T.; Benedosso, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present results for the measurement of ϕ meson production via its charged kaon decay channel ϕ→K+K- in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=62.4,130, and 200 GeV, and in p+p and d+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV from the STAR experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The midrapidity (|y|

  10. Kinetic study of heavy metal ions removal by ion exchange in batch conical air spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Zewail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spouted bed contactor is a hybrid of fixed and fluidized bed contactors, which retains the advantages of each with good hydrodynamic conditions. The aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of a batch conical air spouted vessel for heavy metal removal by strong cation exchange resins (AMBERJET 1200 Na. The effect of various parameters such as type of heavy metal ions (Ni+2 and Pb+2, contact time, superficial air velocity and initial heavy metal ion concentration on % heavy metal ion removal has been investigated. It has been found that under optimum conditions 98% and 99% removal of Ni+2 and Pb+2 were achieved respectively. Several kinetic models were used to test the experimental data and to examine the controlling mechanism of the sorption process. The present results of Ni+2 and Pb+2 well fit pseudo second order kinetic model with a high correlation coefficient. Both film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion contribute to the ion exchange process. The present study revealed that spouted bed vessel may provide an effective alternative for conducting ion exchange reactions.

  11. Deposition of molecular probes in heavy ion tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Esser, M

    1999-01-01

    By using polarized fluorescence techniques the physical properties of heavy ion tracks such as the dielectric number, molecular alignment and track radius can be traced by molecular fluorescence probes. Foils of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were used as a matrix for the ion tracks wherein fluorescence probes such as aminostyryl-derivatives can be incorporated using a suitable solvent, e.g. N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) as transport medium. The high sensitivity of fluorescence methods allowed the comparison of the probe properties in ion tracks with the virgin material. From the fluorescence Stokes shift the dielectric constants could be calculated, describing the dielectric surroundings of the molecular probes. The lower dielectric constant in the tracks gives clear evidence that there is no higher accommodation of the highly polar solvent DMF in the tracks compared with the virgin material. Otherwise the dielectric constant in the tracks should be higher than in the virgin material. The orientation of t...

  12. Collective flow of open heavy flavour in heavy ion collisions at the LHC energies with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yen-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Heavy flavour mesons are used as powerful tools for the study of the strongly interacting medium in heavy ion collisions as heavy quarks are sensitive to the transport properties of the medium. In these proceedings, $D^0$ nuclear modification factors, comparing the yields in PbPb and pp collisions, and azimuthal anisotropies in PbPb collisions are reported. Prompt $D^0$ mesons and their antiparticles have been measured with the CMS detector via the hadronic decay channels $D^0 \\to K^- \\pi^+$ and $\\bar{D}^0 \\to K^+ \\pi^-$ in PbPb and pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Nonprompt $D^0$ from b decays are subtracted. The $D^0$ results are compared to inclusive charged particles, nonprompt $J/\\psi$~ mesons from b decays and $B^+$ mesons in order to reveal possible meson mass dependence of the observables.

  13. Microwave/RESIS technique for measurement of heavy ion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeen, Stephen; Keele, Julie; Woods, Shannon; Smith, Chris; Fehrenbach, Charles

    2012-06-01

    The subtle but distinctive patterns of binding energies of high-L Rydberg electrons bound to heavy positive ions reveal the ion properties, such as polarizabilities and permanent moments, that control the long-range interactions between ion and the Rydberg electron. A specialized experimental technique, Resonant Excitation Stark Ionization Spectroscopy (RESIS), facilitates study of these fine structure patterns in a wide variety of Rydberg systems. The simplest RESIS measurements use a Doppler-tuned CO2 laser to selectively detect individual high-L Rydberg states in a fast Rydberg beam by resonant excitation to a much higher level, followed by Stark ionization and collection of the resulting ion. Much more precise studies use the selective RESIS excitation to detect direct microwave transitions between Rydberg levels of the same n. Recent microwave/RESIS studies of this type have determined many properties of the ions Th^4+[1], Th^3+[2], and Ni^+[3]. Details of this method will be described, with particular attention to studies of multiply-charged Rydberg ions.[4pt] [1] Chris S. Smith et. al., DAMOP 2012[0pt] [2] Julie A. Keele, et. al., DAMOP 2012[0pt] [3] Shannon L. Woods, et. al. DAMOP 2012

  14. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  15. Radiochemical study of the reactions of heavy ions with gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, I.

    1977-07-01

    Thick gold foils have been bombarded with heavy-ion projectiles at energies above the Coulomb barrier. The radioactive products were identified and their yields measured using gamma-ray spectrometry and an extensive series of computer programs developed for the data analysis. The total mass-yield distribution was extracted from the data using charge-dispersion curves inferred from the experimental results. One observes a change in the mass-yield distributions corresponding to primarily fusion-fission tractions occurring with the lighter projectiles Ne-20 and Ar-40 and deep-inelastic transfer reactions predominating with heavier Kr-84, Kr-86, and Xe-136 projectiles. For the deep-inelastic transfer reaction, more mass transfer is seen to occur for a higher incident projectile energy, and the Gaussian distribution of products shows exponential tailing. The preferred direction for mass transfer is from gold to the projectile nucleus. Sequential fission is a likely fate for nucludes beyond the lead shell closure. The ''gold finger'' is explained as a combination of mass transfer, nucleon evaporation and sequential fission. The yields of gold nuclides indicate a superposition of two reaction mechanisms, quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic. The angular momentum involved with each mechanism determines which of two isomeric states is the end product of the nuclear reaction. Suggestions are offered regarding the possibility of synthesizing super-heavy elements by use of heavy-ion nuclear reactions.

  16. Heavy ion physics at LHC with CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kvatadze, R A

    1997-01-01

    The CMS ( Compact Muon Solenoid) is a general purpose detector, optimised for p-p collisions at LHC. However, a very good muon system, fine granularity and excellent energy resolution of electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters and high quality central tracker gives the possibility of using the detector for specific heavy ion studies. Various ways of searching for the phase transition from hadronic matter to the plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons ( QGP) in heavy ion collisions with CMS detector have been investigated: Production of ( bb) and ( cc) resonant states through their muon decay channel to study the colour-screening effect. The dimuon mass spectra and rates of heavy quark bound state production for two weeks of running time are presented. Expected statistics will be sufficient to perfom the Upsilon family suppression study. Detection of J/Psi is mostly concentrated in the forwa rd region. Z production and its subsequent mu+mu- decay can be detected with high statistics and very low background ( 4%...

  17. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Structure of High Energy, Heavy Ions in Venus' Upper Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Moa; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Nilsson, Hans; Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella; Hamrin, Maria; Fedorov, Andrei; Barabash, Stas

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind interacts with the atmosphere of Venus, and can reach directly down to the ionosphere. The interaction has previously been studied using the Pioneer Venus mission (PVO) and is now known to cause variations in the density in the ionosphere [Taylor et al., 1980], a transport of ions towards the night side [Knudsen et al., 1980], and an outflow of ions from the atmosphere [Barabash et al., 2007]. Measurements made by PVO showed that the main constituents of Venus ionosphere in the altitude range 150-400 km is the O+ and O2+ ions, where the former dominates from 180 km and higher, and the latter dominates from 180 km down to 150 km [Taylor et al., 1980]. New measurements, made by the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard the Venus Express spacecraft, reveal the high-energy (10 eV to 15 keV) plasma characteristics in the ionosphere of Venus. Using the data collected during the low altitude (down to 130 km) pericentre passages during the aerobraking time period, we are able to extract the height profile of the total heavy ion content (O+ and O2+ ions) of Venus ionosphere. The results show two scale heights separated at 200 km; 10 km for 200 km. We interpret the results as two heavy ion components, namely, the O+ ions are dominant for >200 km, while the O2+ is dominant for methods of mass separation, to extract the two ion components of the scale height profiles, (O+ and O2+). First method is to use the moderate mass separation capabilities of the IMA instrument. The individual mass spectra are fitted by two Gaussian curves, representing O+ and O2+, derived from ground calibration information. The second method uses the energy spectrum, which sometimes has two discrete peaks. By assuming the same velocity for different components in the spacecraft reference frame (resulting in different energy for different masses), we can separate the composition. We will discuss the results of the obtained mass separated height profiles.

  19. Low-{beta} SC linacs : past, present, and future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L. M.

    1998-11-18

    This paper is a general review of superconducting low-{beta} technology and applications from its beginning in 1969 into the near-term future. The emphasis is on studies of accelerating resonators and on SC linacs that boost the energy of heavy-ion beams from tandem electrostatic accelerators used for nuclear-physics research. Other topics are positive-ion SC injectors to replace tandems and the need for accelerating structures with {beta} outside of the present proven range, 0.008 < {beta} < 0.2.

  20. Effects of energetic heavy ions on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave generation in the plasmapause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Cravens, T. E.; Nagy, A. F.; Fontheim, E. G.; Ong, R. S. B.

    1984-01-01

    An expression for electromagnetic ion cyclotron convective growth rates is derived. The derivation of the dispersion relation and convective growth rates in the presence of a multicomponent energetic and cold plasma is presented. The effects that multiple heavy ions in the ring current and cold plasma produce in the growth and propagation characteristics of ion cyclotron waves are explored. Results of growth rate calculations using parameters consistent with conditions in the plasmapause region during the early recovery phase of geomagnetic storms are presented and compared with ground-based and satellite observations of waves in this region. The geophysical implications of the results are discussed.

  1. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  2. Glenn T. Seaborg and heavy ion nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, W. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Radiochemistry has played a limited but important role in the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions. Many of the important radiochemical studies have taken place in Seaborg`s laboratory or in the laboratories of others who have spent time in Berkeley working with Glenn T. Seaborg. I will discuss studies of low energy deep inelastic reactions with special emphasis on charge equilibration, studies of the properties of heavy residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions and studies of target fragmentation in relativistic and ultrarelativistic reactions. The emphasis will be on the unique information afforded by radiochemistry and the physical insight derived from radiochemical studies. Future roles of radiochemistry in heavy ion nuclear science also will be discussed.

  3. Glenn T. Seaborg and heavy ion nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, W. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Radiochemistry has played a limited but important role in the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions. Many of the important radiochemical studies have taken place in Seaborg's laboratory or in the laboratories of others who have spent time in Berkeley working with Glenn T. Seaborg. I will discuss studies of low energy deep inelastic reactions with special emphasis on charge equilibration, studies of the properties of heavy residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions and studies of target fragmentation in relativistic and ultrarelativistic reactions. The emphasis will be on the unique information afforded by radiochemistry and the physical insight derived from radiochemical studies. Future roles of radiochemistry in heavy ion nuclear science also will be discussed.

  4. Measurement of charge of heavy ions in emulsion using a CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Kudzia, D; Dabrowska, A; Deines-Jones, P; Holynski, R; Olszewski, A; Nilsen, B S; Sen-Gupta, K; Szarska, M; Trzupek, A; Waddington, C J; Wefel, J P; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wolter, W; Wosiek, B; Wozniak, K

    1999-01-01

    A system has been developed for semi-automated determination of the charges of heavy ions recorded in nuclear emulsions. The profiles of various heavy ion tracks in emulsion, both accelerator beam ions and fragments of heavy projectiles, were obtained with a CCD camera mounted on a microscope. The dependence of track profiles on illumination, emulsion grain size and density, background in emulsion, and track geometry was analyzed. Charges of the fragments of heavy projectiles were estimated independently by the delta ray counting method. A calibration of both width and height of track profiles against ion charges was made with ions of known charges ranging from helium to gold nuclei. (author)

  5. Measurement of charge of heavy ions in emulsion using a CCD camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudzia, D.; Cherry, M.L.; Dabrowska, A.; Deines-Jones, P.; Holynski, R.; Olszewski, A.; Nilsen, B.S.; Sengupta, K.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Waddington, C.J.; Wefel, J.P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H. E-mail: henryk.wilczynski@ifj.edu.pl; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K

    1999-07-11

    A system has been developed for semi-automated determination of the charges of heavy ions recorded in nuclear emulsions. The profiles of various heavy ion tracks in emulsion, both accelerator beam ions and fragments of heavy projectiles, were obtained with a CCD camera mounted on a microscope. The dependence of track profiles on illumination, emulsion grain size and density, background in emulsion, and track geometry was analyzed. Charges of the fragments of heavy projectiles were estimated independently by the delta ray counting method. A calibration of both width and height of track profiles against ion charges was made with ions of known charges ranging from helium to gold nuclei. (author)

  6. A Tunable 3D Nanostructured Conductive Gel Framework Electrode for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ye; Zhang, Jun; Bruck, Andrea M; Zhang, Yiman; Li, Jing; Stach, Eric A; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S; Yu, Guihua

    2017-06-01

    This study develops a tunable 3D nanostructured conductive gel framework as both binder and conductive framework for lithium ion batteries. A 3D nanostructured gel framework with continuous electron pathways can provide hierarchical pores for ion transport and form uniform coatings on each active particle against aggregation. The hybrid gel electrodes based on a polypyrrole gel framework and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles as a model system in this study demonstrate the best rate performance, the highest achieved mass ratio of active materials, and the highest achieved specific capacities when considering total electrode mass, compared to current literature. This 3D nanostructured gel-based framework represents a powerful platform for various electrochemically active materials to enable the next-generation high-energy batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Crystal Collimation System Of The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Fliller, R P

    2004-01-01

    Crystal Channeling occurs when an ion enters a crystal with a small angle with respect to the crystal planes. The electrostatic interaction between the incoming ion and the lattice causes the ion to follow the crystal planes. By mechanically bending a crystal, it is possible to use a crystal to deflect ions. One novel use of a bent crystal is to use it to channel beam halo particles into a downstream collimator. By deflecting the halo particles into a collimator with a crystal it may be possible to improve the collimation efficiency as compared to a conventional two stage collimation system. A bent crystal was installed in the counterclockwise ring of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) prior to the FY2001 run to be used as the first stage of a two stage collimation system. We present a model and simulations to the predict crystal channeling efficiency. The simulations and model predict a channeling efficiency between 59% and 74% depending on the choice of optics. Attempts to reduce backgrounds in RHIC...

  8. TWAC facility and the use of the laser ion source for production of intense heavy ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sharkov, B Yu; Shumshurov, A V; Meshcheryakov, N D; Rudskoy, I; Homenko, S; Makarov, K; Rörich, V; Stepanov, A; Satov, Yu A; Haseroth, H; Kugler, H; Lisi, N; Scrivens, R

    1999-01-01

    Current activities on upgrading of the ITEP heavy ion accelerator complex in the framework of the ITEP-TWAC project are reported. The project being in progress since 1997 is aiming at production of intense (100 kJ/100 ns) heavy ion beams. The basic idea of the project is the application of the non-Liouvillian technique in an existing accelerator facility based on a heavy ion synchrotron for its adaptation to heavy ion fusion related experiments. Special attention is paid to the results on generation of highly charged medium mass and heavy ions in the laser produced plasma. Development of key elements of the laser ion source based on the use of a 100 J repetition rate CO/sub 2/-laser for filling of ITEP and CERN accelerator facilities in the single turn injection mode is presented. (4 refs).

  9. The Mesozoic Era of relativistic heavy ion physics and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    In order to understand how matter 15 billion years ago in the form of quarks, gluons and leptons at a temperature of 2 {times} 10{sup 12} {degrees}K evolved to become today`s Universe, the goal of relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics is to understand the equation of state of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. This quest is of cross-disciplinary interest. The phase transition from partonic matter to hadronic matter tens of micro-seconds after the beginning of the universe is of interest to cosmology. Fluctuations during this phase transition would influence nucleosynthesis and the understanding of baryonic inhomogeneities in the universe. The nuclear matter equation of state, which describes the incompressibility of nuclear matter, governs neutron star stability. It determines the possible existence of strange quark matter stars and the dynamics of supernova expansion in astrophysics. The existence of collective nuclear phenomena in nuclear physics is also determined by the nuclear equation of state. In relativistic heavy ion collisions collective nuclear flow has been observed and is being studied extensively to obtain a better understanding of the incompressibility of nuclear matter. In high energy nuclear and particle physics, production and excitations of hadronic final states have been studied in detail and are important to an overall understanding of the equation of state of nuclear matter at finite temperature. The possibility in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions to create and study highly excited hadronic and partonic degrees of freedom provides a unique opportunity for understanding the behavior of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. Study of the QCD vacuum, of particular interest in particle physics, would provide a better understanding of symmetry-breaking mechanisms and the origins of the masses of the various quarks and particles.

  10. Heavy Inertial Confinement Energy: Interactions Involoving Low charge State Heavy Ion Injection Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Robert D

    2006-04-14

    During the contract period, absolute cross sections for projectile ionization, and in some cases for target ionization, were measured for energetic (MeV/u) low-charge-state heavy ions interacting with gases typically found in high and ultra-high vacuum environments. This information is of interest to high-energy-density research projects as inelastic interactions with background gases can lead to serious detrimental effects when intense ion beams are accelerated to high energies, transported and possibly confined in storage rings. Thus this research impacts research and design parameters associated with projects such as the Heavy Ion Fusion Project, the High Current and Integrated Beam Experiments in the USA and the accelerator upgrade at GSI-Darmstadt, Germany. Via collaborative studies performed at GSI-Darmstadt, at the University of East Carolina, and Texas A&M University, absolute cross sections were measured for a series of collision systems using MeV/u heavy ions possessing most, or nearly all, of their bound electrons, e.g., 1.4 MeV/u Ar{sup +}, Xe{sup 3+}, and U{sup 4,6,10+}. Interactions involving such low-charge-state heavy ions at such high energies had never been previously explored. Using these, and data taken from the literature, an empirical model was developed for extrapolation to much higher energies. In order to extend our measurements to much higher energies, the gas target at the Experimental Storage Ring in GSI-Darmstadt was used. Cross sections were measured between 20 and 50 MeV/u for U{sup 28+}- H{sub 2} and - N{sub 2}, the primary components found in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage lifetime measurements, information inversely proportional to the cross section, were performed up to 180 MeV/u. The lifetime and cross section data test various theoretical approaches used to calculate cross sections for many-electron systems. Various high energy density research projects directly benefit by this information. As a result, the general

  11. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1999-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  12. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  13. Isotropization and hydrodynamization in weakly coupled heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi

    2015-01-01

    We numerically solve 2+1D effective kinetic theory of weak coupling QCD under longitudinal expansion relevant for early stages of heavy-ion collisions. We find agreement with viscous hydrodynamics and classical Yang-Mills simulations in the regimes where they are applicable. By choosing initial conditions that are motivated by color-glass-condensate framework we find that for Q=2GeV and $\\alpha_s$=0.3 the system is approximately described by viscous hydrodynamics well before $\\tau \\lesssim 1.0$ fm/c.

  14. Status report on the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.B.; Benjamin, J.A.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Erb, K.A.; Hudson, E.D.; Juras, R.C.; Kloeppel, P.K.; Lord, R.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1984-02-15

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility has been in routine operation since July, 1982. Beams have been provided using both the tandem accelerator alone and a coupled mode in which the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron is used as an energy booster for tandem beams. The coupled mode has proved to be especially effective and has allowed us to provide a wide range of energetic beams for scheduled experiments. In this report we will discuss the status of the tandem accelerator and some aspects of our experience with coupled operation.

  15. Status report on the holifield heavy ion research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. M.; Alton, G. D.; Ball, J. B.; Benjamin, J. A.; Biggerstaff, J. A.; Erb, K. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Juras, R. C.; Kloeppel, P. K.; Lord, R. S.; Ludemann, C. A.; Mann, J. E.; Martin, J. A.; Mosko, S. W.; Richardson, E. G.; Sayer, R. O.; Ziegler, N. F.

    1984-02-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility has been in routine operation since July, 1982. Beams have been provided using both the tandem accelerator alone and a coupled mode in which the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron is used as an energy booster for tandem beams. The coupled mode has proved to be especially effective and has allowed us to provide a wide range of energetic beams for scheduled experiments. In this report we will discuss the status of the tandem accelerator and some aspects of our experience with coupled operation.

  16. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  17. Studies on stochastic cooling of heavy ions in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, M; Salvant, B; Wendt, M; Blaskiewicz, M; Verdú-Andrés, S

    2014-01-01

    Future high luminosity heavy-ion operation of the LHC will be dominated by very rapid luminosity decay due to the large collision cross-section and, to a lesser extent, emittance growth from intra-beam scattering (IBS) due to the high bunch intensities. A stochastic cooling system could reduce the emittance far below its initial value and reduce the losses from debunching during collisions, allowing more of the initial beam intensity to be converted into integrated luminosity before the beams are dumped. We review the status of this proposal, system and hardware properties and potential locations for the equipment in the tunnel.

  18. Heavy-ion reactions at the GSI Darmstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metag, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.

    1998-12-01

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions at bombarding energies on the order of 1 AGeV nuclear matter can be compressed to similar densities as encountered in stellar processes, i.e. to 2-3 times normal density. Experimental data providing information on the space-time evolution of these collisions are presented: the properties of hadrons in the hot and compressed nuclear medium in the high-density phase, collective flow phenomena during the expansion phase, and the hadrochemical composition of the collision system in the final stage of the reaction at freeze-out are discussed. Future directions in the heavy-ion reaction program are indicated. (orig.)

  19. Dilepton radiation and bulk viscosity in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanovic, Gojko; Paquet, Jean-François; Shen, Chun; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Heinz, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Starting from IP-Glasma initial conditions, we investigate the effects of bulk pressure on thermal dilepton production at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. Though results of the thermal dilepton v2 under the influence of both bulk and shear viscosity is presented for top RHIC energy, more emphasis is put on LHC energy where such a calculation is computed for the first time. The effects of the bulk pressure on thermal dilepton v2 at the LHC are explored through bulk-induced modifications on the dilepton yield.

  20. Dynamical description of heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napolitani P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies require to take into account in-medium dissipation and phase-space fluctuations. The interplay of these correlations with the one-body collective behaviour determines the properties (kinematics and fragment production and the variety of mechanisms (from fusion to neck formation and multifragmentation of the exit channel. Starting from fundamental concepts tested on nuclear matter, we build up a microscopic description which addresses finite systems and applies to experimental observables.

  1. Analytical Schwartz density applied to heavy two-electron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romera, E.; Dehesa, J.S. [Universidad de Granada (Spain); Koga, Toshikatsu [Muroran Institute of Technology (Japan)

    1997-01-20

    An analytical expression of the electron density function p(r) due to Schwartz for two-electron atomic systems is applied to a detailed study of density-dependent properties of relatively heavy two-electron ions. Comparison of the Schwartz results with those from accurate Hartree-Fock and Hylleraas wave functions shows that despite its simple yet analytical form, the Schwartz density has a quantitative applicability in the density study of two-electron atoms within the nonrelativistic framework. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. A search for quarks produced in heavy-ion interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to search for free fractional charges produced in 225~GeV/A heavy-ion collisions at the SPS. A tank of mercury placed in the NA38 beam stop will serve both as a production target and as an absorber to stop reaction products. Mercury from the tank will subsequently be distilled.\\\\ \\\\ This process will decrease the amount of mercury that has to be processed by a factor of about $10^{5}$. The concentrate will be searched for quarks using the proven SFSU automated Millikan apparatus.\\\\ \\\\ This experiment will be sensitive to about one quark produced per $2 \\times 10^{8}$ beam particles.

  3. Effect of entrance channel parameters on the fusion of two heavy ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the charge state of the energetic heavy ions is important. The selected charge state of the energetic heavy ions might get modified when they traverse through the target foils. The average charge state of the ions emerging from the target ... high-spin isomer was considered to represent the cross-section of the radionuclide.

  4. Investigations of heavy ion tracks in polyethylene naphthalate films

    CERN Document Server

    Starosta, W; Sartowska, B; Buczkowski, M

    1999-01-01

    The heavy ion beam (with fluence 3x10 sup 8 ion/cm sup 2) from a cyclotron has been used for irradiation of thin polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) films. Latent tracks in these polymeric films have been sensitized by UV radiation and then chemically etched in NaOH solution. The etching process parameters have been controlled by the electroconductivity method. After etching, parameters of samples have been examined by SEM and bubble point methods (Coulter[reg] Porometer II instrument). Results have shown good quality of PEN track membranes with pore sizes in the range: 0.1 - 0.5 mu m. The described procedure is known for thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Taking into consideration that PEN films have got better mechanical, thermal, gas barrier as well as better chemical resistance properties in comparison with PET films, the possibility of application of such membranes is much wider.

  5. Velocity dependence of heavy-ion stopping below the maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmund, P., E-mail: sigmund@sdu.dk [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schinner, A. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-01-01

    In the slowing-down of heavy ions in materials, the standard description by Lindhard and Scharff assumes the electronic stopping cross section to be proportional to the projectile speed v up to close to a stopping maximum, which is related to the Thomas–Fermi speed v{sub TF}. It is well known that strict proportionality with v is rarely observed, but little is known about the systematics of observed deviations. In this study we try to identify factors that determine positive or negative curvature of stopping cross sections on the basis of experimental data and of binary stopping theory. We estimate the influence of shell structure of the target and of the equilibrium charge of the ion and comment the role of dynamic screening.

  6. Nuclear Fragmentation in Clinical Heavy Ion Beams, Should We Worry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Toftegaard, Jakob

    particles is formed beyond the Bragg-peak. This tail may deliver unwanted dose to normal tissue, however the magnitude of the tail is directly depending on the inelastic nuclear reaction cross sections. 2. Dosimetry a. Stopping power ratios: Routine dosimetry is performed with air-filled ionization chambers...... the sensitivity on the three fields mentioned above, including: turning off nuclear fragmentation entirely, changing all ineleastic cross sections +/- 20%, changing key parameters in the Fermi-Breakup (FB) model. Results show nuclear effects have their largest impact on the dose distribution. Stopping power......Particle therapy with fast ions is increasingly applied as a treatment option for localized inoperable tumour sites. One of the reasons for the increased complications of understanding heavy ion dosimetry and radiobiology stems from the mixed particle spectrum which occurs due to nuclear...

  7. Heavy quark diffusion in the pre-equilibrium stage of heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santosh K.; Ruggieri, Marco; Mazumder, Surasree; Greco, Vincenzo; Alam, Jan-e.

    2015-09-01

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks (HQs) have been evaluated in the pre-equilibrium phase of the evolving fireball produced in heavy ion collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider and Large Hadron Collider energies. KLN and classical Yang-Mills spectra have been used for describing the momentum distributions of the gluons produced just after the collisions but before they thermalize. The interaction of the HQs with these gluons has been treated within the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics. We have observed that the HQs are dragged almost equally by the kinetically equilibrated and out-of-equilibrium gluonic systems. We have also noticed that the HQ diffusion in the pre-equilibrium gluonic phase is as fast as in the kinetically equilibrated gluons. Moreover, the diffusion is faster in the pre-equilibrium phase than in the chemically equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. These findings may have significant impact on the analysis of experimental results on the elliptic flow and the high momentum suppression of the open charm and beauty hadrons.

  8. Review of heavy-ion inertial fusion physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kawata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper on heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF, the state-of-the-art scientific results are presented and discussed on the HIF physics, including physics of the heavy ion beam (HIB transport in a fusion reactor, the HIBs-ion illumination on a direct-drive fuel target, the fuel target physics, the uniformity of the HIF target implosion, the smoothing mechanisms of the target implosion non-uniformity and the robust target implosion. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of ∼30%–40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ∼50–70 to operate a HIF fusion reactor with the standard energy output of 1 GW of electricity. The HIF reactor operation frequency would be ∼10–15 Hz or so. Several-MJ HIBs illuminate a fusion fuel target, and the fuel target is imploded to about a thousand times of the solid density. Then the DT fuel is ignited and burned. The HIB ion deposition range is defined by the HIB ions stopping length, which would be ∼1 mm or so depending on the material. Therefore, a relatively large density-scale length appears in the fuel target material. One of the critical issues in inertial fusion would be a spherically uniform target compression, which would be degraded by a non-uniform implosion. The implosion non-uniformity would be introduced by the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T instability, and the large density-gradient-scale length helps to reduce the R-T growth rate. On the other hand, the large scale length of the HIB ions stopping range suggests that the temperature at the energy deposition layer in a HIF target does not reach a very-high temperature: normally about 300 eV or so is realized in the energy absorption region, and that a direct-drive target would be appropriate in HIF. In

  9. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahng, Jungbae [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob, E-mail: bslee@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@korea.ac.kr [Department of Accelerator Science, Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong 339-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  10. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by immobilized phytic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, G.T.; Zheng, Yizhou; Lu, J.; Gong, Cheng S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Phytic acid (myoinositol hexaphosphate) or its calcium salt, phytate, is an important plant constituents. It accounts for up to 85% of total phosphorus in cereals and legumes. Phytic acid has 12 replaceable protons in the phytic molecule rendering it the ability to complex with multivalent cations and positively charged proteins. Poly 4-vinyl pyridine (PVP) and other strong-based resins have the ability to adsorb phytic acid. PVP has the highest adsorption capacity of 0.51 phytic acid/resins. The PVP resin was used as the support material for the immobilization of phytic acid. The immobilized phytic acid can adsorb heavy metal ions, such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc ions, from aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherms of the selected ions by immobilized phytic acid were conducted in packed-bed column at room temperature. Results from the adsorption tests showed 6.6 mg of Cd{sup 2+}, 7 mg of Cu{sup 2+}, 7.2 mg of Ni{sup 2+}, 7.4 mg of Pb{sup 2+}, and 7.7 mg of Zn{sup 2+} can be adsorbed by each gram of PVP-phytic acid complex. The use of immobilized phytic acid has the potential for removing metal ions from industrial or mining waste water. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Hadronic and electromagnetic fragmentation of ultrarelativistic heavy ions at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Braun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reliable predictions of yields of nuclear fragments produced in electromagnetic dissociation and hadronic fragmentation of ion beams are of great practical importance in analyzing beam losses and interactions with the beam environment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN as well as for estimating radiation effects of galactic cosmic rays on the spacecraft crew and electronic equipment. The model for predicting the fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions is briefly described, and then applied to problems of relevance for LHC. The results are based on the fluka code, which includes electromagnetic dissociation physics and dpmjet-iii as hadronic event generator. We consider the interaction of fully stripped lead ions with nuclei in the energy range from about one hundred MeV to ultrarelativistic energies. The yields of fragments close in the mass and charge to initial ions are calculated. The approach under discussion provides a good overall description of Pb fragmentation data at 30 and 158A  GeV as well as recent LHC data for sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76  TeV Pb-Pb interactions. Good agreement with the calculations in the framework of different models is found. This justifies application of the developed simulation technique both at the LHC injection energy of 177A  GeV and at its collision energies of 1.38, 1.58, and 2.75A  TeV, and gives confidence in the results obtained.

  12. Beam dynamics and error study of the medium energy beam transport line in the Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San; Hahn, Garam

    2016-11-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator consists of an injector and a synchrotron for an ion medical accelerator that is the first carbon-ion therapy system in Korea. The medium energy beam transport(MEBT) line connects the interdigital H-mode drift tube linac and the synchrotron. We investigated the beam conditions after the charge stripper by using the LISE++ and the SRIM codes. The beam was stripped from C4+ into C6+ by using the charge stripper. We investigated the performance of a de-buncher in optimizing the energy spread and the beam distribution in z-dW/W (direction of beam progress-beam and energy) phase. We obtained the results of the tracking simulation and the error analysis by using the TRACK code. Possible misalignments and rotations of the magnets were considered in the simulations. States of the beam were examined when errors occurred in the magnets by the applying analytic fringe field model in TRACK code. The condition for the beam orbit was optimized by using correctors and profile monitors to correct the orbit. In this paper, we focus on the beam dynamics and the error studies dedicated to the MEBT beam line and show the optimized beam parameters for the MEBT.

  13. Modeling of single event gate rupture in power MOSFETs under heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useinov, R. G.; Zebrev, G. I.; Emelyanov, V. V.; Vatuev, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Destructive single event gate rupture (SEGR) occurring in the gate oxides of power MOSFETs under impact of heavy ions is studied and modeled. SEGR cross section of power MOSFET with 70 nm oxide thickness as function of gate voltage was measured for four types of heavy ions. A predictive formula for the SEGR cross section is derived and validated. This formula can be used as a predictive instrument for computation of survival probability in a given spectrum of heavy ions in space environments.

  14. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  15. Search for nuclei in heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We would like to know if nuclei are still present after a collision of two heavy ions at ultrarelativistic energies. If one can detect some of them at large angle $(>10^{\\circ}-15^{\\circ})$ they very likely come from a multifragmentation of the excited target spectators. Such a multifragmentation in several nuclei has been in proton induced reactions at Fermilab and it was interpreted as a gas-liquid phase transition in nuclei matter near the critical point. With heavy ions the energy deposited in the target spectators will be much higher than in the case of protons and a different mechanism should be involved if nuclei are still observed. \\\\ \\\\ We propose to detect nuclei using 1-2 silicon telescopes and a 1-2mg/cm$^{2}$ Au target bombarded by an $^{16}$O or $^{32}$S beam at 226 GeV/u. The set-up will be installed in a small cube located just before the NA38 experiment and should not perturb it.\\\\ \\\\ Data from $^{16}$O incident on Au have been taken last year. The experiment is presently taking data with $^{...

  16. Uniformity of fuel target implosion in Heavy Ion Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, S; Suzuki, T; Karino, T; Barada, D; Ogoyski, A I; Ma, Y Y

    2015-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion the target implosion non-uniformity is introduced by a driver beams' illumination non-uniformity, a fuel target alignment error in a fusion reactor, the target fabrication defect, et al. For a steady operation of a fusion power plant the target implosion should be robust against the implosion non-uniformities. In this paper the requirement for the implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion uniformity should be less than a few percent. A study on the fuel hotspot dynamics is also presented and shows that the stagnating plasma fluid provides a significant enhancement of vorticity at the final stage of the fuel stagnation. Then non-uniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination are also briefly discussed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF a wobbling he...

  17. Hydrodynamics and freeze out problems in energetic heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yun

    2010-09-15

    The work is describing the development from QGP to the final stage (Freeze out) in energetic heavy ion reactions, which is particularly important because this model, based on matter properties we are interested in, describes the observables and can be compared to the experimental results. My doctoral work is mainly on theoretical models, which generated a full list of experimentally observable particles, and then evaluated the produced set of particles, comparable to those in experiments. Thus we produced the same collective observables that are measured in experiments. I concentrated on calculating the flow variables and presented a solution of the continuity equations, which provided a generalized description on matching heavy ion collision stages in a theoretical and simplified way. We also connected our hydrodynamic model with the PACIAE model, aiming for examining the flow properties. This work included the generation of parton distributions for the PACIAE model. The development of hybrid models is now in rapid progress internationally as these models are the most adequate to describe the experimental data in all details. The simple analytic treatment of the hydro and molecular dynamical stages of the model presents an important advantage and increased accuracy in the model construction. (Author)

  18. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  19. Can van Hove singularities be observed in relativistic heavy-ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics; hard thermal loop; gluon condensate; quark–gluon plasma; dispersion relation; collective modes; van Hove singularity; relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  20. Linac3 - 1992-1994

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; A Van der Shueren; Jean-Claude Vialis

    1995-01-01

    This film reports the differents steps of the construction in differents places (Italy, Germany, France) from 29 October 1992 to 29 April 1994. This linac, commissioned in summer 1994, presently provides beams of 208Pb53+. A 14 GHz ECR ion source operating in the "afterglow" mode produces Pb 27+ ions at 2.5 keV/u. This beam is accelerated in an RFQ and a three tank IH linac to 4.2 MeV/u where stripping in a 1 um carbon foil to a charge state distribution centered around Pb53+ takes place. 53+ ions are selected from this mixture in a magnetic filter before being transported to the PS Booster and other circular machines. Linac3, the more common name for this machine, was built by a truly international collaboration involving France, Italy, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, India, the Czech Republic and CERN.

  1. Hydrophilic silver nanoparticles with tunable optical properties: application for the detection of heavy metals in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Prosposito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due their excellent chemo-physical properties and ability to exhibit surface plasmon resonance, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have become a material of choice in various applications, such as nanosensors, electronic devices, nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. In particular, from the environmental monitoring perspective, sensors based on silver nanoparticles are in great demand because of their antibacterial and inexpensive synthetic method. In the present study, we synthesized AgNPs in water phase using silver nitrate as precursor molecules, hydrophilic thiol (3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt, 3MPS and sodium borohydride as capping and reducing agents, respectively. The AgNPs were characterized using techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential (ζ-potential measurements and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM. Further, to demonstrate the environmental application of our AgNPs, we also applied them for heavy metal sensing by detecting visible color modification due to SPR spectral changes. We found that these negatively charged AgNPs show good response to nickel (II and presented good sensibility properties for the detection of low amount of ions in water in the working range of 1.0–0.1 ppm.

  2. Alumina Membrane with Hour-Glass Shaped Nanochannels: Tunable Ionic Current Rectification Device Modulated by Ions Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new alumina membrane with hour-glass shaped nanochannels is reported using the double-side anodization method and the subsequently in situ pore opening procedure, which is applied to develop the tunable ionic current rectification devices that were modulated by ions gradient. By regulating the pH gradient, tunable ionic current rectification properties which are mainly dependent on the asymmetric surface charge density or polarity distribution on the inner walls of the nanochannels can be obtained. The enhanced ionic current rectification properties were presented due to the synergistic effect of the voltage driven ion flow and diffusion driven ion flow with the application of pH and electrolyte concentration gradients. Therefore, such specific alumina nanochannels would be considered as a promising candidate for building bioinspired artificial ion channel systems.

  3. Conducting ion tracks generated by charge-selected swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Srashti, E-mail: srashti.3@gmail.com [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Physics & Astrophysics, Delhi University, New Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gehrke, H.G., E-mail: h.gehrke@fz-juelich.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Krauser, J., E-mail: jkrauser@hs-harz.de [Harz University of Applied Sciences, 38855 Wernigerode (Germany); Trautmann, C., E-mail: C.Trautmann@gsi.de [Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Severin, D., E-mail: D.Severin@gsi.de [Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bender, M., E-mail: M.Bender@gsi.de [Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Rothard, H., E-mail: rothard@ganil.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique, CIMAP-CIRIL-Ganil, F-14070 Caen (France); Hofsäss, H., E-mail: hans.hofsaess@phys.uni-goettingen.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Conducting ion tracks in tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) thin films were generated by irradiation with swift heavy ions of well-defined charge state. The conductivity of tracks and the surface topography of the films, showing characteristic hillocks at each track position, were investigated using conductive atomic force microscopy measurements. The dependence of track conductivity and hillock size on the charge state of the ions was studied using 4.6 MeV/u Pb ions of charge state 53+, 56+ and 60+ provided by GANIL, as well as 4.8 MeV/u Bi and Au ions of charge state from 50+ to 61+ and 4.2 MeV/u {sup 238}U ions in equilibrium charge state provided by UNILAC of GSI. For the charge state selection at GSI, an additional stripper-foil system was installed at the M-branch that now allows routine irradiations with ions of selected charge states. The conductivity of tracks in ta-C increases significantly when the charge state increases from 51+ to 60+. However, the conductivity of individual tracks on the same sample still shows large variations, indicating that tracks formed in ta-C are either inhomogeneous or the conductivity is limited by the interface between ion track and Si substrate.

  4. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  5. Tunable Solid-State Quantum Memory Using Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Crystal, Nd3(+):GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    than the desired c-plane), which posses differing growth rates and lead to the observed structuring of the periodic sample. Fig. 26 TEM images...interaction between light and the ions in a semiconductor. We investigated the energy level structure of the neodymium (Nd) ions embedded into the...provide a tunable memory. To vary the applied field, we designed and grew a series of Nd-doped GaN p-i-n structures , strain-balanced superlattice

  6. Heavy metal ions adsorption from mine waters by sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bogdanović

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results on the batch and column adsorption of copper and some associated ions by employing linden and poplar sawdust as a low-cost adsorbent are presented. The mine water from a local abandoned copper mine, as well as synthetic solutions of those ions which are the main constituents of the mine water were both used as a model-system in this study. The adsorption ability of the chosen sawdust to adsorb heavy metal ions is considered as a function of the initial pH of the solution and kind of metal ions. At lower pH of solutions the adsorption percentage (AD % decreases leading to a zero AD % at pH < 1.1. Maximum AD % is achieved at 3.5 < pH < 5. It was found that poplar and linden sawdust have both almost equal adsorption capacities against copper ions. The highest AD % ( ≈80% was achieved for Cu2+, while for Fe2+ it was slightly above 10%. The other considered ions (Zn2+ and Mn2+ were within this interval. The results obtained in the batch mode were verified through the column test by using the real mine water originating from an acid mine drainage (AMD of the copper mine „Cerovo“, RTB Bor. The breakthrough curves are presented as a function of the aqueous phase volume passed through the column allowing having an insight into the column adsorption features. Breakthrough points were determined for copper, manganese and zinc ions. A very high adsorption degree – higher than 99% was achieved in these experiments for all mentioned ions. After completing the adsorption, instead of desorption, the loaded sawdust was drained, dried and burned; the copper bearing ash was then leached with a controlled volume of sulphuric acid solution to concentrate copper therein. The obtained leach solution had the concentration of copper higher than 15 g dm-3 and the amount of H2SO4 high enough to serve as a supporting electrolyte suitable to be treated by the electrowinning for recovery of copper. The technology process based on the column

  7. Failure Modes Analysis for the MSU-RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Gorelov, Dmitry; Grimm, Terry L; Marti, Felix; York, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Previous end-to-end beam dynamics simulation studies* using experimentally-based input beams including alignment and rf errors and variation in charge-stripping foil thickness have indicated that the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by MSU has adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of at least 400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. During linac operation, equipment loss due to, for example, cavity contamination, availability of cryogens, or failure of rf or power supply systems, will lead to at least a temporary loss of some of the cavities and focusing elements. To achieve high facility availability, each segment of the linac should be capable of adequate performance even with failed elements. Beam dynamics studies were performed to evaluate the linac performance under various scenarios of failed cavities and focusing elements with proper correction schemes, in order to prove the flexibility and robustness of the driver ...

  8. Low-energy ions in the heavy ion cooler storage ring TSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artikova, Sayyora

    2012-05-02

    Deceleration is required to produce multicharged ion beams in the energy range from few keV to few MeV. It should be noted that the idea of decelerating ions in storage rings to lower energies dates back to H. Poth (1990). During deceleration of the charged particle beam, the influence of residual gas interaction, intrabeam scattering (IBS) as well as the incoherent space charge tune shift increase. These phenomena are mostly dominant in storage rings and become important at low velocities. The purpose of this PhD thesis is the generation of low-velocity ion beams by deceleration at the heavy ion cooler storage ring TSR and the study of the accompanying processes. Deceleration experiments concentrated on {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions to identify the mechanisms which have an influence on the behavior and evolution of the beam. To explore the deceleration cycle, the {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions are decelerated from 73.3 MeV to 9.77 MeV with an efficiency of 90%. To achieve this low energy two cooling steps at the initial and final energies of the beam are applied. Electron pre-cooling results in a dense ion beam where IBS has to be taken into account to describe the development of beam size during deceleration. An approximated model of IBS is proposed to interpret the experimental data. A decrease of the ion beam revolution frequency during the deceleration cycle reduces the beam current, which makes it difficult to measure with a common current transformer. Hence, new techniques are applied at low ion currents to determine the stored number of particles. Also incoherent tune shift effects, limiting the maximum number of stored particles are investigated. The availability of low-energy ion beams will expand the range of multicharged beam energies for precision studies of ion-atom collision in-ring MOT-Remi experiments.

  9. Theory of nuclear excitation by electron capture for heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagyi-Palffy, A.

    2006-07-01

    The resonant process of nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC) in collisions involving highly-charged ions has been investigated theoretically. NEEC is a rare recombination process in which a free electron is captured into a bound shell of an ion with the simultaneous excitation of the nucleus. Total cross sections for NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the excited nucleus are presented for various collision systems. The possibility to observe the NEEC in scattering experiments with trapped or stored ions was discussed focusing on the cases with the largest calculated resonance strength. As the photons emitted in different channels of the electron recombination process are indistinguishable in the total cross section, the interference between NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the nucleus and radiative recombination was investigated. The angular distribution of the emitted photons in the recombination process provides means to discern the two processes. Angular differential cross sections for the emitted photons in the case of E2 nuclear transitions were presented for several heavy elements. (orig.)

  10. Precision spectroscopy at heavy ion ring accelerator SIS300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Hartmut

    Unique spectroscopic possibilities open up if a laser beam interacts with relativistic lithium-like ions stored in the heavy ion ring accelerator SIS300 at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. At a relativistic factor γ=36 the 2P1/2 level can be excited from the 2S1/2 ground state for any element with frequency doubled dye-lasers in collinear geometry. Precise transition energy measurements can be performed if the fluorescence photons, boosted in forward direction into the X-ray region, are energetically analyzed with a single crystal monochromator. The hyperfine structure can be investigated at the 2P1/2-2S1/2 transition for all elements and at the 2P3/2-2S1/2 transition for elements with Z≤50. Isotope shifts and nuclear moments can be measured with unprecedented precision, in principle even for only a few stored radioactive species with known nuclear spin. A superior relative line width in the order of 5·10-7 may be feasible after laser cooling, and even polarized external beams may be prepared by optical pumping.

  11. Elastic wave from fast heavy ion irradiation on solids

    CERN Document Server

    Kambara, T; Kanai, Y; Kojima, T M; Nanai, Y; Yoneda, A; Yamazaki, Y

    2002-01-01

    To study the time-dependent mechanical effects of fast heavy ion irradiations, we have irradiated various solids by a short-bunch beam of 95 MeV/u Ar ions and observed elastic waves generated in the bulk. The irradiated targets were square-shaped plates of poly-crystals of metals (Al and Cu), invar alloy, ceramic (Al sub 2 O sub 3), fused silica (SiO sub 2) and single crystals of KC1 and LiF with a thickness of 10 mm. The beam was incident perpendicular to the surface and all ions were stopped in the target. Two piezo-electric ultrasonic sensors were attached to the surface of the target and detected the elastic waves. The elastic waveforms as well as the time structure and intensity of the beam bunch were recorded for each shot of a beam bunch. The sensor placed opposite to the beam spot recorded a clear waveform of the longitudinal wave across the material, except for the invar and fused silica targets. From its propagation time along with the sound velocity and the thickness of the target, the depth of the...

  12. Heavy flavours in ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions; Les saveurs lourdes dans les collisions d'ions lourds ultra-relativistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosnet, Ph

    2008-01-15

    The ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions are the today's only means to tackle in laboratory conditions the phase diagram in quantum chromodynamics and the strong interaction. The most recent theoretical studies predict a phase transition between the cold nuclear matter (a hadronic gas) and a plasma of quarks and gluons. Heavy flavour can characterize the nuclear matter produced in a heavy ion collision as well as its spatial-temporal evolution. Their study can be made through their decay into muons. The first part of this work presents the issue of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and the role of heavy flavours. In the second part the author reviews the results of experiments performed at RHIC and particularly presents the analysis of the mass spectrum of dimuons in the Phenix experiment. The third part describes the muon trigger system of the Alice experiment at CERN and the expected performances for the study of di-muons.

  13. Heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and RHIC II

    CERN Document Server

    Frawley, A D; Vogt, R

    2008-01-01

    In the initial years of operation, experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have identified a new form of matter formed in nuclei-nuclei collisions at energy densities more than 100 times that of a cold atomic nucleus. Measurements and comparison with relativistic hydrodynamic models indicate that the matter thermalizes in an unexpectedly short time, has an energy density at least 15 times larger than needed for color deconfinement, has a temperature about twice the critical temperature predicted by lattice QCD, and appears to exhibit collective motion with ideal hydrodynamic properties - a "perfect liquid" that appears to flow with a near-zero viscosity to entropy ratio - lower than any previously observed fluid and perhaps close to a universal lower bound. However, a fundamental understanding of the medium seen in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC does not yet exist. The most important scientific challenge for the field in the next decade is the quantitative exploration of the new state of nucle...

  14. Single electrons from heavy-flavor mesons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taesoo; Berrehrah, Hamza; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Tolos, Laura; Cabrera, Daniel; Cassing, Wolfgang; Bratkovskaya, Elena

    2017-07-01

    We study the single electron spectra from D - and B - meson semileptonic decays in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 , 62.4, and 19.2 GeV by employing the parton-hadron-string dynamics (PHSD) transport approach that has been shown to reasonably describe the charm dynamics at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider energies on a microscopic level. In this approach the initial charm and bottom quarks are produced by using the PYTHIA event generator which is tuned to reproduce the fixed-order next-to-leading logarithm calculations for charm and bottom production. The produced charm and bottom quarks interact with off-shell (massive) partons in the quark-gluon plasma with scattering cross sections which are calculated in the dynamical quasiparticle model that is matched to reproduce the equation of state of the partonic system above the deconfinement temperature Tc. At energy densities close to the critical energy density (≈0.5 GeV /fm3 ) the charm and bottom quarks are hadronized into D and B mesons through either coalescence or fragmentation. After hadronization the D and B mesons interact with the light hadrons by employing the scattering cross sections from an effective Lagrangian. The final D and B mesons then produce single electrons through semileptonic decay. We find that the PHSD approach well describes the nuclear modification factor RAA and elliptic flow v2 of single electrons in d +Au and Au+Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV and the elliptic flow in Au+Au reactions at √{sNN}=62.4 GeV from the PHENIX Collaboration, however, the large RAA at √{sNN}=62.4 GeV is not described at all. Furthermore, we make predictions for the RAA of D mesons and of single electrons at the lower energy of √{sNN}=19.2 GeV . Additionally, the medium modification of the azimuthal angle ϕ between a heavy quark and a heavy antiquark is studied. We find that the transverse flow enhances the azimuthal angular distributions close to ϕ =0 because the heavy

  15. On the Feasibility of Accelerating Deuterons in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J; Garcia Tudela, M; Ramberger, S; Crandall, K

    2011-01-01

    The Linac4 normal-conducting linac is comprised of three sections, DTL, CCDTL and PIMS. It is designed to accelerate H-minus ions to a final energy of 160 MeV. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of accelerating deuterons in this linac for injection into the PS Booster.

  16. Heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and RHIC II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frawley, A D; Ullrich, T; Vogt, R

    2008-03-30

    In the initial years of operation, experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have identified a new form of matter formed in nuclei-nuclei collisions at energy densities more than 100 times that of a cold atomic nucleus. Measurements and comparison with relativistic hydrodynamic models indicate that the matter thermalizes in an unexpectedly short time, has an energy density at least 15 times larger than needed for color deconfinement, has a temperature about twice the critical temperature predicted by lattice QCD, and appears to exhibit collective motion with ideal hydrodynamic properties--a 'perfect liquid' that appears to flow with a near-zero viscosity to entropy ratio--lower than any previously observed fluid and perhaps close to a universal lower bound. However, a fundamental understanding of the medium seen in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC does not yet exist. The most important scientific challenge for the field in the next decade is the quantitative exploration of the new state of nuclear matter. That will require new data that will, in turn, require enhanced capabilities of the RHIC detectors and accelerator. In this report we discuss the scientific opportunities for an upgraded RHIC facility --RHIC II--in conjunction with improved capabilities of the two large RHIC detectors, PHENIX and STAR. We focus solely on heavy flavor probes. Their production rates are calculable using the well-established techniques of perturbative QCD and their sizable interactions with the hot QCD medium provide unique and sensitive measurements of its crucial properties making them one of the key diagnostic tools available to us.

  17. First operation of ATLAS using the PII linac and a comparison to tandem injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    The ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) is designed to replace the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. When the PII project is complete, ATLAS will be able to accelerate all ions through uranium to energies above the Coulomb barrier. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 kV platform and a very low-velocity superconducting linac. The PII project is nearing completion. First beam from the complete system is expected in early 1992. Beam tests and experiments using a partially completed PII linac have demonstrated that the technical design goals are being met. The results of the early beam tests and first experiments will be discussed and compared to the performance of ATLAS with tandem injection. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  18. First operation of ATLAS using the PII linac and a comparison to tandem injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    The ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) is designed to replace the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. When the PII project is complete, ATLAS will be able to accelerate all ions through uranium to energies above the Coulomb barrier. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 kV platform and a very low-velocity superconducting linac. The PII project is nearing completion. First beam from the complete system is expected in early 1992. Beam tests and experiments using a partially completed PII linac have demonstrated that the technical design goals are being met. The results of the early beam tests and first experiments will be discussed and compared to the performance of ATLAS with tandem injection. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  19. High $p_{T}$ physics in the heavy ion era

    CERN Document Server

    Rak, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at graduate students and researchers in the field of high-energy nuclear physics, this book provides an overview of the basic concepts of large transverse momentum particle physics, with a focus on pQCD phenomena. It examines high $p_{T}$ probes of relativistic heavy-ion collisions and will serve as a handbook for those working on RHIC and LHC data analyses. Starting with an introduction and review of the field, the authors look at basic observables and experimental techniques, concentrating on relativistic particle kinematics, before moving onto a discussion about the origins of high $p_{T}$ physics. The main features of high $p_{T}$ physics are placed within a historical context and the authors adopt an experimental outlook, highlighting the most important discoveries leading up to the foundation of modern QCD theory. Advanced methods are described in detail, making this book especially useful for newcomers to the field.

  20. Crystal-blocking measurements in heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez del Campo, J.; Fearick, R.W.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Moak, C.D.; Miller, P.D.; Neskovic, N.; Shapira, D.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The crystal blocking technique has been employed in the study of /sup 16/O + /sup nat/Ge and /sup 16/O + /sup 12/C (diamond) reactions. Measurements of the projectile-like fragments in the /sup 16/O + Ge reaction gave reaction times as fast as the elastic scattering; however, substantial time effects are seen for the evaporation residues (ER) of the fusion of /sup 16/O + /sup 12/C. Deexcitation times of the ER of 120-MeV /sup 16/O + /sup 12/C, emerging along the (110) axis of a 12-..mu..m diamond crystal were extracted and they ranged from 4 x 10/sup -18/ sec for Mg to 4 x 10/sup -18/ sec for N. These values are consistent with statistical model predictions and demonstrate the sequential decay nature of the deexcitation process in heavy-ion fusion reactions.

  1. Optical model calculations of heavy-ion target fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Norbury, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The fragmentation of target nuclei by relativistic protons and heavy ions is described within the context of a simple abrasion-ablation-final-state interaction model. Abrasion is described by a quantum mechanical formalism utilizing an optical model potential approximation. Nuclear charge distributions of the excited prefragments are calculated by both a hypergeometric distribution and a method based upon the zero-point oscillations of the giant dipole resonance. Excitation energies are estimated from the excess surface energy resulting from the abrasion process and the additional energy deposited by frictional spectator interactions of the abraded nucleons. The ablation probabilities are obtained from the EVA-3 computer program. Isotope production cross sections for the spallation of copper targets by relativistic protons and for the fragmenting of carbon targets by relativistic carbon, neon, and iron projectiles are calculated and compared with available experimental data.

  2. The time-of-flight spectrometer for heavy ions PISOLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagnoli, G. E-mail: montagnoli@pd.infn.it; Scarlassara, F.; Beghini, S.; Dal Bello, A.; Segato, G.F.; Stefanini, A.M.; Ackermann, D.; Corradi, L.; He, J.H.; Lin, C.J

    2000-11-11

    A time-of-flight spectrometer with magnetic focusing has been installed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The spectrometer's length is 3.6 m and allows for high-resolution time-of-flight measurements. Magnetic focusing is accomplished by two quadrupole doublets. The spectrometer is connected to a sliding seal scattering chamber rotating over a large angular range. Micro channel-plate detectors for start/stop signals and an ionization chamber for {delta}E-E measurements at the focal plane, are used. The setup provides a maximum effective solid angle {delta}{omega}=2.8 msr, and is dedicated to the study of quasi-elastic reactions between heavy ions; in particular, it has already been used to investigate near-barrier multi-nucleon transfer processes.

  3. Time-of-flight detector for heavy ion backscattering spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, J.A.; Banks, J.C.; Doyle, B.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Ion Solid Interactions and Defect Physics Dept.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year laboratory directed research and development project to explore advanced concepts in Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS), undertaken with the goal of extending the sensitivity of this relatively new technique to levels unattainable by any other existing trace element surface analysis. Improvements in sensitivity are required for the application of HIBS to contamination control in the microelectronics industry. Tools with sensitivity approaching 10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} are expected to be essential for enabling advanced IC production by the year 2000. During the project the authors developed a new analysis chamber with channeling goniometer and a prototype time-of-flight detector with a demonstrated sensitivity of {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} for Au on Si and {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 10} for Fe, and sufficient mass resolution to separate contributions from Fe and Cu.

  4. Volume ignition targets for heavy-ion inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Val, J.M.; Eliezer, S.; Piera, M. [Madrid Polytcehnical Univ. (Spain). Inst. of Nuclear Fusion

    1994-12-31

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets can be imploded by heavy-ion beams (HIBs) in order to obtain a highly compressed fuel microsphere. The hydrodynamic efficiency of the compression can be optimized by tuning the ablation process in order to produce the total evaporation of the pusher material by the end of the implosion. Such pusherless compressions produce very highly compressed targets for relatively short confinement times. However, these times are long enough for a fusion burst to take place, and burnup fractions of 30% and higher can be obtained if the volume ignition requirements are met. Numerical simulations demonstrate that targets of 1-mg DT driven by a few MJ can yield energy gains of over 70. Although direct drive is used in these simulations, the main conclusions about volume ignition are also applicable to indirect drive. (author).

  5. Heavy Ion Collisions at the dawn of the LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, J.

    2013-06-27

    This is a proceeding of the CERN Latin American School of High-Energy physics that took place in the beautiful city of Natal, northern Brazil, in March 2011. In this paper I present a review of the main topics associated with the study of Heavy Ion Collisions, intended for students starting or interested in the field. It is impossible to summarize in a few pages the large amount of information that is available today, after a decade of operations of the RHIC accelerator and the beginning of the LHC operations. Thus, I had to choose some of the results and theories in order to present the main ideas and goals. All results presented here are from publicly available references, but some of the discussions and opinions are my personal view, where I have made that clear in the text.

  6. A new QMD code for heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungil; Kim, Youngman; Lee, Kang Seog

    2017-11-01

    We develop a new quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) type nuclear transport code to simulate heavy-ion collisions for RAON, a new accelerator complex under construction in Korea. At RAON, the rare isotope beams with energies from a few MeV/n to a few hundreds MeV/n will be utilized. QMD is one of the widely used theoretical methods and is useful for both theoretical and experimental purposes. We describe our QMD model with the numerical realization. The validity of the code is tested by comparing our simulation results with experimental data and also results from other transport codes in 197Au+197Au collisions at Elab = 90 - 120 MeV/n. Finally, we present a brief discussion on applicability and outlook of our code.

  7. The 2015 Heavy-Ion Run of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, John; Bruce, Roderik; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal; Höfle, Wolfgang; Lamont, Mike; Mertens, Tom; Redaelli, Stefano; Schaumann, Michaela; Uythoven, Jan; Wenninger, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    In late 2015 the LHC collided lead nuclei at a beam energy of 6.37 Z TeV, chosen to match the 5.02 TeV per colliding nucleon pair of the p-Pb collision run in 2013. In so doing, it surpassed its design luminosity by a factor of 2. Besides the higher energy, the operational configuration had a number of new features with respect to the previous Pb-Pb run at 3.5 Z TeV in 2011; unusual bunch patterns providing collisions in the LHCb experiment for the first time, luminosity levelling and sharing requirements, a vertical displacement of the interaction point in the ALICE experiment, and operation closer to magnet quench limits with mitigation measures. We present a summary of the commissioning and operation and what has been learned in view of future heavy-ion operation at higher luminosity.

  8. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  9. Heavy ion collision evolution modeling with ECHO-QGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, V.; Inghirami, G.; Beraudo, A.; Del Zanna, L.; Becattini, F.; Chandra, V.; De Pace, A.; Nardi, M.

    2014-11-01

    We present a numerical code modeling the evolution of the medium formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions, ECHO-QGP. The code solves relativistic hydrodynamics in (3 + 1)D, with dissipative terms included within the framework of Israel-Stewart theory; it can work both in Minkowskian and in Bjorken coordinates. Initial conditions are provided through an implementation of the Glauber model (both Optical and Monte Carlo), while freezeout and particle generation are based on the Cooper-Frye prescription. The code is validated against several test problems and shows remarkable stability and accuracy with the combination of a conservative (shock-capturing) approach and the high-order methods employed. In particular it beautifully agrees with the semi-analytic solution known as Gubser flow, both in the ideal and in the viscous Israel-Stewart case, up to very large times and without any ad hoc tuning of the algorithm.

  10. Chemical freeze-out in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One surprising result in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is that the abundance of various particles measured in experiments is consistent with the picture that they reach chemical equilibrium at a temperature much higher than the temperature they freeze out kinetically. Using a multiphase transport model to study particle production in these collisions, we find, as an example, that the effective pion to nucleon ratio, which includes those from resonance decays, indeed changes very little during the evolution of the hadronic matter from the chemical to the kinetic freeze-out, and it is also accompanied by an almost constant specific entropy. We further use a hadron resonance gas model to illustrate the results from the transport model study.

  11. Stopping of relativistic heavy ions in various media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, C. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Crawford, H. J.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Heckman, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The residual ranges of (900 + or - 3)-MeV/amu gold nuclei accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac have been measured in several different media. The energy of the beam of nuclei was measured directly using a new time-of-flight system. The ranges were measured by absorption in linear wedges of polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead and in circular wedges of polystyrene, aluminum, and gold, and by total absorption in nuclear emulsion. The measured ranges were significantly different from those calculated from the best available theoretical estimates of the energy loss of highly charged nuclei. It is concluded that at present energy losses and residual ranges of relativistic heavy ions in an arbitrary medium cannot be predicted with better than an approximately 2 percent accuracy.

  12. Jets in heavy ion collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Helena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Jets constitute a golden probe to study the quark gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. Being produced at the early stages of the collisions, they are expected to be modified as propagating through the hot and dense medium. A signature of the modification is the energy loss lowering the jet yields at a given transverse momentum. A factor of two suppression is observed in central Pb+Pb collisions with respect to pp collisions. Other signatures are the modification of the dijet momentum balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. This talk will present the currently available jet results from ATLAS in Run 2. The high statistical significance of this data sample collected by ATLAS in Run 2 allows precision measurements of these observables in a wide range of transverse momentum, centrality and rapidity intervals.

  13. Jet quenching in heavy-ion collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yen-Jie

    2008-01-01

    The energy loss of fast partons traversing the strongly interacting matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is one of the most interesting observables to probe the nature of the produced medium. The collisional and radiative energy loss of the partons will modify the fragmentation functions depending on the path length in the medium. In this report, we present a detailed study of complete simulated $\\gamma$-jet events by the CMS detector at LHC in view of the expected modification of jet fragmentation functions in central collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.5$ TeV compared to the p+p case. Since the produced prompt photon does not interact strongly with the medium, the initial transverse energy of the fragmentation parton can be related to the photon transverse energy in $\\gamma$-jet events. This enables us to make precision measurements of the modification of the fragmentation function.

  14. Jets in heavy ion collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Helena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Jets constitute a golden probe to study the quark gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. Being produced at the early stages of the collisions, they are expected to be modified as propagating through the hot and dense medium. A signature of the modification is the energy loss lowering the jet yields at a given transverse momentum. A factor of two suppression is observed in central Pb+Pb collisions with respect to pp collisions. Other signatures are the modification of the dijet momentum balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. This talk will present the currently available jet results from ATLAS in Run 2. The high statistical significance of this data sample collected by ATLAS in Run 2 allows precision measurements of these observables in a wide range of transverse momentum, centrality and rapidity intervals.

  15. Jets and Vector Bosons in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Cruz Begoña

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews experimental results on jets and electroweak boson (photon,Wand Z production in heavy-ion collisions, from the CMS and ATLAS detectors, using data collected during 2011 PbPb run and pp data collected at an equivalent energy. By comparing the two collision systems, the energy loss of the partons propagating through the medium produced in PbPb collisions can be studied. Its characterization is done using dijet events and isolated photon-jet pairs. Since the electroweak gauge bosons do not participate in the strong interaction, and are thus unmodified by the nuclear medium, they serve as clean probes of the initial state in the collision.

  16. Heavy-ion physics studies for the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Armesto, Nestor; d'Enterria, David; Masciocchi, Silvia; Roland, Christof; Salgado, Carlos; van Leeuwen, Marco; Wiedemann, Urs

    2014-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode including proton and nucleus beams, more than seven-times larger than the nominal LHC energies. An electron-positron collider in the same tunnel is also considered as an intermediate step, which would provide the electron-hadron option in the long term. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of Quark-Gluon Plasma, gluon saturation, photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  17. Heavy-ion physics studies for the Future Circular Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesto, N. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Dainese, A., E-mail: andrea.dainese@pd.infn.it [INFN — Sezione di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); D' Enterria, D. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Masciocchi, S. [EMMI and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Roland, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Salgado, C.A. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Leeuwen, M. van [Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics and Institute for Subatomic Physics of Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wiedemann, U.A. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron–hadron collision mode including proton and nucleus beams, more than seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. An electron–positron collider in the same tunnel is also considered as an intermediate step, which in the long term would allow for electron–hadron collisions. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of quark–gluon plasma, gluon saturation, photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with the physics of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  18. Modelling early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggieri M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we model early time dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color-electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism. The dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay is described by relativistic kinetic theory, taking into account the backreaction on the color field by solving self-consistently the kinetic and the field equations. Our main results concern isotropization and thermalization for a 1+1D expanding geometry. In case of small η/s (η/s ≲ 0.3 we find τisotropization ≈ 0.8 fm/c and τthermalization ≈ 1 fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics.

  19. Quarkonia results in heavy-ion collisions from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2075370

    2015-01-01

    This writeup summarizes CMS results on quarkonia measurements in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC. CMS has excellent muon detection capabilities which has resulted in a wealth of results on quarkonia (both charmonia as well as bottomonia) measured in dimuon channel. The good mass resolution in dimuon channels allows precise measurement of all three Υ states and their relative yields in pp, pPb as well as PbPb systems, which have ability to quantify the properties of strongly interacting matter. In the charmonia sector, measurements of relative yields of J/ ψ , ψ (2S) are equally useful. In addition excellent vertex capability of CMS enables measurement of B mesons via its decay to J/ ψ which are useful tool to verify energy loss mechanisms of heavy quarks in medium. An overview of these measurements is given. How these measurements compare with other experiments at RHIC and LHC and have improved the understanding of heavy ion collisions has been discussed.

  20. Inner structure of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows the inner structure of Linac 2, with drift-tubes hanging on stems under a rigid support structure, soon to be mounted inside tank 1 (750 keV to 10 MeV, the lowest-energy one of 3). Frank Malthouse is standing in the background.

  1. Start-to-end simulations for beam dynamics in the injector system of the KHIMA heavy ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yumi; Kim, Eun-San; Kim, Chanmi; Bahng, Jungbae; Li, Zhihui; Hahn, Garam

    2017-07-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project has been developed for cancer therapy. The injector system consists of a low energy beam transport (LEBT) line, a radio-frequency quadrupole, a drift tube linac with two tanks, and a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line with a charge stripper section. The injector system transports and accelerates the 12C4+ beam that is produced from electron cyclotron resonance ion source up to 7 MeV/u, respectively. The 12C6+ beam, which is transformed by a charge stripper from the 12C4+ beam, is injected into a synchrotron and accelerated up to 430 MeV/u. The lattice for the injector system was designed to optimize the beam parameters and to meet beam requirements for the synchrotron. We performed start-to-end simulations from the LEBT line to the MEBT line to confirm that the required design goals of the beam and injector system were met. Our simulation results indicate that our design achieves the required performance and a good transmission efficiency of 90%. We present the lattice design and beam dynamics for the injector system in the KHIMA project.

  2. Measurements of secondary neutrons producted from thick targets bombarded by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, T.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Nakao, N.; Shibata, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Fukumura, A.; Kumamoto, Y.

    1997-03-01

    We measured neutron angular and energy distributions from high energy heavy ions stopping in targets of carbon, aluminum, copper and lead at HIMAC. These spectra are much harder for the lighter target nucleus like carbon. This means that the momentum transfer in the forward direction from heavy ion beam to lighter nuclei is much higher than that to heavier nuclei. (author)

  3. Heavy-Ion Radiation Impact on a 4Mb FRAM under Different Test Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, V.; Tsiligiannis, G.; Zadeh, A.; Javanainen, A.; Virtanen, A.; Puchner, H.; Saigne, F.; Wrobel, F.; Dilillo, L.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of heavy-ions on commercial Ferroelectric Memories (FRAMs) is analyzed. The influence of different test modes (static and dynamic) on this memory is investigated. Static test results show that the memory is prone to temporary effects occurring in the peripheral circuitry. Dynamic tests results show a high sensitivity of this memory to heavy-ions.

  4. Photon and dilepton production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, obtained particularly at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the ...

  5. The removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using sour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Key words: Toxic, heavy metal, ions, synthetic, adsorption, biosorption. INTRODUCTION ... heavy metal ions by sour sop seeds from synthetic waste .... Freeland GN, Hoskinson RN, Mayfield RJ (1974). Adsorption of mercury from aqueous solutions by polyethylenamine - modified wood fibers. Environ. Sci.

  6. The initial stages of heavy-ion collisions in the colour glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    collision at high energy in the colour glass condensate (CGC) framework. Keywords. Heavy-ion collisions; quantum chromodynamics; colour glass condensate. PACS Nos 12.38.Mh; 11.10.Wx; 12.38.Cy; 11.15.Kc; 12.38.Gc. 1. Introduction. Heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies are used to study the properties of ...

  7. Light charged particle emission in heavy-ion reactions – What have ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Light charged particle emission in heavy-ion reactions –. What have we learnt? S KAILAS. Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. Abstract. Light charged particles emitted in heavy-ion induced reactions, their spectra and angu- lar distributions measured over a range of energies, ...

  8. Jet Physics in Heavy Ion Collisions with Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, I P

    2006-01-01

    The status of CMS jet simulations and physics analysis in heavy ion collisions is presented. Jet reconstruction and high transverse momentum particle tracking in the high multiplicity environment of heavy ion collisions at the LHC using the CMS calorimetry and tracking system are described. The Monte Carlo tools used to simulate jet quenching are discussed.

  9. Working group report: Heavy-ion physics and quark-gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the report of Heavy Ion Physics and Quark-Gluon Plasma at WHEPP-09 which was part of Working Group-4. Discussion and work on some aspects of quark-gluon plasma believed to have created in heavy-ion collisions and in early Universe are reported.

  10. Study of transient current induced by heavy-ion microbeams in Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion microbeams were applied to the study of mechanism of single event upset (SEU). Transient current induced in p{sup +}n junction diodes by strike of heavy ion microbeam were measured by using a high-speed digitizing sampling system. (author)

  11. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  12. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  13. Direct photon production in heavy-ion reactions at SPS and RHIC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first measurement of direct photons in heavy ion reactions from the WA98 collaboration is discussed and compared to ... Experimentally, high energy direct photon measurement has always been consid- ered a challenge. This is ... charged and neutral pion spectra from different heavy-ion experiments. They estimate a.

  14. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic bare heavy ions: Nuclear and electronic contributions in amorphous and crystalline materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær

    2013-01-01

    A charged particle emits bremsstrahlung while traversing matter. We calculate the radiation cross section for bare heavy ions penetrating amorphous materials and single crystals at highly relativistic energies. The main component originates in scattering of the virtual photons of screened target...... in a pronounced directional dependence of the energy loss of bare heavy ions at extreme relativistic energies....

  15. MEGHNAD – A multi element detector array for heavy ion collision ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gamma, heavy ion and neutron array of detectors (MEGHNAD) to detect and study the properties of a wide variety of ... The gamma detector array consists of four numbers of Clover detectors, a few high efficiency HPGe ... chamber (IC) for measurement of energy and charge of the heavy ions stopping within the active gas ...

  16. Workshop on Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC: Last Call for Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Borghini, N; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonov, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L W; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dias de Deus, J; Ding, H T; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d'Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fái, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, François; Gonçalves, V P; Greco, V; Greiner, C; Gyulassy, M; Van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kämpfer, B; Kang, Z B; Karpenko, Iu A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B A; Lin, Z W; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M V T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martínez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnár, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J Y; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J W; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Räasänen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoshi, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Yu M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stöcker, H; Teplov, C Yu; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Topor-Pop, V; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B W; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B; Zhang, B W; Zhang, H; Zhou, D

    2008-01-01

    This writeup is a compilation of the predictions for the forthcoming Heavy Ion Program at the Large Hadron Collider, as presented at the CERN Theory Institute 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions', held from May 14th to June 10th 2007.

  17. Direct photon production in heavy-ion reactions at SPS and RHIC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A review on experimental results for direct photon production in heavy ion reactions is given. A brief survey of early direct photon limits from SPS experiments is presented. The first measurement of direct photons in heavy ion reactions from the WA98 collaboration is discussed and compared to theoretical calculations.

  18. Development of a laser ion source for production of high-intensity heavy-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, H.; Yamada, K.; Kurashima, S.

    2017-09-01

    A laser ion source has been developed as a high-intensity source for the ion implanter and the single pulsed beam of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron at TIARA. Highly charged beams of C5+ and C6+ ions and low-charged beams of heavy ions such as C, Al, Ti, Cu, Au, and Pt are required for the single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron and for the ion implanter, respectively. In the vacuum chamber of the ion source, a target holder on a three-dimensional linear-motion stage provides a fresh surface for each laser shot. A large-sized target with a maximum size of 300 mm × 135 mm is mounted on the holder for long-term operation. The ion current (ion charge flux) in the laser-produced plasma is measured by a Faraday cup and time-of-flight spectra of each charge state are measured using a 90° cylindrical electrostatic analyzer just behind the Faraday cup. Carbon-plasma-generation experiments indicate that the source produces intense high- and low-charged pulsed ion beams. At a laser energy of 483 mJ (2.3 × 1013 W/cm2), average C6+ current of 13 mA and average C5+ current of 23 mA were obtained over the required time duration for single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron (49 ns for C6+ and 80 ns for C5+). Furthermore, at 45 mJ (2.1 × 1012 W/cm2), an average C2+ current of 1.6 mA over 0.88 μs is obtained.

  19. A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber for heavy-ion-induced reaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, L M; Dinesh, B V; Thomas, R G; Saxena, A; Sawant, Y S; Choudhury, R K

    2002-01-01

    A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber with a wide dynamic range has been developed to measure the mass, charge and energy of the heavy ions and the fission fragments produced in heavy-ion-induced reactions. The split anode geometry of the detector makes it suitable for both particle identification and energy measurements for heavy ions and fission fragments. The detector has been tested with alpha particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am- sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu source, fission fragments from sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and the heavy-ion beams from the 14UD Mumbai Pelletron accelerator facility. Using this detector, measurements on mass and total kinetic energy distributions in heavy-ion-induced fusion-fission reactions have been carried out for a wide range of excitation energies. Results on deep inelastic collisions and mass-energy correlations on different systems using this detector setup are discussed.

  20. Jet Quenching in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angerami, Aaron

    Jet production in relativistic heavy ion collisions is studied using Pb+Pb collisions at a center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon. The measurements reported here utilize data collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC from the 2010 Pb ion run corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 7 μb−1. The results are obtained using fully reconstructed jets using the anti-kt algorithm with a per-event background subtraction procedure. A centrality-dependent modification of the dijet asymmetry distribution is observed, which indicates a higher rate of asymmetric dijet pairs in central collisions relative to peripheral and pp collisions. Simultaneously the dijet angular correlations show almost no centrality dependence. These results provide the first direct observation of jet quenching. Measurements of the single inclusive jet spectrum, measured with jet radius parameters R = 0.2,0.3,0.4 and 0.5, are also presented. The spectra are unfolded to correct for the finite energy resolution introduced by bot...

  1. An angle-sensitive detection system for scattered heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ganz, R E; Bär, R; Bethge, Klaus; Bokemeyer, H; Folger, H; Samek, M; Salabura, P; Schwalm, D; Stiebing, K E

    1999-01-01

    A compact detection system for heavy ions scattered in collisions at the Coulomb barrier is presented. This system, consisting of four identical, low-pressure Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) modules with two sensitive layers each, was built to operate in an ultra-high-vacuum environment inside the EPoS II solenoid spectrometer at GSI Darmstadt. The detector covers polar angles between 20 deg. and 70 deg. with respect to the beam axis, and about 80% of 2 pi in azimuthal angle. Segmented cathodes and a delay-line read-out allow for a determination of both angles with a precision of delta THETA approx 0.7 deg. in polar and delta PHI approx 1.5 deg. in azimuthal angle, respectively. The system has been proven to be capable of handling instantaneous rates of up to 5x10 sup 5 detected ions per second per module. It neither exhibits the degradation of detection efficiency nor loss in resolution over a 500 h period of a 6 MeV/u sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U+ sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta measurement at average luminosities of 8...

  2. Irradiation effects of swift heavy ions in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, Orkhan

    2011-12-22

    In the this thesis irradiation effects of swift heavy ions in matter are studied. The focus lies on the projectiles charge exchange and energy loss processes. A commonly used computer code which employs rate equations is the so called ETACHA code. This computer code is capable to also calculate the required input cross-sections. Within this thesis a new model to compute the charge state of swift heavy ions is explored. This model, the so called matrix method, takes the form of a simple algebraic expression, which also requires cross-sections as input. In the present implementation of the matrix method, cross-sections are taken from the ETACHA code, while excitation and deexcitation processes are neglected. Charge fractions for selected ion/target combinations, computed by the ETACHA code and the matrix method are compared. It is shown, that for sufficient large ion energies, both methods agree very well with each other. However, for lower energies pronounced differences are observed. These differences are believed to stem from the fact, that no excited states as well as the decay of theses excited states are included in the present implementation of the matrix method. Both methods are then compared with experimental measurements, where significant deviations are observed for both methods. While the predicted equilibrium charge state by both methods is in good agreement with the experiments, the matrix method predicts a much too large equilibrium thickness compared to both the ETACHA calculation as well as the experiment. Again, these deviations are believed to stem from the fact, that excitation and the decay of excited states are not included in the matrix method. A possible way to include decay processes into the matrix method is presented, while the accuracy of the applied capture cross-sections is tested by comparison with scaling rules. Swift heavy ions penetrating a dielectric are known to induced structural modifications both on the surface and in the bulk

  3. Model of wet chemical etching of swift heavy ions tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, S. A.; Malakhov, A. I.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    A model of wet chemical etching of tracks of swift heavy ions (SHI) decelerated in solids in the electronic stopping regime is presented. This model takes into account both possible etching modes: etching controlled by diffusion of etchant molecules to the etching front, and etching controlled by the rate of a reaction of an etchant with a material. Olivine ((Mg0.88Fe0.12)2SiO4) crystals were chosen as a system for modeling. Two mechanisms of chemical activation of olivine around the SHI trajectory are considered. The first mechanism is activation stimulated by structural transformations in a nanometric track core, while the second one results from neutralization of metallic atoms by generated electrons spreading over micrometric distances. Monte-Carlo simulations (TREKIS code) form the basis for the description of excitations of the electronic subsystem and the lattice of olivine in an SHI track at times up to 100 fs after the projectile passage. Molecular dynamics supplies the initial conditions for modeling of lattice relaxation for longer times. These simulations enable us to estimate the effects of the chemical activation of olivine governed by both mechanisms. The developed model was applied to describe chemical activation and the etching kinetics of tracks of Au 2.1 GeV ions in olivine. The estimated lengthwise etching rate (38 µm · h-1) is in reasonable agreement with that detected in the experiments (24 µm · h-1).

  4. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  5. Unidirectional stripping extraction from a cyclotron which accelerates light as well as heavy ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna L. Ristić-Djurović

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The VINCY Cyclotron (VINča CYclotron is a multipurpose machine intended to accelerate light as well as heavy ions. To extract heavy ions with low energy and light ions an extraction system with stripping foil is used. Heavy ions with high energy will be extracted by means of an electrostatic deflector. The former extraction system will be manufactured and used first. The proposed unidirectional stripping extraction system is the optimal balance between the placement of the extraction line and the required diversity and quality of the extracted beam. The available range of extraction directions is set by geometry limitations.

  6. LINAC 3 experiment: This experiment is used to study some scenarios of the future LEIR (low-energy ion ring) vacuum design.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 1 316LN stainless steel sheet 0.7 m thick sheet metal, with water-jet cut holes; before (sheet metal) and after rolling (tube). Photo 2 316LN stainless steel tube with water-jet cut holes. Photo 3 Inner tube is fitted with NEG (non-evaporable getter) strips, creating a kind of total NEG pump. Photo 4 Inner tube is fitted with NEG (non-evaporable getter) strips, creating a kind of total NEG pump. Photo 5 Same tubes but compiled on top of each other. Photo 6 The stack of tubes is put into a vacuum chamber that will be used in the LINAC 3 experiment during summer 2002 (lead-ion beam will be used for this experiment). The holes allow all-round pumping, i.e. close to the vacuum chamber walls.

  7. Use of Proton SEE Data as a Proxy for Bounding Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Hayes, Kathryn P.

    2015-01-01

    Although heavy-ion single-event effects (SEE) pose serious threats to semiconductor devices in space, many missions face difficulties testing such devices at heavy-ion accelerators. Low-cost missions often find such testing too costly. Even well funded missions face issues testing commercial off the shelf (COTS) due to packaging and integration. Some missions wish to fly COTS systems with little insight into their components. Heavy-ion testing such parts and systems requires access to expensive and hard-to-access ultra-high energy ion accelerators, or significant system modification. To avoid these problems, some have proposed using recoil ions from high-energy protons as a proxy to bound heavy-ion SEE rates.

  8. Heavy-ion sources: The Star, or the Cinderella, of the ion-implantation firmament? (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Harry

    2000-02-01

    The Star, because of the invaluable contribution which the heavy-ion source has already made to the successful development of semiconductor implantation. And the Star, too, because it is evident that the key characteristics of such sources, which are now used on a quite routine industrial basis—their reliability, their ease of operation and, above all, their extraordinary versatility—have still not been fully exploited. This ensures that there is still scope, at least in the short term, for further optimization, which will go some way to meet the increasingly stringent industrial doping requirements. The Cinderella, because of my belief that these heavy-ion sources have now contributed to the successful operation of ion implanters so well, and for so long, that their present level of performance is mistakenly taken for granted. The result has been a paucity of meaningful research and development. Despite this, in this article I aim to show that, like Cinderella, who was so neglected that her true merit was long overlooked, there is the prospect too of achieving the significantly larger improvements in beam quality which the semiconductor industry will eventually be seeking.

  9. Recent U.S. advances in ion-beam-driven high energy densityphysics and heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy,P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, Qin H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev,E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2006-07-05

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport; and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by > 50 X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. They are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy.

  10. Heavy-Ion Radiation Characteristics of DDR2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Fabricated in 56 nm Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Park, Mi-Young; Chae, Jang-Soo; Lee, In; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takashima, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    .... To investigate the resistance of the chip to the space radiation environment, we have performed heavy-ion-driven single event experiments using Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba medium energy beam line...

  11. Conformal holography of bulk elliptic flow and heavy-quark quenching in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2010-11-01

    We show that the “perfect fluid” elliptic flow of the bulk hadrons and the unexpectedly strong quenching of heavy quark jet fragments in Au + Au reactions at 200A GeV can be simultaneously accounted for within leading-order anti-de-Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) holography with a common large t’Hooft coupling λ=gYM2Nc~30. In contrast, weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma models have so far failed to describe the observed correlation between these soft and hard observables even for couplings extrapolated to αs~0.5. We show that phenomenological applications of the classical trailing string AdS/CFT holographic solution are furthermore remarkably robust to higher-order curvature corrections O(1/λ3/2) in type IIB supergravity theories, as well as to worldsheet fluctuation corrections O(1/λ1/2) that were not considered previously. We emphasize the importance of future measurements at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the correlation between identified charm and beauty quark hard (pT>10-30 GeV) jet quenching observables and low transverse momenta (pT⩽1 GeV) bulk elliptic flow observables to further test the limits of the applicability of conformal holography to strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma.

  12. What Can We Learn From Proton Recoils about Heavy-Ion SEE Sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that protons cause single-event effects (SEE) in most devices through production of light-ion recoils has led to attempts to bound heavy-ion SEE susceptibility through use of proton data. Although this may be a viable strategy for some devices and technologies, the data must be analyzed carefully and conservatively to avoid over-optimistic estimates of SEE performance. We examine the constraints that proton test data can impose on heavy-ion SEE susceptibility.

  13. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  14. Development of heavy-ion irradiation technique for single-event in semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Norio; Akutsu, Takao; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Naitoh, Ichiro; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Agematsu, Takashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Nashiyama, Isamu

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion irradiation technique has been developed for the evaluation of single-event effects on semiconductor devices. For the uniform irradiation of high energy heavy ions to device samples, we have designed and installed a magnetic beam-scanning system in a JAERI cyclotron beam course. It was found that scanned area was approximately 4 x 2 centimeters and that the deviation of ion fluence from the average value was less than 7%. (author)

  15. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Grisham and J.W. Kwan

    2008-08-12

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1] could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  16. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  17. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1]could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  18. Fluctuations in Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeliauskas, Aleksas

    Fluctuations are one of the main probes of the physics of the new state of hot and dense nuclear matter called the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) which is created in the ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. In this dissertation we extend and improve upon the existing descriptions of heavy ion collisions in three different directions: we study the new signatures of initial state fluctuations, the propagation of perturbations in the early stages of the collision, and the effect of thermal fluctuations on the hydrodynamic expansion of the QGP. First, in Chapter 3 we study initial state fluctuations by examining the complete statistical information contained in the two-particle correlation measurements in hydrodynamic simulations of Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (√sNN = 2.76 TeV). We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to decompose the spectrum of harmonic flow, v_n(p_T) for n = 0-5, into dominant components. The leading component is identified with the standard event plane vn(pT), while the subleading component describes additional fluctuations in the two-particle correlation function. We find good geometric predictors for the orientation and the magnitude of the leading and the subleading flows. The subleading v 0, v1, and v3 flow harmonics are shown to be a response to the radial excitation of the corresponding eccentricity epsilonn. In contrast, for v2 the subleading flow in peripheral collisions is dominated by the nonlinear mixing between the leading elliptic flow and radial flow fluctuations. Nonlinear mixing also plays a significant role in generating subleading v4 and v 5 harmonics. The PCA gives a systematic way of studying the full information of the two-particle correlation matrix and identifying the subleading flows, which we show are responsible for factorization breaking in hydrodynamics. Second, in Chapter 4 we study the thermalization and hydrodynamization of fluctuations at the early stages of heavy ion collisions. We use

  19. Modeling and Analysis of Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, William; Pratt, Scott

    2014-09-01

    High-energy collisions of heavy ions, such as gold, copper, or uranium serve as an important means of studying quantum chromodynamic matter. When relativistic nuclei collide, a hot, energetic fireball of dissociated partonic matter is created; this super-hadronic matter is believed to be the quark gluon plasma (QGP), which is theorized to have comprised the universe immediately following the big bang. As the fireball expands and cools, it reaches freeze-out temperatures, and quarks hadronize into baryons and mesons. To characterize this super-hadronic matter, one can use balance functions, a means of studying correlations due to local charge conservation. In particular, the simple model used in this research assumed two waves of localized charge-anticharge production, with an abrupt transition from the QGP stage to hadronization. Balance functions were constructed as the sum of these two charge production components, and four parameters were manipulated to match the model's output with experimental data taken from the STAR Collaboration at RHIC. Results show that the chemical composition of the super-hadronic matter are consistent with that of a thermally equilibrated QGP. High-energy collisions of heavy ions, such as gold, copper, or uranium serve as an important means of studying quantum chromodynamic matter. When relativistic nuclei collide, a hot, energetic fireball of dissociated partonic matter is created; this super-hadronic matter is believed to be the quark gluon plasma (QGP), which is theorized to have comprised the universe immediately following the big bang. As the fireball expands and cools, it reaches freeze-out temperatures, and quarks hadronize into baryons and mesons. To characterize this super-hadronic matter, one can use balance functions, a means of studying correlations due to local charge conservation. In particular, the simple model used in this research assumed two waves of localized charge-anticharge production, with an abrupt transition

  20. An integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2009-04-22

    In this thesis the first fully integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to relativistic heavy ion reactions has been developed. After a short introduction that motivates the study of heavy ion reactions as the tool to get insights about the QCD phase diagram, the most important theoretical approaches to describe the system are reviewed. The hadron-string transport approach that this work is based on is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. Predictions for the charged particle multiplicities at LHC energies are made. The next step is the development of a new framework to calculate the baryon number density in a transport approach. Time evolutions of the net baryon number and the quark density have been calculated at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. Studies of phase diagram trajectories using hydrodynamics are performed. The hybrid approach that has been developed as the main part of this thesis is based on the UrQMD transport approach with an intermediate hydrodynamical evolution for the hot and dense stage of the collision. The full (3+1) dimensional ideal relativistic one fluid dynamics evolution is solved using the SHASTA algorithm. Three different equations of state have been used, namely a hadron gas equation of state without a QGP phase transition, a chiral EoS and a bag model EoS including a strong first order phase transition. For the freeze-out transition from hydrodynamics to the cascade calculation two different set-ups are employed. The parameter dependences of the model are investigated and the time evolution of different quantities is explored. The hybrid model calculation is able to reproduce the experimentally measured integrated as well as transverse momentum dependent v{sub 2} values for charged particles. The multiplicity and mean transverse mass excitation function is calculated for pions, protons and kaons in the energy range from E{sub lab}=2-160 A GeV. The HBT correlation of the negatively charged pion source

  1. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Wilhelm, R.A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Sorokin, M. [National Research Centre ’Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV {sup 129}Xe{sup (33–40)+} and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I{sup 9+} and 374 MeV–2.2 GeV {sup 197}Au{sup 25+}. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  2. Two-pion correlations in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajc, W.A.

    1982-08-01

    An application of intensity interferometry to relativistic heavy ion collisions is reported. Specifically, the correlation between two like-charged pions is used to study the reactions Ar+KCl..-->..2..pi../sup +-/+X and Ne+NaF..-->..2..pi../sup -/+X. Source sizes are obtained that are consistent with a simple geometric interpretation. Lifetimes are less well determined but are indicative of a faster pion production process than predicted by Monte Carlo cascade calculations. There appears to be a substantial coherent component of the pion source, although measurement is complicated by the presence of final state interactions. Additionally, the generation of spectra of uncorrelated events is discussed. In particular, the influence of the correlation function on the background spectrum is analyzed, and a prescription for removal of this influence is given. A formulation to describe the statistical errors in the background is also presented. Finally, drawing from the available literature, a self-contained introduction to Bose-Einstein correlations and the Hanbury-Brown - Twiss effect is provided, with an emphasis on points of contact between classical and quantum mechanical descriptions.

  3. Polyazulene based materials for heavy metal ions detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprisanu, A.; Ungureanu, E. M.; Isopescu, R.; Birzan, L.; Mihai, M.; Vasiliu, C.

    2017-06-01

    Azulene is a special monomer used to functionalize electrodes, due to its spontaneous electron drift from the seven-membered ring to the five-membered ring. The seven-membered ring of the molecule may act as electron acceptor, while the five-membered ring - as electron donor. This leads to very attractive properties for the synthesis of functional advanced materials like: materials with nonlinear optical and photorefractive properties, cathode materials for lithium batteries, or light emitting diodes based on organic materials. Azulene derivatives have been used rarely to the metal ions electroanalysis. Our study concerns the synthesis and electrochemical characterization of a new azulene based monomer 4-(azulen-1-yl)-2,6-bis((E)-2-(thiophen-3-yl)vinyl)pyridine (L). L has been used to obtain modified electrodes by electrochemical polymerization. PolyL films modified electrodes have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry in ferrocene solutions. The complexing properties of polyL based functional materials have been investigated towards heavy metals (Pb, Cd Hg, Cu) by preconcentration - anodic stripping technique in order to analyze the content of these cations from water samples.

  4. Chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells exposed to heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, T.; Cucinotta, F.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Shigematsu, N.; Furusawa, Y.; Uno, T.; Isobe, K.; Ito, H.

    Understanding of biological effects of heavy ions is important to assess healt h risk in space. One of the most important issues may be to take into account individual susceptibility. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) cells are known to exhibit abnormal responses to radiations but the mechanism of hyper radiosensitivity of A-T still remains unknown. We report chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts and AT fibroblasts exposed to low- and high-LET radiations. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique combined with chromosome- painting technique was applied to score chromosome aberrations in G2/M-phase cells. Following gamma irradiation, GM02052 cells were approximately 5 times more sensitive to g-rays than AG1522 cells. GM02052 cells had a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. When the frequency of complex type aberrations was compared, GM02052 cells showed more than 10 times higher frequency than AG1522 cells. The results will be compared with those obtained from high-LET irradiations.

  5. Limiting fragmentation of chemical potentials in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Stiles, L A; Murray, Michael; Stiles, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal models have been used to successfully describe the hadron yields from heavy ion collisions at a variety of energies. For root(S)<17 GeV this has usually been done using yields integrated over 4pi but at the higher energies available at RHIC, yields measured at central rapidity have been used. Recent BRAHMS data allows us to test whether thermal models can be generalized to describe the rapidity dependence of particle ratios. We have used the THERMUS package to fit BRAHMS data for the 5% most central Au+Au collisions for several rapidities at root(S) = 62 and 200 GeV. We have found a relationship between the strange and light quark chemical potentials, muS = 0.21 +-0.01muB. Using this relation we are able to describe the energy dependence of Lambda, Xsi and Omega ratios from other experiments. We also find that the chemical potentials are consistent with limiting fragmentation.

  6. INFN what next ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dainese, A.; Usai, G.; Antonioli, P.; Arnaldi, R.; Beraudo, A.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G.E.; Bufalino, S.; Di Nezza, P.; Lombardo, M.P.; Nania, R.; Noferini, F.; Oppedisano, C.; Piano, S.; Prino, F.; Rossi, A.; Agnello, M.; Alberico, W.M.; Alessandro, B.; Alici, A.; Andronico, G.; Antinori, F.; Arcelli, S.; Badala, A.; Barbano, A.M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Basile, M.; Becattini, F.; Bedda, C.; Bellini, F.; Beole, S.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchin, C.; Bonati, C.; Bossu, F.; Botta, E.; Caffarri, D.; Camerini, P.; Carnesecchi, F.; Casula, E.; Cerello, P.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, M.L.; Cindolo, F.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Colocci, M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; D'Elia, M.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Bari, D.; Elia, D.; Fantoni, A.; Feliciello, A.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Fionda, F.; Fiorenza, G.; Fragiacomo, E.; Fronze, G.G.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gagliardi, M.; Gallio, M.; Garg, K.; Giubellino, P.; Greco, V.; Grossi, E.; Guerzoni, B.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G.M.; Jacazio, N.; Das, S. Kumar; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Leoncino, M.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Mantovani Sarti, V.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meninno, E.; Mesiti, M.; Milano, L.; Moretto, S.; Muccifora, V.; Nappi, E.; Nardi, M.; Nicassio, M.; Pagano, P.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Pastore, C.; Paul, B.; Petta, C.; Pinazza, O.; Plumari, S.; Preghenella, R.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Ramello, L.; Ratti, C.; Ravasenga, I.; Riggi, F.; Ronchetti, F.; Rucci, A.; Ruggieri, M.; Rui, R.; Sakai, S.; Scapparone, E.; Scardina, F.; Scarlassara, F.; Scioli, G.; Siddhanta, S.; Sitta, M.; Soramel, F.; Suljic, M.; Terrevoli, C.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Turrisi, R.; Vercellin, E.; Vino, G.; Virgili, T.; Volpe, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zampolli, C.

    2016-01-01

    This document was prepared by the community that is active in Italy, within INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare), in the field of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The experimental study of the phase diagram of strongly-interacting matter and of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) deconfined state will proceed, in the next 10-15 years, along two directions: the high-energy regime at RHIC and at the LHC, and the low-energy regime at FAIR, NICA, SPS and RHIC. The Italian community is strongly involved in the present and future programme of the ALICE experiment, the upgrade of which will open, in the 2020s, a new phase of high-precision characterisation of the QGP properties at the LHC. As a complement of this main activity, there is a growing interest in a possible future experiment at the SPS, which would target the search for the onset of deconfinement using dimuon measurements. On a longer timescale, the community looks with interest at the ongoing studies and discussions on a possible fixed-target p...

  7. Quantifying the sQGP - Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Richard [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This is the closeout for DE-FG02-86ER40271 entitled Quantifying the sQGP - Heavy Ion Collisions at the RHIC. Two major things were accomplished. The first, is the physics planning, design, approval, construction, and commissioning of the MPC-EX. The MPC-EX is an electromagnetic calorimeter covering a rapidity of 3<|eta|<4, which was added to the PHENIX detector. Its primary aim is to measure low-x gluons, in order to understand the suppression seen in a variety of signatures, such as the J/Psi. A candidate to explain this phenomena is the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) A second task was to look at collisions of asymmetric species, in particularly Cu+Au. The signature was the suppression of J/Psi mesons at forward and backward rapidity, where a stronger suppression was seen in the copper going direction. While the blue of the suppression is due to hot nuclear matter effects (e.g. screening) the increase in suppression on the Au side was consistent with cold nuclear matter effects seen in d+Au collisions. A major candidate for the explanation of this phenomena is the aforementioned CGC. Finally the work on sPHENIX, particularly an extension to the forward region, called fsPHENIX is described.

  8. Thermal electromagnetic radiation in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, R.; van Hees, H.

    2016-08-01

    We review the potential of precise measurements of electromagnetic probes in relativistic heavy-ion collisions for the theoretical understanding of strongly interacting matter. The penetrating nature of photons and dileptons implies that they can carry undistorted information about the hot and dense regions of the fireballs formed in these reactions and thus provide a unique opportunity to measure the electromagnetic spectral function of QCD matter as a function of both invariant mass and momentum. In particular we report on recent progress on how the medium modifications of the (dominant) isovector part of the vector current correlator ( ρ channel) can shed light on the mechanism of chiral symmetry restoration in the hot and/or dense environment. In addition, thermal dilepton radiation enables novel access to a) the fireball lifetime through the dilepton yield in the low invariant-mass window 0.3 GeV ≤ M ≤ 0.7 GeV, and b) the early temperatures of the fireball through the slope of the invariant-mass spectrum in the intermediate-mass region (1.5 GeV < M < 2.5 GeV). The investigation of the pertinent excitation function suggests that the beam energies provided by the NICA and FAIR projects are in a promising range for a potential discovery of the onset of a first-order phase transition, as signaled by a non-monotonous behavior of both low-mass yields and temperature slopes.

  9. Partial correlation analysis method in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Adam; Broniowski, Wojciech

    2017-11-01

    We argue that statistical data analysis of two-particle longitudinal correlations in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions may be efficiently carried out with the technique of partial covariance. In this method, the spurious event-by-event fluctuations due to imprecise centrality determination are eliminated via projecting out the component of the covariance influenced by the centrality fluctuations. We bring up the relationship of the partial covariance to the conditional covariance. Importantly, in the superposition approach, where hadrons are produced independently from a collection of sources, the framework allows us to impose centrality constraints on the number of sources rather than hadrons, that way unfolding of the trivial fluctuations from statistical hadronization and focusing better on the initial-state physics. We show, using simulated data from hydrodynamics followed with statistical hadronization, that the technique is practical and very simple to use, giving insight into the correlations generated in the initial stage. We also discuss the issues related to separation of the short- and long-range components of the correlation functions and show that in our example the short-range component from the resonance decays is largely reduced by considering pions of the same sign. We demonstrate the method explicitly on the cases where centrality is determined with a single central control bin or with two peripheral control bins.

  10. Review of Recent Results in Heavy Ion Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csernai Laszlo P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluid dynamical phenomena in high energy heavy ion reactions were predicted in the 1970s and still today these are the most dominant and basic observables. With increasing energy and the reach of QGP the low viscosity of the plasma became apparent and this brought a new revolution in the fluid dynamical studies. The high energy and low viscosity made it possible to observe fluctuations up to high multipolarity flow harmonics. This is an obvious, direct proof of the low viscosity of QGP. Many aspects of these fluctuations are under intensive study today. The low viscosity opened ways to observe special fluid dynamical turbulent phenomena. These may arise from random fluctuations, as well as from the global symmetries of peripheral collisions. At LHC energies the angular momentum of the participant matter can reach 106ħ, which leads to rotation and turbulent instabilities, like the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Low viscosity ensures that these remain observable at the final freeze-out stages of the collision. Thus new investigations in addition to the standard flow analysis methods became possible. Femtoscopy may also detect rotation and turbulence. Due to the high local thermal vorticity, particle polarization and orbital rotation may reach thermal and mechanical equilibrium. This leads to baryon polarization which, in given directions may be detectable.

  11. Real causes of apparent abnormal results in heavy ion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandaglio G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of the static characteristics of nuclei and dynamics of the nucleus-nucleus interaction in the capture stage of reaction, in the competition between quasifission and complete fusion processes, as well as the angular momentum dependence of the competition between fission and evaporation processes along the de-excitation cascade of the compound nucleus. The results calculated for the mass-asymmetric and less mass-asymmetric reactions in the entrance channel are analyzed in order to investigate the role of the dynamical effects on the yields of the evaporation residue nuclei. We also discuss about uncertainties at the extraction of such relevant physical quantities as Γn/Γtot ratio or also excitation functions from the experimental results due to the not always realistic assumptions in the treatment and analysis of the detected events. This procedure can lead to large ambiguity when the complete fusion process is strongly hindered or when the fast fission contribution is large. We emphasize that a refined multiparameter model of the reaction dynamics as well as a more detailed and checked data analysis are strongly needed in heavy-ion collisions.

  12. Bottomonium production in heavy-ion collisions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Vertesi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Bottomonium measurements provide unique insight into hot and cold nuclear matter effects present in the medium that is formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Recent STAR results show that in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV central Au+Au collisions the $\\Upsilon$(1S) state is suppressed more than if only cold nuclear matter effects were present, and the excited state yields are consistent with a complete suppression. In 2012, STAR also collected 263.4 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ high-energy-electron triggered data in U+U collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 193 GeV. Central U+U collisions, with an estimated 20% higher energy density than in central Au+Au data, extend the $\\Upsilon$(1S+2S+3S) and Upsilon(1S) nuclear modification trends observed in Au+Au towards higher number of participant nucleons, and confirm the suppression of the $\\Upsilon$(1S) state. We see a hint with 1.8 sigma significance that the $\\Upsilon$(2S+3S) excited states are not completely suppressed in U+U collisions. These data support the sequential in-medium qu...

  13. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  14. Effects of heavy-ion irradiation on FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Park, Akiyoshi; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Kambara, Tadashi; Ichinose, Ataru

    2017-03-01

    We report the effects of heavy-ion irradiation on FeSe single crystals by irradiating uranium up to a dose-equivalent matching field of Bϕ=16 T. Almost continuous columnar defects along the c axis with a diameter of ˜10 nm are confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Tc is found to be suppressed by introducing columnar defects at a rate of d Tc/d Bϕ˜-0.29 K/T, which is much larger than those observed in iron pnictides. This unexpected large suppression of Tc in FeSe is discussed in relation to the large diameter of the columnar defects as well as its unique band structure with a remarkably small Fermi energy. The critical current density is first dramatically enhanced with irradiation reaching a value over ˜2 ×105A /cm2 (˜5 times larger than that of the pristine sample) at 2 K (self-field) with Bϕ=2 T, then gradually suppressed with increasing Bϕ. The δ l pinning associated with charge-carrier mean-free-path fluctuations and the δ Tc pinning associated with spatial fluctuations of the transition temperature are found to coexist in the pristine FeSe, while the irradiation increases the contribution from δ l pinning and makes it dominant over Bϕ=4 T.

  15. Recent results from the ATLAS heavy ion program

    CERN Document Server

    Havener, Laura Brittany; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The heavy-ion program in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC originated as an extensive program to probe and characterize the hot, dense matter created in relativistic lead-lead collisions. In recent years, the program has also broadened to a detailed study of collective behavior in smaller systems. In particular, the techniques used to study larger systems are also applied to proton-proton and proton-lead collisions over a wide range of particle multiplicities, to try and understand the early-time dynamics which lead to similar flow-like features in all of the systems. Another recent development is a program studying ultra-peripheral collisions, which provide gamma-gamma and photonuclear processes over a wide range of CM energy, to probe the nuclear wavefunction. This talk presents a subset of the the most recent results from the ATLAS experiment based on Run 1 and Run 2 data, including measurements of collectivity over a wide range of collision systems, potential nPDF modifications — using electroweak bosons,...

  16. Research and development toward heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Seidl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe near-term heavy ion fusion (HIF research objectives associated with developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power plant. The goal of this near-term research is to lay the essential groundwork for an intermediate research experiment (IRE, designed to demonstrate all the key driver beam manipulations at a meaningful scale, and to enable HIF relevant target physics experiments. This is a very large step in size and complexity compared to HIF experiments to date, and if successful, it would justify proceeding to a demonstration fusion power plant. With an emphasis on accelerator research, this paper is focused on the most important near-term research objectives to justify and to reduce the risks associated with the IRE. The chosen time scale for this research is 5–10 years, to answer key questions associated with the HIF accelerator drivers, in turn enabling a key decision on whether to pursue a much more ambitious and focused inertial fusion energy research and development program. This is consistent with the National Academies of Sciences Review of Inertial Fusion Energy Systems Interim Report, which concludes that “it would be premature at the present time to choose a particular driver approach…” and encouraged the continued development of community consensus on critical issues, and to develop “options for a community-based roadmap for the development of inertial fusion as a practical energy source.”

  17. Effects of Heavy Ion Exposure on Nanocrystal Nonvolatile Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Suhail, Mohammed; Kuhn, Peter; Prinz, Erwin; Kim, Hak; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    We have irradiated engineering samples of Freescale 4M nonvolatile memories with heavy ions. They use Silicon nanocrystals as the storage element, rather than the more common floating gate. The irradiations were performed using the Texas A&M University cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility. The chips were tested in the static mode, and in the dynamic read mode, dynamic write (program) mode, and dynamic erase mode. All the errors observed appeared to be due to single, isolated bits, even in the program and erase modes. These errors appeared to be related to the micro-dose mechanism. All the errors corresponded to the loss of electrons from a programmed cell. The underlying physical mechanisms will be discussed in more detail later. There were no errors, which could be attributed to malfunctions of the control circuits. At the highest LET used in the test (85 MeV/mg/sq cm), however, there appeared to be a failure due to gate rupture. Failure analysis is being conducted to confirm this conclusion. There was no unambiguous evidence of latchup under any test conditions. Generally, the results on the nanocrystal technology compare favorably with results on currently available commercial floating gate technology, indicating that the technology is promising for future space applications, both civilian and military.

  18. Thermal electromagnetic radiation in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Hees, H. van [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We review the potential of precise measurements of electromagnetic probes in relativistic heavy-ion collisions for the theoretical understanding of strongly interacting matter. The penetrating nature of photons and dileptons implies that they can carry undistorted information about the hot and dense regions of the fireballs formed in these reactions and thus provide a unique opportunity to measure the electromagnetic spectral function of QCD matter as a function of both invariant mass and momentum. In particular we report on recent progress on how the medium modifications of the (dominant) isovector part of the vector current correlator (ρ channel) can shed light on the mechanism of chiral symmetry restoration in the hot and/or dense environment. In addition, thermal dilepton radiation enables novel access to (a) the fireball lifetime through the dilepton yield in the low invariant-mass window 0.3 GeV ≤ M ≤ 0.7 GeV, and (b) the early temperatures of the fireball through the slope of the invariant-mass spectrum in the intermediate-mass region (1.5 GeV < M < 2.5 GeV). The investigation of the pertinent excitation function suggests that the beam energies provided by the NICA and FAIR projects are in a promising range for a potential discovery of the onset of a first-order phase transition, as signaled by a non-monotonous behavior of both low-mass yields and temperature slopes. (orig.)

  19. Pre-equilibrium (exciton) model and the heavy-ion reactions with cluster emission

    CERN Document Server

    Betak, E

    2015-01-01

    We bring the possibility to include the cluster emission into the statistical pre-equilibrium (exciton) model enlarged for considering also the heavy ion collisions. At this moment, the calculations have been done without treatment of angular momentum variables, but all the approach can be straightforwardly applied to heavy-ion reactions with cluster emission including the angular momentum variables. The direct motivation of this paper is a possibility of producing the superdeformed nuclei, which are easier to be detected in heavy-ion reactions than in those induced by light projectiles (nucleons, deuterons, $\\alpha$-particles).

  20. The impacts of common ions on the adsorption of heavy metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Xue, Hong-Xi; Lü, Chang-Wei; Fan, Qing-Yun; Liang, Ying; Sun, Ying; Shen, Li-Li; Bai, Saruli

    2009-10-01

    Researches on the impact of common ions onto sediments are of great importance for the study of the heavy metal adsorption mechanisms. Considering the surface sediments from the relatively clean reach in the Baotou section of the Yellow River as the adsorbent, this work presents the impacts of common ions (Na+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, and NH4 +) on heavy metals (Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+) adsorption. The experimental results reveal that the adsorptive capacities of the heavy metals are controlled by different adsorption mechanisms in different ion concentration ranges. With the increase of the ionic strength, the adsorption of the heavy metals increases for the compression of the electric double layer, whereas decreases for the decreasing of the ionic activities of the heavy metals. The competitive adsorption and complexations between the heavy metals and common ions are also important factors controlling the heavy metal adsorption. According to the experimental results and the real concentration of common ions in the Baotou section of the Yellow River, the increase of the concentrations of Na+, Mg2+, K+, and Ca2+ would cause the increase of Zn2+ adsorption and reduce the Zn pollution. The NH4 + from the industrial discharge of the tributaries has a strong impact on the heavy metal adsorption.

  1. ERDA summer study of heavy ions for inertial fusion, Oakland/Berkeley, California, July 19--30, 1976. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Judd, D.L.; Smith, L.

    1976-12-01

    Technical summaries are given for the following areas: (1) target and reactor design, (2) ion sources, (3) low-velocity acceleration, (4) atomic and molecular physics, (5) accelerator parameters, (6) beam manipulations, (7) induction linac, (8) final focusing and transmission to the target, (9) systems and cost studies, and (10) alternatives. Several groups of appendices are given that relate to these technical summaries. (MOW)

  2. Design for simultaneous acceleration of stable and unstable beams in a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator for RISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwon; Son, Hyock-Jun; Park, Young-Ho

    2017-11-01

    The post-accelerator of isotope separation on-line (ISOL) system for rare isotope science project (RISP) is a superconducting linear accelerator (SC-linac) with a DC equivalent voltage of around 160 MV. An isotope beam extracted from the ISOL is in a charge state of 1+ and its charge state is increased to n+ by charge breeding with an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The charge breeding takes tens of ms and the pulse width of extracted beam from the EBIS is tens of μs, which operates at up to 30 Hz. Consequently a large portion of radio frequency (rf) time of the post SC-linac is unused. The post-linac is equipped also with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for stable ion acceleration. Thanks to the large phase acceptance of SC-linac, it is possible to accelerate simultaneously both stable and radioisotope ions with a similar charge to mass ratio by sharing rf time. This operation scheme is implemented for RISP with the addition of an electric chopper and magnetic kickers. The facility will be capable of providing the users of the ISOL and in-flight fragmentation (IF) systems with different beams simultaneously, which would help nuclear science users in obtaining a beam time as high-precision measurements often need long hours.

  3. Coulomb-driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser-plasma acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braenzel, J; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M

    2015-03-27

    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultrathin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse at a peak intensity of 8×10^{19}  W/  cm^{2}. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to >200  MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using 1.3 J laser energy on target. 1D and 2D particle in cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ion's ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a spatial distribution of the ionization inside the thin target, leading to a field enhancement for the heavy ions by Coulomb explosion. It is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, enabling a higher efficiency for the laser-driven heavy ion acceleration.

  4. Heavy-ion beam illumination on a direct-driven pellet in heavy-ion inertial fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Someya

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Key issues in heavy-ion beam (HIB inertial confinement fusion (ICF include an accelerator design for an intense HIB, an efficient HIB transport, a HIB-target interaction, a reactor design, and so on. In this paper, three-dimensional computer simulations are performed for a HIB irradiation onto a direct-driven spherical fuel pellet in HIB-ICF in order to clarify dependence of multi-HIB illumination nonuniformity on parameter values of HIB illumination. For various beam parameters and reactor chamber radii we investigate the energy deposition nonuniformity using 12, 20, 32, 60, 92, and 120-beam irradiation systems. In this study, the effects of HIB temperature, HIB illumination systems, HIB emittance, and pellet temperature on the HIB illumination nonuniformity are also evaluated. In addition, the nonuniformity growth due to a little pellet displacement from a reactor chamber center is investigated. The calculation results demonstrate that we can realize a rather low nonuniform energy deposition, for example, less than 2.0 % even for a 32-beam irradiation system.

  5. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1986-September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Activities are reported on MBE-4, the four-beam proof-of-principle ion induction linear accelerator with the capability of beam-current amplification. Mechanical aspects of MBE-4, quadrupole insulator performance, and pulsers are discussed. The computer code, SLID, has been used to help understand the longitudinal beam dynamics in MBE-4. A computer-controlled emittance scanning system is in use in MBE-4. A systematic effort is under way to discover and correct all the defects peculiar to the low energy part of the linac design code. (LEW)

  6. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-08-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  7. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  8. Forward electron production in heavy ion-atom and ion-solid collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    A sharp cusp in the velocity spectrum of electrons, ejected in ion-atom and ion-solid collisions, is observed when the ejected electron velocity vector v/sub e/ matches that of the emergent ion vector v/sub p/ in both speed and direction. In ion-atom collisions, the electrons originate from capture to low-lying, projectile-centered continuum states (ECC) for fast bare or nearly bare projectiles, and from loss to those low-lying continuum states (ELC) when loosely bound projectile electrons are available. Most investigators now agree that ECC cusps are strongly skewed toward lower velocities, and exhibit full widths half maxima roughly proportional to v/sub p/ (neglecting target-shell effects, which are sometimes strong). A close examination of recent ELC data shows that ELC cusps are instead nearly symmetric, with widths nearly independent on v/sub p/ in the velocity range 6 to 18 a.u., a result only recently predicted by theory. Convoy electron cusps produced in heavy ion-solid collisions at MeV/u energies exhibit approximately velocity-independent widths very similar to ELC cusp widths. While the shape of the convoy peaks is approximately independent of projectile Z, velocity, and of target material, it is found that the yields in polycrystalline targets exhibit a strong dependence on projectile Z and velocity. While attempts have been made to link convoy electron production to binary ECC or ELC processes, sometimes at the last layer, or alternatively to a solid-state wake-riding model, our measured dependences of cusp shape and yield on projectile charge state and energy are inconsistent with the predictions of available theories. 10 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  9. Two views on the Bjorken scenario for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Maire, Antonin

    2011-01-01

    The sketch describes the Bjorken scenario foreseen for the collision of ultra-relativistic heavy-ions, leading to the creation of strongly-interacting hot and dense deconfined matter, the so-called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).

  10. NADPH Oxidase Activation Contributes to Heavy Ion Irradiation–Induced Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupei Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress plays an important role in heavy ion radiation–induced cell death. The mechanism involved in the generation of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS is not fully illustrated. Here we show that NADPH oxidase activation is closely related to heavy ion radiation–induced cell death via excessive ROS generation. Cell death and cellular ROS can be greatly reduced in irradiated cancer cells with the preincubation of diphenyleneiodium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Most of the NADPH oxidase (NOX family proteins (NOX1, NOX2, NOX3, NOX4, and NOX5 showed increased expression after heavy ion irradiation. Meanwhile, the cytoplasmic subunit p47phox was translocated to the cell membrane and localized with NOX2 to form reactive NADPH oxidase. Our data suggest for the first time that ROS generation, as mediated by NADPH oxidase activation, could be an important contributor to heavy ion irradiation–induced cell death.

  11. Symplectic Tracking of Multi-Isotopic Heavy-Ion Beams in SixTrack

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, Pascal; De Maria, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The software SixTrack provides symplectic proton tracking over a large number of turns. The code is used for the tracking of beam halo particles and the simulation of their interaction with the collimators to study the efficiency of the LHC collimation system. Tracking simulations for heavy-ion beams require taking into account the mass to charge ratio of each particle because heavy ions can be subject to fragmentation at their passage through the collimators. In this paper we present the derivation of a Hamiltonian for multi-isotopic heavy-ion beams and symplectic tracking maps derived from it. The resulting tracking maps were implemented in the tracking software SixTrack. With this modification, SixTrack can be used to natively track heavy-ion beams of multiple isotopes through a magnetic accelerator lattice.

  12. Evaluation of beam wobbling methods for heavy-ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonai, Shunsuke; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Komori, Masataka; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Takei, Yuka; Takahashi, Osamu; Isobe, Yoshiharu; Tashiro, Mutsumi; Koikegami, Hajime; Tomita, Hideki

    2008-03-01

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) has extensively studied carbon-ion radiotherapy at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) with some positive outcomes, and has established its efficacy. Therefore, efforts to distribute the therapy to the general public should be made, for which it is essential to enable direct application of clinical and technological experiences obtained at NIRS. For widespread use, it is very important to reduce the cost through facility downsizing with minimal acceleration energy to deliver the HIMAC-equivalent clinical beams. For the beam delivery system, the requirement of miniaturization is translated to reduction in length while maintaining the clinically available field size and penetration range for range-modulated uniform broad beams of regular fields that are either circular or square for simplicity. In this paper, we evaluate the various wobbling methods including original improvements, especially for application to the compact facilities through the experimental and computational studies. The single-ring wobbling method used at HIMAC is the best one including a lot of experience at HIMAC but the residual range is a fatal problem in the case of a compact facility. On the other hand, uniform wobbling methods such as the spiral and zigzag wobbling methods are effective and suitable for a compact facility. Furthermore, these methods can be applied for treatment with passive range modulation including respiratory gated irradiation. In theory, the choice between the spiral and zigzag wobbling methods depends on the shape of the required irradiation field. However, we found that it is better to use the zigzag wobbling method with transformation of the wobbling pattern even when a circular uniform irradiation field is required, because it is difficult to maintain the stability of the wobbler magnet due to the rapid change of the wobbler current in the spiral wobbling method. The regulated wobbling method

  13. Effective field theory approach to open heavy flavor production in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    We develop a version of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) which includes finite quark masses, as well as Glauber gluons that describe the interaction of collinear partons with QCD matter. In the framework of this new effective field theory, labeled SCETM,G, we derive the massive splitting functions in the vacuum and the QCD medium for the processes Q → Qg, Q → gQ and g\\to Q\\overline{Q} . The numerical effects due to finite quark masses are sizable and our results are consistent with the traditional approach to parton energy loss in the soft gluon emission limit. In addition, we present a new framework for including the medium-induced full splitting functions consistent with next-to-leading order calculations in QCD for inclusive hadron production. Finally, we show numerical results for the suppression of D- and B-mesons in heavy ion collisions at √{s_{NN}}=5.02 TeV and 2.76 TeV and compare to available data from the LHC.

  14. On the probability of cure for heavy-ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin, Leonid; Zaider, Marco

    2014-07-21

    The probability of a cure in radiation therapy (RT)-viewed as the probability of eventual extinction of all cancer cells-is unobservable, and the only way to compute it is through modeling the dynamics of cancer cell population during and post-treatment. The conundrum at the heart of biophysical models aimed at such prospective calculations is the absence of information on the initial size of the subpopulation of clonogenic cancer cells (also called stem-like cancer cells), that largely determines the outcome of RT, both in an individual and population settings. Other relevant parameters (e.g. potential doubling time, cell loss factor and survival probability as a function of dose) are, at least in principle, amenable to empirical determination. In this article we demonstrate that, for heavy-ion RT, microdosimetric considerations (justifiably ignored in conventional RT) combined with an expression for the clone extinction probability obtained from a mechanistic model of radiation cell survival lead to useful upper bounds on the size of the pre-treatment population of clonogenic cancer cells as well as upper and lower bounds on the cure probability. The main practical impact of these limiting values is the ability to make predictions about the probability of a cure for a given population of patients treated to newer, still unexplored treatment modalities from the empirically determined probability of a cure for the same or similar population resulting from conventional low linear energy transfer (typically photon/electron) RT. We also propose that the current trend to deliver a lower total dose in a smaller number of fractions with larger-than-conventional doses per fraction has physical limits that must be understood before embarking on a particular treatment schedule.

  15. Studies of Heavy-Ion Reactions and Transuranic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, W. Udo [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Physics

    2016-07-28

    Studies of heavy-ion reactions and transuranic nuclei performed by the University of Rochester Nuclear Science Research Group have been successful in furthering experimental systematics and theoretical understanding of the behavior of nuclear systems excited to their limits of stability. The theoretical results explain specifically the “boiling” and “vaporization” of atomic nuclei, but are more generally applicable to isolated, quantal many-particle systems which, under thermal or mechanical stresses, all disintegrate by evaporation, via surface cluster emission, or via fission-like processes. Accompanying experimental investigations by the group have demonstrated several new types of dynamical instability of nuclei: In central, “head-on” collisions, target nuclei exhibit limited ability to stop energetic projectile nuclei and to dissipate the imparted linear momentum. Substantial matter overlap (“neck”) between projectile and target nuclei, which is observed at elevated collision energies, can be stretched considerably and break at several places simultaneously. These results provide new testing grounds for microscopic theory of the cohesion of nuclear matter. This property has remained elusive, even though the elementary nucleon-nucleon forces are well known since some time. Technical R&D has resulted in a detailed characterization of a novel plastic material, which can now be used in the design of sensitive diagnostic systems for various types of radio-activity. Innovative application of powerful laser systems has produced intense, controllable sources of exotic particle radioactivity for nuclear investigations. Several students have received their Ph.D. degree in experimental nuclear science for their work on basic nuclear research or R&D projects.

  16. Failla Memorial lecture. The future of heavy-ion science in biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, C A

    1985-07-01

    Interplanetary space contains fluxes of fast moving atomic nuclei. The distribution of these reflects the atomic composition of the universe, and such particles may pose limitations for space flight and for life in space. Over the past 50 years, since the invention of Ernest Lawrence's cyclotron, advances in accelerator technology have permitted the acceleration of charged nuclei to very high velocities. Currently, beams of any stable isotope species up to uranium are available at kinetic energies of several hundred MeV/nucleon at the Berkeley Bevalac. Recently, new areas of particle physics research relating to the mechanisms of spallation and fission have opened up for investigation, and it is now realistic to search for nuclear super-dense states that might be produced in heavy nuclear collisions. The heavy ions hold interest for a broad spectrum of research because of their effectiveness in producing a series of major lesions in DNA along single particle tracks and because of the Bragg depth ionization properties that allow the precise deposition of highly localized doses deep in the human body. Individual heavy ions can also interrupt the continuity of membraneous regions in cells. Heavy ions, when compared to low-LET radiation, have increased effectiveness for mammalian cell lethality, chromosome mutations, and cell transformation. The molecular mechanisms are not completely understood but appear to involve fragmentation and reintegration of DNA. Cells attempt to repair these lesions, and many of the deleterious effects are due to misrepair or misrejoining of DNA. Heavy ions do not require the presence of oxygen for producing their effects, and hypoxic cells in necrotic regions have nearly the same sensitivity as cells in well-oxygenated tissues. Heavy ions are effective in delaying or blocking the cell division process. Heavy ions are also strong enhancers of viral-induced cell transformation, a process that requires integration of foreign DNA. Some cell

  17. Dynamic processes in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, E. P.

    1999-03-01

    This thesis describes the study of the reaction dynamics in heavy-ion collisions of small nuclear systems at intermediate energies. For this, experiments were performed of 24Mg+27A1 at 45 and 95 AMeV. The experiments described in this thesis were performed at the GANIL accelerator facility in Caeri (France) using the Huygens detectors in conjunction with the ‘MUR’. The Huygens detectors consist of the CsI(Tl)-Wall (CIW) covering the backward hemisphere and, located at mid-rapidity, the central trigger detector (CTD), a gas chamber with microstrip read-out backed by 48 plastic scintillators. The forward region is covered by 16 of the plastic scintillators of the CTD and by the MUR, a time-of-flight wall consisting of 96 plastic scintillator sheets. In earlier experiments only fragments with atomic number, Z, greater then two could be identifled in the CTD. Therefore, an investigation was done into the properties of different drift gases. The use of freon (CF4) in the drift chamber, combined with an increase of the gas pressure to 150 mbar, makes it possible to identify all particles with Z ≥ 2. Under these conditions particles with Z = 1 can only be identifled to approximately 25 AMeV. The Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model has been used, to interpret the measured data. This model gives a microscopical description of heavy-ion collisions and simulates collisions on an event by event basis. In IQMD all protons and neutrons are represented as individual Gaussian wave packets. After initialisation the path of each nucleon is calculated for 200 fm/c, after which the simulation is stopped. At this time, nucleons which are close in space are clustered into fragments. The events generated by IQMD can then be processed by a GEANT detector simulation. This calculation takes into account the effects of the detector on the incoming particles. By using the GEANT simulation it is possible to give a direct comparison between the results of IQMD and the

  18. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  19. Magnetic Monopole Mass Bounds from Heavy-Ion Collisions and Neutron Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Oliver; Rajantie, Arttu

    2017-12-15

    Magnetic monopoles, if they exist, would be produced amply in strong magnetic fields and high temperatures via the thermal Schwinger process. Such circumstances arise in heavy-ion collisions and in neutron stars, both of which imply lower bounds on the mass of possible magnetic monopoles. In showing this, we construct the cross section for pair production of magnetic monopoles in heavy-ion collisions, which indicates that they are particularly promising for experimental searches such as MoEDAL.

  20. Removal of toxic heavy metal ions in runoffs by modified alfalfa and juniper

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Han; J.K. Park; S.H. Min

    2000-01-01

    A series of batch isotherm tests was performed with alfalfa and juniper fibers to evaluate the effectiveness in filtering toxic heavy metals from stormwater. The adsorption of the heavy metal ions on the alfalfa and juniper fibers was strongly dependent on the equilibrium pH value of the solution. The change in sorption rate over time showed that two different sorption...

  1. Recent progress and future plans of heavy-ion cancer radiotherapy with HIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, K.; Furukawa, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Hara, Y.; Inaniwa, T.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Kanematsu, N.; Mizushima, K.; Mori, S.; Saotome, N.; Saraya, Y.; Sato, S.; Shirai, T.; Takada, M.; Takei, Y.; Tansyo, R.; Yonai, S.

    2017-09-01

    The HIMAC clinical study has been conducted with a carbon-ion beam since June 1994. Since 2006, as a new treatment research project, NIRS has developed both the accelerator and beam-delivery technologies for the sophisticated heavy-ion radiotherapy, which brings a pencil-beam 3D rescanning technology for both the static and moving-tumor treatments. In this technology, the depth-scanning technique was improved to the full-energy depth scanning by realizing a variable-energy operation of the HIMAC synchrotron itself. At present, a heavy-ion rotating gantry has been developed with the superconducting technology and is in a beam-commissioning stage. As a future plan, we just start a study of a multi-ions irradiation for more sophisticated LET-painting and a design study of a superconducting synchrotron for more compact heavy-ion radiotherapy facility.

  2. Optimization of Steering Elements in the RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    SchnirmanLessner, Eliane; Ostroumov, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from protons at about 1 GeV to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver’s real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids.* The algorithm has been fully integrated in the tracking code TRACK** and is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements...

  3. 1. part: strong interactions 1: heavy ions; 1. partie: interactions fortes 1: ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suire, Ch

    2007-07-01

    This article is an introduction to the study of the quark-gluon plasma obtained through heavy ion collisions at ultra-relativistic range. In such collisions the energy density can exceed about 1 GeV/fm{sup 3} which implies that matter no longer exists as separate hadrons but rather as their fundamental constituents: quarks and gluons. The experimental difficulty lies in the fact that both the lifetime and size of the system are very limited. The signatures of the quark gluon plasma are of 3 types according to the parameters on which they are based: -) the change in the equation of state of the matter, -) the chiral symmetry, and -) the properties of the medium.

  4. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Polluted Waters by Using of Low Cost Adsorbents: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is a fundamental process in the physicochemical treatment of wastewaters which industries employ to reduce hazardous organic and inorganic wastes in effluents. In recent years the use of low-cost adsorbents has been widely investigated as a replacement for the currently costly methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. It is well-known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In this study, the use of some of low cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater has been reviewed.

  5. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, A; Drentje, A G; Fujita, T; Muramatsu, M; Fukushima, K; Shiraishi, N; Suzuki, T; Takahashi, K; Takasugi, W; Biri, S; Rácz, R; Kato, Y; Uchida, T; Yoshida, Y

    2016-02-01

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  6. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported chelating polymer resins functionalized with (i) glycine, (ii) hydroxy benzoic acid, (iii) Schiff base and (iv) diethanol amine have been investigated. The effects of pH, time and initial concentration on the uptake of metal ions have been studied. The uptake of metal ion ...

  7. Remarkable optical-potential systematics for lighter heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandan, M.E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, Mexico 01000 Distrito Federal (Mexico); McVoy, K.W. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear rainbows, which appear in the elastic scattering angular distributions for certain combinations of lighter heavy ions like {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O, uniquely determine the major features of the optical potentials for these systems. These features are conveniently summarized by the central depth of the real part of the potential, V(r=0){approximately}100{minus}300 MeV, and by the ratio of imaginary to real parts of the potential, W(r)/V(r), found to be {lt}1 for both small and large r (internal and far-tail transparency), but {approx}1 in the surface region. The resulting maximum in W/V, which is found over the entire energy range 6 MeV {approx_lt}E{sub L}/A{approx_lt}100 MeV, appears to correlate with the peripheral reactions that occur in this energy range. At higher energies the data available indicate that the far-surface region is no longer transparent. Rather, W{approx}V there, suggesting the dominance of nuclear knockout reactions in the far tail. The knockout mode of inelasticity is the one described by the double-Glauber approximation, and W(r){approx}V(r) agrees with the Glauber prediction in the high-energy range. This suggests that the double-Glauber prediction begins to be accurate in the low-density tail of the A{sub 1}+A{sub 2} interaction around E{sub L}/A{approx}100 MeV and that its failure for the higher-density interior may provide a means of investigating the density dependence of Pauli blocking on NN scattering in the nuclear medium. By way of contrast, systems like {sup 20}Ne+{sup 12}C and {sup 14}N+{sup 12}C, which do not exhibit rainbows, have distinctly more absorptive potentials and do not follow the above systematics. This suggests that the imaginary part of the optical potential reflects the shell structure of the target and/or projectile in important ways, and so will not be easy to calculate from an infinite-matter many-body approach. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. The First LHC p-Pb Run: Performance of the Heavy Ion Production Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, D; Bartosik, H; Bellodi, G; Blas, A; Bodendorfer, M; Bohl, T; Carli, C; Carlier, E; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Damerau, H; Findlay, A; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Jowett, J; Küchler, D; O'Neil, M; Papaphilippou, Y; Pasinelli, S; Scrivens, R; Tranquille, G; Vandorpe, B; Wehrle, U; Wenninger, J

    2013-01-01

    The first LHC proton-ion run took place in January-February 2013; it was the first extension to the collider programme, as this mode was not included in the design report. This paper presents the performance of the heavy ion and proton production complex, and details the issues encountered, in particular the creation of the same bunch pattern in both beams.

  9. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefiodov, A V; Plunien, G; Soff, G

    2002-08-19

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron g factor in highly charged ions.

  10. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nefiodov, A. V.; Plunien, G.; Soff, G.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron $g$ factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron $g$ factor in highly charged ions.

  11. Speciation of heavy metal ions as influenced by interactions with montmorillonite, Al hydroxide polymers and citrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.P.T.

    1995-01-01

    Clay minerals, metal-hydroxides and organic matter can bind metal ions; moreover they also interact with each other. These mutual interactions influence the metal binding to a significant extent. In this study, the speciation of the heavy metal ions Zn and Ph was investigated in model

  12. New structure for accelerating heavy ions; Une nouvelle structure acceleratrice d'ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    A new type of accelerating structure is described which is particular suited to heavy ions (high wavelength, high shunt impedance, small size). Its properties are analyzed and compared to those of other structures (more particularly the lines). It is shown that a mode of operation exists of which the shunt impedance in the station mode has 80 per cent of its value for the progressive mode. Finally results are given obtained with a small experimental apparatus which uses this structure. (author) [French] On decrit un nouveau type de structure acceleratrice, particulierement appropriee aux ions lourds (grande longueur d'onde, forte impedance-shunt, faibles dimensions). Ses proprietes sont analysees et comparees a celles d'autres structures (plus particulierement les lignes). On met en evidence un mode de fonctionnement pour lequel l'impedance shunt en regime stationnaire vaut 80 pour cent de l'impedance shunt en regime progressif. Enfin on decrit les resultats obtenus a l'aide d'une petite machine experimentale mettant en oeuvre cette structure. (auteur)

  13. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS-CO-Cys). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS-CO-Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  14. A review on various electrochemical techniques for heavy metal ions detection with different sensing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansod, BabanKumar; Kumar, Tejinder; Thakur, Ritula; Rana, Shakshi; Singh, Inderbir

    2017-08-15

    Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable and contaminate most of the natural resources occurring in the environment including water. Some of the heavy metals including Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) are considered to be highly toxic and hazardous to human health even at trace levels. This leads to the requirement of fast, accurate and reliable techniques for the detection of heavy metal ions. This review presents various electrochemical detection techniques for heavy metal ions those are user friendly, low cost, provides on-site and real time monitoring as compared to other spectroscopic and optical techniques. The categorization of different electrochemical techniques is done on the basis of different types of detection signals generated due to presence of heavy metal ions in the solution matrix like current, potential, conductivity, electrochemical impedance, and electrochemiluminescence. Also, the recent trends in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions with various types of sensing platforms including metals, metal films, metal oxides, nanomaterials, carbon nano tubes, polymers, microspheres and biomaterials have been evoked. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of quarkonia production in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia Araya, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The suppression of heavy quarkonia states in heavy-ion collisions is a phenomenon understood as a consequence of QGP formation in the hot, dense system formed in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. In addition to hot matter effects in heavy-ion collisions , cold nuclear effects may also affect quarkonia production . Therefore, a full assessment requires detailed studies on the effects present in both A-A and p+A collisions. Based on p+Pb data collected in 2013 and pp and Pb+Pb data collected in 2015 at the LHC, the ATLAS experiment has studied prompt and non-prompt J/psi and psi(2S) productions as well as Upsilon production via the di-muon decay final states. The results are of the various measurements are discussed.

  16. Measurement of quarkonia production in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The suppression of heavy quarkonia states in heavy-ion collisions is a phenomenon understood as a consequence of QGP formation in the hot, dense system formed in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. In addition to hot matter effects in heavy-ion collisions, cold nuclear effects may also affect quarkonia production. Therefore, a full assessment requires detailed studies on the effects present in both A-A and p+A collisions. Based on p+Pb data collected in 2013 and pp and Pb+Pb data collected in 2015 at the LHC, the ATLAS experiment has studied prompt and non-prompt J/psi and psi(2S) productions as well as Upsilon production via the di-muon decay final states. The results of the various measurements are discussed

  17. Collisional Cooling of Light Ions by Cotrapped Heavy Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S A

    2017-03-17

    We experimentally demonstrate cooling of trapped ions by collisions with cotrapped, higher-mass neutral atoms. It is shown that the lighter ^{39}K^{+} ions, created by ionizing ^{39}K atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), when trapped in an ion trap and subsequently allowed to cool by collisions with ultracold, heavier ^{85}Rb atoms in a MOT, exhibit a longer trap lifetime than without the localized ^{85}Rb MOT atoms. A similar cooling of trapped ^{85}Rb^{+} ions by ultracold ^{133}Cs atoms in a MOT is also demonstrated in a different experimental configuration to validate this mechanism of ion cooling by localized and centered ultracold neutral atoms. Our results suggest that the cooling of ions by localized cold atoms holds for any mass ratio, thereby enabling studies on a wider class of atom-ion systems irrespective of their masses.

  18. Direct drive heavy-ion-beam inertial fusion at high coupling efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-05-16

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy-ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX inertial confinement fusion target physics code shows the ion range increasing fourfold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16% to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  19. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J. [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1996-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  20. A novel approach for measuring the radial distribution of charge in a heavy ion track

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.W. Jr.; Block, R.C. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics); Stapor, W.J.; McDonald, P.T.; Knudson, A.R. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Dussault, H. (Rome Lab., Griffiss AFB, NY (United States)); Pinto, M.R. (AT and T Bell Lab., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-12-01

    The energy deposited by the passage of a single, energetic, heavy-ion through a semiconductor produces dense electron-hole (eh) pair concentrations near the ion trajectory. The size, shape, and charge density of an ion track represent critical parameters for many models of single event phenomena. The authors describe the design and uses of possible semiconductor test structures for measuring the initial radial distribution of charge and subsequent charge transport in a high energy, heavy-ion track. Numerical simulations show how the test structure can resolve different radial distributions of charge within an ion track. The test structure simulations also show the importance of accurately representing ion track structure in single event effects simulations.