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Sample records for sahara premiere partie

  1. Spain and the Western Sahara: the Political Party Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Vaquer i Fanés

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Spanish army’s hasty withdrawal from Western Sahara in 1975, the two main parties since Spain acquired its democracy have differed over what stance should be taken with respect to the Sahara issue. The aim of this article is to establish to what extentthis is the result of the opposing government/opposition dynamic and how far it is a result of the parties’ own stances, by analysing the evolution of their attitudes and approaches with respect to the Sahara issue. The hypothesis is that the Spanish parties’ position with respect to Algeria and Morocco was initially very much determined by their view of the Sahara issue, but that there has been an inversion of this attitude. Thus at present, opposing stances on the Sahara issue are mainly the result of different views on Spain’s interests in the Maghreb region and, above all, of different ideas about which country Morocco or Algeria should benefit most from bilateral relations.

  2. Rapsodie first core fabrication. 2. part: manufacture results; Fabrication du premier coeur de rapsodie. Deuxieme partie: resultats de fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masselot, Y.; Bataller, S.; Ganivet, M.; Guillet, H.; Robillard, A.; Stosskopf, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This report is the second in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. It includes a critical study of the results obtained on the pellets, pins and sub-assemblies as compared with their specifications. By the way, the benefit of the linear mass concept as a quality test for a given manufacture is shown. At last performances and balance of the first two production runs are examined. (author) [French] Ce rapport est le second d'une serie de trois qui decrivent les procedes, les resultats et les problemes techniques particuliers de la fabrication du premier coeur de la pile a neutrons rapides RAPSODIE. Il comporte une etude critique des resultats obtenus pour les pastillles, les aiguilles et les assemblages combustibles, compares a leur specifications. A cette occasion, on montre l'interet de la notion de masse lineaire comme critere de qualite d'une fabrication. Les performances et le bilan des deux premieres campagnes de production sont enfin examines. (auteur)

  3. Fundamental equations for two-phase flow. Part 1: general conservation equations. Part 2: complement and remarks; Equations fondamentales des ecoulements diphasiques. Premiere partie: equations generales de conservation. Deuxieme partie: complements et remarques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    equations concerning different methods of presenting two-phase flows with those proposed in the literature. As a result a detailed study has been made of the work of C.G. TELETOV, S.S. KUTATELADZE, M.A. STYRIKOVICH and N. ZUBER; a summary of this work presented. (author) [French] Ce rapport traite des equations generales de conservation de la masse, de la quantite de mouvement et de l'energie pour un ecoulement diphasique. Ces equations sont presentees sous plusieurs formes a partir des equations integrales qui sont posees a priori. 1. Equations aux variables locales instantanees et conditions d'interface; 2. Equations aux variables instantanees moyennees dans une section et applications pratiques: ces equations renferment une donnee experimentale interessante qui est le rapport de la section de passage d'une phase sur la section totale d'une conduite. 3. Equations aux moyennes statistiques locales et equations moyennees dans le temps: une tentative plus poussee pour relier experience et theorie consiste a prendre les moyennes statistiques des equations locales. On obtient alors des equations ou interviennent des variables moyennees dans le temps par application d'une hypothese ergodique. 4. Combinaisons des moyennes statistiques et des moyennes dans une section: on considere dans cette etude des variables locales moyennees statistiquement, puis moyennees dans la section et egalement des variables moyennees dans la section puis moyennees statistiquement. 5. Equations generales relatives aux emulsions: dans ce cas, une phase se presente (localement sous un aspect tres divise. Cette particularite permet de definir une concentration volumique locale et d'etablir des equations aux applications multiples. On a complete et precise certains points de la premiere partie de ce rapport concernant les equations generales de conservation des ecoulements diphasiques. On a introduit dans les equations generales les termes correspondant a la tension

  4. La stigmatisation particulière du pédéraste passif dans les enquêtes de médecine légale dans la premiere partie du xixe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Pastorello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Les enquêtes de médecine légale dans la première partie du xixe siècle sont les premiers travaux envisageant la pratique de l’homosexualité masculine sous l’angle scientifique. Deux figures sont primordiales : le docteur Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis (1757-1808 membre des idéologues et qui entendait faire de la médecine la pièce maîtresse d’une science de l’homme et Ambroise Tardieu 1818-1879 professeur de médecine légale à Paris auteur d’un traité vu comme un aboutissement de ces études médico-légales. Il faut signaler l’influence de la phrénologie. Ces médecins définissent des stigmates physiques et moraux propres à la pratique de la pédérastie, surtout passive et à l’occasion définissent un personnage type. Ces discours relèvent d’abord d’une phraséologie morale et ils puisent leurs racines antérieurement. Cependant il faut aussi replacer ces discours stigmatisant la pédérastie passive dans le contexte de la construction de la virilité moderne. Il faut aussi placer la médecine légale dans le contexte de la médecine et de ses évolutions.The particular stigmatization of the passive pederast in the inquiries of forensic medecine in the first part of the XIX centuryForensic medicine in the first part of the 19th century investigations are first work considering the practice of male homosexuality in scientific terms. Two figures are crucial: the Dr. Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis (1757-1808 the ideologists member and intended to do medicine the centrepiece of a human science and Ambroise Tardieu 1818 - 1879 Professor of forensic medicine in Paris author of a treaty as a culmination of these forensic studies. It should be noted the influence of the phrenology. These physicians define physical stigma and moral own practice of pederasty, especially passive and during the define a type character. These speeches are firstly a moral phraseology and they draw their roots previously. However we also

  5. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  6. Sahara en mouvement

    OpenAIRE

    Casajus, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    On peut dire du Sahara ce que Fernand Braudel disait naguère de la Méditerranée : lui assigner des bornages est une tâche malaisée. Des géographes s’y sont cependant essayés, et leurs tentatives participent de ce qu’on peut appeler l’« invention » du Sahara. La présente introduction évoque quelques figures marquantes de cette invention (Léon l’Africain, Eugène Daumas, Émile Carette, Henri Duveyrier, Robert Capot-Rey…) puis présente brièvement les diverses contributions du dossier, en les repl...

  7. [Malaria in Algerian Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadi, D; Boubidi, S C; Chaib, S E; Saber, A; Khechache, Y; Gasmi, M; Harrat, Z

    2009-08-01

    Thanks to the malaria eradication campaign launched in Algeria in 1968, the number of malaria cases fell down significantly from 95,424 cases in 1960 to 30 cases in 1978. At that time the northern part of the country was declared free of Plasmodium falciparum. Only few cases belonging to P. vivax persisted in residual foci in the middle part of the country. In the beginning of the eighties, the south of the country was marked by an increase of imported malaria cases. The resurgence of the disease in the oases coincided with the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the booming trade with the neighbouring southern countries. Several authors insisted on the risk of introduction of malaria or its exotic potential vectors in Algeria via this new road. Now, the totality of malaria autochthonous cases in Algeria are located in the south of the country where 300 cases were declared during the period (1980-2007). The recent outbreak recorded in 2007 at the borders with Mall and the introduction of Anopheles gambiae into the Algerian territory show the vulnerability of this area to malaria which is probably emphasized by the local environmental changes. The authors assess the evolution of malaria in the Sahara region and draw up the distribution of the anopheles in this area.

  8. The Western Sahara conflict I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politica; Analyst. Munich. The history of the Western Sahara has seen many developments familiar to Africa: • the drawing of artificial boundaries in foreign European capitals at the tum of the century,. • clandestine agreements between colonial and regional powers without proper consultation with the territory's population,.

  9. Wars and conflicts in the Sahara-Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    the traditional lines between what is local and global, military and civilian, domestic and international, politics and identity. The purpose of this paper is to analyse these patterns of violence. The first section presents the geographic distribution and development over time of the main sources of violence...... in North and West Africa before examining the events behind the increase in political violence in the Sahel and the Sahara. The second section analyses the patterns of violence, and focuses on the geographic scales thereof and the strategies of the warring parties. In its conclusion, the paper highlights...

  10. Going under the radar in Western Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Alice

    2016-01-01

    At the level of formal attempts at conflict resolution, the Western Sahara conflict has been locked in a political stalemate for years. One consequence is that the people of Western Sahara are often overlooked in their own conflict – despite the fact that the very case for decolonization in Western Sahara hinges upon the right of the people of the territory to self-determination. This essay examines how, despite the ongoing formal stalemate, under the radar of formal politics in recent years ...

  11. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  12. Cretaceous Crocodyliforms from the Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sereno

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diverse crocodyliforms have been discovered in recent years in Cretaceous rocks on southern landmasses formerly composing Gondwana.  We report here on six species from the Sahara with an array of trophic adaptations that significantly deepen our current understanding of African crocodyliform diversity during the Cretaceous period.  We describe two of these species (Anatosuchus minor, Araripesuchus wegeneri from nearly complete skulls and partial articulated skeletons from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation (Aptian-Albian of Niger. The remaining four species (Araripesuchus rattoides sp. n., Kaprosuchus saharicus gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus thaumastos gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus maghrebensis gen. n. sp. n. come from contemporaneous Upper Cretaceous formations (Cenomanian in Niger and Morocco.

  13. Scottish Premier League Reading Stars Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…

  14. Premier Wen hails sci-tech cooperation with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao met CERN's director general Dr Robert Aymar and physicist and Nobel laureate Dr Samuel Chao Chung Ting. Premier Wen emphasied the importance for China to collaborate on fundamental science (0.5 page)

  15. Christmas party

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The Christmas party organized by the Staff Association took place on Saturday 3 December. 200 children from 5 to 7 years old attended a magic show which filled them with wonder. Then they were served a snack in the Novae restaurant. Finally, just before their parents came to pick them up, Father Christmas gave them a present. The Staff Association wishes you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  16. Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This near vertical view of the Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya (22.5N, 13.0E) shows the very diverse landscape that is part of the great Sahara Desert of North Africa. The vast expanse of sand dunes known as the Murzuk sand Sea of Libya and the adjacent rock outcrops support little human habitation. In fact, the tiny village of Murzuk with its center pivot, swing arm irrigated agriculture complex is the only sign of life in the region.

  17. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  18. Eghindi among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.

    2014-01-01

    Eghindi is an illness built around a set of pathological states experienced by Sahrawi in the desert environment of Western Sahara. Its core symptoms are caused by osmotic imbalances related to salt consumption. In 1975, many Sahrawi were exiled into refugee camps, and they have since experienced

  19. Sociological Variables Influencing the Nigeria Premier League | Ogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated sociological variable influencing the Nigeria premier League. Three research questions and three hypotheses were raised. The area of the study was Nigeria. The population for the study was 1,118 which comprised of sports administrators, coaches and players in the Nigeria Premier League.

  20. What do Parties Want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2012-01-01

    is important to what we expect them to do. For instance, coalition theory assumes that parties have homogeneous goals, and hence are equally likely to join coalitions given the same circumstances. However, this article investigates this basic assumption of party goal homogeneity and finds that party goals do......What parties want – policy, office or votes - is important to how they represent their voters, how they make strategic decisions and how they respond to external changes in society. What parties strive to accomplish is simply important to what they do. Moreover, our knowledge of what parties want...... indeed diverge. Moreover, the article demonstrates that party goals are influenced by party specific factors such as party size, policy position and intra-party politics. Consequently, the article suggests that intra-party politics should be included more systematically in future studies of party...

  1. South of Sahara | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Youth Employment and Migration in West Africa. Language English. Read more about Évolution démographique asymétrique et gouvernance financière mondiale. Language French. Read more about Asymmetric Demography and Global Financial Governance.

  2. South of Sahara | Page 34 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Women's Access to Land and Natural Resources in Pastoralist and Forest Communities in East Africa. Language English. Read more about Pratiques foncières et droit des femmes à la terre : répercussions sur l'accès aux ressources naturelles (Cameroun anglophone).

  3. South of Sahara | Page 55 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Strengthening the Health System through a Maternal Death Review (Kenya and Zimbabwe). Language English. Read more about Taxes sur les cigarettes en Tanzanie. Language French. Read more about Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Language English. Read more ...

  4. South of Sahara | Page 32 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Pauvreté et vulnérabilité environnementale dans les bidonvilles en pleine croissance en Angola. Language French. Read more about Bamboo Production : Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase II. Language English.

  5. South of Sahara | Page 49 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase I. Language English. Read more about Initiative de renforcement des capacités de recherche en santé au Kenya et au Malawi - phase de démarrage. Language French.

  6. South of Sahara | Page 90 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Strengthening the Legal and Regulatory Framework of the Tobacco Control Campaign in Sénégal. Language English. Read more about Bamboo Production : Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase II. Language ...

  7. Daytime passerine migrants over the Sahara — are these diurnal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When crossing the Sahara it was expected that nocturnal migrants would continue their flight into the day. We investigated whether migration taking place in the Sahara during daytime comprises the normal diurnal migrant species or the nocturnal ones prolonging their flight into the day. Birds departing from the Sahel in ...

  8. South of Sahara | Page 50 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Interdépendance des zones urbaines et rurales et répercussions des changements climatiques au Malawi et en Tanzanie. Language French. Read more about Urban-Rural Interdependence and the Impact of Climate Change in Malawi and Tanzania. Language English.

  9. South of Sahara | Page 100 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Institutional Support : Centre for Research and Technology Development (RESTECH). Language English. Read more about Soutien institutionnel au Centre for Research and Technology Development (RESTECH Centre). Language French. Read more about Economic ...

  10. South of Sahara | Page 61 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Rainwater and Greywater Harvesting in Urban and Periurban Agriculture in Ariana-Soukra (Tunisia). Language English. Read more about Récupération des eaux grises et des eaux pluviales pour l'agriculture urbaine et périurbaine à La Soukra, dans le gouvernorat ...

  11. South of Sahara | Page 35 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Approfondissement des connaissances et renforcement des capacités en matière de sexospécificités au sein du programme ACACIA. Language French. Read more about Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening. Language English. Read more about Soutien ...

  12. South of Sahara | Page 137 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Transition de Bellanet. Language French. Read more about Le coût des conflits dans la zone du Marché commun de l'Afrique orientale et australe (COMESA). Language French. Read more about Cost of Conflicts in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa ...

  13. South of Sahara | Page 65 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Economic Research Forum - Core Support 2012-2014. Language English. Read more about Forum de recherche économique - Financement de base 2012-2014. Language French. Read more about Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in ...

  14. South of Sahara | Page 101 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Compliance with Private Food Safety Standards among Smallholders in Kenya. Language English. Read more about Respect des normes de salubrité des aliments privées chez les petits exploitants agricoles du Kenya. Language French. Read more about Stimulation de ...

  15. South of Sahara | Page 14 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Renforcement des connaissances économiques et de la capacité d'adaptation face aux changements climatiques au Bénin. Language French. Read more about Strengthening Economic Skills and Climate Change Adaptive Capacity in Bénin. Language English.

  16. South of Sahara | Page 18 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Changements climatiques et santé des autochtones. Language French. Read more about Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health. Language English. Read more about La législation sur le salaire minimum, son application et la ...

  17. South of Sahara | Page 136 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Nouveau télécentre de Manhiça (Mozambique). Language French. Read more about New Premises Assistance : Manhica Telecentre Association (Mozambique). Language English. Read more about Health Risk Analysis of Cryptosporidiosis and other Hazards in Urban ...

  18. South of Sahara | Page 87 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Suivi de structures criminelles dans des villes africaines. Language French. Read more about Universities in Innovation for Inclusive Development: Africa. Language English. Read more about How to access funding for non-communicable disease prevention in Africa?

  19. South of Sahara | Page 138 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Savoir émergent - suivi de la progression vers la société de l'information. Language French. Read more about Monitoring Progress Toward the Information Society : Digital Divide Index. Language English. Read more about Lake Naivasha Sustainability : Ecosystem ...

  20. South of Sahara | Page 64 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about La protection des renseignements personnels dans l'hémisphère sud (Protecting Privacy in the Global South) - Phase 2. Language French. Read more about Doctoral Awards to Strengthen Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership in HIV Prevention Research. Language English.

  1. South of Sahara | Page 46 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Open Architecture, Standards and Information Systems (OASIS) for Healthcare in Africa. Language English. Read more about Gestion intégrée de l'eau, de l'assainissement et des déchets solides dans de petits centres urbains autour du lac Victoria (Kenya). Language ...

  2. South of Sahara | Page 133 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Vers une structure de sécurité régionale dans la Corne de l'Afrique - phase II. Language French. Read more about Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II. Language ...

  3. South of Sahara | Page 38 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Integrated Intervention for Diabetes Risk After Gestational Diabetes in South Africa. Language English. Read more about Essais cliniques d'un vaccin expérimental contre le virus Ebola : une intervention canadienne dans la recherche. Language French. Read more about ...

  4. South of Sahara | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea. Language English. Read more about Taxes sur le tabac, contrebande et vendeurs de rue en Érythrée. Language French. Read more about The Role of Militia, Predatory State Authorities, and Rogue ...

  5. South of Sahara | Page 103 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Innovation pharmaceutique, délivrance de brevets sur des variantes mineures et licences obligatoires. Language French. Read more about Pharmaceutical Innovation, Incremental Patenting and Compulsory Licensing. Language English. Read more about Vers une ...

  6. South of Sahara | Page 18 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Renforcement des stratégies locales de gestion des zones sylvo-pastorales inter villageoises dans le basin arachidier du Sénégal. Language French. Read more about Strengthening Local Strategies for Managing Inter Village Agro-pastoral Resources in the Groundnut ...

  7. South of Sahara | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Gestion des milieux humides en vue d'une plus grande sécurité alimentaire en Ouganda. Language French. Read more about Minimum Wage Legislation, Enforcement and Labour Outcomes in Argentina, Costa Rica and South Africa. Language English. Read more ...

  8. South of Sahara | Page 50 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South Africa. Language English. Read more about Études par pays dans le cadre du HIV/AIDS Monitor. Language French. Read more about HIV/AIDS Monitor Country Studies. Language English. Read more ...

  9. South of Sahara | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Renforcement des capacités en Afrique en matière d'indicateurs de S-T et d'innovation. Language French. Read more about Building African Capacity in Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators. Language English. Read more about Transfert du modèle prédictif ...

  10. South of Sahara | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about La protection sociale et les collectivités vulnérables en Afrique de l'Est - retombées sur le bien-être des ménages. Language French. Read more about Social Protection and Vulnerable Communities in East Africa: Implications for Household Welfare. Language English.

  11. South of Sahara | Page 54 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Building a Community ICT Network in Mozambique. Language English. Read more about Appui au réseautage et au renforcement des télécentres communautaires au Mali. Language French. Read more about Support for Community Telecentres and Networks in Mali.

  12. South of Sahara | Page 20 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in Kenya. Language English. Read more about Gestion des risques, réduction de la vulnérabilité et accroissement de la productivité dans un contexte de changements climatiques. Language French.

  13. South of Sahara | Page 29 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Five-City Network to Pioneer Climate Change Adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. Language English. Read more about Protection de la communauté urbaine de Cotonou face aux changements climatiques (Bénin). Language French. Read more about Protecting the Urban ...

  14. South of Sahara | Page 35 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening. Language English. Read more about Approfondissement des connaissances et renforcement des capacités en matière de sexospécificités au sein du programme ACACIA. Language French. Read more about Soutien ...

  15. No Otters in the Tassili Mountains (Sahara)

    OpenAIRE

    Smet K. de

    1987-01-01

    The Tassill Mountains are situated in the centre of the Sahara Desert and as they are rather high (summits over 2,000 m), they have a rainfall of more than 50 mm/year. There are many rivers in these mountains and although they only flow after the occasional rains, a great number of small lakes (locally called Guelta) remain in the deep canyons. Some river systems always have running water (Oued Imirhou, Oued Iherir) and most of them contain large quantities of fish (Barbus sp., Tilapia sp.) ...

  16. Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de grossesse sur uterus bicorne a issue favorable. Vaginal bleeding in a pregnant woman with a bicornuate uterus, ultrasound finding and favourable outcome.

  17. Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous rapportons un cas de grossesse dans un utérus bicorne, avec un épisode de saignement vaginal durant le premier trimestre. L'échographie a été capable de trouver un épaississement de l'endomètre de la corne utérine vide qui pourrait expliquer cette métrorragie. Mots clés : Utérus bicorne, métrorragie, premier ...

  18. FFS et RCD : partis nationaux ou partis kabyles ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouali Ilikoud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Après octobre 1988 et la mise en place d’une « nouvelle formule politique » qui consacre le pluripartisme, l’identité berbère devient en Algérie, un enjeu majeur des stratégies partisanes de deux partis : le Front des forces socialistes et le Rassemblement pour la culture et la démocratie. Le premier est ancien et a participé à l’émergence dans les années 1980 du Mouvement culturel berbère. Le second est issu de ce mouvement et s’institutionnalise en parti à la faveur de l’instauration du multipartisme en 1989. L’analyse porte donc sur les stra­tégies identitaires déployées par ces deux formations rivales. Concurrentes auprès des autorités publiques et en termes d’ancrage territorial, elles déploient un discours culturaliste et localiste bien qu’elles se situent dans le champ politique national. Réalisée à la fin des années 1990, elle questionne en dernier ressort les diverses attitudes adoptées par ces entrepreneurs politiques berbéristes aux buttes aux pièges de l’enfermement régional et ethnique : dans quelle mesure peuvent-elles dépasser ce cadre régional et constituer une alternative démocratique viable en Algérie ?

  19. Danish Party Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Political parties have as their main assignment the creation of linkage between citizens and government. They provide one of several channels of participation in modern democracies. Yet, the general trend across the Western world is that party membership figures decline. The purpose of this article...... is to report on the state of Danish party membership; the numbers and participation. The claim of the article is that total membership figures hide evidence of membership renewal and increases, and that mere party membership figures are insufficient when evaluating political parties as channels...... of participation. Instead, membership figures at party level as well as the participation of party members need to be taken into account in order to assess parties as channels of participation. This is supported by the analyses reported here which show that even though membership figures are declining, parties...

  20. The Late Miocene climate response to a modern Sahara desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheels, Arne; Eronen, Jussi; Mosbrugger, Volker

    2009-06-01

    The climate cooling and vegetation changes in the Miocene/Pliocene are generally well documented by various proxy data. Some important ecosystem changes occurred at that time. Palaeobotanical evidence suggests that the Sahara desert first appeared in the Pliocene, whereas in the Miocene North Africa was green. In the present study, we investigate the Late Miocene climate response to the appearance of the Sahara desert from a climate modelling sensitivity experiment. We compare a model experiment, which includes a full set of Late Miocene boundary conditions, with another one using the same boundary conditions except that the North African vegetation refers to the present-day situation. Our sensitivity study demonstrates that the introduction of the Sahara desert leads to a cooling and an aridification in Africa. In addition, we observe teleconnection patterns related to the North African desertification at around the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. From our sensitivity experiment, we observe that the Sahara contributes to a cooling in Central Asia and in North America. As compared to hypsodonty data for Central Asia, an increased aridity is underestimated in the Sahara experiment. Finally, we observe that the introduction of the Sahara leads to a cooling in the northern high latitudes. Hence, our sensitivity experiment indicates that the appearance of the Sahara desert is one piece to better understand Late Cenozoic climate cooling being most pronounced in the high latitudes.

  1. Political Parties and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Carina Saxlund; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2017-01-01

    parties themselves as well their impact on potentially innovative public decisions. One major expectation is that hierarchical parties with centralized leadership make more efficient decisions but that sustainable innovation outcomes promoted by collaborative efforts are easier to obtain for decentralized...

  2. Eghindi among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Waldstein, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Eghindi is an illness built around a set of pathological states experienced by Sahrawi in the desert environment of Western Sahara. Its core symptoms are caused by osmotic imbalances related to salt consumption. In 1975, many Sahrawi were exiled into refugee camps, and they have since experienced radical sociocultural changes, which are reflected in changing explanatory models of eghindi. Older and conservative refugees, attached to traditional Sahrawi culture, have expanded its conceptualization to include new pathogenic factors, while younger and progressive refugees, acculturated with Western culture, began challenging its existence. Eghindi became embodied within a broader process of negotiation of Sahrawi cultural identity. Our findings provide a framework for thinking about the evolution of illness in response to displacement, and highlight that when explanatory models evolve, intracultural tensions can arise within a population.

  3. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  4. Book Review: The writings of Mauritania and the western Sahara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: The writings of Mauritania and the western Sahara: Arabic Literature of Africa vol. 5. Book Authors: compiled by Charles C. Stewart with Sidi Ahmed Wuld Ahmed Salim. (Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2016), 2 vols ...

  5. South of Sahara | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Catalyzing Broadband Internet in Africa. Language English. Read more about Mobilisation du financement privé aux fins de l'adaptation. Language French. Read more about Une approche des politiques et de la gouvernance en matière d'Internet axée sur le progrès des ...

  6. South of Sahara | Page 121 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Internet Backbone in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Feasibility Study and Advocacy. Language English. Read more about Citoyens du monde : les répercussions des programmes de travail rémunéré et de travail bénévole à l'étranger. Language French. Read more ...

  7. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...

  8. Parties heed (with caution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Despite comprehensive reform (Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act) and recent review (Phillips Review in 2007) of party finance in Britain, public opinion of party finance remains plagued by perceptions of corruption, undue influence from wealthy donors, carefree and wasteful spending and, more generally, from the perception that there is just ‘too much money’ in politics. In this article we argue that knowledge of and attitudes to party finance matter, not least because advocates of reform have cited public opinion as evidence for reform. However, because attitudes to party finance are part of a broader attitudinal structure, opinion-led reforms are unlikely to succeed in increasing public confidence. Using data generated from YouGov’s online panel (N=2,008), we demonstrate that the public know little of the key provisions regulating party finance and attitudes to party finance can be explained along two underlying dimensions – Anti-Party Finance and Reformers. As such, we consider whether parties and politicians should be freed from the constraints of public opinion in reforming party finance. PMID:29097904

  9. Paleohydrology and paleoenvironments at Bir Sahara: Pleistocene lithostratigraphy and sedimentology in the southern Egyptian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christopher L.; Schild, Romuald

    2017-12-01

    The Bir Sahara area contains a remarkable record of Middle and Late Pleistocene hydrologic and environmental conditions for Saharan North Africa, based on lithostratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence from basin-fill deposits. Some of the deposits contain Lower Paleolithic (Acheulean) or Middle Paleolithic artifacts that help to constrain their age, since Acheulian artifacts are assigned to the Middle Pleistocene, while Middle Paleolithic artifacts are limited to either the Middle or Late Pleistocene. Locality BS-14 is in the southern part of Bir Sahara, while localities E-88-15, E-88-2, BS-13, and BS-16 are situated in the south-central part of the deflational basin, closer to the present-day water-hole. Lowered groundwater conditions during arid intervals resulted in erosional topographic basins. These deflational basins were later filled with sediments associated with wetter hydrologic conditions. The oldest studied sedimentary sequence in the Bir Sahara depression (BS-14) contains in situ Acheulian artifacts. Acheulian handaxes are found in sands underlying carbonates that are interpreted as evidence of spring-fed pond and marsh environments during a Middle Pleistocene wet interval. At the E-88-15 locality, the stratigraphic sequence documents deposition in a possible perennial pond or small lake that varied in extent and depth and is associated with Middle Paleolithic artifacts. At E-88-12 and BS-13, lateral and vertical variations in the lithofacies of the basin-fill sediments provide additional records of changing hydrologic conditions during the Late Pleistocene. These hydrologic conditions appear to reflect variations in water-table levels related to groundwater recharge and, at times, local rains.

  10. Computers for Schools Kenya se classe au premier rang | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cinq ans après avoir remis en service ses premiers ordinateurs recyclés et leur avoir trouvé un nouveau nid, l'organisation non gouvernementale Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) s'est mérité un prix convoité à l'échelle de l'Afrique pour son travail.

  11. Library Media Specialists: Premier Information Specialists for the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Delia

    2011-01-01

    The information age has given library media specialists an unprecedented opportunity to play a leading role in helping teachers, administrators, and especially students access and use information intelligently. As the school's premier information specialist; the library media specialist has a unique role to play in helping everyone in the school…

  12. Trichoberoard gastrique : Premier cas observe en milieu bur kina be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le trichobezoard est une concretion de cheveux, de poils ou de fibres de tapis et de debris alimentaire, localisee habituellement dans l'estomac. Le trichobezoard est une pathologie rare qui survient habituellement chez des adolescentes presentant des troubles psychiques. La premiere observation de trichobezoard a ete ...

  13. Party brands and voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigge Winther; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars argue that Western societies have seen a decreasing impact of voting behavior based on cleavages and party identifications. Equally, issue ownership voting is seemingly not increasing its relevance by filling this gap. From this departure we seek out an alternative variable by posing...... the question: Do party brands influence voting behavior? Currently, we do not know because the two research fields of voting behavior and party brands are currently not explicitly linked. Traditionally, the study of voting behavior has gained powerful insights from concepts such as cleavage structure, party...... identification and issue ownership. On the other hand, the study of political brands has illuminated how people employ brands in their identity construction and how voters use party brands to differentiate between political parties. In this light, the article first distinguishes the brand concept from related...

  14. Memory Without Parties or Parties Without Memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mario Solís Delgadillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of political parties in Argentina, Chile and Guatemala in relation to the implementation of public policies of memory after the return to democracy in each of these countries. To do this, we discuss the concept of memory and the problems of memorial obsession. We consider the uses and abuses of memory that human rights organizations manifest on the subject, and examine the work of the parties about the level of adaptation that allows claims of human rights movement to become matters of public policy.

  15. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....

  16. JPRS Report, Africa, (Sub-Sahara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-31

    offi- cers, and troops of the glorious FAPLA, at a ceremony presided over by Ernesto Watunga, member of the MPLA-Labor Party Central Committee...the role that it has played in the system for training military cadres in the country. In his remarks on this occasion, Ernesto Watunga underscored...75,250-square meter area and currently has 61 employees) it needs 120. The work in progress on the rehabilitation project, directed by Antonio Domingos

  17. JPRS Report Africa (Sub-Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-16

    f s Ruanda Discusses Food Subsidy Reforms 50 Details on Food Aid 50 c - INTER-AFRICAN AFDB REORGANIZATION, GOALS SPARK CONTROVERSY Bank...guarantee the people’s inalienable rights to independent development. Both parties stressed the role of the OAU [^Organization of African Unity] as...an important instrument in the African people’s struggle to consolidate their poli- tical independence and in their common struggle against

  18. Frontières et nationalisme autour du Sahara Occidental (Borders and Nationalism in Western Sahara)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Le conflit du Sahara Occidental apparaît comme le principal facteur de blocage dans la construction d'une intégration régionale. Pour la monarchie marocaine, il lui a permis de s'approprier le sentiment nationaliste alors porté par le mouvement de l'Istiqlal qui faisait de la cause du grand Maroc l'un de ses combats politiques. Pour le régime algérien, il a représenté un moyen de justifier le pouvoir d'une armée et d'entretenir le sentiment nationaliste. L'avantage du conflit saharien était é...

  19. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS - OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Corlaciu; Adriana Tiron Tudor

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to provide a short overview of themain implications arising from carrying related parties transactions: accounting reporting(related party disclosures - IAS 24), auditing (audit procedures for related partytransactions), taxation (issues regarding the transfer prices used for intra-grouptransactions). Although this research does not identify a problem with the scope to solve ithowever the utility might be observed by its contribution to the future d...

  20. General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng on family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Li, P

    1991-06-01

    Speeches given by General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng to the forum on Family Planning (FP) Work in April 1991 are summarized. Jiang stated that the highest levels of communist party and governmental officials should be in charge of controlling population growth in China. There is great urgency to do so. The problems to be faced are a hugh population, scarce arable land, a poor economic foundation, and low per capita resources. Human resources are an asset for the socialist construction of China, but a rapid growth rate will retard economic and social development and affect the improvement in living standards and the quality of life. The strategy to place FP within state policy and place strict controls over population growth must be carried out resolutely. The future of socialism and the Chinese nation is at stake. Modernization cannot be accomplished with out controlling population growths. The 8th 5 year Plan and the 10 Year Program requirements will still contribute to 1.3 billion population by 2000 and 1.2 billion by 1995. There is historical responsibility, an urgency to strictly control population growth. Adherence to the 4 cardinal principles of socialism (the people's democratic dictatorship, the Communist Party leadership, and Marxist Leninist and Mao Zedong thought) must coexist with social development and family planning. All must be motivated. The provincial Party Secretary personally must oversee problems. The success or failure of FP should be used to evaluate the achievements of party committees and governments. The education on basic national conditions and the basic state policy on FP needs to be publicized through all organizations. There should be confidence in the masses. People must make FP their own cause voluntarily. Premier Li Peng stressed effective implementation and giving it high priority in order to achieve the 2nd step strategic goal of socialist modernization. Per capita output is low, and grain output will not increase

  1. Dante between White Party and Black Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zorzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the conflict between the Florentine factions of Whites and Blacks which involved Dante, as expression of a culture of vendettas largerly widespread in Italian cities. It retraces the origins of this conflict in the feud between Circles and Donati, his evolution, linked to the bonds of solidarity and enmity relationships with other local families and the strategies put in place by the parties until the arrival of Charles of Valois (1301 that marked the final outcome, leading among other things to the banishment of the poet.

  2. South of Sahara | Page 9 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. Pages. « first · ‹ previous … 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8; 9; 10 · next › · last » · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions.

  3. South of Sahara | Page 125 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Read more about Exemption communautaire du paiement des services de santé au Burkina Faso. Language French. Read more about Études par pays dans le cadre du HIV/AIDS Monitor. Language French. Read more about HIV/AIDS Monitor Country Studies. Language English. Read more about Gestion ...

  4. Modeling non-monotone risk aversion using SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Pelsser, A.; Vellekoop, M.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the distinguishing feature that it allows absolute risk aversion to be non-monotone and implements the assumption that agents may become less risk averse for very low values of wealth. The class contains the well-known exponential and

  5. South of Sahara | Page 118 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Read more about National Innovation Systems in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). Language English. Read more about Strengthening the Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Rural Bénin. Language English. Read more about Renforcement des capacités d'adaptation des acteurs ...

  6. South of Sahara | Page 33 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Read more about Hybrid Security Arrangements in Africa: Exploring the Implications for State-building. Language English. Read more about Chiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer. Language French. Read more about Implications des mécanismes de sécurité hybrides ...

  7. South of Sahara | Page 31 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Read more about Action multisectorielle en matière de prévention des maladies non transmissibles en Afrique subsaharienne. Language French. Read more about Safe and Inclusive Cities: Research to Reduce Urban Violence, Poverty, and Inequalities. Language English. Read more about Analyse des ...

  8. The Sources Of Protracted Conflict In The Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    increasing unrest, the French and Spanish divided the Sherifian Empire into three territories in (1912). France promoted colonization to secure its...opinions on two questions: 1. Was Western Sahara a territory belonging to no one (terra nullius) at the time of Spanish colonization ? 2. What were the...1. History Leading up to the Occupation .......................................16 2. Spanish Decolonization (1956–1976

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND PARTY FUNDING: MODELS AND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje MATAKOVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The first modern political parties were formed at the end of the 18th century and have, from those times up to now, undergone 4 developing phases; each of the phases is bound to ideal-type political party model: cadre parties, mass parties, catch-all parties and cartel parties. Each of these party models differentiates in various characteristics: party foundation, number of members, and way of leading the election campaigns, but also in ways of financing. This paper describes the above mentioned 4 phases of political parties’ development and 4 phases of parties' finances development; it will be analysed in detail positive and negative sides of each of the models of party financing.

  10. Atmospheric feedbacks in North Africa from an irrigated, afforested Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemena, Tronje Peer; Matthes, Katja; Martin, Thomas; Wahl, Sebastian; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Afforestation of the Sahara has been proposed as a climate engineering method to sequester a substantial amount of carbon dioxide, potentially effective to mitigate climate change. Earlier studies predicted changes in the atmospheric circulation system. These atmospheric feedbacks raise questions about the self-sustainability of such an intervention, but have not been investigated in detail. Here, we investigate changes in precipitation and circulation in response to Saharan large-scale afforestation and irrigation with NCAR's CESM-WACCM Earth system model. Our model results show a Saharan temperature reduction by 6 K and weak precipitation enhancement by 267 mm/year over the Sahara. Only 26% of the evapotranspirated water re-precipitates over the Saharan Desert, considerably large amounts are advected southward to the Sahel zone and enhance the West African monsoon (WAM). Different processes cause circulation and precipitation changes over North Africa. The increase in atmospheric moisture leads to radiative cooling above the Sahara and increased high-level cloud coverage as well as atmospheric warming above the Sahel zone. Both lead to a circulation anomaly with descending air over the Sahara and ascending air over the Sahel zone. Together with changes in the meridional temperature gradient, this results in a southward shift of the inner-tropical front. The strengthening of the Tropical easterly jet and the northward displacement of the African easterly jet is associated with a northward displacement and strengthening of the WAM precipitation. Our results suggest complex atmospheric circulation feedbacks, which reduce the precipitation potential over an afforested Sahara and enhance WAM precipitation.

  11. Lessons premier hospitals learned about implementing electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Susan D; Figlioli, Keith

    2010-04-01

    Implementing health information technology (IT) is a major strategic objective for providers. To pinpoint considerations that tie to success, the Premier health care alliance surveyed hospitals to develop an electronic health record best-practices library. Compiled from diverse health care organizations, the library outlines considerations to support "meaningful use" in the areas of computerized physician order entry, medication management, clinical documentation, reporting of measures, privacy, information exchange, management of populations' health, and personal health records. Best practices also uncovered strategies for securing executive leadership, culture change, communication, and support for clinicians. This paper summarizes lessons from the library, providing recommendations to speed up health IT implementation.

  12. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate!

  13. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More spe...

  14. The Radish Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jeff; Mildenstein, Tammy; Dungan, Kathy; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The Radish Party inquiry is designed to teach the importance and relevance of soil organic matter to young students. In this investigation, students grow radishes in three different kinds of soils: sand, sand plus nutrients, and potting soil (soil that includes organic matter). The experience described here was conducted with first- and…

  15. College Party Intervention Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Off-campus parties are a major source of underage and excessive drinking among college students and cause alcohol-related problems for students and residents. This checklist is a brief, evidence-based guide for campus-based prevention professionals. It is designed to give the basic information needed to develop, implement, and evaluate an…

  16. One-Party Dominance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    colonial domination and build an independent state-nation, a major problem confronting its leaders was the issue of ... ordinary citizenry that this party and its leaders had a legitimate claim to be heirs to the colonially constructed ...... nal of Modern African Studies vol 33 no.3 pp381-402. Daniel, J., R. Southall, andM. Szeftel ...

  17. Partying as Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    situates the event in everyday life. By drawing on Maffesoli's (1996) concept of ‘sociality' and Lincoln's (2005) concept of zoning the spatial and social logic of the house, partying is analysed using both qualitative and quantitative material. The analysis suggests that the consumption of alcohol (i...... to reaffirm friendship and is therefore an integrated part of adolescents' everyday life.  ...

  18. and third party transfers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    cases such as Berman v Parker,3 Midkiff v Hawaii Housing Authority4 and Kelo v City of New London.5 A .... party is valid if it is in the public interest even though it is not for a public purpose, the only logical conclusion is .... now that parliamentary supremacy has been replaced by constitutional supremacy the courts may no ...

  19. Fennec dust forecast intercomparison over the Sahara in June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Chaboureau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the Fennec international programme, a field campaign was conducted in June 2011 over the western Sahara. It led to the first observational data set ever obtained that documents the dynamics, thermodynamics and composition of the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL under the influence of the heat low. In support to the aircraft operation, four dust forecasts were run daily at low and high resolutions with convection-parameterizing and convection-permitting models, respectively. The unique airborne and ground-based data sets allowed the first ever intercomparison of dust forecasts over the western Sahara. At monthly scale, large aerosol optical depths (AODs were forecast over the Sahara, a feature observed by satellite retrievals but with different magnitudes. The AOD intensity was correctly predicted by the high-resolution models, while it was underestimated by the low-resolution models. This was partly because of the generation of strong near-surface wind associated with thunderstorm-related density currents that could only be reproduced by models representing convection explicitly. Such models yield emissions mainly in the afternoon that dominate the total emission over the western fringes of the Adrar des Iforas and the Aïr Mountains in the high-resolution forecasts. Over the western Sahara, where the harmattan contributes up to 80 % of dust emission, all the models were successful in forecasting the deep well-mixed SABL. Some of them, however, missed the large near-surface dust concentration generated by density currents and low-level winds. This feature, observed repeatedly by the airborne lidar, was partly forecast by one high-resolution model only.

  20. The Green Sahara: Climate Change, Hydrologic History and Human Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Ronald G.; Farr, Tom G.; Feynmann, Joan; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Paillou, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Archaeology can provide insight into interactions of climate change and human activities in sensitive areas such as the Sahara, to the benefit of both disciplines. Such analyses can help set bounds on climate change projections, perhaps identify elements of tipping points, and provide constraints on models. The opportunity exists to more precisely constrain the relationship of natural solar and climate interactions, improving understanding of present and future anthropogenic forcing. We are beginning to explore the relationship of human occupation of the Sahara and long-term solar irradiance variations synergetic with changes in atmospheric-ocean circulation patterns. Archaeological and climate records for the last 12 K years are gaining adequate precision to make such comparisons possible. We employ a range of climate records taken over the globe (e.g. Antarctica, Greenland, Cariaco Basin, West African Ocean cores, records from caves) to identify the timing and spatial patterns affecting Saharan climate to compare with archaeological records. We see correlation in changing ocean temperature patterns approx. contemporaneous with drying of the Sahara approx. 6K years BP. The role of radar images and other remote sensing in this work includes providing a geographically comprehensive geomorphic overview of this key area. Such coverage is becoming available from the Japanese PALSAR radar system, which can guide field work to collect archaeological and climatic data to further constrain the climate change chronology and link to models. Our initial remote sensing efforts concentrate on the Gilf Kebir area of Egypt.

  1. Why do parties change position? Party organization and environmental incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Schumacher, G.; de Vries, C.E.; Vis, B.

    2013-01-01

    What motivates parties to change their positions? Earlier studies demonstrate that parties change their position in response to environmental incentives, such as voter shifts. Yet, this work also suggests that parties differ in their responses. What accounts for this variation? We argue and

  2. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks! Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! http://www.cern.ch/cern50/

  3. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! http://www.cern.ch/cern50/

  4. The international documents of Petrole and Techniques. Algeria 2002; Les dossiers internationaux de petrole et techniques. Algerie 2002 premiere partie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-08-01

    In the first part of the document Chakib Khelil presents the current reforms and the upstream sector groups take stock on 15 years of market deregulation. The hydrocarbons sector, motor of the Algerian economy, opens more and more leading the country to the modernity. The upstream market deregulation allowed to restore the petroleum and gas reserves level and to modernize the concerned societies. Facing the new petroleum deposits in Algeria, opportunities are given to french and foreign societies which will accept risks and strategical partnership. (A.L.B.)

  5. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director-General would like to invite all the people working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held in the cafeteria and on the terrace (if the weather permits) of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks, snacks and a surprise music show by the CERN Big Bang Orchestra! Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! Early closure of Restaurant No. 1 (Bldg. 501, Meyrin site): Friday 17 September at 2:00 p.m. On Friday, 17 September, Restaurant No. 1 (NOVAE) will close at 2:00 p.m. owing to the Golden Jubilee party for the CERN staff. No dinner will be served that evening.

  6. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director-General would like to invite all the people working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. Your Golden Jubilee Party Friday 17 September 2004 at 16:00 Restaurant 1, Main Building Programme Speech by Director-General Toast in honour of CERN Cocktails and ambient music Video projections of five decades of CERN and at 18:00 ... A surprise music show. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! Early closure of Restaurant No. 1 (bldg. 501, Meyrin site): Friday 17 September at 2:00 p.m. On Friday, 17 September, Restaurant No. 1 (NOVAE) will close at 2:00 p.m. owing to the Golden Jubilee party for the CERN staff. No dinner will be served that evening.

  7. The (Unintended) Consequences of New Labour: Party Leadership vs Party Management in the British Labour Party

    OpenAIRE

    Avril, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This article draws from the fields of political science and of organisational studies to explore the short-term and long-term impact of New Labour's party management on the quality of party processes as well as on party reputation. It is based on the long-term ethnographic participant observation of the Labour Party at local and regional levels, as well as national events such as annual conferences. The article starts by identifying the distinctive features of New Labo...

  8. Party versus Party : Beatrice Webb and the Ascent of the British Labour Party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Hanneke; te Velde, Henk; Janse, Maartje

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses resistance to the organization of political parties in Great Britain. Parties in the sense of a festive gathering, traditionally facilitating the political process, were an in fact an impediment to the development of political parties in the fashion of their Continental

  9. Sud du Sahara | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Youth Employment and Migration in West Africa. Langue English. Read more about Évolution démographique asymétrique et gouvernance financière mondiale. Langue French. Read more about Asymmetric Demography and Global Financial Governance. Langue English.

  10. Conflict resolution in Western Sahara | Solà-Martín | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the democratisation agenda laid out by Western governments for the North African region vis-à-vis their Realpolitik conflict containment approach towards the Western Sahara conflict. Western policymakers conceive the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara as a safety net that ...

  11. Sud du Sahara | Page 95 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Modèle d'édition et autre modèle d'octroi de licences (PALM Africa). Langue French. Read more about Publishing and Alternative Licensing Model of Africa (PALM Africa). Langue English. Read more about Strategic Action Plan for ERNWACA - 2007-2011. Langue English.

  12. Sud du Sahara | Page 96 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Implementation of an Electronic Strategy in Bénin. Langue English. Read more about E-Stratégie du Bénin : programme de recherches multidisciplinaires d'appui à sa mise en oeuvre. Langue French. Read more about Libéralisation du commerce des biens et services TIC ...

  13. Sud du Sahara | Page 108 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Understanding Obstacles to Peace in the Great Lakes Region : Actors, Interests and Strategies. Langue English. Read more about Comprendre les obstacles à la paix dans la région des Grands Lacs : acteurs, intérêts et stratégies. Langue French. Read more about ...

  14. Sud du Sahara | Page 55 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Strengthening the Health System through a Maternal Death Review (Kenya and Zimbabwe). Langue English. Read more about Taxes sur les cigarettes en Tanzanie. Langue French. Read more about Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Langue English. Read more about AIDS ...

  15. Sud du Sahara | Page 74 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Bamboo Production : Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase II. Langue English. Read more about Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province ...

  16. Optimal investment and indifference pricing when risk aversion is not monotone: SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Pelsser, A.; Vellekoop, M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the dis- tinguishing feature that they implement the assumption that agents may become less risk-averse for very low values of wealth. This means that SAHARA utility can be used to characterize risk gambling behavior of an

  17. Regime shifts in the Sahara and Sahel: interactions between ecological and climatic systems in northern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foley, J.A.; Coe, M.T.; Scheffer, M.; Wang, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Sahara and Sahel regions of northern Africa have complex environmental histories punctuated by sudden and dramatic "regime shifts" in climate and ecological conditions. Here we review the current understanding of the causes and consequences of two environmental regime shifts in the Sahara and

  18. Sud du Sahara | Page 93 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Renouvellement des modes de gouvernance : industries extractives et réduction de la pauvreté en Afrique. Langue French. Read more about Renewing Modes of Governance : Extractive Industries and the Reduction of Poverty in Africa. Langue English. Read more about ...

  19. Party rules, party resources and the politics of parliamentary democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poguntke, Thomas; Scarrow, Susan; Webb, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the first findings of the Political Party Database Project, a major survey of party organizations in parliamentary and semi-presidential democracies. The project’s first round of data covers 122 parties in 19 countries. In this article, we describe the scope of the database...... suggest a remarkable coexistence of uniformity and diversity. In terms of the major organizational resources on which parties can draw, such as members, staff and finance, the new evidence largely confirms the continuation of trends identified in previous research: that is, declining membership......, but enhanced financial resources and more paid staff. We also find remarkable uniformity regarding the core architecture of party organizations. At the same time, however, we find substantial variation between countries and party families in terms of their internal processes, with particular regard to how...

  20. The (Unintended Consequences of New Labour: Party Leadership vs Party Management in the British Labour Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Avril

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article draws from the fields of political science and of organisational studies to explore the short-term and long-term impact of New Labour’s party management on the quality of party processes as well as on party reputation. It is based on the long-term ethnographic participant observation of the Labour Party at local and regional levels, as well as national events such as annual conferences. The article starts by identifying the distinctive features of New Labour’s party management. It then examines the “unintended consequences” of this brand of party management, showing this model to be mainly self-defeating. The final section provides a general assessment of the impact of New Labour’s party management from the perspective of organisational learning and innovation. Overall the article stresses the long-term poisonous effects of this brand of leadership and management on political organisations and on politics in general.

  1. 11 CFR 9002.8 - New party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New party. 9002.8 Section 9002.8 Federal... DEFINITIONS § 9002.8 New party. New party means a political party which is neither a major party nor a minor party. ...

  2. Motivated Reasoning and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Skov, Martin; Serritzlev, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens’ opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From the psychol......Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens’ opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From...

  3. Memberless parties : beyond the business-firm party model?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzoleni, Oscar; Voerman, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    It is widely assumed that political parties need to have members in order to fulfil their functions in a representative democracy (drawing up platforms, candidate nomination and electoral mobilization) and in terms of their legitimacy. However, the theoretical literature on party models – the

  4. Mapping knowledge and experience about sport psychology consulting among Finnish premier football coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Mikola, Noora

    2016-01-01

    Mikola, Noora 2016. "Mapping knowledge and experience about sport psychology consulting among Finnish premier football coaches” Sport and Exercise Psychology master's thesis. The Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä. 50 p. Background: Perceptions of sport psychology consulting in Finnish premier football have not been studied before. The current study was inspired by two earlier studies made in England by Pain and Hardwood (2004) and in Sweden by Johnso...

  5. Between Party, Parents and Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the lived contradictions entailed in being a young member of the Chinese Communist Party (ccp) today. The focus is on how political and existential issues intersect. It explores party membership as a strategy for personal mobility among Beijing elite university students by p...

  6. Which Party Gets the Mayoralty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjæveland, Asbjørn; Serritzlew, Søren

    2010-01-01

    In non-presidential multiparty systems, it is not only the voters but also coalition formation after the election that decides the government of the community. Some national-level studies investigate which parties are most likely to win the Prime Minister's office. The aim of this article...... is to investigate the same question at the local level:What makes a party more likely to win the post of mayor? The article finds that party size and change in size are important along with experience and ideological centrality. The results are similar to those obtained at the national level, and this study thus...... expands the scope of these explanatory variables. However, the study also shows that being a large party is not sufficient for a party to have a good chance of winning the mayoralty. Furthermore, norms guiding appropriate behaviour seem important in addition to instrumental behaviour. It appears...

  7. Eastern Sahara Geology from Orbital Radar: Potential Analog to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Paillou, P.; Heggy, E.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the surface of Mars has been intensely reworked by aeolian processes and key evidence about the history of the Martian environment seems to be hidden beneath a widespread layer of debris (paleo lakes and rivers, faults, impact craters). In the same way, the recent geological and hydrological history of the eastern Sahara is still mainly hidden under large regions of wind-blown sand which represent a possible terrestrial analog to Mars. The subsurface geology there is generally invisible to optical remote sensing techniques, but radar images obtained from the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) missions were able to penetrate the superficial sand layer to reveal parts of paleohydrological networks in southern Egypt.

  8. Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owocki, Krzysztof; Muszyński, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    A specimen of the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite contains shock-produced veins consisting of recrystallised fine-grained pyroxenes that include small droplets of Ni-rich metal. Non-melted olivines and pyroxenes show planar deformations filled by shock-melted and -polluted metal and troilite. Shock-melted feldspathic glass is present close to the shock veins. Geothermometric estimations indicate that the meteorite locally experienced moderate shock metamorphism with a minimum local peak temperature above 1400°C, resulting in partial melting of Ca-poor pyroxene and full melting of feldspars, metal and sulphides. The mineral assemblage in the shock veins suggests a pressure during melt recrystallisation below 10 GPa.

  9. Dry Deposition from Sahara Sources Regions of Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Douaiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sahara dust storms during March 2004 have attracted much attention from the dust-research community due to their intensity, wide coverage, and endurance. In the present work, the dry deposition mechanisms of mineral dust are analysed during an event on the 3 March 2004 over the Northwest African coast. This particular case was chosen based on the strong dry removal that occurred, rendering it ideal for examining the deposition processes. The simulation of synoptic conditions and dry deposition of four dust particles including clay, small silt, large silt, and sand was performed with Eta model, coupled with a desert dust cycle module. The results have been compared with surface data from weather stations in North Africa, data of dry metals from stations located in Gran Canaria, and various satellite images such as European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for the period in question.

  10. Notes on Old Stone Constructions of West and Central Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark MILBURN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente trabajo trata acerca de la tumba de TIN-HUMAN, HOGGAR, y la describe presentándola en relacón con los «monumentos en capilla» de Négrine, Tafilalet y Oeste del Sahara. Además, incluye comentarios sobre la rareza de las tumbas rectangulares con habitaciones interiores. Se hace una razonable exposición de los «monumentos fusiformes», conectados con la tradición del tránsito por barco a la vida futura. La tumba de TIN-HINAN combina características de los monumentos en capilla o habitación con aquellas otras de «monumentos de deambulatorio complejo».ABSTRACT: This work deals with the tomb of Tin-Hinan, Hoggar, and describes it as presenting a relationship with the «monuments à chapelle» of Négrine, Tafilalet and West Sahara which also have very large chambers. It also includes a commentarity on the rarity of rectangular tombs with interior chambers. It proposes a reasonable explanation of the «fusiformes monuments» as being connected with a tradition of a journey by ship to the after-life (this being suggested by their very shape. The tomb of Tin-Hinan combines characteristics of the «monument à chapelle ou à chambre» with those of a «monument à déambulatoire complexe».

  11. 47 CFR 1.21 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties. 1.21 Section 1.21 Telecommunication... Parties, Practitioners, and Witnesses § 1.21 Parties. (a) Any party may appear before the Commission and... deemed to be a party to every adjudicatory proceeding (as defined in the Administrative Procedure Act...

  12. 34 CFR 101.21 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 101.21 Section 101.21 Education Regulations of... AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 100 OF THIS TITLE Parties § 101.21 Parties. (a) The term party... Department of Education, shall be deemed a party to all proceedings. ...

  13. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6 Federal... DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office of President in the preceding Presidential election received, as a candidate of such party, 25 percent or more...

  14. 11 CFR 9002.7 - Minor party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor party. 9002.7 Section 9002.7 Federal... DEFINITIONS § 9002.7 Minor party. Minor party means a political party whose candidate for the office of President in the preceding Presidential election received, as a candidate of such party, 5 percent or more...

  15. 22 CFR 901.20 - Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Party. 901.20 Section 901.20 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.20 Party. Party...; or (c) The exclusive representative if it has achieved party status under § 903.4. A Party may act...

  16. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    -taking behaviors, such as drug use and violence. Here, we scrutinize the research on extended youth parties to identify general changes that young people undergo at these events. We call these celebrations departies, because they center on the organization and facilitation of momentary departures from...... immoral; (4) stylistically, by altering their stylistic expressions through dress, demeanor, and consumption; and (5) experientially, because the parties generate mood and mind alterations. These are overlapping and intertwined elements, the combination of which amounts to a distinct type of youth party...

  17. Crystallization of Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite in Sahara 98222, 00293, and 00350: Constraints on Shock Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, C.; Hu, J.; Sharp, T. G.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the coexistence of wadsleyite and ringwoodite in transformed clasts within three ordinary chondrites: Sahara 98222, 00293 and 00350. High-pressure mineralogy is used to constrain conditions of the impact event on the parent body.

  18. Comment on "Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, Victor; Claussen, Martin

    2008-11-28

    Kröpelin et al. (Research Articles, 9 May 2008, p. 765) interpreted a sediment record from Lake Yoa in the east-central part of North Africa as support for a weak biogeophysical climate-vegetation feedback in the Sahara during the mid-Holocene. We argue that the new data do not invalidate earlier modeling results on strong land-atmosphere coupling in the Western Sahara for which the Lake Yoa record is far less representative.

  19. Building Fit-for-Purpose Spatial Frameworks for Sustainable Land Governaqnce in Sub-Sahara Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    countries this countrywide spatial framework has been developed over centuries. In contrast, most developing countries have a cadastral coverage of less than 30 per cent of the country. This means that over 70 per cent of the land in many developing countries, such as the sub-Sahara region, is generally......, economic, legal, and social issues related to building such fit-for purpose spatial frameworks as a means of paving the way towards sustainable and land governance in Sub-Sahara Africa...

  20. A rationale for intra-party democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Zudenkova, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a rationale for intra-party democracy within a political agency model with moral hazard. The focus is on the party's internal procedures for policy determination. I show that democratizing those procedures benefits the party leadership, which seeks to maximize joint reelection chances of the party's incumbents. The reason is that under intra-party democracy, the voters adopt less demanding reappointment rules and reelect the party's incumbents more often than under leaders...

  1. 14 CFR 16.203 - Appearances, parties, and rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearances, parties, and rights of parties... § 16.203 Appearances, parties, and rights of parties. (a) Appearances. Any party may appear and be heard in person. (1) Any party may be accompanied, represented, or advised by an attorney licensed by a...

  2. 49 CFR 604.37 - Appearances, parties, and rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances, parties, and rights of parties. 604..., parties, and rights of parties. (a) Any party to the hearing may appear and be heard in person and any party to the hearing may be accompanied, represented, or advised by an attorney licensed by a State, the...

  3. 45 CFR 81.21 - Parties; General Counsel deemed a party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties; General Counsel deemed a party. 81.21... PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Parties § 81.21 Parties; General Counsel deemed a party. (a) The term party shall include an applicant or recipient or other person to whom a notice of...

  4. 31 CFR 800.220 - Party or parties to a transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Party or parties to a transaction..., ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.220 Party or parties to a transaction. The terms party to a transaction and parties to a transaction mean: (a) In the case of an acquisition of an...

  5. Party Newspapers Perspectives and Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Espírito Santo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on how different parties use its party newspapers as instruments of political communication, in the current political context, particularly in Portuguese press. As is to be expected, the newspapers reproduce the party’s vision and help disseminate their leaders’ political ideals and proposals. There are, however, significant differences in the history and format of each publication, in terms of the way the political message is put across and the scope of the subjects addressed. This article is based on a content analysis technique, through a categorical qualitative and quantitative systematization. The expected results are centered on the discussion about the communication strategies of ideologically different party newspapers which are visible in front pages. Moreover, this study is expected to contribute to the discussion about personalization in politics, focusing and considering in particular party newspapers. This is a subject that has been scarcely investigated in communication studies and in political science, despite the presence and ideological place of party newspapers in the past and at present. The aim of this article is to make a contribution toward demonstrating and boosting the interest of this important support to party life and politics.

  6. Are niche parties fundamentally different from mainstream parties? The causes and electoral consequences of Western European parties' policy shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezrow, L.J.; Adams, J.; Clark, M.; Glasgow, G.

    2006-01-01

    Do "niche" parties - such as Communist, Green, and extreme nationalist parties - adjust their policies in response to shifts in public opinion Would such policy responsiveness enhance these parties' electoral support We report the results of statistical analyses of the relationship between parties'

  7. The grand old party - a party of values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Patrick; Rusch, Thomas; Hornik, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore the semantic space spanned by self-reported statements of Republican voters. Our semantic structure analysis uses multidimensional scaling and social network analysis to extract, explore, and visualize word patterns and word associations in response to the stimulus statement "I'm a Republican, because …" which were collected from the official website of the Republican Party. With psychological value theory as our backdrop, we examine the association of specific keywords within and across the statements, compute clusters of statements based on these associations, and explore common word sequences Republican voters use to characterize their political association with the Party.

  8. [Seroepidemiological study of malaria in the Algerian Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerroug, E H; Janssens, P G; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of geoclimatic characteristics, the Saharan region of Algeria (area, 2 million km2) is made up of several subregions; analysis of the historical data on malaria in this region seems to show that the epidemiological situation is closely linked to climatic and hydrographic conditions. A longitudinal sero-epidemiological study was conducted in this vast region from September 1983 to April 1985. The general findings do not appear to support the existence of active foci of transmission, but analysis of the data for certain oases and localities leads to a quite different assessment of the epidemiological situation. At Ouargla, for example, the serological results obtained by indirect immunofluorescence show prevalence of under 5% in the four successive surveys, whereas in Heïha oasis over 50% of subjects over 30 years of age were found to be seropositive. The results of the longitudinal seroepidemiological surveys conducted in a number of localities and oases in the Saharan region reflect the diversity of epidemiological settings and provide evidence that there is low-level malaria transmission in some oases such as Heïha, Yakou, Ihérir and probably in In-Salah. These surveys confirm that malaria transmission has been halted in the former foci such as Ouargla and Timimoune. Finally, the longitudinal sero-epidemiological study shows there are movements of potential parasite carriers from countries south of the Sahara and therefore that oases associated with trans-Saharan trade are vulnerable.

  9. 36 CFR 1150.11 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 1150.11 Section 1150... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Parties, Complainants, Participants § 1150.11 Parties. (a) The term parties includes (1) any agency, state or local body, or other person named as a respondent...

  10. 7 CFR 15.64 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parties. 15.64 Section 15.64 Agriculture Office of the... Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 General Information § 15.64 Parties. The term party... shall be deemed a party to all proceedings. ...

  11. 24 CFR 982.456 - Third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Third parties. 982.456 Section 982... Owner Responsibility § 982.456 Third parties. (a) Even if the family continues to occupy the unit, the... is not a party to or third party beneficiary of the HAP contract. Except as provided in paragraph (b...

  12. 17 CFR 10.31 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parties. 10.31 Section 10.31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Parties and Limited Participation § 10.31 Parties. The parties to an adjudicatory proceeding shall include the...

  13. 38 CFR 18b.16 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 18b.16 Section... PROCEDURE UNDER TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 AND PART 18 OF THIS CHAPTER Parties § 18b.16 Parties. The term party shall include an applicant or recipient or other person to whom a notice of...

  14. 7 CFR 958.90 - Additional parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional parties. 958.90 Section 958.90 Agriculture... Additional parties. After the effective date hereof, any handler may become a party to this agreement if a... contracting party at the time such counterpart is delivered to the Secretary, and the benefits, privileges...

  15. Promoting Party Politics in Emerging Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnell, P.; Gerrits, A.

    2010-01-01

    This opening section briefly introduces international political party support, that is, assistance to political parties by international organizations, mostly from the US and Europe, to strengthen individual political parties, to promote peaceful interaction between parties and to help to create a

  16. 5 CFR 2421.11 - Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party. 2421.11 Section 2421.11... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.11 Party. Party means... request; (b) Any labor organization or agency or activity (1) Named as (i) A charged party in a charge...

  17. 12 CFR 269a.1 - Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party. 269a.1 Section 269a.1 Banks and Banking... Party. The term Party means any person, employee, group of employees, labor organization, or bank as... rules and regulations, (b) named as a party in a charge, complaint, petition, application, or request...

  18. 22 CFR 1421.11 - Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Party. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Foreign Relations... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.11 Party. Party means (a) any person: (1) Filing a charge, petition, or request... been permitted or directed by the Board; (4) who participated as a party (i) in a matter that was...

  19. Public Funding of Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian

    This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign expendit......This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...... expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can...

  20. Intra-party democracy beyond aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on intra-party democracy pays a great deal of attention to aggregative procedures like primaries or membership ballots but widely ignores deliberative procedures within parties. This article begins by highlighting why scholars should care about deliberation within parties......, discussing several functions intra-party deliberation is said to serve in the democratic theory literature. It then goes on to explore the deliberative credentials of political discussion between party members, drawing on group interviews with party members in two Social Democratic parties in Germany...... and Austria. Two issues are investigated: the preconditions for deliberation among party members and their justificatory patterns. The results of the analysis suggest that parties can be genuine vehicles of deliberation, and thus point towards a research programme on intra-party democracy that differs quite...

  1. When Parties become Racialized: Deconstructing Racially Themed Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gina A.; Johnston, Marc P.; Garibay, Juan C.; Herrera, Felisha A.; Giraldo, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    Racially themed parties are all-too-common occurrences on college campuses. Using critical race theory as a lens, this article provides a contemporary overview of these events and deconstructs these incidents as examples of overt forms of racism often emanating from subtle, everyday occurrences of covert racism or racial microaggressions.…

  2. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne Party Poppers,” and “Party Surprise Poppers,”) shall not contain more than 0.25 grains of pyrotechnic...

  3. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  4. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial

  5. The Management of Digital Records in the Office of the Premier of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to investigate the management of digital records in the Office of the Premier (OTP) in the Eastern Cape Province. The objectives of the study were to determine the compliance to the legal framework, identify the requisite infrastructure for digital records management (DRM), describe the security and ...

  6. The 2014 presidential elections and their impact on the premier-presidential regime in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Gavril

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available First, we will demonstrate that, from an institutional perspective, Romania can labeled of premier-presidentialism regime, but the 2004 and 2009 elections have had a strong impact on the type of regime, meaning that several extra-constitutional factors led to the malfunction of the regime. Out of a total of 15 prime-minister nominations made after 1989, 8 can be considered deviations from the premier-presidential regime, their number being larger between 2004-2014 rather than in 1990-2000. The empirical analysis of the 2004-2014 period, highlighted three extra-constitutional factors that that made the premier-presidential regime be, in fact, a malfunctioning one: leadership style, crisis situations and the recent legitimacy of the president versus the parliament. By identifying the factors that influenced the regime type, we can determine some theoretical expectations following the 2014 elections. The success of a premier-presidentialism regime in Romania will be determined by the number of deviations from such a regime registered after the 2014 elections.

  7. Investigating the Impact of the Premier League Reading Stars Programme on Children's Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabion, Clémence

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of the Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) programme in 2013 has established that the intervention is having a positive impact on the attainment of participating children in reading and writing: Three out of four children made at least six months' progress in just ten weeks. One child in three made a year's progress or more. The…

  8. South of Sahara | Page 139 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'indépendance du Zimbabwe a mis fin à la ségrégation raciale et à la domination coloniale. Pourtant, les espérances et les espoirs d'une amélioration radicale des conditions de vie de la majorité noire du pays restent insatisfaits. La majeure partie du logement pour les pauvres est marginale, surpeuplée et dangereuse.

  9. [Ketamine as a party drug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegop, M.P.; Dongen, R.T.M. van; Vantroyen, B.; Kramers, C.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine is a new party drug, which is easy to obtain. For this reason, it is possible that physicians will be increasingly confronted with users that have medical problems. Relatively few cases of ketamine intoxication with a fatal outcome have been reported thus far. Ketamine is very

  10. Podemos som postkrise-parti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Podemos er et nyt politisk parti i Spanien, stiftet efter finanskrisen. Partiet har allerede opnået stor tilslutning og forventes at komme til at spille en rolle i spansk politik efter det nationale valg i efteråret 2015. Podemos repræsenterer en ny type venstrefløjsparti med tætte relationer til...

  11. The 19th Party Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Høyrup Christensen, Nis

    2017-01-01

    The 19th Congress of the Communist Party of China was held in Beijing October 18-24 2017. Leading up to the congress there was intense speculation concerning the new line-up of the most important leadership bodies of the CPC: the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee. Would the Politburo...

  12. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

  13. LOW {sup 60}FE ABUNDANCE IN SEMARKONA AND SAHARA 99555

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Haolan; Dauphas, Nicolas, E-mail: haolantang@ucla.edu [Origins Lab, Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Iron-60 (t{sub 1/2} = 2.62 Myr) is a short-lived nuclide that can help constrain the astrophysical context of Solar System formation and date early Solar System events. A high abundance of {sup 60}Fe({sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ≈ 4 × 10{sup −7}) was reported by in situ techniques in some chondrules from the LL3.00 Semarkona meteorite, which was taken as evidence that a supernova exploded in the vicinity of the birthplace of the Sun. However, our previous multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) measurements of a wide range of meteoritic materials, including chondrules, showed that {sup 60}Fe was present in the early Solar System at a much lower level ({sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ≈ 10{sup −8}). The reason for the discrepancy is unknown but only two Semarkona chondrules were measured by MC-ICPMS and these had Fe/Ni ratios below ∼2× chondritic. Here, we show that the initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratio in Semarkona chondrules with Fe/Ni ratios up to ∼24× chondritic is (5.39 ± 3.27) × 10{sup −9}. We also establish the initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratio at the time of crystallization of the Sahara 99555 angrite, a chronological anchor, to be (1.97 ± 0.77) × 10{sup −9}. These results demonstrate that the initial abundance of {sup 60}Fe at Solar System birth was low, corresponding to an initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratio of (1.01 ± 0.27) × 10{sup −8}.

  14. Le Parti des Paysans de Bessarabie et la rivalite entre Pantelimon Halippa et Ion Inculeţ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Cemârtan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’effervescence du mouvement national en Bessarabie en 1917 a apporté en premier plan la question de l’organisation de la vie politique. Anterieurement il n’y avait pas des partis politiques proprement dits et en étant animés par le meme but, les leaders de ce mouvement ont formé Le Parti National Moldave. Halippa a été un des représentants marquants qui a contribué à la formation de la vie politique en Bessarabie, il a fondé le Parti National Moldave, ulterieurement transformé en Parti des Paysans de Bessarabie, dont Halippa a été le président durant toute sa vie (1918-1926. Cet étude souligne le rôle joué par Halippa dans Le Parti des Paysans de Bessarabie et sa contribution à la fusion avec le Parti des Paysans dans le Vieux Royaume. Le conflit d’opinions entre Halippa et Inculeţ et, plus précisément le conflit entre les visions liés à l’avenir du parti, ont influencé l’évolution de l’organisation. L’intégration du Parti des Paysans de Bessarabie dans le système politique roumain a été la suite naturelle de l’Union et des processus complexes de formation de la Grande Roumanie, mais la formation d’un parti des paysans uni a représenté un progrès pour la vie politique roumaine.

  15. African humid periods triggered the reactivation of a large river system in Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonieczny, C; Paillou, P; Bory, A; Bayon, G; Biscara, L; Crosta, X; Eynaud, F; Malaizé, B; Revel, M; Aleman, N; Barusseau, J-P; Vernet, R; Lopez, S; Grousset, F

    2015-11-10

    The Sahara experienced several humid episodes during the late Quaternary, associated with the development of vast fluvial networks and enhanced freshwater delivery to the surrounding ocean margins. In particular, marine sediment records off Western Sahara indicate deposition of river-borne material at those times, implying sustained fluvial discharges along the West African margin. Today, however, no major river exists in this area; therefore, the origin of these sediments remains unclear. Here, using orbital radar satellite imagery, we present geomorphological data that reveal the existence of a large buried paleodrainage network on the Mauritanian coast. On the basis of evidence from the literature, we propose that reactivation of this major paleoriver during past humid periods contributed to the delivery of sediments to the Tropical Atlantic margin. This finding provides new insights for the interpretation of terrigenous sediment records off Western Africa, with important implications for our understanding of the paleohydrological history of the Sahara.

  16. Monique VÉRITÉ, Henri Lhote – Une aventure scientifique au Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno LECOQUIERRE

    2015-01-01

    Auteur déjà en 1992 d’Odette du Puigaudeau : une bretonne au Sahara, Monique Vérité vient de livrer une nouvelle biographie passionnante, sur une personnalité saharienne haute en couleur, célèbre en France et au Sahara après-guerre et qui est aujourd’hui un peu oubliée : Henri Lhote (1903-1991). Henri Lhote peut être considéré comme l’un des plus grands explorateurs du Sahara au XXe siècle, aux côtés de Conrad Kilian et de Théodore Monod. Le parallèle avec ce dernier est assez fascinant car c...

  17. A NEW SPECIES OF CYRTOSPIRIFER (BRACHIOPODA FROM THE MIDDLE DEVONIAN OF THE WESTERN SAHARA (NORTHWESTERN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENA SCHEMM-GREGORY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Cyrtospirifer is described from the Middle to Upper Givetian of the Western Sahara (Northwest Africa. Cyrtospirifer tindoufensis new species differs in its smaller number and coarser medial and flank plications and equibiconvex shell profile from the other Givetian species of Cyrtospirifer that all occur in Europe and to which the new species probably gives rise. The new implications of the proposed phylogeny of the earliest cyrtospiriferids and their origin from the Western Sahara are discussed. The palaeogeographic distribution of the cyrtospiriferids during the Givetian and Frasnian is shown and its migration ways are described considering the global transgression and regression cycles. 

  18. The blurred boundaries of political violence in the Sahel-Sahara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The Sahel and the Sahara are faced with exceptional political instability involving a combination of rebellions, jihadist insurgencies, coups d’état, protest movements and illegal trafficking. Analysis of the outbreaks of violence reveals that the region is not just the victim of an escalation...... of wars and conflicts that marked the 20th century. The Sahel-Sahara has also become the setting of a globalised security environment, in which boundaries between what is local and global, domestic and international, military and civilian, politics and identity are blurred....

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  20. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteracea species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  1. Three exploratory studies of college theme parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, John D; Ketchie, Julie M; Reed, Mark B; Shillington, Audrey M; Lange, James E; Holmes, Megan R

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this exploratory research were to (1) explore the characteristics and risks associated with college theme parties, (2) assess differences in risk associated with college theme parties compared to non-theme parties and (3) to assess differences in risk associated with risqué theme parties as compared to non-risqué theme parties. We used a mixed methods design. Results are presented from three exploratory studies of alcohol consumption in college theme parties: (1) four qualitative focus groups of students who have attended such events, (2) a web-based survey and (3) a multi-level (observational, survey, breath blood alcohol samples) study of 226 college parties, 29 of which were themed events. Focus group participants included a convenience sample of 17 college students aged 18-24 years; participants for the web survey included a convenience sample of 407 college students; participants for the multi-level study of college parties included 1725 randomly selected individuals at college parties. Themes tended to be highly sexualized. Compared to non-themed parties, theme parties have been observed to be more rowdy, louder, involve drinking games, feature kegs and feature hard liquor. Themed parties are associated with heavy drinking and are consistent with environments sought by heavy drinkers. As a result, themed parties are marked by a greater number of alcohol-related problems. Further research is needed to understand more clearly the risks involved in themed and risqué themed events.

  2. The Europeanisation of Slovak Political Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leška Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyse the Europeanisation of Slovak political parties in the various stages of the transition and transformation of the political system of Slovakia before and after the entry into the European Union. Methodologically, the paper is based on the concept of Ladrech, who divided five areas of research to suit the study of the impact of the Europeanisation on political parties and their politics. Visible can be changes in political programmes, organisational changes, a formula of party competition, relations between parties and government, relations beyond the national party system (a new look at transnational cooperation between political parties. Our research proved that the Europeanisation has been visible at all stages of development, with varying degrees of intensity and in various forms since the signing of the association agreement with the European Union. Its effect was important already in the stage of the society transition when it helped the return of Slovakia on the path of democratic development. In the two stages of development, Europeanisation created an individual line of cleavage of political parties, affected the rivalry of political parties, and thus a party system model. Unambiguously, it was reflected in political programmes of all parties, and an important role was played by the incorporation of political parties in the European political parties, by their cooperation and coordination of their policies. The election in the European Parliament was an important turning point in completion of programme orientations of political parties.

  3. Tea Partys Popularitet i USA

    OpenAIRE

    Altaf, Ali; Teilkamf Birch, Katharina; Munk Pedersen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The following project is about the rising popularity of the Tea Party Movement in the United States. To understand the reasons behind the movement’s rising popularity, we have examined several issues that might have contributed to the movement’s popularity. We have used different theories on the subject of social movements and collective action theory and also revolution theory. The theories about social movements and collective action are based on the work of Al-berto Melucci, which is relat...

  4. Joe Zhang, Party Man, Company Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: Joe Zhang: Party Man, Company Man. Honolulu: Enrich Professional Publishing, 2014. 234 pp.......Book review of: Joe Zhang: Party Man, Company Man. Honolulu: Enrich Professional Publishing, 2014. 234 pp....

  5. Drinking at college parties: examining the influence of student host-status and party-location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Cynthia K; Khurana, Atika; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-12-01

    The present research focuses on the party related drinking behaviors of college students and explores the differences in these behaviors based on students' host status (i.e. party host vs. party attendee). Furthermore, we examine if the differences in party hosts and attendees' drinking behaviors vary as a function of the party location (on-campus vs. off-campus). Multiple regression analyses were conducted using data from 3796 undergraduates at a Midwestern University. Findings revealed a significant interaction between host status and party location, such that student party hosts reported significantly greater drink consumption and related consequences as compared to party attendees, only when the party was organized off-campus. For parties organized on-campus, student hosts reported lower drink consumption as compared to attendees. College-based preventive interventions should target students likely to host off-campus parties due to their high risk for involvement in heavy drinking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...... analysed during the 2005-2006 competitive season (n=370), using a multi-camera computerised tracking system. During a typical match, wide midfielders (3138 m, s=565) covered a greater distance in high-intensity running than central midfielders (2825 m, s= 73, P=0.04), full-backs (2605 m, s=387, P ....01), attackers (2341 m, s=575, P running distance was approximately 20% less than in the first 15-min period for wide midfielders (467 m, s=104 vs. 589 m, s=134, P

  7. 11 CFR 9004.1 - Major parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major parties. 9004.1 Section 9004.1 Federal... ENTITLEMENT OF ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES TO PAYMENTS; USE OF PAYMENTS § 9004.1 Major parties. The eligible candidates of each major party in a Presidential election shall be entitled to equal payments under 11 CFR...

  8. 29 CFR 2570.4 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 2570.4 Section 2570.4 Labor Regulations Relating... ERISA Section 502(i) § 2570.4 Parties. For prohibited transaction penalty proceedings, this section shall apply in lieu of § 18.10 of this title. (a) The term party wherever used in these rules shall...

  9. 34 CFR 682.203 - Responsible parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsible parties. 682.203 Section 682.203 Education... parties. (a) Delegation of functions. A school, lender, or guaranty agency may contract or otherwise delegate the performance of its functions under the Act and this part to a servicing agency or other party...

  10. 31 CFR 215.6 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 215.6 Section 215.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... COUNTY INCOME OR EMPLOYMENT TAXES BY FEDERAL AGENCIES Withholding Agreement § 215.6 Parties. The parties...

  11. 5 CFR 1201.35 - Substituting parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substituting parties. 1201.35 Section... AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Appellate Cases Parties, Representatives, and Witnesses § 1201.35 Substituting parties. (a) If an appellant dies or is otherwise unable to pursue the appeal, the processing of...

  12. 28 CFR 80.5 - Affected parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affected parties. 80.5 Section 80.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.5 Affected parties. An FCPA Opinion shall have no application to any party which does not join in...

  13. 28 CFR 51.7 - Political parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political parties. 51.7 Section 51.7... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.7 Political parties. Certain activities of political parties are subject to the preclearance requirement of section 5. A change affecting...

  14. 14 CFR 302.10 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parties. 302.10 Section 302.10 Aeronautics... REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS Rules of General Applicability § 302.10 Parties. (a) In addition to the persons set forth in § 302.2, in hearing cases, parties shall include Department staff...

  15. 30 CFR 44.3 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 44.3 Section 44.3 Mineral Resources... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS General § 44.3 Parties. Parties to proceedings under this part shall include the Mine Safety and Health Administration, the...

  16. 29 CFR 1978.107 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 1978.107 Section 1978.107 Labor Regulations... Procedure Litigation § 1978.107 Parties. (a) In any case in which only the named person objects to the findings or the preliminary order the Assistant Secretary ordinarily shall be the prosecuting party. In...

  17. 43 CFR 4.1105 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties. 4.1105 Section 4.1105 Public... Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals General Provisions § 4.1105 Parties. (a) All persons indicated in the act as parties to administrative review proceedings under the act...

  18. 7 CFR 955.91 - Additional parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional parties. 955.91 Section 955.91 Agriculture... Marketing Agreement § 955.91 Additional parties. After the effective date thereof, any handler may become a party to this agreement if a counterpart is executed by such handler and delivered to the Secretary...

  19. 29 CFR 2200.20 - Party status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Party status. 2200.20 Section 2200.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Parties and Representatives § 2200.20 Party status. (a) Affected employees. Affected employees and authorized...

  20. 29 CFR 457.19 - Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Party. 457.19 Section 457.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.19 Party. Party means any person, employee, group of employees...

  1. 47 CFR 2.909 - Responsible party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsible party. 2.909 Section 2.909... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures General Provisions § 2.909 Responsible party. The following parties are responsible for the compliance of radio frequency equipment with the...

  2. 29 CFR 102.8 - Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Party. 102.8 Section 102.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Definitions § 102.8 Party. The term party as used herein shall mean the regional director in whose region the proceeding is pending and any...

  3. 11 CFR 9002.15 - Political party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political party. 9002.15 Section 9002.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.15 Political party. Political party means an association, committee, or...

  4. Premiers récipiendaires d'une bourse du Fonds Hopper-Bhatia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 janv. 2018 ... Il permet d'appuyer financièrement de jeunes chercheurs en début de carrière, en particulier des femmes, au moyen de bourses et de stages. ... Selon un récent sondage d'opinion mené dans 17 pays latino-américains, les problèmes liés au marché de l'emploi arrivaient au premier rang de 10 enjeux ...

  5. Morbi-mortalite au cours du premier trimestre de la grossesse a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le but de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence des complications de la grossesse au premier trimestre, identifier leurs facteurs de risque et évaluer le pronostic immédiat. L\\'étude prospective, descriptive et multicentrique, conduite sur un an, du 1er Janvier 2005 au 31 Décembre 2005 dans les trois principales ...

  6. Respon Pelanggan Pada Situs Tripadvisor.com Sebagai Bentuk Cyber Public Relations the Premiere Hotel Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Yazid, Tantri Puspita; Afifah, Adilla

    2015-01-01

    Tripadvisor.com is a site that aims to facilitate the tourists to seek information about lodging such as hotels. By using this site everyone is free to provide feedback and reviews based on their experiences, both positive reviews and negative. Many reviews on this site will indirectly affect customers or prospective customers in selecting and deciding hotel. Reviews on these sites influence for customers and prospective customers in selecting place to stay, the PR The Premiere use the site a...

  7. Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ungermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available PREMIER is one of three candidates for ESA's 7th Earth Explorer mission that are currently undergoing feasibility studies. The main mission objective of PREMIER is to quantify processes controlling atmospheric composition in the mid/upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, a region of particular importance for climate change. To achieve this objective, PREMIER will employ the first satellite Fourier transform infrared limb-imager with a 2-D detector array combined with a millimetre-wave limb-sounder. The infrared limb-imager can be operated in a high spatial resolution mode ("dynamics mode" for observations of small-scale structures in atmospheric temperatures and trace gas fields with unprecedented 3-D sampling (0.5 km in the vertical direction, 50 km along track, 25 km across track. In this paper, a fast tomographic retrieval scheme is presented, which is designed to fully exploit the high-resolution radiance observations of the dynamics mode. Based on a detailed analysis of the "observational filter", we show that the dynamics mode provides unique information on global distributions of gravity waves (GW. The achievable vertical resolution for GW observations has values between the vertical sampling (0.5 km of the dynamics mode and the vertical field of view (about 0.75 km. The horizontal across track resolution corresponds to the horizontal across track sampling of 25 km. Since the achievable along track horizontal resolution is about 70 km, the dynamics mode will provide GW limb-observations with a horizontal resolution comparable to nadir sounders. Compared to previous observations, PREMIER will therefore considerably extend the range of detectable GWs in terms of horizontal and vertical wavelength.

  8. A Premiere example of the illusion of harm reduction cigarettes in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Pollay, R; Dewhirst, T

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To use the product launch of Player's Premiere as a case study for understanding the new cigarette product development process during the 1990s. We determine the (in)validity of industry claims that: (1) development of the physical product preceded the promotional promise of "less irritation"; (2) "less irritation" was actually realised; (3) advertising informed consumers; and (4) advertising regulations caused the product's failure in the marketplace.

  9. Logistique de transport pour le projet LHC enseignements des premiers secteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Prodon, S

    2003-01-01

    Ce papier dresse un premier bilan de la logistique de transport mise en place pour l'installation du LHC. Les moyens de planification mis en oeuvre seront tout d'abord évoqués avec notamment les réunions avec les groupes utilisateurs, l'élaboration de procédures de transport, la génération de listings d'articles à transporter ou encore l'établissement d'un planning des ressources. Cependant, les premiers travaux d'installation du LHC ont fait apparaître des divergences importantes entre le planning logistique établi et la réalité du terrain. Ces écarts seront analysés, qu'il s'agisse de différences sur le volume de matériel à acheminer, d'opérations non planifiées, de changements de plannings entraînant de longues et délicates traversées de chantiers ou de manque de planification des besoins en personnel dans certaines zones. Tous ces enseignements acquis au cours des premiers travaux devraient permettre de dégager des voies d'amélioration à mettre en place pour les prochains secteur...

  10. Desperate needs, desperate deeds: Why mainstream parties respond to the issues of niche parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wardt, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores agenda-setting dynamics between mainstream and niche parties on two issues owned by niche parties: immigration and European integration. It proposes an analytical distinction between opposition and government parties to understand which mainstream parties will engage in dialogue

  11. 76 FR 69595 - Application of Third Party Testing Requirements; Reducing Third Party Testing Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... November 8, 2011 Part VI Consumer Product Safety Commission 16 CFR Chapter II Application of Third Party Testing Requirements; Reducing Third Party Testing Burdens; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76... CFR Chapter II Application of Third Party Testing Requirements; Reducing Third Party Testing Burdens...

  12. Patronage and party organization in Argentina : the emergence of the patronage-based network party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherlis Perel, Gerardo Ezequiel

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of a study of party patronage in Argentina. It attempts to assess the degree to which parties appoint people to public positions, who is in effect responsible for patronage within parties, what motivates parties to appoint in different sectors and at different levels of

  13. Do Mainstream Parties Adapt to the Welfare Chauvinism of Populist Parties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2016-01-01

    and when mainstream parties ignore, attack or accommodate welfare chauvinism. Using key theories of party behaviour, we test whether mainstream parties (1) respond immediately to populist parties, (2) respond with a time lag, or (3) respond only when they lose elections or are in opposition. Our...

  14. Quality in primary health care services in sub-Sahara Africa: right or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) system has been the foundation for the operation of the health system in most of Sub-Sahara Africa following the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978. Quality of care is an important determinant of health services utilization, and is a health outcome of public health importance. It is known that the ...

  15. Green Sahara impact on mid-latitudes during mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Marco; Messori, Gabriele; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-04-01

    In the mid-Holocene (6 kyr before present), North Africa was characterised by a vegetated Sahara and a stronger summer monsoon, resulting in a wetter climate. These conditions, induced by the different Earth's orbital parameters, and maintained by the precipitation-vegetation feedback, were associated with a substantial change of the regional atmospheric dynamics, with influences extending across the global Tropics and beyond. In this study, we explore the mid-latitude response to the vegetated Sahara in the mid-Holocene. We use the EC-Earth climate model to simulate the North African environment during mid-Holocene, i.e. extensive vegetation over the Sahara, and a consequent reduced dust emission. Vegetation and dust reduction are prescribed both in combination and in isolation, to determine the specific responses to the individual forcings. A significant response at mid-latitudes is simulated during boreal summer, when the precipitation-vegetation feedback is maximum in the Sahara. Results show increased precipitation over Mediterranean and Middle East, and warm anomalies across western Europe. This response is associated with the modification of the atmospheric circulation in the Euro-Atlantic sector. Specifically, the intensification of the subtropical jetstream favours precipitation across the Middle East, while a positive anomaly in the North Atlantic Oscillation leads the warming further west. These results suggest important implications for the understanding of future climate scenarios in the region, since a number of simulations project wetter conditions in North Africa.

  16. Hibiscus plant named `Sahara Sunset` U.S. Plant Patent 21,765

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Sahara Sunset' is a new and distinct cultivar of Hibiscus, botanically known as Hibiscus acetosella. The new Hibiscus was originated in Poplarville, Miss. and is a product of a mutation induction program. The parent of the present new cultivar is an unknown Hibiscus acetosella Wels. Ex Hiern seedli...

  17. Sud du Sahara | Page 59 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. According to the International Land Coalition, between 2000 and 2010, foreign actors and country elites acquired an estimated 83 million hectares through large-scale land ...

  18. Alternate non-stop migration strategies of pied flycatchers to cross the Sahara desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Janne; Both, Christiaan

    Each year more than two billion songbirds cross the Sahara, but how they perform this formidable task is largely unknown. Using geolocation tracks from 27 pied flycatchers, a nocturnally migrating passerine, we show that most birds made diurnal flights in both autumn and spring. These diurnal

  19. Le Sahara marocain : désenclavement et développement durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL MAHJOUB CHMOURK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Moroccan Sahara: opening-up and sustainable development. The enclosing of the Moroccan Sahara results from the inversion and old situation. Indeed, during a very long time, the area was a way of passage, a platform in the south of Morocco. In testify the Tran-Saharan commercial routes, which were the main transportation routes back in time, like the goal of integration of the area in the country and compared to western Africa. It is with the economic crisis, and even a political crisis causing a fold on itself of this area until 1975.Since Sahara belongs to Morocco, it still profits a considerable public effort to carry out its opening-up and its economic insertion within the country. Massive investments carried out by the State give to the area the structuring which it missed. Which are the aspects of the Sahara development? Which role played the State in this development? The intervention of the State contributes to bring effective solutions to the problem of the opening-up of this surrounding space?

  20. Reconstruction of exposure histories of meteorites from Antarctica and the Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupert, U.; Neumann, S.; Leya, I.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Zentraleinrichtung fuer Strahlenschutz (ZfS); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Bonani, G.; Hajdas, I.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, and {sup 26}Al were analyzed in H-, L-, and LL-chondrites from the Acfer region in the Algerian Sahara and from the Allan Hills/Antarctica. Exposure histories and terrestrial ages could be determined. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  1. Equity in access to ARV drugs in Malawi | Ntata | SAHARA-J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAHARA Journal Mission Statement The journal publishes contributions in English and French from all fields of social aspects of HIV/AIDS (care, support, ... culture, faith-based approaches, evidence-based intervention, health communication, structural and environmental intervention, financing, policy, media, etc).

  3. Lakeside Cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 Years of Holocene Population and Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Paul C.; Garcea, Elena A. A.; Jousse, Hélène; Stojanowski, Christopher M.; Saliège, Jean-François; Maga, Abdoulaye; Ide, Oumarou A.; Knudson, Kelly J.; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Stafford, Thomas W.; Kaye, Thomas G.; Giraudi, Carlo; N'siala, Isabella Massamba; Cocca, Enzo; Moots, Hannah M.; Dutheil, Didier B.; Stivers, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    Background Approximately two hundred human burials were discovered on the edge of a paleolake in Niger that provide a uniquely preserved record of human occupation in the Sahara during the Holocene (∼8000 B.C.E. to the present). Called Gobero, this suite of closely spaced sites chronicles the rapid pace of biosocial change in the southern Sahara in response to severe climatic fluctuation. Methodology/Principal Findings Two main occupational phases are identified that correspond with humid intervals in the early and mid-Holocene, based on 78 direct AMS radiocarbon dates on human remains, fauna and artifacts, as well as 9 OSL dates on paleodune sand. The older occupants have craniofacial dimensions that demonstrate similarities with mid-Holocene occupants of the southern Sahara and Late Pleistocene to early Holocene inhabitants of the Maghreb. Their hyperflexed burials compose the earliest cemetery in the Sahara dating to ∼7500 B.C.E. These early occupants abandon the area under arid conditions and, when humid conditions return ∼4600 B.C.E., are replaced by a more gracile people with elaborated grave goods including animal bone and ivory ornaments. Conclusions/Significance The principal significance of Gobero lies in its extraordinary human, faunal, and archaeological record, from which we conclude the following: The early Holocene occupants at Gobero (7700–6200 B.C.E.) were largely sedentary hunter-fisher-gatherers with lakeside funerary sites that include the earliest recorded cemetery in the Sahara.Principal components analysis of craniometric variables closely allies the early Holocene occupants at Gobero with a skeletally robust, trans-Saharan assemblage of Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene human populations from the Maghreb and southern Sahara.Gobero was abandoned during a period of severe aridification possibly as long as one millennium (6200–5200 B.C.E).More gracile humans arrived in the mid-Holocene (5200–2500 B.C.E.) employing a diversified

  4. Lakeside cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 years of holocene population and environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Sereno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately two hundred human burials were discovered on the edge of a paleolake in Niger that provide a uniquely preserved record of human occupation in the Sahara during the Holocene ( approximately 8000 B.C.E. to the present. Called Gobero, this suite of closely spaced sites chronicles the rapid pace of biosocial change in the southern Sahara in response to severe climatic fluctuation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main occupational phases are identified that correspond with humid intervals in the early and mid-Holocene, based on 78 direct AMS radiocarbon dates on human remains, fauna and artifacts, as well as 9 OSL dates on paleodune sand. The older occupants have craniofacial dimensions that demonstrate similarities with mid-Holocene occupants of the southern Sahara and Late Pleistocene to early Holocene inhabitants of the Maghreb. Their hyperflexed burials compose the earliest cemetery in the Sahara dating to approximately 7500 B.C.E. These early occupants abandon the area under arid conditions and, when humid conditions return approximately 4600 B.C.E., are replaced by a more gracile people with elaborated grave goods including animal bone and ivory ornaments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The principal significance of Gobero lies in its extraordinary human, faunal, and archaeological record, from which we conclude the following: The early Holocene occupants at Gobero (7700-6200 B.C.E. were largely sedentary hunter-fisher-gatherers with lakeside funerary sites that include the earliest recorded cemetery in the Sahara.Principal components analysis of craniometric variables closely allies the early Holocene occupants at Gobero with a skeletally robust, trans-Saharan assemblage of Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene human populations from the Maghreb and southern Sahara.Gobero was abandoned during a period of severe aridification possibly as long as one millennium (6200-5200 B.C.E.More gracile humans arrived in the mid

  5. Unravelling biodiversity, evolution and threats to conservation in the Sahara-Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, José C; Godinho, Raquel; Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Pleguezuelos, Juan M; Rebelo, Hugo; Santos, Xavier; Vale, Cândida G; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Carvalho, Sílvia B; Ferreira, Sónia; Gonçalves, Duarte V; Silva, Teresa L; Tarroso, Pedro; Campos, João C; Leite, João V; Nogueira, Joana; Alvares, Francisco; Sillero, Neftalí; Sow, Andack S; Fahd, Soumia; Crochet, Pierre-André; Carranza, Salvador

    2014-02-01

    Deserts and arid regions are generally perceived as bare and rather homogeneous areas of low diversity. The Sahara is the largest warm desert in the world and together with the arid Sahel displays high topographical and climatic heterogeneity, and has experienced recent and strong climatic oscillations that have greatly shifted biodiversity distribution and community composition. The large size, remoteness and long-term political instability of the Sahara-Sahel, have limited knowledge on its biodiversity. However, over the last decade, there have been an increasing number of published scientific studies based on modern geomatic and molecular tools, and broad sampling of taxa of these regions. This review tracks trends in knowledge about biodiversity patterns, processes and threats across the Sahara-Sahel, and anticipates needs for biodiversity research and conservation. Recent studies are changing completely the perception of regional biodiversity patterns. Instead of relatively low species diversity with distribution covering most of the region, studies now suggest a high rate of endemism and larger number of species, with much narrower and fragmented ranges, frequently limited to micro-hotspots of biodiversity. Molecular-based studies are also unravelling cryptic diversity associated with mountains, which together with recent distribution atlases, allows identifying integrative biogeographic patterns in biodiversity distribution. Mapping of multivariate environmental variation (at 1 km × 1 km resolution) of the region illustrates main biogeographical features of the Sahara-Sahel and supports recently hypothesised dispersal corridors and refugia. Micro-scale water-features present mostly in mountains have been associated with local biodiversity hotspots. However, the distribution of available data on vertebrates highlights current knowledge gaps that still apply to a large proportion of the Sahara-Sahel. Current research is providing insights into key

  6. The niche party concept and its measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas M; Miller, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    The concept of the niche party has become increasingly popular in analyses of party competition. Yet, existing approaches vary in their definitions and their measurement approaches. We propose using a minimal definition that allows us to compare political parties in terms of their 'nicheness'. We argue that the conceptual core of the niche party concept is based on issue emphasis and that a niche party emphasizes policy areas neglected by its rivals. Based on this definition, we propose a continuous measure that allows for more fine-grained measurement of a party's 'nicheness' than the dominant, dichotomous approaches and thereby limits the risk of measurement error. Drawing on data collected by the Comparative Manifesto Project, we show that (1) our measure has high face validity and (2) exposes differences among parties that are not captured by alternative, static or dichotomous measures.

  7. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Chen, Chuhe; Young, Deborah R.; Mitchell, Diane; Elmer, Patricia; Wang, Yanfang; Batch, Bryan; Champagne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is inconclusive. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help par...

  8. Relationship between Game Location and Match Result with the Amount of Aggression: Iranian Premier League Football Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Alahvisi; Mohammad Maleki; Farid Zand Salimi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between game location (host advantage), match result (win, lose or tie) and the level of aggression in football teams of the Iranian Premier League. The study population consisted of Premier League Football teams (League XIII), and 60 matches (related to 4 teams) that were available for the researcher, were selected as the sample. The current study can be regarded as applied and descriptive, in terms of purpose and data collection,...

  9. 43 CFR 4.1139 - Written interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written interrogatories to parties. 4.1139... Written interrogatories to parties. (a) Any party may serve upon any other party written interrogatories to be answered in writing by the party served, or if the party served is a public or private...

  10. Teen parties: who has parties, what predicts whether there is alcohol and who supplies the alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W

    2014-12-01

    This study explores which youth are more likely to have parties at home, what factors are associated with the presence of alcohol at parties, and who supplies the alcohol. We collected data in 2011 and 2012 through telephone interviews with 1,121 teens living in 50 mid-sized California cities. Overall, about a quarter of teens reported having had a party at their house in the past 12 months, of whom 39 % reported that there was alcohol at their last party. Multiple sources supplied alcohol for most parties. Seventy-two percent of those having a party stated that at least one of their parents knew about their last party, and 64 % reported that a parent was home at least part of the time. Seventy percent of youth who hosted a party with alcohol said that their parent(s) definitely knew that there was alcohol at the party, 24 % replied that their parent(s) probably knew, and only 5 % said that their parent(s) did not know that there was alcohol at the party. Logistic regression analyses indicated that youth with parents who host parties at home are themselves more likely to host parties at home. Having alcohol at a party was positively related to the age of the teen and the number of guests attending, and was negatively related to parents' awareness of the party. However, we found no relationship between whether a parent was at home at the time of the party and whether it included alcohol. These findings suggest that teens who have parties with alcohol at home have parents who know that there is alcohol at the party, even though only a small number of parents provided alcohol for the party.

  11. Seed viability and germination success of Acacia tortilis along land‐use and aridity gradients in the Eastern Sahara

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersen, Gidske Leknæs; Krzywinski, Knut; Gjessing, Håkon K; Pierce, Richard Holton

    2016-01-01

    Our study focuses on the keystone species A cacia tortilis and is the first to investigate the effect of domestic ungulates and aridity on seed viability and germination over an extensive part of the Eastern Sahara...

  12. The Sahara as a Large-Scale Mars Analogue and the Activities of the Ibn Battuta Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, G. G.; Dell'Arciprete, I.; Taj Eddine, K.

    2014-07-01

    Sahara has experienced during its long geological history a large number of climatic changes from humid conditions similar to the climatic changes occurred on Mars. Consequently depositional systems show similar depositional patterns.

  13. The Chinese Communist Party in Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Yongnian, Zheng

    Contrary to the expectations of many people, China's recent economic growth has not led to the collapse of the Chinese Communist Party. In fact, the party has recently carried out a peaceful and orderly transition to the so-called fourth generation of leadership, has revitalised itself, and created...... a new, younger and better trained cadre corps. Despite this successful transformation, there continue to be many problems that the party will need to overcome if it is to remain in power, including pressures for democratization in both urban and rural areas, widespread corruption, the emergence of new...... in China, the party organisation, recruitment and management, and the party's role in society more widely. It concludes by examining the prospects for the future of the Party, including whether it will continue to be able to accommodate socio-economic changes within China and pressures from abroad...

  14. Is proton beam therapy the future of radiotherapy? Part I: Clinical aspects; La protontherapie: avenir de la radiotherapie? Premiere partie: aspects cliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyon-Monteau, A.; Habrand, J.L.; Datchary, J.; Alapetite, C.; Bolle, S.; Dendale, R.; Feuvret, L.; Helfre, S.; Calugaru, V. [Centre de protontherapie d' Orsay, institut Curie, campus universitaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouyon-Monteau, A.; Alapetite, C.; Bolle, S.; Dendale, R.; Helfre, S.; Calugaru, V.; Cosset, J.M.; Bey, P. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Habrand, J.L.; Datchary, J. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Feuvret, L. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    Proton beam therapy uses positively charged particles, protons, whose physical properties improve dose-distribution (Bragg peak characterized by a sharp distal and lateral penumbra) compared with conventional photon-based radiation therapy (X-ray). These ballistic advantages apply to the treatment of deep-sited tumours located close to critical structures and requiring high-dose levels. [60-250 MeV] proton-beam therapy is now widely accepted as the 'gold standard' in specific indications in adults - ocular melanoma, chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the base of skull - and is regarded as a highly promising treatment modality in the treatment of paediatric malignancies (brain tumours, sarcomas..). This includes the relative sparing of surrounding normal organs from low and mid-doses that can cause deleterious side-effects such as radiation-induced secondary malignancies. Other clinical studies are currently testing proton beam in dose-escalation evaluations, in prostate, lung, hepatocellular cancers, etc. Clinical validation of these new indications appears necessary. To date, over 60, 000 patients worldwide have received part or all of their radiation therapy program by proton beams, in approximately 30 treatment facilities. (authors)

  15. Political party funding and business corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The funding of political parties raises interesting economic, political, social and ethical problems. This paper seeks to address these problems with the intention of contributing to the general debate, but, above all, of understanding the issue from the company's viewpoint, since companies are directly implicated in political party finance, as donors, as supposed beneficiaries of political activity, or as the sufferers of the consequences of illegal party funding. The analysis is focused in ...

  16. Party decline and response: the effects of membership decline on party organisations in Western Europe, 1960-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölln, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    How do parties respond to party decline? Political parties have been facing increasing citizen apathy in the last decades. It is exemplified in declining citizen trust in parties and fewer citizens that identify with or enrol in a party. This study investigates how party organisations in Western

  17. Profil de l'etudiant du premier cycle des etudes medicales de Lome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Apprécier la perception de l'anatomie par les étudiants du Premier cycle d'études médicales en vue d'améliorer ainsi la qualité de l'enseignement. Méthodes : Il s'est agi d'une enquête effectuée dans les salles de cours de la 1ère et 2ème de la FMMP. Un questionnaire anonyme a été remis aux étudiants.

  18. Latin American intra-party democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Adrián Martínez Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research proposes to determine the level of internal democracy of political parties in Latin America from perception of its members, allowing the creation of an index that has parameters for the measurement and comparison of the parties according to its democratic features. At the same time, research supports designing a profile of the parties by subjecting to analysis the relationship between ideology and internal democracy, stressing that despite the differences between left and right, parties in Latin America do not have dichotomous democratic features, while maintaining low levels despite their ideological location.

  19. Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Tom J; Ramirez, Jorge A; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Brücher, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c.100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three rivers, the Irharhar river, that represents the most likely route for human migration. The Irharhar river flows directly south to north, uniquely linking the mountain areas experiencing monsoon climates at these times to temperate Mediterranean environments where food and resources would have been abundant. The findings have major implications for our understanding of how humans migrated north through Africa, for the first time providing a quantitative perspective on the probabilities that these routes were viable for human habitation at these times.

  20. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets.

  1. How to hold an ethical pox party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz

    2017-10-25

    Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more severe than childhood infection. Some may consider pox parties more morally objectionable than opting out of vaccination through non-medical exemptions. In this paper, I argue that this is not the case. Pox parties involve immediate risk of harm for children and reduce future harms, whereas opting out of vaccination places children at long-term risk of harms that increase with time, at least for some pathogens. Regarding harm to others through onward transmission of infection, this can be easily prevented in the case of pox parties-given the relatively controlled timing of infection-by quarantining attendees after the party, whereas opting out of vaccination involves risks to others that are more difficult to control. I defend three criteria for an ethical pox party: (1) that the disease is sufficiently low risk, (2) that parents consent to their child's attendance and (3) that children exposed to infection are quarantined and isolated appropriately. I argue that, if these criteria are met, pox parties are morally preferable to non-vaccination; such parties involve less risk to non-consenting others and, for some pathogens in some cases, even involve less risk for the children who participate. Thus, policies that permit non-medical exemption to vaccination should also permit ethical pox parties. Alternatively, if pox parties are not permitted, then vaccination should be mandated for those without medical contraindication. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Implementing Apache Spark jobs execution and Apache Spark cluster creation for Openstack Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIYANTS A.; Borisenko, O.; TURDAKOV D.; Sher, A; Kuznetsov, S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the problem of creating virtual clusters in clouds for big data analysis with Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark is discussed. Existing methods for Apache Spark clusters creation are described in this work. Also the implemented solution for building Apache Spark clusters and Apache Spark jobs execution in Openstack environment is described. The implemented solution is a modification for OpenStack Sahara project and it was featured in Openstack Liberty release.

  3. Sud du Sahara | Page 68 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. La persistance de la pauvreté en Afrique subsaharienne, dans le contexte de progression rapide de la mondialisation et de la libéralisation des échanges commerciaux des deux dernières décennies, a suscité énormément de débats en ...

  4. Sud du Sahara | Page 78 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. La persistance de la pauvreté en Afrique subsaharienne, dans le contexte de progression rapide de la mondialisation et de la libéralisation des échanges commerciaux des deux dernières décennies, a suscité énormément de débats en ...

  5. Sud du Sahara | Page 62 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. La persistance de la pauvreté en Afrique subsaharienne, dans le contexte de progression rapide de la mondialisation et de la libéralisation des échanges commerciaux des deux dernières décennies, a suscité énormément de débats en ...

  6. Microbial Diversity of the Hypersaline Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes of the Algerian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Boutaiba, Saad; Hacene, Hocine; Bidle, Kelly A.; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial populations within hypersaline lakes often exhibit high activities of photosynthesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and other processes and, thus, can have profound impacts on biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other important elements within arid lands. To further understand these types of ecosystems, the physicochemical and biological properties of Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes in the Algerian Sahara were examined and compared. Both lakes were relativel...

  7. Tropical cyclone activity enhanced by Sahara greening and reduced dust emissions during the African Humid Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Chiacchio, Marc; Diro, Gulilat T.; Zhang, Qiong; Sushama, Laxmi; Stager, J. Curt; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2017-06-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) can have devastating socioeconomic impacts. Understanding the nature and causes of their variability is of paramount importance for society. However, historical records of TCs are too short to fully characterize such changes and paleo-sediment archives of Holocene TC activity are temporally and geographically sparse. Thus, it is of interest to apply physical modeling to understanding TC variability under different climate conditions. Here we investigate global TC activity during a warm climate state (mid-Holocene, 6,000 yBP) characterized by increased boreal summer insolation, a vegetated Sahara, and reduced dust emissions. We analyze a set of sensitivity experiments in which not only solar insolation changes are varied but also vegetation and dust concentrations. Our results show that the greening of the Sahara and reduced dust loadings lead to more favorable conditions for tropical cyclone development compared with the orbital forcing alone. In particular, the strengthening of the West African Monsoon induced by the Sahara greening triggers a change in atmospheric circulation that affects the entire tropics. Furthermore, whereas previous studies suggest lower TC activity despite stronger summer insolation and warmer sea surface temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, accounting for the Sahara greening and reduced dust concentrations leads instead to an increase of TC activity in both hemispheres, particularly over the Caribbean basin and East Coast of North America. Our study highlights the importance of regional changes in land cover and dust concentrations in affecting the potential intensity and genesis of past TCs and suggests that both factors may have appreciable influence on TC activity in a future warmer climate.

  8. Tropical cyclone activity enhanced by Sahara greening and reduced dust emissions during the African Humid Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S R; Emanuel, Kerry A; Chiacchio, Marc; Diro, Gulilat T; Zhang, Qiong; Sushama, Laxmi; Stager, J Curt; Donnelly, Jeffrey P

    2017-06-13

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) can have devastating socioeconomic impacts. Understanding the nature and causes of their variability is of paramount importance for society. However, historical records of TCs are too short to fully characterize such changes and paleo-sediment archives of Holocene TC activity are temporally and geographically sparse. Thus, it is of interest to apply physical modeling to understanding TC variability under different climate conditions. Here we investigate global TC activity during a warm climate state (mid-Holocene, 6,000 yBP) characterized by increased boreal summer insolation, a vegetated Sahara, and reduced dust emissions. We analyze a set of sensitivity experiments in which not only solar insolation changes are varied but also vegetation and dust concentrations. Our results show that the greening of the Sahara and reduced dust loadings lead to more favorable conditions for tropical cyclone development compared with the orbital forcing alone. In particular, the strengthening of the West African Monsoon induced by the Sahara greening triggers a change in atmospheric circulation that affects the entire tropics. Furthermore, whereas previous studies suggest lower TC activity despite stronger summer insolation and warmer sea surface temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, accounting for the Sahara greening and reduced dust concentrations leads instead to an increase of TC activity in both hemispheres, particularly over the Caribbean basin and East Coast of North America. Our study highlights the importance of regional changes in land cover and dust concentrations in affecting the potential intensity and genesis of past TCs and suggests that both factors may have appreciable influence on TC activity in a future warmer climate.

  9. The Puzzle of Non-Party Actors in Party Democracy: Independents in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Bolleyer, Nicole; Weeks, Liam

    2007-01-01

    It is an accepted truth that parties are the central political actors in all liberal democracies. This dominance of parties is often considered the logical outcome of rational politicians’ attempts to maximize their utility in terms of votes and policy influence. However, the last twenty years have seen a number of significant Independent (i.e. non-party) actors emerge in more than a few political systems. From an actor-centred point of view, party affiliation can, depending on the particular...

  10. RANKING THE SPECTATORS’ DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING ELECTRONIC TICKETS OF FOOTBALL PREMIER LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Narimani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to rank the spectators’ difficulties in buying electronic tickets of football premier league matches at Azadi stadium. The population consisted of all spectators of Esteghlal-Persepolis match in the fifteenth league at Azadi stadium (N= 100000. According to Morgan table and using simple random sampling method, 500 participants were selected as sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting the data; its face validity was confirmed by 15 experts and performing a pilot study on 30 subjects, its Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.86. Using SPSS 22, the descriptive and inferential (including Friedman test statistics was applied for analyzing the data. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between rankings of difficulties in buying electronic tickets of Football premier league matches at Azadi Stadium. The difficulties were ranked as: problem in ticket systems, early selling out of electronic tickets, lack of confidence to electronic ticket sale, lack of skill to work with the internet, low speed of internet, and lack of access to the internet

  11. Self-efficacy as a predictor of weight change and behavior change in the PREMIER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Brooks C; Desmond, Renee A; Brantley, Phillip; Appel, Lawrence; Svetkey, Laura; Stevens, Victor J; Ard, Jamy D

    2013-01-01

    Determine whether self-efficacy independently predicted weight loss in a behavioral intervention and explore factors that influence the path between self-efficacy and weight change. Secondary analysis of the PREMIER trial, a randomized controlled trial testing effects of lifestyle interventions on blood pressure. Four academic medical centers. PREMIER recruited adults (n = 810) with pre-hypertension/stage 1 hypertension, not currently receiving medication. This analysis excluded participants in the control arm, resulting in n = 537. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: advice only, established lifestyle recommendations, or established lifestyle recommendations plus Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern. Self-efficacy (dietary self-efficacy [DSE], exercise self-efficacy [ESE]), dietary intake, fitness. Pearson correlations, 1-way analysis of variance, mediation analyses. Despite an overall decrease in DSE/ESE, change in DSE/ESE significantly predicted weight change at 6 (β = -.21, P self-efficacy and adoption of behaviors that influence weight loss. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ABOUT THE SMART SPORTS DEVELOPMENT. EVIDENCE FROM THE UK PREMIERE LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Ionut Dumitrache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.

  13. Football fans and food: a case study of a football club in the English premier league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine

    2010-05-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.

  14. Do mainstream parties adapt to the welfare chauvinism of populist parties?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, G.; van Kersbergen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Populist parties increasingly take a welfare chauvinistic position. They criticize mainstream parties for cutting and slashing welfare at the expense of the ‘native’ population and to the benefit of the ‘undeserving’ immigrant. Given the electoral success of populist parties, we investigate whether

  15. Party media agenda-setting: how parties influence election news coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmann, D.N.; Elmelund-Præstekær, C.; Albæk, E.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Political parties have substantial influence on which issues the news media cover during election campaigns, while the media have limited influence on party agendas. However, we know little about why some parties are more successful than others in passing the media’s gates and being covered on

  16. Do Mainstream Parties Adapt to the Welfare Chauvinism of Populist Parties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2016-01-01

    Populist parties increasingly take a welfare chauvinistic position. They criticize mainstream parties for cutting and slashing welfare at the expense of the native' population and to the benefit of the undeserving' immigrant. Given the electoral success of populist parties, we investigate whether...

  17. The Motherland party: the challenge of institutionalization in a charismatic leader party

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaycıoğlu, Ersin; Kalaycioglu, Ersin

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on Motherland Party (MP), a political movement established by Turgut Özal in 1983. Information on the ideological and organizational structure of the party; Historical background of the Motherland Party; Statistical data on the MP votes in Turkish elections.

  18. Party Governance and the Selection of Parliamentarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Beniers (Klaas)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the incentives for a party leader in office and for a parties' rank-and-file to replace a sitting member of parliament. As to the leader's decision, we show that the leader prefers to replace a critical member of parliament who votes against the leader's policy. A

  19. 5 CFR 470.303 - Eligible parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible parties. 470.303 Section 470.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH... Eligible parties. (a) Any Federal agency, or groups of two or more Federal agencies, eligible to propose...

  20. Pristine Purity : New Political Parties in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucardie, Anthonie

    2007-01-01

    Success sells better than failure; hence new parties receive very little attention from political scientists as long as they remain marginal and fail to win seats in Parliament. Yet in the margins of the party system, they may maintain the pristine purity of political principles and ideas better

  1. 5 CFR 470.203 - Eligible parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible parties. 470.203 Section 470.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH... Eligible parties. Research may be conducted by the Office of Personnel Management, or under contract or...

  2. 36 CFR 251.86 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 251.86 Section 251.86 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.86 Parties. Only the following...

  3. 42 CFR 1008.53 - Affected parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affected parties. 1008.53 Section 1008.53 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Scope and Effect of OIG Advisory Opinions § 1008.53 Affected parties. An...

  4. 12 CFR 263.102 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 263.102 Section 263.102 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES... Prevailing party. Only an eligible applicant that prevailed on the merits of an adversary proceeding may...

  5. 7 CFR 29.28 - Interested party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interested party. 29.28 Section 29.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.28 Interested party. The owner or other financially interested person...

  6. How to Host a Portrait Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rama

    2011-01-01

    Simply put, a portrait party happens whenever two artists draw each other. In the classroom, portrait parties are a fun and versatile art game. They can be used to introduce students to a wide variety of artists and art skills. With practice, they are adjustable to any class period, and are appropriate for all ages. All one needs to start a…

  7. 12 CFR 308.173 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 308.173 Section 308.173 Banks....173 Prevailing party. (a) General rule. An eligible applicant who, following an adversary adjudication has gained victory on the merits in the proceeding is a “prevailing party”. An eligible applicant may...

  8. 12 CFR 747.603 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 747.603 Section 747.603 Banks... in NCUA Board Adjudications § 747.603 Prevailing party. An eligible applicant may be a “prevailing party” if the applicant wins an action after a full hearing or trial on the merits, if a settlement of...

  9. Psychometric Analyses of the Birthday Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The present research focuses on the psychometric properties of the Birthday Party measure for ages 3-5. The Birthday Party was developed to provide a reliable, valid, and engaging measure of early mathematical content--Number and Operation, Shape, Space, and Pattern--that can be given in either a short or a long form to English and Spanish…

  10. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  11. Personality traits and party identification over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.N.; Hopmann, D.N.; Persson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Why do some people stably identify with a party while others do not? This study tests whether and how the direction, stability and strength of party identification are associated with big five personality traits, using panel data from a representative sample of German citizens. First, the study

  12. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers,

  13. Implementing Democratic Equality in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolleyer, Nicole; von Nostitz, Felix-Christopher; Little, Conor

    2015-01-01

    This article theorises and empirically assesses some important intra-organisational implications of maximising democratic equality in political parties both between followers and members and between members and elites. They include weak member commitment, passivity of the rank-and-file membership...... and – depending on party structure – high levels of internal conflict. To substantiate the arguments, two parties that implement principles of democratic equality in their organisations are examined: the Swedish and German Pirate parties. These cases show, first, that while organisational structures implementing...... norms of equality allowed them to rapidly mobilise a considerable following, the same structures systematically reduced their capacity to consolidate support in the longer term – a weakness that might eventually put these parties' survival at risk. Second, they show that differences in the extent...

  14. Campaigning on behalf of the party? Party constraints on candidate campaign personalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses what makes political candidates run a party-focused or personalised election campaign. Prior work shows that candidates face incentives from voters and the media to personalise their campaign rhetoric and promises at the expense of party policy. This has raised concerns about...... the capacity of parties to govern effectively and voters’ ability to hold individual politicians accountable. This article builds on the literature on party organisation and considers the possible constraints candidates face from their party in personalising their election campaigns. Specifically, we argue...... that party control over the candidate nomination process and campaign financing constrains most political candidates in following electoral incentives for campaign personalisation. Using candidate survey data from the 2009 EP election campaign in 27 countries, we show how candidates from parties in which...

  15. 47 CFR 1.323 - Interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interrogatories to parties. 1.323 Section 1.323... and Preservation of Evidence § 1.323 Interrogatories to parties. (a) Interrogatories. Any party may serve upon any other party written interrogatories to be answered in writing by the party served or, if...

  16. 43 CFR 4.829 - Interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interrogatories to parties. 4.829 Section... Interrogatories to parties. (a) Any party may serve upon any other party written interrogatories after the notice of hearing has been filed. If the party served is a corporation, partnership, association, or...

  17. Of "Cocktail Parties" and Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2012-03-01

    The characterization of ever smaller and fainter extrasolar planets requires an intricate understanding of one's data and the analysis techniques used. Correcting the raw data at the 10-4 level of accuracy in flux is one of the central challenges. This can be difficult for instruments that do not feature a calibration plan for such high precision measurements. Here, it is not always obvious how to de-correlate the data using auxiliary information of the instrument and it becomes paramount to know how well one can disentangle instrument systematics from one's data, given nothing but the data themselves. We propose a non-parametric machine learning algorithm, based on the concept of independent component analysis, to de-convolve the systematic noise and all non-Gaussian signals from the desired astrophysical signal. Such a "blind" signal de-mixing is commonly known as the "Cocktail Party problem" in signal processing. Given multiple simultaneous observations of the same exoplanetary eclipse, as in the case of spectrophotometry, we show that we can often disentangle systematic noise from the original light-curve signal without the use of any complementary information of the instrument. In this paper, we explore these signal extraction techniques using simulated data and two data sets observed with the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS instrument. Another important application is the de-correlation of the exoplanetary signal from time-correlated stellar variability. Using data obtained by the Kepler mission we show that the desired signal can be de-convolved from the stellar noise using a single time series spanning several eclipse events. Such non-parametric techniques can provide important confirmations of the existent parametric corrections reported in the literature, and their associated results. Additionally they can substantially improve the precision exoplanetary light-curve analysis in the future.

  18. Political Marketing Mix in Indonesia Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Simbolon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reform era has changed the paradigm of Indonesian politics. Multiparty system has demanded a political party to be able to compete for their constituents. Article aimed to convey a political marketing concept that can helppolitical parties in planning a strategy to win the election. Research method used descriptive method analysis. The results suggest that the approach of the marketing mix that includes the product, price, place, and promotion areapproaches that are very helpful in presenting a plan to win the marketing strategy of political parties in elections.

  19. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  20. Une forme urbaine du premier âge touristique: les promenades littorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck DEBIÉ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Les promenades maritimes caractérisent les stations de bord de mer du premier âge touristique (1850-1930. Elles traduisent dans le paysage un urbanisme spéculatif, à rapprocher de celui qui produit le square et le boulevard, et donnent lieu à une urbanisation du littoral sous forme de vastes appendices linéaires. Les pratiques sociales associées à la promenade rappellent celles du jardin de plaisir, et renvoient au même rêve d’une urbanité idéale, libérée des miasmes, des promiscuités sociales, des contraintes qui pèsent sur les amours et les jeux.

  1. Delivering men's health interventions in English Premier League football clubs: key design characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, A; Zwolinsky, S; McKenna, J; Daly-Smith, A; Robertson, S; White, A

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the key design characteristics of Premier League Health (PLH), a national programme of men's health improvement delivered in/by 16 English Premier League (EPL) football clubs. Health Trainers (HTs) were hired by EPL clubs to deliver PLH. HTs were the focus of investigations aimed at identifying the active design characteristics of male-specific health promotion interventions. Semi-structured interviews led by researchers were performed with 13/16 HTs and identified the key design characteristics influential in (I) reaching and (II) helping participants adopt health improvement interventions delivered in professional football club settings. HTs believed that combining the appeal of football alongside EPL clubs, offered a unique opportunity to reach adult males, including hard-to-engage-men (HTEM). Awareness raising events held on match days aimed to connect with men, but outreach activities were especially important for engaging participants. Following initial reach, familiar settings, such as the club stadia and community venues were also important for ensuring regular involvement in health improvement sessions. Interventions shaped around men's health needs and delivered at times when participants could more easily attend, were factors which helped to engage men. Supportive social environments and a range of exercise modes and delivery options were also seen by HTs as being similarly important. Both the informality and familiarity of EPL clubs were viewed by HTs as having substantial advantages over conventional NHS settings for reaching and engaging men. Importantly, HTs contributed substantial skills to the delivery of PLH. Although, top flight professional football clubs can recruit men, including those regarded as hard-to-engage into health improvement programmes, considerable attention to delivery refinement is needed to support male participants adopting interventions aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society

  2. Parties heed (with caution): Public knowledge of and attitudes towards party finance in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanHeerde-Hudson, Jennifer; Fisher, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Despite comprehensive reform (Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act) and recent review (Phillips Review in 2007) of party finance in Britain, public opinion of party finance remains plagued by perceptions of corruption, undue influence from wealthy donors, carefree and wasteful spending and, more generally, from the perception that there is just 'too much money' in politics. In this article we argue that knowledge of and attitudes to party finance matter, not least because advocates of reform have cited public opinion as evidence for reform. However, because attitudes to party finance are part of a broader attitudinal structure, opinion-led reforms are unlikely to succeed in increasing public confidence. Using data generated from YouGov's online panel (N=2,008), we demonstrate that the public know little of the key provisions regulating party finance and attitudes to party finance can be explained along two underlying dimensions - Anti-Party Finance and Reformers. As such, we consider whether parties and politicians should be freed from the constraints of public opinion in reforming party finance.

  3. Third-party punishers are rewarded, but third-party helpers even more so.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-04-01

    Punishers can benefit from a tough reputation, where future partners cooperate because they fear repercussions. Alternatively, punishers might receive help from bystanders if their act is perceived as just and other-regarding. Third-party punishment of selfish individuals arguably fits these conditions, but it is not known whether third-party punishers are rewarded for their investments. Here, we show that third-party punishers are indeed rewarded by uninvolved bystanders. Third parties were presented with the outcome of a dictator game in which the dictator was either selfish or fair and were allocated to one of three treatments in which they could choose to do nothing or (1) punish the dictator, (2) help the receiver, or (3) choose between punishment and helping, respectively. A fourth player (bystander) then sees the third-party's decision and could choose to reward the third party or not. Third parties that punished selfish dictators were more likely to be rewarded by bystanders than third parties that took no action in response to a selfish dictator. However, helpful third parties were rewarded even more than third-party punishers. These results suggest that punishment could in principle evolve via indirect reciprocity, but also provide insights into why individuals typically prefer to invest in positive actions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Social and situational characteristics associated with adolescents' drinking at party and non-party events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Finan, Laura J; Grube, Joel W

    2017-12-05

    We investigated social and situational characteristics associated with adolescents' drinking at party and non-party events and whether these associations vary by party location (homes versus other locations). Ecological momentary assessment data were obtained over two weekends from 149 adolescents in California (46% female, M age=16.4years), using smartphone surveys administered early and late in the evening and the following morning. We assessed whether, where, and with whom adolescents drank alcohol. Social contexts with more people (RRR=1.05, p≤0.005) and with mixed gender composition (RRR=3.15, p≤0.05) were positively associated with increased risks of alcohol use at parties, but not at non-party events. Conversely, social contexts with friends were positively associated with alcohol use at non-party events (RRR=4.32, p≤0.005), but not at parties. Perceived access to alcohol was associated with increased risks for alcohol use at both party and non-party events, but the association was stronger for alcohol use at parties than non-parties (RRR=1.85, pparties not in homes (RRR=11.29, p≤0.05), and perceptions of getting caught by parents or police were negatively associated with non-party alcohol use in homes (RRR=0.57, p≤0.005). This study identified social-ecological contexts of underage drinking parties, which are high risk settings for heavier drinking and other alcohol-related problems. Findings can inform context-based interventions to target these high-risk settings, whether at homes or other locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Hobby Horse of the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Can a small, new political party increase the attention to nonhuman animal welfare? This paper traces the effect of the Party for the Animals on the Dutch parliament. This was the first animal advocacy party to enter parliament.

  6. Gender differences in Assessments of Party Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2015-01-01

    Is there a relationship between party leader gender and voters' assessments? Yes, according to theses on gender identity and stereotyping. A voter survey during the 2011 Danish general election allows for a comprehensive analysis of a less likely case with four male and four female party leaders...... positive towards party leaders of their own gender than voters with less education. Also, the relationship between gender and voters’ assessments is not stronger prior to the election campaign than immediately after the election. Hence, in sum, gender identity does not seem to require a higher level...... of gender does not increase with age, actually, the opposite is the case among men since younger male voters have smaller sympathy for female party leaders. Furthermore, there is no support for the expectation that voters with more education or with higher levels of political interest and knowledge are more...

  7. Political Parties in Management Science View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabijonas Saulius Butkus

    2004-01-01

    ... popular contemporary understanding of political party. Basing on the fundamentals of management science a strategy of state development and persons prepared to implement that strategy in representative and governmental institutions are considered...

  8. Related Party Transactions and Firms Financial Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    shareholders or its affiliates, directors, Managers, principal officers and employees. A ... system and economy between third world and developed countries. Secondly, there is .... These methods include unrelated third party sales deployed to.

  9. 29 CFR 2570.153 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 2570.153 Section 2570.153 Labor Regulations...) § 2570.153 Parties. For section 3(40) Finding Proceedings, this section shall apply instead of 29 CFR 18.10. (a) The term “party” with respect to a Section 3(40) Finding Proceeding means the petitioner and...

  10. Social praxis, party, and class relations today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egni Malo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s political sociologists are once again interested in the study of the crisis of mass-based parties, anti-politics and anti-parliamentarism, crisis in the authority of the political class, prevailing corporate interests within republican institutions, and populism. Political sociology however, takes the party, as a construct of political sociology alone, without consideration upon its militancy and action, as the party, which objectifies the foundation of a State, and as a result the party becomes, simply an historical category. We approach the problem of the modern state from many angles; analysing the nature of a political party as such; the ideological dangers of determinism and spontaneism which a party necessarily must struggle with; the type of non-administrative internal regime which is necessary for a party to be effective and so on. The problem we seek to elaborate is the specific character of the collective action that makes possible the passage from a sectored, corporate and subordinate role of purely negative opposition, to a leading role of conscious action towards not merely a partial adjustment within the system, but posing the issue of the State in its entirety. In developing this theme – as a study of the real relations between the political party, the classes and the State – a two-fold consideration is devoted to the study of Machiavelli and Marx: first from the angle of the real relations between the two, as thinkers of revolutionary politics, of action; and secondly from a perspective which would derive from the Marxist doctrines an articulated system of contemporary politics, as found in The Prince.

  11. Related Party Transactions and Earnings Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Linvani; Tower, Greg; Rusmin, Rusmin; Zahn, J-L.W. Mitchell Van der

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between related party transactions and earnings man-agement, based on a sample of 50 Indonesian publicly listed companies for the periods ending 2004 and 2005. The hypothesis developed in this study draw on past literature and the tenets of agency theory which suggest that the existence of related party transactions represent potential conflict of interest which may results in earnings management and appropriation by controlling shareholder to minority shar...

  12. ISR, annual party and 10th anniversary

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Every year, every Division has its Annual Party. Since the first p-p collision in the ISR occurred in January 1971, there was also a 10th anniversary to be celebrated. Had this party taken place a few weeks later, also the first antiprotons in the ISR could have been celebrated. Around the table, from left to right: Kees Zilverschoon, Fritz Ferger, Kjell Johnsen.

  13. Movements in Parties: OccupyPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella della Porta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When the United States activists called for people to Occupy#everywhere, it is unlikely they were thinking of the headquarters of the Italian centre-left party. Parties and movements are often considered to be worlds apart. In reality, parties have been relevant players in movement politics, and movements have influenced parties, often through the double militancy of many of their members. OccupyPD testifies to a continuous fluidity at the movement-party border, but also to a blockage in the party’s interactions with society that started long before the economic crisis but drastically accelerated with it. In this paper we present the OccupyPD Movement as a case of interaction between party politics and social movement politics, and in particular between the base membership of a centre-left party and the broader anti-austerity movement that diffused from the US to Europe adopting similar forms of actions and claims. Second, by locating it within the context of the economic and democratic crisis that erupted in 2007, we understand its emergence as a reaction towards politics in times of crisis of responsibility, by which we mean a drastic drop in the capacity of the government to respond to citizens’ requests. To fulfil this double aim, we bridge social movement studies with research on party change, institutional trust and democratic theory, looking at some political effects of the economic crisis in terms of a specific form of legitimacy crisis, as well as citizens’ responses to it, with a particular focus on the political meaning of recent anti-austerity protests. In this analysis, we refer to both quantitative and qualitative data from secondary liter-ature and original in-depth interviews carried out with a sample of OccupyPD activists.

  14. Implementing Democratic Equality in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolleyer, Nicole; von Nostitz, Felix-Christopher; Little, Conor

    2015-01-01

    This article theorises and empirically assesses some important intra-organisational implications of maximising democratic equality in political parties both between followers and members and between members and elites. They include weak member commitment, passivity of the rank-and-file membership...... to which subnational units provide a foundation for member mobilisation helps to explain variation in the level of internal conflict experienced by these parties....

  15. Third Party Involvement in Barroom Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, Michael J.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Felson, Richard B.; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of situational variables on whether third parties intervene in conflicts in barroom settings, and whether they are aggressive or not when they intervene. Based on research on bystander intervention in emergencies, we hypothesized that third parties would be most likely to become involved in incidents with features that convey greater danger of serious harm. The situational variables indicative of danger were severity of aggression, whether the aggression was one...

  16. Parties, rituals and symbolisms in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cecilia Valencia Aguirre

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing school parties from interaction spaces and principals’ narratives in six schools in the state of Jalisco. A party is a ritual where participants share symbols related to imaginary –hence the importance of conducting an analysis for understanding institutions as a symbolic framework. A core argument is that established actors are configured from symbolic practices in the institutional space (schools). The repetition of these practices awash with symbolism leads to ...

  17. Disease activity, physical function, and radiographic progression after longterm therapy with adalimumab plus methotrexate: 5-year results of PREMIER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Keystone, Edward C.; Landewé, Robert; Patra, Kaushik; Pangan, Aileen L.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of initial combination treatment with adalimumab (ADA) and methotrexate (MTX) versus monotherapy with ADA or MTX during an open-label extension of PREMIER. Patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) received blinded ADA plus MTX, ADA alone, or MTX alone for 2

  18. Modeling interactions between political parties and electors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, F.; Gargano, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we extend some recent results on an operatorial approach to the description of alliances between political parties interacting among themselves and with a basin of electors. In particular, we propose and compare three different models, deducing the dynamics of their related decision functions, i.e. the attitude of each party to form or not an alliance. In the first model the interactions between each party and their electors are considered. We show that these interactions drive the decision functions toward certain asymptotic values depending on the electors only: this is the perfect party, which behaves following the electors' suggestions. The second model is an extension of the first one in which we include a rule which modifies the status of the electors, and of the decision functions as a consequence, at some specific time step. In the third model we neglect the interactions with the electors while we consider cubic and quartic interactions between the parties and we show that we get (slightly oscillating) asymptotic values for the decision functions, close to their initial values. This is the real party, which does not listen to the electors. Several explicit situations are considered in details and numerical results are also shown.

  19. Third Party Involvement in Barroom Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michael J.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Felson, Richard B.; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of situational variables on whether third parties intervene in conflicts in barroom settings, and whether they are aggressive or not when they intervene. Based on research on bystander intervention in emergencies, we hypothesized that third parties would be most likely to become involved in incidents with features that convey greater danger of serious harm. The situational variables indicative of danger were severity of aggression, whether the aggression was one-sided or mutual, gender, and level of intoxication of the initial participants in the conflict. Analyses consist of cross-tabulations and three-level Hierarchical Logistic Models (with bar, evening, and incidents as levels) for 860 incidents of verbal and physical aggression from 503 nights of observation in 87 large bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada. Third party involvement was more likely during incidents in which: (1) the aggression was more severe; (2) the aggression was mutual (vs. one-sided) aggression; (3) only males (vs. mixed gender) were involved; and (4) participants were more intoxicated. These incident characteristics were stronger predictors of nonaggressive third party involvement than aggressive third party involvement. The findings suggest that third parties are indeed responding to the perceived danger of serious harm. Improving our knowledge about this aspect of aggressive incidents is valuable for developing prevention and intervention approaches designed to reduce aggression in bars and other locations. PMID:23494773

  20. Third party involvement in barroom conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michael J; Osgood, D Wayne; Felson, Richard B; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of situational variables on whether third parties intervene in conflicts in barroom settings, and whether they are aggressive or not when they intervene. Based on research on bystander intervention in emergencies, we hypothesized that third parties would be most likely to become involved in incidents with features that convey greater danger of serious harm. The situational variables indicative of danger were severity of aggression, whether the aggression was one-sided or mutual, gender, and level of intoxication of the initial participants in the conflict. Analyses consist of cross-tabulations and three-level Hierarchical Logistic Models (with bar, evening, and incidents as levels) for 860 incidents of verbal and physical aggression from 503 nights of observation in 87 large bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada. Third party involvement was more likely during incidents in which: (1) the aggression was more severe; (2) the aggression was mutual (vs. one-sided) aggression; (3) only males (vs. mixed gender) were involved; and (4) participants were more intoxicated. These incident characteristics were stronger predictors of non-aggressive third party involvement than aggressive third party involvement. The findings suggest that third parties are indeed responding to the perceived danger of serious harm. Improving our knowledge about this aspect of aggressive incidents is valuable for developing prevention and intervention approaches designed to reduce aggression in bars and other locations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Assimilation of MODIS AOD measurements during the Sahara dust episode in April 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Hirtl, Marcus; Flandorfer, Claudia; Pagowski, Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    In April 2016, an air pollution event with highly elevated surface concentrations of particulate matter (PM) has been observed in Europe. At the Sonnblick observatory (an atmospheric monitoring platform at 3100 m in the Alps in Austria), PM10 surface concentrations were considerably elevated (>100 μg/m3) on April 5, 2016. This event was caused by a Sahara dust storm. In this study we use the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry) model to predict the transport of Sahara dust from northern Africa towards Europe. Simulations were performed from April 1, 2016 to April 8, 2016 using the GOCART (Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport) aerosol scheme. The GOCART model simulates tropospheric aerosols such as dust and sea salt (both with different size bins), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), and sulfate, enabling the computation of PM2.5 and PM10. Gridpoint statistical interpolation (GSI) is then used to assimilate data of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) total aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval products at a wavelength of 550 nm from the Terra and Aqua satellites. Data assimilation is performed at 12 UTC with an assimilation window of ±3 hours. PM10 analyses are evaluated against PM10 surface measurements provided by EEA (European Environment Agency) and the Austrian Environmental Agency. First results indicate that WRF-Chem underestimates surface concentration of PM10 during the Sahara dust event in April 2016 over Europe but the assimilation of MODIS AOD substantially improves PM10 analyses.

  2. Inputs, productivity, and agricultural growth in Africa South of the Sahara:

    OpenAIRE

    Nin-Pratt, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The evidence of improved performance of agriculture in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA) in recent years has indeed been quite striking when compared with the past. For the first time, the sector has maintained a real growth rate of 3.4 percent per year, well above the population growth rate of 2.5 percent. Despite this improved performance, agricultural productivity growth in SSA continues to lag behind every other region of the world, growing at rates that are roughly half of the average rat...

  3. The British Labour Party in Opposition, 1979-1997: Structures, Agency, and Party Change

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, James P.

    1997-01-01

    The British Labour Party has spent eighteen years in opposition since 1979. During that time it lost four consecutive general elections to the Conservative Party. In 1997, however, it now looks set to win its first election since 1974. This thesis examines the Labour Party in opposition since 1979, using a theoretical framework informed by Anthony Giddens' structuration theory. Based on a dialectical notion of the structure and agency linkage, a two-tiered framework is constructed which at on...

  4. Does wintering north or south of the Sahara correlate with timing and breeding performance in black-tailed godwits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentie, Rosemarie; Marquez-Ferrando, Rocío; Figuerola, Jordi; Gangoso, Laura; Hooijmeijer, Jos C E W; Loonstra, A H Jelle; Robin, Frédéric; Sarasa, Mathieu; Senner, Nathan; Valkema, Haije; Verhoeven, Mo A; Piersma, Theunis

    2017-04-01

    Migrating long distances requires time and energy, and may interact with an individual's performance during breeding. These seasonal interactions in migratory animals are best described in populations with disjunct nonbreeding distributions. The black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa limosa), which breeds in agricultural grasslands in Western Europe, has such a disjunct nonbreeding distribution: The majority spend the nonbreeding season in West Africa, while a growing number winters north of the Sahara on the Iberian Peninsula. To test whether crossing the Sahara has an effect on breeding season phenology and reproductive parameters, we examined differences in the timing of arrival, breeding habitat quality, lay date, egg volume, and daily nest survival among godwits (154 females and 157 males), individually marked in a breeding area in the Netherlands for which wintering destination was known on the basis of resightings. We also examined whether individual repeatability in arrival date differed between birds wintering north or south of the Sahara. Contrary to expectation, godwits wintering south of the Sahara arrived two days earlier and initiated their clutch six days earlier than godwits wintering north of the Sahara. Arrival date was equally repeatable for both groups, and egg volume larger in birds wintering north of the Sahara. Despite these differences, we found no association between wintering location and the quality of breeding habitat or nest survival. This suggests that the crossing of an important ecological barrier and doubling of the migration distance, twice a year, do not have clear negative reproductive consequences for some long-distance migrants.

  5. Identifying Islamist Parties Using Gunther and Diamond’s Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja M. Ali Saleem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent democratization in the Muslim-majority countries (MMCs has led to a surge in interest in the Islamist (or Islamic parties. Research on these parties has, however, been plagued by the lack of agreement on identifying these parties. Analysis of various ways used to identify/define Islamist parties shows shortcomings. This article tries to resolve the conundrum by identifying these parties within a comparative framework, that is, Gunther and Diamond party typology. Two major types of Islamist parties are identified and placed within the Gunther and Diamond typology. This solution has two advantages. First, discussions on Islamist parties can now become more grounded, restricting analysts from labeling any conservative party in the MMCs as Islamist. Second, Islamist parties can be part of the general discussion on political parties in the literature, and inclination to regard them as singular or exceptional, because of their link with Islam, is discouraged.

  6. Institute of party leadership system of the party creation of modern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Lavrenyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article based on the study of the theory and practice of party­building in Ukraine examines the role of party leader in the political process and the establishment of parties, implementation of the political power, the development of political consciousness and the formation of modern political elite of our country. It is alleged that party leader – a reputable, recognized in its political environment, the person chosen to lead the party and the ability of citizens to consolidate around a common goal, most effectively represent the interests of a particular social group. It is stated that the defining feature of the phenomenon of party leadership is that under conditions of constant political development and irreversibility of democratic transformations in Ukraine part of leaders of political parties in fact is a powerful talent pool for senior government officials, local government agencies and other administrative institutions. The process of creating games as an integral part of the political process is characterized by a certain way, the mechanism of action of consciousness and culture in the public sphere, which deals with political parties. Regularities component of modern political elite of the party elite acts ­ governing the range of persons in the political party headed by its leader that are directly involved in strategic decision­making, policy formulation of this power, as well as its participation in the political process. We study the classification model of national political parties and the institutions of the party leadership. It is proposed to assess the level of correlation of the party leaders and the general dynamics of the civil society in Ukraine. It is stated that at this time a fundamental change in Ukrainian Party elite has not happened yet. However, there is a long evolution of the institute of the party leadership – a rather difficult process of internal and external, objective and subjective, economic

  7. Biogeochemical inferences of mobility of early Holocene fisher-foragers from the Southern Sahara Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Knudson, Kelly J

    2011-09-01

    North Africa is increasingly seen as an important context for understanding modern human evolution and reconstructing biocultural adaptations. The Sahara, in particular, witnessed a fluorescence of hunter-gatherer settlement at the onset of the Holocene after an extended occupational hiatus. Subsequent subsistence changes through the Holocene are contrary to those documented in other areas where mobile foraging gave way to settled agricultural village life. In North Africa, extractive fishing and hunting was supplanted by cattle and caprine pastoralism under deteriorating climatic conditions. Therefore, the initial stage of food production in North Africa witnessed a likely increase in mobility. However, there are few studies of paleomobility in Early Holocene hunter-gatherer Saharan populations and the degree of mobility is generally assumed. Here, we present radiogenic strontium isotope ratios from Early Holocene fisher-forager peoples from the site of Gobero, central Niger, southern Sahara Desert. Data indicate a relatively homogeneous radiogenic strontium isotope signature for this hunter-gather population with limited variability exhibited throughout the life course or among different individuals. Although the overall signature was local, some variation in the radiogenic strontium isotope data likely reflects transhumance into the nearby Aïr Massif. Data from Gobero were significantly less variable than in other worldwide hunter-gatherer populations, including those thought to be fairly sedentary. Strontium data from Gobero were also significantly different from contemporaneous sites in southwestern Libya. These patterns are discussed with respect to archaeological models of community organization and technological evolution. 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Coulthard

    Full Text Available Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c.100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three rivers, the Irharhar river, that represents the most likely route for human migration. The Irharhar river flows directly south to north, uniquely linking the mountain areas experiencing monsoon climates at these times to temperate Mediterranean environments where food and resources would have been abundant. The findings have major implications for our understanding of how humans migrated north through Africa, for the first time providing a quantitative perspective on the probabilities that these routes were viable for human habitation at these times.

  9. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: 1961-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Abraham Ajao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in agricultural productivity in Sub-Sahara Africa countries in the context of diverse institutional arrangements using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. From a time series which consists of information on agricultural production and means of production were obtained from FAO AGROSTAT and rainfall data from Steve O’Connell data base. The information was for a 43-year period (1961-2003; DEA method was used to measure Malmquist index of total factor productivity. A decomposition of TFP measures revealed that the observed increase in the TFP in the sub–Sahara Africa agriculture is due to technological change rather than efficiency change which is the main constrained of achieving higher level of TFP during the reference period. The study further examined the effect of land quality, malaria, education and selected governance indicators such as, control of corruption and government effectiveness on productivity growth. All the variables included in the model are significant with the exception of government effectiveness

  10. Geochemical variations in aeolian mineral particles from the Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Castillo, Sonia; Alastuey, Andrés; Cuevas, Emilio; Herrmann, Ludger; Mounkaila, Mohammed; Elvira, Josep; Gibbons, Wes

    2006-10-01

    The Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor runs from Chad to Mauritania and expels huge amounts of mineral aerosols into the Atlantic Ocean. Data on samples collected from Algeria, Chad, Niger, and Western Sahara illustrate how corridor dust mineralogy and chemistry relate to geological source and weathering/transport history. Dusts sourced directly from igneous and metamorphic massifs are geochemically immature, retaining soluble cations (e.g., K, Na, Rb, Sr) and accessory minerals containing HFSE (e.g., Zr, Hf, U, Th) and REE. In contrast, silicate dust chemistry in desert basins (e.g., Bodélé Depression) is influenced by a longer history of transport, physical winnowing (e.g., loss of Zr, Hf, Th), chemical leaching (e.g., loss of Na, K, Rb), and mixing with intrabasinal materials such as diatoms and evaporitic salts. Mineral aerosols blown along the corridor by the winter Harmattan winds mix these basinal and basement materials. Dusts blown into the corridor from sub-Saharan Africa during the summer monsoon source from deeply chemically weathered terrains and are therefore likely to be more kaolinitic and stripped of mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Mg, Ca, LILE), but retain immobile and resistant elements (e.g., Zr, Hf, REE). Finally, dusts blown southwestwards into the corridor from along the Atlantic Coastal Basin will be enriched in carbonate from Mesozoic-Cenozoic marine limestones, depleted in Th, Nb, and Ta, and locally contaminated by uranium-bearing phosphate deposits.

  11. New alliances: why mainstream parties govern with radical right-wing populist parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the recent government participation of a number of radical right-wing populist parties in West European democracies. With the help of coalition formation theories the government coalitions in which these parties have participated are characterised and inferences are made

  12. 17 CFR 10.32 - Substitution of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of parties. 10.32... Parties and Limited Participation § 10.32 Substitution of parties. Upon motion and for good cause shown the Administrative Law Judge may order a substitution of parties. ...

  13. 34 CFR 85.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 85.950 Section 85.950... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.950 Excluded Parties List System Excluded Parties List System (EPLS) means the... entitled, “List of Parties Excluded or Disqualified from Federal Procurement and Nonprocurement Programs...

  14. 50 CFR 452.06 - Parties and intervenors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties and intervenors. 452.06 Section... PROCESS CONSIDERATION OF APPLICATION BY THE SECRETARY § 452.06 Parties and intervenors. (a) Parties. The parties shall consist of the exemption applicant, the Federal agency responsible for the agency action in...

  15. 17 CFR 148.24 - Comments by other parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comments by other parties. 148... Procedures for Considering Applications § 148.24 Comments by other parties. Any party to an adjudicatory... served. A commenting party may not participate further in proceedings on the application unless the...

  16. 45 CFR 1386.102 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights of parties. 1386.102 Section 1386.102... Hearing Procedures § 1386.102 Rights of parties. All parties may: (a) Appear by counsel, or other...) Present witnesses who then must be available for cross-examination by all other parties; (g) Present oral...

  17. 24 CFR 14.315 - Comments by other parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comments by other parties. 14.315... Considering Applications § 14.315 Comments by other parties. Any party to a proceeding other than the... answer within 15 days after it is served. A commenting party may not participate further in proceedings...

  18. 19 CFR 212.23 - Comments by other parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comments by other parties. 212.23 Section 212.23... Comments by other parties. Any party to the adversary adjudication other than the applicant and the... an answer within 15 days after it is served. A commenting party may not participate further in...

  19. 47 CFR 1.1524 - Comments by other parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comments by other parties. 1.1524 Section 1... Applications § 1.1524 Comments by other parties. Any party to a proceeding other than the applicant and Bureau... after it is served. A commenting party may not participate further in proceedings on the application...

  20. Agrarian parties in the Netherlands: the Plattelandersbond and the Boerenpartij

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, K.P.S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout most of the twentieth century, agrarian parties have been a common phenomenon in European party systems. In Scandinavian countries and Switzerland, agrarian parties developed into enduring and relevant parties, while in other countries, such as France, Belgium and Germany, agrarian

  1. 34 CFR 21.43 - Comments by other parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comments by other parties. 21.43 Section 21.43... in Considering Applications? § 21.43 Comments by other parties. (a) Any party to a proceeding, other... (a)(2) of this section. (b) The commenting party may not participate further in proceedings on the...

  2. 46 CFR 502.205 - Interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interrogatories to parties. 502.205 Section 502.205... Depositions, Written Interrogatories, and Discovery § 502.205 Interrogatories to parties. (a) Service; answers. (1) Any party may serve, pursuant to subpart H of this part, upon any other party written...

  3. 24 CFR 26.36 - Parties to the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parties to the hearing. 26.36... Development HEARING PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act Parties § 26.36 Parties to the hearing. (a) General. The parties to the hearing shall be the respondent and HUD. (b) Rights...

  4. 29 CFR 102.38 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights of parties. 102.38 Section 102.38 Labor Regulations... parties. Any party shall have the right to appear at such hearing in person, by counsel, or by other... other evidence, except that the participation of any party shall be limited to the extent permitted by...

  5. 24 CFR 180.300 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rights of parties. 180.300 Section... BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Parties § 180.300 Rights of parties. Each party may appear in person, be represented by counsel, examine or cross-examine...

  6. 34 CFR 101.23 - Complainants not parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Complainants not parties. 101.23 Section 101.23... EDUCATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 100 OF THIS TITLE Parties § 101.23 Complainants not parties. A person submitting a complaint pursuant to § 100.7(b) of this title is not a party to the...

  7. 29 CFR 458.77 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights of parties. 458.77 Section 458.77 Labor Regulations... OF CONDUCT Hearing and Related Matters § 458.77 Rights of parties. Any party shall have the right to... participation of any party shall be limited to the extent prescribed by the Administrative Law Judge. Two (2...

  8. 46 CFR 535.312 - Vessel charter party-exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel charter party-exemption. 535.312 Section 535.312... Vessel charter party-exemption. (a) For purposes of this section, vessel charter party shall mean a... operational limitations, if any) under which the vessel will be employed. (b) Vessel charter parties, as...

  9. 26 CFR 1.672(b)-1 - Nonadverse party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonadverse party. 1.672(b)-1 Section 1.672(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.672(b)-1 Nonadverse party. A nonadverse party is any person who is not an adverse party. ...

  10. 17 CFR 10.33 - Intervention as a party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intervention as a party. 10.33... Parties and Limited Participation § 10.33 Intervention as a party. (a) Petition for Leave to Intervene... proceeding may petition the Administrative Law Judge for leave to intervene as a party in the proceeding any...

  11. Endogenous party formation in a model of representative democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco

    2000-01-01

    We extend the citizen candidate framework by allowing for endogenous party formation. When a party is formed, any member of that party that wants to be a candidate in the election, first has to run in the primary election of her party. We show that in equilibrium one left-wing and one right-wing

  12. Campaigning on behalf of the party? Party constraints on candidate campaign personalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2017-01-01

    that party control over the candidate nomination process and campaign financing constrains most political candidates in following electoral incentives for campaign personalisation. Using candidate survey data from the 2009 EP election campaign in 27 countries, we show how candidates from parties in which...... party officials exerted greater control over the nomination process and campaign finances were less likely to engage in personalised campaigning at the expense of the party programme. The findings imply that most parties, as central gatekeepers and resource suppliers, hold important control mechanisms...... for countering the electoral pressure for personalisation, and advance our understanding of the incentives and constraints candidates face when communicating with voters. We discuss how recent democratic reforms, paradoxically, might induce candidate personalisation with potential negative democratic...

  13. Parties, rituals and symbolisms in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Valencia Aguirre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing school parties from interaction spaces and principals’ narratives in six schools in the state of Jalisco. A party is a ritual where participants share symbols related to imaginary –hence the importance of conducting an analysis for understanding institutions as a symbolic framework. A core argument is that established actors are configured from symbolic practices in the institutional space (schools. The repetition of these practices awash with symbolism leads to daily rituals or micro rituals that are ratified in institutions. Methodologically, interviews and non-participant observation in school interaction spaces were used. Based on the findings, it may be stated that the nuclear family, rooted in the Christian image in which authority is a central point, becomes a fundamental factor in shaping institutional life as well as the imaginary linked to school parties.

  14. Descriptive epidemiology of injuries in a Brazilian premier league soccer team

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Guina Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Silva, Fernando Roberto; Waszczuk-Junior, Silas; Montagner, Paulo César; Borin, João Paulo; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2%) were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8%) during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment. PMID:24379722

  15. Daily Distribution of Macronutrient Intakes of Professional Soccer Players From the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-28

    The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 h recalls) of professional soccer players (n=6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the pre-match (0.05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for pre-match CHO intake and post-match recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (Plunch (0.6 g.kg(-1))>breakfast (0.3 g.kg(-1))>evening snacks (0.1 g.kg(-1)). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the pre-match and post-match meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen re-synthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.

  16. The influence of situational variables on ball possession in the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul Simon; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the influence of situational variables on ball possession in elite soccer and (2) to quantify the variables that discriminate between high or low percentage ball possession teams (HPBPT and LPBPT) across different playing positions. Match performance data were collected from English Premier League matches using a multiple-camera system. Data were examined using linear regression, a 2 × 5 factorial analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Playing against weak opposition was associated with an increase (P variables (P variables that discriminated performance between HPBPT and LPBPT were different for various playing positions, although the number of successful passes was the most common discriminating variable. The results demonstrate that HPBPT and LPBPT developed different possession strategies during matches and that selected variables such as successful passes were identified to explain these data trends across various playing positions. Combinations of variables could be used to develop a probabilistic model for predicting time spent in possession by teams.

  17. Design science research for decision support systems development: recent publication trends in the premier IS journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah J Miah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a contemporary literature review of design science research (DSR studies in the domain of decision support systems (DSS development. The latest studies in the DSS design domain claim that DSR methodologies are the most popular design approach, but many details are still yet to be revealed for supporting this claim. In particular, it is important to thoroughly investigate the trends in either the form or deeper insights in use of DSR in this field. The aim of this study is to analyse the existing DSS design science studies to reveal insights into the use of DSR, so that we can outline research agenda for a special issue, based on findings of analysis. We selected articles (from 2005 to 2014 that were published in seven selected premier IS journals (ranked as A* in the ABDC journal ranking. The selected 57 sample articles are representative of DSS design studies that used DSR in theorising, designing, implementing, and evaluating DSS solutions. We discuss the theoretical positions of DSR for DSS development through six categories: DSS artefacts, DSR methods, DSR views, user involvement, DSS design innovations and problem domains. The findings indicate that new studies are needed to fill the knowledge gap in DSS design science, for more solid theoretical basis in near future.

  18. Technical Performance Analysis of Iran Premier League Soccer Players in 2012-2013 Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javani Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of study : analysis of IRAN premier league soccer players’ technical performance in season 2012-2013, using a computerized match analysis system (Borhan Mobin Development Management Co, IRAN. Material and methods: in this study, data were obtained from 120 players, who performed in competitions 90 minutes. The players were classified into 3 positional roles: defenders, midfielders and forwards. Technical performance variables analysis included: total passes, total successful passes, pass accuracy, total shots; total shots to target, shot accuracy, ball interception and ball losses. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Tukey post hoc test. Results : The findings of this study showed that players performed about 45 passes per competition. Midfielders and defenders had significantly higher number of passes than forwards. Pass accuracy was about 67% and there were no significant differences between positional roles. Also, the players performed about 0.8 shots per competition, forwards and midfielders had significantly higher number of shots than defenders. Shot accuracy was about 31%; midfielders and forwards had significantly higher shot accuracy than defenders. Forwards showed significantly lower ball interception and higher ball losses than other positions. Conclusion : The result of this study showed that there were significant differences between some technical actions in positional roles. Therefore, coaches can use this information for individualization of training according to playing positions and for optimization of training in the amateur game.

  19. Predicting Football Matches Results using Bayesian Networks for English Premier League (EPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nazim; Mustapha, Aida; Yatim, Faiz Ahmad; Aziz, Ruhaya Ab

    2017-08-01

    The issues of modeling asscoiation football prediction model has become increasingly popular in the last few years and many different approaches of prediction models have been proposed with the point of evaluating the attributes that lead a football team to lose, draw or win the match. There are three types of approaches has been considered for predicting football matches results which include statistical approaches, machine learning approaches and Bayesian approaches. Lately, many studies regarding football prediction models has been produced using Bayesian approaches. This paper proposes a Bayesian Networks (BNs) to predict the results of football matches in term of home win (H), away win (A) and draw (D). The English Premier League (EPL) for three seasons of 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 has been selected and reviewed. K-fold cross validation has been used for testing the accuracy of prediction model. The required information about the football data is sourced from a legitimate site at http://www.football-data.co.uk. BNs achieved predictive accuracy of 75.09% in average across three seasons. It is hoped that the results could be used as the benchmark output for future research in predicting football matches results.

  20. Incidence, Nature, and Pattern of Injuries to Referees in a Premier Football (Soccer) League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. Hypothesis: The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. Results: In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. Conclusion: The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. Clinical Relevance: These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies. PMID:24427414

  1. Donor Support to Political Parties: Status and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Political parties are indispensable for the functioning of liberal democracies. However, the political parties of many transitional and developing countries are not functioning well. This fact has led to increasing donor support to political parties. However, due to the political sensitivity of the issue, donors are not supporting political parties directly. There are two indirect methods for party support. One is support for broadening democracy, assuming that this will also strengthen polit...

  2. Electoral system, pesonal votes, and party choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    Using local elections in Denmark as an example this paper shows that individual party choice is influenced both by individual level, municipality level, and national level characteristics. Some hypotheses about the effects of the electoral system on personal votes derived from a theory by Carey...... & Shugart (1995) are first tested using a fixed-effects model. The effect of the personal reputation of the candidates, measured by personal votes, on party choice is then tested using a multilevel multinomial logit model suggested by Rabe-Hesketh and Skrondal (2008). The paper shows that both the electoral...

  3. 11 CFR 109.33 - May a political party committee assign its coordinated party expenditure authority to another...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May a political party committee assign its coordinated party expenditure authority to another political party committee? 109.33 Section 109.33 Federal...), 441a(a) AND (d), AND PUB. L. 107-155 SEC. 214(c)) Special Provisions for Political Party Committees...

  4. Long-distance autumn migration across the Sahara by painted lady butterflies: exploiting resource pulses in the tropical savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Constantí; Soto, David X; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger; Hobson, Keith A

    2016-10-01

    The painted lady, Vanessa cardui, is a migratory butterfly that performs an annual multi-generational migration between Europe and North Africa. Its seasonal appearance south of the Sahara in autumn is well known and has led to the suggestion that it results from extremely long migratory flights by European butterflies to seasonally exploit the Sahel and the tropical savannah. However, this possibility has remained unproven. Here, we analyse the isotopic composition of butterflies from seven European and seven African countries to provide new support for this hypothesis. Each individual was assigned a geographical natal origin, based on its wing stable hydrogen isotope (δ 2 H w ) value and a predicted δ 2 H w basemap for Europe and northern Africa. Natal assignments of autumn migrants collected south of the Sahara confirmed long-distance movements (of 4000 km or more) starting in Europe. Samples from Maghreb revealed a mixed origin of migrants, with most individuals with a European origin, but others having originated in the Sahel. Therefore, autumn movements are not only directed to northwestern Africa, but also include southward and northward flights across the Sahara. Through this remarkable behaviour, the productive but highly seasonal region south of the Sahara is incorporated into the migratory circuit of V. cardui. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Adverse drug reaction reports for cardiometabolic drugs from sub Sahara Africa: A study in VigiBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, Derbew F.; Juhlin, Kristina; Star, Kristina; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Michael, Kidane; Taxis, Katja; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pharmacovigilance centers have been established in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) in recent years. Their focus has been on ADRs to drugs for communicable diseases. Little is known about ADRs caused by drugs for cardiometabolic diseases, although its burden is increasing rapidly in SSA.

  6. Declines in a ground-dwelling arthropod community during an invasion by Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii) in aeolian sand habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Hulton VanTassel; Anne M. Hansen; Cameron W. Barrows; Quresh Latif; Margaret W. Simon; Kurt E. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii; hereafter mustard), an exotic plant species, has invaded habitats throughout the arid southwestern United States. Mustard has reached high densities across aeolian sand habitats of southwestern deserts, including five distinct sand habitats in the eastern Coachella Valley, California. We examined trends in ground-dwelling...

  7. Groundwater resources exploration in the Zug area (Tiris, Western Sahara); Prospeccion de recursos hidricos subterraneos en el area de Zug (Tiris, Sahara Occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, B.; Villarroya, F.; Rebollo, L. F.; Olaiz, A.; Lopez, J.

    2015-07-01

    The area of Zug is located in the southwestern corner of the Tiris dorsal, in the Western Sahara. The area is characterized by outcrops of materials, mainly gneisses of archaic age and fractured granitic rocks, which in the southern sector are covered by aeolian sand sheets. A hydrogeological survey of the territory has been carried out, and boreholes and dug wells have been located and analyzed and this information integrated with the sparse outcrops. Based on this study, two hydrogeological domains have been established: Zug and Azzefal. From the analysis of satellite images, field work, geophysical profiles, a well inventory and chemical analysis, three priority areas for the location of future water supply wells have been identified: 1) alluvial fans, preferably located on the slopes of the dikes that cross the Tiris dorsal; 2) sabkhas (salt flats) as places of con- centration of ephemeral runoff and subsurface infiltration of accumulated water; 3) highly fractured granitic areas. Some of these three cases coincide with existing wells in this area. Electrical tomography shows how, in specific locations, low resistivity values reach 50 metres, opening up the possibility of finding sufficient water to meet the aforementioned needs. The water quality is not suitable for human supply directly from the well without chemical treatment. The area is still full of opportunities for future research, but only when a more stable political situation exists. (Author)

  8. Des Carnets aux « Éléments pour Le Premier Homme », et inversement...

    OpenAIRE

    Spiquel, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Les Carnets de Camus sont un laboratoire de l’œuvre ; c’est vrai pour Le Premier Homme comme pour les œuvres précédentes. Il ne s’agira pas ici de voir comment les Carnets recueillent de nombreuses traces de la genèse du roman, mais de se demander si les Carnets fournissent un apport spécifique à ce roman autobiographique. À cet égard, on dispose désormais d’un document essentiel, « Éléments pour Le Premier Homme » dossier de travail qui accompagnait le manuscrit inachevé. Il n’avait pas été ...

  9. Measuring the tuning accuracy of thousands singing in unison: an English Premier Football League table of fans' singing tunefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2004-01-01

    Tunefulness in singing is well understood in the context of solo stage performance, singing in small groups and singing in choirs, with or without accompaniment, and it can be readily measured under laboratory conditions. When thousands of people are singing outside in support of their football team, however, the singing is impromptu; there is no conductor, no starting note, and generally no accompaniment. This paper describes the measurement of the tunefulness of the singing of fans of the twenty clubs in the 2001-2002 English Premier League. The technique adopted is unusual in that it makes direct reference to the formal definition of pitch as a subjective phenomenon. The results are presented in the form of a 2001-2002 English Premier League football fans singing league table.

  10. Analisis Kualitas Jasa Kangaroo Premier Shuttle Travel Samarinda Dengan Menggunakan Model Kano Dan Importance Performance Analysis (IPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyowati, Dewi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the quality of services on Kangaroo Premier Shuttle Travel Samarinda to evaluate customer satisfaction, as well as to identify those attributes that need priority services to be improved. The technique of collecting data by distributing questionnaires. The total sample of 100 respondents using purposive sampling technique. The data analysis technique used is validity, reliability, Kano Model and Importance Performance Analysis (IPA). The results showed t...

  11. Regional hydrogen roadmap. Project development framework for the Sahara Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, Khalid [Sahara Wind Inc., Rabat (Morocco); Arbaoui, Abdelaziz [Ecole National Superieure des Arts et Metiers ENSAM Meknes (Morocco); Loudiyi, Khalid [Al Akhawayn Univ. (Morocco); Ould Mustapha, Sidi Mohamed [Nouakchott Univ. (Mauritania). Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

    2010-07-01

    The trade winds that blow along the Atlantic coast from Morocco to Senegal represent one of the the largest and most productive wind potentials available on earth. Because of the erratic nature of winds however, wind electricity cannot be integrated locally on any significant scale, unless mechanisms are developed for storing these intermittent renewable energies. Developing distributed wind energy solutions feeding into smaller electricity markets are essential for solving energy access issues and enabling the development of a local, viable renewable energy industry. These may be critical to address the region's economic challenges currently under pressure from Sub-Saharan migrant populations. Windelectrolysis for the production of hydrogen can be used in grid stabilization, as power storage, fuel or chemical feedstock in specific industries. The objective of the NATO SfP 'Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen' project is to support the region's universities through an applied research framework in partnership with industries where electrolysis applications are relevant. By powering two university campuses in Morocco and Mauritania with small grid connected wind turbines and 30 kW electrolyzers generating hydrogen for power back-up as part of ''green campus concepts'' we demonstrated that wind-electrolysis for the production of hydrogen could absorb larger quantities of cheap generated wind electricity in order to maximize renewable energy uptakes within the regions weaker grid infrastructures. Creating synergies with local industries to tap into a widely available renewable energy source opens new possibilities for end users such as utilities or mining industries when processing raw minerals, whose exports generates key incomes in regions most exposed to desertification and climate change issue. Initiated by Sahara Wind Inc. a company from the private sector, along with the Al Akhawayn University, the Ecole Nationale Superieure

  12. Dune ages in the sand deserts of the southern Sahara and Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Charlie; Armitage, Simon

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we aim to document the history of aeolian processes within the southern Sahara as part of the INQUA Dune Atlas. We review available luminescence ages for sand dunes across the southern Sahara and attempt to correlate periods of sand accumulation and to develop an improved understanding of the dune chronology on a regional basis. This was achieved by analysing dune age by country, as well as by latitude and longitude. The results show a very patchy spatial distribution of dune ages with large gaps that encompass some of the largest sand seas. Despite these gaps, some related patterns in dune morphology and stratigraphy appear to be consistent between northern Nigeria and southern Mali where older linear dunes are distinct from younger Late Holocene transverse and barchanoid dunes. Elsewhere in Mauretania linear dunes with different orientations appear to have accumulated at different times, most likely in response to changes in atmospheric circulation. Regional climatic changes are identified where dunes are transgressed by lake deposits within endorehic basins. We identify four locations where dune accumulation is terminated by lacustrine transgressions, two of which, in Lake Chad and the Bodélé Depression, occur shortly after the last glacial maximum (LGM). The third example at Gobiero in Niger occurred later, in the early Holocene, around 8.4 ka and a fourth marks a later transgression of Palaeolake MegaChad after 4.7 ka. Larger-scale latitudinal and longitudinal distributions in dune ages across the southern Sahara do not show any consistent patterns, though this may due to the small sample size relative to the study area. In addition, local variations in external controls such as wind regime, rainfall, vegetation and sand supply need to be considered, sometimes on a site by site basis. Limiting the analysis to dune ages determined using the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol indicates a lack of dune preservation during the LGM and

  13. Shock Metamorphism of L6 Chondrites Sahara 98222 and Yamato 74445: the P-T Conditions and the Shock age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, S.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Miyahara, M.; Terada, K.; Kimura, M.

    2007-12-01

    Impact phenomena are the fundamental processes of accretion of the terrestrial planets. Therefore, investigations of meteorites that experienced shock events are useful for understanding mechanisms of planetary impact events and formation of terrestrial planets. Heavily shocked meteorites contain abundant shock melt veins, where some high-pressure minerals have been discovered. In this study, we investigated mineralogy of shock melt veins of two L6 chondrites (Sahara 98222 and Yamato 74445) and estimated the P-T conditions during their impact events.We found that the shock melt veins of these meteorites contain several high-pressure minerals such as wadsleyite, jadeite and tuite for Sahara 98222 and ringwoodite (+ wadsleyite), akimotoite and lingunite for Yamato 74445. Tuite is a high-pressure polymorph of whitlockite and lingunite is a high-pressure polymorph of albite with hollandite structure. Based on mineralogy in the shock veins; we estimated the pressure and temperature conditions during their impact events: 13-15 GPa, > 2000°C for Sahara 98222 and 15- 24 GPa, > 2200°C for Yamato 74445, respectively.We also conducted a U-Pb dating of phosphates in and around the shock melt veins of Sahara 98222 using a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Micro Probe (SHRIMP-II) at Hiroshima University to reveal when this shock event occurred. We obtained following radioactive ages: Pb-Pb isochron age: 4466 ± 31 Ma; U-Pb isochron age: 4498 ± 150 Ma; Total U-Pb isochron age: 4467 ± 22 Ma. These ages seem to be slightly younger than the previously reported ages of chondrites, which are usually older than 4500 Ma. This could suggest that Sahara 98222 have recorded a shock event in the very early stage of the solar system where the planetary formation was going on.

  14. 'To quarterback behind the scenes, third-party efforts': the tobacco industry and the Tea Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-07-01

    The Tea Party, which gained prominence in the USA in 2009, advocates limited government and low taxes. Tea Party organisations, particularly Americans for Prosperity and FreedomWorks, oppose smoke-free laws and tobacco taxes. We used the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the Wayback Machine, Google, LexisNexis, the Center for Media and Democracy and the Center for Responsive Politics (opensecrets.org) to examine the tobacco companies' connections to the Tea Party. Starting in the 1980s, tobacco companies worked to create the appearance of broad opposition to tobacco control policies by attempting to create a grassroots smokers' rights movement. Simultaneously, they funded and worked through third-party groups, such as Citizens for a Sound Economy, the predecessor of AFP and FreedomWorks, to accomplish their economic and political agenda. There has been continuity of some key players, strategies and messages from these groups to Tea Party organisations. As of 2012, the Tea Party was beginning to spread internationally. Rather than being a purely grassroots movement that spontaneously developed in 2009, the Tea Party has developed over time, in part through decades of work by the tobacco industry and other corporate interests. It is important for tobacco control advocates in the USA and internationally, to anticipate and counter Tea Party opposition to tobacco control policies and ensure that policymakers, the media and the public understand the longstanding connection between the tobacco industry, the Tea Party and its associated organisations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Multipartite entanglement verification resistant against dishonest parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Anna; Chailloux, André; Wehner, Stephanie; Diamanti, Eleni; Kerenidis, Iordanis

    2012-06-29

    Future quantum information networks will consist of quantum and classical agents, who have the ability to communicate in a variety of ways with trusted and untrusted parties and securely delegate computational tasks to untrusted large-scale quantum computing servers. Multipartite quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource for such a network and, hence, it is imperative to study the possibility of verifying a multipartite entanglement source in a way that is efficient and provides strong guarantees even in the presence of multiple dishonest parties. In this Letter, we show how an agent of a quantum network can perform a distributed verification of a source creating multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states with minimal resources, which is, nevertheless, resistant against any number of dishonest parties. Moreover, we provide a tight tradeoff between the level of security and the distance between the state produced by the source and the ideal GHZ state. Last, by adding the resource of a trusted common random source, we can further provide security guarantees for all honest parties in the quantum network simultaneously.

  16. *ird-Party Intervention in the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to seek assistance from third parties, as in China (Chan 1998), Korea (Cho &. Park 1996), Japan (Callister 8: Wall 1997), Malaysia (Mansor 1998), and Turkey. (Kozan & Ergin 1998). Tuso (1998) also has the same consideration of many traditional African societies. An explanation for this action is that the disputants in these ...

  17. 12 CFR 1705.3 - Eligible parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible parties. 1705.3 Section 1705.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... defined in section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, 12 U.S.C. 1141j(a), with not more than 500...

  18. Nationalism, territory and extremism in party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army. More specifica...

  19. Social media, parties, and political inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, K.T.E.; Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2016-01-01

    This book examines how social media have transformed politics in established democracies. Specifically, the authors examine the influence of the unique qualities of social media on the power balance between and within parties. They present a general theory as well as an in-depth case study of the

  20. Leakage Resilient Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Hazay, Carmit; Patra, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    Definitions.} We formalize the notion of secure two-party computation in the presence of leakage and introduce security definitions in the {\\em ideal/real framework}. Our formalization induces two types of adversarial attacks. We further study the feasibility of our definitions in the computational setting...

  1. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  2. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Popular Education and the "Party Line"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Popular education, by which is meant adult education within and in support of radical social movements, has become a major topic in academic adult education in recent times. This paper criticises the lack of attention paid in most of this writing to the history, theory and practice of revolutionary parties in the communist and socialist tradition.…

  4. LEGO for Two-Party Secure Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This paper continues the recent line of work of making Yao’s garbled circuit approach to two-party computation secure against an active adversary. We propose a new cut-and-choose based approach called LEGO (Large Efficient Garbled-circuit Optimization): It is specifically aimed at large circuits...

  5. Student Reception, Awards Ceremony, and Dance Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In the first part of this event, SPS will award winning undergraduate students for outstanding oral and poster presentations. New this year-Club Physics! Join us for a fun dance party after the awards ceremony. Light refreshments will be served.

  6. Related party transactions and firms financial performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated related party transactions and firm's financial performance using Secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock Exchange. We tried to determine whether RPT is used by firms to manipulate and bloat Return on Asset, Return on Equity and Earnings per share of manufacturing firms. RPT was subjected ...

  7. Collective members in West European political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the collective members of political parties. Collective members can be defined as organizations having both full self-government rights and entitlements to decision-making processes in the political parties in which they are embedded. This article proposes a basic descriptive typology of collective members that takes into consideration their sociopolitical nature (party political or functional and their pattern of articulation within the party in which they are embedded (whether they help to articulate the whole party structure or not. It also illustrates these subtypes by examining European organizations that meet (or are close to meeting the main defining characteristics of collective members. This examination is based on the analysis of all parties that attained at least 4% of the votes in the last national parliamentary elections in 10 European countries. The article concludes with an analysis of the determinants and prospects of this type of party structure.Este artículo estudia los miembros colectivos de los partidos políticos. Los miembros colectivos pueden ser definidos como organizaciones que poseen a la vez derechos de autogobierno plenos y derecho a participar en los procesos de toma decisiones en el partido político en el que están integrados. El artículo propone una tipología descriptiva de los miembros colectivos que tiene en cuenta su naturaleza sociopolítica (partidista o funcional y su patrón de articulación dentro del partido en el que están integrados (si ayudan o no a articular el conjunto de la estructura partidaria. Asimismo, el artículo ilustra estos subtipos a partir del examen de varias organizaciones políticas europeas que cumplen (o se acercan a cumplir las características definitorias de los miembros colectivos. Este análisis se basa en el examen de todas las organizaciones políticas que alcanzaron más de un 4% de los votos en las últimas elecciones parlamentarias de 10 pa

  8. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.

  9. Seasonal training-load quantification in elite English premier league soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, James J; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Burgess, Darren; Morton, James P; Drust, Barry

    2015-05-01

    To quantify the seasonal training load completed by professional soccer players of the English Premier League. Thirty players were sampled (using GPS, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) during the daily training sessions of the 2011-12 preseason and in-season period. Preseason data were analyzed across 6×1-wk microcycles. In-season data were analyzed across 6×6-wk mesocycle blocks and 3×1-wk microcycles at start, midpoint, and end-time points. Data were also analyzed with respect to number of days before a match. Typical daily training load (ie, total distance, high-speed distance, percent maximal heart rate [%HRmax], RPE load) did not differ during each week of the preseason phase. However, daily total distance covered was 1304 (95% CI 434-2174) m greater in the 1st mesocycle than in the 6th. %HRmax values were also greater (3.3%, 1.3-5.4%) in the 3rd mesocycle than in the first. Furthermore, training load was lower on the day before match (MD-1) than 2 (MD-2) to 5 (MD-5) d before a match, although no difference was apparent between these latter time points. The authors provide the 1st report of seasonal training load in elite soccer players and observed that periodization of training load was typically confined to MD-1 (regardless of mesocycle), whereas no differences were apparent during MD-2 to MD-5. Future studies should evaluate whether this loading and periodization are facilitative of optimal training adaptations and match-day performance.

  10. Évaluation échographique des complications au premier trimestre de grossesse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lucie; Cargill, Yvonne M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2016-10-01

    RéSULTATS: SOURCES DE DONNéES: Nous avons effectué des recherches dans MEDLINE et un examen de la bibliographie des articles recensés. Le Comité d'imagerie diagnostique de la Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada a passé en revue les données probantes recueillies. Les recommandations reposent sur les lignes directrices élaborées par le Groupe d'étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (tableau 1). AVANTAGES, DéSAVANTAGES ET COûTS: Les femmes qui présentent des saignements durant le premier trimestre peuvent recevoir un diagnostic incorrect d'avortement manqué. En outre, on risque de ne pas détecter une grossesse ectopique ou de les rassurer à tort sur la viabilité de l'embryon. L'amélioration de la détection des repères échographiques du développement embryonnaire normal et de la connaissance des facteurs de risque liés à l'échec de grossesse sur le plan échographique pourrait donner lieu à l'élaboration de stratégies de prise en charge mieux adaptées à chaque cas. Le diagnostic d'une grossesse ectopique suspectée repose souvent sur l'évaluation de marqueurs hormonaux et de caractéristiques échographiques. Par ailleurs, le diagnostic précoce de grossesse ectopique peut réduire la morbidité et la mortalité maternelles. RECOMMANDATIONS. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Les premiers guides français imprimés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Liaroutzos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Au milieu du XVIe siècle, Charles Estienne publie le premier guide routier français, La Guide des chemins de France. S’il ne s’agit pas véritablement d’un guide touristique au sens actuel, Estienne propose déjà, avec une grande économie de moyens, des itinéraires qui renseignent le voyageur sur les curiosités, les monuments, l’hébergement et les particularités des régions parcourues. En un temps où il n’existe pas de représentation cartographique fiable, l’ouvrage construit une vision ordonnée et hiérarchisée du territoire. Les successeurs ou les plagiaires d’Estienne, bien qu’ils s’inscrivent dans la continuité de La Guide, s’efforceront de littéraliser le propos, perdant ainsi, peut-être, ce qui en faisait l’originalité et la modernité.In the middle of the 16th century, Charles Estienne publishes the first French road guide La Guide des chemins de France. Although it is not a tourist guide in the current sense, Estienne proposes routes that inform the traveller about the curiosities, the monuments, the accommodation and the peculiarities of regions travelled through. At a time when there is no reliable cartographic representation, the work offers an orderly and highly hierarchical vision of the territory. Although they write in the continuity of La Guide, the successors or the plagiarists of Estienne will try hard to pursue a more literary purpose, thus losing what made its originality and modernity.

  12. Local Human Development in contexts of permanent crisis: Women’s experiences in the Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López Belloso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sahrawi women are active agents in the social dynamics of the refugee camps, in which they have developeda number of coping strategies to overcome the hardships of a deteriorating humanitarian situation. Since the outbreak of the con#ict and the forced settlement in Tindouf, Algeria, women have been responsible for the entire management of refugee camps, assuming leadership roles in many sectors of society.This paper highlights the Sahrawi women’s contribution to the process of local human development in a context of protracted refuge such as the one in the Western Sahara. In addition to the enlargement of the refugee population’s capacities in relation to material and physical assets, social and organizational abilities, and motivational strengths, one of the major achievements of Sahrawi women has been their own individual and collective process of empowerment within the camp life.

  13. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdad Khiati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions: The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  14. δ13C values of grass species collected in the northern Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Troughton, John H; Card, Kay A

    1976-06-01

    δ13C values were measured for 45 Poaceae species collected in the northern Sahara desert, at the foot of the Saharan Atlas. The results indicate a clear relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and phytogeographical distribution of the grasses. Mediterranean species predominantly had δ13C values indicating the C3 pathway of photosynthesis. By contrast, nearly all species belonging to the Saharo-Arabian and /or Sudanian group showed a C4 like carbon isotope composition. Leaf material of two species, Lygeum spartum and Stipa tenacissima, had δ13C values in the region of-20‰, i.e. intermediate between the mean δ13C values of C3 and C4 plants. However, additional speciments of both these grasses obtained from a different source (herbarium of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem) yielded a C3 like carbon isotope composition.

  15. Greening of the Sahara suppressed ENSO activity during the mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Zhang, Qiong; Muschitiello, Francesco; Lu, Zhengyao; Chafik, Léon; Niedermeyer, Eva M.; Stager, J. Curt; Cobb, Kim M.; Liu, Zhengyu

    2017-07-01

    The evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) during the Holocene remains uncertain. In particular, a host of new paleoclimate records suggest that ENSO internal variability or other external forcings may have dwarfed the fairly modest ENSO response to precessional insolation changes simulated in climate models. Here, using fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulations, we show that accounting for a vegetated and less dusty Sahara during the mid-Holocene relative to preindustrial climate can reduce ENSO variability by 25%, more than twice the decrease obtained using orbital forcing alone. We identify changes in tropical Atlantic mean state and variability caused by the momentous strengthening of the West Africa Monsoon (WAM) as critical factors in amplifying ENSO's response to insolation forcing through changes in the Walker circulation. Our results thus suggest that potential changes in the WAM due to anthropogenic warming may influence ENSO variability in the future as well.

  16. Dust and Biological Aerosols from the Sahara and Asia Influence Precipitation in the Western US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamean, Jessie; Suski, Kaitlyn; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Cazorla, Alberto; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; White, Allen B.; Ralph, F. M.; Minnis, Patrick; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-03-29

    Winter storms in California’s Sierra Nevada increase seasonal snowpack and provide critical water resources for the state. Thus, the mechanisms influencing precipitation in this region have been the subject of research for decades. Previous studies suggest Asian dust enhances cloud ice and precipitation (1), while few studies consider biological aerosols as an important global source of ice nuclei (IN). Here, we show that dust and biological aerosols transported from as far as the Sahara were present in glaciated high-altitude clouds coincident with elevated IN concentrations and ice-induced precipitation. This study presents the first direct cloud and precipitation measurements showing that Saharan and Asian dust and biological aerosols likely serve as IN and play an important role in orographic precipitation processes over the western United States.

  17. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  18. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  19. Tuberculosis in African refugees from the Eastern Sub-Sahara region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Lior; Riesenberg, Klaris; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Schlaeffer, Francisc; Smolyakov, Rorzalia

    2012-02-01

    The southern region of Israel has recently experienced an influx of African refugees from the Eastern Sub-Sahara desert area. These influxes have led to a significant increase in incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in that region. To review the data of African refugees diagnosed with TB between January 2008 and August 2010 at a tertiary care regional hospital. Twenty-five TB cases were diagnosed, 22 of which presented with pulmonary TB, 3 with extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB), and 7 with combined pulmonary and EPTB. Only one case had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and multidrug-resistant TB. Fifteen patients underwent extensive radiological investigations including chest, abdominal and spine computed tomography, 1 was reviewed by magnetic resonance imaging, and 9 underwent tissue biopsy. Eighteen patients were admitted as suspected TB and 4 as suspected pneumonia or pulmonary infiltrates that could have been defined as suspected TB. All 24 HIV-negative cases were sensitive to first-line drugs for TB, except for one case that was resistant to streptomycin and one to rifampicin. All patients responded well to first-line therapy. The average duration of hospitalization was 8.7 days (range 1-36). Following diagnosis 23 patients were transferred to a quarantine facility. We identified overutilization of medical resources and invasive procedures. For African refugees from the eastern Sub-Sahara who were HIV-negative and suspected of having TB, a sputum acid-fast smear and culture should have been the primary investigative tools before initiating treatment with four drugs (first-line), and further investigations should have been postponed and reserved for non-responders or for patients for whom the culture was negative. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for EPTB in this population.

  20. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino di Lernia

    Full Text Available Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC. This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  1. Political Market Orientation and Strategic Party Postures in Danish Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between the strategic postures and political market orientation profile of two Danish parties. Profile stability at the organisational level is used as a control variable. Design/methodology/approach – The strategic political postures of two Danish...... parties are derived using a self-typing study. Based on configuration theory, ideal organisational profiles to implement these studies are juxtaposed with the actual political market orientation profile for each party, gained from two datasets analysed using Partial Least Squares. Member activity levels...... Ideologist. Thus, Party A exhibits a mismatch between strategic orientation and implemented organisational profile, based on configuration theory. The results were generally stable across political activity levels. Originality/value – The study contributes to understanding the concept of market orientation...

  2. U.S. Political Parties and Support for Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezine, DeQuincy A

    2017-03-27

    As a public health problem, suicidal behavior demands a community-level response, including government action. We aimed to test whether support for suicide prevention in the United States has been independent from political party affiliation (Democrat and Republican). Actions from both political parties have supported suicide prevention efforts. The only differences in support based on party affiliation showed greater support from the Democrat Party in one instance, and the Republican Party in the other. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that degree of support for suicide prevention cannot be predicted solely by political party. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  3. A Literature Review of Accounting and Auditing Related Parties Tranzactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Oana Mihai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the scientific literature regarding the nature, extent and consequences of related-party transactions. According to IAS 24 related party transaction represent a a transfer of resources or obligations between related parties, regardless of whether or not a market price is charged. Two entities are considered to be related if one party has the ability to control the other party or exercise significant influence over the other party in making financial and operating decisions, for example a controlling shareholder, a director, key management personnel, or affiliated companies, controlled entities, and entities under common control.

  4. Populism in Iceland: Has the Progressive Party turned populist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiríkur Bergmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Though nationalism has always been strong in Iceland, populist political parties did not emerge as a viable force until after the financial crisis of 2008. On wave of the crisis a completely renewed leadership took over the country’s old agrarian party, the Progressive Party (PP, which was rapidly transformed in a more populist direction. Still the PP is perhaps more firmly nationalist than populist. However, when analyzing communicational changes of the new postcrisis leadership it is unavoidable to categorize the party amongst at least the softer version of European populist parties, perhaps closest to the Norwegian Progress Party.

  5. The Nationalisation of Post-Communist Party Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Party nationalisation, defined as the homogeneity of party strength across a country, has recently become a major issue in research. Even though territory is a salient political question in the post- communist countries in Europe, party nationalisation in these countries has been neglected...... by the literature so far. This article presents data on party nationalisation for 20 countries over the period 1990–2007. It shows that the nationalisation of party systems in post-communist democracies is closely related to the territorial structure of social divisions, except for cases where the electoral systems...... provide for a high degree of nationalisation, or where super-presidentialism inhibits the creation of strong nationalised parties....

  6. Internal party democracy as a factor of transitional societiy consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Tupitzya

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of intra-party democracy appearance as a sustainable and well played phenomena can only be based on the formation of political parties as a competitive and dynamic structures that have a high degree of internal relationships and a clear understanding of a common goal that is shared by both the governing parties and the basis of parties and ordinary party members. Distribution of party members in top management, middle functional rank and ordinary members is an obvious consequence of the organizational functioning of any extensive and systematic organization.

  7. Party Membership and Intra-Party Democracy: How Do Members React to Organizational Change within Political Parties? The Case of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Sandri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facing a crucial legitimacy crisis, many Western European political parties have recently undergone various forms of organizational changes by adopting procedures for increasing intra-democracy: internal ballots, internal referenda, primary elections and so on. Direct democracy is now used in a wide range of decision-making procedures such as candidate and leadership selection (Cross and Katz, 2013. These reforms have pro-vided new opportunities for participation to party members. What happens to more traditional elements of party internal structures when such instruments of intra-party democracy are adopted? And more specifically, how are such changes perceived by the party base? This paper explores the attitudes and behaviors of members with regard to intra-party democracy procedures. On the basis of a case study (Belgium and of an original dataset, the paper explores the political consequences of intra-party democracy. We show that members’ satisfaction with the party and their degree of previous internal activism affect the level of involvement in intra-party democracy activities. However, the dissatisfaction of the party base vis-à-vis of the membership role is growing. Intra-party democratization seems to limit the organizational function of the grass-roots membership to a ‘cheerleading’ role.

  8. Initial Encounters: Seeking traces of ancient trade connections between West Africa and the wider world Premiers contacts. La recherche des traces de commerce ancien entre l’Afrique de l'Ouest et le reste du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Magnavita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-standing, more mythical than fact-based assumptions about ancient trade contacts between West Africa and the wider world prior to the Arab conquest of North Africa have only been substantiated by archaeological evidence in recent years. Although the number of imported items known to have been brought into West Africa during late Roman and Byzantine times just started growing, the mechanisms of their diffusion are still far from being understood. This can mainly be set down to the dearth of convincing material evidence from other archaeological sites in West Africa, the Sahara and North Africa — the result of a lack of research and, perhaps too, of trade in “invisible” merchandise Previous archeological studies on this topic are discussed; and the preliminary findings of recent research in the eastern Niger Bend, presented.Les présupposés de longue date – plutôt mythiques que fondés sur des faits – à propos du commerce entre l’Afrique occidentale et le reste du monde avant la conquête arabe de l’Afrique du Nord n’ont été que récemment étayés par des travaux archéologiques. Bien que les découvertes d'articles importés, connus pour avoir été acheminés en Afrique de l'Ouest pendant les périodes romaine tardive et byzantine, sont, depuis peu, de plus en plus nombreuses, nous ne comprenons pas toujours les mécanismes de diffusion de ces derniers. Cette incompréhension est avant tout liée au manque d’indices matériels probants provenant d’autres sites archéologiques en Afrique de l’Ouest, au Sahara et en Afrique du Nord. Cela résulte à la fois d’un manque de recherche et, peut-être aussi, du commerce en marchandise “invisible”. Les études archéologiques antérieures sur le sujet sont ici discutées ; et les résultats préliminaires de recherches récentes dans la partie orientale de la boucle du Niger sont présentés.

  9. Parties under Stress: Using a Linkage Decay Framework to Analyze the Chilean Party System

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Morgan; Carlos Meléndez

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests Chile’s party system is highly institutionalized. However, recent declines in participation and partisanship have begun to raise questions about this veneer of stability. This article assesses the current state of the Chilean party system, analyzing its ability to provide linkage. We specify a theoretical framework for identifying challenges to linkage and constraints on necessary adaptation. We then use this framework to evaluate linkage in the contemporary Chile...

  10. Ombuds’ corner: the third party, the institution

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    “The Ombuds shall provide confidential assistance for the informal resolution of interpersonal issues, in the interests of the good functioning of CERN.”*   In any institution, conflicts are inevitable. They can, however, offer an opportunity for a positive resolution. Relationships in a workplace are generally better and stronger between people who have been able to reach a positive resolution of their disagreement, than they are between people who get along moderately well. However, in disputes involving two antagonistic parties, people often forget that there is actually a third party behind the scenes: the institution. It is sometimes surprising to see that even people holding management responsibilities or hierarchical positions in projects fight each other, and completely forget that they are accountable for the good functioning of CERN. Commitment and professionalism are part of the five priority values of CERN, as expressed in its Code of Conduct: “Promot...

  11. Simple multi-party set reconciliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

     set reconciliation: two parties A1A1 and A2A2 each hold a set of keys, named S1S1 and S2S2 respectively, and the goal is for both parties to obtain S1∪S2S1∪S2. Typically, set reconciliation is interesting algorithmically when sets are large but the set difference |S1−S2|+|S2−S1||S1−S2|+|S2−S1| is small...

  12. REFLECTIONS ON WAGAR ' S WORLD PARTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Bergesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our task is to reflect upon Wagar's idea of a world party. In case such reflections are affected by the recent historical situation of the collapse of communism/existing socialism in 1989 and the implications this has for visions of progressive politics going into the 21st century. This event colors most political thinking, although for many the response has been that existing socialism was not real socialism, or that existing socialism was but the Stalinist deformation that, if avoided in the future, the 1917 project could again be resumed and human history and social relations remade anew. I don't see it that way. What existing socialism stood for in terms of the role of a vanguard party taking state power for the larger good is, now after the fall, I think off the board as a realistic program that can be sold to anyone.

  13. Third-party support for strike action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloway, E Kevin; Francis, Lori; Catano, Victor M; Dupré, Kathryne E

    2008-07-01

    Labor strikes are often seen as battles for public support. Members of the public are asked to show respect for a strike by refusing to cross the picket line or by joining strikers on the picket line. Such public support may affect the morale of strikers and influence the strike's duration. Despite the perceived importance of the public in labor disputes, members of third parties have not been considered in previous strike research. In 2 studies, the authors show that a new measure of third-party strike support is unidimensional and highly reliable. In both cases, union attitudes and perceptions of distributive justice were significant predictors of support for strike action. Those who are more supportive of unions in general and believe that the contract offered to the strikers was unfair were more likely to support the strike by engaging in such actions as conversing with strikers, writing letters, and refusing to cross the picket line.

  14. Islam and Party Politics in Rural Java

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Pranowo

    2014-01-01

    This essay shall discuss the decrease of religious polarization as a result of depoliticization at the rural level which, in turn, results in a blurring of the distinctions between santri and abangan. This is a 'by product' of a field study which conducted in Tegalroso (a pseudonym), a dry land village on the west slope of Mount Merbabu in the Regency of Magelang, Central Java, during July to December 1987. Politically, before the banning of the Indonesian Communist Party...

  15. A study of the relict fish fauna of northern Chad, with the first records of a polypterid and a poeciliid in the Sahara desert

    OpenAIRE

    Trape, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen species and sub-species of fishes belonging to four families (Cyprinidae, Clariidae, Aplocheilidae, Cichlidae) were known to occur in perennial bodies of water in the Sahara desert. The study of fishes collected in Lake Boukou near Ounianga Serir (Borkou, northern Chad) shows, for the first time, the occurrence in the Sahara desert of relict populations of Polypterus senegalus (Polypteridae) and Poropanchax normani (Poeciliidae). The Cichlidae Tilapia zilli was also collected in thi...

  16. Monitoring project impact on biomass increase in the context of the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    SCHUCKNECHT ANNE; MERONI MICHELE; REMBOLD Felix

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation and desertification represent a major threat to the population and ecosystems of (semi)-arid regions like the Sahel and the Sahara. In 2007, the African Union launched a pan-African programme, the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative (GGWSSI) to reverse land degradation and desertification in the region, improve food security and support local people to adapt to climate change. Within the GGWSSI different kinds of projects have been implemented. In order t...

  17. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  18. 13 CFR 120.921 - Terms of Third Party loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms of Third Party loans. 120... Development Company Loan Program (504) Third Party Loans § 120.921 Terms of Third Party loans. (a) Maturity. A Third Party Loan must have a term of at least 7 years when the 504 loan is for a term of 10 years and 10...

  19. 34 CFR 81.7 - Non-party participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-party participation. 81.7 Section 81.7 Education... Provisions § 81.7 Non-party participation. (a) A person or organization, other than a party, that wishes to... application must— (1) Identify the case in which participation is sought; (2) State how the applicant's...

  20. A Practical Guide to Preventing and Dispersing Underage Drinking Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This guide describes the role of enforcement and community organizations or groups in preventing underage drinking parties and how to safely disperse them. It describes the problem of underage drinking, in general, and youth-drinking parties in particular. It provides step-by-step information on how to address underage drinking parties and how to…

  1. 43 CFR 35.17 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights of parties. 35.17 Section 35.17 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.17 Rights of parties. Except as otherwise limited by this part, all parties...

  2. 34 CFR 33.17 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights of parties. 33.17 Section 33.17 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.17 Rights of parties. Except as otherwise limited by this part, all parties may: (a) Be accompanied, represented, and advised...

  3. 28 CFR 24.303 - Comments by other parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comments by other parties. 24.303 Section 24.303 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE....303 Comments by other parties. Any party to a proceeding other than the applicant and Department...

  4. 15 CFR 748.5 - Parties to the transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parties to the transaction. 748.5... (CLASSIFICATION, ADVISORY, AND LICENSE) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.5 Parties to the transaction. The following parties may be entered on the application. The definitions, which also appear in part 772 of the EAR, are...

  5. 43 CFR 4.809 - Determination of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of parties. 4.809 Section 4... § 4.809 Determination of parties. (a) The affected applicant or recipient to whom a notice of hearing... and § 4.815, and the Director, are the initial parties to the proceeding. (b) Other persons or...

  6. 48 CFR 552.270-3 - Parties To Execute Lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties To Execute Lease. 552.270-3 Section 552.270-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Parties To Execute Lease. As prescribed in 570.602, insert the following provision: Parties To Execute...

  7. 48 CFR 9.404 - Excluded Parties List System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded Parties List... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.404 Excluded Parties List System. (a) The General Services Administration (GSA)— (1) Operates the web-based Excluded Parties...

  8. 43 CFR 35.13 - Parties to the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties to the hearing. 35.13 Section 35.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.13 Parties to the hearing. (a) The parties to the hearing shall be the...

  9. 46 CFR 502.41 - Parties; how designated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties; how designated. 502.41 Section 502.41 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Parties § 502.41 Parties; how designated. The term “party”, whenever used in the rules in this part, shall...

  10. 26 CFR 1.7476-1 - Interested parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interested parties. 1.7476-1 Section 1.7476-1...) INCOME TAXES The Tax Court § 1.7476-1 Interested parties. (a) In general—(1) Notice requirement. Before... such applicant has notified the persons who qualify as interested parties, under regulations prescribed...

  11. 43 CFR 4.810 - Complainants not parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Complainants not parties. 4.810 Section 4... § 4.810 Complainants not parties. A person submitting a complaint pursuant to § 17.6 of this title is not a party to the proceedings governed by part 17 of this title and these regulations, but may...

  12. 29 CFR 1425.4 - Duty of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty of parties. 1425.4 Section 1425.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.4 Duty of parties. It shall be the duty of the parties to participate fully and...

  13. 34 CFR 33.13 - Parties to the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties to the hearing. 33.13 Section 33.13 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.13 Parties to the hearing. (a) The parties to the hearing are the defendant and the Department. (b) Pursuant to 31 U.S.C...

  14. 46 CFR 502.410 - Representation of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Representation of parties. 502.410 Section 502.410... Alternative Dispute Resolution § 502.410 Representation of parties. (a) The provisions of § 502.21 apply to the representation of parties in dispute resolution proceedings, as do the provisions of § 502.27...

  15. 46 CFR 502.43 - Substitution of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitution of parties. 502.43 Section 502.43 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Parties § 502.43 Substitution of parties. In appropriate circumstances, the Commission or presiding officer may...

  16. 29 CFR 1471.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 1471.950 Section 1471.950... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.950 Excluded Parties List System Excluded Parties List System (EPLS) means the list maintained and disseminated by the General Services...

  17. The doctrine of party autonomy in international commercial arbitration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    And lastly, is party autonomy a myth or reality? These questions and many others have continued to provoke discussions in many fora on the applicability of party autonomy in international commercial arbitration. To find meaning to the above questions, this article analyses the principle of party autonomy. The ultimate aim of ...

  18. General polygamy inequality of multi-party quantum entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong San

    2012-01-01

    Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multi-party entanglement in arbitrary dimensional quantum systems. For multi-party closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement to show that the entropy of entanglement is an universal entanglement measure that bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multi-party quantum entanglement.

  19. 19 CFR 175.3 - Domestic interested party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic interested party. 175.3 Section 175.3... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PETITIONS BY DOMESTIC INTERESTED PARTIES Request for Classification, Appraised Value and Rate of Duty § 175.3 Domestic interested party. “Domestic interested party”, when used in this...

  20. 24 CFR 572.140 - Third party rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Third party rights. 572.140 Section 572.140 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.140 Third party rights. The rights of third parties are...

  1. Party system change and negative campaigning in New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rdiout, T; Walter, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Political campaigns are much more attack-filled in some countries than in others. What accounts for it? One answer hinges on the country’s party system. We propose that two-party systems encourage more negativity than multiparty systems because parties in a multiparty system (1) must maintain good

  2. 43 CFR 4.808 - Participation by a party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation by a party. 4.808 Section 4... § 4.808 Participation by a party. Subject to the provisions contained in part 1 of this subtitle, a party may appear in person, by representative, or by counsel, and participate fully in any proceeding...

  3. 7 CFR 1782.19 - Third party agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Third party agreements. 1782.19 Section 1782.19... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.19 Third party agreements. The State Director may authorize third party operation, maintenance, and management of an Agency financed facility...

  4. Flawed Political Party Primaries In Nigeria's Fourth Republic: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As much as elections are pivotal to democratic development, the process of identifying party candidates for elective positions is also central to the success of democracy. Hence, party primaries are supposed to be assemblies directed at choosing popular candidates who would carry party banners during elections. However ...

  5. The Dark Side of Altruistic Third-Party Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrandt, Andreas; Lopez-Perez, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This article experimentally studies punishment from unaffected third parties in ten different games. The authors show that third-party punishment exhibits several features that are arguably undesirable. First, third parties punish strongly a decider if she chooses a socially efficient or a Pareto efficient allocation and becomes the richest party…

  6. Third Party Fraud inducing Material Mistake Slip Knot Investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Slip Knot Investments v Du Toit 2011 4 SA 72 (SCA) the Supreme Court of Appeal had to determine if the material mistake of a contractual party induced by the fraud of an independent third party could sustain a plea of iustus error raised by the mistaken party. The position prior to this decision was uncertain and ...

  7. Party Secretaries in Chinese Higher Education Institutions, Who Are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Li, Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    With approximately 30 million students the Chinese higher education system is the largest in the world. In every publicly funded institution there is a communist party secretary, however, little is known about these party secretaries. The purpose of the study was to understand who these people were. We collected data from 1,751 party secretaries…

  8. 47 CFR 68.321 - Location of responsible party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of responsible party. 68.321 Section 68.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Approval § 68.321 Location of responsible party. The responsible party for a Supplier's Declaration of...

  9. Une vie consacrée à la science du Sahara et de son passé

    OpenAIRE

    Sèbe, Berny

    2014-01-01

    Né en 1916, Henri-Jean Hugot est le dernier représentant de l’élite des savants pluri-disciplinaires du Sahara encore parmi nous. A l’instar des Théodore Monod ou des Henri Lhote, qui nous ont quittés dans les deux dernières décennies, il s’est intéressé au cours de sa longue carrière scientifique à de nombreux aspects du passé des grands espaces sahariens, offrant des perspectives pionnières qui ont permis de notables avancées dans la compréhension des populations préhistoriques du Sahara. ...

  10. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for Sahara and Sahel dust additions to Quaternary soils on Lanzarote, eastern Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Skipp, G.; Prospero, J.M.; Patterson, D.; Bettis, E. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the most important source of dust in the world today, and dust storms are frequent on the nearby Canary Islands. Previous workers have inferred that the Sahara is the most important source of dust to Canary Islands soils, with little contribution from the Sahel region. Soils overlying a late Quaternary basalt flow on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, contain, in addition to volcanic minerals, quartz and mica, exotic to the island's bedrock. Kaolinite in the soils also likely has an exotic origin. Trace-element geochemistry shows that the soils are derived from varying proportions of locally derived basalt and African dust. Major-element geochemistry, clay mineralogy and interpretation of satellite imagery suggest that dust additions to the Canary Islands come not only from the Sahara Desert, but also from the Sahel region. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Intra-party democracy and political activism: a comparative analysis of attitudes and behaviours of grass-roots party members

    OpenAIRE

    Sandri, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Most recent literature that analyzes parties from an organizational perspective focuses often on the concepts of intra-party democracy and party organizational democratization (Scarrow, 1999a; Scarrow and Kittilson, 2003; LeDuc, Niemi and Norris, 2002; Bosco and Morlino, 2007). Le Duc (2001) and Rahat and Hazan (2007) underline that the most used instrument for implementing this ‘democratization’ process is the enhancement of the inclusiveness of the methods for candidate and party leadership...

  12. Presence and Origin of Fluoride in the Complex Terminal Water of Ouargla Basin (Northern Sahara of Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Imed E. Nezli; Samia Achour; Mohamed Djidel; Saïd Attalah

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The underground waters in the oriental regions of the Algerian Sahara, present real chemical quality problems. Their content in fluorides always exceeds the limit of the recommended levels. That is 0.8 mg L-1, according to the maximum temperature in the region. Combined to a high salinity, it affects the health of the population living around the region. The present work, deals with the presence of fluoride and the geochemical origin in the Complex Terminal aquifer of Ouarg...

  13. Viruses in the desert: a metagenomic survey of viral communities in four perennial ponds of the Mauritanian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Fancello, Laura; Trape, S?batien; Robert, Catherine; Boyer, Micka?l; Popgeorgiev, Nikolay; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities from four perennial ponds (gueltas) located in the central Sahara (Mauritania). Three of the four gueltas (Ilij, Molomhar and Hamdoun) are located at the source of three different wadis belonging to the same hydrologic basin, whereas the fourth (El Berbera) belongs to a different basin. Overall, sequences belonging to tailed bacteriophages were the most abundant in all four metagenomes although electron microscopy and sequencin...

  14. Mosquito records from the Republic of Niger, with reference to the construction of the new 'Trans-Sahara Highway'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M

    1981-06-01

    Construction of a new, fully-tarred 'Trans-Sahara Highway' from the coast of Algeria to Nigeria is well advanced. Information on the distribution of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes collected in Niger during a survey in August and September, 1979 is presented and discussed. Particular reference is made to the dangers of West African malaria vectors being transported north along the Highway as traffic increases. The vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, was found as far north as Agadez (17 degrees N).

  15. Inter-party agenda-setting in the Belgian parliament: the role of party characteristics and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.; Meppelink, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore the inter-party agenda-setting dynamics in the Belgian parliament during the period 1993-2000 and investigate whether and when parties respond to the attention paid to issues by other parties in parliament. We rely on an elaborate coding of parliamentary questions and

  16. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    For the first time continuous lacustrine sections were sampled from the volcanic Tibesti Mountains (Chad): In the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.) and from the 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi (3,445 m a.s.l.). The remnant diatomites on their slopes are located 360 m (Trou au Natron) and 125 m (Era Kohor) above the present day bottom of the calderas. These sediments from highly continental positions in the central Sahara are keys for the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles (Kröpelin et al. 2015). We report first results from sedimentary-geochemical (total organic and total inorganic carbon contents; total nitrogen; major elements; mineralogy) and palynological analyses for palaeo-environmental interpretations. The diatomites from the Trou au Natron comprise 330 cm of mostly calcitic sediments with relatively low organic carbon (moss/fern stands. Regional pollen rain-e.g. grasses and wormwood-is scarcely represented. Golden algae dominate in the lower section. The results of the first palynological samples suggest a small sedimentation basin. Two 14C-dated charcoals out of the upper part of the section indicate mid-Holocene ages and a linear extrapolation based on a sediment accumulation rate of 1.4mma-1 would lead to tentative dates of ~8650 cal a BP for basal lacustrine sediments and ~4450 cal a BP for the cessation of this lacustrine sequence. The diatomites from the Era Kohor reflect a suite of sections that in total sum up to 145 cm of mostly silica-based sediments with very low carbon contents (flora mainly composed of benthic and tychoplanktonic species, indicating a shallow freshwater lake. Both diatomite sequences thus suggest shallow lakes throughout their deposition-whether this is due to their marginal position within the large calderas and/or shallow waters covered the entire calderas is an outstanding question that will be addressed with planned additional investigations. Kr

  17. Ethnoveterinary of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara: camel diseases and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Lamin Saleh, Saleh Mohamed; Di Nardo, Antonello

    2015-06-20

    Pastoral populations around the world hold complex and detailed ethnoveterinary knowledge, essential for the survival of their herds and securing their livelihood. In recent decades, several studies have given attention to local veterinary remedies and practices and their validation, and to the local conceptualization of livestock diseases. Despite this, relatively little has been reported on indigenous knowledge of camel diseases (e.g., aetiological factors, epidemiological patterns, symptoms, prevention and treatments). This paper focuses on the traditional knowledge of camel diseases and their treatments among Sahrawi nomads, detailing how this knowledge is powerfully reflected on pastoral adaptation strategies to the ecological system of Western Sahara. Between 2005 and 2010, freelisting exercise on camel diseases with 46 Sahrawi nomads and refugees, semi-structured interviews with 36 knowledgeable informants about camel diseases and associated treatments, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited were conducted in the territories administered by the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara. Analytical methods included standard ethnobiological, ethnobotanical and cultural consensus analyses. In total, 42 camel diseases were freelisted by informants, with four (i.e., mange, dermatomycosis, respiratory infections, and mastitis) found to be culturally highly salient. These four represent the most common veterinary conditions experienced by Sahrawi pastoralists. In addition, 42 plant species belonging to 22 botanical families (Hammada scoparia, Acacia tortilis, Zygophyllum gaetulum, Nucularia perrinii, and Panicum turgidum among the species most used) were listed as used in the treatment of these diseases, as well as about 30 remedies of animal (e.g., from camels, donkeys, and/or spiny-tailed lizards) and mineral origin, and of cauterizations. This study provides an overall picture of the most important camel diseases and remedies

  18. Political parties in the Sverdlovsk region: stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of party building in the Russian Federation. On the example of a single region – the Sverdlovsk region – we study the evolution of political parties. The factors favoring the process of formation and functioning of regional political parties and political movements in the Middle Urals are identified and classified. Much attention is paid to such factors of development of the parties in the region as a party-electoral law and the electoral system view.

  19. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privacy Statement. The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party. ISSN: 1813-4424. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  20. Advocating of parties in administrative disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Zoran J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction in administrative dispute a new rule, that the court in this type of legal dispute, decides on the basis of the facts established on oral and public hearing, in significant degree extent the topical issue of representation in the administrative dispute. During the first few years in work of new established Administrative Court in Republic of Serbia, jurisprudence was completely corresponded to all legal rules in advocating of the parties in this type of dispute. However, with the gradualy increasing number of oral hearings, which are still, unfortunately, exception rather than rule, we notice the existence of a certain deviation from the legal rules, which is reflected in giving opportunities Attorney's Office to represent the defendant authority as a party to the hearing, although when the subject of dispute is not violation of any property rights of the state, autonomous province or local self-government, which is primary competence of Attorney's Office. The main problem in this occurrence is that the point of representation of organs, as decision making authorities, by Attorney's Office, is in a greater protection of property interests of territorial communities, but on this way, it is only creating additional costs of an administrative dispute, which in the case of loss of the dispute, falling on the burden of the citizens as a prosecutor, and go directly to the budget of the relevant territorial community. Therefore, in order to create legal certainty and the protection of citizens property interests, it is necessary to discontinue with this practice and representation of the parties in this type of disputes start to exercise according to legal rules, which for the competent Attorney's Office provide opportunity to participate in any administrative dispute when it considers that some administrative act violated property rights and interests of some of territorial communities.

  1. Electrophysiological correlates of cocktail-party listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    Detecting, localizing, and selectively attending to a particular sound source of interest in complex auditory scenes composed of multiple competing sources is a remarkable capacity of the human auditory system. The neural basis of this so-called "cocktail-party effect" has remained largely unknown. Here, we studied the cortical network engaged in solving the "cocktail-party" problem, using event-related potentials (ERPs) in combination with two tasks demanding horizontal localization of a naturalistic target sound presented either in silence or in the presence of multiple competing sound sources. Presentation of multiple sound sources, as compared to single sources, induced an increased P1 amplitude, a reduction in N1, and a strong N2 component, resulting in a pronounced negativity in the ERP difference waveform (N2d) around 260 ms after stimulus onset. About 100 ms later, the anterior contralateral N2 subcomponent (N2ac) occurred in the multiple-sources condition, as computed from the amplitude difference for targets in the left minus right hemispaces. Cortical source analyses of the ERP modulation, resulting from the contrast of multiple vs. single sources, generally revealed an initial enhancement of electrical activity in right temporo-parietal areas, including auditory cortex, by multiple sources (at P1) that is followed by a reduction, with the primary sources shifting from right inferior parietal lobule (at N1) to left dorso-frontal cortex (at N2d). Thus, cocktail-party listening, as compared to single-source localization, appears to be based on a complex chronology of successive electrical activities within a specific cortical network involved in spatial hearing in complex situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. So Close But So Far: Voting Propensity and Party Choice for Left-�Wing Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Sciarini, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    on the Left–Right scale. With regard to the second, choice stage of the electoral process we hypothesize about the factors that may account for the varying ability of the two par- ties to convert potential voters into real voters. Our empirical tests provide encourag- ing support for our hypotheses regarding...... voters first make a selection of parties that are acceptable to them and then make their electoral choice out of this set of acceptable al- ternatives. We use voting propensities as a measure of the first, consideration step and we show that they strongly depend on the distance between voters and parties...

  3. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  4. Security Implications of Third-Party Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    validation has been thorough. In contrast, accelerators may be designed by a third party, and validating them while treating them as a black box is more...However, in cases where the designer must treat accelerators as black boxes , it is very difficult to ensure security for applications running on the...G. Wheeler, “Undocumented M6800 instructions,” BYTE Magazine, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 46–47, Dec. 1977. [20] x0r1, “ jellyfish ,” https://github.com/x0r1

  5. Party behaviors and characteristics and serial drunkenness among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Robert H; McCoy, Thomas P; Champion, Heather; Parries, Maria T; Mitra, Ananda; Martin, Barbara A; Newman, Jill; Rhodes, Scott D

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between party behaviors and social contextual factors for the largest party attended by college students and serial drunkenness by students over the 3 traditional weekend party days (Thursday-Saturday). On two separate 3-day party time periods in the spring of 2006, a random sample of 3,600 students from two large public universities completed a Web-based survey. The survey was administered on a Sunday evening and assessed alcohol consumption, party behaviors and observations, and other social contextual factors occurring during the 3 previous days. Serial drunkenness was measured as having gotten drunk on 0-3 days for the specified 3-day period for students who had attended one or more parties. Multivariate analysis indicated that serial drunkenness was associated with being white, being single without a partner, having ridden with a drinking driver over the weekend, drunken behaviors by other students at the largest party attended, the number of drinks the student consumed before attending the party, the number of drinks consumed at the largest party, and the number of friends that attended the party with the student. A lower frequency of serial drunkenness was associated with the perception that alcohol was difficult to obtain. The availability of alcohol before and at the largest party attended over the weekend, attending the party with a larger number of friends, and drunken behaviors by other students at the party, plus riding with a drinking driver after the party, were associated with serial drunkenness over the 3-day period by the students at these two universities.

  6. The changing face of the Portuguese parties : strategic innovation and the dimensionality of the party policy space

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Silvia M.; Camões, Pedro J.; McDonald, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Artigo com referee We provide a comprehensive analysis of the Portuguese parties and their policy space. We show how and how well the parties have been able to adapt to the changing environment in the party system. Our analyses show that, not only are we able check existing static expert assessments of the Portuguese party and policy space, but we are also able to track the dynamics of the system. In this way, we expand on what little has been said thus far about the Portuguese party syst...

  7. Climats et premiers peuplements des Alpes du Nord françaises : des derniers chasseurs aux premiers paysans (15 000 à 5 000 ans av. JC. Climate and early settlements of the French Northern Alps: From the last hunters to the first farmers (15 000 to 5 000 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bintz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis près de 40 ans, dans les massifs montagneux des Alpes françaises du Nord, des programmes de recherche ont renouvelé nos connaissances sur les occupations humaines de la Préhistoire récente. Des gisements ont livré des séquences chrono-culturelles et naturelles de référence. Bien calées chronologiquement, elles autorisent une bonne approche des évolutions culturelles de la fin du Paléolithique supérieur au Néolithique, ainsi que bioclimatiques, du Dryas ancien à l’Atlantique. Pour répondre à des problématiques de circulation et d’occupation des territoires, des prospections thématiques ont été mises en œuvre par des chercheurs d’horizons différents. Dans une première partie sont abordés les questions touchant à la chronologie et au paléoenvironnement révélé notamment par les études sur le monde animal et le milieu végétal. Les épisodes du peuplement préhistorique sont présentés dans une seconde partie. Elle traite notamment des modalités du passage des derniers chasseurs-cueilleurs (magdaléniens, aziliens et mésolithiques aux premiers pasteurs-agriculteurs du Néolithique. Dans une troisième partie est présentée l’évolution des grands courants culturels à l’échelle des Alpes occidentales. Une carte met bien en évidence l’appropriation progressive des Alpes occidentales à partir des régions périphériques.For nearly 40 years, in mountain massifs of the northern French Alps, research programs have renewed our knowledges of human occupations for late prehistory. Some sites have yielded chrono-cultural and natural sequences of reference. Chronologically fit snugly, they allow a good approach of the cultural developments during the late Upper Paleolithic to the Neolithic and of bioclimats of Oldest Dryas at the Atlantic. To answer the problems of circulation and occupation of the territories, thematic surveys were carried out by researchers from different backgrounds.In the first

  8. Premier League academy soccer players' experiences of competing in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Sean P; Brown, Daniel J; Mitchell, Siobhan; Bunce, James; Hunt, Dan; Hedges, Chris; Crane, Gregory; Gross, Aleks; Scott, Sam; Franklin, Ed; Breakspear, Dave; Dennison, Luke; White, Paul; Cain, Andrew; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Individual differences in the growth and maturation have been shown to impact player performance and development in youth soccer. This study investigated Premier League academy players' experiences of participating in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Players (N = 66) from four professional soccer clubs aged 11 and 14 years and between 85-90% of adult stature participated in a tournament. Players competed in three 11 vs 11 games on a full size pitch with 25-min halves. Sixteen players participated in four 15-min focus groups and were asked to describe their experiences of participating in the bio-banded tournament in comparison to age group competition. All players described their experience as positive and recommended the Premier League integrate bio-banding into the existing games programme. In comparison to age-group competitions, early maturing players described the bio-banded games more physically challenging, and found that they had to adapt their style of play placing a greater emphasis on technique and tactics. Late maturing players considered the games to be less physically challenging, yet appreciated the having more opportunity to use, develop and demonstrate their technical, physical, and psychological competencies. Bio-banding strategies appear to contribute positively towards the holistic development of young soccer players.

  9. The effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective match workload of English Premier League referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, M; Bird, S; Helsen, W; Nevill, A; Castagna, C

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective workload of referees during English Premier League and Football League soccer matches. We also examined the relationship between heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for assessing match intensity in soccer referees. Heart rate responses were recorded using short-range telemetry and RPE scores were collected using a 10-point scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between mean match HR and match RPE scores (r=0.485, pFootball League 81.5+/-2.2%HRmax, pFootball League 6.9+/-0.8, pReferee experience had no effect on match HR and RPE responses to Premier League and Football League matches. The results of the present study demonstrate the validity of using HR and RPE as a measure of global match intensity in soccer referees. Referee experience had no effect on the referees' objective and subjective match workload assessments, whereas match intensity was correlated to competition standard. These findings have implications for fitness preparation and evaluation in soccer referees. When progressing to a higher level of competition, referees should ensure that appropriate levels of fitness are developed in order to enable them to cope with an increase in physical match demands.

  10. Barriers to utilisation of cervical cancer screening in Sub Sahara Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J N W; Ojo, A A

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA). Both primary and secondary preventive services are available but utilisation remain low. This systematic review aims to summarise reported barriers preventing women from utilising cervical cancer screening services in SSA. Electronic searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS preview, Global Health, PubMed, Cochrane library, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar and quality assessment of the included studies were performed. A meta-analysis was applied to identify major themes. Eight studies exploring reasons women did not utilise cervical cancer screening were included. Women in SSA reported similar barriers despite cultural and language diversity in the region. Women reported fear of screening procedure and negative outcome, low level of awareness of services, embarrassment and possible violation of privacy, lack of spousal support, societal stigmatisation, cost of accessing services and health service factors like proximity to facility, facility navigation, waiting time and health care personnel attitude. Strategies for improving uptake and utilisation of cervical screening in SSA should focus on improving cervical health education, addressing cultural beliefs and practices and improving spousal support and empowering women, as well as addressing physical access problem, costs and improving staff attitude. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Microbial Diversity of the Hypersaline Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes of the Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutaiba, Saad; Hacene, Hocine; Bidle, Kelly A; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

    2011-10-01

    Microbial populations within hypersaline lakes often exhibit high activities of photosynthesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and other processes and, thus, can have profound impacts on biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other important elements within arid lands. To further understand these types of ecosystems, the physicochemical and biological properties of Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes in the Algerian Sahara were examined and compared. Both lakes were relatively neutral in pH (7.2 to 7.4) and high in salt, at 12% and 20 % (w/v) salinity for Himalatt and Sidi Ameur Lakes, respectively, with dominant ions of sodium and chloride. The community compositions of microbes from all three domains (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya) were surveyed through the use of 16S and 18S ribosomal gene amplification and clone library clustering using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) in conjunction with DNA sequencing and analysis. A high level of microbial diversity, particularly among the bacteria of the Himalatt Salt Lake and archaea of Sidi Ameur Lake, was found within these environments. Representatives from all known halophilic bacterial phyla as well as 6 different genera of halophilic archaea were identified. Moreover, several apparently novel phylotypes among both archaea and bacteria were revealed.

  12. Trapping or tethering stones (TS): A multifunctional device in the Pastoral Neolithic of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lernia, Savino

    2018-01-01

    The Pierres de Ben Barour, also known as trapping or tethering stones (TS), are stone artefacts with notches or grooves usually interpreted as hunting devices on the basis of rock art engravings. Though their presence is a peculiar feature of desert landscapes from the Sahara to the Arabian Peninsula, we know little about their age, context and function. Here we present a new approach to the study of these artefacts based on a large dataset (837 items) recorded in the Messak plateau (SW Libya). A statistically-based geoarchaeological survey carried out between 2007 and 2011 in Libya, alongside landscape and intra-site analyses of specific archaeological features (such as rock art, settlement and ceremonial contexts), reveal that these artefacts were used for a prolonged period, probably from the early Holocene. This was followed by a multifunctional use of these devices, particularly during the Pastoral Neolithic phase (ca. 6400–3000 cal BC), with the highest concentrations being found near ceremonial contexts related to cattle burials. PMID:29370242

  13. Airborne Fungi in Sahara Dust Aerosols Reaching the Eastern Caribbean: II. Species Identification Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Mota, A.; Betancourt, C.; Detres, Y.; Armstrong, R.

    2003-12-01

    Fungi samples from filters collected in Castle Bruce, Dominica from March through July 2002, were previously purified and identified to genus level using classic macroscopic and microscopic techniques. A total of 105 isolated colonies were cultured in liquid media and the mycelial mats used for DNA extraction. PCR was used to amplify the ITS region of the rDNA using the ITS1 and ITS4 primers. Both strands of the amplified products were sequenced and the final identification to species level was completed by a GenBank search. Fourteen different species and one fungal endophyte were identified from genders Aspergillus,Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia and Phanerochaete. Some of these species such as A. fumigatus, A. japonicus, P. citrinum and C. cladosporoides are known to cause respiratory disorders in humans. A. fumigatus causes an aggressive pulmonary allergic response that might result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Other species such as F. equiseti and C. brachyspora are plant pathogens affecting economically important crops. Sahara dust is an important source of fungal spores of species that are not common in the Caribbean region.

  14. Bacterial composition and survival on Sahara dust particles transported to the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eMeola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of Sahara dust (SD particles is a frequent phenomenon in Europe, but little is known about the viability and composition of the bacterial community transported with SD. The goal of this study was to characterize SD-associated bacteria transported to the European Alps, deposited and entrapped in snow. During two distinct events in February and May 2014, SD particles were deposited and promptly covered by falling snow, thus preserving them in distinct ochre layers within the snowpack. In June 2014, we collected samples at different depths from a snow profile at the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps; 3621 m a.s.l.. After filtration, we performed various microbiological and physicochemical analyses of the snow and dust particles therein that originated in Algeria.Our results show that bacteria survive and are metabolically active after the transport to the European Alps. Using high throughput sequencing, we observed distinct differences in bacterial community composition and structure in SD-layers as compared to clean snow layers. Sporulating bacteria were not enriched in the SD-layers; however, phyla with low abundance such as Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococcus-Thermus appeared to be specific bio-indicators for SD. Since many members of these phyla are known to be adapted to arid oligotrophic environments and UV radiation, they are well suited to survive the harsh conditions of long-range airborne transport.

  15. The Right to Self-Determination and Natural Resources: The Case of Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Morten Haugen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate, fish and possibly oil and gas all constitute important natural resources found on the territory and in the waters of Western Sahara. The importance of these natural resources must be recognised in order to understand the stalemate in the attempted process of decolonisation from Morocco which has been going on for more than 30 years. The article analyses the ‘resource dimension’ of the right to self-determination, as recognised in human rights treaties and in Resolution III of the UN Conference on the Law of the Seas, as well as several resolutions from the United Nations General Assembly. If the resources are exploited in a manner which does not benefit the peoples seeking to enjoy the right to self-determination, such exploitation is illegal. The article shows that the current exploitation takes place in a manner contrary to the interests of the local population, the Saharawis. The article also demonstrates that recent license agreements with Saharawi authorities in the field of oil and gas, signal a potentially new and constructive approach by international corporations.

  16. Party Organizational Change: Formal Distribution of Power between National and Regional Levels in Italian Political Parties (1991-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Calossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years an increasing number of scholars have centred their attention on the relationships between party national structures and party sub-national branches. A relevant part of the specialized literature has interpreted party change as the by-product of the denationalization of party politics. The aim of this contribution is to investigate to what extent eight relevant Italian parties have followed patterns of organizational change, after the reforms of the municipal, provincial and regional election sys-tems; and the process of devolution of administrative powers begun during the Nineties. By focusing on two analytical dimensions (the level of involvement and the level of autonomy of party regional units, we analyse diachronically continuity and change in party formal organization, through an in-depth analysis of the statutes adopted from 1992 to 2012

  17. La sodomie dans l’affaire Théophile de Viau : questions de genre et de sexualité dans la France du premier xviie siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Dupas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available L’affaire Théophile est source de malentendus. Alors que l’historiographie du libertinage, en se concentrant sur le libertinage érudit a fini par oublier que la sodomie était un enjeu majeur du procès, les historiens de la répression homosexuelle abordent les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans une perspective essentialiste, gommant toute distinction entre sodomie au xviie siècle et homosexualité à l’époque contemporaine. Il s’agit donc la première partie de cet article de souligner que la sodomie est au cœur de l’affaire à la fois comme objet de représentation littéraire et comme pratique illicite. La seconde partie consiste dans une historicisation des discours ayant trait aux relations sexuelles entre hommes, qui montre qu’on ne saurait confondre « homosexualité masculine » et « sodomie ». Celle-ci désigne en effet des rapports anaux aussi bien entre hommes et femmes qu’entre hommes seuls ; lorsque la notion est mobilisée pour renvoyer à des relations anales entre hommes, elle ne constitue pas pour autant une orientation sexuelle ; en tant que concept issu de la théologie, elle ne relève pas de la sexualité ; aucune déviation de genre ne lui est associée. Dans une troisième partie, il s’agit de montrer que la notion de sodomie ne doit pas nous conduire à ignorer les autres discours pouvant porter sur les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans la France du premier xviie siècle et qu’à ce titre, on ne saurait se suffire de cette catégorie pour aborder la question. Bref, cet article a pour but de poser les premiers jalons d’une histoire de l’homosexualité masculine dans la France du xviie siècle d’un point de vue historiciste, sinon constructionniste.Sodomy in the Theophile de Viau affair: questions of gender and sexuality in early modern France.There is a puzzling misunderstanding about the Theophile affair. While the historiography of libertinism, focusing on erudite

  18. LES PARTIES DU CONTRAT DE CONCESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian OLARU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential feature of the administrative contract, which is part of the concession contract, differentiates from the civil contract with at least one of the topics of administrative contract that is a physical person of public law. Thus, if the subject of civil contract can be any physical or juridical person that has full the capacity to exercise, then, in the case of the administrative contract, at least one subject must have the special “quality”, namely to be a public authority or a moral person of public law. If one of the contracting parties is a public figure and the other is a person of private law, the contract may be administrative. “This condition is necessary, but not sufficient”. By the definition given to concession in article 1 line 1 of the Law on concessions, the legislator determines not only the name of the contracting parties, which formed the juridical report (the conceded, the concessionaire but also the subject concession contract, which makes it different from other administrative contracts. Moreover, in the article 4 of the cited law, it is determined the scope of the public authorities, juridical persons of public law that may have the quality of conceded, while article 5 provides the scope of persons who may have the quality of concessionaire.

  19. Partis islamistes et démocratisation : expérience du Parti de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Articles de revue. Moderate Islam and secularist opposition in Turkey : implications for the world, Muslims and secular democracy. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. IDRC final technical report : Islamist parties, domestic and external mechanisms, and democratization; lessons from Turkey's AKP. Téléchargez le PDF.

  20. 24 CFR 401.500 - Required notices to third parties and meeting with third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required notices to third parties...

  1. Picturing the Party: Instagram and Party Campaigning in the 2014 Swedish Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Filimonov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Swedish parties’ activities on Instagram during the 2014 elections. Understanding party campaign communication as highly strategic, that is, communication to persuade and mobilize voters in order to win the elections, we ask whether Instagram was used to (1 broadcast campaign messages, (2 mobilize supporters, (3 manage the party’s image, and (4 amplify and complement other campaign material (i.e., hybrid campaign use. With this study, we follow previous studies on the use of digital communication platforms in the hands of campaigning political actors, but we direct our attention to a new platform. We conducted a content analysis of 220 party postings on Instagram, collected during the hot phase of the campaign. The result shows that the platform was mainly used for broadcasting rather than for mobilization. The image the parties were presenting leaned toward personalization with a strong presence of top candidates in their postings. Top candidates were primarily displayed in a political/professional context. Finally, half of the analyzed postings showed signs of hybridized campaign practices. The presented findings give a first glimpse on how political parties use and perform on Instagram.

  2. Anti-immigrant party support and media visibility: a cross-party, over-time perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; van Spanje, J.

    2012-01-01

    Explanations of the performance of Western European anti-immigrant parties feature prominently in the literature on electoral behaviour and the mass media have been introduced as an important explanatory variable in these analyses. In this article we advance our understanding of the relationship

  3. Intensive sex partying amongst gay men in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Michael; Prestage, Garrett

    2009-08-01

    Intensive sex partying is a framework developed to analyse specific frequent behaviours amongst a small minority of gay men in Sydney, Australia. The behaviours included a higher frequency of dance party attendance, more frequent sex, more anal sex, multiple sex partners, more unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners and more frequent drug taking. These occur at a contextual intersection between a sub-group of sexually adventurous gay men and 'party boys'. The men appear to be involved in both high-risk, adventurous sex practices and a specific form of partying distinguishable from dance partying and 'clubbing'. Sex partying occurs on multiple sites (domestic spaces; within dance parties; sex parties; sex-on-premises venues) and appears to be geared to the maximisation of sexual pleasure. Intensive sex partying describes this coincidence of factors and locates them in relation to the multiple pleasures offered by sex partying. It emphasises the importance of 'intensity' in order to understand better the relations between sex, drug use, pleasure, care and risk in some gay men's lives.

  4. Third party objection and action against enforcement: Request for exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a right of a third party to prevent enforcement on the basis of a claim and evidence that rights or assets seized in enforcement proceeding belong to him (third party and not to the enforcement debtor. In most of jurisdictions that were subject of analysis of this paper, this right of a third party is exercised by filing an objection to the court conducting enforcement proceedings. The claim of the third party is directed towards the enforcement creditor as well as against the enforcement debtor. In the event the claim of the third party is being contested, the court instructs the third party to initiate litigation proceedings for determining whether the third party is entitled to exclusion of such rights or assets from enforcement, especially if such third party holds property rights or some other rights over the assets that are being subject to enforcement proceedings. In majority of analyzed jurisdictions, enforcement proceedings are being suspended provided the third party, in the objection being filed makes prima facie likely, on the basis of credible evidence, that his assets were seized in the enforcement proceedings. However, according to the law of the Republic of Serbia, a credible objection of a third party does not result in suspension of enforcement proceedings, something that is being criticized in this paper. As a result of this provision of the law, a bona fide third party is forced to endure the enforcement although his claim has been made likely and subsequently confirmed in the litigation proceedings. The author, in particular, points to the legal consequences of mala fide enforcement creditor that knew that the assets that are being subject of the enforcement proceedings do not belong to the enforcement debtor. The author is of the opinion that, in such cases, the enforcement creditor should be obliged to pay to the third party damages that such party suffered as a result of enforcement proceedings being

  5. Les nécropoles à incinérations gallo-romaines du grand-duché de Luxembourg- Premiers résultats d'une recherche en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Polfer

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available La contribution vise à présenter les premiers résultats d'un projet de recherche dont les buts sont situés sur deux plans: ◦l'élaboration d'un corpus aussi complet que possible de toutes les traces archéologiques de tombes individuelles et de nécropoles gallo-romaines, y compris les monuments et les inscriptions funéraires ◦l'analyse archéologique proprement dite des structures et des objets (typologie, chronologie etc. ainsi que l'étude des phénomènes religieux, culturels et sociaux qui transparaissent à travers ceux-ci. Le cadre géographique choisi est celui du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg actuel, qui représente une partie importante de l'ancienne civitas treverorum. D'un point de vue chronologique, toutes les découvertes archéologiques datables entre la deuxième moitié du 1er siècle ap. J.-C et le 5e siècle ap.- J.-C. sont pris en compte. Après un aperçu sur l'histoire de la recherche archéologique funéraire gallo-romaine au Luxembourg, l'état actuel du corpus contenant un total de 300 sites différents est présenté à l'aide de cartes et d'une banque de données. Sont ensuite présentés les premiers résultats de l'enquête relatifs à ◦la répartition géographique des nécropoles ◦les relations entre l'habitat rural, les nécropoles et les monuments funéraires ◦l' organisation spatio-temporelle des nécropoles rurales ◦les pratiques dépositionnelles et la hiérarchisation sociale au sein des nécropoles ◦les différents modes cinéraires et les rapports entre incinération et inhumation

  6. Les nécropoles à incinérations gallo-romaines du grand-duché de Luxembourg- Premiers résultats d'une recherche en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Polfer

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available La contribution vise à présenter les premiers résultats d'un projet de recherche dont les buts sont situés sur deux plans: l'élaboration d'un corpus aussi complet que possible de toutes les traces archéologiques de tombes individuelles et de nécropoles gallo-romaines, y compris les monuments et les inscriptions funéraires l'analyse archéologique proprement dite des structures et des objets (typologie, chronologie etc. ainsi que l'étude des phénomènes religieux, culturels et sociaux qui transparaissent à travers ceux-ci. Le cadre géographique choisi est celui du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg actuel, qui représente une partie importante de l'ancienne civitas treverorum. D'un point de vue chronologique, toutes les découvertes archéologiques datables entre la deuxième moitié du 1er siècle ap. J.-C et le 5e siècle ap.- J.-C. sont pris en compte. Après un aperçu sur l'histoire de la recherche archéologique funéraire gallo-romaine au Luxembourg, l'état actuel du corpus contenant un total de 300 sites différents est présenté à l'aide de cartes et d'une banque de données. Sont ensuite présentés les premiers résultats de l'enquête relatifs à -la répartition géographique des nécropoles -les relations entre l'habitat rural, les nécropoles et les monuments funéraires -l' organisation spatio-temporelle des nécropoles rurales -les pratiques dépositionnelles et la hiérarchisation sociale au sein des nécropoles -les différents modes cinéraires et les rapports entre incinération et inhumation

  7. Party Secretaries in Chinese Higher Education Institutions: What Roles Do They Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Li, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese political party in power is the Communist Party. In higher education institutions the Party secretary is a ubiquitous presence. The purpose of this study was to answer the question, "What roles do Party secretaries play?" The Party committee headed by the Party secretary in an institution is supposed to lead the institution.…

  8. Changing the rules of the game : the development and reform of party law in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, F.F.

    2017-01-01

    Party law, or the legal regulation of political parties, has become a prominent feature of party systems. Some party laws are designed to have a much larger political impact than others. It remains unknown why some countries adopt party laws that have substantial implications for party

  9. Changing the Rules of the Game : the development and reform of party law in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, F.F.

    2017-01-01

    Party law, or the legal regulation of political parties, has become a prominent feature of party systems. Some party laws are designed to have a much larger political impact than others. It remains unknown why some countries adopt party laws that have substantial implications for party

  10. Can you party your way to better health? A propensity score analysis of block parties and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; Hillier, Amy; Chau-Glendinning, Hang; Subramanian, S V; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    While other indicators of social capital have been linked to health, the role of block parties on health in Black neighborhoods and on Black residents is understudied. Block parties exhibit several features of bonding social capital and are present in nearly 90% of Philadelphia's predominantly Black neighborhoods. This analysis investigated: (1) whether or not block parties are an indicator of bonding social capital in Black neighborhoods; (2) the degree to which block parties might be related to self-rated health in the ways that other bonding social indicators are related to health; and (3) whether or not block parties are associated with average self-rated health for Black residents particularly. Using census tract-level indicators of bonding social capital and records of block parties from 2003 to 2008 for 381 Philadelphia neighborhoods (defined by census tracts), an ecological-level propensity score was generated to assess the propensity for a block party, adjusting for population demographics, neighborhood characteristics, neighborhood resources and violent crime. Results indicate that in multivariable regression, block parties were associated with increased bonding social capital in Black neighborhoods; however, the calculation of the average effect of the treatment on the treated (ATT) within each propensity score strata showed no effect of block parties on average self-rated health for Black residents. Block parties may be an indicator of bonding social capital in Philadelphia's predominantly Black neighborhoods, but this analysis did not show a direct association between block parties and self-rated health for Black residents. Further research should consider what other health outcomes or behaviors block parties may be related to and how interventionists can leverage block parties for health promotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sud du Sahara | Page 123 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'indépendance du Zimbabwe a mis fin à la ségrégation raciale et à la domination coloniale. Pourtant, les espérances et les espoirs d'une amélioration radicale des conditions de vie de la majorité noire du pays restent insatisfaits. La majeure partie du logement pour les pauvres est marginale, surpeuplée et dangereuse.

  12. Efficient Multi-Party Computation over Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge; Ishai, Yuval

    2003-01-01

    Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is an active research area, and a wide range of literature can be found nowadays suggesting improvements and generalizations of existing protocols in various directions. However, all current techniques for secure MPC apply to functions that are represented...... by (boolean or arithmetic) circuits over finite fields. We are motivated by two limitations of these techniques: – Generality. Existing protocols do not apply to computation over more general algebraic structures (except via a brute-force simulation of computation in these structures). – Efficiency. The best...... the usefulness of the above results by presenting a novel application of MPC over (non-field) rings to the round-efficient secure computation of the maximum function. Basic Research in Computer Science (www.brics.dk), funded by the Danish National Research Foundation....

  13. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obłój Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

  14. Social host policies and underage drinking parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Sparks, Michael; Francisco, Vincent T; Wyrick, David; Nichols, Tracy; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Social host policies focused on underage drinking parties are implemented to reduce social availability of alcohol and high-risk drinking by adolescents in private locations. We examined the policies' relationship with drinking location, peer-group drinking size, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences. Cross-sectional data from 11,205, 14-20-year olds, were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Policies were not associated with drinking location, decreased heavy episodic drinking, or nonviolent consequences. However, adolescents from communities with a preexisting policy had lower odds of drinking in large peer groups compared to those from communities without a policy at baseline. Additional research is needed to examine their effectiveness. The study's limitations are noted.

  15. Predictors of breath alcohol concentrations in college parties

    OpenAIRE

    Croff, Julie M.; Leavens, Eleanor; Olson, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol use and subsequent consequences are harmful for individual college students. Other students and the university can also be negatively impacted by the consequences of alcohol use. Method A field-based study was used to assess the alcohol use environment at college parties. Researchers replicated a previous study by driving and walking a route to identify parties primarily on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evenings between 9:00?PM and 1:00?AM across an academic year. Parties ...

  16. 78 FR 76092 - Section 752 and Related Party Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL21 Section 752 and Related Party... loss for such liability. 3. Related Party Rules A. Constructive Owner of Stock Under Sec. 1.752-4(b)(1... one partner in a partnership under Sec. 1.752-4(b)(1), the related party rules in Sec. 1.752-4(b)(1...

  17. Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Rob M. A. Nelissen; Marcel Zeelenberg

    2009-01-01

    Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of pu...

  18. A forest butterfly in sahara desert oases: isolation does not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Husemann, Martin; Schmitt, Thomas; Dapporto, Leonardo; Rödder, Dennis; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies addressing the impact of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity have been performed. In this study, we analyze the effects of a seemingly nonpermeable matrix on the population structure of the forest-dwelling butterfly Pararge aegeria in geographically isolated oases at the northern margin of the Sahara desert using microsatellites, morphological characters, and species distribution modeling. Results from all analyses are mostly congruent and reveal 1) a split between European and North African populations, 2) rather low divergence between populations from the eastern and western part of North Africa (Morocco vs. Tunisia), 3) a lack of differentiation between the oasis and Atlas Mountain populations, 4) as well as among the oasis populations, and 5) no reduction of genetic variability in oasis populations. However, one exception to this general trend resulted from the analyses of wing shape; wings of butterflies from oases are more elongated compared with those from the other habitats. This pattern of phenotypic divergence may suggest a recent colonization of the oasis habitats by individuals, which might be accompanied by a rather dispersive behavior. Species distribution modeling suggests a fairly recent reexpansion of the species' climatic niche starting in the Holocene at about 6000 before present. The combined results indicate a rather recent colonization of the oases by highly mobile individuals from genetically diverse founder populations. The colonization was likely followed by the expansion and persistence of these founder populations under relatively stable environmental conditions. This, together with low rates of gene flow, likely prevented differentiation of populations via drift and led to the maintenance of high genetic diversity.

  19. Evidence of Rift Valley fever seroprevalence in the Sahrawi semi-nomadic pastoralist system, Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Antonello; Rossi, Davide; Saleh, Saleh M Lamin; Lejlifa, Saleh M; Hamdi, Sidumu J; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni; Thrusfield, Michael V

    2014-04-24

    The increasing global importance of Rift Valley fever (RVF) is clearly demonstrated by its geographical expansion. The presence of a wide range of host and vector species, and the epidemiological characteristics of RVF, have led to concerns that epidemics will continue to occur in previously unaffected regions of Africa. The proximity of the Sahrawi territories of Western Sahara to endemic countries, such as Mauritania, Senegal, and Mali with periodic isolation of virus and serological evidence of RVF, and the intensive livestock trade in the region results in a serious risk of RVF spread in the Sahrawi territories, and potentially from there to the Maghreb and beyond. A sero-epidemiological survey was conducted in the Saharawi territories between March and April 2008 to investigate the possible presence of the RVF virus (RVFV) and associated risk factors. A two-stage cluster sampling design was used, incorporating 23 sampling sites. A total of 982 serum samples was collected from 461 sheep, 463 goats and 58 camels. Eleven samples (0.97%) tested positive for IgG against the RVFV. There were clusters of high seroprevalence located mostly in the Tifariti (7.69%) and Mehaires (7.14%) regions, with the Tifariti event having been found in one single flock (4/26 positive animals). Goats and older animals were at a significantly increased risk being seropositive (p = 0.007 and p = 0.007, respectively). The results suggest potential RVF activity in the study area, where intense livestock movement and trade with neighbouring countries might be considered as a primary determinant in the spread of the disease. The importance of a continuous field investigation is reinforced, in light of the risk of RVF expansion to historically unaffected regions of Africa.

  20. Implications Of Fuelwood Demandon Sustainable Forest Conservation Of The Sub-Sahara Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogbon Odunwole

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute immensely to economic and social development through formal trade in timber environmental services non- timber forest products safety net spiritual and aesthetic value. Wood is a key source of energy that has been used for millennia for cooking boiling water lighting and heating. Today about 2.5billion people depend on biomass energy for cooking and heating with 87 of this energy being provided by wood. In sub-Saharan African more than 90 of the population relies on wood fire that is firewood and charcoal as their primary source of domestic energy. Over 80 of urban householders and small industries use charcoal and firewood as their source of energy. Despite their numerous importance Africas forest continue to decline rapidly due to increase in agricultural practices into forest lands population growth and urbanization increased poverty high dependence on natural resources for subsistence and income through forest. The study centred on the implications of fuel wood demand on forest conservation in sub-Sahara Africa - a regional focus on Akure metropolitan area Ondo State. The specific objectives of the paper were to identify firewood consumption pattern in Akure metropolitan area and factors responsible for increased fuelwood demand in the study area. The paper adopted direct observation oral interview and 0.05 of the study area as sample size for the study. The study observed lack of adequate alternative poor implementation and enforcement of government regulation on forestry poverty and poor awareness on the menace of forest depletion among others. The paper posited provision of alternative fuel with subsidy regular awareness campaign proper monitoring implementation and enforcement of forest regulations with a view to achieving sustainable conservation.

  1. Crop drying by indirect active hybrid solar - Electrical dryer in the eastern Algerian Septentrional Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughali, S.; Bouchekima, B.; Mennouche, D.; Bouguettaia, H.; Bechki, D. [Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy in Aride Zones, University Kasdi Merbah, BP511 Ouargla (Algeria); Benmoussa, H. [Faculty of Science, Department of Mechanics, University Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria)

    2009-12-15

    In the present work, a new specific prototype of an indirect active hybrid solar-electrical dryer for agricultural products was constructed and investigated at LENREZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara). In the new configuration of air drying passage; the study was done in a somewhat high range of mass flow rate between 0.04 and 0.08 kg/m{sup 2} s a range not properly investigated by most researchers. Experimental tests with and without load were performed in winter season in order to study the thermal behavior of the dryer and the effect of high air masse flow on the collector and system drying efficiency. The fraction of electrical and solar energy contribution versus air mass flow rate was investigated. Slice tomato was studied with different temperatures and velocities of drying air in order to study the influence of these parameters on the removal moisture content from the product and on the kinetics drying and also to determine their suitable values. Many different thin layer mathematical drying models were compared according to their coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and reduced chi square ({chi}{sup 2}) to estimate experimental drying curves. The Middli model in this condition proved to be the best for predicting drying behavior of tomato slice with (R{sup 2} = 0.9995, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.0001). Finally an economic evaluation was calculated using the criterion of payback period which is found very small 1.27 years compared to the life of the dryer 15 years. (author)

  2. Alliance of proteomics and genomics to unravel the specificities of Sahara bacterium Deinococcus deserti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan de Groot

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To better understand adaptation to harsh conditions encountered in hot arid deserts, we report the first complete genome sequence and proteome analysis of a bacterium, Deinococcus deserti VCD115, isolated from Sahara surface sand. Its genome consists of a 2.8-Mb chromosome and three large plasmids of 324 kb, 314 kb, and 396 kb. Accurate primary genome annotation of its 3,455 genes was guided by extensive proteome shotgun analysis. From the large corpus of MS/MS spectra recorded, 1,348 proteins were uncovered and semiquantified by spectral counting. Among the highly detected proteins are several orphans and Deinococcus-specific proteins of unknown function. The alliance of proteomics and genomics high-throughput techniques allowed identification of 15 unpredicted genes and, surprisingly, reversal of incorrectly predicted orientation of 11 genes. Reversal of orientation of two Deinococcus-specific radiation-induced genes, ddrC and ddrH, and identification in D. deserti of supplementary genes involved in manganese import extend our knowledge of the radiotolerance toolbox of Deinococcaceae. Additional genes involved in nutrient import and in DNA repair (i.e., two extra recA, three translesion DNA polymerases, a photolyase were also identified and found to be expressed under standard growth conditions, and, for these DNA repair genes, after exposure of the cells to UV. The supplementary nutrient import and DNA repair genes are likely important for survival and adaptation of D. deserti to its nutrient-poor, dry, and UV-exposed extreme environment.

  3. Party system of the Middle Urals: stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available On the example of a single region – Sverdlovsk region – we study the evolution of the party system. The author distinguishes two stages in the development of the party system of the Middle Urals: during the existence of a multiparty system and a dominant party. Much attention is paid to the reasons of the development of the party system of the Sverdlovsk region. The author distinguishes causes such as the presence of intra-elite conflict, change the electoral law, the use of administrative resource.

  4. The proscription of parties and the problem with 'militant democracy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, Spain banned the political party Herri Batasuna and its successors Euskal Herritarrok and Batasuna for integration in the Basque separatist terrorist group Euskadi Ta Askatasuna. Since then, eleven other parties or electoral groupings deemed successors to the illegal parties have also been...... banned. The party bans in Spain highlight weaknesses in leading theoretical accounts of proscription and democratic responses to extremism, weaknesses that are symptomatic of broader problems with the paradigmatic concept of ‘militant democracy’. More specifically, closer examination of the Spanish case...

  5. The proscription of parties and the problem of 'miltant democracy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, Spain banned the political party Herri Batasuna and its successors Euskal Herritarrok and Batasuna for integration in the Basque separatist terrorist group Euskadi Ta Askatasuna. Since then, eleven other parties or electoral groupings deemed successors to the illegal parties have also been...... banned. The party bans in Spain highlight weaknesses in leading theoretical accounts of proscription and democratic responses to extremism, weaknesses that are symptomatic of broader problems with the paradigmatic concept of ‘militant democracy’. More specifically, closer examination of the Spanish case...

  6. Predictors of breath alcohol concentrations in college parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croff, Julie M; Leavens, Eleanor; Olson, Kathleen

    2017-03-30

    Alcohol use and subsequent consequences are harmful for individual college students. Other students and the university can also be negatively impacted by the consequences of alcohol use. A field-based study was used to assess the alcohol use environment at college parties. Researchers replicated a previous study by driving and walking a route to identify parties primarily on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evenings between 9:00 PM and 1:00 AM across an academic year. Parties were randomly sampled. Hosts were asked for permission to enter the party at each sampled location. A census of partygoers was attempted at each party. Participants were asked to complete a brief survey and give a breath sample. All participants were recruited into a follow-up survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of individual-level and party-level factors associated with intoxication are presented. The research team identified 29 parties: 16 were approached, and 12 were surveyed. Overall, 112 participants were surveyed for a response rate of approximately 28.7% of partygoers. Controlling for demographic characteristics, consumption of shots of liquor/spirits was significantly associated with a five times greater risk for intoxication. Notably, drinking games were protective of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) risk in this model. Individuals who reported engaging in drinking games were 74% less likely to report a BrAC above the U.S. legal limit, while controlling for underage drinking in the model. Several party characteristics were identified that increased overall BrAC at the parties, including whether the party was themed, if it was a Greek life party, and whether there were illicit drugs present. Notably, when intoxication is examined by gender and party theme, women are significantly more likely to be intoxicated at themed parties: 75% were above 0.08 at themed parties compared to 35% above 0.08 at non-themed parties. Field-based data collection methods can, and should, be

  7. Server-Aided Two-Party Computation with Simultaneous Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Ranellucci, Samuel

    We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal composab......We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal...

  8. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  9. Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous ?

    OpenAIRE

    Houdret Annabelle; Bonnet Simon

    2016-01-01

    Les partenariats public-privé (PPP) sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en te...

  10. Energy Intake and Expenditure of Professional Soccer Players of the English Premier League: Evidence of Carbohydrate Periodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Milsom, Jordan; Rydings, David; O'Boyle, Andy; Di Michele, Rocco; Louis, Julien; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p players readily achieve current guidelines for daily protein and fat intake, data suggest that CHO intake on the day before and in recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.

  11. Political parties and Facebook: A study of Icelandic political parties and their social media usage

    OpenAIRE

    Baldvin Þór Bergsson

    2014-01-01

    The importance of social media in the national discourse is increasing but little is known about their true effects on political communication and participation. The paper examines how the Icelandic political parties used social media during the campaign for the 2013 general elections and possible influence of the electorate. Data from the Icelandic National Election Study was used to examine a possible link between political interest and participation. International studies are used as a ref...

  12. A "Coming Out" Party in Congress?: LGBT Advocacy and Party-List Politics in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the journey of Ladlad, a political party in the Philippines specifically representing the country's LGBT citizens, within the context of a broader historical-anthropological perspective on same-sex sexualities and gender diversity in the Philippine Archipelago, the historical colonial implantation and contemporary persistence of heterosexism and homophobia in the country, and the current struggle for gender and sexual equality being articulated through both local Philippi...

  13. Detection and Mapping of Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii) in the Colorado Desert of Southern California using Landsat Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii Gouan), a plant native to North Africa and the Middle East, has become a troublesome invasive pest in arid ecosystems of the Southwest United States, northern and central Mexico, and Australia. In the desert Southwest, B. tournefortii is commonly found in sandy washes, sand sheets, rocky hillsides, and other disturbed areas at elevations below 1000 m. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Landsat MTMF technique for detecting B. tournefortii presence and biomass density in the Colorado Desert region of California.

  14. Essential oil variation in wild populations of Artemisia saharae (Asteraceae) from Tunisia: chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Sami; Ayadi, Imen; Fakhfakh, Nahed; Jdir, Hamida; Aloui, Latifa; Kossentini, Mohamed; Rebai, Ahmed; Zouari, Nacim

    2014-12-01

    Artemisia saharae Pomel is a new taxon of Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Asteraceae) which is endemic to Tunisia and Algeria. This shrub, commonly known as white wormwood or desert wormwood, is largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by several factors such as geographic conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information about the influence of altitude variation on the essential oil composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia saharae growing wild in the same geographical area. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation of leaves and flowers of the plant collected from seven different altitudes of the Baten Zamour region (southwest of Tunisia). The highest essential oil yields (2.70-2.80%) were obtained for populations of high altitudes. Seventy-five compounds, representing 92.78 to 96.95% of the total essential oils, were separated and identified. Essential oils were characterized by very high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes (52.1-72.6%) which constituted the predominant class. From the analyzed populations, the major compounds (>7%) were α-thujone, β-thujone, chrysanthenone, camphor, chrysanthenyl acetate, and sabinyl acetate. Sabinyl acetate which was detected in some populations at relatively high percentages (7.7-10.8%) seems to be characteristic to Southern Tunisian A. saharae. The studied essential oil showed a chemical diversity depending on the population altitude as revealed by linear discriminant and cluster analyses. Three population groups associated with altitudinal levels were distinguished. It is worthy to note that the most discriminating compounds of chemical groups were the minor ones. Despite the high variation of essential oil compositions, the high altitude population did not affect severely the antibacterial activity

  15. ‘To quarterback behind the scenes, third-party efforts’: the tobacco industry and the Tea Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-01-01

    Background The Tea Party, which gained prominence in the USA in 2009, advocates limited government and low taxes. Tea Party organisations, particularly Americans for Prosperity and FreedomWorks, oppose smoke-free laws and tobacco taxes. Methods We used the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the Wayback Machine, Google, LexisNexis, the Center for Media and Democracy and the Center for Responsive Politics (opensecrets.org) to examine the tobacco companies’ connections to the Tea Party. Results Starting in the 1980s, tobacco companies worked to create the appearance of broad opposition to tobacco control policies by attempting to create a grassroots smokers’ rights movement. Simultaneously, they funded and worked through third-party groups, such as Citizens for a Sound Economy, the predecessor of AFP and FreedomWorks, to accomplish their economic and political agenda. There has been continuity of some key players, strategies and messages from these groups to Tea Party organisations. As of 2012, the Tea Party was beginning to spread internationally. Conclusions Rather than being a purely grassroots movement that spontaneously developed in 2009, the Tea Party has developed over time, in part through decades of work by the tobacco industry and other corporate interests. It is important for tobacco control advocates in the USA and internationally, to anticipate and counter Tea Party opposition to tobacco control policies and ensure that policymakers, the media and the public understand the longstanding connection between the tobacco industry, the Tea Party and its associated organisations. PMID:23396417

  16. Political parties and Facebook: A study of Icelandic political parties and their social media usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldvin Þór Bergsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of social media in the national discourse is increasing but little is known about their true effects on political communication and participation. The paper examines how the Icelandic political parties used social media during the campaign for the 2013 general elections and possible influence of the electorate. Data from the Icelandic National Election Study was used to examine a possible link between political interest and participation. International studies are used as a reference since Icelandic studies on the subject are limited, and a theoretical overview of the nature and effect of social media is provided. The findings of this paper are that social media was primarily used as a one-way communication tool and that interaction between parties and the electorate was limited. Facebook is by far the most important social media due to its spread and easiness to send information to a large group. The study does not find evidence for the claim that voters had much effect on the campaign through social media nor that social media affected the election results. People with much interest in politics are more likely to use the internet to receive information from the parties.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  18. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  19. The gender of party leadership and its impact on voter's asessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Even though most political parties are still male dominated, an increasing number of women reach the top position of party leader. Furthermore, party leadership is increasingly regarded as an important part of party images due to the personalization of politics. Does the gender of the party leader...... leader characteristics appreciated by men and women. If this holds, the gender of party leadership matters to women because they value woman party leaders higher, not because they value other characteristics than men....

  20. The Endurance and Decline of Single Party Dominance in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further research and quantitative evidence is necessary to test whether the same conclusion can be applied to other cases. This research contributes to the understanding of one-party dominance in developing countries. Keywords: democracy, ethnic cleavage, historical legacy, institutions, one party dominance, political ...