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Sample records for sago

  1. Utilisation of sago starch for wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Kamarudin Bahari

    2000-01-01

    Sago starch is utilized in Malaysia mainly for the purpose of food production. The purpose of the research is to diversify the use of sago starch for medical application particularly in development of hydrogel wound dressing. The sago starch is blending with water-soluble polymer such as polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene oxide and irradiated with electron beam accelerator to form hydrogel. The parameters such gel strength, elasticity, swelling, gel fraction and tackiness have to be consider for this type of application. We also study the effect of adding additive such as carboxymethyl cellulose and polypropylene glycol into the system to enhance the property of sago starch hydrogel. Works on the use of chitosan in the blend have been performed, in order to prevent microbiological growth such as bacteria and fungi on the hydrogel. (author)

  2. Bioconversion of sago residue into value added products | Awg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... value added products. DS Awg-Adeni, S Abd-Aziz, K Bujang, MA Hassan ... sago processing mills. This review focuses on the developments in processes and products for the value addition of sago residues through biotechnological means.

  3. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  4. THE POSSIBILITY OF SAGO STARCH MARKETING IN JAPAN FROM SAGO PRODUCING AREAS IN THE EASTERN PART OF INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Datu, Diyah Yumeina R.; Katsuya, Osozawa

    2011-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sp.) is distributed and grows naturally in almost every island throughout Indonesia, especially in swampy coastal areas along rivers. After the World War II, the sago cultivation in the regions that surround Malaysia and the Western Indonesia, have been consolidated by the investors while farmers in the eastern Indonesia continue their conventional practice. Recently, these farmers in the eastern part have been shifting from sago production to others crops such as corn a...

  5. Sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.): A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrud, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.) is a submersed macrophyte of nearly cosmopolitan distribution. The plant is of worldwide importance as a waterfowl food but also can be a nuisance in irrigation canals and recreational areas. The plant reproduces by many different means, depending on habitat and environmental stress. Several genetic ecotypes have evolved. Most important as waterfowl food are the turions (tubers), vegetative propagules rich in carbohydrates that are mostly buried in bottom sediments. In temperate wetlands, most turions sprout in spring, making sago behave as an annual. Drupelets (seeds) are the sexual propagules of sago and provide a mechanism for sago to survive periods of drought and excessive water salinity. Drupelets can be washed ashore or carried by birds for long distances. Sago decomposes rapidly at senescence, annually in temperate wetlands.Sago is mostly found in semipermanently or permanently flooded mixosaline lacustrine, palustrine, and riverine wetlands pH, and alkalinity, but it fares poorly among specialist taxa in acidic or nutrient-poor waters. Sago is highly tolerant of eutrophic waters, and it can be the only species of submersed macrophyte present in heavily polluted sites. Sago grows in nearly all bottom substrates. Turbidity is the factor that most frequently limits sago growth.Sago often occurs in monotypic stands but can grow with many other submersed and emergent macrophytes. Dominance by sago in certain wetlands sometimes alternates with dominance by other submersed macrophytes when salinities or other environmental factors change. Sago also can be associated with a large variety of unattached filamentous, planktonic, or epiphytic algae. Increased turbidity caused by planktonic algae often is responsible for lowered sago production. Less common biotic limiting factors are organic pollutants and consumption and uprooting by waterfowl and fish.Sago provides food or shelter for amphibians, reptiles, fish, and mammals

  6. Synthesis of A Sustainable Sago-Based Value Chain via Fuzzy Optimisation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jeffrey Hong Seng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago starch is one of the staple foods for human, especially in Asia’s Region. It can be produced via sago starch extraction process (SSEP. During the SSEP, several types of sago wastes are generated such as sago fiber (SF, sago bark (SB and sago wastewater (SW. With the increase in production of existing factories and sago mills, the sago industrial practice in waste disposal management is gaining more attention, thus implementation of effective waste management is vital. One of the promising ways to have effective waste management is to create value out of the sago wastes. In a recent study, sago-based refinery, which is a facility to convert sago wastes into value-added products (e.g., bio-ethanol and energy was found feasible. However, the conversion of other value added products from sago wastes while considering the environmental impact has not been considered in sago value chain. Therefore, an optimum sago value chain, which involved conversion activities of sago wastes into value-added products, is aimed to be synthesised in this work. The optimum sago value chain will be evaluated based on profit and carbon emissions using fuzzy-based optimisation approach via a commercial optimisation software, Lingo 16.0. To illustrate the the developed approach, an industrial case study has been solved in this work.

  7. The Utilization of Sago Waste as Cattle Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiro, B. M. W.; Beding, P. A.; Baliadi, Y.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed was to evaluate nutrition value of sago waste and its effect on cattle performance.The collected data were analyzed using analysis of variance. The results of the study showed that of the utilization of sago waste had a positive effect on average daily gain (ADG), where with 2% sago waste of body weight (P2 treatment) gave the highest ADG 0.43 ± 0.02 kg/h/day and cattle which consumed only forage without sago waste (P0) gave the lowest ADG 0.26 ± 0.04 kg/h/day. Statistical analysis showed that the addition of sago waste significantly affected the ADG (P0.05), but significant affect(Pcattle.

  8. Development of sago starch hydrogel for wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman HJ. Mohd Dahlan; Kamarudin Bahari [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Sago starch is utilized in Malaysia mainly for food production. The purpose of the research is to diversify the use of sago starch for medical application particularly in development of hydrogel burn wound dressing. The sago starch is blending with mixture of PVP and PVA to improve the degree of crosslink, mechanical properties, swelling ability and tackiness of the blend hydrogel (sago/PVA and sago PVP). Additives have been introduced into the system such as, polypropylene glycol or carboxymethyl cellulose to improved further the swelling ability and tackiness properties of the blend hydrogel as well as other properties. Effect of irradiation dose on the blend hydrogel has also been studied to optimize the effective dose for blend hydrogel and simultaneously for sterilization purpose. (author)

  9. Development of sago starch hydrogel for wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman HJ Mohd Dahlan; Kamarudin Bahari; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2001-01-01

    Sago starch is utilized in Malaysia mainly for food production. The purpose of the research is to diversify the use of sago starch for medical application particularly in development of hydrogel burn wound dressing. The sago starch is blending with mixture of PVP and PVA to improve the degree of crosslink, mechanical properties, swelling ability and tackiness of the blend hydrogel (sago/PVA and sago PVP). Additives have been introduced into the system such as, polypropylene glycol or carboxymethyl cellulose to improved further the swelling ability and tackiness properties of the blend hydrogel as well as other properties. Effect of irradiation dose on the blend hydrogel has also been studied to optimize the effective dose for blend hydrogel and simultaneously for sterilization purpose. (author)

  10. Optimizing Extraction of Cellulose and Synthesizing Pharmaceutical Grade Carboxymethyl Sago Cellulose from Malaysian Sago Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar Veeramachineni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sago biomass is an agro-industrial waste produced in large quantities, mainly in the Asia-Pacific region and in particular South-East Asia. This work focuses on using sago biomass to obtain cellulose as the raw material, through chemical processing using acid hydrolysis, alkaline extraction, chlorination and bleaching, finally converting the material to pharmaceutical grade carboxymethyl sago cellulose (CMSC by carboxymethylation. The cellulose was evaluated using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Field Emission Scanning Electronic Microscopy (FESEM. The extracted cellulose was analyzed for cellulose composition, and subsequently modified to CMSC with a degree of substitution (DS 0.6 by typical carboxymethylation reactions. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the crystallinity of the sago cellulose was reduced after carboxymethylation. FTIR and NMR studies indicate that the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers were etherified through carboxymethylation to produce CMSC. Further characterization of the cellulose and CMSC were performed using FESEM and DSC. The purity of CMSC was analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International standards. In this case, acid and alkaline treatments coupled with high-pressure defibrillation were found to be effective in depolymerization and defibrillation of the cellulose fibers. The synthesized CMSC also shows no toxicity in the cell line studies and could be exploited as a pharmaceutical excipient.

  11. Properties of Sago Particleboards Resinated with UF and PF Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chiang Tay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sago processing industry in Mukah, Sarawak, had generated huge amount of sago waste after the milling process and scientists have employed the waste into composite material. In this work, sago residues were mixed with the Phenol Formaldehyde (PF and Urea Formaldehyde (UF for particleboard fabrication. The fabrication and testing methods are based on JIS A 5908 Standard. A single layer particleboard using sago particles was fabricated at targeted density of 600 kg/m3. Particles with weight fractions of 90%, 85%, and 80% with two different matrices were used in the fabrication. The results demonstrated that the samples with different weight fraction and matrix have great influence on the mechanical properties such as MOR, MOE, Young’s Modulus, tensile strength, impact strength, screw test, and internal bonding. The sago UF/PF particleboard only displays single stage decomposition. All the panels underwent physical tests which are water absorption and thickness swelling. The combination of sago particles with UF/PF can be utilized for general indoor application purposes such as furniture manufacturing. Sago particleboard made by UF/PF provided the advantages like optimized performance, minimized weight and volume, cost effectiveness, chemical resistance, and resistance to biodegradation.

  12. Bioconversion of sago residue into value added products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... In Sarawak, East Malaysia, agro-residues from sago starch processing industries are ... conversion to animal food or fuel ethanol (Species. Profiles for Pacific Island ..... serious contamination of the rivers. Based on study by.

  13. Effect of temperature to the properties of sago starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Kamal, M.; Baini, R.; Mohamaddan, S.; Selaman, O. S.; Zauzi, N. Ahmad; Rahman, M. R.; Rahman, N. Abdul; Chong, K. H.; Atan, M. F.; Samat, N. A. S. Abdul; Taib, S. N. L.; Othman, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the importance of sago starch has increased, as it has become one of the main economically important agricultural crops to the most Southeast Asia countries. In the present work, an analysis on drying process of sago starch (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) underwent various temperature has been made by using four empirical equations. The main goal of this analysis is to suggest the most accurate equation, in order to model and simulate the mechanical drying of sago starch. The experimental investigations were carried out in a gravity convection lab oven; and ±50g of sago starch (sample heights of 1 cm) was dried through four different temperatures, which were 50, 60, 70 and 80ºC. The effect of drying temperature on the drying kinetics, as well as various qualities attributes of sago starch, such as microstructure, colour and functional properties were investigated. The results suggested that drying temperature has significant effect on sago starch drying kinetic; therefore, drying temperature would be the basis to select drying condition. Meanwhile, it was found that the various drying temperature ranging from 50 to 80ºC affected the product quality especially in term of colour.

  14. Sorption behaviour of polystyrene grafted sago starch in various solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janarthanan, P.; Yunus, W.M.Z.W.; Ahmed, M.B.; Rahman, M.Z.; Haron, M.J.; Silong, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes swelling properties of polystyrene grafted sago starch in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); chloroform (CHCl/sub 3/), water, acetone carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) cyclohexanone and toluene. The copolymer for this study was prepared by grafting styrene onto sago starch using ceric ammonium nitrate as a redox initiator. Solvent uptake of the copolymer with respect to time was obtained by soaking the samples in chosen solvents for various time intervals at 25+-1 degree centigrade. The results obtained from swelling of polystyrene grafted sago starch in polar and non polar solvents showed that the percentage of swelling at equilibrium and the swelling rate coefficient decreased in the following order: DMSO > water > acetone cyclohexanone approx. CHCl/sub 3/ > toluene approx. CCl/sub 4/. Dimethyl sulfoxide showed the highest percentage of swelling at equilibrium that is 765%. Diffusions of the solvents onto the polymers were found to be of a Fickian only for DMSO. (author)

  15. Incorporation of Cyclotriphosphazene as Pendant Groups to the Sago Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainab Ngaini; Khairul Aidil Azlin Abd Rahman; Nazlina Shaari; Hasnain Hussain; Norhaizat Sundin; Jingxin, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotriphosphazene-incorporated sago wastes as pendant groups have been prepared and structurally characterized using FT-IR and SEM. The chemically modified sago wastes composite was applied with binders and developed as sound absorbing panels. These panels are a class of organic-inorganic based materials that exhibit excellent fire retardant properties. Sound absorbance test has given a higher value at 250, 500 and 2000 Hz, which indicates the suitability of the panel for used in medium frequency. The panel was 51 % lighter compared to fiber board. The function and basic manufacturing of sound absorbers products was aligned with the present products in the market. (author)

  16. Acid Pretreatment of Sago Wastewater for Biohydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi Mohamad Puad, Noor; Rahim, Nurainin Farhan Abd; Suhaida Azmi, Azlin

    2018-03-01

    Biohydrogen has been recognized to be one of the future renewable energy sources and has the potential in solving the greenhouse effects. In this study, Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) was used as the biohydrogen producer via dark fermentation process using sago wastewater as the substrate. However, pretreatment of sago wastewater is required since it consists of complex sugars that cannot be utilized directly by the bacteria. This study aimed to use acid pretreatment method to produce high amount of glucose from sago wastewater. Three different types of acid: sulfuric acid (H2SO4); hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO3) were screened for the best acid in producing a maximum amount of glucose. H2SO4 gave the highest amount of glucose which was 9.406 g/L. Design of experiment was done using Face-centred Central Composite Design (FCCCD) tool under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in Design Expert 9 software. The maximum glucose (9.138 g/L) was recorded using 1 M H2SO4 at 100 °C for 60 min. A batch dark fermentation using E. aerogenes was carried out and it was found that pretreated sago wastewater gave a higher hydrogen concentration (1700 ppm) compared to the raw wastewater (410 ppm).

  17. Sago worms as a nutritious traditional and alternative food for rural children in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Intan R; Trees; Suwarni; Pramono, Mochammad S

    2017-06-01

    The sago worm Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a nutritious food source found in the remaining parts of a sago palm trunk after the removal of sago starch by farmers. The effort to increase sago worm consumption is investigated in an intervention study among children aged eating a usual diet, but without sago worms (n=13). Snacks were served once per day (100 g) for 45 days and designed to contain similar amounts of vegetables (carrots and long beans) and other ingredients including rice, sticky rice, cassava, sweet potato, banana, or tofu with or without sago worms. Food preference was ascertained by interview. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and the endpoint. After mixing all food stuffs into one product for instance nasi gurih, protein and fat content in the intervention group was higher compared to control group (8.8 g and 7.3 g vs 4.7 g and 0.5 g respectively). In the intervention group receiving complementary feeding with sago worms, children's height changed minimally as did the control group (0.3 vs 0.2 cm); no difference was observed between the groups regarding weight or height. Sago worm consumption can diversify the diet through usage in various dishes, so improving its overall nutritional quality. Worm addition in an intervention program does not compromise, but maintains nutritional value. Local use adds affordability and sustainability to the food and health systems in a sago-consuming culture, so contributing to food security.

  18. Production of water-soluble sago waste - HAMPAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhazlin Zainuddin; Kamaruddin Hashim; Kamaruddin Bahari; Mansor Ahmad; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus

    2002-01-01

    Carboxylmethyl sago waste (CMSW) was prepared in completely heterogeneous conditions as a product of the reaction of sago waste and sodium monochloroacetate (MCA) in mixed solution of isopropanol and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The results showed that the DS values depend on the concentration of NaOH, ratio of MCA to anhydroglucose unit (AGU), (MCA:AGU), and also time and temperature of the reaction. DS value increased with increasing the concentration of NaOH and reaction temperature, but further increase will reduce the value of DS. Increasing the reaction time will increase the DS value and achieve a constant value after 2 hours. The study showed that the highest value of DS i.e. 1.04, could be achieved at 2:1 of MCA:AGU ratio, NaOh concentration of 25% and 2 hours reaction time at 55 degree C. (Author)

  19. Preparation And Physicochemical Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA) Modified Sago Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Farhana Zainal Abiddin; Anida Yusoff; Noorlaila Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Starch from sago (Metroxylon sagu) was esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) in order to regulate its shortcoming by adding amphiphilic properties. The objective of this work is to determine the physicochemical properties of native sago and OSA sago starches. The OSA sago starch was produced according to the optimum condition generated via response surface methodology (RSM) with 5.00 % OSA at pH 7.20 and a reaction time of 9.65 hours. The esterified sago starch gives a degree of substitution (DS) value of 0.012. The physicochemical properties of OSA sago starch was determined by measuring the amylose content, laser diffraction particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The amylose content for OSA sago starch was found to be reduced after esterification reaction. The particle size of OSA sago starch was found to increase significantly (p<0.05) compared to their native starches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that OSA starch developed slightly rough surface and their edges lost some definition. FT-IR spectroscopy shows that there was appearance of new absorption correspond to ester carbonyl group (1717 cm -1 ) and carboxylate RCOO- (1569 cm -1 ). This study showed that the physicochemical properties of modified starches were influenced not only by DS but also on the botanical origin of the starches. (author)

  20. Bioconversion and enzymatic activities of neurospora sitophila grown under solid state and submerged fermentation on Sago Hamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaosadati, S. A.; Vikineswary, S.; Looi, C. C.

    2000-01-01

    N.Sitophila was grown under controlled conditions of solid state and submerged fermentation on Sago Hampas. The optimum conditions of protein enrichment previously established for sugar beet pulp was used for this study. Under this condition the protein content of Sago Hampas under solid state increased from 1.4 to 14.45% (W/W) whereas for Sago Hampas and Sago starch, the protein content under submerged condition increased from 1.4% (W/W) and 0.7% (W/W) to 18.56% (W/W) and 43/16% (W/W) based on dry weight of product respectively. The cellulase, a-amylase and glucoamylase activities of N.Sitophila under solid state condition on Sago Hampas were, 9.0, 0.6 and 11.8 U/g of wet fermented solid respectively. the enzymatic activities were also measured under submerged fermentation using both Sago Hampas and Sago starch as substrate

  1. Genetic diversity of sago palm in Indonesia based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEMEN SURAHMAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abbas B, Renwarin Y, Bintoro MH, Sudarsono, Surahman M, Ehara H (2010 Genetic diversity of sago palm in Indonesia based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA markers. Biodiversitas 11: 112-117. Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. was believed capable to accumulate high carbohydrate content in its trunk. The capability of sago palm producing high carbohydrate should be an appropriate criterion for defining alternative crops in anticipating food crisis. The objective of this research was to study genetic diversity of sago palm in Indonesia based on cpDNA markers. Total genome extraction was done following the Qiagen DNA isolation protocols 2003. Single Nucleotide Fragments (SNF analyses were performed by using ABI Prism GeneScanR 3.7. SNF analyses detected polymorphism revealing eleven alleles and ten haplotypes from total 97 individual samples of sago palm. Specific haplotypes were found in the population from Papua, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan. Therefore, the three islands will be considered as origin of sago palm diversities in Indonesia. The highest haplotype numbers and the highest specific haplotypes were found in the population from Papua suggesting this islands as the centre and the origin of sago palm diversities in Indonesia. The research had however no sufficient data yet to conclude the Papua origin of sago palm. Genetic hierarchies and differentiations of sago palm samples were observed significantly different within populations (P=0.04574, among populations (P=0.04772, and among populations within the island (P=0.03366, but among islands no significant differentiations were observed (P= 0.63069.

  2. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH MELLIAWATI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h were 3.57 to 8.38.

  3. PENGARUH FOTOOKSIDASI UV-C TERHADAP SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA DAN BAKING EXPANSION PATI SAGU (Metroxylon sago

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    Eduard Fransisco Tethool

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Native Sago starch is difficult to used in industry because of the limitations of its phisycochemical properties. The aim of this research was to studied effect of UV-C photo-oxidation on  physicochemical properties and baking expansion of sago starch. Five slurries ratio (starch : water ratio: 1:2; 1:4; 1:6; 1:8; and 1:10 were oxidized with UV-C irradiation for 20 minutes, and then compared with native sago starch. The results showed that UV-C photo-oxidation increasing amylose content and paste viscosity, but decreasing swelling power and solubility, and carbonyl and carboxyl content. Used of UV-C as a photooxidator effective to increasing baking expansion characteristic, and the best slurry ratio was 1:6, which has 6.97 ml/g specific volume or 33.7% increased from native sago starch (5.22 ml/g

  4. Remediation of lead from lead electroplating industrial effluent using sago waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanthi, G P; Shanthi, G

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals are known toxicants, which inflict acute disorders to the living beings. Electroplating industries pose great threat to the environment through heavy load of metals in the wastewater discharged on land and water sources. In the present study, sago processing waste, which is both a waste and a pollutant, was used to adsorb lead ions from lead electroplating industrial effluent. Two types of sago wastes, namely, coarse sago waste and fine sago waste were used to study their adsorption capacity with the batch adsorption and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The parameters that were considered for batch adsorption were pH (4, 5 and 6), time of contact (1, 2 and 3 hrs), temperature (30, 37 and 45 degrees C) and dosage of the adsorbent (2,4 and 6 g/L). The optimal condition for the effective removal of lead was found to be pH 5, time of contact 3 hrs, temperature 30 degrees C and dosage 4 g/L with coarse sago waste than fine sago waste.

  5. Radiation processing of indigenous natural polymers. Properties of radiation modified blends from sago-starch for biodegradable composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazali, Z.; Dahlan, K.Z.; Wongsuban, B.; Idris, S.; Muhammad, K.

    2001-01-01

    Research and development on biodegradable polymer blends and composites have gained wider interest to offer alternative eco-friendly products. Natural polysaccharide such as sago-starch offers the most promising raw material for the production of biodegradable composites. The potential of sago, which is so abundant in Malaysia, to produce blends for subsequent applications in composite material, was evaluated and explored. Blends with various formulations of sago starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymers were prepared and subjected to radiation modification using electron beam irradiation. The effect of irradiation on the sago and its blends was evaluated and their properties were characterized. The potential of producing composite from sago blends was explored. Foams from these blends were produced using microwave oven while films were produced through casting method. The properties such as mechanical, water absorption, expansion ratio, and biodegradability were characterized and reported in this paper. (author)

  6. Radiation processing of indigenous natural polymers. Properties of radiation modified blends from sago-starch for biodegradable composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazali, Z.; Dahlan, K.Z. [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear and Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia); Wongsuban, B.; Idris, S.; Muhammad, K. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2001-03-01

    Research and development on biodegradable polymer blends and composites have gained wider interest to offer alternative eco-friendly products. Natural polysaccharide such as sago-starch offers the most promising raw material for the production of biodegradable composites. The potential of sago, which is so abundant in Malaysia, to produce blends for subsequent applications in composite material, was evaluated and explored. Blends with various formulations of sago starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymers were prepared and subjected to radiation modification using electron beam irradiation. The effect of irradiation on the sago and its blends was evaluated and their properties were characterized. The potential of producing composite from sago blends was explored. Foams from these blends were produced using microwave oven while films were produced through casting method. The properties such as mechanical, water absorption, expansion ratio, and biodegradability were characterized and reported in this paper. (author)

  7. Sago Biomass as a Sustainable Source for Biohydrogen Production by Clostridium butyricum A1

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    Mohamad Faizal Ibrahim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production from biomass is attracting many researchers in developing a renewable, clean and environmental friendly biofuel. The biohydrogen producer, Clostridium butyricum A1, was successfully isolated from landfill soil. This strain produced a biohydrogen yield of 1.90 mol H2/mol glucose with productivity of 170 mL/L/h using pure glucose as substrate. The highest cumulative biohydrogen collected after 24 h of fermentation was 2468 mL/L-medium. Biohydrogen fermentation using sago hampas hydrolysate produced higher biohydrogen yield (2.65 mol H2/mol glucose than sago pith residue (SPR hydrolysate that produced 2.23 mol H2/mol glucose. A higher biohydrogen productivity of 1757 mL/L/h was obtained when using sago hampas hydrolysate compared to when using pure glucose that has the productivity of 170 mL/L/h. A comparable biohydrogen production was also obtained by C. butyricum A1 when compared to C. butyricum EB6 that produced a biohydrogen yield of 2.50 mol H2/mol glucose using sago hampas hydrolysate as substrate. This study shows that the new isolate C. butyricum A1 together with the use of sago biomass as substrate is a promising technology for future biohydrogen production.

  8. Preliminary study on the development of EFB Fibre-sago starch composites: impact and flexural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Hasimah Mohamed; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of natural fibres as the reinforcements for polymer composites in the automotive industry and as matrix for composites in building products application to replace synthetic fibres. In this respect the aim of this study is to develop an environmental friendly composites for furniture industry based on EFB fibres and sago starch. In this preliminary study, a basic composition and processing of EFB fibres-sago starch composites were established and the properties of the composites were determined. EFB fibre content was varied between 50-80% by weight. The amount of sago starch in liquid form was also varied and final weight percentage of sago starch added into the EFB fibres was adjusted accordingly. The mixtures of EFB fibres and sago starch were blended using Haake Rheomixer. The preliminary results indicate that the impact and flexural strengths increased up to 33.58 J/m 2 and 18.92 Mpa, respectively at 70% fibres contents. Further study is now being conducted to improve the processability of the composites by adding plasticisers and processing aids and to incorporate certain reactive additives that can enhance electron beam cross linking for further improvement on the mechanical properties of the composites. (Author)

  9. The quality of Metroxylon Sago sucker: morphology and uptake of manganese and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Abdul Khalik Wood; Ramli Ishak

    2001-01-01

    Metroxylon sago or sagopalm is an important source of carbohydrate for the South East Asian countries, apart from rice. In Malaysia, wild sagopalm grows in Sarawak in its natural habitats, the coastal peat swamp. The quality of sucker growing vegetatively on sagopalm was studied at Sungai Talau experimental station, Dalat plantation and Oya/Mukah plantation in Sarawak. The coefficients of variability (C) and Index of similiarity (I) were calculated based on sucker morphology and uptake of manganese and iron, The matrix of hypothetical exact interpoint distances (Indices of Similarity and Dissimilarity) shows that sucker on matured sagopalm at Sungai Talam experimental station was a high quality, sucker on 5 years old sagopalm at Mukah sago plantation was approximately one-third as good, whereas sucker on 1.5 years old sagopalm at Oya/dalat sago plantation was of inferior quality. (Author)

  10. Preparation And Characterization Of Modified Sago Waste Super absorbent For Pome Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Nurul Hidayah Ahmad Zahari; Maznah Mahmud; Norhashidah Talip; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zahid Abdullah; Norafifah Ahmad Fabillah; Mohamad Nalrazmi Mohamad Shukri; Nurul Aizam Idayu Mat Sani

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) was treated using adsorption technique as a good alternative sustainable management practice of this waste. The adsorbent used is a modified sago waste by grafting technique. Graft polymerization and crosslinking using radiation processing technology are the attractive techniques for modification of chemical and physical properties of polymers. One example of this technique is to produce super adsorbent from agriculture waste, as described in this paper. Super adsorbent polymer from sago waste was prepared using gamma irradiation throughout of this study. The fibre from sago waste mixed with monomer, water soluble polymer and alkaline solution prior to radiation process. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were carried out to confirm the chemical structure and morphology of the super adsorbent. The result obtained showed that this super adsorbent can be used to treat POME. (author)

  11. An Environmental Impact Analysis of Semi-Mechanical Extraction Process of Sago Starch: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, M. A.; Romli, M.; Suprihatin; Wiloso, E. I.

    2018-05-01

    Industrial activities use material, energy and water resources and generate greenhouse gas (GHG). Currently, various regulations require industry to measure and quantify the emissions generated from its process activity. LCA is a method that can be used to analyze and report the environmental impact of an activity that uses resources and generates waste by an industrial activity. In this work, LCA is used to determine the environmental impact of a semi-mechanical extraction process of sago industry. The data was collected through the sago industry in Cimahpar, Bogor. The extraction of sago starch consists of stem cutting, rasping, mixing, filtration, starch sedimentation, washing, and drying. The scope of LCA study covers the harvesting of sago stem, transportation to extraction site, and the starch extraction process. With the assumption that the average transportation distance of sago stem to extraction site is 200 km, the GHG emission is estimated to be 325 kg CO2 eq / ton of sundried sago starch. This figure is lower than that reported for maize starch (1120 kg CO2 eq), potato starch (2232 kg CO2 eq) and cassava starch (4310 kg CO2 eq). This is most likely due to the uncounted impact from the use of electrical energy on the extraction process, which is currently being conducted. A follow-up study is also underway to formulate several process improvement scenarios to derive the design of sago starch processing that generates the minimum emissions.

  12. Effect of incubation time of sago (metroxylon sago) waste by local microorganism ″ginta″ on ph, crude protein, and crude fiber content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Nurzainah; Pase, E.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of incubation times of sago waste by local microorganism (MOL) “Ginta” to the crude protein and crude fiber content in relation to finding a cheap and good quality ruminants feed alternative. Incubation times were 0 hours to 144 hours. The data obtained were analyzed using Completely Randomize Design consisting of seven treatments and three replications. The result showed that the duration of incubation of sago waste by local microorganism (MOL) “Ginta” caused pH reduction, improved crude protein and crude fiber content. pH reduction was from 7.03 at 0 hour to 4.05 at 144 hours incubation. The highest increased in crude protein was H6U3 (5.58%) : 144 hours incubation and the lowest was H0U2 (3.22%) : 0 hour incubation while the highest crude fiber was H0U1 (19.99%) : 0 hour incubation and the lowest was H6U3 (18.23%) : 144 hours incubation. It can be concluded that incubation of sago waste triggered lower pH, higher crude protein and lower crude fiber than uninoculated. A recommendation could be given on using MOL ‘Ginta” in order to produce a cheap and good quality ruminans feed alternative.

  13. The effects of irradiated fungi to produce glucose from sago starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andini, L.S.; Sjarief, Sri Hariani; Sumartono, Agustin; Sudradjat, Dadang; Anastasia, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of irradiated fungi to produce glucose from sago starch had been studied. Fungi used in this experiment were Aspergillus niger K-23, Rhizopus oryzae K-22, and Rhizopus oligosporus K-18. The experiment was carried out to find the optimum doses of irradiation for glucose production of sago starch. Irradiation dose at 0; 0.25; 0.5; and 0.75 kGy respectively from cobalt-60 gamma-cell 220 at a dose rate of 0.42 kGy/h. Concentration of sago starch is 6%. Total glucose and pH were measured on the 3rd and 6th day after incubation at 30 Celcius degrees in shaker incubator. The optimum irradiation doses obtained were 0.25 kGy for Rhizopus oryzae K-22, and 0.75 kGy for Aspergillus niger K-23, and Rhizopus oligosporus K-18. Higher dose of irradiation decreased the pH value of sago substrat, for Aspergillus niger K-23 and Rhizopus oligosporus K-18, but the opposite result was obtained for Rhizopus oryzae K-22. The glucose content at 3 days incubation was higher than at 6 days. (author). 13 refs, 5 tabs, 3 figs

  14. Research for the development of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) cultivation in Sarawak, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.S.

    1995-01-01

    General introduction (Chapter 1)

    This chapter contains an overview of knowledge with respect to the cultivation of the true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu). The palm flowers once and forms suckers or tillers. Seedlings grow into a rosette stage of leaves

  15. Screening of Acetic Acid Bacteria from Pineapple Waste for Bacterial Cellulose Production using Sago Liquid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arfa Yanti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose is a biopolymer produced by fermentation process with the help of bacteria. It has numerous applications in industrial sector with its characteristic as a biodegradable and nontoxic compound in nature. The potential application of BC is limited by its production costs, because BC is produced from expensive culture media. The use of cheap carbon and nutrient sources such as sago liquid waste is an interesting strategy to overcome this limitation. The objective of this study was to obtain the AAB strain that capable to produce bacterial cellulose from sago liquid waste. Isolation of AAB strains was conducted using CARR media and the screening of BC production was performed on Hestrin-Schramm (HS media with glucose as a carbon source. The strains of AAB then were evaluated for their cellulose-producing capability using sago liquid waste as a substrate. Thirteen strains of AAB producing BC were isolated from pineapple waste (pineapple core and peel and seven of them were capable to produce BC using sago liquid waste substrate. One of the AAB strains produced a relatively high BC, i.e. isolate LKN6. The result of morphological and biochemical test was proven that the bacteria was Acetobacter xylinum. The result of this study showed that A. xylinum LKN6 can produce a high yield of BC, therefore this strain is potentially useful for its utilization as a starter in bacterial cellulose production. 

  16. Fabrication of unglazed ceramic tile using dense structured sago waste and clay composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aripin; S Tani; S Mitsudo; T Saito; T Idehara

    2010-01-01

    In Indonesia, the sago processing industry generates every year huge amount of sago waste, and converting this waste into a useful material is possible. In the present study, physical properties of dense structured sago waste and clay composite were investigated in order to study the feasibility of reuse this sample as raw material in the producing of ceramics. Firstly, the chemical composition of ash (obtained from the sago waste) and clay was characterized. The prepared sample was sintered at the temperature range from 800 to 1,200 °C using electric furnace. The density, linear shrinkage and water absorption of the sintered sample were determined by using the Archimedes' method. The experimental result indicated that the density of the sintered sample increased with increasing sintering temperature up to 1100°C and then slightly decreased afterward. The water absorption of the products decreased with an increase in sintering temperature. In the sintered sample at 1,100 °C, the water absorption decreased rapidly and water adsorption of less than 1 % was achieved. This water absorption was less than 5 % which was needed for unglazed floor tile. The result of water adsorption suggest that it is possible to use this sample as a raw material for producing the ceramic floor tile. (author)

  17. Radiation modified sago-blends and its potential for biodegradable packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazali, Z.; Idris, S.; Dahlan, K.Z. [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia); Wongsuban, B.; Adzahan, N.M.; Ithnin, L. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes work at MINT on the characterisation and development of sago blends as alternative biodegradable packaging materials. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of formulation, mixing temperature and irradiation dosage on expansion of sago starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sago-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blends based foam. The foams were produced by microwaving irradiated hydrogels prepared by mixing sago starch with aqueous PVA or PVP. In the development of starch-based plastic, the effect of different composition and different irradiation dosage were studied to evaluate films with good tensile properties, elongation, gas permeability and water vapor transmission rate and also the biodegradability of the film using soil burial test. In another development, irradiation i.e. microwave, electron beam and gamma, has been investigated as a means of degrading the starch granules, which leads to an increase in the amount soluble materials leached. Results showed that irradiation caused an increase in leaching, and a concomitant drastic reduction in swelling volumes of starch granules. It is also showed that the strength of starch gels and viscosity decreased as the levels of irradiation was increased. The degraded starches will be incorporated as an ingredient in the fish cracker and characterized its properties. (author)

  18. Characteristics of Analog Rice From Potato Flour (Solanum Tuberosom L.) Corn Flour (Zea Mays L.) and Sago Flour (Arenga Microcarpa Beccari)

    OpenAIRE

    Korompis, Olga S; Mamuaja, Christine F; Mandey, Lucia C

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), corn (Zea mays L.) and sago (Arenga microcarpa Beccari) are crops containing high carbohydrate, as source of calory food, and those can be made into rice analog. This study aimed: (1) to determine the formulations by organoleptic test in manufacture analog rice from potato flour, corn flour and sago flour, and (2) to analyze the physical properties, chemical properties of rice analog from potato flour with the addition of corn flour and sago flour. The research ...

  19. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E; Rafi, M

    2017-01-01

    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. (paper)

  20. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E.; Rafi, M.

    2017-05-01

    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  3. EFFECT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SAGO PALM (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. CALLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Riyadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of gamma irradiation on plant materials may increase the genetic variation of the offspring with useful traits. The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of irradiation dosage of gamma ray on growth and development of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu calli. Friable calli of sago palm derived from suspension culture were used as a material source. The primary calli were initiated from apical meristematic tissues of sago palm suckers of Alitir variety from Merauke, Papua. The treatments used were dosage of gamma ray irradiation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy. The treated calli were then subcultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS solid medium containing 3% sucrose and 0.1% activated charcoal and added with 1 mg l-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mg l-1 kinetin. The results showed that at all irradiation dosages, calli biomass increased significantly. The highest proliferation of calli biomass of 5.33 folds from the initial culture after 4 weeks was achieved at gamma irradiation of 25 Gy, whereas the lowest proliferation of calli biomass of 3.4 folds was achieved at control. The best development of embryogenic calli was obtained at 10 Gy that produced 100% somatic embryos, whereas the lowest somatic embryo formation at 0% was obtained at 0 and 25 Gy after one subculture. High response of somatic embryo induction to gamma irradiation at 10 Gy may increase production of somatic embryos. These results can be used in in vitro breeding of sago palm via mutagenesis to create new elite varieties.

  4. Two-steps microwave-assisted treatment on acid hydrolysis of sago pith for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti, T. C.; Yanti, S. D.; Ruriani, E.

    2017-05-01

    Sago is a genus of palm that can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars as substrate for bioethanol. Sago pith is a heterogeneous substrate consists of starch and fiber. Acid hydrolysis by microwave heating radiation can break down starch and fibers together in a very short time, so it is considered to be very efficient process. The use of microwave energy (as power level) and variation of heating time can produce fermentable sugar with certain characteristics. This study included the preparation and analysis of sago pith flour; process of acid hydrolysis (0.3 M and 0.5 M H2SO4) using two steps microwave heating, first with power level 30% (1, 2 and 3 min) and second with power level 70% (3 min); and ethanol production. The conventional treatment (autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min) was carried for the comparison. The highest fermentable sugar (105.7 g/l) was resulted from microwave heating with power level 30% for 2 min followed by the power level 70% for 3 min. This hydrolyzate then used as substrate for bioethanol fermentation and partially neutralized (pH 3, 4, 5) by using yeast Issatchenkia orientalis, and the highest ethanol (2.8 g/l) was produced in pH 5.

  5. Radiation modified sago-blends and its potential for biodegradable packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali; Sarada Idris; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2002-01-01

    As a result of rapid population and economic growth, many countries are facing environmental problems created from plastic consumption and those related to garbage disposal. One of the items that is contributing further to this problem would be the foams and plastic wrappers used in packaging. The development of biodegradable packaging material such as foam and film would thus be a step forward in the right direction for the aforementioned industry. This paper highlights work at BTPS on the development of sago blends as alternative biodegradable packaging materials. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of formulation, mixing temperature and irradiation dosage on expansion of sago starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sago-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blends based foam. In the beginning foams produced from irradiated hydrogels were achieved by steam expansion in a microwave oven. Some follow-up work using extrusion was also carried out. In the development of starch-based plastic film, the effect of different composition and different irradiation dosage were studied to evaluate films with good tensile properties, elongation, gas permeability and water vapor transmission rate and also the biodegradability of the film using soil burial test. (Author)

  6. Livestock Feed Production from Sago Solid Waste by Pretreatment and Anaerobic Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiono Siswo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food needs in Indonesia is increasing, including beef. Today, Indonesia has problem to do self-sufficiency in beef. The cause of the problem is the quality of local beef is still lower compared with imported beef due to the quality of livestock feed consumed. To increase the quality of livestock is through pretreatment and fermentation. Source of livestock feed that processed is solid sago waste (Arenga microcarpa, because in Indonesia that is relatively abundant and not used optimally. Chemical pretreatment process for delignification is by using NaOH solution. The purposes of this research are to study NaOH pretreatment, the addition of Trichoderma sp, and fermentation time to improve the quality of sago solid waste as livestock feed through anaerobic fermentation. The variables used are addition or without addition (4%w NaOH solution and Trichoderma sp 1%w and fermentation time (7, 14 and 21 days, with the response of crude fiber and protein. The result of this research shows that the pretreatment with soaking of NaOH solution, addition of Trichoderma sp and 14 days of fermentation was more effective to improve the quality of solid sago waste with decrease of crude fiber from 33.37% to 17.36% and increase of crude protein from 4.00% to 7.96%.

  7. The Addition of Sago Flour in Yoghurt Based on Physical Propeties of Yoghurt Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Ayu Wijayanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt based on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. The experiment was designed by Completely Randomized Design (CRD using four treatments were 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % from volume of fresh milk and four replications. The data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Result of this research showed that concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt gave highly significant difference effect (P<0.01 on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. It can be concluded that the adding of sago flour 2% in yoghurt gave the best result with the viscosity was 1750.75 cP, overrun was 25.14%, melting rate was 39.13 minutes/50 g, total solid was 36.20% and gave the best quality of yoghurt ice cream.

  8. Preparation of sago starch-based biocomposite reinforced microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo assisted by mechanical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silviana, S.; Hadiyanto, H.

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of green composites by using natural fibres is developed due to their availability, ecological benefits, and good properties in mechanical and thermal. One of the potential sources is bamboo that has relative high cellulose content. This paper was focused on the preparation of sago starch-based reinforced microfribrillated cellulose of bamboo that was assisted by mechanical treatment. Microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo was prepared by isolation of cellulose with chemical treatment. Preparation of bamboo microfibrillated cellulose was conducted by homogenizers for dispersing bamboo cellulose, i.e. high pressure homogenizer and ultrasonic homogenizer. Experiments were elaborated on several variables such as the concentration of bamboo microfibrillated cellulose dispersed in water (1-3 %w) and the volume of microfibrillated cellulose (37.5-75%v). Four %w of sago starch solution was mixed with bamboo microfibrillated cellulose and glycerol with plasticizer and citric acid as cross linker. This paper provided the analysis of tensile strength as well as SEM for mechanical and morphology properties of the biocomposite. The results showed that the preparation of sago starch-based biocomposite reinforced bamboo microfibrillated cellulose by using ultrasonic homogenizer yielded the highest tensile strength and well dispersed in the biocomposite.

  9. Potential of sago starch/carrageenan mixture as gelatin alternative for hard capsule material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana Dewi; Pranoto, Yudi; Anggraheni, Frida Dwi; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso

    2017-03-01

    In order to replace gelatin in capsule shell production, blends of sago starch and carrageenan were developed. Films and capsules were prepared with 10% (w/v) of sago starch, 25% (w/w starch) of glycerol and various carrageenan concentration (1, 2, 3% w/w starch) in two different kappa/iota-carrageenan ratio (1:3 and 3:1). The resulted films and capsules were characterized by mechanical property, water vapor and oxygen permeability. In addition, moisture absorption and solubility of capsule in acid solution were investigated. The results reveal that addition of carrageenan makes the films stronger and less permeable. Higher kappa-carrageenan content improved tensile strength and barrier properties of the films, whereas higher iota-carrageenan content produced films with higher elongation, moisture absorption and capsule solubility in acid solution. Capsule with 2% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa-/iota-ratio 3:1 had the lowest moisture absorption, whereas capsule with 3% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa/iota ratio 1:3 had the highest solubility. It is illustrated that sago starch/carrageenan blends can be used as hard capsule material.

  10. Karakteristik Organoleptik Formulasi Biskuit Berbasis Tepung Labu Kuning (Cucurbita moschata, Tepung Kacang Koro (Mucuna prurien, dan Tepung Sagu (Metroxilon sago (The Organoleptic Characteristics of Biscuit Formulation with Curcubita moschata, Mucuna prurien, and Metroxilon sago Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wati

    2016-07-01

    Riskesdas (2013 shows that prevelance of children under nutrition in Aceh province based on index weight for age, height for age, and weight for height are above National prevalency, comprising 25%, 40%, and 15% respectively. One of the efforts conducted to reduce nutrition problem is the adminstration of supplementary food for children. Development of biscuit from local food can be used as supplemetary food to help the unfortunate children. This research was aimed to study the  organoleptic characteristic of biscuit formulation based on local food pumpkin flour (Cucurbita moschata, koro bean flour (mucuna prurien and sago flour (Metroxilon sago. The research design used was one factor complete randomized design, with  the combination of pumpkin flour, koro bean and sago in biscuit combination. The quality of the biscuits was assessed organolepticaly using 30 semi trained panelists.  The result of the analysis of variance of colours and flavour paramaters showed a significant difference at  95% confident interval. The analysis of variance resulted in confident interval 95% (α=0,05, while from the smell and texture parameter it does not show a significantly different result. Based on the characteristic of organoleptics, the preferrred biscuit formulation chosen by panelists is biscuit with the combination of 20 g pumpkin flour, 10 g koro bean flour and 20 g sago flour. Keywords : biscuit, pumpkin flour, koro bean flour, sago flour, organoleptic

  11. The improvement of fermentation activity of yeast and mould by gamma irradiation on irradiated sago and onggok substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani; Roselawati, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    For the purpose of increasing the product of fermentation and enzyme activity produced by microorganism, an experiment has been carried out using irradiated yeast and mould for fermenting irradiated sago (Metroxylon sago) and tapioca waste (onggok). Sago and onggok starches were irradiated with gamma-rays with a dose of 25 kGy. Onggok starch was irradiated on dried and wet conditions. Local isolated yeast and mould (R. oryza e) were irradiated in suspension with doses of 0.4 and 4 kGy. The measurement of enzymes activities such as amylase, AMG, cellulase and protease, and the fermentation products i.e. glucose and reductase d glucose were carried out for analyzing the influence of radiation on the fermentation process. The fermentation using yeast and onggok substrate produced glucose 28 % higher than sago. On the contrary, the fermentation of sago increased the production of reductase glucose by 7.3% higher than that of onggok. At the end of experiment, on the 14th. however, the activity of cellulase enzyme produced by irradiated mould in the fermentation with dried and wet onggok increase 13 to 15 times higher than the activity enzyme produced by the control. In a similar way fermentation of irradiated dry onggok produced amylase 57.9% higher than that on irradiated wet onggok. (author), 16 refs., 2 figs

  12. Bio-cellulose Production by Beijerinckia fluminensis WAUPM53 and Gluconacetobacter xylinus 0416 in Sago By-product Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, W W Y; Muhialdin, B J; Yusof, N L; Rukayadi, Y; Meor Hussin, A S

    2018-06-19

    Bio-cellulose is the microbial extracellular cellulose that is produced by growing several microorganisms on agriculture by-products, and it is used in several food applications. This study aims to utilize sago by-product, coconut water, and the standard medium Hestrin-Schramm as the carbon sources in the culture medium for bio-cellulose production. The bacteria Beijerinkia fluminensis WAUPM53 and Gluconacetobacter xylinus 0416 were selected based on their bio-cellulose production activity. The structure was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while the toxicity safety was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality test. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the bio-cellulose produced by B. fluminensis cultivated in sago by-products was of high quality. The bio-cellulose production by B. fluminensis in the sago by-product medium was slightly higher than that in the coconut water medium and was comparable with the production in the Hestrin-Schramm medium. Brine shrimp lethality test confirmed that the bio-cellulose produced by B. fluminensis in the sago by-product medium has no toxicity, which is safe for applications in the food industry. This is the first study to determine the high potential of sago by-product to be used as a new carbon source for the bio-cellulose production.

  13. Metabolic Responses to Sago and Soy Supplementations during Endurance Cycling Performance in the Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tarmast

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Sago (Sa, Soy (So, combined iso–caloric Sago+Soy (SS supplementations during cycling on metabolic responses as compared to placebo (P in the heat (31℃, 70% relative humidity. Twelve well–trained male cyclists (Age: 19.0±5.6 yr, Height: 170.8±7.6 cm, Wight: 60.1±11.2 kg, and VO2max: 56.5±6.5 mL.kg-1.min-1 participated in four experimental trials. The design of the trials was a randomized single–blind, placebo–controlled crossover trail comprising 90 min of steady–state cycling on an ergometer at 60% of VO2max followed by a 20–km time trial performance (TT. The participants of the study were supplemented 5 times at 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 minutes during the steady–state cycling. Sa, So, and SS supplements provided 7.5% Sago, 7.5% Soy, and 6.0% Sago + 1.5% Soy respectively. Plasma glucose concentrations (PG reached a peak at 60 min after ingestion of Sa and SS as compared to baseline. At the end of the TT, PG reduced significantly to the baseline level. Plasma insulin concentrations (PI increased in all trials, but reduced gradually to the baseline level. The concentration of plasma free fatty acids (FFA increased gradually during the steady–state cycling and TT, and FFA was significantly higher in the P and So than the Sa and SS trials. At the end of the steady–state cycling, the plasma lactate concentration (LACT reached its lowest concentrations and at the end of the TT was enhanced significantly in all trials. These results suggest that sago and soy supplements increase the PG and PI during endurance exercise in the heat. These data add to the growing body of knowledge concerning endurance athletes’ glycemic and insulinemic responses to carbohydrate consumptions during exercise in the heat.

  14. Determination of gel content and SEM morphology for sago-PVA blends film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarada Idris; Zulkafli Ghazali; Kamarudin Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Blends of polyvinyl alcohol and sago starch have been prepared to evaluate the potential of producing biodegradable products. Glycerol was introduced in the blends to improve the flexibility of the films as plasticizer in order more flexible film. These blends have been subjected to electron beam irradiation to evaluate and characterized radiation effect on the blends. Subsequently films were produced from this blend. The gel content of un-irradiated and irradiated films as evidence of cross linking was measured and discussed. This paper also discuss the films morphology from Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) observation. (Author)

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOMATIC EMBRYOS OF SAGO (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.

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    Pauline D. Kasi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of somatic embryos of sago (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. on agar-solidified medium are highly varied producing heterogeneous seedlings. Understanding of this phenomenon may help in improving the cultural procedures and conditions of sagosomatic embryogenesis to obtain uniform seedlings in a large scale. This experiment was conducted at the laboratory for plant cell culture and micropropagation, Indonesian Biotechnology Research Institute for Estate Crops from January to March 2006 to examine morphological changes i.e. color and development stages of sago during their somatic embryo development on an agar-solidified medium. Twenty single globular somatic embryos of sago with specific color (yellowish, greenish, and reddish were cultured in a Petri dish supplemented with a solid medium. The medium was a micronutrients-modified MS (MMS with half strength of macronutrients containing 0.01 mg l-1 ABA, 2 mg l-1 kinetin, 20 g l-1 sucrose, 0.5 g l-1 activated charcoal, and 2 g l-1 gelrite. Parameter observed was the percentage of embryo’s number based on color and developmental stage. The result showed that at the end of 6-week culture passage, most originally greenish (80.8% and reddish (95.8% embryos remained unchanged in their colors, whereas almost half of the originally yellowish embryos turned to greenish and only 30%remained yellowish. At the same time, single globular embryos have changed gradually into the next developmental stages, although not all of the embryos were germinated. The initial color of embryo affected the rate of the developmental stage changes. Yellowish and greenish globular embryos developed more rapidly into cotyledon or germinant stages at 58% and 55% respectively, in 6 weeks than the reddish ones (41%. Therefore, the yellowish and greenish embryos are the best sources of material for in vitro mass propagation and synthetic seed production of sago.

  16. SAGO BARUK PALM (Arenga microcarpha Becc AS A SUPERIOR LOCAL FOOD SOURCE AND SOIL CONSERVATION PLANT AT SANGIHE ISLAND REGENCY

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    Marianus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the production of sago, to analyze its chemical composition and nutrient content, and to analyze the rainfall infiltration capacity of sago baruk palm grown at different altitudes. The research was conducted from October 2010 to June 2011 in Gunung Village, Tabukan Tengah, district of Sangihe. The village is laid from the coast to the top of the hill with an altitude of ±600 m above sea level. The data analysis techniques used in this research were descriptive analyses and F test ANOVA. The results showed that sago stem weight and pith weight were significantly influenced by the altitudes. The heaviest stem weight was obtained at the bottom position, while the heaviest pith weight was obtained at the top position, and for the largest ratio of sago flour to palm stem was obtained at the top position. The chemical compositions were significantly different in the levels of protein, calcium, iron, magnesium, and pH at the three altitudes. The infiltration capacity near the cluster was higher than that of the outside cluster, both in dry and rainy seasons.

  17. Functionalized Carbon Nano-scale Drug Delivery Systems From Biowaste Sago Bark For Cancer Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Manaf, Shoriya Aruni; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Mandal, Uttam Kumar; Wui, Tin Wong; Roy, Partha

    2017-01-01

    Nano-scale carbon systems are emerging alternatives in drug delivery and bioimaging applications of which they gradually replace the quantum dots characterized by toxic heavy metal content in the latter application. The work intended to use carbon nanospheres synthesized from biowaste Sago bark for cancer cell imaging applications. This study synthesised carbon nanospheres from biowaste Sago bark using a catalyst-free pyrolysis technique. The nanospheres were functionalized with fluorescent dye coumarin-6 for cell imaging. Fluorescent nanosytems were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X ray, photon correlation spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The average size of carbon nanospheres ranged between 30 and 40 nm with zeta potential of -26.8 ± 1.87 mV. The percentage viability of cancer cells on exposure to nanospheres varied from 91- 89 % for N2a cells and 90-85 % for A-375 cells respectively. Speedy uptake of the fluorescent nanospheres in both N2a and A-375 cells was observed within two hours of exposure. Novel fluorescent carbon nanosystem design following waste-to-wealth approach exhibited promising potential in cancer cell imaging applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Barton, Huw J.; Wan, Zhiwei; Li, Quan; Ma, Zhikun; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350–2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process. PMID:23667584

  19. Effects of acid-hydrolysis and hydroxypropylation on functional properties of sago starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, Elham; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2014-07-01

    In this study, sago starch was hydrolyzed by 0.14M HCl for 6, 12, 18, and 24h, and then modified by propylene oxide at a concentration of 0-30% (v/w). The effects of hydrolysis and etherification on molecular weight distribution, physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of dually modified starch were estimated. Acid hydrolysis of starch decreased the molecular weight of starch especially amylopectin, but hydroxypropylation had no effect on the molecular weight distribution. The degree of Molar substitution (DS) of hydroxypropylated starch after acid hydrolysis ranged from 0.007 to 0.15. Dually modified starch with a DS higher than 0.1 was completely soluble in cold water at up to 25% concentration of the starch. This study shows that hydroxypropylation and hydrolysis have synergistic effects unlike individual modifications. Dually modified sago starch can be applied to dip-molding for food and pharmaceutical processing because of its high solubility and low tendency for retrogradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

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    B. Subha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R2 of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81% was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87% was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  1. The Effects of ZnOnanorodson the Characteristics of Sago Starch Biodegradable Films

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    R. Alebooyeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available : Nowadays tend to use biodegradable packaging; including edible coatings and films for free from synthetic chemicals and do not cause environmental pollution, the industry is growing day by day. The aim of this research was to preparation and characterization of biodegradable films supported with ZnOnanorods. In this study, sago starch based films were prepared and   plasticized with sorbitol/ glycerol by casting method. ZnOnanorod with 0, 1, 3and 5%(w/wwas added to the films before casting the films. Films were dried at controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as water absorption capacity (WAC, permeability to water vapor (WVP and water solubility of the films were measured.  Also, the effects of addition of nano particles were measured on the antimicrobial properties of the films by agar diffusion method. Results showed that by increasing concentration of ZnOnanorod, solubility in water, WAC, and WVP of the films significantly (p <0.05 decreased. Furthermore, the addition of zinc oxide nanorods showed antimicrobial properties against E. Coli. In summary sago starch films supported with ZnOnanorodscan were used as active packaging for agricultural products as well as food industry. 

  2. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  3. Sago Starch-Mixed Low-Density Polyethylene Biodegradable Polymer: Synthesis and Characterization

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    Md Enamul Hoque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on synthesis and characterization of sago starch-mixed LDPE biodegradable polymer. Firstly, the effect of variation of starch content on mechanical property (elongation at break and Young’s modulus and biodegradability of the polymer was studied. The LDPE was combined with 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of sago for this study. Then how the cross-linking with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA and electron beam (EB irradiation influence the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer was investigated. In the 2nd study, to avoid overwhelming of data LDPE polymer was incorporated with only 50% of starch. The starch content had direct influence on mechanical property and biodegradability of the polymer. The elongation at break decreased with increase of starch content, while Young’s modulus and mass loss (i.e., degradation were found to increase with increase of starch content. Increase of cross-linker (TMPTA and EB doses also resulted in increased Young’s modulus of the polymer. However, both cross-linking and EB irradiation processes rendered lowering of polymer’s melting temperature. In conclusion, starch content and modification processes play significant roles in controlling mechanical, thermal, and degradation properties of the starch-mixed LDPE synthetic polymer, thus providing the opportunity to modulate the polymer properties for tailored applications.

  4. Analysis of In-Situ Spectral Reflectance of Sago and Other Palms: Implications for Their Detection in Optical Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon Santillan, Jojene; Makinano-Santillan, Meriam

    2018-04-01

    We present a characterization, comparison and analysis of in-situ spectral reflectance of Sago and other palms (coconut, oil palm and nipa) to ascertain on which part of the electromagnetic spectrum these palms are distinguishable from each other. The analysis also aims to reveal information that will assist in selecting which band to use when mapping Sago palms using the images acquired by these sensors. The datasets used in the analysis consisted of averaged spectral reflectance curves of each palm species measured within the 345-1045 nm wavelength range using an Ocean Optics USB4000-VIS-NIR Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. This in-situ reflectance data was also resampled to match the spectral response of the 4 bands of ALOS AVNIR-2, 3 bands of ASTER VNIR, 4 bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, 5 bands of Landsat 8, and 8 bands of Worldview-2 (WV2). Examination of the spectral reflectance curves showed that the near infra-red region, specifically at 770, 800 and 875 nm, provides the best wavelengths where Sago palms can be distinguished from other palms. The resampling of the in-situ reflectance spectra to match the spectral response of optical sensors made possible the analysis of the differences in reflectance values of Sago and other palms in different bands of the sensors. Overall, the knowledge learned from the analysis can be useful in the actual analysis of optical satellite images, specifically in determining which band to include or to exclude, or whether to use all bands of a sensor in discriminating and mapping Sago palms.

  5. Physicochemical properties of soils in the sago palm (Metroxylon spp.) growing area of Surat Thani province Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruairuen, W.; Sparrow, E. B.; Fochesatto, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Sago palm is one of the most important plants for sustainable agriculture and rural development in tropical swampy and peaty soils. Where no major crops can grow without drainage or soil improvement. It stores large quantities of starch which can be further processed into various basic raw materials for food, animal feed, industrial uses and alternative energy. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of soil across the sago palm growing areas at Surat Thani province Thailand, where major of sago palms growth naturally exists. The soil samples from three districts Khiri Rat Nikhom (KR; 9 sampling sites), Kanchanadit (KD; 5 sampling sites), and Khian Sa (KS; 2 sampling sites) were studied and compared at 0-15 cm depth during March to June 2016. Observations indicated that the physicochemical properties of soil varied in each growing area. Soil bulk densities averages were lower in KD (0.52 g cm-3) than those in KR (0.58 g cm-3) and KS (0.57 g cm-3). Soil texture around KD and KS were dominated by silty loam. While in KR soil texture was dominated by sandy loam. The average soil conductivity in KS (5.68 mS m-1) was higher than KR (2.62 mS m-1) and KD (1.65 mS m-1). Furthermore, we found the sago palms grow well in a range of soil pH from 5.52 to 7.15, average soil pH: KS (6.8) and KD (6.96), while acid in KR (5.84). We also discuss the conservation activities to adequately protect sago palm, most of which are significantly threatened by habitat destruction and unsustainable harvesting.

  6. ANALYSIS OF IN-SITU SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF SAGO AND OTHER PALMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR DETECTION IN OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santillan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a characterization, comparison and analysis of in-situ spectral reflectance of Sago and other palms (coconut, oil palm and nipa to ascertain on which part of the electromagnetic spectrum these palms are distinguishable from each other. The analysis also aims to reveal information that will assist in selecting which band to use when mapping Sago palms using the images acquired by these sensors. The datasets used in the analysis consisted of averaged spectral reflectance curves of each palm species measured within the 345–1045 nm wavelength range using an Ocean Optics USB4000-VIS-NIR Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. This in-situ reflectance data was also resampled to match the spectral response of the 4 bands of ALOS AVNIR-2, 3 bands of ASTER VNIR, 4 bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, 5 bands of Landsat 8, and 8 bands of Worldview-2 (WV2. Examination of the spectral reflectance curves showed that the near infra-red region, specifically at 770, 800 and 875 nm, provides the best wavelengths where Sago palms can be distinguished from other palms. The resampling of the in-situ reflectance spectra to match the spectral response of optical sensors made possible the analysis of the differences in reflectance values of Sago and other palms in different bands of the sensors. Overall, the knowledge learned from the analysis can be useful in the actual analysis of optical satellite images, specifically in determining which band to include or to exclude, or whether to use all bands of a sensor in discriminating and mapping Sago palms.

  7. Pilot scale test and commercialization of sago hydrogel for face mask and wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali

    2008-01-01

    Commercialization of sago hydrogel as facial mask could be considered as one of the successful story of the radiation processing of natural polymer. However, the process of bringing the product from laboratory to market is not an easy task. The commercialization of new product through entrepreneur requires tremendous energy and funding if compare through company that is already in the same business. Hence, it would require an entrepreneur that is resilient, has certain quality such as hard working, flexible, persistence etc. In addition, the continuous support and 'follow through' from laboratory to market, by the inventor and government agency are equally important for the success of the commercialization of the product or technology. (author)

  8. Determination Of Enzyme Kinetic Parameters on Sago Starch Hydrolysis By Linearized Graphical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, L.W.; Teo, C.L.; Suzana Wahidin; Mohamad Suffian Mohamad Annuar

    2014-01-01

    Amyloglucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.3) from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the sago (Metro xylon sagu) starch into reducing sugars. The experiment was conducted at constant temperature, 55 degree Celsius; pH, 4.5 and enzyme amount, 0.2 U/ ml, respectively. In this investigation, the substrate concentration was varied ranging from 1.0 - 7.0 g/ L. The obtained data were then fixed into linearized plots namely Lineweaver-Burk and Langmuir models to calculate enzyme kinetic parameters, K m and V max . Both of the K m and V max (mM, mol/min) values from each plot were: Lineweaver-Burk (26.53, 3.31) and Langmuir (13.52, 2.35). Among the linearized models, K m and V max values acquired from Langmuir plot was chosen. (author)

  9. Antibacterial, mechanical, and barrier properties of sago starch film incorporated with Betel leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Leila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2014-05-01

    The antimicrobial, mechanical and barrier properties and light transmission of sago starch film incorporated with different percentage of Betel leaf extract (5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) were evaluated. With regard to mechanical properties, tensile strength decreased when the percentage of extract increased. Elongation at break (%) and seal strength (N/m) increased with increasing percentage of extract from 5% to 20%, while decreased for films containing 30% extract due to heterogeneity of films in this percentage. With regard to barrier properties, water vapour and oxygen barrier properties decreased in all samples when percentage of the extract increased. Antimicrobial activity of all the films increased against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as percentage of Betel leaf extract increased, except for Psuedomonas aeruginosa, which was not susceptible at any percentage of the extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recovery of Glucose from Residual Starch of Sago Hampas for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awg-Adeni, D. S.; Bujang, K. B.; Hassan, M. A.; Abd-Aziz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Lower concentration of glucose was often obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis process of agricultural residue due to complexity of the biomass structure and properties. High substrate load feed into the hydrolysis system might solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study, we have attempted to enhance glucose recovery from agricultural waste, namely, “sago hampas,” through three cycles of enzymatic hydrolysis process. The substrate load at 7% (w/v) was seen to be suitable for the hydrolysis process with respect to the gelatinization reaction as well as sufficient mixture of the suspension for saccharification process. However, this study was focused on hydrolyzing starch of sago hampas, and thus to enhance concentration of glucose from 7% substrate load would be impossible. Thus, an alternative method termed as cycles I, II, and III which involved reusing the hydrolysate for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis process was introduced. Greater improvement of glucose concentration (138.45 g/L) and better conversion yield (52.72%) were achieved with the completion of three cycles of hydrolysis. In comparison, cycle I and cycle II had glucose concentration of 27.79 g/L and 73.00 g/L, respectively. The glucose obtained was subsequently tested as substrate for bioethanol production using commercial baker's yeast. The fermentation process produced 40.30 g/L of ethanol after 16 h, which was equivalent to 93.29% of theoretical yield based on total glucose existing in fermentation media. PMID:23509813

  11. Recovery of Glucose from Residual Starch of Sago Hampas for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Awg-Adeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower concentration of glucose was often obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis process of agricultural residue due to complexity of the biomass structure and properties. High substrate load feed into the hydrolysis system might solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study, we have attempted to enhance glucose recovery from agricultural waste, namely, “sago hampas,” through three cycles of enzymatic hydrolysis process. The substrate load at 7% (w/v was seen to be suitable for the hydrolysis process with respect to the gelatinization reaction as well as sufficient mixture of the suspension for saccharification process. However, this study was focused on hydrolyzing starch of sago hampas, and thus to enhance concentration of glucose from 7% substrate load would be impossible. Thus, an alternative method termed as cycles I, II, and III which involved reusing the hydrolysate for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis process was introduced. Greater improvement of glucose concentration (138.45 g/L and better conversion yield (52.72% were achieved with the completion of three cycles of hydrolysis. In comparison, cycle I and cycle II had glucose concentration of 27.79 g/L and 73.00 g/L, respectively. The glucose obtained was subsequently tested as substrate for bioethanol production using commercial baker’s yeast. The fermentation process produced 40.30 g/L of ethanol after 16 h, which was equivalent to 93.29% of theoretical yield based on total glucose existing in fermentation media.

  12. Effect of feeding system and fermented sago waste on performance of broiler chicken

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    I Putu Kompiang

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment, with a split plot experimental design, was conducted to determine the effect of feeding system (full vs choice feeding and fermented sago waste (AST 5 vs 0% on the performance of broiler chickens. Complete feed was formulated tocontain 21% crude protein, 2900 kcal ME/kg, without or with 5% AST. Feed for choice feeding was formulated to contain 2900 kcal ME/kg, without or with 5% AST with crude protein 23 or 17%. Four hundreds DOC broilers were used for each treatment divided into 4 replicates (100 birds/replicate on litter system. Feed and water were given ad lib. during the 4 weeks trial. Data collected included feed consumption (weekly, body weight (bi-weekly, feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER were calculated biweekly. Feeding system has no significant effect on total feed/energy consumption. Choice feeding reduced total protein consumption (P<0.01; 323.5 vs 354.9 gram/head/4weeks, increased body weight gained (P<0.01; 889.5 vs 835 gram/head/4weeks, improved FCR (P<0.05; 1.90 vs 2.03, and PER (P<0.001; 0.37 vs 0.43. Fermented sago waste (AST had no significant effect on total feed/energy consumption (P<0.05, reduced total protein consumption (P<0.05; 333.6 vs 349.8 gram/head/4weeks, increased body weight gained (P<0.05; 887.5 vs 837 gram/head/4weeks, improved FCR (P<0.05; 1.88 vs 2.06 and PER (P<0.05; 0.38 vs 0.42. It is concluded that broiler chicken had an ability to determine its protein requirement, and AST supplementation significantly improved performance of the birds.

  13. BIOADSORPSI Hg(II OLEH PATI SAGU TAUT SILANG FOSFAT [Bioadsorption of Hg(II by Crosslinked Sago Starch Phosphate

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    Sri Sugiarti2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crosslinked-sago-starch-phosphate (SgP has been successfully synthesized from native sago starch (Sg and Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4 in an acidic condition. The compound was designed as bioadsorbent for removing Hg(II inside human digestion tract as shown by in vitro test. The bioadsorption followed pseudo-second order of reaction kinetic and Freundlich equation as chemisorption. As a result, 21% of Hg(II was removed at pH of 6.80 and reached the isothermal equilibrium of the bioadsorption at pH of 5.80 and 8.60 for 29.95% and 31.39%, respectively. The result showed that SgP is more feasible than activated carbon to be used as bioadsorbent in removing Hg(II in human digestion tract as proved by in vitro system.

  14. The Effect of Giving Sago Waste, Shrimp Waste and Its Combination on Cholesterol Level and Growth of White Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ralahalu, T. N; Kartiarso,; Parakkasi, A; Wiryawan, K. G; Priyanto, R

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is very beneficial for the body but it needs attention when its level is increasing in the blood. The objective of the study was to determine cholesterol level and growth rate of white rat fed on ration containing sago waste, shrimp waste and their combinations. Fourty males Spraque dowley rats, aged two months with average body weight was 195.62 g, were randomly assigned to one of ten experimental treatments according to completely randomised design with four replication for each...

  15. Formation of porous clay ceramic using sago waste ash as a prospective additive material with controllable milling

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    Aripin H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of ceramic material was produced by mixing sago waste ash from the sago processing industry in Indonesia with clay. The composition was prepared by adding 50 %wt amount of sago waste into the clay, then a series of samples was milled for 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The samples were dry pressed and sintered at temperatures ranging from 800°C to 1200°C. The influence of the sintering temperature and the milling time on bulk density, firing shrinkage, water adsorption, and hardness was studied in detail. The results demonstrate that the low water absorption of less than 0.5% and the highest hardness of 5.82 GPa were obtained for the sample sintered at 1100°C and milled for 48 h. The investigation of the absorptive properties of such ceramics indicates that they could be recommended as a promising material for manufacturing of unglazed floor tiles.

  16. Effect Of Adding Sago Flour In Yoghurt Based On Viscosity, Overrun, Melting Rate And Total Solid Of Yoghurt Ice Cream

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    Ika Ayu Wijayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the best concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt based on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. The experiment was designed by Completely Randomized Design (CRD using four treatments were 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % from volume of fresh milk and four replication. The data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Result of this research showed that concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt gave highly significant difference effect (P<0.01 on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. It can be concluded that the adding of sago flour 2% in yoghurt gave the best result with the viscosity was 1750.75 cP, overrun was 25.14%, melting rate was 39.13 minutes/50 g, total solid was 36.20% and gave the best quality of yoghurt ice cream.

  17. PROTOTIPE ALAT PENGEKSTRAK PATI SAGU TIPE MIXER ROTARY BLADE BERTENAGA MOTOR BAKAR Prototype of Mixer Rotary Blade of Sago Starch Extractor Powered by Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Darma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Papua and West Papua Province have a large potential of sago. Approximately 994,000 hectares, mostly natural sago forest was existed in this area. Sago starch has long been an important source of nutrition troughout Papua. Product of sago palm is not only starch as source of carbohydrate for food stuff, but also for basic material of industries such as paper, plywood, hardboard, and food indutries. Traditional methods are used for starch extraction in almost all part of Papu, which is not efficient and production capacity is very low. The effort to increase sago starch production could be carry out by introducing mechanical equipment (traditional to mechanized processing. The objective of this research was to design mixer rotary blade of sago starch extraction powered by internal combustion engine. The result was prototype of mechanical sago starch extractor. The prototype has high performance with extraction capacity 160 kg of disintegrated pith per hour or equal to 33 kg of wet starch per hour, extractable starch more than 99 % while starch losses in hampas less lhan 1 %. Hopefully, application of this machine to the sago farmer will transform agricultural system from subsistence to commercial. It means that increasing of economic income. In conclusion, technically and economically this prototype was feasible. ABSTRAK Provinsi Papua dan Papua Barat memiliki potensi sagu yang sangat besar. Sekitar 994.000 hektar yang sebagian besar merupakan hutan sagu alam terdapat di kedua provinsi ini. Pati sagu telah lama digunakan sebagai sumber nutrisi bagi penduduk asli papua. Pati sagu tidak hanya digunakan sebagai sumber karbohidrat, namun juga digunakan seba- gai bahan dasar industri kertas, plywood, hardbord, dan pangan. Pengolahan sagu secara tradisional yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat tidak efisien dan kapasitas produksinya sangat rendah. Peningkatan produksi dapat dilakukan dengan mengintroduksi peralatan pengolahan mekanis untuk merubah metode

  18. Conservation and Management of the Endangered Fiji Sago Palm, Metroxylon vitiense, in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Clare; Rounds, Isaac; Watling, Dick

    2012-05-01

    Recovery planning is a key component of many threatened species conservation initiatives and can be a powerful awareness raising tool. One of the largest impediments to conservation efforts in the Pacific region however, is the lack of ecological data and its subsequent effects on the development of feasible and useful recovery plans for threatened species. Without these plans, the understaffed, underfunded and often technically ill-equipped conservation agencies face huge difficulties in planning, prioritizing and conducting conservation activities to adequately protect biodiversity. The Fiji sago palm, Metroxylon vitiense, is an endemic endangered palm species whose survival is heavily dependent on a feasible species recovery plan. It is geographically restricted and threatened by habitat destruction and overexploitation for thatch for the tourism industry and palm heart consumption by local consumers. Despite its threatened status, M. vitiense is not currently protected by national or international legislation. Recent field surveys and extensive stakeholder consultation have resulted in the production of a species recovery plan highlighting the importance of the species and advocating sustainable harvesting rather than complete bans to promote conservation. This article summarizes the recovery plan and its current effects on the status of M. vitiense in Fiji. We also discuss the role of different stakeholders in the conservation of M. vitiense, including the absence of significant behavioral changes by the largest consumer - the tourism industry, and the importance of recovery plans for biodiversity conservation in the Pacific.

  19. WATER SORPTION PROPERTIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF ZINC OXIDE NANO PARTICLES LOADED SAGO STARCH FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Bajpai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sago starch based films have been loaded with ZnO nanoparticles prepared insitu via using an unique equilibration-cum-hydrothermal approach. The films have been characterized by XRD, DSC,SPR ,FTIR and SEM analysis. The moisture absorption behavior of plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films have been studied at 23, 31 and 37o C.The equilibrium moisture uptake data was found to fit well on GAB isotherm model and the monolayer sorption capacity Mo for the plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films was 0.089, 0.039 ,0.021 g/g and 0.042, 0.012, 0.007 g/g at 23,31 and 37 oC respectively. Moreover, the water vapor transmission rates (WVTR for plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films at 23,31,37 oC were 11.19x10-4, 48.9x10-4, 62.1x10-4 and 3.73 x10-4, 6.21x10-4, 24.8x10-4 respectively. These films have shown excellent antibacterial action against model bacteria E.coli when investigated qualitatively by zone inhibition method. Films exhibit great potential to be used as packaging films to protect food stuff against microbial contaminents.

  20. Characterisation of hydroxypropylated crosslinked sago starch as compared to commercial modified starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowakon Wattanachant

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hydroxypropylated crosslinked sago starch (HPST were determined and compared with five types of commercial modified starches (CMST in order to evaluate its quality for further applications. The HPST was prepared on a large scale having molar substitution (MS and degree substitution (DS values in the range of 0.038 to 0.045 and 0.004 to 0.005, respectively. The properties of HPST in terms of sediment volume, swelling power, solubility and paste clarity were 15.75%, 16.7, 8.62% and 5.18%T650 , respectively. The MS value, phosphorus content, paste clarity, swelling power and syneresis after six freeze-thaw cycles of HPST when compared to that of commercially available modified starches which are normally used or incorporated in acidic, frozen and canned foods did not differ significantly. The pasting characteristic of HPST exhibited thin to thick viscosity which was similar (P>0.05 to that of commercial hydroxypropylated crosslinked tapioca starch (NAT 8. The acid stability, solubility and freeze-thaw stability of both starches were also similar (P>0.05 but the swelling power of HPST was slightly lower (P<0.05 than that of NAT 8 .

  1. Dual Cross-Linked Carboxymethyl Sago Pulp-Gelatine Complex Coacervates for Sustained Drug Delivery

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    Saravanan Muniyandy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report for the first time the complex coacervation of carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP with gelatine for sustained drug delivery. Toluene saturated with glutaraldehyde and aqueous aluminum chloride was employed as cross-linkers. Measurements of zeta potential confirm neutralization of two oppositely charged colloids due to complexation, which was further supported by infrared spectroscopy. The coacervates encapsulated a model drug ibuprofen and formed microcapsules with a loading of 29%–56% w/w and an entrapment efficiency of 85%–93% w/w. Fresh coacervates loaded with drug had an average diameter of 10.8 ± 1.93 µm (n = 3 ± s.d.. The coacervates could encapsulate only the micronized form of ibuprofen in the absence of surfactant. Analysis through an optical microscope evidenced the encapsulation of the drug in wet spherical coacervates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the non-spherical geometry and surface roughness of dried drug-loaded microcapsules. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis confirmed intact and crystalline ibuprofen in the coacervates. Gas chromatography indicated the absence of residual glutaraldehyde in the microcapsules. Dual cross-linked microcapsules exhibited a slower release than mono-cross-linked microcapsules and could sustain the drug release over the period of 6 h following Fickian diffusion.

  2. Utilization of α-amylase enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus RSAII1B for maltodextrin production from sago starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfah, R. A.; Ahmad, A.; Dali, S.; Djide, M. N.; Mahdalia; Arif, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    The dried sago flour derived from Palopo contains 28.80% amylose and 91.23% total carbohydrate. Based on the data, sago starch has the potential to become an alternative raw material for themaltodextrin production. Maltodextrin is one of the starch derivative products produced by hydrolysis process using the α-amylase enzyme with amaximum DE (dextrose equivalent) value of 20. The use of maltodextrin for food and pharmaceutical industries is increasing because of maltodextrin is widely used as thickener filler, surfactant and sugar substitute in milk powder. The aims of this study are to optimize the addition of enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time of α -amylase enzyme to obtain high quality ofmaltodextrin This study also aimed to characterization the obtained maltodextrin. The first step was isolation and purification α-amylase from the isolate of Bacillus stearothermophilus RSAII1B, followed by determination of the α-amylase concentration (0.05%, 0.07% and 0.09%) in 2.0% starch substrate, and the hydrolysis time ofα-amilase (60, 90, 120, 240 minutes). Maltodextrin characters observed were dextrose equivalent (DE), reducing sugar, moisture content, pH changes, color, solubility, viscosity, and total plate count (TPC). The results showed that the value of DE was 12.31, reducing sugar was 11.4%; water content was 10.92%; pH was 4.85; The color of maltodextrin powder was white bone color; solubility was 153.2 g/L; Viscositywas 210-240 cps, TPCwas 380 cfu/g. Maltodextrins produced from sago starch using the α-amylase enzyme from B.stearothermophillus RSAIIm met the quality requirements of SNI 7599: 2010.

  3. WANITA PERAJIN TENUN TRADISIONAL DI NAGARI HALABAN, KECAMATAN LAREH SAGO HALABAN KABUPATEN LIMA PULUH KOTA, SUMATERA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrawati .

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Article based on field research in Halaban Village, Lareh Sago Halaban Subdistrict, Lima Puluh Kota District. This village is one of center of weaving traditional craft in West Sumatra, beside that Pandai Sikek and Silungkang, which is the most women activity in this village. The aim of research is described of daily life, work as  handicrafts workers woven traditional .The research found that women in this village has two role, besides the housewives, they also breadwinner second after her husband, economically a woman has a high position and an important role in household . This activity very need to overcome in the economy household. 

  4. Pengujian secara In Vitro Oligosakarida dari Ekstrak Tepung Buah Rumbia (Metroxylon sago Rottb. sebagai Sumber Prebiotik

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    Muhammad Daud

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro analysis of oligosaccharide from extract rumbia fruit (Metroxylon sago Rottb. as prebiotic ABSTRACT. Despite a range of commercially available oligosaccharides there is plenty of room to develop new, functionally enhanced prebiotics. current generation of oligosaccharides was not rationally developed. better understanding of factors determining the prebiotic activity of a particular oligosaccharide. Despite the range of commercially available oligosaccharides mixtures (mainly fructo and galacto-oligosaccharides, very few studies are focused on the mechanisms behind the prebiotic activity of particular oligosaccharides. Probably this lack is due to the unavailability of well characterized oligosaccharide fractions for prebiotic function assessment. The objectives of this research were to asses the ability of lactic acid bacteria in fermentation of oligosaccharide and as prebiotic (in vitro. Material used was oligosaccharide of purified rumbia fruit extract. Analysis of oligosaccharide as prebiotic was conducted in vitro using lactic acid bacteria. The lactic acid bacteria consisted Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium animalis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei Rhamnosus. The growth media for bacteria was a liquid MRS basic medium where glucose was substituted by oligosaccharide of purified rumbia fruit extract. Incubation was in aerob for Lactobacillus and anaerob for Bifidobacterium in incubator 37oC. The lactic acid bacteria was calculated 24-48 hours during incubation periode. The variables observed were: oligosaccharide component, ability of lactic acid bacteria in fermentation of oligosaccharide, and growth of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The result showed that the oligosaccharide component from extract rumbia fruit consisted of: sucrose, stacchiose, and raffinose. The result showed that the oligosaccharide extract rumbia fruit was significantly (P<0.05 the growth of lactic acid

  5. KANDUNGAN KARBON DI HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT KAWASAN KONSERVASI PT NATIONAL SAGO PRIMA, KEPULAUAN MERANTI, RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusi Rosalina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to collect information regarding carbon storage, particularly the carbon stored in the aboveground biomass as well as in the peat soil. The study site was in a conservation area of the PT National Sago Prima belonging to the PT Sampoerna Agro Tbk. Group. The work was undertaken in January-February 2012. The total aboveground biomass and carbon storage in the research site indicates  that the conservation area is a secondary peat swamp forest, with the biomass of 149.18 ton/ha and carbon stock of 70.12 ton C/ha. The aboveground biomass and carbon consisted of biomass and carbon of tree (83.97 ton/ha containing 39.47 ton C/ha, respectively, saplings (20.69 ton/ha containing 9.72 ton C/ha and seedlings and undergrowth plants (0.03 ton/ha containing 0.01 ton C/ha, wood  necromass (24.06 ton/ha containing 11.31 ton C/ha, and litter (20.44 ton/ha containing 9.61 ton C/ha. An allometric equation was developed for Pandanus atrocarpus Griff. providing an estimated total biomass and carbon of 5.16 ton/ha containing 2.42 ton C/ha. The underground C with the mean peat depth of 5.5 m, mean bulk density of  0.18 g/cm3, and the mean organic C of 46.6 % was 464.895,94 ton C/ha. In the entire conservation forest area of 541 ha the total aboveground biomassa and carbon storage was estimated to be  80,708.64 ton and 37,934.00 ton C, while the total underground carbon was 238,96 million MT C.

  6. Coating hydroxiapatite on stainless steel 316 L by using sago starch as binder with dip-coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadli, A.; Akbar, F.; Prabowo, A.; Hidayah, P. H.

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a mineral form of naturally occurring apatite calcium with Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 formula. One of the major innovations in the field of bone reconstruction is to apply HA as a surface coating on a mechanically strong implant metal and to improve the stability of bone implants thereby increasing the lifetime of the metal implants. Pure hydroxyapatite has poor mechanical properties so it is necessary to add sago starch as a binder to combine the strength and hardness of metal surfaces with bioactive properties of hydroxyapatite by Dip Coating method. Stainless steel 316L is the most commonly used alloy as an implant for bones and teeth due to its excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance and is easily formed. In this study, hydroxyapatite coatings used fixed variables as hydroxyapatite mass (10 grams), aquades mass (20 grams), dipping time (20 seconds), and calcination conditions (800°C, 1 hour). The variables are sago starch mass (1, 1.25, 1.5 gram) and stirring time (16, 20, 24 hours). The shear strength value is higher in the addition of 1.25, 10, 20, and again in the binder ratio of 1.5; 10; 20. The addition of stirring time causes a decrease in shear strength. The highest shear strength value obtained was 3.07 MPa. The layer attached to the substrate is a hydroxyapatite with a composition of 99.4% as evidenced by the results of XRD analysis.

  7. Influence of Compounding Methods on Poly(vinyl) Alcohol/ Sago Pith Waste Bio composites: Mechanical and Water Absorption Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, W.Y.; Lai, J.C.; Aizan, W.A.R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Several methods of incorporating sago pith waste (SPW) into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) had been conducted: (i) dry blending (PVA/SPW/G), (ii) blending of SPW and pre-plasticised PVA (pPVA/SPW/G) and (iii) blending of pre-plasticised of both PVA and SPW (pPVA/pSPW). The effect of the compounding method on the mechanical and water absorption properties were investigated. The addition of SPW into PVA greatly reduced the tensile strength and elongation at break. The tensile strength and elongation at break of PVA/SPW composites with identical geometry during compounding stage (powder/powder and pellet/pellet), which were PVA/SPW/G and pPVA/pSPW yielded the highest value. The percentage of water absorbed by PVA/SPW/G (without pre-plasticization) was the highest, followed by pPVA/pSPW and pPVA/SPW/G. (author)

  8. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) addition and citric acid as co-plasticizer on physical properties of sago starch biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Halimatuddahliana; Afandy, Yayang; Al-fath, M. Thoriq

    2018-04-01

    Cellulose has potential applications in new high-performance materials with low environmental impact. Rattan biomass is a fiber waste from processing industry of rattan which contains 37,6% cellulose. The high cellulose contents of rattan biomass make it a source of cellulose nanocrystals as a filler in biocomposite. Isolation of alpha cellulose from biomass rattan was prepared by using three stages: delignification, alkalization, and bleaching. It was delignificated with 3,5% HNO3 and NaNO2, precipitated with 17,5% NaOH, bleaching process with 10% H2O2. Nanocrystals obtained through the hydrolysis of alpha cellulose using 45% H2SO4 and followed by mechanical processes of ultrasonication, centrifugation, and filtration with a dialysis membrane. Sago starch biocomposites were prepared using a solution casting method, which includes 1-4 wt % cellulose nanocrystals rattan biomass as fillers, 10-40 wt% citric acid as co-plasticizer and 30 wt% glycerol as plasticizer. The results of TEM and FTIR characteristic of cellulose nanocrystals show spherical like shape FTIR and chemical composition analysis demonstrated that lignin and hemicellulose structures were successfully removed. Biocomposite characteristic consists of density and water absorption. The results showed the highest density values were 0,266 gram/cm3 obtained at an additional of 3% cellulose nanocrystals rattan biomass and 30% citric acid. The lowest water absorption was 7,893% obtained at an additional of 4% cellulose nanocrystals rattan biomass and 10% citric acid.

  9. Radiation cross-linked carboxymethyl sago pulp hydrogels loaded with ciprofloxacin: Influence of irradiation on gel fraction, entrapped drug and in vitro release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Yi Lyn; Muniyandy, Saravanan; Kamaruddin, Hashim; Mansor, Ahmad; Janarthanan, Pushpamalar

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP) with 0.4 DS, viscosity 184 dl/g and molecular weight 76,000 g/mol was synthesized from sago waste. 10 and 20% w/v solutions of CMSP were irradiated at 10–30 kGy to form hydrogels and were characterized by % gel fraction (GF). Irradiation of 20% CMSP using 25 kGy has produced stable hydrogels with the highest % GF and hence loaded with ciprofloxacin HCl. Drug-loaded hydrogels were produced by irradiating the mixture of drug and 20% CMSP solution at 25 kGy. After irradiation, the hydrogels were cut into circular discs with a diameter of 6±1 mm and evaluated for physicochemical properties as well as drug release kinetics. The ciprofloxacin loading in the disc was 14.7%±1 w/w with an entrapment efficiency of 73.5% w/w. The low standard deviation of drug-loaded discs indicated uniform thickness (1.5±0.3 mm). The unloaded discs were thinner (1±0.4 mm) and more brittle than the drug-loaded discs. FESEM, FT-IR, XRD, DSC and TGA analysis revealed the absence of polymer–drug interaction and transformation of crystalline to amorphous form of ciprofloxacin in the discs. The disc sustained the drug release in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 over 36 h in a first-order manner. The mechanism of the drug release was found to be swelling controlled diffusion and matrix erosion. The anti-bacterial effect of ciprofloxacin was retained after irradiation and CMSP disc could be a promising device for ocular drug delivery. - Highlights: • Carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP) with ciprofloxacin is irradiated to form hydrogels. • 20% CMSP at 25 kGy has produced stable hydrogels with the highest gel fraction. • Crystalline ciprofloxacin converted as amorphous during hydrogel formation. • Hydrogel in disc form sustained the drug release drug up to 36 h. • Irradiation cross-linked polymeric chain of CMSP resulted in controlled swelling

  10. The Strength of Moulding Sand Consisting of a Mixture of Bentonite, Tapioca Flour, and Sago Flour as a New Binder Formula to Improve the Quality of Al-Si Cast Alloy

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    Andoko Andoko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The major factors determining the quality of sand casting products are the base sand and the composition of the sand mould and the binding material. In the foundry industry, the most commonly used binder for creating sand moulds is bentonite. However, the price of bentonite is likely to keep rising. This study aimed at discovering a new binder formula associated with the effect of binder composition i.e. bentonite, tapioca flour, and sago flour on the basis of its mechanical and physical properties. The new formula was expected to be a better binder in the production of sand moulds, resulting in high-quality casting products with minimal defects. Moreover, it is probable to be much more economical than bentonite. This research focused on testing the moulding sand composition with a number of different binders, i.e. bentonite, tapioca flour, and sago flour, each in a different proportion. The mixture of the moulding sand with each of the three binders will be tested in terms of its mechanical properties including compressive, shear, and tensile strength. Based on the test results, sago flour has the highest dry compressive strength of 28.6 N/cm2, whereas bentonite has the highest wet compressive strength, i.e. 11.83 N/cm2 and the highest wet shear strength i.e. 3.16 N/cm2. The binder with the highest dry shear strength is tapioca flour with 18.16 N/cm2. Regarding the tensile strength value, bentonite has the highest wet tensile strength of 0.85 N/cm2, while sago flour has the highest dry tensile strength of 1.73 N/cm2.

  11. SINTESIS PATI SAGU IKATAN SILANG FOSFAT BERDERAJAT SUBSTITUSI FOSFAT TINGGI DALAM SUASANA ASAM [Synthesis of Cross-Linked Sago Starch Phosphate with the Highest Degree of Substitution of Phosphate Under Acidic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorion Romengga*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked sago starch phosphate (SgP with high phosphorus contents was successfully synthesized by reacting sago with a mixture of primary and secondary sodium phosphates under acidic condition. The experimental variables investigated include pH, temperature, reaction time, and mixture rate. The physicochemical properties evaluated were moisture, swelling power, water binding capacity, transmittance (%T and percent amylose (%Am, while the pasting properties examined were pasting time, pasting temperature, viscosity at peak, final, and setback. The granule structure was observed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the maximum degree of phosphate substitution was obtained at pH of 6.50, 40°C, 20 minutes of reaction time and 300 rpm of mixing rate. The physicochemical (%T and %Am and pasting (viscosity at peak, final, and setback properties of SgP were significantly different (P<0.01 from Sg. Structure of SgP was characterized by FT-IR and the results indicated a new absorption peak at 2362.87 cm-1 which was characterized as the phospho-diester (RO-PO3-R’ stretching vibration. In the fingerprint area, there were two new absorption peaks at 1242.05 and 989.79 cm-1 which were characterized as the P=O and C-O-P vibration, respectively. Sago granules were substantially altered after cross-linking.

  12. KAJIAN TEKNIS-EKONOMIS ALAT PENGERING PATI SAGU MODEL CROSS FLOW VIBRO FLUIDIZED BED (Study on Technical-Economic of Sago Starch Dryer Model of Cross Flow Vibro Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadi Jading

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate performance of vibro cross flow fluidized bed dryer using biomass fuel for drying sago starch. The phase of research were evaluation of dryer heated by a biomass stove using coconut shell as a fuel and observation of the drying temperature, moisture content, drying time, energy analysis, and drying effiviency, as well as calculation of its economic analysis. The dryer has dimension of 200x50x1500 cm for length, width, hight, respectively, and working capacity of 35kg/process. The results showed that biomass fuel consumption for drying sago starch for 7 hours was 12740,00 MJ (70 kg/process and electricity consumption for blower and vibrator was 37,80 MJ. Furthermore, the dryer reduced moisture content of sago starch from 42% (wb to 12% (wb with temperature in the vibrator chamber of 40-60 oC and relative humidity of 50%, as well as ambient temperature of 30 3C and drying efficiency of 46,02%. Economic analysis showed that the dryer had NPV of Rp. 16.002.858, BCR of 1,53, IRR of 35%, and PBP of 3,51 years. Keywords: Cross flow, vibro fluidized bed dryer, biomass stoves, sago starch, financial analysis   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan pengujian terhadap alat pengering pati berbasis sagu model cross flow vibrofluidized bed bertenaga biomassa. Tahapan penelitian meliputi pengujian alat pengering menggunakan tungku biomassa berbahan bakar tempurung kelapa dengan melakukan pengamatan suhu selama pengeringan, penurunan kadar air, waktu pengeringan, kebutuhan energi, efisiensi pengering, dan analisis finansial. Konstruksi alat pengering pati sagu model vibro fluidized bed bertenaga biomassa berukuran panjang, lebar dan tinggi masing-masing (200x50x1500 cm, serta memiliki daya tampung atau kapasitas maksimum pati sagu basah 35 kg/proses. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa alat pengering ini mampu mengeringkan pati sagu selama 7 jam, dengan konsumsi bahan bakar tempurung kelapa sebanyak 70 kg

  13. 78 FR 45973 - Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... CFR Part 36, Nondiscrimination on the basis of sex in education programs or activities receiving... MSHA logo may be applied to the grant-funded material including posters, videos, pamphlets, research...

  14. 75 FR 41531 - Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ..., non-religious criteria that neither favor nor disfavor religion will be employed in the selection of... report, a summary of its technical project reports, and an evaluation report. H. Freedom of Information Any information submitted in response to this SGA will be subject to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  15. 76 FR 47262 - Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... neither favor nor disfavor religion will be employed in the selection of grant recipients and must be... practices used, and any changes made as a result of evaluation feedback. H. Freedom of Information Any information submitted in response to this SGA will be subject to the provisions of the Freedom of Information...

  16. 77 FR 44685 - Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... MINER Act requires the Secretary to give priority to mine safety demonstrations and pilot projects with... limit. Major sections and sub-sections of the proposal should be divided and clearly identified. And as.... MSHA may consider any information that comes to its attention in evaluating the applications. The panel...

  17. The Cytotoxicity Study of Carboxymethyl Starch (CMS) of Sago Starch (Metro xylon sago) by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (Artemia salina nauplii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Ijang; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Zainon Othman

    2014-01-01

    CMS can be produced by substitution of the hydroxyl groups with sodium monochloroacetate in the presence of strong alkali. Carboxy methylation can be performed in water as a solvent or in a water-miscible organic solvent containing a small amount of water such as ethanol, isopropanol, methanol or toluene. The use of organic solvent will preserve the final product in the granular form and the side product can be washed out easily but some of them may be having potential toxicity and carcinogenic effect. In this study, CMS was investigated the level of toxicity by using brine shrimp lethality (BSLT). Brine shrimp test method was used to screen CMS for their biological activity. The screening results showed that the LC50, of CMS is more than 100 mg/ ml dose concentration. In conclusion, CMS is not cytotoxicity to Artemia salina nauplii and BSLT method is simple, inexpensive and convenient assay for the detection of cytotoxic compound. (author)

  18. Hiding from swans: optimal burial depth of sago pondweed tubers foraged by Bewick's swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaría, L.; Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    1 We used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to test the hypothesis that the burial depth of Potamogeton pectinatus tubers will vary with local sediment type and swan predation pressure. 2 In the field, mortality due to predation by swans decreased linearly with burial depth (from 100

  19. Radiation crosslinking of starch/water-soluble polymer blends for hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, K.; Mohid, N.; Bahari, K.; Dahlan, K.Z.

    2000-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers such as PVP(polyvinyl pyrrolidone) and PVA(polyvinyl alcohol), in aqueous solution can form hydrogel easily upon gamma or electron beam irradiation. The properties of hydrogels, particularly for wound dressing application, can be further improved by adding sago starch to the blend. Results show improved gel strength and elongation properties of the hydrogel with increasing sago concentration. It was found that the PVA/sago hydrogel gives better gel strength and elongation than the PVP/sago hydrogel. The tackiness property of the PVA/sago hydrogel increased with increase amount of sago starch added. In case of PVP/sago hydrogel, the tackiness property shows significant increase with increasing amount of sago except for the 5%PVP composition. The swelling properties of PVP/sago and PVA/sago hydrogel decreased with increasing amount of sago but the crosslink density of the hydrogels also reduced. (author)

  20. Radiation crosslinking of starch/water-soluble polymer blends for hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, K.; Mohid, N.; Bahari, K.; Dahlan, K.Z. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Institute Nuclear Technology Research Malaysia (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2000-03-01

    Water-soluble polymers such as PVP(polyvinyl pyrrolidone) and PVA(polyvinyl alcohol), in aqueous solution can form hydrogel easily upon gamma or electron beam irradiation. The properties of hydrogels, particularly for wound dressing application, can be further improved by adding sago starch to the blend. Results show improved gel strength and elongation properties of the hydrogel with increasing sago concentration. It was found that the PVA/sago hydrogel gives better gel strength and elongation than the PVP/sago hydrogel. The tackiness property of the PVA/sago hydrogel increased with increase amount of sago starch added. In case of PVP/sago hydrogel, the tackiness property shows significant increase with increasing amount of sago except for the 5%PVP composition. The swelling properties of PVP/sago and PVA/sago hydrogel decreased with increasing amount of sago but the crosslink density of the hydrogels also reduced. (author)

  1. Fish Protein Concentrate Fortification Siam Patin on Amplang Snack Products and Mi Sago Instant Product as a Leading Regional Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Buchari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To enhance fish consumption in the community especially children, fortification on processed fish product is conducted. The processed fish products are developed to fill the requirements as the fish based food products that own characterizations such as ready to eat, easy to carry, and less time to cook. Amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles are defined as the products that fills the requirements. The research was aimed to process catfish into fish protein concentrate to become amplang snack and instant sagoo noodles. These products were designed as the effort to develop the local priority products in Riau by using diversification and fortification methods. Experimental method with fortification treatments on Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC extract from Catfish that generate products of amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles and fish tofu were carried out. The fortified products were examined by organoleptics test that involved panelists. The results showed that the proximate analysis on fortified Catfish Protein Concentrate products were presented as following :1. water contents of 3,13 %, ash of 2,85 %, protein content of 16,13 % and fat content of 18, 66 % for ampang snacks; and 2. water contents of 11,77 %, ash of 1,30 %, protein content of 12,35 % and fat content of 1,86 % for instant sagoo nodles. All fortified FPC products filled the Indonesian Nasional Standard (SNI.Keywords: Fortification, Catfish, and Fish Protein Concentrate

  2. Production and Field Planting of Vegetative Propagules for Restoration of Redhead Grass and Sago Pondweed in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) have been lost from shallow waters of Chesapeake Bay (Orth and Moore 1983) and other coastal ecosystems worldwide...a mixture of ambient estuarine water from the Choptank River (a tributary of Chesapeake Bay) and freshwater (tap) needed to maintain a salinity of 7...with a mixture of freshwater and ambient estuarine water (to maintain a salinity of 10) that was circulated through a closed- loop recirculation system

  3. FORMULASI MI KERING SAGU DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG KACANG HIJAU (Formulation of Dry Sago Noodles with Mung Bean Flour Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilka Yuliani

    2015-11-01

    dilakukan menggunakan Mixture Design (DX7 dengan variabel berupa persentase pati sagu (80-100% dan tepung kacang hijau (0-20%. Substitusi tepung kacang hijau dapat menurunkan kekerasan, kelengketan, dan elongasi mi sagu, namun meningkatkan cooking loss. Produk optimum mi sagu diperoleh dengan substitusi tepung kacang hijau 4,7%. Pada kondisi ini mi sagu memiliki karakteristik kekerasan 1996,03 gf, skor kelengketan -19,2 gf, skor elongasi 214,35% dan skor cooking loss 10,82%. Uji sensori terhadap mi sagu formula optimum menunjukkan bahwa mi sagu yang dibuat secara keseluruhan tidak berbeda nyata dengan mi kering terigu komersial. Kata kunci: Cooking loss, elongasi, mi pati, sagu, tepung kacang hijau

  4. The effect of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) from rattan biomass as filler and citric acid as co-plasticizer on tensile properties of sago starch biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Halimatuddahliana; Harahap, Hamidah; Afandy, Yayang; Fath, M. Thoriq Al

    2017-11-01

    Biocomposite containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from rattan biomass as fillers and citric acid as co-plasticizer. Rattan biomass is a fiber waste from processing industry of rattan which contains 37.6% cellulose. Isolation of alpha cellulose from rattan biomass was prepared by using three stages: delignification, alkalization, and bleaching. It was delignificated with 3.5% HNO3 and NaNO2, precipitated with 17.5% NaOH, bleaching process with 10% H2O2. The preparation of CNC includes acid hydrolysis using 45% H2SO4 and followed by mechanical processes of ultrasonication, centrifugation, and filtration with a dialysis membrane. Biocomposite was prepared using a solution casting method, which includes 1-4 wt % CNC as fillers, 10-40 wt% citric acid as co-plasticizer and 30 wt% glycerol as plasticizer. The results of TGA, SEM and XRD characteristic of CNC show that CNC has low residue mass, rod like and network like shape with crystallinity index 84.46%. Biocomposite characteristic consists of SEM, tensile strength and elongation at break. The resultshows that biocomposites by addition of CNC and citric acid have a smooth surface and homogeneous distribution of fillers. The tensile strength of biocomposites was increased by addition CNC and citric acid. The addition of CNC decreases the elongation at break but by addition of citric acid, the elongation at break was increased.

  5. Physical properties of sago starch biocomposite filled with Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC) from rattan biomass: the effect of filler loading and co-plasticizer addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, H.; Harahap, H.; Fath, M. T. Al; Afandy, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Rattan biomass is an abundant bioresources from processing industry of rattan which contains 37.6% cellulose. The high cellulose contents of rattan biomass make it a source of nanocrystalline cellulose as a filler in biocomposites. Isolation of alpha cellulose from rattan biomass was being prepared by using three stages: delignification, alkalization, and bleaching. It was delignificated with 3.5% HNO3 and NaNO2, precipitated with 17.5% NaOH, bleaching process with 10% H2O2. Nanocrystal obtained through the hydrolysis of alpha cellulose using 45% H2SO4 and followed by mechanical steps of ultrasonication, centrifugation, and filtration with a dialysis membrane. Biocomposite was being prepared by using a solution casting method, which includes 1-4 wt% nanocrystalline cellulose from rattan biomass as fillers, 10-40 wt% acetic acid as co-plasticizer and 30 wt% glycerol as plasticizer. The biocomposite characteristic consists of density, water absorption, and water vapors transmission rate. The results showed the highest density values was 0.266 gram/cm3 obtained at an additional of 3 wt% nanocrystalline cellulose from rattan biomass and 30 wt% acetic acid. The lowest water absorption was 9.37% at an additional of 3 wt% nanocrystalline cellulose from rattan biomass and 10 wt% acetic acid. It was observed by the addition of nanocrystalline cellulose might also decrease the rate of water vapor transmission that compared to the non-filler biocomposite.

  6. Penerimaan Panelis dan Analisis USAha Mi Instan Berbasis Pati Sagu dan Ikan Patin

    OpenAIRE

    Hardianti, Fitra; ', Yusmarini; Rifai, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the panelist acceptance and business analysis of instant noodles based on sago starch and catfish (Pangasius sp). This research used 20 kilograms sago starch and catfish 3 kilogram. Instant noodles made from sago starch and catfish compared with commercial instant noodle (Indomie Goreng). Testing was conducted by giving an assessment toward taste, flavor, firmness, and texture. The assessment was conducted by 35 panelists. Panelist acceptance was te...

  7. Studi Pembuatan Rainbow Cake Menggunakan Pati Sagu (Metroxylon SP.) Lokal Riau

    OpenAIRE

    ', Arnizam; Pato, Usman; Johan, Vonny Setiaries

    2015-01-01

    This study aim was to analyze the differences in the sensory assessment of the rainbow cake with the addition of 30% sago starch and 100% rainbow cake using wheat flour. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two treatments and eight replication thus obtained 16 experimental units. The treatments were TS1 (100% wheat flour, 0% sago starch) and TS2 (70% wheat flour, 30% sago starch). The parameters observed were descriptive test which includes assessing the attributes of ten...

  8. Evaluasi Mutu dan Penerimaan Panelis terhadap Rainbow Cake yang Dibuat dari Tepung Terigu dan Pati Sagu Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Pato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Riau is one of the sago starch-producing province in Indonesia. Nowadays, sago starch has been utilized to produce various types of tradisional foods. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of rainbow cake produced by the addition of 30% sago starch and rainbow cake using 100% wheat flour and to evaluate panelist acceptance of these rainbow cakes. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two treatments and eight replications thus obtained 16 experimental units. The treatments were TS1 (100% wheat and 0%sago starch and TS2 (70% wheat flour and 30%sago starch. The parameters observed were moisture, ash, sucrose and fat contents as well as panelist acceptance test. The results of this study indicated that rainbow cake of TS1 treatment (100% wheat flour and 0%sago starch had no significant difference with rainbow cake of TS2 treatment (70% wheat flour and 30% sago starch in case of ash and sucrose contents, but had significant effect on moisture and fat contents of rainbow cake. Based on the panelist acceptance test, the rainbow cake made from 70% wheat flour and sago starch 30% could be accepted by panelists similar to commercial rainbow cake.

  9. Growth and development of true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottbøll) : with special reference to accumulation of starch in the trunk : a study on morphology, genetic variation and ecophysiology, and their implications for cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Metroxylon sagu, Arecaceae, starch crops, plant growth and development, plant morphology, inflorescence structure, electron microscopy, phenological scale, genetic variation, plant taxonomy, folk taxonomy, ethnobotany, leaf area, leaf area index, starch accumulation, starch distribution,

  10. Mi Instan Berbasis Pati Sagu dan Ikan Patin serta Pendugaan Umur Simpan dengan Metode Akselerasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmarini Yusmarini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant noodle is favorite food in Indonesia. Instant noodle generally made from wheat flour, which is not Indonesian agricultural product. Diversification was needed to solve this problem, and sago starch is potential resource to develop. The research purposed are to produce instant noodle from sago starch and catfish meat fulfilling Indonesia instant noodle quality standard (SNI 01-3551-2000 and to predict instant noodle shelf time using accelerations method. Treatments in this research were SP0 (instant noodle from 100% sago starch, SP1 (instant noodle from 97.5% sago starch and 2.5% catfish meat, SP2 (instant noodle from 95% sago starch and 5% catfish meat, SP3 (instant noodle from 92.5% sago starch and 7.5% catfish meat, SP4 (instant noodle from 90% sago starch and 10% catfish meat, and SP5 (instant noodle from 87.5% sago starch and 12.5% catfish meat. Parameters measured were moisture content before and after frying, protein content, acid value, compactness, and the best treatment continued with shelf time using accelerations method. The result showed that all treatment significantly affected moisture content before and after frying, protein content, acid value and instant noodle compactness. The best treatment was instant noodle from 90% sago starch and catfish meat 10% (SP4 with moisture content before frying 11.29%, moisture content after frying 9.32%, protein content 10.90%, acid value 1.48 mg/g and instant noodle compactness 93.86%. Shelf time for SP4 was 35.81 days. Keywords: instant noodle, sago starch, catfish, accelerated method

  11. Analisis Keanekaragaman Sagu (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. pada Tiga Tipe Habitat di Pulau Padang Kepulauan Meranti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Rahayu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulau Padang memiliki areal penanaman sagu (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.. Menurut pengetahuan masyarakat lokal terdapat tiga tipe habitat kebun sagu di Pulau Padang, yaitu Gambut, Kilang Manis, dan habitat bertanah liat. Produktifitas sagu berkorelasi dengan ketiga tipe habitat tersebut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengungkap keanekaragaman sagu pada tiga tipe habitat di Pulau Padang dan menentukan tipe habitat yang mendukung produktifitas sagu yang tinggi, sebagai informasi dasar bagi upaya konservasi habitat sagu. Sebanyak 19 individu sagu telah dikoleksi dari tiga tipe habitat dan diamati karakter morfologi dan agronominya. Hasil karakterisasi ditemukan tiga tipe variasi sagu yaitu sagu duri, sagu sengke, dan sagu bemban. Analisis kluster menunjukan bahwa tanaman sagu mengelompok pada tiga kelompok utama berdasarkan asal habitat dan keberadaan durinya pada tingkat kesamaan 31-88%. Berdasarkan analisis komponen utama membagi tanaman sagu menjadi 5 kelompok, cenderung mengelompok juga berdasarkan asal habitat dan keberadaan duri dengan nilai akumulasi keragaman dua komponen utama 58%. Tipe habitat kilang manis direkomendasikan sebagai habitat sagu yang perlu dikonservasi di pulau Padang.Padang Island has a large sago plantation areas. Indigeneous people recognize three habitat types of sago in Padang island, i.e. peat, kilang manis and clay soil. The productivity of sago is closely correlated to the habitat types. The aims of this research were to reveal the diversity of Sago palms in three habitat types in Padang Island and to determine the habitat types which support high productivity of sago as the information base for conservation of sago habitats. The nineteen sago individuals were collected from three habitats and their morphological and agronomic characters were observed. The result of sago characterization obtained three variations of sago in Padang Island, namely Duri, Sengke and Bemban. The cluster analysis showed that sago dendrograms

  12. Experimental Effects of Lime Application on Aquatic Macrophytes: 2. Growth Response Versus Treatment Time and Lime Concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Barko, John W

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of applying lime (as calcium hydroxide; Ca(OH)2) either early or later in the life cycle on the growth, survivorship, and reproductive success of Sago Pondweed...

  13. Radiation processing of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Hashim

    2008-01-01

    Starch is a polysaccharide material and generally, it is non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. It mainly use as foodstuff, food additives, production of sugar and flavouring. Sago palm with scientific name Genus Metroxylon belonging to family Palmae is an important resource in the production of sago starch in Malaysia. Nearly 90% of sago planting areas is found in Sarawak State of Malaysia. It can easily grow under the harsh swampy environment. The sago starch content 4% polyphenol, which is an active compound with antioxidant property that has potential benefit in health and skin care applications. Renewal resources and environmental friendly of natural polymer reason for the researcher to explore the potential of this material in order to improve our quality of live. (author)

  14. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb.) Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Evra Raunie

    2014-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance. PMID:25295258

  15. Tundra swan habitat preferences during migration in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnst, Susan L.

    1994-01-01

    I studied tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) habitat preference in North Dakota during autumn migration, 1988-89. Many thousand tundra swans stop in the Prairie Pothole region during autumn migration, but swan resource use has not been quantified. I examined habitat preference in relation to an index of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) presence, extent of open water, and wetland size. I compared habitat preference derived from counts of all swans to those derived from foraging swans only and cygnets only. Foraging swans preferred wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.03); the number of foraging swans per wetland was >4 times higher on wetlands with sago pondweed than on wetlands without sago. In contrast, nonforaging swans did not prefer wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.85) but preferred large wetlands (P = 0.02) and those with a high proportion of contiguous open water (P feeding than adults (P = 0.03) and occurred proportionately more often in smaller flocks (P = 0.04), but cygnets and adults had similar habitat preferences.

  16. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb. Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evra Raunie Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L. Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance.

  17. Effects of Polysaccharides on the physical properties of Hydrogels prepared by the application of Gamma (-γ) rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M. N. K.; Alam, A. K. M. M.; Bhattacharia, S. K.; Dafader, N. C.; Haque, M. E.; Akhtar, F.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of polysaccharides as additives on the physical properties of hydrogels prepared by the application of gamma (-γ) rays were investigated. The polysaccharides- sago, barley and rice powder were used as additives for the preparation of hydrogel from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) having molecular weight 72,000 by applying various doses of gamma rays. The physical properties of the prepared hydrogel, such as gel fraction, degree of swelling, water absorption- and desorption rates were determined. It is found that the gel fraction of hydrogel with barley is higher than that of hydrogel with rice powder and sago. It is also found that the water absorption- and desorption rates of hydrogel with rice powder are higher than those of hydrogel with barley and sago

  18. Effect of factory effluents on physiological and biochemical contents of Gossypium hirsutum l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, A; Jayabalan, N

    2001-10-01

    The effect of sago and sugar factory effluents was studied on Gossypium hirsutum L. var. MCU 5 and MCU 11. Plants were irrigated with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of effluents of both factories. At lower concentration (25%) of sugar factory effluents had stimulatory effect on all biochemical contents observed. Moreover, all concentration of sago factory effluents were found to have inhibitory effect on all biochemical contents except proline content which increased with increasing concentration of both the effluents. Plants growing on adjacent to sago and sugar factories or they irrigated with such type of polluted water, may accumulate the heavy metals found in both the effluents, at higher levels in plant products and if consumed may have similar effect on living organisms.

  19. A kinetic model and simulation of starch saccharification and simultaneous ethanol fermentation by amyloglucosidase and Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C G [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kim, C H; Rhee, S K [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Genetic Engineering Research Inst.

    1992-07-01

    A mathematical model is described for the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) of sago starch using amyloglycosidase (AMG) and Zymomonas mobilis. By introducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of oligosaccharides produced from sago starch treated with {alpha}-amylase, a series of Michaelis-Menten equations was obtained. After determining kinetic parameters from the results of simple experiments and from the subsite mapping theory, this model was adapted to simulate the SSF process. The results of simulation for SSF are in good agreement with experimental results. (orig.).

  20. KUALITAS PROTEIN DAN KOMPOSISI ASAM AMINO AMPAS SAGU HASIL FERMENTASI ASPERGILLUS NIGER DENGAN PENAMBAHAN UREA DAN ZEOLIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Muhsafaat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate protein quality and amino acid composition of fermented sago pulp by Aspergillus niger with urea and zeolit addition at different levels. The experiment was design in factorial completely randomized with two factors and three replicates. The first factor was levels of urea addition (0, 2.5, and 5%, the second factor was levels of zeolite addition (0, 2.5, and 5% and used 2% A. niger on sago pulp (dry matter form. Variables observed were the levels of crude protein and amino acids. Data were tested using descriptive and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, the differences among treatments means examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results howed that there was interaction between levels of addition urea and zeolite on crude protein value. The addition urea and zeolite at 5% had the high increased 15.49 ± 0.33% to crude protein content. The amino acid content of fermented sago pulp descriptively increased in urea treatment, but didn’t show increased in zeolite treatment. Based on the calculation of the score of chemical and index essential amino acids, fermented sago pulp at 5% urea treatment has a chemical score of 17.86, 18.01, and 11.85 with the essential amino acid deficient is leucine, and has an index of 38.33, 36.43, and 28.45%.

  1. DISINTEGRATION EFFICIENCY OF SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATES, PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT NATIVE STARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, GK; ARENDSCHOLTE, AW; STUUT, GJ; DEVRIES, JA

    1994-01-01

    In a comparative evaluation, the disintegration efficiency of sodium starch glycolates prepared from seven different native starches (potato, maize, waxy maize, wheat, rice, sago and tapioca) were compared. All the sodium starch glycolates tested had a high swelling capacity, but the rate of water

  2. Microbiological Quality of Street-Vended Foods and Ready-To

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    sampled at point sale. PHLS, Communicable Disease and. Public Health, vol. 3, number 3. Sago, S.K., Little, C.L., Ward, L., Gillespie, I.A., Mitchel,. T.L. (2003). Microbiological study of ready-to-eat salad vegetables from retail establishments uncovers a national outbreak of salmonellosis. Journal of Food Protection 66(3):.

  3. THERMODYNAMICS AND ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BAFFA

    The use of maize (Zea mays) cob for the biosorption of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) is ... Variations in the concentration of the different adsorbates during the adsorption process .... Langmuir isotherm is the dimensionless separation .... The use of Sago waste for the sorption of lead and copper. Water S. Afr., 24 (3), p251-256.

  4. EAMJ Diagnosis Sep 09.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 86 No. 9 September 2009. DIAGNOSIS OF DUAL HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPES 1 AND 2 INFECTIONS IN A RESOURCE-. LIMITED SETTING. K. W. C. Sagoe, MSc, Lecturer, Department of Microbiology (Clinical Virology Laboratory), University of Ghana ...

  5. Isolation, Modification and Characterization of Tiger-Nut, Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... ... starch properties. SEM images showed that morphological architecture of granules was ... food starch are corn, potato, wheat, cassava/tapioca, rice and maize are ... rice, pea, sago, oat, barley, rye, amaranth and certain other source of .... Micrographs of native and oxidized starch are shown in Figure 1.

  6. DIE SAGD - SY ONTSTAAN EN ONTWIKKELING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Okt 1977 ... stelling van 'n higiene afdeling het in 'n belang- rike behoefte voorsien. Die pligte van die SAGO het dus op hierdie stadium die ondersoek van soldate, die sanita- sie van kampe, die verpleging van pasiente in militere hospitale en die opleiding van lede be- hels. 'n Hoogtepunt was die opening van die.

  7. Characteristics of raw starch degrading alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2 associated with soft coral Sinularia sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puspasari, Fernita; Nurachman, Zeily; Noer, Achmad Saefuddin; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Natalia, Dessy

    Partially purified alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2, a bacterium isolated from a soft coral Sinularia sp., Merak Kecil Island, West Java, Indonesia, showed an ability to degrade raw corn, rice, sago, cassava, and potato starches with adsorption percentage in the range of 65-93%. Corn

  8. On a species of Lycastis and three aberrant forms of Nereidae from the Dutch East Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1918-01-01

    Lycastis meraukensis n. sp. Dr. J. W. R. Koch, member of the New-Guinea expedition of the Kon. Nederl. Aardrijkskundig Genootschap in 1904, found at Merauke in decayed wood of the Sago-palm 9 specimens of this worm, viz. 2 large ones, one of which is incomplete and 7 smaller ones. Unfortunately it

  9. Contribution to the Knowledge of the Soil-Fauna of new Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1983-01-01

    A broad survey is given of the occurrence and distribution of microarthropods (and some other animals) in the soil of the following vegetation types in New Guinea: algal communities in the intertidal zone, beach forest, mangrove swamp forest, sago palm swamp, lowland swamp forest, forests on

  10. Comparison of plant nutrient contents in vermicompost from selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this experiment, earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae was fed with different plant residues: grass clippings, sago waste and rice straw. These organic wastes were also left to decompose naturally as the control. Analysis on samples vermicompost showed that humic acid content was highest in rice straw, followed by grass ...

  11. Movement of foraging Tundra Swans explained by spatial pattern in cryptic food densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.H.G.; Nolet, B.A.; Bankert, D.

    2006-01-01

    We tested whether Tundra Swans use information on the spatial distribution of cryptic food items (belowground Sago pondweed tubers) to shape their movement paths. In a continuous environment, swans create their own food patches by digging craters, which they exploit in several feeding bouts. Series

  12. Nutrient Intake of the Repatriated United States Army, Navy and Marine Corps Prisoners-of-War of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    species Banana flowers Hoa hien Cucurbita papo Linn. Pumpkin Cu toi Allium sativum Linn. Garlic Cu don do Daucus carota Linn. Carrot Cu he Allium ...hau Citrullus vulRaris Schrad ’.atermolon Thom (dua) Ananassa staiva Lindl. Pineapple Hanh Allium cap& Linn. Onion He Allium angulosum Linn. Mouse...Ait. Sago Dua Bloa lan Pisum sativum Linn. Green peas Lentilles Lens esculenta Moench Lentils Hot sen Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Lotus Ngo sen Nelumbium

  13. Molecular And 3D-Structural Characterization Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase Derived From Metroxylon Sagu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairul Azman Roslan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBAld is an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of D-fructose-1,6-phosphate (FBP to D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP, and plays vital role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, molecular characterization and functional roles of FBAld remain unknown in sago palm. Here we report a modified CTAB-RNA extraction method was developed for the isolation of good quality RNA (RIN>8 from sago leaves and the isolation of FBAld cDNA from sago palm. The isolated sago FBAld (msFBAld cDNA has total length of 1288 bp with an open reading frame of 1020 bp and a predicted to encode for a protein of 340 amino acid resides. The predicted protein shared a high degree of homology with Class-I FBAld from other plants. Meanwhile, the msFBAld gene spanned 2322 bp and consisted of five exons. Conserved domain search identified fifteen catalytically important amino acids at the active site and phylogenetic tree revealed localization of msFBAld in the chloroplast. A molecular 3D-structure of msFBAld was generated by homology modeling and a Ramachandran plot with 86.7% of the residues in the core region, 13.4% in the allowed region with no residues in the disallowed region. The modeled structure is a homotetramer containing an (/(-TIM-barrel at the center. Superimposition of the model with Class-I aldolases identified a catalytic dyad, Lys209-Glu167, which could be involved in the Schiff's base formation and aldol condensation. Apart from that, overproduction of the recombinant msFBAld in Escherichia coli resulted in increased tolerance towards salinity.

  14. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    seed injector designed by VIMS, which does not require a gel matrix, has been tested in Spider Crab Bay in Virginia’s Coastal Bays (Figures 13 and 14...seagrasses, contributing to their loss. Additionally, waters landward of restrictive breakwaters tend to be warmer ( blue and red thermometers) than those...marina), (2) wild celery (V. americana), (3) sago pondweed (S. pectinata), and (4) redhead grass (P. perfoliatus). Molecular and cultivation

  15. Viabilitas Lactobacillus Plantarum 1 Yang Diisolasi Dari Industri Pengolahan Pati Sagu Terhadap Garam Empedu

    OpenAIRE

    Simbolon, Darma Lusvina; ', Yusmarini; Ali, Akhyar

    2016-01-01

    Properties needed for potentially isolates as probiotics should ideally not only able to survive through the digestive tract but also have the ability to reproduce in the digestive tract. The porpuse of the research was to obtain viability of Lactobacillus plantarum 1 strains isolated from processing industry sago starch on bile salts. This research used isolates Lactobacillus plantarum 1 RN2-53, Lactobacillus plantarum 1 RN2-12112, Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 and Streptococ...

  16. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A SIMPLE LINIER REGRESSIVE ALGORITHM ON DATA FACTORY CASSAVA SINAR LAUT AT THE NORTH OF LAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Marisa Efendi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one type of plant that can be planted in tropical climates. Cassava commodity is one of the leading sub-sectors in the plantation area. Cassava plant is the main ingredient of sago flour which is now experiencing price decline. The condition of the abundant supply of sago or tapioca flour production is due to the increase of cassava planting in each farmer. With the increasing number of cassava planting in farmer's plantation cause the price of cassava received by farmer is not suitable. So for the need of making sago or tapioca flour often excess in buying raw material of cassava This resulted in a lot of rotten cassava and the factory bought cassava for a low price. Based on the problem, this research is done using data mining modeled with multiple linear regression algorithm which aim to estimate the amount of Sago or Tapioca flour that can be produced, so that the future can improve the balance between the amount of cassava supply and tapioca production. The variables used in linear regression analysis are dependent variable and independent variable . From the data obtained, the dependent variable is the number of Tapioca (kg symbolized by Y while the independent variable is milled cassava symbolized by X. From the results obtained with an accuracy of 95% confidence level, then obtained coefficient of determination (R2 is 1.00. While the estimation results almost closer to the actual data value, with an average error of 0.00.

  17. Soil CO2 flux from three ecosystems in tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melling, Lulie; Hatano, Ryusuke

    2005-01-01

    Soil CO 2 flux was measured monthly over a year from tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia using a closed-chamber technique. The soil CO 2 flux ranged from 100 to 533 mg C/m 2 /h for the forest ecosystem, 63 to 245 mg C/m 2 /h for the sago and 46 to 335 mg C/m 2 /h for the oil palm. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the environmental variables over all sites could be classified into three components, namely, climate, soil moisture and soil bulk density, which accounted for 86% of the seasonal variability. A regression tree approach showed that CO 2 flux in each ecosystem was related to different underlying environmental factors. They were relative humidity for forest, soil temperature at 5 cm for sago and water-filled pore space for oil palm. On an annual basis, the soil CO 2 flux was highest in the forest ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.1 kg C/m 2 /yr followed by oil palm at 1.5 kg C/m 2 /yr and sago at 1.1 kg C/m 2 /yr. The different dominant controlling factors in CO 2 flux among the studied ecosystems suggested that land use affected the exchange of CO 2 between tropical peatland and the atmosphere

  18. Radiation processing program at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan

    2008-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been proven to enhance industrial efficiency and productivity, improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, varieties of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been studied at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. At present, effort is focused towards developing new materials based on natural polymers such as natural rubber and rubber based products, palm oil and palm oil based products and polysaccharide. Hydrogel based on sago starch has been developed and commercialized for face mask. As for wound dressing application, sago hydrogel is still subjected to the clinical evaluation. Sago starch has also been modified for biodegradable products such as bio-film and bio-foam for packaging purposes. On the other hand palm oil based acrylate resins have been synthesized at the Nuclear Malaysia for pressure sensitive adhesive and printing ink applications. Meanwhile, natural rubber is used in a polymer blend and composites for automotive components. All of these products are at various stages of commercialization. (author)

  19. Dissolution of agro-waste in ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kiat Moon; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Chua, Adeline Seak May

    2010-01-01

    Full text: There are abundant of agro-wastes being produced in Malaysia. One of the largely produced agro wastes is the sago hampas. It is known as a strong environmental pollutant due to its cellulosic fibrous material. However, the presence of the starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses in the hampas can be converted into valuable products such as reducing sugars. Hence, this study was performed to investigate the ability of ionic liquids in hydrolysing the ligno celluloses biomass into reducing sugars. Three types of ionic liquids were used, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl), 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM Ac) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate (EMIM DEP). The reaction was performed by heating the reaction mixture of sago hampas and ionic liquids at 100 degree Celsius. The concentrations of reducing sugars in the hydrolysates were determined by DNS method. Maximum concentration of reducing sugars were 0.424, 0.299, 0.260 mg/ml for BmimCl, EmimAc and EmimDEP respectively. These concluded that the selected ionic liquids were inefficient in hydrolysing the sago hampas to reducing sugars. (author)

  20. Differentiation study of porous hydroxyapatite body fabricated by using three different additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cik Rohaida Che Hak; Idris Besar; Rusnah Mustaffa; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof

    2005-01-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite is suitable for bone surgery applications because it allows bone ingrowth and promotes faster healing. In this study, a porous hydroxyapatite body was fabricated by slip casting route, followed by a comprehensive investigation of its physical properties. The porous body was prepared by mixing the hydroxyapatite slurry with three different additives namely; sago beads, potassium oleate and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The mixture of slurry and additives was then casted in plaster mold before it was dried and sintered at high temperature. The structure of the porous body could be tailored by using different composition and parameters of the additives; sago beads (pore former agent), potassium oleate (foaming agent) and SDS (foaming agent). The role of these three additives was investigated by several chemical, physical and mechanical evaluations method. The identification of additives was determined by FTIR, the porosity of porous hydroxyapatite was measured by Densitometer and the morphology of the porous structure was observed under Scanning Electron Microscopy and Image Analyzer. The results showed that potassium oleate contribute significantly towards porosity. However the resulting porosity would actually very dependent on the proportions of the additives, the more additives being added, the higher the porosity. All three additives produced macrostructure with pores larger than 100 mm, however the one produced by using sago beads showed a less pore interconnection structure compared to those obtained by both foaming agent. Playing with different proportions of these additives, it was possible to improve the foam stability, size of pores and pore connectivity in order to reproduce the porous hydroxyapatite body that having a similar pore structure of the natural bone. (Author)

  1. Pengaruh Penambahan Kitosan dalam Pembuatan Biodegradable Foam Berbahan Baku Pati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Hendrawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable foam is an alternative packaging to replace the expanded polystyrene foam packaging currently in use.   Starch has been used to produce foam because of  its low cost, low density, low toxicity, and  biodegradability. Chitosan has been added to improve mechanical properties of product . The   effect of  variation on chitosan amount  and  starch types  was investigated in this study.  The amount of  chitosan  was varied as 0; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; and  30 % w/w and starch types were used in this research were cassava, Corn and sago starch. Biodegradable  foam was produced by using baking process method, all of material (Starch, Chitosan solution,  Magnesium Stearate, Carrageenan, Glyserol, Protein Isolates  dan polyvinil alcohol (PVOH  were mixed with kitchen aid mixer. The mixture was poured  into mold and heated in an oven at 125 oC for 1 hour. Then, foam was tested for its mechanical properties, water absorption  and biodegradability and  morphology (SEM.  The results show that  foam made from sago starch had lower water absortion than those made from cassava and corn starch.   While, foam made from cassava starch  was more biodegradable than the other foam.  Biodegradable foam based sago starch and 30 % w/w of Chitosan adition  gave the  best performence in tensile stress that  is 20 Mpa

  2. Models for electromagnetic coupling of lightning onto multiconductor cables in underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew Benjamin

    This dissertation documents the measurements, analytical modeling, and numerical modeling of electromagnetic transfer functions to quantify the ability of cloud-to-ground lightning strokes (including horizontal arc-channel components) to couple electromagnetic energy onto multiconductor cables in an underground cavity. Measurements were performed at the Sago coal mine located near Buckhannon, WV. These transfer functions, coupled with mathematical representations of lightning strokes, are then used to predict electric fields within the mine and induced voltages on a cable that was left abandoned in the sealed area of the Sago mine. If voltages reached high enough levels, electrical arcing could have occurred from the abandoned cable. Electrical arcing is known to be an effective ignition source for explosive gas mixtures. Two coupling mechanisms were measured: direct and indirect drive. Direct coupling results from the injection or induction of lightning current onto metallic conductors such as the conveyors, rails, trolley communications cable, and AC power shields that connect from the outside of the mine to locations deep within the mine. Indirect coupling results from electromagnetic field propagation through the earth as a result of a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke or a long, low-altitude horizontal current channel from a cloud-to-ground stroke. Unlike direct coupling, indirect coupling does not require metallic conductors in a continuous path from the surface to areas internal to the mine. Results from the indirect coupling measurements and analysis are of great concern. The field measurements, modeling, and analysis indicate that significant energy can be coupled directly into the sealed area of the mine. Due to the relatively low frequency content of lightning (extremely well with analytical and computational models developed for the Sago site which take into account measured soil properties.

  3. MAPPING OF POTENTIAL AGRICULTURE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIORITY AGROINDUSTRY IN KEPULAUAN MERANTY REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septina Elida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has an important role for rural communities in moving its economy. Therefore, that agricultural potential should be utilized as much as possible for socialwelfare. This study aimed to analyze the potential of agricultural commodities and priority of the factors that determine superioragroindustrybased potensial of agricultural commodities. This study usedsurvey, which was conduct in the Meranti IslandsDistrict from January to May 2016.Respondents involving stakeholders from experts, government agencies and community leaders. The analysis was the Hirarchi Analytical Process (AHP. The results showedthat the potential of agricultural commodities which was develope in Meranti Islands District were sago, coconut and rubber. Determinants: 1 Natural resources (climate, rainfall and land suitability, the priority factor were the land suitability and climate. 2 Human resources (formal education and skills, the priority factor was skill, 3 capital (land, seeds, tools, technology, and ease of cultivation, the priority factor were land, seeds, ease of cultivation. 4 Socio-economic and cultural (ethnic, contribution to GDP, the priority factor was the contribution to the GDP.Superior agroindustriesthat has be developed in the District of Meranti Islands based agricultural potential was agroindustrial sago and coconut. Determinants: 1. The technical aspects (raw materials, capital, technology and infrastructure, the priority factor were the raw material and capital. 2 Economical aspects (price, market, downstream prospects, and the contribution to the GDP, the priority factor are market and downstream prospects. 3 Socio-economic and cultural aspects (education and labor absorption, the priority factor in Agroindustry sago was education, whereas in the palm agro-industry was labor absorption. 

  4. Applications of electron accelerator in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2003-02-01

    Current status of radiation processing, as one of the core research programs of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), is presented. Industrial applications of six electron accelerators from 150 kV up to 3 MV in Malaysia now in operation are mainly for curing of surface coatings, crosslinking of tubes, heat shrinkable tubes and packaging films, crosslinking of wire insulation. Their performances are listed. New technology now in R and D stage includes natural rubber, sago starch and chitosan for biomedical applications, and radiation curable materials from oil palm for pressure sensitive adhesive and printing ink. (S. Ohno)

  5. Synthesis of Poly(hydroxamic Acid-Poly(amidoxime Chelating Ligands for Removal of Metals from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Lutfor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of poly(hydroxamic acid-poly(amidoxime chelating ligands were carried out from poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile grafted sago starch and hydroxylamine in alkaline medium. The binding property of metal ions was performed and maximum sorption capacity of the copper was 3.20 mmol/ g and the rate of exchange of some metals was faster, i.e. t½ ≈ 7 min (average. Two types of wastewater containing chromium, zinc, nickel, copper and iron, etc. were used and the heavy metal recovery was found to be highly efficient, about 99% of the metals could be removed from the metal plating wastewater.

  6. Effect of Different Medium on Survival Rate and Growth of Chironomus sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental fish and fish for food culture, feeding by natural feed is very suitable since they are easy to digest and their size is suitable with  to larval mouth.  One of natural foods is blood worm Chironomus sp. larvae that has high protein content (till  65.2% of  protein. Until now, blood worm is obtained from nature and their stock depends on the weather.  That problem  may be overcome by culturing blood worm in appropriate culture medium.  Naturally, Chironomus sp. grows well in the water containing sago waste.  This study was carried out to examine the growth of Chironomus sp. reared in the medium containing mud, solid sago waste, solid tapioca wastes and water with no waste in depth of 0.5 cm. After 35-day rearing, survival rate of Chironomus sp was different among the treatments, while growth in length was similar. The best survival rate, 58.93% was obtained in the media containing solid sago waste.   Keywords: Chironomus, blood worm, sago waste, tapioca waste   ABSTRAK Dalam usaha budidaya ikan hias maupun ikan konsumsi, pemberian pakan alami sangat cocok karena mudah dicerna dan sesuai dengan bukaan mulut larva. Salah satu contoh pakan alami adalah Chironomus sp. (blood worm yang mempunyai kandungan protein mencapai 65,2%. Selama ini cacing darah diperoleh dari alam dan suplainya tergantung pada kondisi musim. Hal ini mungkin dapat diatasi dengan membudidayakan cacing darah dengan  media yang sesuai sebagai tempat hidupnya. Secara alami, Chironomus sp. dapat tumbuh dan berkembang dengan baik pada limbah sagu. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Chironomus sp. yang dipelihara pada media berupa lumpur, limbah sagu padat, limbah tapioka padat dan air tanpa limbah dengan ketebalan media 0,5 cm. Setelah 35 hari masa pemeliharaan, diketahui bahwa penggunaan media limbah padat sagu, limbah padat tapioka, lumpur dan air tanpa limbah pada pemeliharaan Chironomus sp. masing-masing menghasilkan tingkat

  7. Applications of electron accelerator in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan

    2003-01-01

    Current status of radiation processing, as one of the core research programs of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), is presented. Industrial applications of six electron accelerators from 150 kV up to 3 MV in Malaysia now in operation are mainly for curing of surface coatings, crosslinking of tubes, heat shrinkable tubes and packaging films, crosslinking of wire insulation. Their performances are listed. New technology now in R and D stage includes natural rubber, sago starch and chitosan for biomedical applications, and radiation curable materials from oil palm for pressure sensitive adhesive and printing ink. (S. Ohno)

  8. Radiation processing of natural polymer in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Dahlan Hj. Mohd; Jamaliah Sharif

    2007-01-01

    Research on radiation processing of natural polymer has been carried out by Nuclear Malaysia since 10 years ago. The progress of the research is at various stages. Radiation processing of sago hydrogel has been commercialized. Meanwhile ago film for packaging is at the pilot scale trial. Palm oil products are ready to be further developed for commercialization with any interested industrial partner. On the other hand, some new materials are being developed based on natural rubber such as liquid natural as compatibilizer, natural rubber thermoplastic nanoclay composites and natural rubber magnetic nano particles composites. (author)

  9. Hydrolysis of native and heat-treated starches at sub-gelatinization temperature using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthumporn, U; Shariffa, Y N; Karim, A A

    2012-03-01

    The effect of heat treatment below the gelatinization temperature on the susceptibility of corn, mung bean, sago, and potato starches towards granular starch hydrolysis (35°C) was investigated. Starches were hydrolyzed in granular state and after heat treatment (50°C for 30 min) by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme for 24 h. Hydrolyzed heat-treated starches showed a significant increase in the percentage of dextrose equivalent compared to native starches, respectively, with corn 53% to 56%, mung bean 36% to 47%, sago 15% to 26%, and potato 12% to 15%. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the presence of more porous granules and surface erosion in heat-treated starch compared to native starch. X-ray analysis showed no changes but with sharper peaks for all the starches, suggested that hydrolysis occurred on the amorphous region. The amylose content and swelling power of heat-treated starches was markedly altered after hydrolysis. Evidently, this enzyme was able to hydrolyze granular starches and heat treatment before hydrolysis significantly increased the degree of hydrolysis.

  10. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL PATI SAGU IHUR TERMODIFIKASI DENGAN HEAT MOISTURE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscillia Picauly

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the properties of Heat Moisture treatment (HMT modified ihur sago starch with different moisture contents. The starch was modified with HMT at 110°C after being adjusted to various moisture contents (23, 28, or 33% for 4 h. The physico-chemical and functional properties of the native and modified HMT Ihur sago starch observed were color, swelling power, solubility, paste clarity, moisture content, ash content, amylose content, phenol content, and resistant starch (RS content. Results of this study showed that the HMT starch has a higher degree of lightness (L*, redness (a*, and yellowness (b*, solubility (4.85-5.38% but lower swelling power (44.06-47.47 g/g than the native starch which has a solubility and swelling power of 4.90% and 50.72 g/g, respectively. Paste clarity was found to decrease along the storage period. In addition, higher moisture content (11.81-13.20%, but lower amylose (14.81-23.52%, phenol (2.50-4.04%, and RS (5.4-6.1% content were observed than the native starch with amylose, phenol, and RS content of 27.18, 7.91, and 6.5%, respectively.

  11. Transformation of Starchy Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol using Ragi Tapai Synergized with Microwave Irradiation Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Cheang Diong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production strategy was studied using multiple strain microbes from microwave irradiation (MI pretreated sago waste. Sago waste (SW was MI-pretreated for reducing sugars production using 2 heating media (water and sulfuric acid under pretreatment conditions including MI power, pretreatment duration, and solid loading. When water was used, the pretreatment parameters were optimized using Box-Behnken Design (BBD. However, gelatinized starch and charring of SW led to an insignificant quadratic model. To mitigate the gelatinization problem while determining the best MI pretreatment conditions, water was substituted by sulfuric acid using single factor method. The highest reducing sugar yield of 261.5 mg/g SW was achieved at 7.5% solid loading, 6 min pretreatment duration, and 300 W MI power. The effectiveness of the pretreatment was ascertained by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and chemical-composition analysis. When fermenting MI-pretreated SW using ragi tapai, simultaneous saccharification of starch and ethanol production was evidenced from the sugar/ethanol profile. A resulted yield of 7.24 g ethanol/100 g SW confirmed the fermentability of MI-pretreated SW. The ethanol production was well fitted into the modified Gompertz model.

  12. AGAR FROM MALAYSIAN RED SEAWEED AS POTENTIAL MATERIAL FOR SYNTHESIS OF BIOPLASTIC FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIEW-LING HII

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to identify the potential use of agar extracted from red seaweed, Gracilaria salicornia, collected from the coastal area of Malaysia as the raw material for synthesis of bioplastic film. Agar was extracted via two extraction methods: (1 alkali extraction method and (2 photo bleaching extraction method. The yields of agar by both of the methods were 9 to 11 %. The alkali extracted agar (AEA and photo bleached agar (PBA were incorporated as the raw materials for the formation of bioplastic films while sago starch and glycerol were added to increase workability. Physicochemical properties of the two bioplastic films were characterised. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of agar in both plastic films with the presence of 3,6- anhydrogalactose residues and further indicated that the interactions of agar and sago starch were strong in both PBA and AEA films. The results showed that tensile strength and percent elongation of PBA film (3.067 MPa, 3.270 % was higher than AEA film (2.431 MPa, 2.476 %. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA; % residual weight revealed that AEA film has higher thermal stability (14.80 % than PBA film (10.27 % while rheological results proved that both films exhibited non-Newtonian behaviors. The AEA film was completely decomposed after 30 days in the soil burial test. Results of current study show a wide range of future possibilities and commercial applications of AEA and PBA bioplastic films.

  13. Penggunaan Bahan Pengisi terhadap Mutu Nugget Vegetarian Berbahan Dasar Tahu dan Tempe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Rohaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare different sources of flours and protein sources based on soya bean products in producing vegetarian nugget. Factorial experimental design with three replications was employed where wheat, sweet potato, sago and banana flour as one factor, and tempeh and tofu as another factor. Moisture and raw protein content of vegetarian nuggets produced in this study was in accordance with the Indonesia Standard (SNI. Moisture was less than 60 percent and raw protein was above 12 percent. The highest organoleptic test was obtained from the nugget made of the combination of sago as filler and tofu as protein source. The nugget contained 60.00, 14.89, 28.89 and 2.00 percent of moisture, raw protein, raw fat and ash content, respectively. The organoleptic scores were 2.70, 3.58, 3.50, 3.53 and 3.62 for color, aroma, taste, texture and springiness, respectively. Keywords: nugget, vegetarian nugget, filler

  14. Swelling and tensile properties of starch glycerol system with various crosslinking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Mohd, N.; Nurazzi, N.; Siti Aisyah, M. I.; Fauzi, F. Mohd

    2017-07-01

    Brittle properties of starch had been overcome by the modification process. In this work, sago starch is being modified with variable amount of plasticiser, namely glycerol at 20 and 40% and crosslinking agent had been added to the system. The film of the modification and characterizations of the starch glycerol system with various crosslinking systems were produced by casting method. The film properties of the starch glycerol system were then characterized by tensile strength (mechanical properties) and swelling (physical properties). The modification of the starch glycerol had improved that system by increasing the tensile strength, modulus however lowering its elongation. The increasing in percentage of the water absorption and also swelling are due to the intrinsic hydroxyl groups presence from the starch and glycerol itself that can attract more water to the system. Upon crosslinking, films casted with chemicals namely, glyoxal, malonic acid, borax, PEG were characterised. It was found that, all the film of sago starch crosslinked and undergoing easy film formation. From this modification, borax and malonic acid crosslinking agent had been determined as the best crosslinking agent to the starch glycerol system.

  15. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES STUDYS OF PEATLANDON VARIOUS LANDUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yondra Yondra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural peat swamp forests converted can alter the soil chemical properties. This study aims to determine the extent to which changes in soil chemical properties that occur after the conversion of land from peat swamp forest to palm oil plantation, HTI Acacia crasicarpa, and sago plantation and to know which types of plants are sustainable on peatlands. The results showed that soil pH increased after the change of land function. While the water content decreased. Chemical properties such as C-organic, ash content, CEC, alkaline saturation, macro nutrients (NPK and bases can be changed also undergo changes after undergoing landuse changes, but no violations based on the law made by the government in pp No 25 of 2000 on the criteria of peatland damage and government regulation no. 150 of 2000 on the control of soil damage for biomass production. Sago is the most sustainable plant compared to others due to changes in soil chemical properties not too much different from other landuse although planted in the long term.

  16. The system was blinking red: Awareness Contexts and Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The awareness context has been a source of inspiration for grounded theories for more than 50 years; yet little has been done to extend the theory beyond nursing and the medical field, and a few works on identity. This paper extends the awareness context by examining its role in several high-profile disasters, natural and man-made, where gaining a clear sense of what was going on was often blocked by poor information flow and general communication failures, interpersonal and technological. Selective coding and the introduction of new concepts after analyzing hundreds of pages of documents issued by special commissions in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Hurricane Katrina, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf, and the Sago Mine Disaster not only explain various processes around awareness in the midst of crisis, but also illuminate pre-crisis patterns that, if attended, could have mitigated the impact of the disasters.

  17. Improvement of raw starch digestibility by ion-beam mutation of Aspergillus awamori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsal, Aryanti [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Takigami, Machiko; Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-09-01

    Aspergillus awamori possess the ability to express raw starch digestibility. For the effective utilization of starchy crops produced in South-Asian countries, it is important to achieve the digestion of raw starchs for industrial fermentation process. In this study, higher ratio of mutant strains of Aspergillus awamori IFO4033 were isolated by irradiation of C{sup 5+} ion-beam on freeze dried spores with improvement of enzyme production for two-to threefold in the extracellular {alpha}-amylase compared with gamma-irradiation. The digestibility of raw starch from cassava, sago and sukun increased remarkably about two-to threefold by some mutant strains obtained from irradiation of C{sup 5+} ion-beam. (author)

  18. Adsorpsi Surfaktan Nonionik Alkil Poliglikosida pada Antar muka Fluida-Fluida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisalamun Adisalamun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonionic surfactants have been used extensively in various industrial applications such as cleaning, personal care, crop protection, paint and coating, textile finishing, emulsion stabilization, food and leather processing. In this study, we have studied the adsorption of three nonionic surfactants of alkyl polyglycoside, namely commercial APG from Cognis and APG produced from glucose as well as APG synthesized from sago starch, at fluid–fluid interfaces. The variation of surface and interfacial tension with the concentration of surfactant in the bulk was studied, and the data were fitted using a surface equation of state derived from the Langmuir isotherm. The agreement between ?(c data and Langmuir isotherm model was very good. Keywords: adsorption, air/water interface, interfacial tension, surface tension

  19. Burkholderia vietnamiensis isolated from root tissues of Nipa Palm (Nypa fruticans) in Sarawak, Malaysia, proved to be its major endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sui-Yan; Hara, Shintaro; Melling, Lulie; Goh, Kah-Joo; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Root-associating bacteria of the nipa palm (Nypa fruticans), preferring brackish-water affected mud in Sarawak, Malaysia, were investigated. In a comparison of rhizobacterial microbiota between the nipa and the sago (Metroxylon sagu) palm, it was found that the nipa palm possessed a group of Burkholderia vietnamiensis as its main active nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacterium. Acetylene reduction by the various isolates of B. vietnamiensis was constant (44 to 68 nmol h(-1) in ethylene production rate) in soft gel medium containing 0.2% sucrose as sole carbon source, and the bacterium also showed motility and biofilm-forming capacity. This is the first report of endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from nipa palm.

  20. Detection of Sn(II) ions via quenching of the fluorescence of carbon nanodots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yazid, S.N.A.; Chin, S.F.; Pang, S.C.; Ng, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    We report that fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-dots) can act as an optical probe for quantifying Sn(II) ions in aqueous solution. C-dots are synthesized by carbonization and surface oxidation of preformed sago starch nanoparticles. Their fluorescence is significantly quenched by Sn(II) ions, and the effect can be used to determine Sn(II) ions. The highest fluorescence intensity is obtained at a concentration of 1.75 mM of C-dots in aqueous solution. The probe is highly selective and hardly interfered by other ions. The quenching mechanism appears to be predominantly of the static (rather than dynamic) type. Under optimum conditions, there is a linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and Sn(II) ions concentration up to 4 mM, and with a detection limit of 0.36 μM. (author)

  1. NSC confirms principles for safety review on Radioactive Waste Burial Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission authorized the scope of Principles for Safety Examination on Radioactive Waste Burial Facilities as suitable, the draft report for which was established by the Special Committee on Safety Standards of Radioactive Waste (Chairman Prof. Masao Sago, Science University of Tokyo) and reported on March 10 to the NSC. The principles include the theory that the facility must be controlled step by step, corresponding to the amount of radioactivity over 300 to 400 years after the burial of low-level solid radioactive waste with site conditions safe even in the event of occurrence of a natural disaster. The principles will be used for administrative safety examination against the application of the business on low-level radioactive waste burial facility which Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Inc. is planning to install at Rokkashomura, Aomori Prefecture. (author)

  2. Incorporation of Kojic Acid-Azo Dyes on TiO2 Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolynne Zie Wei Sie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitization of heavy metal free organic dyes onto TiO2 thin films has gained much attention in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A series of new kojic acid based organic dyes KA1–4 were synthesized via nucleophilic substitution of azobenzene bearing different vinyl chains A1–4 with kojyl chloride 4. Azo dyes KA1–4 were characterized for photophysical properties employing absorption spectrometry and photovoltaic characteristic in TiO2 thin film. The presence of vinyl chain in A1–4 improved the photovoltaic performance from 0.20 to 0.60%. The introduction of kojic acid obtained from sago waste further increases the efficiency to 0.82–1.54%. Based on photovoltaic performance, KA4 achieved the highest solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (η = 1.54% in the series.

  3. Outline of FNCA project on application of electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2005-01-01

    FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) activities in the field of electron accelerator applications are reported. The paper mainly reports on the achievement of the 3rd workshop to discuss status of utilization of electron accelerator for thin films/hydrogel in the FNCA participating countries, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, held in August, 2003, at Kuala Lumpur. Cross-linking of thin film from sago starch polymer blend using the Cureton (200 keV, 20 mA) and cross-linking of hydrogel for wound dressing and CMC paste-like sheet using the medium energy (3.0 MeV, 30 mA) electron accelerator of MINT (from Malaysia) were successfully demonstrated. Efforts are being made by Vietnam, Thailand and Philippines having no electron accelerator to acquire the machine for R and D and commercial use in the near future. (S. Ohno)

  4. Up-Scaling Production of Carboxymethyl Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafiz Abdul Nasir; Zainon Othman; Kamaruddin Hashim; Siti Khadijah Abu Hadin; Nurul Nadia Shaaban

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl starch (CMS) is a starch derivative formed by its reaction with sodium monochloroacetate which consist of OH-groups that are partially or completely replaced by ether substitution. Characteristic of CMSS defined by the degree of substitution (DS). DS is defined as the average number of substituents per anhydro glucose unit (AGU), the monomer unit of starch. The upgrading of CMSS production from 10L to 30L requires several experiments with different variable such as amount NaOH, amount of Sago Starch and reaction time. Each will give different DS. Quality control for the product cover moisture, viscosity and paste clarity. Therefore, SOP has been established to control the quality final product. (author)

  5. Improvement of raw starch digestibility by ion-beam mutation of Aspergillus awamori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsal, Aryanti; Takigami, Machiko; Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    Aspergillus awamori possess the ability to express raw starch digestibility. For the effective utilization of starchy crops produced in South-Asian countries, it is important to achieve the digestion of raw starchs for industrial fermentation process. In this study, higher ratio of mutant strains of Aspergillus awamori IFO4033 were isolated by irradiation of C 5+ ion-beam on freeze dried spores with improvement of enzyme production for two-to threefold in the extracellular α-amylase compared with gamma-irradiation. The digestibility of raw starch from cassava, sago and sukun increased remarkably about two-to threefold by some mutant strains obtained from irradiation of C 5+ ion-beam. (author)

  6. Modeling potential impacts of the Garrison Diversion Unit project on Sand Lake and Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuges: a feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Roelle, James E.

    1987-01-01

    The Garrison Diversion Unit (GDU) of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin program was authorized in 1965, with the purpose of diverting Missouri River water to the James River for irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and flood control. The project was reauthorized in 1986, with the specification that comprehensive studies be conducted to address a variety of issues. One of these ongoing studies addresses potential impacts of GDU construction and operation on lands of the National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) system, including Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges (the Refuges) on the James River. A number of concerns at these Refuges have been identified; the primary concerns addressed in this report include increased winter return flows, which would limit control of rough fish; increased turbidity during project construction, which would decrease production of sago pondweed; and increased water level fluctuations in the late spring and early summer, which would destroy the nests of some over-water nesting birds. The facilitated workshop described in this report was conducted February 18-20, 1987, under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. The primary objectives of the workshop were to evaluate the feasibility of using simulation modeling techniques to estimate GDU impacts on Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges and to suggest enhancements to the James River Refuge monitoring program. The workshop was structured around the formulation of four submodels: a Hydrology and Water Quality submodel to simulate changes in Refuge pool elevations, turnover rates, and water quality parameters (e.g., total dissolved solids, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, water temperature, pesticides) due to GDU construction and operation; a Vegetation submodel to simulate concomitant changes in wetland communities (e.g., sago pondweed, wet meadows, deep

  7. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN AGROINDUSTRI GULA SEMUT AREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afni Evalia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aren is a type of palm that has a highly potential economic value. Lareh Sago Sub-district is the largest producer in the District of Lima Puluh Kota; however, it is only processed to produce wine and molded sugar. This study aimed to formulate a strategy for the sugar palm sugar agro-industrial development in Lareh Sagohalaban. The research method was a case study in the form of quantitative descriptive, and the data were processed using IFE/EFE, SWOT and AHP. The values obtained from IFE and EFE matrixes were 2.646 and 2.298 respectively. From the SWOT analysis, alternative strategies were obtained, namely, SO Strategy: Strengthening the R & D to develop market-based sugar processing for commercial scale and diversification of palm downstream products; WO Strategy: Improving upstream subsystem to develop nursery based on palm local seed varieties and providing institutional assistance; ST Strategy: Determining agro-technopark for palm industrialization, providing assistance in the form of appropriate packaging technology accordance with the standards, and WT Strategy: increasing commitment and cooperation among stakeholders in strengthening palm agro-industry, increasing marketing and promotion for the expansion and sanction policy for any company selling Aren in the form of wine. From the result of AHP analysis, the determinant factors in developing the business include Technology (0.439, the Government as the actor (0.577, and product diversification as the strategy (0.388.Keyword: Aren (palm, cluster- agro technopark, IFE/EFE matrixes, SWOT analysis, AHPABSTRAKAren (Arenga pinnata Merr adalah jenis palma yang memiliki potensi nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Kecamatan Lareh sago halaban merupakan penghasil Aren terbesar di Kabupaten Lima Puluh Kota, namun dalam pengolahannya masih mengolah menjadi gula cetak dan lebih banyak dalam bentuk tuak. Penelitian ini bertujuan merumuskan strategi pengembangan agroindustri gula semut aren di Kecamatan

  8. Effect of K-N-humates on dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency of maize in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, Auldry Chaddy; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Muhamad, Ab Majid Nik; Nasir, Hassan Mohammad; Jiwan, Make

    2010-07-06

    Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW), is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer), which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS), but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots) were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6) showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials) causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from fertilizer to

  9. Effect of K-N-Humates on Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Maize in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auldry Chaddy Petrus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW, is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer, which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS, but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6 showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from

  10. EVALUATION OF NUTRITIVE VALUE AND IN VITRO METHANE PRODUCTION OF FEEDSTUFFS FROM AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD INDUSTRY BY-PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the nutrient degradability, in vitro methane (CH4 production ofseveral agricultural and food industry by-products in relation to their chemical composition. Twenty-onesamples of 7 feedstuffs from agricultural and food industry by-products consisted of corn straw, potatostraw, rice straw, cocoa pod, sago waste, rice bran, soybean curd residue were evaluated by an in vitro gasproduction and nutrient degradability. The feedstuffs varied greatly in their crude protein (CP, neutraldetergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC contents. Crude protein ranged from 1.5 to 21.8%,NDF from 31.6 to 71.1% and NFC from 1.5 to 50.8%. Among the seven feedstuffs, soybean curd residuehad the highest CP content, on the other hand it had the lowest NDF content. Dry matter (DM and organicmatter (OM degradability were highest (P<0.01 in soybean curd residue among the feedstuffs. The CH4production was significantly higher (P<0.01 in rice straw, cocoa pod and corn straw as compared to sagowaste. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.60; P<0.01 between NDF concentration and CH4production. However, the total gas productions was negatively correlated (r = -0.75; P<0.01 with NDFcontent. The CH4 production of feedstuff is influenced by NDF content.

  11. Kualitas Dange Yang Disubstitusi Tepung Daging Ikan Kembung (Rastrellinger kanagurta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Rukmini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dange is a traditional food made from delicate wet sago starch and further roasted in forna. Dange has rectangle form, flat with approximately 0,5 cm thickness. In addition, dange is also well known for its light, tasteless, hardness and relatively not hygroscopy. To increase the quality of dange and improve its flavour, a research was performed to study the quality of dange substituted with mackerel fish meat. The treatment was arranged in two classifications factorial completely randomized design. The classifications were variation of mackerel fish meat (0%, 2%, 5% and 8% and time of grill (1 minute, 2 minutes and 3 minutes. Furthermore, the dange product quality was tested chemical and sensory analysis. The chemical analysis consisted of moisture, protein, fat, ash and starch content. Whereas the different of dange product quality was tested sensory analysis using scoring test method and the consumers acceptance was tested by hedonic scale test method. It was found that the most liked dange was made from 5% substitute of mackerel fish meat at 1 minute grill. This dange had slightly brittle texture, yellow-white colour, fishy taste and relatively strong fishy flavour with 27.84% moisture, 3.98% protein, 0.50%fat, 2.48% ash and 57,78% starch content.

  12. PENGEMBANGAN BERAS ANALOG DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN JAGUNG PUTIH [Development of White Corn-Based Rice Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Noviasari*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available White corn can be utilized as a source of non-rice carbohydrate in the manufacture of rice analogues. The rice analogues with rice-like characteristics were produced by an extrusion technique. The aim of this research was to develop rice analogues from white corn and to evaluate their physicochemical and sensory properties. The study was conducted in several stages, i.e. preparation, formulation, and physicochemical and sensory properties evaluation. The physicochemical properties of rice analogues evaluated included proximate nutritional composition, dietary fiber concentration, cooking time, water loss rate, color, and whiteness percentage, while their sensory preferences were evaluated using hedonic scale test. The rice analogues made of Pulut Harapan and Lokal Purbalingga corns (4.34:65.66% added with 30% sago starch, was found to be the most preferred. The moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and dietary fiber composition of this rice analog was 9.32, 0.38, 6.86, 1.22, 91.54, and 5.35%, respectively.

  13. Development of Keropok Keping Drying Machine for Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamaddan, S.; Mohd Mohtar, A. M. A. A.; Junaidi, N.; Mohtadzar, N. A. A.; Mohamad Suffian, M. S. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Keropok is a traditional cracker product in Southeast Asia. Keropok is made from fish, squid or shrimp mixed with starch or sago flour and eggs. In Malaysia, keropok industry is widely operated at the coastal areas where the fish/seafood supply can be easily accessed. Keropok need to be dried before the packaging process. At the moment, conventional method was used where the keropok is arranged under the sunlight on a board called pemidai. The method is considered less hygienic since it exposed to the dirt and dust and less practical especially during the raining season. This research is focusing on a new automation technique to solve the problems. Rotary drum with internal holder was developed as the drying machine. Keropok keping (types of keropok) was selected to be experimented using the machine with three different rotating speeds. Preliminary experiment result shows that the broken rate of the keropok keping was around 27% of the total weight. The development of new automation system is hoped to improve the small medium enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia.

  14. The boson expansion theory as the nuclear structure theory for the heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    Sometime sago, Kishimoto and Tamura developed a formalism of boson expansion theory (BET), and then Weeks and Tamura showed that it fitted many experimental data of collective nuclei. This formalism has recently been simplified significantly be Pedrocchi, Jamaluddin and Tamura. The new and old theories are very closely related but are not exactly the same. It has thus been desired to see whether the new theory can also fit data, and to show that it indeed works well constitutes a major part of this thesis. It is in fact seen that a number of data of Sm, Os and Pt isotopes are explained nicely. Since the new form of the theory is rather simple, it permits us to take into account easily the effects of noncollective states to the behavior of collective states. This thesis shows that are remarkably improved fit to data of magnetic moments of SM isotopes is achieved in this way. The thesis discusses one additional subject. It is a result of an effort made to improve the BET by removing as much as possible the error due to the use of the BCS theory. This was done by applying a method developed by Li to the Dyson form of BET. A way to develop this work further is suggested

  15. Energy from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, K.J. (Tate and Lyle, Ltd., Reading, England); Vlitos, A.J.; Coombs, J.

    1983-09-01

    The most-abundant biomass is wood, of which cellulose is a major component. Burning releases directly as heat, solar energy which has been stored in the wood as a result of the process of photosynthesis. It is also possible to convert cellulose to simple sugars which may be fermented to ethanol, a more convenient source of energy as a fuel for internal combustion engines; alternatively, wood may be gasified at high temperature in the presence of steam. The resulting synthesis gas can be catalytically converted into methanol. Neither route to a liquid fuel from cellulosic residues has yet been proved economically feasible. However, alcoholic fermentation of sugar, or glucose obtained by the hydrolysis of starch may provide a commercially viable process for the production of fuel alcohol. Both sugar and starch are agricultural food products which are obtained from cane sugar, maize and cassava. Other sources of fermentable sugars and starch include pineapple, sweet sorghum, sago palm, yams and other root crops. The energy input required to grow and process agricultural products may be greater than the energy yield in the form of anhydrous fermentation alcohol. As a consequence, only sugar cane and possibly sweet sorghum can be regarded as giving a net positive energy yield. Maize and, on a more-limited scale, cassava, may provide a viable process, given an additional source of low-grade energy, as is evident from the successful exploitation of these crops for fuel-alcohol production in the US and Brazil. 31 references, 12 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Preferensi Pangan Rumah Tangga Berdasarkan Sosial Ekonomi Wilayah di Kalimantan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Wynalda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to identify the society food preferences at the level of households based onper capita income of the region in the West Kalimantan province. The research method usedwas cross sectional study. The location of the research is grouped into three strata of theeconomy based on GDP, namely Pontianak city (high strata, Sekadau district (the lowerstrata and Ketapang district (the intermediate strata. Then selected two subdistrict fromeach city/district. The sample of subjects is selected by purposive 25 householdsper subdistrict, and the total sample 150 households. The results showed that the foodpreferences of the subject significantly associated with per capita income of the area (p<0.05, namely corn, noodle, cassava, sweet potato, taro, sago, beef, chicken, duck egg, freshfish, shrimp, shellfish, anchovies, fish with soy, milk, milk powder, cooking oil, coconut,pecans, walnuts, chocolate, green beans, douchi fermented beans, granulated sugar, brownsugar, syrup, instant drinks, string beans, carrots, bananas, papaya, guava, mango, jackfruit,coffee and tea. Reasons for the selection of food preferences of the subject, because thehabits and the daily food.

  17. Movement of foraging Tundra Swans explained by spatial pattern in cryptic food densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Raymond H G; Nolet, Bart A; Bankert, Daniëlle

    2006-09-01

    We tested whether Tundra Swans use information on the spatial distribution of cryptic food items (below ground Sago pondweed tubers) to shape their movement paths. In a continuous environment, swans create their own food patches by digging craters, which they exploit in several feeding bouts. Series of short (1 m). Tuber biomass densities showed a positive spatial auto-correlation at a short distance (25 g/m2) and to a more distant patch (at 7-8 m) if the food density in the current patch had been low (3 m) from a low-density patch and a short distance (<3 m) from a high-density patch. The quantitative agreement between prediction and observation was greater for swans feeding in pairs than for solitary swans. The result of this movement strategy is that swans visit high-density patches at a higher frequency than on offer and, consequently, achieve a 38% higher long-term gain rate. Swans also take advantage of spatial variance in food abundance by regulating the time in patches, staying longer and consuming more food from rich than from poor patches. We can conclude that the shape of the foraging path is a reflection of the spatial pattern in the distribution of tuber densities and can be understood from an optimal foraging perspective.

  18. Body size mediated coexistence in swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Katharina A M; Ritchie, Mark E; Powell, James A

    2014-01-01

    Differences in body sizes may create a trade-off between foraging efficiency (foraging gains/costs) and access to resources. Such a trade-off provides a potential mechanism for ecologically similar species to coexist on one resource. We explored this hypothesis for tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator), a federally protected species, feeding solely on sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) tubers during fall staging and wintering in northern Utah. Foraging efficiency was higher for tundra swans because this species experienced lower foraging and metabolic costs relative to foraging gains; however, trumpeter swans (a) had longer necks and therefore had access to exclusive resources buried deep in wetland sediments and (b) were more aggressive and could therefore displace tundra swans from lucrative foraging locations. We conclude that body size differentiation is an important feature of coexistence among ecologically similar species feeding on one resource. In situations where resources are limiting and competition for resources is strong, conservation managers will need to consider the trade-off between foraging efficiency and access to resources to ensure ecologically similar species can coexist on a shared resource.

  19. Body Size Mediated Coexistence in Swans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina A. M. Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in body sizes may create a trade-off between foraging efficiency (foraging gains/costs and access to resources. Such a trade-off provides a potential mechanism for ecologically similar species to coexist on one resource. We explored this hypothesis for tundra (Cygnus columbianus and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator, a federally protected species, feeding solely on sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata tubers during fall staging and wintering in northern Utah. Foraging efficiency was higher for tundra swans because this species experienced lower foraging and metabolic costs relative to foraging gains; however, trumpeter swans (a had longer necks and therefore had access to exclusive resources buried deep in wetland sediments and (b were more aggressive and could therefore displace tundra swans from lucrative foraging locations. We conclude that body size differentiation is an important feature of coexistence among ecologically similar species feeding on one resource. In situations where resources are limiting and competition for resources is strong, conservation managers will need to consider the trade-off between foraging efficiency and access to resources to ensure ecologically similar species can coexist on a shared resource.

  20. High thermal behavior of a new glass ceramic developed from silica xerogel/SnO{sub 2} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aripin, H., E-mail: aripin@unsil.ac.id [Faculty of Learning Teacher and Education Science, Siliwangi University, Jl. Siliwangi 24 Tasikmalaya 46115, West Java (Indonesia); Mitsudo, Seitaro, E-mail: mitsudo@fir.u-fukui.ac.jp [Research Center for Development of Far Infrared Region (FIR Center), University of Fukui, Bunkyo 3-9-1 Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Sudiana, I. Nyoman, E-mail: sudiana75@yahoo.com [Departement Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Haluoleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu, Kendari 93232 (Indonesia); Priatna, Edvin, E-mail: ujack05@yahoo.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Siliwangi University, Tasikmalaya (Indonesia); Sabchevski, Svilen, E-mail: sabch@ie.bas.bg [Lab. Plasma Physics and Engineering, Institute of Electronics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Shose Blvd., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)

    2016-02-08

    In this investigation, a new glass ceramics have been produced by mixing SnO{sub 2} and amorphous silica xerogel (ASX) extracted from sago waste ash. The composition has been prepared by adding 10 mol% of SnO{sub 2} into SX. The samples have been dry pressed and sintered in the temperature range between 800 °C and 1500 °C. The effects of temperature on the crystallization of silica xerogel after adding SnO{sub 2} and their relationship to bulk density have been studied. The crystallization process of the silica xerogel/SnO{sub 2} composite has been examined by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the bulk density has been characterized on the basis of the experimental data obtained using Archimedes′ principle. It has been found that an addition of SnO{sub 2} confers an appreciable effect on the grain and from the interpretation of XRD patterns allow one to explain the increase in the density by an increased crystallite size of SnO{sub 2} in the composite.

  1. The applications of electron accelerator. Liquid, thin film and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd Dahlan; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali

    2004-01-01

    As indicated by the results of this study, low energy electron beam accelerator of 200 keV to 500 keV can be utilized to irradiate thin hydrogel film in the range of 60 to 500 μm thickness. However, the industrial applications of this technology will depend on its applications. For thin films, cosmetic use such as faced mask is possible. The production of sago hydrogel for cosmetic used is in the process of commercialization in Malaysia. As for electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater in particular the effluent from the textile industry is still at infancy. Further work is necessary in order to have a base line data before the commercialization is taken place. Malaysia has also embarked on the electron beam treatment of flue gases and has completed the semi-pilot scale study by using 1.0 MeV electron accelerator voltage and 400 cum flue gas generated from diesel generator. This study was conducted together with the TNB Research, the research institute belongs to the electrical power company in Malaysia. For technology transfer and commercialization, MINT is planned to promote this technology to Independent Power Producers (IPP) in Malaysia. (author)

  2. A Livelihood Asset Status Tracking Method for the Assessment of the Effects of a Development Programme on Agricultural Productivity and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from the Ejisu-Juaben District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kojo Boateng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances and discusses an innovative Livelihood Asset Status Tracking (LAST computational method based on the sustainable livelihoods analytical framework. It then uses the method to offer a theoretically informed empirical assessment of the effects of Ghana’s Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy II (GPRS II – 2006-2009 on smallholder farmers’ ability to develop sustainable livelihoods in the face of changing environmental and socio-economic conditions of production. Often, variability in climatic conditions interacts with adverse socio-economic conditions such as disadvantageous terms of trade and poor agricultural infrastructure to undermine agricultural productivity and by extension, Ghanaian smallholder farmers’ livelihoods (Sagoe, 2006. In this study, developing sustainable livelihoods is defined by a quantitative assessment of the development of 5 key livelihood capital assets – financial capital, social capital, natural capital, physical capital and human capital. Among others, the LAST analysis reveals that although a few smallholder farmers were able to develop productive capital assets and to build viable and sustainable livelihoods through the activities of the GPRS II, a greater majority of smallholder farmers in the municipality have not been able to adequately develop capital assets for more productivity, hence maintaining extremely poor and vulnerable livelihoods.

  3. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21% and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%. Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Porous hydroxyapatite composite with alumina for bone repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnah Mustaffa; Mohd Reusmaazran Mohd Yusof; Idris Besar

    2010-01-01

    Porous fabrications, a number of techniques were investigated using polyurethane foam as the scaffold. These techniques involve dipping of the foam into a slurry prepared by mixing of HA+Al 2 O 3 powder with PVA and Sago as binder and subjecting to burn off procedure to get the porous products. Sintering parameter was studied at 1100, 1200 and 1300 degree Celsius. Initially HA powder was prepared by the sol-gel precipitation method using calcium hydroxide and ortho-phosphoric acid meanwhile Al 2 O 3 powder from supplier (MERK). The fine HA powder, measuring 2 O 3 . These techniques also produce the uniformity pore shape. Characterization of the physical analysis, porosity, surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis (SEM) and compression strength were studied. Mechanical properties showing that the composite of porous HA+Al 2 O 3 gives higher maximum compression strength compared to the porous hydroxyapatite itself. Observation from this studied the increasing of temperature will increase the strength. (author)

  5. MAKANAN TAMBAHAN DENGAN INDEKS GLIKEMIK TINGGI UNTUK PEMENUHAN GIZI ANAK SEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uken S.S. Soetrisno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High Glycaemic Snack Foods for Nutrition Completion of School Children.School lunch program had been launched since 1996, but there is still some problem especially related to the portion size and portion's nutritional value. This study tried to developed snack foods for school children with portion size of 300 Kcal and 5-7 g protein, and evaluated for their glycaemic index and organoleptic quality. Basic ingredients for food formulation were carbohydrate sources: rice, glutinous rice, cassava, or sago; protein sources: soybean, chick peas, peanut, mungbean or tempe; besides other ingredients such as sugar, coconut oil, grated coconut or coconut milk those were added to increase palatability and energy content. Carbohydrate and protein sources were processed under optimal treatment, which were: soaking at pH 5.8-9.6 and followed by overnight drying and roasting at 75-125o C for 30 minutes. Those treatments were to reduce portion size and to increase the glycaemic index. This study involved adult women and school children to evaluate the portion size and the organoleptic quality. Snack foods in form of smooth or coarse sweet jellied dough had good acceptability. The glycaemic index of 15 snack foods are varied between: 64-99. These indexes are considered as moderate to high. Further study is needed to evaluate the energy effectiveness of the snack foods on maintaining and enhancing the work performances of school children.Keywords: formulated food, nutrients, organoleptic evaluation, glycaemic index.

  6. SIFAT FISIK DAN ORGANOLEPTIK MI BASAH DARI PATI SAGU DENGAN PENAMBAHAN EKSTRAK DAUN KELOR (Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida El Husna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sago starch as local food rich in carbohydrates and crude extract of moringa leaves that rich in protein have potential to be developed as a raw material for wet noodle. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of percentage of moringa leaf extract (5%, 10%, 15% and the filtering process of extracts (with and without screening on the physical and sensory properties of wet noodle. This study was conducted using completely randomized design consisted of two factors with three replications. Analysis of wet noodles includes of cooking time, cooking loss, water absorption, percentage of breaking noodles, sensory (hedonic test of color, aroma, taste, and texture. The results showed that the higher of percentage of moringa leaves extract increased the cooking time, cooking loss, and percentage of breaking noodles. Moringa leaf extract with the screening process decreased the cooking time and breaking percentage of noodles. The best treatment was obtained from the addition of moringa leaves extract of 5 % and with the filtering process of extracts.

  7. Utilization of low quality roughage by ruminants. A contribution to animal nutrition in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastradipradja, D.; Soewardi, B.; Sofjan, L.A.; Hendratno, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the importance of low quality roughage in ruminant production in Indonesia, a research project to evaluate the nutritive value of forages, and the possible improvement in their utilization, was undertaken. These studies are here reviewed. The effects of cassava meal, sago starch and molasses as supplements in urea-containing rations with alangalang (Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv.) as the sole roughage source were investigated in Ongole grade calves. Using 35 S in vitro systems, the effects of levels of only cassava meal supplements in alangalang rations on rumen microbial protein synthesis were estimated. Another experiment was carried out to study alangalang in pelleted rations of different main energy source and concentrate to roughage ratios for Ongole grade bulls. Data on the average daily gain in bodyweight and ruminal ammonia concentration suggest that alangalang alone already produced enough ammonia for protein synthesis, and that non-protein nitrogen supplementation can be beneficial if cassava meal is offered at a level greater than 3% metabolic body size (MBS). Results from the in vitro studies show that the level of 1.0% MBS gave the highest rate of microbial protein synthesis. With alangalang in pelleted complete rations, acceptable gains in body weight were obtained, and it was concluded that dried cassava roots can replace corn as the main energy source. (author)

  8. 12.5 Gb/s multi-channel broadcasting transmission for free-space optical communication based on the optical frequency comb module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Zhao, Zeping; Wang, Yuehui; Zhang, Zhike; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2018-01-22

    A wide-spectrum, ultra-stable optical frequency comb (OFC) module with 100 GHz frequency intervals based on a quantum dot mode locked (QDML) laser is fabricated by our lab, and a scheme with 12.5 Gb/s multi-channel broadcasting transmission for free-space optical (FSO) communication is proposed based on the OFC module. The output power of the OFC is very stable, with the specially designed circuit and the flatness of the frequency comb over the span of 6 nm, which can be limited to 1.5 dB. Four channel wavelengths are chosen to demonstrate one-to-many channels for FSO communication, like optical wireless broadcast. The outdoor experiment is established to test the bit error rate (BER) and eye diagrams with 12.5 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK). The indoor experiment is used to test the highest traffic rate, which is up to 21 Gb/s for one-hop FSO communication. To the best of our knowledge, this scheme is the first to propose the realization of one-to-many broadcasting transmission for FSO communication based on the OFC module. The advantages of integration, miniaturization, channelization, low power consumption, and unlimited bandwidth of one-to-many broadcasting communication scheme, shows promising results on constructing the future space-air-ground-ocean (SAGO) FSO communication networks.

  9. Physical and mechanical properties of LDPE incorporated with different starch sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Kormin, Faridah; Dalour Hossen Beg, Mohammad; Bijarimi Mat Piah, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In this study it was investigated the incorporation of different starches, such as sago starch, corn starch, potato starch, tapioca starch and wheat starch, in low-density polyethylene matrix (LDPE) to enhanced mechanical properties and to obtain partially biodegradable product with the aim to reduce the plastics wastes in the environment. For comparison, virgin LDPE, LDPE with different sources of starch blends were prepared and characterized under the same conditions. The starches were mixed to the LDPE using a twin screw extruder to guarantee the homogeneity of the formulations. The compound were shaping processed by injection moulding. The characterization of those compounds was done by physical (density, MFI), mechanical (Universal tensile machine). The addition of starch to LDPE reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength, whereas the elastic modulus, flexural modulus and flexural strength increased. LDPE/SS show the good mechanical behavior compared to other formulation. The physical and mechanical properties were evident when 5 and 30 wt% were added. Water uptake increased with increased starch content and immersion time. The time taken for the composites to equilibrate was about one month even when they were immersed completely in water.

  10. Monitoring the Northern San Francisco Bay Water Quality with Landsat-8. Nicholas B. Tufillaroa , and Curtiss O. Davisa. aOregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA, nbt@coas.oregonstate.edu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. O.; Tufillaro, N.

    2016-02-01

    Landsat-8's high spatial resolution ( 30 nm nominal), improved signal-to-noise (12bit digitizer) and expanded band set open up new applications for coastal and in-land waters. We use a recent ocean color processor for Landsat-8 created by Vanhellemont and Ruddick (RSE, 2015)to examine changes in the Northern San Francisco Bay, in particular looking for possiblechanges due to the on-going California drought. For instance, a temporary drought barrier to prevent salt water intrusion was placed during May of 2015 at West False River in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Using the new Landsat-8 ocean color products, we illustrate how to monitor changes in macro algae and plants (Sago pondweed (native), Curly pondweed (non-native)) in regions directly effected,such as the Franks Track region. Product maps using panchromatic enhancement ( 15 m resolution) andscene based atmospheric correction allow a detailed synoptic look every 16 days during theSpring, Summer, and Fall of 2015. This work is part of a larger NASA funded project aimed atimproving the modeling and predictive capabilities of the biogeochemical state for the San Francisco Bay(Davis, PI: Impacts of Population Growth on the San Francisco Bay and Delta Ecosystem, 2014-2017).

  11. Raw starch digestion by. alpha. -amylase and glucoamylase from Chalara paradoxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monma, Mitsura; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kagei, Norio; Kainuma, Keiji

    1989-10-01

    Glucoamylase and {alpha}-amylase of Chalara paradoxa were separated by hydrophobic column chromatography using butyl-Toyopearl 650M. The {alpha}-amylase showed the highest activity at pH 5.5 and 45{sup 0}C, and was stable in the pH range of 5.5-6.5 and at temperatures lower than 40{sup 0}C. The glucoamylase showed the highest activity at pH 5.0 and 45{sup 0}C, and was stable in the pH range of 4.0-7.5 and at temperatures lower than 45{sup 0}C. The molecular mass of the {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase estimated by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 80,000 and 68,000, respectively. Both glucoamylase and {alpha}-amylase could digest more effectively raw rice starch and raw corn starch than raw sago starch and raw potato starch. 2% raw rice starch in 10 ml solution was digested by more than 90% by 100 units of each amylase. When these amylases were used combined, raw corn starch was more effectively digested than they were used singly. This cooperative action in raw corn starch digestion was also observed when C. paradoxa {alpha}-amylase and R. niveus glucoamylase were combined. (orig.).

  12. BIONOMY OF Anopheles punctulatus GROUP (Anopheles farauti, Anopheles koliensis, Anopheles punctulatus MALARIA VECTOR IN PAPUA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semuel Sandy

    2014-08-01

    Anopheles farauti, An. punctulatus and An. koliensis. These three species were nocturnal, antrophopilic with the diferrencebionomics such as breeding habitats, biting activity, and resting places. The aim of this study was to determine the bionomicaspects of the malaria vectors (resting places, biting activity and breading habitats in the study areas. The larvae of An.farauti was reported found at coastal, area with brackish water (salinity ± 4.6 %, natural or artificial irrigation canals.Adult female mosquitoes of An. farauti were found nocturnal, eksofagik eksofilik , and antrophopilic habit. An. koliensislarvae not found in brackish, they were found in the swamp and sago forest, semipermanent or permanent ponds whichshallow and exposed to direct sunlight . Adult mosquitoes of An. koliensis were nocturnal, antrophopilic (78% human bites,eksofagik, eksofilik. The larvae of An. punctulatus was not found in brackish water, it was found in a pool with clear or turbidwater which presence or no water vegetation, the larvae of An. punctulatus also found in sago and swamp forest withexposure to direct sunlight. Adult mosquites of An. punctulatus were nocturnal, antrophopilic (98% human bites, eksofagik,endofilik. Basic data on the behaviour of Anopheles spp (bionomic is necessary in developing effective and efficientintervention pattern and control vector.Key words: malaria vector, An. punctulatus group, bionomic, Papua

  13. Efektifitas Berkumur Rebusan Daun Sirih Dibandingkan Rebusan Daun Saga terhadap Perubahan Derajat Keasaman Air Ludah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Wilis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extract from betel leaf stew and saga leaves to gargle can change the pH of saliva. Changes are measured by a pH of 0-14 to saliva, alkaline, and neutrality. By 2013, nationwide primary school children who experience dental and mouth problems of 25,9%, the picture shows that dental and oral health status is still problematic. The objective of the study was to measure the effectiveness of gargling with the decoction of betel leaf and the decoction of saga leaves to the degree of acidity of saliva in the students. The research design is quasi-experiment, conducted on 26 elementary students of Banda Aceh as many as 60 students and divided into 3 groups. Collecting data by measuring saliva pH between gargling with betel leaf stew and sago leaf stew, both before and after treatments. Data analysis used T-Test statistic at CI:95%. The result of the research was descriptive of saliva pH average after rinsing with betel leaf (6,9, higher than saliva pH after gargling with saga leaf (7,3. This shows a significant difference between after goulash stewing betel leaves after gargling stew saga leaves (p<0,05. In conclusion, gargle stew of betel leaf is more effective compared to glyskin sago stew to the change of pH saliva acidity degree. Suggestion, use of leaf saga as a mouthwash is very good for the community through the addition of other concentrates so as to have a favorite aroma of the community. Keywords:             Saliva, acidity, pH, betel and saga leaf extract Sari dari rebusan daun sirih dan daun saga  untuk berkumur dapat mengalami perubahan pH air ludah. Perubahan diukur dengan pH skala 0 – 14 terhadap keasaman ludah, basa dan netral.  Tahun 2013, secara nasional anak-anak sekolah dasar yang mengalami permasalahan gigi dan mulut sebesar 25,9%, gambaran tersebut menunjukan bahwa status kesehatan gigi dan mulut masih bermasalah. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengukur efektifitas berkumur dengan rebusan daun sirih dan rebusan daun saga

  14. Tingkat pendapatan dan pola makan berhubungan dengan status gizi balita di Daerah Nelayan Distrik Jayapura Utara Kota Jayapura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonny Persulessy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Nutrition has an important role in human life cycle. Undernourishment in infants and underfives can cause growth and development disorder. Development of Papua community begins from village empowerment, such as nutrition improvement, health service, and people’s economy. There are544 fisherman families at District of Jayapura Utara. Main stipend of Papua community consists of rice, sago, hipere, taro and banana. Sago is consumed by the majority of people residing at coastal areas. Nutrition Status Monitoring of Jayapura Municipal Health Office in 2008 indicated that 3.4% of underfiveswere malnourished, 17.8% undernourished, 76% well nourished and 2.8% overnourished.Objectives: To identify correlation between level of income and diet pattern with nutritional status of underfive in fi sherman area of Jayapura District Jayapura Municipality.Methods: The study was observational with cross sectional design. The independent variables were level of income and eating pattern; the dependent variable was nutritional status. The study was undertaken in October-December 2010 at District of North Jayapura, Jayapura Municipality involving 162 underfives (of 12-59 moths, and mothers of underfives as respondents. Data were obtained through questionnaire of income, eating pattern using food frequency questionnaire, nutritional status measured from anthropometrybased on weight/age standard of WHO 2005. Data analysis used bivariate with chi square, multivariate with multiple logistic regression.Results: There was signifi cant correlation between income level with nutritional status with (p=0.000 and between diet pattern with nutritional status (p=0.000.Conclusions: Underfives having parents with sufficient income had better nutritional status than those having parent with insufficient income. Underfives with good diet pattern had better nutritional status than those with poor diet pattern.KEYWORDS: income, diet pattern, nutrition

  15. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  16. Moisture removal of paddy by agricultural residues: basic physical parameters and drying kinetics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniso, E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study basic physical parameters of three agricultural residues that could be used for prediction of paddy drying kinetics using desiccants, to investigate a suitable methodfor moisture reduction of fresh paddy using 3 absorbents, and to modify the drying model of Inoue et al. for determining the evolution of moisture transfer during the drying period. Rice husk, sago palm rachis andcoconut husk were used as moisture desiccants in these experiments. From the results, it was concluded that the apparent density of all adsorbents was a linear function of moisture content whilst an equilibriummoisture content equation following Hendersonís model gave the best fit to the experimental results. From studying the relationship between moisture ratio and drying time under the condition of drying temperaturesof 30, 50 and 70oC, air flow rate of 1.6 m/s and initial moisture content of absorbents of 15, 20 and 27% dry-basis, it was shown that the moisture ratio decreased when drying time increased. In addition, thethin-layer desiccant drying equation following of the Page model can appropriately explain the evolution of moisture content of paddy over the drying time. The diffusion coefficient of all absorbents, which was in therange of 1x10-8 to 6x10-8 m2/h, was relatively dependent on drying temperature and inversely related to drying time. The diffusivity of coconut husk had the highest value compared to the other absorbents.The simulating modified mathematical model to determine drying kinetics of paddy using absorption technique and the simulated results had good relation to the experimental results for all adsorbents.

  17. ISLAM AND ARAT SABULUNGAN IN MENTAWAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskota Delfi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The remoteness of the Mentawai Islands has contributed to an almost autonomous development, unaided by mainland Sumatra. As a result of a well endowed environment and supported by staple local foods such as sago, taro and bananas, as well as an abundance of wildlife including wild boars, a finely tuned self-sufficiency was realised. In this space the management and distribution of food, including animal protein, is an important aspect of the culture of Arat Sabulungan. As the result of the compulsory state sanctioned religions program introduced in 1954, some Mentawaians have converted to Islam or Catholicism as their formal religious identity. However, a remarkable adaptation occured in which the layers of Mentawai identity were not lost in the adaption to the Islamic faith. Islam with its teachings, and other formal religions, are considered as  the sasareu (outsiders. The prohibition of consuming boar as part of islamic rules is a sasareu rules that contradict to Mentawaian Arat .[Kepulauan Mentawai yang terisolasi telah berkembang secara mandiri tanpa bantuan dari pulau induknya, Sumatra. Lingkungan yang subur dan mendukung ketersediaan sumber makanan pokok lokal seperti sagu, talas, dan pisang serta berlimpahnya satwa liar, termasuk babi hutan, telah mendorong terciptanya swasembada pangan. Manajemen dan distribusi makanan merupakan aspek penting dalam jalinan budaya dan sistem kepercayaan local, Arat Sabulungan. Sebagai hasil dari kebijakan pemerintah untuk menerapkan agama resmi bagi orang Mentawai pada tahun 1954, orang Mentawai kemudian masuk Islam atau Katolik. Namun demikian, adaptasi yang luar biasa juga terjadi, sehingga lapisan-lapisan identitas Mentawai tidak hilang dalam adaptasinya dengan keyakinan Islam. Islam dengan ajaran-ajarannya, juga agama-agama dunia lainnya, dipandang sebagai ajaran asing. Larangan mengkonsumsi daging babi sebagai bagian dari ajaran Islam, misalnya, dipandang sebagai ajaran asing yang bertentangan

  18. Phytoremediation of explosives in groundwater using innovative wetlands-based treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, F.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Coonrod, H.S.; Phillips, W.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Environmental Research Center; Bader, D.F. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Many army ammunition plants across the country have problems with groundwater contaminated with explosives. A field demonstration was initiated at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant near Milan, Tennessee early in 1996 to demonstrate the feasibility of treating contaminated groundwater with constructed wetlands. Two different systems were designed and installed. A lagoon system consisted of two cells in series with each cell having dimensions of 24 x 9.4 x 0.6 m (L x W x H). A gravel-bed system consisted of three gravel-beds operated in series with a primary anaerobic cell having dimensions of 32 x 11 x 1.4 m (L x W x H), followed by a pair of secondary cells each with dimensions of 5.5 x 11 x 1.4 m (L x W x H). The primary cell is maintained anaerobic by adding powdered milk to the water every two weeks. The secondary cells are maintained aerobic via reciprocation, whereby water is pumped back and forth from one cell to another to cause a recurrent fill and drain action. The lagoons were planted with sago pond weed, water stargrass, elodea, and parrot feather. The gravel-bed wetlands were planted with canary grass, wool grass, sweet flag, and parrot feather. Water began flowing to each of the wetland treatment systems at 19 L min{sup {minus}1} starting in June 1996. The design hydraulic retention time through each treatment system was approximately 10 days. Influent and effluent water samples were collected every 2 weeks. Intensive sampling of water interior to the wetlands occurred every 2 months.

  19. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  20. RNAi effector diversity in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan J Dalzell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While RNA interference (RNAi has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (dsRNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii The Argonautes (AGOs responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research

  1. USAHA DOMESTIFIKASI TUMBUHAN POKEM (Setaria italica L. MASYARAKAT LOKAL PULAU NUMFOR, KABUPATEN BIAK NUMFOR SEBAGAI UPAYA MENUNJANG KETAHANAN PANGAN NASIONAL (The Effort of Domestication of Pokem {Setaria italica (L. Beauv} by Local Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharno Suharno

    2015-03-01

    Numfor Island. Culture systems that they do are still relatively simple (conventional. Community has used of land around the village because it is easily affordable. Agricultural system is still done with the pattern of shifting cultivation. Condition of natural resources in the area of the island is very limited. The soils is calcareous and unavailability of sago palm as a major food source among Papuans enable the community to find  the alternative sources to provide local food, including pokem. The nutritional value of the seeds of this plant is quite high, so it would be possible to develope as one candidate to strengthen national food security.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dissolved organic matter from eight dominant aquatic macrophytes in Lake Dianchi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoxia; Xie, Li; Lin, Ying; Bai, Yingchen; Zhu, Yuanrong; Xie, Fazhi; Giesy, John P; Wu, Fengchang

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this research was to determine and compare the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dissolved organic matters (DOM) from eight aquatic macrophytes in a eutrophic lake. C, H, N, and P in ground dry leaves and C, N, and P in DOM of the species were determined, and C/N, C/P, C/H, DOC/C, TDN/N, TDP/P, DOC/TDN, and DOC/TDP were calculated. Chemical structures of the DOM were characterized by the use of multiple techniques including UV-visible, FT-IR, and (13)C CP/MAS spectra. The results showed subtle differences in quantity and quality of DOM among species and life-forms. Except oriental pepper which had a C/H of 0.7, C/H of all the other species was 0.6. C/N and C/P of ground leaves was 10.5-17.3 and 79.4-225.3, respectively, which were greater in floating and submerged species than in the others. Parrot feather also had a small C/P (102.8). DOC/C, TDN/N, and TDP/P were 7.6-16.8, 5.5-22.6, and 22.9-45.6 %, respectively. Except C/N in emergent and riparian species, C/N in the other species and C/P in all the species were lower in their DOM than in the ground leaves. DOM of the macrophytes had a SUVA254 value of 0.83-1.80. The FT-IR and (13)C NMR spectra indicated that the DOM mainly contained polysaccharides and/or amino acids/proteins. Percent of carbohydrates in the DOM was 37.3-66.5 % and was highest in parrot feather (66.5 %) and crofton weed (61.5 %). DOM of water hyacinth, water lettuce, and sago pondweed may have the greatest content of proteins. Aromaticity of the DOM was from 6.9 % in water lettuce to 17.8 % in oriental pepper. DOM of the macrophytes was also different in polarity and percent of Ar-OH. Distinguished characteristics in quantity and quality of the macrophyte-derived DOM may induce unique environmental consequences in the lake systems.

  3. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    conditions in the trenches with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), which would be able to remove the rest of the accompanying pollutants, is proposed and merits evaluation. Preliminary batch experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of different chemical oxidation reactions (permanganate, persulphate, hydrogen peroxide and Fenton) on the complex contaminated recharge water which were, in general, more effective for degrading the chlorinated ethenes than for the chlorinated methanes (Torrentó et al. EGU 2012). Therefore, this study seeks to improve the understanding of CF and CT degradation mechanisms/processes that are going on in the interception trenches as well as to select between the two most effective chemical oxidation remediation treatments (persulphate and permanganate) taking into account their efficiency respect the chlorinated methanes removal, the generated acute toxicity and the applicability of the carbon isotopic fractionation as an indicator of the effectiveness of the future in situ remediation. Additionally, ongoing batch experiments are expected to elucidate if CT is undergoing abiotic reductive dechlorination by Fe-bearing minerals such as hydrophobic green rust (Ayala-Luis et al., 2012) which transform CT into non-chlorinated substances such as formic acid and carbon monoxide. This unstable iron compound might be formed in the interception trenches during chloride induced corrosion of iron mineral phases present in the concrete-based construction wastes (Sagoe-Crentsil and Glasser, 1993). The role of other minerals like iron oxy-hydroxides, carbonates or sulphides cannot be discarded at all. The potential of δ13C values to assess the efficiency of this abiotic CT degradation reaction will be also evaluated. References Ayala-Luis, K.; Cooper, N.; Bender C. and Hansen. H. (2012) Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercaled with dodecanoate anions. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 3390

  4. Karakteristik Cookies Berbahan Dasar Tepung Sukun (Artocarpus communis Bagi Anak Penderita Autis

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    Dede Sukandar

    2017-03-01

    Abstract Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis has been reported as a functional food ingredient for autistic children. This study aims to determine the level of A panelist on cookies breadfruit and various formulations compared to other flour-based cookies which include the effect of additives on the properties of chemistry, physics, power accept cookies breadfruit, calcium and phosphorus levels cookies breadfruit, breadfruit cookies and find out the most preferred if it meets quality standards according to SNI 01-2973-1992 cookies or not. Organoleptic test was conducted to determine the level of preference and acceptance panelist on cookies breadfruit compared with other flour-based cookies     (wheat, rice, sago and breadfruit cookies in a variety of formulation. The parameters used include, colour, frageance, texture, flavor and overall acceptance. Calcium level test performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy method at λ 422.7 nm and phosphorus levels using UV-Vis spectroscopy at λ 880 nm. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance anova and Duncan analysis. The test results showed Cookies breadfruit organoleptif have low enrollment compared to other flour cookies views of the average revenue flavor and general acceptance of cookies breadfruit, breadfruit cookies formulations can improve the physical properties (fragrance, flavor, color, and texture and acceptance of cookies breadfruit by panelists. An increase in the average value of A formulation compared breadfruit cookies before formulation. Cookies are breadfruit tersukai 718 formulations with soy milk additives. Quality breadfruit cookies tersukai 718 formulations in general accordance with SNI 01-2973-1992 except protein content and contained 8.05% Cu content with a small concentration (1.56 ppm. Cookies breadfruit tersukai have the highest levels of calcium and phosphorus compared with breadfruit flour and commercial cookies for autistic children so that the most preferred breadfruit cookies very

  5. Oral zinc sulphate vs. topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination in the treatment of plantar warts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, S.

    2014-01-01

    Warts are commonly acquired viral tumors, caused by Human apilloma Virus (HPV). This virus can infect and cause disease at any site in the stratified squamous epithelium either keratinizing or non-keratinizing. A plantar wart (also called verruca plantaris) is a lesion that appears on the plantar surface of foot as a small, shining, sago-grain papule which soon assumes the typical appearance of a sharply-defined rounded lesion with a rough keratotic surface, surrounded by a smooth collar of thickened horn. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of oral zinc sulphate versus topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination, in the treatment of plantar warts. Study Design: Comparative interventional study. Setting and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology Unit-I, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital Lahore, from 15 February, 2009 till 14 February, 2010. Methodology: After informed consent, one hundred patients of plantar warts were selected from the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore. The patients were divided into two equal groups; in group A, 50 patients were given oral zinc sulphate (10 mg/kg/day) in two or three divided doses and in group B, 50 patients were advised to apply a combination of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) once at night daily. In group A, using oral zinc sulphate, the treatment was given for two months and follow up continued for next 4 months. In group B, the topical preparation was also continued for 2 months or till the complete removal of wart (if before two months) and follow up was extended up to 4 months after treatment. Results:The mean age of patients in group A was 26.2 +- 8.1 years and in group B 26.3 +- 7.3 years. The mean number of warts in group A was 7.9 +- 3.5 and in group B 5.7 +- 2.6. The mean duration of disease in group A was 6.9 +- 4.1 months and in group B 6.0 +- 3.9 months. On follow up at 2nd month, in group A, 41 (82%) patients showed an

  6. Effects of flood control alternatives on fish and wildlife resources of the Malheur-Harney lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.

    1985-01-01

    be refined further and will aid the FWS in preparing its Coordination Act Report on any flood control alternative proposed by the COE. The model building and testing process also helped identify model limitations and more general information needs that should be evaluated for further study prior to preparation of an FWS Coordination Act Report. Major needs associated with the Hydrology submodel include a more detailed representation of hydrologic units (separately consider Harney Lake, Mud Lake, and Malheur Lake or the three hydrological units within Malheur Lake, rather than a combined lake system) and explicitly representation of groundwater storage and discharge in water budget calculations. A better representation of the hydrological units will require more detailed topographic data for the basin, capacity-elevation and elevation-surface area curves for each unit, and better water flow data between the units. Additional water quality parameters and constraints on proposed canal operation due to conditions in the Malheur River might also be added. Key Vegetation submodel needs include fine-tuning existing vegetation relationships in the model and adding relationships to address the influence of historical conditions on vegetation development, effects of very rapid changes in lake level, effects of wildlife populations (e.g., carp, muskrat), responses of vegetation to habitat management actions (e.g, haying, grazing, burning), and better representation of sago pondweed dynamics. A complementary geographic information system might also be developed for spatial analyses. Major needs that should be evaluated for the Wildlife submodel include addition of other wildlife species that have important effects on habitat on the Refuge (e.g., carp, muskrat) and consideration of additional life-cycle requisites and controlling variable for species presently in the model. Some of these limitations could perhaps be overcome if historical data on habitat conditions were developed

  7. PERUBAHAN BENTUK RUMAH TRADISIONAL BANUA SULU’ DI MASAMBA KABUPATEN LUWU’ UTARA PROPINSI SULAWESI SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithen .

    2017-06-01

    documentation search for past documents and do track changes of Banua Sulu' shape. Variables of research consist of zone layout, spatial layout, facade, structure/material of structures, and ornaments. The data analysis technique used was descriptive qualitative analysis, which analyzed every variable descriptive and interpret the meaning of any changes that occurred, four-flow of activities, namely the selection of data, presentation of data, analysis, and conclusion. The results showed that there has been a significant change in shape, especially in terms of the use of structural materials. It is used when they did renovation and the most changing physical form elements was the roof (Botting langi mainly coppo' or overwrite timpa’ laja', which was originally duplex, has turned into a three-tiered, roof material was also changed from the roof of sago palm leaves into tin roof. In the main shape of the house (Ale bola, main floor and walls were almost entirely replaced, resulting in a loss of identity in the form of wall ornaments, the number of poles also increased from 36 to 43 pieces, and the additional rooms caused by the need for space to accommodate the occupants, who has transformed into a modern society. Keywords: transformation, forms, traditional house, Banua Sulu’   REFERENCES Albert, Grubauer. 1911. Foto-foto dokumentasi Keluarga. Altman, Irwin and Werner, Coral M. (1985. Volume 8. Home Environments Human Behavior and Environments. New York and London: Plenum Press. Depdikbud.  (2007. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia Edisi Ketiga. Jakarta: PN Balai Pustaka Le Corbusier.1923. Toward A New Architecture (Vers Une Architecture, Paris: G. Crès et Cie, Frederick Etchells (trans., New York: Praeger, 1960; John Goodman (trans. Santa Monica, CA: Getty Publications, 2007. Lullulangi, Mithen dan Sampebua’, Onesimus. (2007. Arsitektur Tradisional Toraja. Makassar : Badan Penerbit UNM. Machmud. (2006. Architecture Articles. Antariksa. diposting 8 Januari 2011. (http

  8. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHM Zahirul Alam

    2018-06-01

    SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING SAGO (METROXYLON SAGU VIA AUTOCLAVING METHOD......178 Aliyah Jamaludin, Che Ku Mohammad Faizal EFFECT OF ALKALINE TREATMENT ON PROPERTIES OF RATTAN WASTE AND FABRICATED BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD....185 Zuraida Ahmad, Maisarah Tajuddin, Nurul Farhana Fatin Salim, Zahurin Halim AMORPHOUS STRUCTURE IN CU-ZN-V-AL OXIDE COMPOSITE CATALYST FOR METHANOL REFORMING..... 197 Mohd Sabri Mahmud, Zahira Yaakob, Abu Bakar Mohamad, Wan Ramli Wan Daud, Vo Nguyen Dai Viet PERFORMANCE OF ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM WITH NICKEL ADDED DIELECTRIC FLUID....215 Ahsan Ali Khan, Muataz Hazza Faizi Al Hazza, A K M Mohiuddin, Nurfatihah Abdul Fattah,  Mohd Radzi Che Daud ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF DURIAN SKIN NANOFIBRE BIOCOMPOSITE.......................................... 233 Siti Nur E’zzati Mohd Apandi, Hazleen Anuar, Siti Munirah Salimah Abdul Rashid MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING A REVIEW ON RHEOLOGY OF NON-NEWTONIAN PROPERTIES OF BLOOD....................................................... 237 Esmaeel Fatahian, Naser Kordani, Hossein Fatahian NUMERICAL STUDY OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUEL OIL-ALUMINA AND WATER-.......................... 250 Hossein Fatahian, Hesamoddin Salarian, Majid Eshagh Nimvari, Esmaeel Fatahian A PARAMETRIC STUDY ON CONTROL OF FLOW SEPARATION OVER AN AIRFOIL IN INCOMPRESSIBLE REGIME....270 Lakshmanan Prabhu, Jonnalagadda Srinivas OPTIMIZATION OF BOX TYPE GIRDER WITH AND WITHOUT INDUSTRIAL CONSTRAINTS................................ 289 Muhammad Abid, Shahbaz Mahmood Khan, Hafiz Abdul Wajid