Sample records for sago

  1. Mechanical Properties of Sago/Urea Formaldehyde Particleboard Affected by the Weight Fraction of Sago

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    Chiang Tay Chen


    Full Text Available Sago processing industry in Sarawak-Mukah annually had generated huge amount of Sago waste. In order to reduce the waste from becoming a serious environment problem, researchers employ the sago waste combine with urea formaldehyde to create a good particleboard. This study examined the effect of weight fraction of Sago on the mechanical properties of Sago particleboard. Sago particles and urea formaldehyde (UF were used as raw material in the fabrication process. The fabrication and testing method are based on JIS A 5908 standard. The samples were prepared based on different weight fraction of Sago and went through the tensile and impact test which had great influence on the particleboard performance and show that sago particles can be an alternative raw material in the manufacture of particleboards.

  2. Bioconversion of sago residue into value added products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 5, 2010 ... product from the sago starch processing industry. Due to its organic nature and low ... from the sago processing industries, but will also provide an economic solution for waste management system at sago processing mills. .... in clusters, which take about 24 months to mature. Sago produces both pollinated ...


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    Clemente Granados C


    Full Text Available Maranta arundinacea sago whose rhizome is used in parts of Colombian for the production of products intended for human consumption. Starch was extracted and determined the functional properties of starches presented high water capacity % CRA (162,8% for sago, compared to 226% of cassava, a high rate of absorption of lipids % I.A.L (51% for sago, compared to 82,25% of cassava starch. Gelatinization temperature is relatively low (65-75ºC at 10 minutes compared to sago starch cassava with 70-75ºC in 20 minutes, has a high percentage of amylopectin (77% for sago starch, compared with 83,3% for cassava starch is a gel so that no retrograde and from a stable paste. As it is concluded that can be used as an alternative promising in the food industry.

  4. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  5. Glycaemic & insulinaemic responses in men at rest following sago meal. (United States)

    Ahmad, Hishamuddin; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Ghosh, Asok Kumar


    Sago (Metroxylin sagu) is one of the main sources of native starch. In Malaysia sago dishes are commonly eaten with sugar. However, other societies use sago as a staple food item instead of rice or potato. The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ingestion of different physical forms of sago supplementation on plasma glucose and plasma insulin responses, as compared to the white bread supplementation in man, during resting condition. Twelve male subjects were given in random order with three different physical forms of a sago supplementation, viz., sago porridge (SR), sago paste (SP), sago gel (SG) and white bread (WB) which was repeated on separate days, at least, 1 wk apart after an overnight fast. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of each meal and were analyzed for plasma levels of glucose and insulin. Plasma glucose reached peak at 45 min after supplementation of various sago meals. Plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) for WB was significantly lower than SG but not significantly different from SR and SP. No significant difference was observed in plasma glucose AUC among the three sago meals. Plasma insulin AUC for SG was significantly higher than WB and SR. All three sago meals tested were not significantly different in their glycaemic responses. However, the insulin response was significantly lower for SR compared to SP and SG. The present findings suggest that any one of the three sago meals tested in this study may be used to elucidate the effect of sago starch ingestion on exercise performance in the heat. Sago paste and sago porridge may be used for supplementation before and during exercise, whereas, sago gel may be used after endurance exercise during recovery process.

  6. 76 FR 47262 - Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... the Brookwood- Sago grants. Part II describes the size and nature of the anticipated awards. Part III... Opportunity Description A. Overview of the Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grant Program Responding to several coal...

  7. 75 FR 41531 - Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... Brookwood- Sago grants. Part II describes the size and nature of the anticipated awards. Part III describes... Opportunity Description A. Overview of the Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grant Program Responding to several coal...

  8. 78 FR 45973 - Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... information on the Brookwood- Sago grants. Part II describes the size and nature of the anticipated awards... collection requirements. I. Funding Opportunity Description A. Overview of the Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety...

  9. 77 FR 44685 - Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grants AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... provides background information on the Brookwood- Sago grants. Part II describes the size and nature of the... Brookwood-Sago Mine Safety Grant Program Responding to several coal mine disasters, Congress enacted the...

  10. An AHP Approach to Prioritize Traditional Sago Processed Foods in South Sulawesi, Indonesia


    Dirpan, Andi


    To?? attempts to revive sago processed food in South Sulawesi should be connected in supporting food diversification based on local resource. This research is intended to select the best traditional sago processed food in South Sulawesi among (1)Kapurung, (2) roasted sago (Dange) (3) sago noodle, (4) various of snacks (Bagea and Ongol-ongol), (5) sago pearls, (6) and dried sago starch, by using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP).Marketability, business feasibility, technical support, valu...

  11. Sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.): A literature review (United States)

    Kantrud, Harold A.


    Sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.) is a submersed macrophyte of nearly cosmopolitan distribution. The plant is of worldwide importance as a waterfowl food but also can be a nuisance in irrigation canals and recreational areas. The plant reproduces by many different means, depending on habitat and environmental stress. Several genetic ecotypes have evolved. Most important as waterfowl food are the turions (tubers), vegetative propagules rich in carbohydrates that are mostly buried in bottom sediments. In temperate wetlands, most turions sprout in spring, making sago behave as an annual. Drupelets (seeds) are the sexual propagules of sago and provide a mechanism for sago to survive periods of drought and excessive water salinity. Drupelets can be washed ashore or carried by birds for long distances. Sago decomposes rapidly at senescence, annually in temperate wetlands.Sago is mostly found in semipermanently or permanently flooded mixosaline lacustrine, palustrine, and riverine wetlands Sago seems to prefer stable water levels but can tolerate significant water level fluctuations. Among the Potamogetons, only sago tolerates high salinity, pH, and alkalinity, but it fares poorly among specialist taxa in acidic or nutrient-poor waters. Sago is highly tolerant of eutrophic waters, and it can be the only species of submersed macrophyte present in heavily polluted sites. Sago grows in nearly all bottom substrates. Turbidity is the factor that most frequently limits sago growth.Sago often occurs in monotypic stands but can grow with many other submersed and emergent macrophytes. Dominance by sago in certain wetlands sometimes alternates with dominance by other submersed macrophytes when salinities or other environmental factors change. Sago also can be associated with a large variety of unattached filamentous, planktonic, or epiphytic algae. Increased turbidity caused by planktonic algae often is responsible for lowered sago production. Less common biotic limiting

  12. Bioconversion of sago residue into value added products | Awg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioconversion of the agro-residue offers the possibility of creating marketable value-added products. In this regard, sago residue which contains solid and liquid materials produced abundantly as a byproduct from the sago starch processing industry. Due to its organic nature and low ash content, attempts have been made ...

  13. Development of sago starch hydrogel for wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman HJ. Mohd Dahlan; Kamarudin Bahari [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Sago starch is utilized in Malaysia mainly for food production. The purpose of the research is to diversify the use of sago starch for medical application particularly in development of hydrogel burn wound dressing. The sago starch is blending with mixture of PVP and PVA to improve the degree of crosslink, mechanical properties, swelling ability and tackiness of the blend hydrogel (sago/PVA and sago PVP). Additives have been introduced into the system such as, polypropylene glycol or carboxymethyl cellulose to improved further the swelling ability and tackiness properties of the blend hydrogel as well as other properties. Effect of irradiation dose on the blend hydrogel has also been studied to optimize the effective dose for blend hydrogel and simultaneously for sterilization purpose. (author)

  14. Optimizing Extraction of Cellulose and Synthesizing Pharmaceutical Grade Carboxymethyl Sago Cellulose from Malaysian Sago Pulp

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    Anand Kumar Veeramachineni


    Full Text Available Sago biomass is an agro-industrial waste produced in large quantities, mainly in the Asia-Pacific region and in particular South-East Asia. This work focuses on using sago biomass to obtain cellulose as the raw material, through chemical processing using acid hydrolysis, alkaline extraction, chlorination and bleaching, finally converting the material to pharmaceutical grade carboxymethyl sago cellulose (CMSC by carboxymethylation. The cellulose was evaluated using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Field Emission Scanning Electronic Microscopy (FESEM. The extracted cellulose was analyzed for cellulose composition, and subsequently modified to CMSC with a degree of substitution (DS 0.6 by typical carboxymethylation reactions. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the crystallinity of the sago cellulose was reduced after carboxymethylation. FTIR and NMR studies indicate that the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers were etherified through carboxymethylation to produce CMSC. Further characterization of the cellulose and CMSC were performed using FESEM and DSC. The purity of CMSC was analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International standards. In this case, acid and alkaline treatments coupled with high-pressure defibrillation were found to be effective in depolymerization and defibrillation of the cellulose fibers. The synthesized CMSC also shows no toxicity in the cell line studies and could be exploited as a pharmaceutical excipient.

  15. Characterization of Arenga starch in comparison with sago starch. (United States)

    Adawiyah, Dede R; Sasaki, Tomoko; Kohyama, Kaoru


    The aim of this research was to characterize the composition and physical properties of palm starch obtained from Arenga pinnata in comparison with another palm starch from Metroxylon sago. The amylose contents of both starches were not significantly different. Peak gelatinization temperature was also similar at approximately 67 °C, but arenga starch showed a narrower range of gelatinization temperature than sago. The crystallinity and swelling power capacity of arenga starch were lower than those of sago. Arenga and sago starch paste at low concentrations showed shear thinning behavior, and sago formed a more viscous sol/paste than arenga. The sol-gel transition concentration of sago starch paste was found at a lower concentration than arenga starch. At high concentrations, gel from arenga starch was more rigid than that of sago. The breaking properties and texture profile of both starch gels were also clearly different, suggesting that they are suited for different applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Properties of Sago Particleboards Resinated with UF and PF Resin

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    Chen Chiang Tay


    Full Text Available The sago processing industry in Mukah, Sarawak, had generated huge amount of sago waste after the milling process and scientists have employed the waste into composite material. In this work, sago residues were mixed with the Phenol Formaldehyde (PF and Urea Formaldehyde (UF for particleboard fabrication. The fabrication and testing methods are based on JIS A 5908 Standard. A single layer particleboard using sago particles was fabricated at targeted density of 600 kg/m3. Particles with weight fractions of 90%, 85%, and 80% with two different matrices were used in the fabrication. The results demonstrated that the samples with different weight fraction and matrix have great influence on the mechanical properties such as MOR, MOE, Young’s Modulus, tensile strength, impact strength, screw test, and internal bonding. The sago UF/PF particleboard only displays single stage decomposition. All the panels underwent physical tests which are water absorption and thickness swelling. The combination of sago particles with UF/PF can be utilized for general indoor application purposes such as furniture manufacturing. Sago particleboard made by UF/PF provided the advantages like optimized performance, minimized weight and volume, cost effectiveness, chemical resistance, and resistance to biodegradation.

  17. Fungal colonization of sago starch in Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Greenhill, A R; Shipton, W A; Blaney, B J; Warner, J M


    Sago starch is an important source of dietary carbohydrates in lowland Papua New Guinea. Over the past 30 years there have been sporadic reports of severe illness following consumption of sago starch. A common assumption is that fungal metabolites might be associated with the illness, leading to the need for a more thorough investigation of the mycoflora of sago starch. Sago starch was collected from areas of high sago consumption in Papua New Guinea for fungal analysis (69 samples). Storage methods and duration were recorded at the time of collection and pH on arrival at the laboratory. Yeasts were isolated from all samples except two, ranging from 1.2 x 10(3) to 8.3 x 10(7) cfu/g. Moulds were isolated from 65 of the 69 samples, ranging from 1.0 x 10(2) to 3.0 x 10(6) cfu/g. Of 44 samples tested for ergosterol content, 42 samples showed the presence of fungal biomass. Statistical analyses indicated that sago starch stored for greater than five weeks yielded significantly higher ergosterol content and higher numbers of moulds than sago stored for less than five weeks. The method of storage was also shown to influence mould numbers with storage in natural woven fibre containers returning significantly greater numbers than present in other storage methods tested. Potentially mycotoxigenic genera of moulds including Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from sago starch, and as such storage factors that influence the growth of these and other filamentous fungi might contribute to the safety of traditional sago starch in PNG.

  18. Nitrogen fixation associated with sago (Metroxylon sagu) and some implications. (United States)

    Shipton, W A; Baker, A; Blaney, B J; Horwood, P F; Warner, J M; Pelowa, D; Greenhill, A R


    To determine the presence and contribution of diazotrophic bacteria to nitrogen concentrations in edible starch derived from the sago palm (Metroxylon sagu). Isolation of diazotrophic bacteria and analysis of nitrogen fixation were conducted on pith, root and sago starch samples. Acetylene reduction showed that five of ten starch samples were fixing nitrogen. Two presumptive nitrogen-fixing bacteria from starch fixed nitrogen in pure culture and five isolates were positive for the nif H gene. Nitrogen concentrations in 51 starch samples were low (37 samples sago starch, which undoubtedly plays a role in fermentation ecology. Nitrogen levels are considered too low to be of nutritional benefit and to protect against nutritional-associated illnesses. Sago starch does not add significantly to the protein calorie intake and may be associated with susceptibility to nutritional-associated illness. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Haemolytic fungi isolated from sago starch in Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Greenhill, Andrew R; Blaney, Barry J; Shipton, Warren A; Pue, Aisak; Fletcher, Mary T; Warner, Jeffrey M


    Sago haemolytic disease (SHD) is a rare but often fatal illness linked to consumption of stale sago starch in Papua New Guinea. Although the aetiology of SHD remains unknown, mycotoxins are suspected. This study investigated whether fungi isolated from Papua New Guinean sago starch were haemolytic. Filamentous fungi and yeasts from sago starch were grown on sheep blood agar and some on human blood agar. Clear haemolytic activity was demonstrated by 55% of filamentous fungal isolates, but not by yeasts. A semi-quantitative bioassay was developed involving incubation of human erythrocytes with fungal extracts. Extracts of cultures of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium all caused rapid haemolysis in the bioassay. Partial fractionation of extracts suggested that both polar and non-polar haemolytic components had haemolytic activity in vitro. Further work is warranted to identify these metabolites and determine if they play a role in SHD.

  20. Bacterial contamination of sago starch in Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Greenhill, A R; Shipton, W A; Omoloso, A D; Amoa, B; Warner, J M


    Sago starch is an important food in lowland Papua New Guinea. Extraction of the starch from the palm and storage were performed by way of traditional methods that have been used for thousands of years. Currently, very little is known about the microbiology of sago starch. Sago samples were collected from areas of high starch utilization and analyzed for the presence of bacterial pathogens and indicator organisms. Storage methods and duration were recorded at the time of collection, and pH and water activity on arrival at the laboratory. Sago starch was found to harbor high levels of fecal contamination, as well as various food pathogens including Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and coagulase-positive staphylococci. Clostridium perfringens was only present infrequently in samples and in very low numbers, while Listeria monocytogenes was not isolated from sago starch. The presence of high levels of fecal contamination in sago starch is of particular concern, and may contribute to diarrheal disease in rural Papua New Guinea.

  1. Effect of temperature to the properties of sago starch (United States)

    Mustafa Kamal, M.; Baini, R.; Mohamaddan, S.; Selaman, O. S.; Zauzi, N. Ahmad; Rahman, M. R.; Rahman, N. Abdul; Chong, K. H.; Atan, M. F.; Samat, N. A. S. Abdul; Taib, S. N. L.; Othman, A. K.


    Recently, the importance of sago starch has increased, as it has become one of the main economically important agricultural crops to the most Southeast Asia countries. In the present work, an analysis on drying process of sago starch (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) underwent various temperature has been made by using four empirical equations. The main goal of this analysis is to suggest the most accurate equation, in order to model and simulate the mechanical drying of sago starch. The experimental investigations were carried out in a gravity convection lab oven; and ±50g of sago starch (sample heights of 1 cm) was dried through four different temperatures, which were 50, 60, 70 and 80ºC. The effect of drying temperature on the drying kinetics, as well as various qualities attributes of sago starch, such as microstructure, colour and functional properties were investigated. The results suggested that drying temperature has significant effect on sago starch drying kinetic; therefore, drying temperature would be the basis to select drying condition. Meanwhile, it was found that the various drying temperature ranging from 50 to 80ºC affected the product quality especially in term of colour.

  2. Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes. (United States)

    Subramanian, Selvi; Sivarajan, M; Saravanapriya, S


    A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste. The substrate moisture content and temperature were monitored regularly. The vermicomposts were sampled at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days for the assessment of temporal changes in physico-chemical properties. The data revealed vermicomposting of sago wastes, cow dung and poultry manure mixed at equal proportion (1:1:1) produced a superior quality manure with desirable C:N ratio and higher nutritional status than composting. E. foetida is an earthworm suitable for composting organic wastes such as poultry manure with extreme pH and high temperature and sago waste with high organic carbon in a shorter period of time. This study suggests that the sago industry solid waste could be effectively converted into highly valuable manure that can be exploited to promote crop production. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous fermentation of traditional sago starch in Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Greenhill, A R; Shipton, W A; Blaney, B J; Brock, I J; Kupz, A; Warner, J M


    Sago starch is an important dietary carbohydrate in lowland Papua New Guinea (PNG). An investigation was conducted to determine whether microbes play a role in its preservation using traditional methods. In 12 stored sago samples collected from PNG villages, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were present (> or = 3.6 x 10(4)cfu/g) and pH ranged from 6.8 to 4.2. Acetic and propionic acids were detected in all samples, while butyric, lactic and valeric acids were present in six or more. In freshly prepared sago, held in sealed containers in the laboratory at 30 degrees C, spontaneous fermentation by endogenous microflora of sago starch was observed. This was evident by increasing concentrations of acetic, butyric and lactic acids over 4 weeks, and pH reducing from 4.9 to 3.1: both LAB and yeasts were involved. Survival of potential bacterial pathogens was monitored by seeding sago starch with approximately 10(4)/g of selected organisms. Numbers of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus fell to 10(2)/g). Fermentation appeared to increase the storability and safety of the product.

  4. Biomanagement of sago-sludge using an earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. (United States)

    Banu, J Rajesh; Yeom, Ick Tae; Esakkiraj, S; Kumar, Naresh; Logakanthi, S


    Sago, the tapioca starch is manufactured by over 800 small-scale units located in the Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. During the processing of sago it generates huge quantities of biodegradable solid waste, as crushed tubers. In present study an attempt was made to convert these biodegradable solid sago tubers into value added compost using an exotic earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The experiments were carried out in a plastic tray at various concentrations of sago-sludge (50% 75% and 100%) for a period of 90 days. During the vermicomposting, data were collected on life form (cocoon, non clitellates, clitellates) of earthworm and it was found to be high in 50% followed by 75% and 100% concentrations. Chemical analysis of worked substrates showed a step wise increase of nitrogen and phosphorus. The fold increase of phosphorus and nitrogen were found to be high for sago-sludge undergoing vermicomposting than the control. During the composting period the organic carbon decreased from its initial value of 58, 76 and 107 mg/kg to 21, 24 and 65 mg/kg for 50, 70 and 100%, respectively The microbial analysis showed that after 75 days of composting, their population stabilized and further increase in composting period did not increase their population size. The results indicate that 50% and 75% concentration of sludge mixed with bedding material was ideal for the vermicomposting.


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    Isam Yassin Qudsieh


    Full Text Available The graft copolymerization of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA onto sago starch (sago starch-g-PMMA was carried out using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN as an initiator. PMMA was grafted onto sago starch using CAN as an initiator under nitrogen gas atmosphere. The maximum percentage of grafting (%G was determined to be 246% at the optimum conditions. The copolymers produced were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR, The FTIR spectra of the copolymers clearly indicated the presence of characteristic peaks of PMMA and sago starch, which suggested that PMMA had been successfully grafted on the sago starch. Biodegradability studies of sago starch-g-PMMA and sago starch were carried out by ?-amylase enzyme. Maximum biodegradation of the biopolymer was achieved after 3 days of incubation, while for the product was 7 days. The maximum production of glucose was achieved when the concentration of -amylase was 50 ppm.

  6. Lactic acid production by Enteroccocus faecium in liquefied sago starch. (United States)

    Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Zarrabal, Octavio Carvajal; Kamaldin, Rubena Malfia; Teck-Yee, Ling; Lihan, Samuel; Bujang, Kopli Bin; Nitta, Youji


    Enterococcus faecium No. 78 (PNCM-BIOTECH 10375) isolated from puto, a type of fermented rice in the Philippines was used to produce lactic acid in repeated batch fermentation mode. Enzymatically liquefied sago starch was used as the sole carbon source, since sago (Metroxylon spp) is a sustainable crop for industrial exploitation. Liquefied sago starch was inoculated with E. faecium to perform the saccharification and fermentation processes simultaneously. Results demonstrated that E. faecium was reused for 11 fermentation cycles with an average lactic acid yield of 36.3 ± 4.71 g/l. The lactic acid production was superior to that of simple batch mode and continuous fermentation in terms of lactic acid concentration. An un-dissociated lactic acid concentration of 1.15 mM affected the productivity of the cells. Work is in progress to maintain and increase the usability of the cells over higher fermentation cycles.


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    E .Y. Purwani


    Full Text Available Sago starch has potential as source of flour for noodle. However, noodle made of sago starch has only been limitedly utilized due to the absence of gluten and lack of desired functional properties. Heat moisture treatment (HMT is a promising technique for improving quality of sago noodle. The objectives of the present work were to study the effect of HMT of sago starch on its noodle quality. Four different origins of sago starch, i.e. Tuni, Ihur, Molat, and Pancasan, were treated with HMT method. HMT was performed by exposing the starch to high temperature (110oC for 16 hours at moisture content of 25%. Sago starch was then processed into noodle. It was prepared by mixing the sago starch with binder (completely gelatinized starch and additive into dough. The dough was pressed manually through a container with holes in the base. Noodles strains were steamed for 2 minutes and dried at 50oC in a convection drier. As the control, non-HMT sago starch was used and evaluated. Parameters evaluated were starch properties, physical strength, and cooking and sensory quality of the noodles. Analyses of variance was subjected to all parameters. Research results showed that the starch exposed to HMT changed its pasting profile from initial type A before treated to type B after treated. The noodle quality was also improved. Noodles resulted from starch treated with HMT showed higher firmness and elasticity, but they have lower stickiness compared to those of non-HMT. Less cooking loss and rehydration weight were also found, however, HMT increased cooking time of the noodles. HMT on Pancasan sago starch resulted in noodles which were preferred most by panelists. However, consumer testing is recommended to further validate consumers' preferences to the sago starch noodles. The study indicated that sago starch could be potentially used as raw material for noodles to increase the consumption of sago-based food.

  8. Development and Experimental Studies of a Small-scaled Solar-powered Sago Plant Dehydrator


    A. Pendita; Lim, P.Y.; H. V. H. Junis


    Sago is an important agricultural commodity of the largest state in Malaysia, Sarawak. This paper presents a small-scaled solar-powered sago dehydrator with temperature sensing and monitoring unit. The main focus is to provide a feasible solution for sago farmers or producers who live in isolated remote areas. The dehydrator system is controlled by a microcontroller PIC16F877A. The electrical circuit of the dehydrator allows the user to programmed desired time setting and the controller will ...

  9. Characterization of mannanase-producing bacteria from sago hump

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    Sri Wahyuni


    Full Text Available Sago is a hardwood that can be used as source of fiber hemicellulose mannan. The abundance of mannanase waste is potential for the production of functional foods such as Manno oligosaccharides. Sago hump which is sago processing waste is very potential for growth of microorganisms because it contains lignin, cellulose, starch, minerals and vitamins that can be used as sources of carbon and energy for the growth. In this study, BLS.11-01 and BLS.11-02 isolates have been isolated and characterized from waste of sago hump. Locust bean gum was used as  substrate for measuring the activity of mannanase. Both isolates had optimum temperatures at 70°C and 60°C while they remain stable at temperature range of 30°C - 90°C. Mannanase from BLS.11-01 and BLS.11-02 had optimum pH at 6 and 7, respectively, and were also stable in wide pH range of 2-8. Co2+ was a mannanase activator for both isolates. Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+ and Fe2+ were  mannanase inhibitors for two isolates. Tween 20 (0.5% and 1.0% and NaCl (0.5% and 1.0% were chemical reagents that could enhance the activity of BLS.11-01 and BLS.11-02 mannanase isolates.  While tween 80 (0.5% and 1.0%, urea (0.5% and 1.0% and SDS (0.5% and 1.0% were chemical reagents that were not effective for both isolates mannanase activity

  10. Is Penicillium citrinum implicated in sago hemolytic disease? (United States)

    Atagazli, Latifeh; Greenhill, Andrew R; Melrose, Wayne; Pue, Aisak G; Warner, Jeffrey M


    Sago hemolytic disease (SHD) is an acute hemolytic syndrome affecting rural Papua New Guineans who depend on the starch of Metroxylon sagu as a staple carbohydrate. It is a suspected mycotoxicosis associated with fungal succession in stored and perhaps poorly fermented sago. Despite a mortality rate of approximately 25%, little is know about the disease. Recent studies have identified Penicillium citrinum as a possible candidate in the etiology of SHD. This is based on the frequency of isolation from sago starch and the hemolytic nature of the organism as demonstrated when cultured on sheep and human blood agar. A highly non-polar lipophilic P. citrinum fraction from C18 solid phase extraction demonstrated high hemolytic activity in a semi-quantitative assay using both mouse and human erythrocytes. When the red cell membrane proteins were subjected to sodium dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) separation, cleavage of protein band 3 and spectrin was demonstrated. This breach of major structural red cell proteins is consistent with the severe hemolysis found in vivo. Our findings warrant further investigation into the hemolytic activity of P. citrinum and its role as the etiological agent of SHD.

  11. Esterified sago waste for engine oil removal in aqueous environment. (United States)

    Ngaini, Zainab; Noh, Farid; Wahi, Rafeah


    Agro-waste from the bark of Metroxylon sagu (sago) was studied as a low cost and effective oil sorbent in dry and aqueous environments. Sorption study was conducted using untreated sago bark (SB) and esterified sago bark (ESB) in used engine oil. Characterization study showed that esterification has successfully improved the hydrophobicity, buoyancy, surface roughness and oil sorption capacity of ESB. Sorption study revealed that water uptake of SB is higher (30 min static: 2.46 g/g, dynamic: 2.67 g/g) compared with ESB (30 min static: 0.18 g/g, dynamic: 0.14 g/g). ESB, however, showed higher oil sorption capacity in aqueous environment (30 min static: 2.30 g/g, dynamic: 2.14) compared with SB (30 min static: 0 g/g, dynamic: 0 g/g). ESB has shown great poTENTial as effective oil sorbent in aqueous environment due to its high oil sorption capacity, low water uptake and high buoyancy.

  12. Research priorities for sago palm development in Indonesia and Sarawak: an agenda for research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, M.


    During travelling through Indonesia and Sarawak the latest developments in sago palm cultivation have been evaluated in a technical sense. In the coming two decades quite an increase in the production of sago palm starch is to be expected through both new plantings and exploitation of natural

  13. Mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi in sago starch from Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Greenhill, A R; Blaney, B J; Shipton, W A; Frisvad, J C; Pue, A; Warner, J M


    To assay sago starch from Papua New Guinea (PNG) for important mycotoxins and to test fungal isolates from sago for mycotoxin production in culture. Sago starch collected from Western and East Sepik Provinces was assayed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, citrinin and zearalenone and all 51 samples were negative. Frequently isolated species of Penicillium (13), Aspergillus (five) and Fusarium (one) were cultured on wheat grain, and tested for the production of ochratoxin A, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, citrinin, patulin and penicillic acid. All 12 isolates of P. citrinin and one of two A. flavipes isolates produced citrinin. A single isolate of A. versicolor produced sterigmatocystin. No other mycotoxins were detected in these cultures. No evidence was found of systemic mycotoxin contamination of sago starch. However, the isolation of several mycotoxigenic fungi shows the potential for citrinin and other mycotoxins to be produced in sago stored under special conditions. Sago starch is the staple carbohydrate in lowland PNG and the absence of mycotoxins in freshly prepared sago starch is a positive finding. However, the frequent isolation of citrinin-producing fungi indicates a potential health risk for sago consumers, and food safety is dependant on promoting good storage practices.

  14. The variability of the sago palm and the need and possibilities for its conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, D.L.


    In the wild and in cultivation, sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) is mostly propagated vegetatively through its suckers. Generative propagation occurs to a limited extent; there are strong indications of sago palm being largely an obligatory cross-pollinator. This opens the possibility of the

  15. Sago worms as a nutritious traditional and alternative food for rural children in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. (United States)

    Nirmala, Intan R; Trees; Suwarni; Pramono, Mochammad S


    The sago worm Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a nutritious food source found in the remaining parts of a sago palm trunk after the removal of sago starch by farmers. The effort to increase sago worm consumption is investigated in an intervention study among children aged sago worm inclusive diet (n=10) and to a control group eating a usual diet, but without sago worms (n=13). Snacks were served once per day (100 g) for 45 days and designed to contain similar amounts of vegetables (carrots and long beans) and other ingredients including rice, sticky rice, cassava, sweet potato, banana, or tofu with or without sago worms. Food preference was ascertained by interview. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and the endpoint. After mixing all food stuffs into one product for instance nasi gurih, protein and fat content in the intervention group was higher compared to control group (8.8 g and 7.3 g vs 4.7 g and 0.5 g respectively). In the intervention group receiving complementary feeding with sago worms, children's height changed minimally as did the control group (0.3 vs 0.2 cm); no difference was observed between the groups regarding weight or height. Sago worm consumption can diversify the diet through usage in various dishes, so improving its overall nutritional quality. Worm addition in an intervention program does not compromise, but maintains nutritional value. Local use adds affordability and sustainability to the food and health systems in a sago-consuming culture, so contributing to food security.

  16. Combination of sago and soy-protein supplementation during endurance cycling exercise and subsequent high-intensity endurance capacity. (United States)

    Ghosh, Asok Kumar; Rahaman, A Abdul; Singh, Rabindarjeet


    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a combination of sago and soy protein ingested during moderate-intensity cycling exercise can improve subsequent high-intensity endurance capacity compared with a carbohydrate in the form of sago and with a placebo. The participants were 8 male recreational cyclists with age, weight, and VO2max of 21.5 +/- 1.1 yr, 63.3 +/- 2.4 kg, and 39.9 +/- 1.1 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), respectively. The design of the study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover comprising 60 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% VO2max followed by a time-to-exhaustion ride at 90% VO2max. The sago feeding provided 60 g of carbohydrate, and the sago-soy combination provided 52.5 g of carbohydrate and 15 g of protein, both at 20-min intervals during exercise. Times to exhaustion for the placebo, sago, and sago-soy supplementations were 4.09 +/- 1.28, 5.49 +/- 1.20, and 7.53 +/- 2.02 min, respectively. Sago-soy supplementation increased endurance by 84% (44-140%; p sago, respectively. The plasma insulin response was elevated above that with placebo during sago and sago-soy supplementations. The authors conclude that a combination of sago and soy protein can delay fatigue during high-intensity cycling.

  17. A comparison of the effects of heat moisture treatment (HMT) on rheological properties and amylopectin structure in sago (Metroxylon sago) and arenga (Arenga pinnata) starches. (United States)

    Adawiyah, Dede R; Akuzawa, Sayuri; Sasaki, Tomoko; Kohyama, Kaoru


    The objective of this study was to study and compare the impact of HMT on rheology and textural properties observed between sago and arenga starces, and then related to structural change of amylopectin. The HMT were conducted using the autoclaving method at 20% moisture content and heated to 120 C for 60 min for sago and 90 min for arenga starch as optimum condition. The HMT shifted gelatinization temperature higher and reduced the enthalpy of both starches. The HMT sago starch paste exhibited an exceptionally strong shear thinning behavior as shown by a rapid decrease of viscosity and an increase of shear rate. The HMT clearly made the texture of starch gels more fragile compared to their native form and reduced their breaking point to a lower strain. The HMT effect on the rheological properties and texture of the sago starch was greater than the changes observed with the arenga starch. Major changes in rheological properties after HMT was not followed by changes in amylopectin structure. The HMT process did not significantly affect the amylopectin chain-length distribution in Arenga starch. In the sago starch, HMT affect to long chain amylopectin with DP ≥ 37. The HMT effect on rheology and textural properties was higher in sago starch than arenga starch. This study demonstrated that long chain amylopectin with DP ≥ 37 plays an important role in contributing to the rheological change caused by the HMT.

  18. Genetic diversity of sago palm in Indonesia based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abbas B, Renwarin Y, Bintoro MH, Sudarsono, Surahman M, Ehara H (2010 Genetic diversity of sago palm in Indonesia based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA markers. Biodiversitas 11: 112-117. Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. was believed capable to accumulate high carbohydrate content in its trunk. The capability of sago palm producing high carbohydrate should be an appropriate criterion for defining alternative crops in anticipating food crisis. The objective of this research was to study genetic diversity of sago palm in Indonesia based on cpDNA markers. Total genome extraction was done following the Qiagen DNA isolation protocols 2003. Single Nucleotide Fragments (SNF analyses were performed by using ABI Prism GeneScanR 3.7. SNF analyses detected polymorphism revealing eleven alleles and ten haplotypes from total 97 individual samples of sago palm. Specific haplotypes were found in the population from Papua, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan. Therefore, the three islands will be considered as origin of sago palm diversities in Indonesia. The highest haplotype numbers and the highest specific haplotypes were found in the population from Papua suggesting this islands as the centre and the origin of sago palm diversities in Indonesia. The research had however no sufficient data yet to conclude the Papua origin of sago palm. Genetic hierarchies and differentiations of sago palm samples were observed significantly different within populations (P=0.04574, among populations (P=0.04772, and among populations within the island (P=0.03366, but among islands no significant differentiations were observed (P= 0.63069.

  19. Isolation and characterisation of cellulose nanocrystals from sago seed shells. (United States)

    Naduparambath, Subair; T V, Jinitha; V, Shaniba; M P, Sreejith; Balan, Aparna K; E, Purushothaman


    Sago (Cycas circinalis) seed shells are agricultural waste materials discarded after taking the pith. In the present study Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are isolated from the sago seed shells by acid hydrolysis. The hydrolysis was performed with 64% (w/w) sulphuric acid. The resulting CNCs were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, DLS, Zeta (ζ) potential and TGA. FTIR spectrum of CNCs shows similar frequencies as that of α-cellulose, but with reduced intensity. XRD diffraction pattern shows co-existence of cellulose I and cellulose II with crystallinity index of 72% for cellulose II, 69% for cellulose I and crystallite size dimension of 9.4nm for cellulose I. SEM analysis clearly reveals the considerable size reduction during acid hydrolysis. TEM analysis shows that the isolated CNCs contain networked structures and almost spherical shaped particles having 10-15nm in size. Morphological examination through AFM also shows that isolated CNCs are in nano dimensions, having the size ∼50nm. DLS analysis gives an average size of 50nm and zeta (ζ) potential measured has a value of -37.8mV. DLS and AFM analyses support each other. TGA reveals lower thermal stability for CNCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h were 3.57 to 8.38.

  1. Cadmium sorption characteristics of phosphorylated sago starch-extraction residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igura, Masato, E-mail: [Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Okazaki, Masanori [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)


    The residue produced by the extraction of sago starch is usually discarded as a waste material. In this study, we phosphorylated the sago starch-extraction residue with phosphoryl chloride and used the phosphorylated residue to remove cadmium from wastewater. The phosphoric ester functionality in the phosphorylated residue was evaluated by means of infrared microspectrometry and solid-state NMR. The dependence of the cadmium sorption behavior on pH, contact time, and electrolyte concentration and the maximum sorption capacity of the phosphorylated residue were also studied. The cadmium sorption varied with pH and electrolyte concentration, and the maximum sorption capacity was 25.2 mg g{sup -1}, which is almost half the capacity of commercially available weakly acidic cation exchange resins. The phosphorylated residue could be reused several times, although cadmium sorption gradually decreased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased. The phosphorylated residue sorbed cadmium rapidly, which is expected to be favorable for the continuous operation in a column.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Fransisco Tethool


    Full Text Available Native Sago starch is difficult to used in industry because of the limitations of its phisycochemical properties. The aim of this research was to studied effect of UV-C photo-oxidation on  physicochemical properties and baking expansion of sago starch. Five slurries ratio (starch : water ratio: 1:2; 1:4; 1:6; 1:8; and 1:10 were oxidized with UV-C irradiation for 20 minutes, and then compared with native sago starch. The results showed that UV-C photo-oxidation increasing amylose content and paste viscosity, but decreasing swelling power and solubility, and carbonyl and carboxyl content. Used of UV-C as a photooxidator effective to increasing baking expansion characteristic, and the best slurry ratio was 1:6, which has 6.97 ml/g specific volume or 33.7% increased from native sago starch (5.22 ml/g

  3. A Simulation Model for Growth of the Submersed Aquatic Macrophyte Sago Pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly


    .... The characteristics of community and site can be easily modified by the user. POTAM incorporates insight into the processes affecting the dynamics of a sago pondweed community in relatively shallow, hard water (0.1-to 6-m depth...

  4. Measurement and modeling of transfer functions for lightning coupling into the Sago mine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Marvin E.; Higgins, Matthew B.


    This report documents measurements and analytical modeling of electromagnetic transfer functions to quantify the ability of cloud-to-ground lightning strokes (including horizontal arc-channel components) to couple electromagnetic energy into the Sago mine located near Buckhannon, WV. Two coupling mechanisms were measured: direct and indirect drive. These transfer functions are then used to predict electric fields within the mine and induced voltages on conductors that were left abandoned in the sealed area of the Sago mine.

  5. Remediation of lead from lead electroplating industrial effluent using sago waste. (United States)

    Jeyanthi, G P; Shanthi, G


    Heavy metals are known toxicants, which inflict acute disorders to the living beings. Electroplating industries pose great threat to the environment through heavy load of metals in the wastewater discharged on land and water sources. In the present study, sago processing waste, which is both a waste and a pollutant, was used to adsorb lead ions from lead electroplating industrial effluent. Two types of sago wastes, namely, coarse sago waste and fine sago waste were used to study their adsorption capacity with the batch adsorption and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The parameters that were considered for batch adsorption were pH (4, 5 and 6), time of contact (1, 2 and 3 hrs), temperature (30, 37 and 45 degrees C) and dosage of the adsorbent (2,4 and 6 g/L). The optimal condition for the effective removal of lead was found to be pH 5, time of contact 3 hrs, temperature 30 degrees C and dosage 4 g/L with coarse sago waste than fine sago waste.

  6. Itaconic acid production using sago starch hydrolysate by Aspergillus terreus TN484-M1. (United States)

    Dwiarti, Lies; Otsuka, Megumi; Miura, Shigenobu; Yaguchi, Masaaki; Okabe, Mitsuyasu


    Sago starch was hydrolyzed using either chemical agents, or enzymes at various pH and concentrations. Hydrolysis using 5000 AUN/ml (0.5%, w/v) glucoamylase exhibited the highest itaconic acid yield up to 0.36 g/g sago starch, whereas hydrolysis using nitric acid at pH 2.0 yielded 0.35 g/g sago starch. The medium was optimized and the composition was (g/l) 140 sago starch, 1.8 corn steep liquor, 1.2 MgSO(4).7H(2)O and 2.9 NH(4)NO(3). When the optimal conditions of hydrolysis and medium composition were applied to itaconic acid production in a 3-l jar fermentor, the itaconic acid production was 48.2 g/l with a yield of 0.34 g/g sago starch. This was filtered from the cultured broth and 37.1g of itaconic acid was recovered with a purity of 97.2%. This result showed that sago starch could be converted to a value-added product with only a simple pretreatment.

  7. Sago haemolytic disease: towards understanding a novel food-borne toxicosis. (United States)

    Shipton, Warren A; Greenhill, Andrew R; Warner, Jeffrey M


    Sago haemolytic disease is a rare but sometimes fatal disease found primarily in the coastal regions of Papua New Guinea and among groups in which sago is a primary source of carbohydrate. It has been known since 1961 and fungi consistently have been suspected of being involved. Investigations carried out on stored sago and samples recovered from poisoning episodes have failed to indicate the consistent presence of mycotoxins. However, fungi (especially Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Trichoderma) with strong haemolytic activity have been associated with sago, particularly when stored in open-weave baskets and sago-leaf-wrapped bundles. The haemolytic activity has been attributed to fatty acids (principally oleic, palmitic, linoleic) contained primarily in the fungal hyphae. It is hypothesized that when these acids are released through hyphal breakdown during digestion and are present in individuals with a low serum albumin level, free fatty acid excess occurs resulting in red cell membrane destruction and intravascular haemolysis. In extreme cases, blood transfusion is required. Methods of storage providing high levels of access to oxygen favour the development of fungi: eg, leaf-encased bundles and open-weave storage favour growth over that seen in starch stored under water, such as in earthen vessels. Ensuring storage does not exceed 3-4 weeks, encouraging anaerobic conditions of the starch and maintaining protein nutrition in communities where sago is relied upon should alleviate outbreak episodes.

  8. EVALUASI KADAR PATI TAHAN CERNA (PTC) DAN NILAI INDEKS GLIKEMIK MI SAGU (Evaluation of Enzymatically Resistant Starch and Glycemix Index of Sago Noodle)


    Sri Yuliani; Purwani, Endang Y.; Winda Haliza


    This paper expressed the level of glycemic index and content of resistant starch of sago noodle. Determination of starch resistant of sago noodle is necessary because it is correlated with the value of glycamic index. Resistant starch content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. RS content from four kinds of sago noodle ranged between 7,55 - 9,45 mg/g substances. Pancasan sago noodle showed the highest RS content, and this was further used to analysis the glycem...

  9. Lessons learnt from the US Sago mine disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Some major changes in United States legislation relating to safety in the mining industry are being implemented following the Sago mine disaster in West Virginia in January 2006. It is thought that a spark (from lightning) conducted along abandoned cables and ignited methane build up behind the seals in a mined-out area known as 2 North Mains and 2nd Left Mains. A report by US NIOSh proposed a three-tiered explosion pressure design criteria for new seals in underground coal mines, of significantly higher engineering requirements currently required in the US and Queensland. Queensland however has more experience with monitoring the atmospheres behind seals. Most mine monitoring systems are developed by Simtars. The article includes a summary of a workshop held by Simtars at the Pittsburgh Research Laboratory on mine gas monitoring and inertisation. 3 refs., 4 photos.

  10. Radiation processing of indigenous natural polymers. Properties of radiation modified blends from sago-starch for biodegradable composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazali, Z.; Dahlan, K.Z. [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear and Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia); Wongsuban, B.; Idris, S.; Muhammad, K. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, Serdang (Malaysia)


    Research and development on biodegradable polymer blends and composites have gained wider interest to offer alternative eco-friendly products. Natural polysaccharide such as sago-starch offers the most promising raw material for the production of biodegradable composites. The potential of sago, which is so abundant in Malaysia, to produce blends for subsequent applications in composite material, was evaluated and explored. Blends with various formulations of sago starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymers were prepared and subjected to radiation modification using electron beam irradiation. The effect of irradiation on the sago and its blends was evaluated and their properties were characterized. The potential of producing composite from sago blends was explored. Foams from these blends were produced using microwave oven while films were produced through casting method. The properties such as mechanical, water absorption, expansion ratio, and biodegradability were characterized and reported in this paper. (author)

  11. Sago pith residue as an alternative cheap substrate for fermentable sugars production. (United States)

    Linggang, S; Phang, L Y; Wasoh, M H; Abd-Aziz, S


    Sago pith residue is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass which can serve as an alternative cheap substrate for fermentable sugars production. This residue is the fibrous waste left behind after the starch extraction process and contains significant amounts of starch (58%), cellulose (23%), hemicellulose (9.2%) and lignin (3.9%). The conversion of sago pith residue into fermentable sugars is commonly performed using cellulolytic enzymes or known as cellulases. In this study, crude cellulases were produced by two local isolates, Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus, UPM2 using sago pith residue as substrate. A. fumigatus UPM2 gave the highest FPase, CMCase and β-glucosidase activities of 0.39, 23.99 and 0.78 U/ml, respectively, on day 5. The highest activity of FPase, CMCase and β-glucosidase by T. asperellum UPM1 was 0.27, 12.03 and 0.42 U/ml, respectively, on day 7. The crude enzyme obtained from A. fumigatus UPM2 using β-glucosidase as the rate-limiting enzyme (3.9, 11.7 and 23.4 IU) was used for the saccharification process to convert 5% (w/v) sago pith residue into reducing sugars. Hydrolysis of sago pith residue using crude enzyme containing β-glucosidase with 23.4 IU, produced by A. fumigatus UPM2 gave higher reducing sugars production of 20.77 g/l with overall hydrolysis percentage of 73%.

  12. Transesterification of sago starch and waste palm cooking oil in densified CO2 (United States)

    Muljana, H.; Sugih, A. K.; Christina, N.; Fangdinata, K.; Renaldo, J.; Rudy; Heeres, H. J.; Picchioni, F.


    In this work, the synthesis of biodegradable and yet renewable thermoplastics materials through a transesterification reaction of sago starch and waste palm cooking oil (WPO) in densified CO2 as the solvent is reported. The aim of this research is to investigate the potential used of sago starch and WPO as raw materials in the thermoplastics starch synthesis. The starch esters was successfully synthesized using sago starch and WPO as reagent in densified CO2 as shown from the presence of carbonyl group (C=O, 1743 cm-1) in the FT-IR spectra coupled with the presence of the proton (1H-NMR) of the fatty acid in the starch backbone (0.8 - 2 ppm). The product crystallinity decreases as shown in XRD results and resulting with a change in the thermal properties (melting and crystalline temperature) of the products. In addition, the products show a different granular morphology and a higher hydrophobicity compared with native sago starch. This research shows the potential used of sago starch and WPO in the thermoplastics starch synthesis and opens a new perspective on the product application.

  13. Environmental issue and waste management in sago industry for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanane, R.; Murthy, D.V.S.; Krishnaiah, K. [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India)


    The starch manufacturing industrial units, such as, sago mills, both in medium and large scale, suffer from inadequate treatment and disposal problems due to high concentration of suspended solid content present in the effluent, in order to investigate the viability of treatment of sago effluent, a laboratory scale study was conducted. The treatment of sago effluent was studied in a continuous flow anaerobic fluidized bed reactor. The start-up of the reactor was carried out using a mixture of digested supernatant sewage sludge and cow dung slurry in different proportions. The effect of operating variables such as cod of the effluent, bed expansion, minimum fluidization velocity on efficiency of treatment and recovery of biogas was investigated. The treated wastewater was analysed for recycling and reuse to ensure an alternative for sustainable water resource management. The maximum efficiency of treatment was found to be 82% and the nitrogen enriched digested sludge was recommended for agricultural use. 17 refs.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of physicochemical properties of cross-linked sago starch. (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh V; Nath, Lila K


    Highly substituted sago starch phosphate was synthesized using POCl(3) as cross-linking reagent. Titrimetric and Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectral analysis were used to characterize the substitution. Studying the different factors affecting the reaction parameters showed that the optimal conditions for starch phosphorylation were: 4h reaction time and reagent concentration 1.5% (w/w). The physicochemical properties of cross-linked sago starch (CLSS) were done using Scanning electron micrograph (SEM), X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results revealed that crystalline nature of native sago starch was transformed after cross-linking. TGA report exhibited higher thermal stability, which makes it suitable for various industrial applications. Swelling behavior showed high swelling at low temperature (30 and 60°C) as compared to high temperature (90°C). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sago supplementation for exercise performed in a thermally stressful environment: Rationale, efficacy and opportunity. (United States)

    Che Jusoh, Mohd Rahimi; Stannard, Stephen R; Mündel, Toby


    Sago ( Metroxylin sagu ), a carbohydrate (CHO) based dietary staple of Southeast Asia is easily digestible and quickly absorbed, and thus has potential to be prescribed as an affordable pre-and post-exercise food in this part of the world. Compared to other CHO staples, research into the physiological response to sago ingestion is sparse, and only a few recent studies have investigated its value before, during, and after exercise. The purpose of this review is to describe the published literature pertaining to sago, particularly as a supplement in the peri-exercise period, and suggest further avenues of research, principally in an environment/climate which would be experienced in Southeast Asia i.e. hot/humid.

  16. Evaluation of chemically modified hydrophobic sago starch as a carrier for controlled drug delivery. (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Vikram; Nath, Lila Kanta


    The present investigation deals with the development of controlled release tablets of lamivudine using acetylated sago starch. The acetylated starch was synthesized with acetic anhydride in pyridine medium. The acetylated sago starch was tested for acute toxicity and drug-excipient compatibility study. The formulations were evaluated for physical characteristics like hardness, % friability, % drug content and weight variations. The in vitro release study showed that the optimized formulation exhibited highest correlation (R) value in the case of higuchi kinetic model and the release mechanism study proved that the formulation showed a combination of diffusion and erosion processes. There was a significant difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters (T max, C max, AUC, V d, T 1/2 and MDT) of the optimized formulation as compared to the marketed conventional tablet Lamivir® which proves the controlled release property of acetylated sago starch.


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    Lidya Irma Momuat


    Full Text Available Sago Baruk (Arenga microcarpha is one of endemic crop type of Archipelago of Sangihe Talaud, North Sulawesi and potential as source bioactivities including antioxidant. The objectives of this research were to determine the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of starch sago baruk which was sequentially extracted with water and filtrate. The sago trunks pith was sequentially extracted with water and filtrate at room temparature for 1 hour. After that, starch of sago baruk were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash crude fiber and charbohydrate and total phenolic and tannin condensed content. Antioxidant activity of each sago flour were evaluated in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity. After that, the starch was characterized by IR spectroscopic technique. The sequential extraction result indicated percentage yield of starch I and starch II were 41.39% and 38.21%. The chemical characteristics of starch I revealed that percentage protein, ash, crude fibre and fat were below 1% than starch II especially protein and fiber crude. The starch I had highest total phenolic and tannin condensed content than starch II and starch K. The starch I also showed the highest free radical scavenging activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical than starch II and starch K. The result also showed that starch I has strongest total antioxidant capacity than starch II and starch K at all concentration level. Antioxidant activity of three starch increased with the increase in concentration of the samples. The three starch showed of hidroxy (OH, carbonyl (C=O, ether (C-O and aliphatic group (C-C. It is concluded that starch sago baruk especially the starch I are very rich in antioxidant substituens.

  18. Effect of electron beam irradiation on physicochemical properties of sago starch

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    Duangkhae Kanjanasopa


    Full Text Available The effect of electron beam irradiation on sago starch was determined in terms of physicochemical properties. The irradiation dose employed was in the range of 10 to 30 kGy. Peak viscosity was decreasedwhen the irradiation dose was increased. The gel strength was found to be increased when the sago starch was irradiated at 10 to 15 kGy, thereafter, the value was decreased. Solubility was increased while swellingpower was decreased. Redness, yellowness and free acidity were increased. Intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and degree of polymerization were also decreased when the irradiation dose was increased.

  19. Physiologic and performance effects of sago supplementation before and during cycling in a warm-humid environment. (United States)

    Che Jusoh, Mohd Rahimi; Stannard, Stephen R; Mündel, Toby


    The present study determined whether 0.8g/kg bodyweight sago ingested before (Pre-Sago) or during (Dur-Sago) exercise under warm-humid conditions (30 ± 2°C, 78 ± 3 % RH; 20 km·h -1 frontal airflow) conferred a performance and/or physiological benefit compared to a control (Control) condition. Eight trained, male cyclists/triathletes (45 ± 4 y, VO 2 peak: 65 ± 10 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 , peak aerobic power: 397 ± 71 W) completed 3 15-min time-trials (∼75% VO 2 peak) pre-loaded with 45 min of steady-state (∼55% VO 2 peak) cycling following > 24 h standardization of training and diet. Measures of work completed, rectal and mean skin temperatures, heart rate, expiratory gases and venous blood samples were taken. Compared to Control, Pre-Sago resulted in a smaller rise in rectal temperature (0.3 ± 0.5°C) while heart rate increased to a greater extent (6 ± 13 beats·min -1 ) during exercise (both P Sago: -0.5 ± 4.0%, P > 0.05). During exercise, plasma glucose concentrations were maintained higher for Dur-Sago than Control ( P 0.05). Dur-Sago also resulted in a higher plasma sodium concentration (2 ± 2 mmol·l 1 ) and lower whole-body sweat loss (544 ± 636 g) and, therefore, reduced plasma volume contraction (all P Sago, yet compared to Control time-trial performance remained unaffected (+0.9 ± 2.3%, P > 0.05). Uniquely, these results indicate that during exercise heat stress feeding sago can result in some 'beneficial' physiological responses, however these do not translate to changes in exercise performance when performed in a post-prandial state.

  20. Radiation modified sago-blends and its potential for biodegradable packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazali, Z.; Idris, S.; Dahlan, K.Z. [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia); Wongsuban, B.; Adzahan, N.M.; Ithnin, L. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Serdang (Malaysia)


    This paper describes work at MINT on the characterisation and development of sago blends as alternative biodegradable packaging materials. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of formulation, mixing temperature and irradiation dosage on expansion of sago starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sago-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blends based foam. The foams were produced by microwaving irradiated hydrogels prepared by mixing sago starch with aqueous PVA or PVP. In the development of starch-based plastic, the effect of different composition and different irradiation dosage were studied to evaluate films with good tensile properties, elongation, gas permeability and water vapor transmission rate and also the biodegradability of the film using soil burial test. In another development, irradiation i.e. microwave, electron beam and gamma, has been investigated as a means of degrading the starch granules, which leads to an increase in the amount soluble materials leached. Results showed that irradiation caused an increase in leaching, and a concomitant drastic reduction in swelling volumes of starch granules. It is also showed that the strength of starch gels and viscosity decreased as the levels of irradiation was increased. The degraded starches will be incorporated as an ingredient in the fish cracker and characterized its properties. (author)

  1. Research for the development of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) cultivation in Sarawak, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.S.


    General introduction (Chapter 1)

    This chapter contains an overview of knowledge with respect to the cultivation of the true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu). The palm flowers once and forms suckers or tillers. Seedlings grow into a rosette stage of leaves

  2. Screening of Acetic Acid Bacteria from Pineapple Waste for Bacterial Cellulose Production using Sago Liquid Waste

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    Nur Arfa Yanti


    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose is a biopolymer produced by fermentation process with the help of bacteria. It has numerous applications in industrial sector with its characteristic as a biodegradable and nontoxic compound in nature. The potential application of BC is limited by its production costs, because BC is produced from expensive culture media. The use of cheap carbon and nutrient sources such as sago liquid waste is an interesting strategy to overcome this limitation. The objective of this study was to obtain the AAB strain that capable to produce bacterial cellulose from sago liquid waste. Isolation of AAB strains was conducted using CARR media and the screening of BC production was performed on Hestrin-Schramm (HS media with glucose as a carbon source. The strains of AAB then were evaluated for their cellulose-producing capability using sago liquid waste as a substrate. Thirteen strains of AAB producing BC were isolated from pineapple waste (pineapple core and peel and seven of them were capable to produce BC using sago liquid waste substrate. One of the AAB strains produced a relatively high BC, i.e. isolate LKN6. The result of morphological and biochemical test was proven that the bacteria was Acetobacter xylinum. The result of this study showed that A. xylinum LKN6 can produce a high yield of BC, therefore this strain is potentially useful for its utilization as a starter in bacterial cellulose production. 

  3. Physicochemical and thermal properties of gamma-irradiated sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch (United States)

    Othman, Zainon; Hassan, Osman; Hashim, Kamaruddin


    Sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch was exposed to gamma-irradiation in air at doses 6, 10 and 25 kGy. Subsequent changes in the physicochemical and thermal properties were measured. The apparent amylose content and swelling power of irradiated sago starch was significantly reduced while reducing sugars and starch solubility were significantly increased due to degradation. X-ray diffraction studies showed that radiation did not affect the crystalline type but induced a decrease in the degree of crystallinity, indicating the destruction of the ordered distribution of neighboring polysaccharide chains in the starch granules, in particular of the amylopectin component, which is responsible for starch crystallinity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of irradiated sago starch showed a small but significant increase in the onset and peak transition temperatures at 10 and 25 kGy dose; the conclusion temperature and gelatinization enthalpy was not affected. SEM and particle size analysis produced no evidence of physical damage to sago starch up to 25 kGy dose radiation treatment since the granular appearance and size distribution was retained.

  4. Suitability of sago starch as a base for dual-modification

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    Saowakon Wattanachant


    Full Text Available The quality and physicochemical properties of native sago starch were studied in order to evaluate the suitability of sago starch as a base for dual-modification, hydroxypropylation and crosslinking. The properties of starch derivatives obtained from dual-modification are different depending upon the kind of starch bases used and their basic properties. Therefore, the properties of several starches including waxy maize, waxy barley, tapioca, wheat, corn and rice and properties of their derivatives were investigated comparatively. The data obtained elucidates that the swelling power of a starch base is the most important factor which influences the dual-modification. The native sago starch had higher swelling power and bigger average granule size when compared to that of other starch bases. Its gelatinization temperature was in the same range as that of waxy maize while its pasting characteristic was similar to that of tapioca starch. It can be inferred that sago starch is suitable as a starch base for hydroxypropylation and crosslinking.

  5. Expanded Simulation Models Version 3.0 for Growth of the Submerged Aquatic Plants American Wildcelery, Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, and Eurasian Watermilfoil (United States)


    Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, Eurasian Watermilfoil by Elly P. H. Best and William A. Boyd PURPOSE: This technical note describes modifications of...Wildcelery, Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, and Eurasian Watermilfoil 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...monoecious Potamogeton pectinatus1 ( sago pondweed)-POTAM (Best and Boyd 1996, 1999a, 1999b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, Boyd and Best 1996). These models can

  6. Effects of Acetic Anhydride Toward Degree of Substitution on Acetylation Method of Sago Starch (Metroxylon SP) From Papua


    Nanggewa, Yuliya Andriani; Purnomo, Adi Setyo; Putra, Surya Rosa


    Sago contains carbohydrates that are stored in the starch form. Starch is generally formed from two molecules of glucose polymer, namely amylose and amylopectin, which its composition varies for each type of starch [1]. The weakness of starch can be overcome through a modification of the functional properties of starch to expand sago starch. Chemical modification of starches can enlarge the range of certain starch physical properties of the parent starch [2] and enhance their use in a number ...

  7. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour (United States)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E.; Rafi, M.


    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour.

  8. Physicochemical Properties Of Starch From Sago (Metroxylon Sagu) Palm Grown In Mineral Soil At Different Growth Stages (United States)

    Uthumporn, U.; Wahidah, N.; Karim, A. A.


    A study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical properties of sago starch from sago palm grown in mineral soil at different growth stages. Four stages of sago palm, namely, Plawei (P), Bubul (B), Angau Muda (AM) and Angau Tua (AT) were studied. Sago starch granules were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the x-ray diffraction patterns were examined to study the starch crystallinity. The highest starch content was found at Plawei stage (94.2%) and Angau Muda stage (97.9%), respectively. The amylose content varied between 29.4 to 31.2% for each growth stages. The highest swelling power was found at the earliest growth stages (P) late growth stages (AT) which are 13.3 g/g and 13.2 g/g, respectively. Granule size distributions were similar as the palm grows to the later growth stages, where highest mean diameter of sago starches granules was found at AM. Variation of starch, amylose and proximate content was observed for starches derived from sago palm different growth stages were insignificant.

  9. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Mount Sago, West Sumatra: Diversity and Flower Preference

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    Ratih Rusman


    Full Text Available Diversity of butterfly depends on the availability of food plant and habitat quality. The aims of this study were to assess diversity and flower preference of butterflies in Mount Sago, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Observations were performed by scan sampling method in four types of habitats, i.e. secondary forests, pine forests, rubber forests, and agricultural areas. Our results showed that at least 184 species of butterflies and 56 species of nectar plants have been identified in Mount Sago. Nymphalid butterfly, Neptis hylas, was the most dominant species of butterflies. Two species, i.e. Trogonoptera brookiana and Troides amphrysus, were found as the protected butterflies. Diversity of butterfly in secondary forests was highest, whereas the lowest diversity was found in pine forest. Papilionid butterflies were found frequently feeding on tube blossoms, nymphalid butterflies on head blossoms, and lycaenid butterflies on flag blossom. Our results also showed that habitat change impacts composition and diversity of butterfly.

  10. Characterization of Briquette from the Corncob Charcoal and Sago Stem Alloys (United States)

    Lestari, Lina; Inda Variani, Viska; Nyoman Sudiana, I.; Purnama Sari, Dewi; Ode Sitti Ilmawati, Wa; Sahaluddin Hasan, Erzam


    The briquettes fabricated from charcoal of corncob (zea mays,L) and sago stem (metroxilon sago rottb) have been produced and characterized. The samples were prepared step by step carefully. The charcoal powder filtered by strainer with mesh size of 70-80 to get the homogeneous particle size. Briquettes are made by mixing corncob charcoal powder, sago stem charcoal and sago adhesive with a mass ratio of 4:5:1, 4.5: 4.5: 1, 5:4:1. The materials are mixed with hot water and stirred to get homogeneous blend. Then they are compacted by pressure of 34.66kg/cm2, 69.32kg/cm2, and 103.98kg/cm2 to form a cylindrical shape with diameter of 4 cm. The cylindrical briquettes then were dried at temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. After dried, the samples where then characterized their density and water, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon contents. The burning rate, combustion temperature, and ignition time were also determined. The experimental results show that the briquettes have average densities from 0.602 to 0.717gr/cm3. The density increase with the increasing of forming pressure. The increasing of pressure also result in the decreasing of moisture content from 2.669% to 0.842%. The ash content is found from 3.459% to 8.766%. Volatile matter and fixed carbon are varies from 13.658% and 21.168% and 67.667% to 80.758% respectively. The lowest burning rate is 0.0898gr/s and the optimum burning temperature is 499.2°C with the lowest ignition time of 1.58 minutes. These briquette’s parameters agree wit the quality standard of industrial briquette.


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    Imron Riyadi


    Full Text Available The application of gamma irradiation on plant materials may increase the genetic variation of the offspring with useful traits. The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of irradiation dosage of gamma ray on growth and development of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu calli. Friable calli of sago palm derived from suspension culture were used as a material source. The primary calli were initiated from apical meristematic tissues of sago palm suckers of Alitir variety from Merauke, Papua. The treatments used were dosage of gamma ray irradiation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy. The treated calli were then subcultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS solid medium containing 3% sucrose and 0.1% activated charcoal and added with 1 mg l-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mg l-1 kinetin. The results showed that at all irradiation dosages, calli biomass increased significantly. The highest proliferation of calli biomass of 5.33 folds from the initial culture after 4 weeks was achieved at gamma irradiation of 25 Gy, whereas the lowest proliferation of calli biomass of 3.4 folds was achieved at control. The best development of embryogenic calli was obtained at 10 Gy that produced 100% somatic embryos, whereas the lowest somatic embryo formation at 0% was obtained at 0 and 25 Gy after one subculture. High response of somatic embryo induction to gamma irradiation at 10 Gy may increase production of somatic embryos. These results can be used in in vitro breeding of sago palm via mutagenesis to create new elite varieties.

  12. Exotic food anaphylaxis and the broken heart: sago worm and takotsubo cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Yew, K L; Kok, V S L


    There is increasing consumption of exotic food in Malaysia. Animals such as insects, worms and wild life animals also form part of the staple food of the local population. This practice may lead to more incidence of food allergy and anaphylaxis. We report a non-indigenous man who developed food anaphylaxis after consuming fried sago worms and consequently Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We postulate that certain food allergy and anaphylaxis could be another causative trigger for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  13. Sago Biomass as a Sustainable Source for Biohydrogen Production by Clostridium butyricum A1


    Mohamad Faizal Ibrahim; Phang Lai Yee; Madihah Md. Salleh; Suraini Abd-Aziz


    Biohydrogen production from biomass is attracting many researchers in developing a renewable, clean and environmental friendly biofuel. The biohydrogen producer, Clostridium butyricum A1, was successfully isolated from landfill soil. This strain produced a biohydrogen yield of 1.90 mol H2/mol glucose with productivity of 170 mL/L/h using pure glucose as substrate. The highest cumulative biohydrogen collected after 24 h of fermentation was 2468 mL/L-medium. Biohydrogen fermentation using sago ...

  14. The Addition of Sago Flour in Yoghurt Based on Physical Propeties of Yoghurt Ice Cream

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    Ika Ayu Wijayanti


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt based on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. The experiment was designed by Completely Randomized Design (CRD using four treatments were 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % from volume of fresh milk and four replications. The data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Result of this research showed that concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt gave highly significant difference effect (P<0.01 on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. It can be concluded that the adding of sago flour 2% in yoghurt gave the best result with the viscosity was 1750.75 cP, overrun was 25.14%, melting rate was 39.13 minutes/50 g, total solid was 36.20% and gave the best quality of yoghurt ice cream.

  15. Potential of sago starch/carrageenan mixture as gelatin alternative for hard capsule material (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana Dewi; Pranoto, Yudi; Anggraheni, Frida Dwi; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso


    In order to replace gelatin in capsule shell production, blends of sago starch and carrageenan were developed. Films and capsules were prepared with 10% (w/v) of sago starch, 25% (w/w starch) of glycerol and various carrageenan concentration (1, 2, 3% w/w starch) in two different kappa/iota-carrageenan ratio (1:3 and 3:1). The resulted films and capsules were characterized by mechanical property, water vapor and oxygen permeability. In addition, moisture absorption and solubility of capsule in acid solution were investigated. The results reveal that addition of carrageenan makes the films stronger and less permeable. Higher kappa-carrageenan content improved tensile strength and barrier properties of the films, whereas higher iota-carrageenan content produced films with higher elongation, moisture absorption and capsule solubility in acid solution. Capsule with 2% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa-/iota-ratio 3:1 had the lowest moisture absorption, whereas capsule with 3% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa/iota ratio 1:3 had the highest solubility. It is illustrated that sago starch/carrageenan blends can be used as hard capsule material.

  16. Formulation development and evaluation of lamivudine controlled release tablets using cross-linked sago starch. (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Vikram; Nath, Lila Kanta


    Modified starches based polymeric substances find utmost applicability in pharmaceutical formulation development. Cross-linked starches showed very promising results in drug delivery application. The present investigation concerns with the development of controlled release tablets of lamivudine using cross-linked sago starch. The cross-linked derivative was synthesized with phosphorous oxychloride and native sago starch in basic pH medium. The cross-linked sago starch was tested for acute toxicity and drug-excipient compatibility study. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various physical characteristics, in vitro dissolution release study and in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbit model. In vitro release study showed that the optimized formulation exhibited highest correlation (R) in case of zero order kinetic model and the release mechanism followed a combination of diffusion and erosion process. There was a significant difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters (T(max), C(max), AUC, V(d), T(1/2), and MDT) of the optimized formulation as compared to the marketed conventional tablet Lamivir®. The cross-linked starch showed promising results in terms of controlling the release behavior of the active drug from the matrix. The hydrophilic matrix synthesized by cross-linking could be used with a variety of active pharmaceutical ingredients for making their controlled/sustained release formulations.

  17. PVA-Sago starch hydrogel and the preliminary clinical animal study of the hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Kamaruddin; Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia); Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Md Nor, Mohd Tarmizi [Sciences University of Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences, Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Yoshii, Fumio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Sago starch granule dissolves in hot water to form physically crosslink semi-gel structure. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in aqueous solution is chemically crosslink and form hydrogel after expose to gamma or electron beam irradiation. Combination of sago starch and PVA give tremendous improvement on strength and elasticity of the gel. Adding additive such as carboxymethyl cellulose enhance the swelling or absorption property of the gel. These properties of hydrogel are important for wound dressing application. The preliminary clinical animal study on the PVA Sago hydrogel dressing shows promising results of healing process in comparison with the conventional dressing using vaseline impregnated gauze acting as control dressing. This re-confirmed by biopsy tests on the wound tissue taking during the healing process. The tests show the increasing amount of fibroblast and endothelial cells on both wounds using hydrogel and jalonet during the healing process. Also, the rate of epitheliazation is almost completed for both wounds after 10 days of dressing and the lymphocytes cell increase tremendously for the first 14 days with hydrogel dressing. (author)

  18. Preparation of sago starch-based biocomposite reinforced microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo assisted by mechanical treatment (United States)

    Silviana, S.; Hadiyanto, H.


    The utilization of green composites by using natural fibres is developed due to their availability, ecological benefits, and good properties in mechanical and thermal. One of the potential sources is bamboo that has relative high cellulose content. This paper was focused on the preparation of sago starch-based reinforced microfribrillated cellulose of bamboo that was assisted by mechanical treatment. Microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo was prepared by isolation of cellulose with chemical treatment. Preparation of bamboo microfibrillated cellulose was conducted by homogenizers for dispersing bamboo cellulose, i.e. high pressure homogenizer and ultrasonic homogenizer. Experiments were elaborated on several variables such as the concentration of bamboo microfibrillated cellulose dispersed in water (1-3 %w) and the volume of microfibrillated cellulose (37.5-75%v). Four %w of sago starch solution was mixed with bamboo microfibrillated cellulose and glycerol with plasticizer and citric acid as cross linker. This paper provided the analysis of tensile strength as well as SEM for mechanical and morphology properties of the biocomposite. The results showed that the preparation of sago starch-based biocomposite reinforced bamboo microfibrillated cellulose by using ultrasonic homogenizer yielded the highest tensile strength and well dispersed in the biocomposite.

  19. Biogas production from synthetic sago wastewater by anaerobic digestion: Optimization and treatment

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    Sangeetha V.


    Full Text Available Sago processing industries generate a voluminous amount of wastewater with extremely high concentration of organic pollutants, resulting in water pollution. Anaerobic digestion has employed for reduction of COD and maximization of biogas production using synthetic sago wastewater by batch process. Mixed culture obtained from sago industry sludge was used as a source for microorganism. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the variables, such as pH, initial BOD, temperature and retention time. Statistical results were assessed with various descriptive, such as p value, lack of fit (F-test, coefficient of R2 determination, and adequate precision values. Pareto Analysis of Variance revealed that the coefficients of determination value (R2 of % COD removal, % BOD removal and biogas production were 0.994, 0.993 and 0.988. The optimum condition in which maximum COD removal (81.85%, BOD removal (91.61% and biogas production of 99.4 ml/day was achieved at pH 7 with an initial BOD of 1374 mg/l, and with the retention time of 10 days at 32oC.

  20. Two-steps microwave-assisted treatment on acid hydrolysis of sago pith for bioethanol production (United States)

    Sunarti, T. C.; Yanti, S. D.; Ruriani, E.


    Sago is a genus of palm that can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars as substrate for bioethanol. Sago pith is a heterogeneous substrate consists of starch and fiber. Acid hydrolysis by microwave heating radiation can break down starch and fibers together in a very short time, so it is considered to be very efficient process. The use of microwave energy (as power level) and variation of heating time can produce fermentable sugar with certain characteristics. This study included the preparation and analysis of sago pith flour; process of acid hydrolysis (0.3 M and 0.5 M H2SO4) using two steps microwave heating, first with power level 30% (1, 2 and 3 min) and second with power level 70% (3 min); and ethanol production. The conventional treatment (autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min) was carried for the comparison. The highest fermentable sugar (105.7 g/l) was resulted from microwave heating with power level 30% for 2 min followed by the power level 70% for 3 min. This hydrolyzate then used as substrate for bioethanol fermentation and partially neutralized (pH 3, 4, 5) by using yeast Issatchenkia orientalis, and the highest ethanol (2.8 g/l) was produced in pH 5.

  1. Karakteristik Organoleptik Formulasi Biskuit Berbasis Tepung Labu Kuning (Cucurbita moschata, Tepung Kacang Koro (Mucuna prurien, dan Tepung Sagu (Metroxilon sago (The Organoleptic Characteristics of Biscuit Formulation with Curcubita moschata, Mucuna prurien, and Metroxilon sago Based

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    Rachma Wati


    Riskesdas (2013 shows that prevelance of children under nutrition in Aceh province based on index weight for age, height for age, and weight for height are above National prevalency, comprising 25%, 40%, and 15% respectively. One of the efforts conducted to reduce nutrition problem is the adminstration of supplementary food for children. Development of biscuit from local food can be used as supplemetary food to help the unfortunate children. This research was aimed to study the  organoleptic characteristic of biscuit formulation based on local food pumpkin flour (Cucurbita moschata, koro bean flour (mucuna prurien and sago flour (Metroxilon sago. The research design used was one factor complete randomized design, with  the combination of pumpkin flour, koro bean and sago in biscuit combination. The quality of the biscuits was assessed organolepticaly using 30 semi trained panelists.  The result of the analysis of variance of colours and flavour paramaters showed a significant difference at  95% confident interval. The analysis of variance resulted in confident interval 95% (α=0,05, while from the smell and texture parameter it does not show a significantly different result. Based on the characteristic of organoleptics, the preferrred biscuit formulation chosen by panelists is biscuit with the combination of 20 g pumpkin flour, 10 g koro bean flour and 20 g sago flour. Keywords : biscuit, pumpkin flour, koro bean flour, sago flour, organoleptic

  2. Effect of Carbohydrate Source on Growth and Performance of In Vitro Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. Plantlets

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    Full Text Available Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb., grown mostly in the tropics, is one of the most productive carbohydrateproducing crops. However, it is still underutilized. Tissue culture of sago through somatic embryogenesis has been developed. The plantlets derived from somatic embryos, however, are usually weak with few leaves and roots and have low survival rates during acclimatization. Carbohydrate is commonly added into culture medium as an energy source and an osmotic agent. Research was conducted to determine a suitable carbohydrate for plantlets growth in order to produce vigorous plantlets of sago. The basal medium used was a modified MS medium with a half-strength of salts. Different types of carbohydrate (sucrose, maltose, glucose, and fructose at various concentrations (30, 45, and 60 g/l were added into the medium. A single 2 cm plantlet derived from somatic embryo was cultured on a culture tube. Each treatment consisted of 15 plantlets. The cultures were incubated in a culture room with light intensity at 20 μmol/m2/s and temperature at 26 oC. The results show that different types and concentrations of carbohydrate influenced the growth of sago plantlets significantly, but there was no interaction between the two factors. Sucrose was better than other types of carbohydrate, and the concentration of 30 g/l was better than concentrations of 45 or 60 g/l for the growth and vigor of sago plantlets. Medium with a sucrose level at 30 g/l gave the best performance of sago plantlets based on plantlet height, leaf number, biomass fresh weight, stem diameter, and rooting percentage.

  3. Effect of Carbohydrate Source on Growth and Performance of In Vitro Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. Plantlets

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    Full Text Available Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb., grown mostly in the tropics, is one of the most productive carbohydrate-producing crops. However, it is still underutilized. Tissue culture of sago through somatic embryogenesis has been developed. The plantlets derived from somatic embryos, however, are usually weak with few leaves and roots and have low survival rates during acclimatization. Carbohydrate is commonly added into culture medium as an energy source and an osmotic agent. Research was conducted to determine a suitable carbohydrate for plantlets growth in order to produce vigorous plantlets of sago. The basal medium used was a modified MS medium with a half-strength of salts. Different types of carbohydrate (sucrose, maltose, glucose, and fructose at various concentrations (30, 45, and 60 g/l were added into the medium. A single 2 cm plantlet derived from somatic embryo was cultured on a culture tube. Each treatment consisted of 15 plantlets. The cultures were incubated in a culture room with light intensity at 20 μmol/m2/s and temperature at 26 °C. The results show that different types and concentrations of carbohydrate influenced the growth of sago plantlets significantly, but there was no interaction between the two factors. Sucrose was better than other types of carbohydrate, and the concentration of 30 g/l was better than concentrations of 45 or 60 g/l for the growth and vigor of sago plantlets. Medium with a sucrose level at 30 g/l gave the best performance of sago plantlets based on plantlet height, leaf number, biomass fresh weight, stem diameter, and rooting percentage.


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    Pauline D. Kasi


    Full Text Available Development of somatic embryos of sago (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. on agar-solidified medium are highly varied producing heterogeneous seedlings. Understanding of this phenomenon may help in improving the cultural procedures and conditions of sagosomatic embryogenesis to obtain uniform seedlings in a large scale. This experiment was conducted at the laboratory for plant cell culture and micropropagation, Indonesian Biotechnology Research Institute for Estate Crops from January to March 2006 to examine morphological changes i.e. color and development stages of sago during their somatic embryo development on an agar-solidified medium. Twenty single globular somatic embryos of sago with specific color (yellowish, greenish, and reddish were cultured in a Petri dish supplemented with a solid medium. The medium was a micronutrients-modified MS (MMS with half strength of macronutrients containing 0.01 mg l-1 ABA, 2 mg l-1 kinetin, 20 g l-1 sucrose, 0.5 g l-1 activated charcoal, and 2 g l-1 gelrite. Parameter observed was the percentage of embryo’s number based on color and developmental stage. The result showed that at the end of 6-week culture passage, most originally greenish (80.8% and reddish (95.8% embryos remained unchanged in their colors, whereas almost half of the originally yellowish embryos turned to greenish and only 30%remained yellowish. At the same time, single globular embryos have changed gradually into the next developmental stages, although not all of the embryos were germinated. The initial color of embryo affected the rate of the developmental stage changes. Yellowish and greenish globular embryos developed more rapidly into cotyledon or germinant stages at 58% and 55% respectively, in 6 weeks than the reddish ones (41%. Therefore, the yellowish and greenish embryos are the best sources of material for in vitro mass propagation and synthetic seed production of sago.

  5. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream


    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.


    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus a...

  6. Effects of κ-carrageenan on rheological properties of dually modified sago starch: Towards finding gelatin alternative for hard capsules. (United States)

    Fakharian, Mohammad-Hassan; Tamimi, Nasser; Abbaspour, Hossein; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Karim, A A


    Composite sago starch-based system was developed and characterized with the aim to find an alternative to gelatin in the processing of pharmaceutical capsules. Dually modified (Hydrolyzed-Hydroxypropylated) sago starches were combined with κ-carrageenan (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%). The rheological properties of the proposed composite system were measured and compared with gelatin as reference material. Results show that combination of HHSS12 (Hydrolysed-hydroxypropylated sago starch at 12h) with 0.5% κ-carrageenan was comparable to gelatin rheological behavior in pharmaceutical capsule processing. The solution viscosity at 50 °C and sol-gel transition of the proposed composite system were comparable to those of gelatin. The viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") for the proposed system were lower than those of gelatin. These results illustrate that by manipulation of the constituents of sago starch-based composite system, a suitable alternative to gelatin can be produced with comparable properties and this could find potential application in pharmaceutical capsule industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of ZnOnanorodson the Characteristics of Sago Starch Biodegradable Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alebooyeh


    Full Text Available : Nowadays tend to use biodegradable packaging; including edible coatings and films for free from synthetic chemicals and do not cause environmental pollution, the industry is growing day by day. The aim of this research was to preparation and characterization of biodegradable films supported with ZnOnanorods. In this study, sago starch based films were prepared and   plasticized with sorbitol/ glycerol by casting method. ZnOnanorod with 0, 1, 3and 5%(w/wwas added to the films before casting the films. Films were dried at controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as water absorption capacity (WAC, permeability to water vapor (WVP and water solubility of the films were measured.  Also, the effects of addition of nano particles were measured on the antimicrobial properties of the films by agar diffusion method. Results showed that by increasing concentration of ZnOnanorod, solubility in water, WAC, and WVP of the films significantly (p <0.05 decreased. Furthermore, the addition of zinc oxide nanorods showed antimicrobial properties against E. Coli. In summary sago starch films supported with ZnOnanorodscan were used as active packaging for agricultural products as well as food industry. 

  8. Functionalized Carbon Nano-scale Drug Delivery Systems From Biowaste Sago Bark For Cancer Cell Imaging. (United States)

    Abdul Manaf, Shoriya Aruni; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Mandal, Uttam Kumar; Wui, Tin Wong; Roy, Partha


    Nano-scale carbon systems are emerging alternatives in drug delivery and bioimaging applications of which they gradually replace the quantum dots characterized by toxic heavy metal content in the latter application. The work intended to use carbon nanospheres synthesized from biowaste Sago bark for cancer cell imaging applications. This study synthesised carbon nanospheres from biowaste Sago bark using a catalyst-free pyrolysis technique. The nanospheres were functionalized with fluorescent dye coumarin-6 for cell imaging. Fluorescent nanosytems were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X ray, photon correlation spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The average size of carbon nanospheres ranged between 30 and 40 nm with zeta potential of -26.8 ± 1.87 mV. The percentage viability of cancer cells on exposure to nanospheres varied from 91- 89 % for N2a cells and 90-85 % for A-375 cells respectively. Speedy uptake of the fluorescent nanospheres in both N2a and A-375 cells was observed within two hours of exposure. Novel fluorescent carbon nanosystem design following waste-to-wealth approach exhibited promising potential in cancer cell imaging applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  9. A direct borohydride fuel cell employing a sago gel polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaludin, A.; Ahmad, Z.; Ahmad, Z.A.; Mohamad, A.A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)


    The electrochemistry of a direct borohydride fuel cell based on a gel polymer electrolyte was studied. Sago is a type of natural polymer, was employed as the polymer host for the electrolyte. An electrolyte with a composition of sago + 6 M KOH + 2 M NaBH{sub 4} was prepared and evaluated as a novel gel polymer electrolyte for a direct borohydride fuel cell system because it exhibited a high electrical conductivity of 0.270 S cm{sup -1}. The rate at which oxygen was consumed at the cathode can be related to the electric current by comparing the calculated number of electrons reacted per molecule of oxygen for different currents supplied to the fuel cell. From the oxygen consumption data, it was deduced that four electrons reacted per molecule of oxygen. The performance of the fuel cell was measured in terms of its current-voltage, discharge and open circuit voltage measurements. The maximum power density obtained was 8.818 mW cm{sup -2} at a discharge performance of {proportional_to}230 mA h and nominal voltage of 0.806 V. The open circuit voltage of the cells was about 0.900 V and sustained for 23 h. (author)

  10. Aluminium and radiation cross-linked carboxymethyl sago pulp beads for colon targeted delivery. (United States)

    Thenapakiam, Sathasivam; Kumar, Devakumar Ganesh; Pushpamalar, Janarthanan; Saravanan, Muniyandy


    The carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP) with a degree of substitution of 0.4% was synthesized from sago waste. The CMSP beads with an average diameter of 3.1-4.8 mm were formed by aluminium chloride gelation as well as further cross-linked by irradiation. To evaluate colon targeted release, a model drug, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was encapsulated in CMSP beads. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies indicated intact and amorphous nature of entrapped drug. A pH dependent drug release was observed, and about 90% of the drug was released only at pH 7.4 over 9 h. Irradiated beads were resisted the drug release in an acidic environment at a higher extent than non-irradiated beads. The drug release from 6% (w/w) of 5-ASA loaded bead followed zero order, whereas, 15 and 22% loaded beads followed first order. The release exponent n value suggests non-fickian transport of 5-ASA from the beads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of acid-hydrolysis and hydroxypropylation on functional properties of sago starch. (United States)

    Fouladi, Elham; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza


    In this study, sago starch was hydrolyzed by 0.14M HCl for 6, 12, 18, and 24h, and then modified by propylene oxide at a concentration of 0-30% (v/w). The effects of hydrolysis and etherification on molecular weight distribution, physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of dually modified starch were estimated. Acid hydrolysis of starch decreased the molecular weight of starch especially amylopectin, but hydroxypropylation had no effect on the molecular weight distribution. The degree of Molar substitution (DS) of hydroxypropylated starch after acid hydrolysis ranged from 0.007 to 0.15. Dually modified starch with a DS higher than 0.1 was completely soluble in cold water at up to 25% concentration of the starch. This study shows that hydroxypropylation and hydrolysis have synergistic effects unlike individual modifications. Dually modified sago starch can be applied to dip-molding for food and pharmaceutical processing because of its high solubility and low tendency for retrogradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to rice in southern subtropical China. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Barton, Huw J; Wan, Zhiwei; Li, Quan; Ma, Zhikun; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Jun


    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350-2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process.

  13. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of biocomposite films containing chitosan and sago starch impregnated with silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Arockianathan, P Marie; Sekar, S; Kumaran, B; Sastry, T P


    The positive attributes of excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability of biopolymers with versatile biological activities have provided ample opportunities for further development of functional biomaterials of high potential in various fields. The biopolymers used in this study, i.e. chitosan and sago starch are abundantly available in nature and can be used in various biomedical applications. In the present study, the composite films of chitosan (Ch) and sago starch (SG) impregnated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) with and without antibiotic gentamicin (G) were prepared by solvent casting method. The films prepared were characterized for their physic-chemical properties using conventional methods. The results obtained showed that with the increase of chitosan content in the composite results in decrease in its water absorption capacity. The FTIR and SEM studies have shown the composite nature of the films prepared. Ch-SG-AgNP and Ch-SG-AgNP-G composites were used as wound dressing materials in experimental wounds of rats. The healing pattern of the wounds was evaluated by planimetric studies, macroscopic observations, biochemical studies and histopathological observations. The results have shown faster healing pattern in the wounds treated with Ch-SG-AgNP and Ch-SG-AgNP-G composites compared to untreated control. This study suggests that Ch-SG-AgNP film may be a potential candidate as a dressing material for wound healing applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of different feeding strategies in fed batch culture for pullulanase production using sago starch. (United States)

    R, Shankar; M S, Madihah; E M, Shaza; K O, Nur Aswati; A A, Suraini; K, Kamarulzaman


    The production of pullulanase by Bacillus flavothermus KWF-1 in batch and fed batch culture were compared using 2L bioreactor. In batch culture, 0.0803 U/mL of pullulanase activity with specific activity of 0.0213 U/mg was produced by controlling the agitation speed and temperature at 200 rpm and 50 °C, respectively. Fed batch production was studied by feeding the culture with different sago starch concentrations in various feeding modes for enhanced pullulanase production. Exponential feeding mode at dilution rate of 0.01/h was the preeminent strategy for enhanced pullulanase production of 0.1710 U/mL with specific activity of 0.066 U/mg. It had shown an increment of pullulanase production and specific activity by 2.1 and 3.1-fold, respectively when compared to batch culture. Increment of pullulanase activity in exponential feeding mode improved hydrolyzation of sago starch into maltotriose and panose by 4.5 and 2.5-fold respectively compared to batch system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Waste-to-biofuel: production of biobutanol from sago waste residues. (United States)

    Johnravindar, Davidraj; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Wong, Jonathan W C; Elangovan, Namasivayam


    The main concern of extensive production of biobutanol has been associated with the high cost of the substrate and the relatively low tolerance of Clostridia to biobutanol production. In this study, the use of fermentable cassava waste residue (CWR) as substrate for biobutanol production was investigated using solvent-tolerant Clostridium sp. Four of obligatory, solvent-producing bacteria were isolated from sago industry waste sites. The NSW, PNAS1, SB5 and SBI4 strains showed identical profiles of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of Bacillus coagulans, Clostridium bifermentans and Clostridium sp. (97% similarity) and a wide range of carbohydrate substrate; however, the CWR was found to be suitable for the production of biobutanol considerably. Batch culture study was carried out using parameters such as time and temperature and carbon sources have been studied and optimized. Using pre-optimized CWR medium, significant amount of solvent production was observed in NSW, PNAS1, SB5 and SBI4 with 1.53, 3.36, 1.56 and 2.5 g L -1 of butanol yield and 6.84, 9.012, 8.32 and 8.22 g L -1 of total solvents, respectively. On the basis of these studies, NSW is proposed to represent the B. coagulans for butanol production directly from sago waste residues.

  16. Sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to rice in southern subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Yang

    Full Text Available Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350-2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process.

  17. Sago Starch-Mixed Low-Density Polyethylene Biodegradable Polymer: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Enamul Hoque


    Full Text Available This research focuses on synthesis and characterization of sago starch-mixed LDPE biodegradable polymer. Firstly, the effect of variation of starch content on mechanical property (elongation at break and Young’s modulus and biodegradability of the polymer was studied. The LDPE was combined with 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of sago for this study. Then how the cross-linking with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA and electron beam (EB irradiation influence the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer was investigated. In the 2nd study, to avoid overwhelming of data LDPE polymer was incorporated with only 50% of starch. The starch content had direct influence on mechanical property and biodegradability of the polymer. The elongation at break decreased with increase of starch content, while Young’s modulus and mass loss (i.e., degradation were found to increase with increase of starch content. Increase of cross-linker (TMPTA and EB doses also resulted in increased Young’s modulus of the polymer. However, both cross-linking and EB irradiation processes rendered lowering of polymer’s melting temperature. In conclusion, starch content and modification processes play significant roles in controlling mechanical, thermal, and degradation properties of the starch-mixed LDPE synthetic polymer, thus providing the opportunity to modulate the polymer properties for tailored applications.

  18. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream. (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V


    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  19. Effect of chlorsulfuron on growth of submerged aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pectinatus (sago pondweed). (United States)

    Coyner, A; Gupta, G; Jones, T


    Research has been conducted on the effect of chlorsulfuron on non-target plants but little information is available on its effects on aquatic macrophytes. Potamogeton pectinatus (sago pondweed) is an ecologically important submerged aquatic macrophyte found in freshwater bodies. Many species of wildlife use this plant as a food source. The objective of this study was to measure the phytotoxic effects of chlorsulfuron on sago pondweed. P. pectinatus plants were exposed to chlorsulfuron at 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, or 2.0 ppb, in an environmental growth chamber. Plants exposed to 0.25 ppb chlorsulfuron showed a reduction in length (76%), number of leaves (50%), and number of stems (50%), compared to control plants. A reduction (47%) was also observed in the length of stems produced by plants treated with > or = 0.50 ppb chlorsulfuron. Significant reductions in wet and dry weights, and increased mortality were observed on treatments with > or = 1.0 ppb chlorsulfuron.

  20. Sediment bioassay with sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), a submersed aquatic macrophyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, W.J. [NBS, Raleigh, NC (United States); Siesko, M.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Ailstock, M.S. [Anne Arundel Community College, Arnold, MD (United States)


    Sago pondweed explants produced in tissue culture were grown for 6 weeks in sediments from Baltimore Harbor, MD. Although sediments contained up to 9,800 ppm Al, 7.5 ppm Cd, 3,090 ppm Cr, 397 ppm Pb, 530 Cu, 1,320 Sn, 2,040 ppm Zn, and 82,900 ppm oil and grease (all expressed as dry wt.) stepwise linear regression of log transformed contaminant data showed no linkage of reduced plant growth to the contaminants measured. Plant growth was negatively correlated with particle size and particle size was negatively correlated with most contaminant concentrations. In a second study, 17 estuarine sediments, representing a range of low to very high toxicity in Microtox and Hyalella azteca bioassays, were selected for study. Selected sediments contained up to 10 ppm Cd, 135 ppm Cr, 21 ppm Cu, 105 ppm Pb, 15 ppm Ni, and 190 ppm Zn (all expressed as dry wt.). Sago pondweed explants were planted into these sediments and grown for 4 weeks. Biomass production differed significantly among sediments tested. Phytotoxicity of sediments did not correlate well with the toxicity results of the Microtox and Hyalella azteca bioassays nor the metal content of sediments.

  1. Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Subha


    Full Text Available Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R2 of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81% was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87% was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  2. Utilization of Sago Waste as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Cu(II Ion from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Maheswari


    Full Text Available The preparation of activated carbon (AC from sago industry waste is a promising way to produce a useful adsorbent for Cu(II removal, as well as dispose of sago industry waste. The AC was prepared using sago industry waste with H2SO4 and (NH42S2O8 and physico-chemical properties of AC were investigated. The specific surface area of the activated carbon was determined and its properties studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Adsorptive removal of Cu(II from aqueous solution onto AC prepared from sago industry waste has been studied under varying conditions of agitation time, metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose and pH to assess the kinetic and equilibrium parameters. Adsorption equilibrium was obtained in 60min for 20 to 50mg/L of Cu(II concentrations. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm models were found to provide an excellent fitting of the adsorption data. In Freundlich equilibrium isotherm, the RL values obtained were in the range of 0 to 1 (0.043 to 0.31 for Cu(II concentration of 10 to 100mg/L, which indicates favorable adsorption of Cu(II onto Sago waste carbon. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II (Qo obtained from the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm model was found to be 32.467 mg/g at pH 4 ± 0.2 for the particle size range of 125–250u. The percent removal increased with an increase in pH from 2 to 4. This adsorbent was found to be effective and economically attractive.

  3. Physicochemical properties of soils in the sago palm (Metroxylon spp.) growing area of Surat Thani province Thailand (United States)

    Ruairuen, W.; Sparrow, E. B.; Fochesatto, G. J.


    Sago palm is one of the most important plants for sustainable agriculture and rural development in tropical swampy and peaty soils. Where no major crops can grow without drainage or soil improvement. It stores large quantities of starch which can be further processed into various basic raw materials for food, animal feed, industrial uses and alternative energy. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of soil across the sago palm growing areas at Surat Thani province Thailand, where major of sago palms growth naturally exists. The soil samples from three districts Khiri Rat Nikhom (KR; 9 sampling sites), Kanchanadit (KD; 5 sampling sites), and Khian Sa (KS; 2 sampling sites) were studied and compared at 0-15 cm depth during March to June 2016. Observations indicated that the physicochemical properties of soil varied in each growing area. Soil bulk densities averages were lower in KD (0.52 g cm-3) than those in KR (0.58 g cm-3) and KS (0.57 g cm-3). Soil texture around KD and KS were dominated by silty loam. While in KR soil texture was dominated by sandy loam. The average soil conductivity in KS (5.68 mS m-1) was higher than KR (2.62 mS m-1) and KD (1.65 mS m-1). Furthermore, we found the sago palms grow well in a range of soil pH from 5.52 to 7.15, average soil pH: KS (6.8) and KD (6.96), while acid in KR (5.84). We also discuss the conservation activities to adequately protect sago palm, most of which are significantly threatened by habitat destruction and unsustainable harvesting.

  4. Antibacterial, mechanical, and barrier properties of sago starch film incorporated with Betel leaves extract. (United States)

    Nouri, Leila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza


    The antimicrobial, mechanical and barrier properties and light transmission of sago starch film incorporated with different percentage of Betel leaf extract (5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) were evaluated. With regard to mechanical properties, tensile strength decreased when the percentage of extract increased. Elongation at break (%) and seal strength (N/m) increased with increasing percentage of extract from 5% to 20%, while decreased for films containing 30% extract due to heterogeneity of films in this percentage. With regard to barrier properties, water vapour and oxygen barrier properties decreased in all samples when percentage of the extract increased. Antimicrobial activity of all the films increased against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as percentage of Betel leaf extract increased, except for Psuedomonas aeruginosa, which was not susceptible at any percentage of the extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of electron beam irradiation on preparation of sago starch/polyvinyl alcohol foams (United States)

    Wongsuban, Benchamaporn; Muhammad, Kharidah; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Kamaruddin; Ali Hassan, Muhammad


    Blends of sago starch (SS)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were irradiated with doses ranging from 10 to 30 kGy. Foams were then produced from these irradiated blends using a microwave. Changes in the degree of crosslinking, gel strength, thermal stability morphology of blends and linear expansion of foam with increasing irradiation doses were subsequently investigated. It was observed that the degree of crosslinking was important in maximizing the positive effect on foams produced. The gel strength of SS/PVA blends was affected by the irradiation. The crosslinking by the irradiation enhanced the thermal stability of SS/PVA blends. The results also revealed that the highest linear expansion of foams could be produced by irradiation blends at 15 kGy. Changes in blend morphology were observed upon irradiation.

  6. Conversion of Sago (Metroxylon sagu) Pith Waste to Fermentable Sugars via a Facile Depolymerization Process. (United States)

    Pang, Suh Cem; Voon, Lee Ken; Chin, Suk Fun


    The conversion of starchy sago (Metroxylon sagu) pith waste (SPW), a lignocellulosic biomass waste, to fermentable sugars under mild conditions had been successfully demonstrated. The optimum depolymerization of SPW was achieved at 2 wt% sample loading which was catalyzed by 100 mM of oxalic acid in the presence of 25 wt% NaCl solution at 110 °C for 3 h. Up to 97% SPW sample was being converted into fermentable sugars with limited formation of by-products after two sequential depolymerization cycles. Both reaction temperature and concentration of oxalic acid were crucial parameters for the depolymerization of SPW which exhibited a high selectivity for the production of glucose over other reducing sugars.

  7. Recovery of Glucose from Residual Starch of Sago Hampas for Bioethanol Production (United States)

    Awg-Adeni, D. S.; Bujang, K. B.; Hassan, M. A.; Abd-Aziz, S.


    Lower concentration of glucose was often obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis process of agricultural residue due to complexity of the biomass structure and properties. High substrate load feed into the hydrolysis system might solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study, we have attempted to enhance glucose recovery from agricultural waste, namely, “sago hampas,” through three cycles of enzymatic hydrolysis process. The substrate load at 7% (w/v) was seen to be suitable for the hydrolysis process with respect to the gelatinization reaction as well as sufficient mixture of the suspension for saccharification process. However, this study was focused on hydrolyzing starch of sago hampas, and thus to enhance concentration of glucose from 7% substrate load would be impossible. Thus, an alternative method termed as cycles I, II, and III which involved reusing the hydrolysate for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis process was introduced. Greater improvement of glucose concentration (138.45 g/L) and better conversion yield (52.72%) were achieved with the completion of three cycles of hydrolysis. In comparison, cycle I and cycle II had glucose concentration of 27.79 g/L and 73.00 g/L, respectively. The glucose obtained was subsequently tested as substrate for bioethanol production using commercial baker's yeast. The fermentation process produced 40.30 g/L of ethanol after 16 h, which was equivalent to 93.29% of theoretical yield based on total glucose existing in fermentation media. PMID:23509813

  8. Recovery of glucose from residual starch of sago hampas for bioethanol production. (United States)

    Awg-Adeni, D S; Bujang, K B; Hassan, M A; Abd-Aziz, S


    Lower concentration of glucose was often obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis process of agricultural residue due to complexity of the biomass structure and properties. High substrate load feed into the hydrolysis system might solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study, we have attempted to enhance glucose recovery from agricultural waste, namely, "sago hampas," through three cycles of enzymatic hydrolysis process. The substrate load at 7% (w/v) was seen to be suitable for the hydrolysis process with respect to the gelatinization reaction as well as sufficient mixture of the suspension for saccharification process. However, this study was focused on hydrolyzing starch of sago hampas, and thus to enhance concentration of glucose from 7% substrate load would be impossible. Thus, an alternative method termed as cycles I, II, and III which involved reusing the hydrolysate for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis process was introduced. Greater improvement of glucose concentration (138.45 g/L) and better conversion yield (52.72%) were achieved with the completion of three cycles of hydrolysis. In comparison, cycle I and cycle II had glucose concentration of 27.79 g/L and 73.00 g/L, respectively. The glucose obtained was subsequently tested as substrate for bioethanol production using commercial baker's yeast. The fermentation process produced 40.30 g/L of ethanol after 16 h, which was equivalent to 93.29% of theoretical yield based on total glucose existing in fermentation media.

  9. Penggunaan Prebiotik Oligosakarida Ekstrak Tepung Buah Rumbia (Metroxylon sago Rottb. dalam Ransum terhadap Performan Ayam Pedaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daud


    Full Text Available Effect of prebiotic oligosaccharide extract rumbia fruit (Metroxylon sago Rottb. in the ration on broiler performance ABSTRACT. Prebiotic oligosaccharides are thought to provide beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals by stimulating growth of selected members of the intestinal microflora. Prebiotic oligosaccharides are defined as nondigestible food ingredients that provide beneficial effects to the host by stimulating the growth of selected microbial members of the gastrointestinal tract. Among the colonic bacteria capable of metabolizing prebiotic oligosaccharides and whose growth is stimulated are species of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Prebiotic oligosaccharides can be produced in transgli-cosylation reactions catalyzed by glycosidases. Glycosidases from different biological sources have specific ability to catalyze the formation of oligosaccharides with particular chain lengths (usually DP < 7 and predominant glycosidic linkages. Oligosaccharide used this research was purified rumbia fruit extract as prebiotic for feed additive in the ration on broiler. The objectives of this research were to study the performance of broiler given of prebiotic oligosaccharide extract rumbia fruit (metroxylon sago Rottb. in the ration. Two hundred day-old chicks of broiler were divided into three dietary treatments and four replications. Ration used was consisted of: R1 = basal ration (control, R2 = basal ration + 0,4% oligosaccharide extract rumbia fruit, and R3 = basal ration + 0,4% frukto-oligosaccharide (FOS. The variables observed were: feed consumption, body weight, feed conversion ratio, mortality, and production index. The result showed that the performances of the broiler supplemented prebiotic oligosaccharide extract rumbia fruit (R2 was significantly (P < 0.05 differences between of feed consumption, body weight, and mortality. It is concluded that of prebiotic oligosaccharide extract rumbia fruit were able to

  10. Recovery of Glucose from Residual Starch of Sago Hampas for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Awg-Adeni


    Full Text Available Lower concentration of glucose was often obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis process of agricultural residue due to complexity of the biomass structure and properties. High substrate load feed into the hydrolysis system might solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study, we have attempted to enhance glucose recovery from agricultural waste, namely, “sago hampas,” through three cycles of enzymatic hydrolysis process. The substrate load at 7% (w/v was seen to be suitable for the hydrolysis process with respect to the gelatinization reaction as well as sufficient mixture of the suspension for saccharification process. However, this study was focused on hydrolyzing starch of sago hampas, and thus to enhance concentration of glucose from 7% substrate load would be impossible. Thus, an alternative method termed as cycles I, II, and III which involved reusing the hydrolysate for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis process was introduced. Greater improvement of glucose concentration (138.45 g/L and better conversion yield (52.72% were achieved with the completion of three cycles of hydrolysis. In comparison, cycle I and cycle II had glucose concentration of 27.79 g/L and 73.00 g/L, respectively. The glucose obtained was subsequently tested as substrate for bioethanol production using commercial baker’s yeast. The fermentation process produced 40.30 g/L of ethanol after 16 h, which was equivalent to 93.29% of theoretical yield based on total glucose existing in fermentation media.

  11. Formation of porous clay ceramic using sago waste ash as a prospective additive material with controllable milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aripin H.


    Full Text Available A novel type of ceramic material was produced by mixing sago waste ash from the sago processing industry in Indonesia with clay. The composition was prepared by adding 50 %wt amount of sago waste into the clay, then a series of samples was milled for 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The samples were dry pressed and sintered at temperatures ranging from 800°C to 1200°C. The influence of the sintering temperature and the milling time on bulk density, firing shrinkage, water adsorption, and hardness was studied in detail. The results demonstrate that the low water absorption of less than 0.5% and the highest hardness of 5.82 GPa were obtained for the sample sintered at 1100°C and milled for 48 h. The investigation of the absorptive properties of such ceramics indicates that they could be recommended as a promising material for manufacturing of unglazed floor tiles.

  12. Extraction and application of starch-based coagulants from sago trunk for semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment. (United States)

    Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sobri, Nur Izzati Mohamad


    Malaysia is one of the highest starch producers. In this study, sago starch was utilized as a natural coagulant aid to reduce the dosage of aluminum-based coagulant in leachate treatment. The potential of native sago trunk starch (NSTS) and commercial sago starch (CSS) was evaluated as sole coagulant and coagulant aid in the presence of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) in the removal of color, suspended solids (SS), NH3-N, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, organic UV254, Cd, and Ni. Leachate was sampled from Pulau Burung Landfill Site, one of the semi-aerobic landfills in Malaysia. The optimum dosage for PACl in the presence of NSTS or CSS as coagulant aid was reduced from 3100 to 2000 mg/L. In the presence of 2000 mg/L PACl with 6000 mg/L NSTS and 2000 mg/L PACl with 5000 mg/L CSS, the removal performance for color, SS, and turbidity are 94.7, 99.2, and 98.9%, respectively. Similar results were obtained with the use of 3100 mg/L PACl alone. Therefore, CSS and NSTS can be used as coagulant aid.

  13. Functional properties of dually modified sago starch/κ-carrageenan films: An alternative to gelatin in pharmaceutical capsules. (United States)

    Oladzadabbasabadi, Nazila; Ebadi, Shokoufeh; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Karim, A A; Kiahosseini, Seyed Rahim


    The aim of this study was development a composite film based on sago starch and κ-carrageenan to find a gelatin alternative in the pharmaceutical capsules processing. Hydrolyzed-Hydroxypropylated (dually modified) sago starch was mixed with κ-carrageenan (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%). The drying kinetics, thermomechanical, physicochemical, and barrier properties of composite films were estimated and compared with bovine gelatin. Results show that drying kinetics and mechanical properties of the composite films were comparable to those of gelatin. The water vapor permeability and moisture content of the composite films were lower than those of gelatin. The solubility of the composite films was higher than that of gelatin, and the composite films were more stable at higher relative humidity than were the gelatin films. These results show that dually modified sago starch in combination with κ-carrageenan has properties similar to those of gelatin, thus proposed system can be used in pharmaceutical capsules processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect Of Adding Sago Flour In Yoghurt Based On Viscosity, Overrun, Melting Rate And Total Solid Of Yoghurt Ice Cream

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    Ika Ayu Wijayanti


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the best concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt based on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. The experiment was designed by Completely Randomized Design (CRD using four treatments were 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % from volume of fresh milk and four replication. The data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Result of this research showed that concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt gave highly significant difference effect (P<0.01 on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. It can be concluded that the adding of sago flour 2% in yoghurt gave the best result with the viscosity was 1750.75 cP, overrun was 25.14%, melting rate was 39.13 minutes/50 g, total solid was 36.20% and gave the best quality of yoghurt ice cream.

  15. EVALUASI KADAR PATI TAHAN CERNA (PTC DAN NILAI INDEKS GLIKEMIK MI SAGU (Evaluation of Enzymatically Resistant Starch and Glycemix Index of Sago Noodle

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    Sri Yuliani


    Full Text Available This paper expressed the level of glycemic index and content of resistant starch of sago noodle. Determination of starch resistant of sago noodle is necessary because it is correlated with the value of glycamic index. Resistant starch content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. RS content from four kinds of sago noodle ranged between 7,55 - 9,45 mg/g substances. Pancasan sago noodle showed the highest RS content, and this was further used to analysis the glycemix index. The glycemic index was determined based on ratio of area under blood glucose curve which represent total carbohydrate available from the 50 g glucose to the area under blood glucose curve which represent the glucose content after consumption of 50 gram glucose. The tested used seven health volunteers and resulted in glycemix index about 28. This level was considered low affect the blood glucose consuming. The sago noodle therefore the noodle can be constued by diebetes people.

  16. Influence of hydraulic retention time in a two-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating textile dyeing effluent using sago effluent as the co-substrate. (United States)

    Senthilkumar, M; Gnanapragasam, G; Arutchelvan, V; Nagarajan, S


    Textile dyeing and sago industries are the most polluting industries in South India, especially in industrial cities like Salem, Tamil Nadu, where textile dyeing and sago industries are clumped together geographically. Conventional physicochemical treatment followed by biological processes for the effluent generated from these industries are ineffective, costlier and produce huge quantities of hazardous sludge and harmful by-products which requires further treatment and safe disposal. Hence, the development of an alternative treatment method will become important. The main objective of this investigation is to establish a sustainable biotreatment technology for the treatment of textile dyeing effluent using sago effluent as co-substrate in a two-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. In this study, influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) in a two-phase UASB reactor treating textile dyeing effluent using sago effluent as co-substrate was investigated with different HRTs (36, 30, 24 and 18 h) with an optimum mixing ratio of 70:30 (sago to textile dye wastewaters). The results revealed that the HRT had a high influence on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal. The maximum COD removal efficiency of 39.4% and 88.5% and colour removal efficiency of 43.7% and 84.4% in the acidogenic and methanogenic reactors, respectively was achieved at 24 h of HRT. The biogas production was 312 L/day. The biphasic UASB reactor could be a very feasible alternative, cost-effective, eco-friendly and sustainable treatment system for textile dyeing effluent with sago effluent as a co-substrate.

  17. PROTOTIPE ALAT PENGEKSTRAK PATI SAGU TIPE MIXER ROTARY BLADE BERTENAGA MOTOR BAKAR Prototype of Mixer Rotary Blade of Sago Starch Extractor Powered by Internal Combustion Engine

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    Darma Darma


    Full Text Available Papua and West Papua Province have a large potential of sago. Approximately 994,000 hectares, mostly natural sago forest was existed in this area. Sago starch has long been an important source of nutrition troughout Papua. Product of sago palm is not only starch as source of carbohydrate for food stuff, but also for basic material of industries such as paper, plywood, hardboard, and food indutries. Traditional methods are used for starch extraction in almost all part of Papu, which is not efficient and production capacity is very low. The effort to increase sago starch production could be carry out by introducing mechanical equipment (traditional to mechanized processing. The objective of this research was to design mixer rotary blade of sago starch extraction powered by internal combustion engine. The result was prototype of mechanical sago starch extractor. The prototype has high performance with extraction capacity 160 kg of disintegrated pith per hour or equal to 33 kg of wet starch per hour, extractable starch more than 99 % while starch losses in hampas less lhan 1 %. Hopefully, application of this machine to the sago farmer will transform agricultural system from subsistence to commercial. It means that increasing of economic income. In conclusion, technically and economically this prototype was feasible. ABSTRAK Provinsi Papua dan Papua Barat memiliki potensi sagu yang sangat besar. Sekitar 994.000 hektar yang sebagian besar merupakan hutan sagu alam terdapat di kedua provinsi ini. Pati sagu telah lama digunakan sebagai sumber nutrisi bagi penduduk asli papua. Pati sagu tidak hanya digunakan sebagai sumber karbohidrat, namun juga digunakan seba- gai bahan dasar industri kertas, plywood, hardbord, dan pangan. Pengolahan sagu secara tradisional yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat tidak efisien dan kapasitas produksinya sangat rendah. Peningkatan produksi dapat dilakukan dengan mengintroduksi peralatan pengolahan mekanis untuk merubah metode

  18. Evaluation of microwave assisted grafted sago starch as controlled release polymeric carrier. (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Vikram; Nath, Lila Kanta


    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to develop a new co-polymeric material for controlled release tablet formulations. The acrylamide grafting was successfully performed on the backbone of sago starch. The modified starch was tested for acute toxicity and drug-excipient compatibility study. The grafted material was used in making of controlled release tablets of lamivudine. The formulations were evaluated for physical characteristics such as hardness, friability, %drug content and weight variations. The in vitro release study showed that the optimized formulation exhibited highest correlation (R) value in case of Higuchi model and the release mechanism of the optimized formulation predominantly exhibited combination of diffusion and erosion process. There was a significant difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters (T(max), C(max), AUC, V(d), T(1/2) and MDT) of the optimized formulation as compared to the marketed conventional tablet Lamivir(®) was observed. The pharmacokinetics parameters were showed controlled pattern and better bioavailability. The optimized formulation exhibited good stability and release profile at the accelerated stability conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Conservation and Management of the Endangered Fiji Sago Palm, Metroxylon vitiense, in Fiji (United States)

    Morrison, Clare; Rounds, Isaac; Watling, Dick


    Recovery planning is a key component of many threatened species conservation initiatives and can be a powerful awareness raising tool. One of the largest impediments to conservation efforts in the Pacific region however, is the lack of ecological data and its subsequent effects on the development of feasible and useful recovery plans for threatened species. Without these plans, the understaffed, underfunded and often technically ill-equipped conservation agencies face huge difficulties in planning, prioritizing and conducting conservation activities to adequately protect biodiversity. The Fiji sago palm, Metroxylon vitiense, is an endemic endangered palm species whose survival is heavily dependent on a feasible species recovery plan. It is geographically restricted and threatened by habitat destruction and overexploitation for thatch for the tourism industry and palm heart consumption by local consumers. Despite its threatened status, M. vitiense is not currently protected by national or international legislation. Recent field surveys and extensive stakeholder consultation have resulted in the production of a species recovery plan highlighting the importance of the species and advocating sustainable harvesting rather than complete bans to promote conservation. This article summarizes the recovery plan and its current effects on the status of M. vitiense in Fiji. We also discuss the role of different stakeholders in the conservation of M. vitiense, including the absence of significant behavioral changes by the largest consumer - the tourism industry, and the importance of recovery plans for biodiversity conservation in the Pacific.

  20. Characterisation of hydroxypropylated crosslinked sago starch as compared to commercial modified starches

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    Saowakon Wattanachant


    Full Text Available The characteristics of hydroxypropylated crosslinked sago starch (HPST were determined and compared with five types of commercial modified starches (CMST in order to evaluate its quality for further applications. The HPST was prepared on a large scale having molar substitution (MS and degree substitution (DS values in the range of 0.038 to 0.045 and 0.004 to 0.005, respectively. The properties of HPST in terms of sediment volume, swelling power, solubility and paste clarity were 15.75%, 16.7, 8.62% and 5.18%T650 , respectively. The MS value, phosphorus content, paste clarity, swelling power and syneresis after six freeze-thaw cycles of HPST when compared to that of commercially available modified starches which are normally used or incorporated in acidic, frozen and canned foods did not differ significantly. The pasting characteristic of HPST exhibited thin to thick viscosity which was similar (P>0.05 to that of commercial hydroxypropylated crosslinked tapioca starch (NAT 8. The acid stability, solubility and freeze-thaw stability of both starches were also similar (P>0.05 but the swelling power of HPST was slightly lower (P<0.05 than that of NAT 8 .

  1. Net photosynthesis and respiration of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) exposed to herbicides (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Ailstock, M.S.; Momot, J.J.; Hughes, Jane S.; Biddinger, Gregory R.; Mones, Eugene


    We determined net photosynthesis and respiration rates for sago pondweed (potamogeton pectinatus) exposed to various concentrations of 11 herbicides widely used in Maryland during the past decade. Net photosynthesis and respiration were determined by measuring changes in the. oxygen content of solutions containing dilutions of technical grade herbicides. At 20-22? C and 58 umol/m2/sec of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), oxygen production of undosed plants averaged 0.72-2.03 mg/g fresh wt/h. Respiration rates of undosed plants averaged 0.46-0.60 mg O2/g fresh wt/h. Nominal herbicide concentrations (ng/L) that reduced net photosynthesis by 5O percent (IC5O) were: metribuzin, 8; atrazine, 29; cyanazine, 32; linuron, 70; simazine, 164; and paraquat, 240. IC5O values for 2,4-D, acifluorfen, glyphosate and metolachlor exceeded the maximum test concentration of 10,000 ng/L. The IC5O value for alachlor was estimated to be between 1,000 and 10,000 ng/L. None of the herbicides tested had a significant effect on dark respiration.

  2. Response of sago pondweed, a submerged aquatic macrophyte, to herbicides in three laboratory culture systems (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Ailstock, M.S.; Momot, J.J.; Norman, C.M.; Gorsuch, Joseph W.; Lower, William R.; Wang, Wun-cheng; Lewis, M.A.


    The phytotoxicity of atrazine, paraquat, glyphosate, and alachlor to sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), a submerged aquatic macrophyte, was tested under three types of laboratory culture conditions. In each case, tests were conducted in static systems, the test period was four weeks, and herbicide exposure was chronic, resulting from a single addition of herbicide to the test vessels at the beginning of the test period. The three sets of test conditions employed were(1) axenic cultures in 125-mL flasks containing a nutrient media and sucrose; (2) a microcosm system employing 18.9-L buckets containing a sand, shell, and peat substrate; and (3) an algae-free system employing O.95-L jars containing reconstituted freshwater and a nutrient agar substrate. The primary variable measured was biomass production. Plants grew well in all three test systems, with biomass of untreated plants increasing by a factor of about 5 to 6.5 during the four-week test period. Biomass production in response to herbicide exposure differed significantly among culture systems, which demonstrates the need for a standardized testing protocol for evaluating the effects of toxics on submerged aquatic plants.

  3. Dual Cross-Linked Carboxymethyl Sago Pulp-Gelatine Complex Coacervates for Sustained Drug Delivery

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    Saravanan Muniyandy


    Full Text Available In the present work, we report for the first time the complex coacervation of carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP with gelatine for sustained drug delivery. Toluene saturated with glutaraldehyde and aqueous aluminum chloride was employed as cross-linkers. Measurements of zeta potential confirm neutralization of two oppositely charged colloids due to complexation, which was further supported by infrared spectroscopy. The coacervates encapsulated a model drug ibuprofen and formed microcapsules with a loading of 29%–56% w/w and an entrapment efficiency of 85%–93% w/w. Fresh coacervates loaded with drug had an average diameter of 10.8 ± 1.93 µm (n = 3 ± s.d.. The coacervates could encapsulate only the micronized form of ibuprofen in the absence of surfactant. Analysis through an optical microscope evidenced the encapsulation of the drug in wet spherical coacervates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the non-spherical geometry and surface roughness of dried drug-loaded microcapsules. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis confirmed intact and crystalline ibuprofen in the coacervates. Gas chromatography indicated the absence of residual glutaraldehyde in the microcapsules. Dual cross-linked microcapsules exhibited a slower release than mono-cross-linked microcapsules and could sustain the drug release over the period of 6 h following Fickian diffusion.


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    Sunil Bajpai


    Full Text Available In this work, sago starch based films have been loaded with ZnO nanoparticles prepared insitu via using an unique equilibration-cum-hydrothermal approach. The films have been characterized by XRD, DSC,SPR ,FTIR and SEM analysis. The moisture absorption behavior of plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films have been studied at 23, 31 and 37o C.The equilibrium moisture uptake data was found to fit well on GAB isotherm model and the monolayer sorption capacity Mo for the plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films was 0.089, 0.039 ,0.021 g/g and 0.042, 0.012, 0.007 g/g at 23,31 and 37 oC respectively. Moreover, the water vapor transmission rates (WVTR for plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films at 23,31,37 oC were 11.19x10-4, 48.9x10-4, 62.1x10-4 and 3.73 x10-4, 6.21x10-4, 24.8x10-4 respectively. These films have shown excellent antibacterial action against model bacteria E.coli when investigated qualitatively by zone inhibition method. Films exhibit great potential to be used as packaging films to protect food stuff against microbial contaminents.

  5. Conservation and management of the endangered Fiji sago palm, Metroxylon vitiense, in Fiji. (United States)

    Morrison, Clare; Rounds, Isaac; Watling, Dick


    Recovery planning is a key component of many threatened species conservation initiatives and can be a powerful awareness raising tool. One of the largest impediments to conservation efforts in the Pacific region however, is the lack of ecological data and its subsequent effects on the development of feasible and useful recovery plans for threatened species. Without these plans, the understaffed, underfunded and often technically ill-equipped conservation agencies face huge difficulties in planning, prioritizing and conducting conservation activities to adequately protect biodiversity. The Fiji sago palm, Metroxylon vitiense, is an endemic endangered palm species whose survival is heavily dependent on a feasible species recovery plan. It is geographically restricted and threatened by habitat destruction and overexploitation for thatch for the tourism industry and palm heart consumption by local consumers. Despite its threatened status, M. vitiense is not currently protected by national or international legislation. Recent field surveys and extensive stakeholder consultation have resulted in the production of a species recovery plan highlighting the importance of the species and advocating sustainable harvesting rather than complete bans to promote conservation. This article summarizes the recovery plan and its current effects on the status of M. vitiense in Fiji. We also discuss the role of different stakeholders in the conservation of M. vitiense, including the absence of significant behavioral changes by the largest consumer - the tourism industry, and the importance of recovery plans for biodiversity conservation in the Pacific.

  6. Fermentation RS3 derived from sago and rice starch with Clostridium butyricum BCC B2571 or Eubacterium rectale DSM 17629. (United States)

    Purwani, Endang Yuli; Purwadaria, Tresnawati; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja


    Resistant starch type 3 (RS3) is retrograded starch which is not digested by human starch degrading enzyme, and will thus undergo bacterial degradation in the colon. The main fermentation products are the Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA): acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFA has significant benefit impact on the metabolism of the host. The objectives of this research were to study the SCFA profile produced by colonic butyrate producing bacteria grown in medium containing RS3. RS3 was made from sago or rice starch treated with amylase, pullulanase and the combination of amylase and pullulanase. Fermentation study was performed by using Clostridium butyricum BCC B2571 or Eubacterium rectale DSM 17629, which has been identified as capable of degradation of starch residue and also regarded as beneficial bacteria. Experimental result revealed that enzyme hydrolysis of retrograded sago or rice starch was beneficial to RS formation. RS3 derived from sago contained higher RS (31-38%) than those derived from rice starch (21-26%). This study indicated that C. butyricum BCC B2571 produced acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.8 : 1 : 1, when the medium was supplemented with RSSA at concentration 1%. In the medium containing similar substrate, E. rectale DSM 17629 produced acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.7 : 1 : 1.2. High levels of acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.8 : 1 : 1.1 was also produced by E. rectale DSM 17629 in medium supplemented with RSSP at concentration 1%. The results showed that both bacteria responded differently to the RS3 supplementation. Such result provided insight into the possibility of designing RS3 as prebiotic with featured regarding SCFA released in the human colon with potential health implication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of the humification degree of peat soil under sago (Metroxylon sagu cultivation based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectroscopic characteristics

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    S.F. Sim


    Full Text Available Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu is a tropical crop that can survive the acidic conditions of peat soil, which is cultivated at large scale in Sarawak (Malaysia. The performance of sago palm on deep peat is variable, and not all specimens are able to grow to maturity and produce a trunk. It is hypothesised that sago growth may be influenced by peat humification because a positive relationship between the fertility of peat soil and its degree of humification has been well reported. This article investigates the humification degree of peat soil used for cultivation of sago palms, as indicated by spectroscopic characteristics. The peat soil adjacent to trunking and non-trunking palms was sampled and compared with exposed uncultivated peat. The results showed that, where largely undecomposed woody material predominated in the underlying peat, degree of humification decreased with increasing depth. Uncultivated peat was more highly humified than cultivated peat because the latter was continuously replenished with new plant matter. On the basis of FTIR spectroscopy, no significant difference was found between cultivated peat sampled adjacent to trunking and non-trunking palms. On the other hand, the UV-Vis and FTIR data suggested lower humification degree in the underlying peat which may have led to inconsistent growth.


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    Goan-Hong Lie


    Full Text Available Di negara-negara yang sedang berkembang seperti Indonesia, sagu asal pohon sagu, sebagai bahan makanan pokok sehari-hari hanya cocok dalam lingkungan alamiahnya yang khas. Berbeda dengan padi-padian (serealia seperti beras, jagung, gandum, sagu asal pohon sagu praktis tidak mengandung protein, tapi terutama hanya karbohidrat saja dalam bentuk pati. Walaupun sagu tidak mengandung protein, keadaan gizi si pemakan sagu alamiah ("natural sago-eater" tidak jelek, lingkungan alam di mana si pemakan sagu hidup dan pohon sagu tumbuh secara alamiah, terdiri dari rawa-rawa dan sungai yang sangat kaya akan ikan. Keperluan tubuh sehari-hari akan protein dari si pemakan sagu dapat dipenuhi seluruhnya dengan protein ikan yang mempunyai nilai biologik tinggi. Di samping itu, untuk penduduk yang jumlahnya memang terbatas (kecil, persediaan sa­gu selalu ada cukup untuk memenuhi keperluan tubuh sehari-hari akan enersi. Seandainya penduduk pulau Jawa harus mengganti makanan pokok padi-padian atau serealia se­perti beras atau jagung, untuk suatu jangka waktu yang cukup lama, dengan bahan makanan sagu asal pohon sagu, diduga akan terjadi suatu penderitaan kekurangan protein. Karena di pulau Jawa sumber protein yang akan menjamin kecukupan protein sehari-hari, tidak tersedia dalam jumlah cukup diban­ding dengan jumlah penduduk. Untuk penduduk pulau Jawa, sagu akan sangat berguna hanya sebagai sumber enersi tambahan saja (energy expander. Karena sagu dalam bentuk lempeng dapat disimpan lama, maka sagu lempeng dapat dipertimbang­kan sebagai makanan darurat (emergency food dalam keadaan musibah atau bencana alam.


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    Yusi Rosalina


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to collect information regarding carbon storage, particularly the carbon stored in the aboveground biomass as well as in the peat soil. The study site was in a conservation area of the PT National Sago Prima belonging to the PT Sampoerna Agro Tbk. Group. The work was undertaken in January-February 2012. The total aboveground biomass and carbon storage in the research site indicates  that the conservation area is a secondary peat swamp forest, with the biomass of 149.18 ton/ha and carbon stock of 70.12 ton C/ha. The aboveground biomass and carbon consisted of biomass and carbon of tree (83.97 ton/ha containing 39.47 ton C/ha, respectively, saplings (20.69 ton/ha containing 9.72 ton C/ha and seedlings and undergrowth plants (0.03 ton/ha containing 0.01 ton C/ha, wood  necromass (24.06 ton/ha containing 11.31 ton C/ha, and litter (20.44 ton/ha containing 9.61 ton C/ha. An allometric equation was developed for Pandanus atrocarpus Griff. providing an estimated total biomass and carbon of 5.16 ton/ha containing 2.42 ton C/ha. The underground C with the mean peat depth of 5.5 m, mean bulk density of  0.18 g/cm3, and the mean organic C of 46.6 % was 464.895,94 ton C/ha. In the entire conservation forest area of 541 ha the total aboveground biomassa and carbon storage was estimated to be  80,708.64 ton and 37,934.00 ton C, while the total underground carbon was 238,96 million MT C.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Amyloglucosidase Enzyme from the Thermophilic Endomycopsis fibuligera Using Sago Starch as a Substrate

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    Ahyar Ahmad


    Full Text Available An investigation on purification and characterization of amyloglucosidase enzyme from Endomycopsis fibuligera by fermentation of sago starch has been carried out. This enzyme is inductive and can be produced by fermenting sago starch in a medium containing E. fibuligera. Crude enzyme was obtained by centrifuging the medium cultures containing E. fibuligera at 6,000 rpm for 20 min and then adding with 0.15 M acetate buffer (pH 5.0. Enzyme activity was determined using Somogyi-Nelson method by quantifying the released glucose from amyloglucosidase catalysis of starch (0.2% as substrate. Prepurification process was conducted by ammonium sulphate fractionation and it showed that the ammonium sulphate fractionation with the degree of saturation of 40-60% produced a maximum activity of enzyme. Purification by DEAE-Cellulose and Sephadex G-75 column chromatography produced three and one fractions with purifity 17.4 and 22.5 times, respectively, compared to the crude extract enzyme. Characterization of this enzyme showed the optimum condition at pH 5.0 and 55 °C with 0.2% starch as substrate. The amyloglucosidase activities was strongly increased by addition of Co2+ and Mn2+ ions, whereas the activities were weakly decreased by addition of K+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ ions.

  11. Process optimization and performance evaluation on sequential ionic liquid dissolution-solid acid saccharification of sago waste. (United States)

    Lee, Kiat Moon; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Chua, Adeline Seak May


    The production of reducing sugars from sago waste via sequential ionic liquid dissolution-solid acid saccharification was optimized in this study. Ionic liquid dissolution of sago waste with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) was conducted prior to the solid acid saccharification with Amberlyst 15 (A15). The effect of time, temperature and substrate loading during dissolution reaction; and the effect of time, temperature and catalyst loading during saccharification reaction were examined by applying central composite design (CCD) separately. Both dissolution and saccharification reactions were respectively modeled into quadratic polynomial equations with good predictive accuracies. A high reducing sugars yield of 98.3% was obtained under the optimized conditions, i.e. dissolution at 1.75h, 160°C, 1.5% substrate loading, and saccharification at 0.5h, 130°C, 4% catalyst loading. From comparison studies of different saccharification schemes, the sequential ionic liquid dissolution-solid acid saccharification has proven to be a potential method in reducing sugars production from the lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterization of irradiated carboxymethyl sago starch-acid hydrogel and its application as metal scavenger in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Basri, Sri Norleha; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Hashim, Kamaruddin; Yusof, Nor Azah


    Carboxymethyl sago starch-acid hydrogel was prepared via irradiation technique to remove divalent metal ions (Pb, Cu and Cd) from their aqueous solution. The hydrogel was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of these metal ions was analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-optic emission spectra (ICP-OES) to study the amount of metal uptake by the hydrogel. Parameters of study include effect of pH, amount of sample, contact time, initial concentration of metal solution and reaction temperature. FTIR spectroscopy shows the CMSS hydrogel absorption peaks at 1741cm(-1), 1605cm(-1) and 1430cm(-1) which indicates the substitution of carboxymethyl group of modified sago starch. The degradation temperature of CMSS hydrogel is higher compared to CMSS due to the crosslinking by electron beam radiation and formed a porous hydrogel. From the data obtained, about 93.5%, 88.4% and 85.5% of Pb, Cu and Cd ions has been respectively removed from their solution under optimum condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sago supplementation for recovery from cycling in a warm-humid environment and its influence on subsequent cycling physiology and performance. (United States)

    Che Jusoh, Mohd Rahimi; Stannard, Stephen R; Mündel, Toby


    This study determined whether sago porridge ingested immediately after exercise (Exercise 1) in warm-humid conditions (30 ± 1°C, 71 ± 4 % RH; 20 km·h -1 frontal airflow) conferred more rapid recovery, as measured by repeat performance (Exercise 2), compared to a control condition. Eight well-trained, male cyclists/triathletes (34 ± 9 y, VO 2 peak 70 ± 10 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 , peak aerobic power 413 ± 75 W) completed two 15-min time-trials pre-loaded with 15-min warm-up cycling following >24h standardization of training and diet. Mean power output was not different between trials during Exercise 1 (286 ± 67 vs. 281 ± 59 W), however, was reduced during Exercise 2 for control (274 ± 61 W) but not sago (283 ± 60 W) that led to a significant performance decrement (vs. Exercise 1) of 3.9% for control and an improvement (vs. control) of 3.7% for sago during Exercise 2 ( P Sago ingestion was also associated with higher blood glucose concentrations during recovery compared to control. These results indicate that feeding sago during recovery from exercise in a warm-humid environment improves recovery of performance during a subsequent exercise bout when compared to a water-only control. As these effects were larger than the test-retest coefficient of variation for work completed during the 15-min time-trial (2.3%) it can be confidently concluded that the observed effects are real.


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    Eko Sulistyono


    Full Text Available dilakukan untuk menjawab apakah pemberian mulsa dapat menghambat pertumbuhan jumlah anakan sagu (Metroxylon sago Rottb.  Penelitian disusun dalam Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan enam ulangan. Perlakuan adalah tanpa mulsa, pemulsaan dengan tebal 30 cm, dan pemulsaan dengan tebal 60 cm.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian mulsa mempengaruhi jumlah anakan, jumlah daun anakan terpangkas, tinggi anakan terpangkas, tetapi tidak mempengaruhi jumlah daun dan ukuran daun anakan terpelihara.  Pemberian mulsa dengan tebal 60 cm menurunkan jumlah anakan sebesar 73.7% dibandingkan dengan control (tanpa pemberian mulsa pada dua minggu setelah pemberian mulsa.  Pemberian mulsa dengan tebal 60 cm juga menurunkan jumlah daun anakan terpangkas sebesar 51%, 28% dan 19% masing-masing pada dua, empat dan enam minggu setelah pemberian mulsa.  Penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa pemberian mulsa dengan tebal 60 cm dapat menghambat jumlah anakan terpangkas dari tanaman sagu

  15. KARAKTERISTIK PATI DARI BATANG SAGU KALIMANTAN BARAT PADA TAHAP PERTUMBUHAN YANG BERBEDA Characteristics of Starch from West Kalimantan Sago Trunks at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maherawati Maherawati


    Full Text Available Sago (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. is a potentially starch source crop. However, in West Kalimantan the use of sago is still limited. There is lack information about sago starch characteristics in relation to growth stages of the palm. Therefore, this study was aimed to observe the characteristics of sago starch extracted from the trunk at variatious growth stages. Sago trunks were taken from Sui Bemban and Sui Ambawang villages, Kubu Raya regency, West Kalimantan. They were classified into four different physiological growth stages, namely dewasa (9 yr, jantung (10 yr, rusa (11 yr, and bunga (12 yr old. The starch was extracted in laboratory and then dried at 50 °C. Dried sago starches were analyzed for their chemical compositions (moisture, fat, protein, ash, carbohydrate, fibre, and amylose contents, physical cha- racteristics (colour and the granule form, functional characteristics (water absorpsion, oil absorpsion, swelling power, and solubility. Pasting properties were  characterized by Brabender amylograhpy. Results indicated that chemical composition and physical characteristics of the sago starches extracted from 9-12 year-old trunks were not signifi- cantly differrent. The highest rendement obtained from 10 – 11 year-old trunks. Amylose content was 41.8 % which was categorized as high. Functional characteristics as shown by the amylograph revealed that sago starch has type-C curve. Starch extracted from 9 yr old trunk gave the highest paste viscosity which was the most suitable for for use in product that needs a strong gelling property. ABSTRAK Sagu (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. sangat potensial sebagai sumber pati, namun di Kalimantan Barat pemanfaatan sagu sebagai sumber pati masih terbatas. Belum ada informasi mengenai hubungan tahap pertumbuhan dengan sifat-sifat pati sagu yang dihasilkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik pati sagu pada beberapa tahap pertumbuh- an. Tanaman sagu diperoleh dari Desa Sui Bemban dan

  16. Heterologous expression of Thermobifida fusca thermostable alpha-amylase in Yarrowia lipolytica and its application in boiling stable resistant sago starch preparation. (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Yu-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Wen, Chia-Ying


    A gene encoding the thermostable alpha-amylase in Thermobifida fusca NTU22 was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and cloned into Yarrowia lipolytica P01g host strain using the vector pYLSC1 allowing constitutive expression and secretion of the protein. Recombinant expression resulted in high levels of extracellular amylase production, as high as 730 U/l in the Hinton flask culture broth. It is higher than that observed in P. pastoris expression system and E. coli expression system. The purified amylase showed a single band at about 65 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and this agrees with the predicted size based on the nucleotide sequence. About 70% of the original activity remained after heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 3 h. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified amylase were 7.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively. The purified amylase exhibited a high level of activity with raw sago starch. After 72-h treatment, the DP(w) of raw sago starch obviously decreased from 830,945 to 237,092. The boiling stable resistant starch content of the sago starch increased from 8.3 to 18.1%. The starch recovery rate was 71%.

  17. Assessment of Active Landslides in Sanbaro Sago Valley, Blue-Nile Catchment, Ethiopia (United States)

    Hailemariam Gugsa, Trufat


    In fall of 2009, a detail field mapping was carried out in the Sanbaro Sago Valley, south-eastern of Blue-Nile catchment, to inspect the landslide processes that affected the livelihood of more than 6,000 peoples. The valley is a part of Ethiopian highlands where long histories of rainfall triggered landslides are prominent. The villagers suffered the recurring landslides for the last five years, even at present; there are numerous evidences of active landslides, with some actual slides currently taking place. The nature their activity indicate high probability of destructive phenomena within the foreseeable future. The landslides already damaged houses, farm plots and drainage ditch, as well; more than 40 causalities are recorded. Most of the dwellers have been permanently displaced from their residences, as they lost their houses and farm plots. A preliminary zoning was made through the interpretation of satellite images (+ETM Land sat) that drape over the digital elevation model of the area, which followed by detail field investigation to map the geological, geomorphological, and anthropogenic factors that contribute to the landslide activity. The valley consists of low lying graben bounded by steep scarps that characterized by highly weathered Tertiary basaltic rocks covered with Quaternary deposits. Structurally controlled, alluvial and denudational landforms are present. There are distinct geomorphic units formed by differences in the lithology of the various basalt types. The Quaternary deposits along the ridge that has many rills and incised gullies are characterized by weathered basalts and alluvial-colluvial deposits. The elevation of the valley ranges from 1290m to 3200m m.a.s.l. The steep slopes, volcanic hills, exposed on the downthrown side of the major scarps have been modified by erosion, resulting in a highly dissected topography with steep gullies. This makes the steep slopes of the ridge to be one of landslide prone areas. Many of the active

  18. Expression of Thermobifida fusca thermostable raw starch digesting alpha-amylase in Pichia pastoris and its application in raw sago starch hydrolysis. (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Yu-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Wen, Chia-Ying


    A gene encoding the thermostable raw starch digesting alpha-amylase in Thermobifida fusca NTU22 was amplified by PCR, sequenced and cloned into Pichia pastoris X-33 host strain using the vector pGAPZalphaA, allowing constitutive expression and secretion of the protein. Recombinant expression resulted in high levels of extracellular amylase production, as high as 510 U/l in the Hinton flask culture broth. The purified amylase showed a single band at about 65 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after being treated with endo-beta-N-acetylglycosaminidase H, and this agrees with the predicted size based on the nucleotide sequence. About 75% of the original activity remained after heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 3 h. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified amylase were 7.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively. The purified amylase exhibited a high level of activity with raw sago starch. After 48-h treatment, the DPw of raw sago starch obviously decreased from 830,945 to 378,732. The surface of starch granules was rough, and some granules displayed deep cavities.

  19. Production of Solvent (acetone-butanol-ethanol in Continuous Fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 Using Gelatinised Sago Starch as a Carbon Source

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    Liew, S. T.


    Full Text Available Solvent production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 was carried out in a single stage continuous culture using 2 L stirred tank fermenter with gelatinised sago starch as a carbon source. From the study it was found that the condition could be adjusted to suit for acids production (high dilution rate and high pH or solvent production (low dilution rate and low pH by manipulating the dilution rate and culture pH of single stage continuous fermentation. The highest solvent concentration in outflow (9.10 g/L was obtained at pH 4.5 and dilution rate of 0.05 h^1, which corresponds to overall productivity of 0.46 g/L.h. However, the highest total solvent productivity (0.85 g/L.h was obtained at dilution rate of 0.11 h-1 and pH 4.5, which gave a total solvent yield of 0.29 g solvent/g sago starch. Although the total solvent productivity was greatly increased in continuous culture, the final solvent concentration attained in outflow was decreased by about 53% as compared to batch culture.

  20. Effect of converting wetland forest to sago palm plantations on methane gas flux and organic carbon dynamics in tropical peat soil (United States)

    Inubushi, K.; Hadi, A.; Okazaki, M.; Yonebayashi, K.


    The effect of changing wetland forest to sago palm plantations on methane gas flux and organic carbon dynamics in tropical peat soil was studied in the field and the laboratory using soil samples from the Peat Research Station, Sarawak, Malaysia. A small amount of methane was released from the soil surface of both the forest and plantation field, with no significant difference between the two sites (1·1+/-0·61 and 1·39+/-0·82 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1, respectively); thus, the amount of methane emission from the total area of tropical peat soil was estimated, preliminarily, as 2·43 Tg yr-1, contributing 0·45% of the total global methane emission and 2·1% of methane emissions from global natural wetland. However, large amounts of methane were accumulated in the deeper soil layers. Sago palm contained much less carbon as biomass, but lost more as the carbon dissolved in groundwater. Laboratory experiments showed that incorporation of rice straw into tropical peat soil increased methane formation significantly. Conversely, ammonium sulfate suppressed methane formation in tropical peat soil.

  1. Optimization of ozonation process for the reduction of excess sludge production from activated sludge process of sago industry wastewater using central composite design. (United States)

    Subha, B; Muthukumar, M


    Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R(2)) of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  2. Radiation cross-linked carboxymethyl sago pulp hydrogels loaded with ciprofloxacin: Influence of irradiation on gel fraction, entrapped drug and in vitro release (United States)

    Lam, Yi Lyn; Muniyandy, Saravanan; Kamaruddin, Hashim; Mansor, Ahmad; Janarthanan, Pushpamalar


    Carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP) with 0.4 DS, viscosity 184 dl/g and molecular weight 76,000 g/mol was synthesized from sago waste. 10 and 20% w/v solutions of CMSP were irradiated at 10-30 kGy to form hydrogels and were characterized by % gel fraction (GF). Irradiation of 20% CMSP using 25 kGy has produced stable hydrogels with the highest % GF and hence loaded with ciprofloxacin HCl. Drug-loaded hydrogels were produced by irradiating the mixture of drug and 20% CMSP solution at 25 kGy. After irradiation, the hydrogels were cut into circular discs with a diameter of 6±1 mm and evaluated for physicochemical properties as well as drug release kinetics. The ciprofloxacin loading in the disc was 14.7%±1 w/w with an entrapment efficiency of 73.5% w/w. The low standard deviation of drug-loaded discs indicated uniform thickness (1.5±0.3 mm). The unloaded discs were thinner (1±0.4 mm) and more brittle than the drug-loaded discs. FESEM, FT-IR, XRD, DSC and TGA analysis revealed the absence of polymer-drug interaction and transformation of crystalline to amorphous form of ciprofloxacin in the discs. The disc sustained the drug release in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 over 36 h in a first-order manner. The mechanism of the drug release was found to be swelling controlled diffusion and matrix erosion. The anti-bacterial effect of ciprofloxacin was retained after irradiation and CMSP disc could be a promising device for ocular drug delivery.

  3. SINTESIS PATI SAGU IKATAN SILANG FOSFAT BERDERAJAT SUBSTITUSI FOSFAT TINGGI DALAM SUASANA ASAM [Synthesis of Cross-Linked Sago Starch Phosphate with the Highest Degree of Substitution of Phosphate Under Acidic Condition

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    Jorion Romengga*


    Full Text Available Cross-linked sago starch phosphate (SgP with high phosphorus contents was successfully synthesized by reacting sago with a mixture of primary and secondary sodium phosphates under acidic condition. The experimental variables investigated include pH, temperature, reaction time, and mixture rate. The physicochemical properties evaluated were moisture, swelling power, water binding capacity, transmittance (%T and percent amylose (%Am, while the pasting properties examined were pasting time, pasting temperature, viscosity at peak, final, and setback. The granule structure was observed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the maximum degree of phosphate substitution was obtained at pH of 6.50, 40°C, 20 minutes of reaction time and 300 rpm of mixing rate. The physicochemical (%T and %Am and pasting (viscosity at peak, final, and setback properties of SgP were significantly different (P<0.01 from Sg. Structure of SgP was characterized by FT-IR and the results indicated a new absorption peak at 2362.87 cm-1 which was characterized as the phospho-diester (RO-PO3-R’ stretching vibration. In the fingerprint area, there were two new absorption peaks at 1242.05 and 989.79 cm-1 which were characterized as the P=O and C-O-P vibration, respectively. Sago granules were substantially altered after cross-linking.

  4. KAJIAN TEKNIS-EKONOMIS ALAT PENGERING PATI SAGU MODEL CROSS FLOW VIBRO FLUIDIZED BED (Study on Technical-Economic of Sago Starch Dryer Model of Cross Flow Vibro Fluidized Bed

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    Abadi Jading


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate performance of vibro cross flow fluidized bed dryer using biomass fuel for drying sago starch. The phase of research were evaluation of dryer heated by a biomass stove using coconut shell as a fuel and observation of the drying temperature, moisture content, drying time, energy analysis, and drying effiviency, as well as calculation of its economic analysis. The dryer has dimension of 200x50x1500 cm for length, width, hight, respectively, and working capacity of 35kg/process. The results showed that biomass fuel consumption for drying sago starch for 7 hours was 12740,00 MJ (70 kg/process and electricity consumption for blower and vibrator was 37,80 MJ. Furthermore, the dryer reduced moisture content of sago starch from 42% (wb to 12% (wb with temperature in the vibrator chamber of 40-60 oC and relative humidity of 50%, as well as ambient temperature of 30 3C and drying efficiency of 46,02%. Economic analysis showed that the dryer had NPV of Rp. 16.002.858, BCR of 1,53, IRR of 35%, and PBP of 3,51 years. Keywords: Cross flow, vibro fluidized bed dryer, biomass stoves, sago starch, financial analysis   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan pengujian terhadap alat pengering pati berbasis sagu model cross flow vibrofluidized bed bertenaga biomassa. Tahapan penelitian meliputi pengujian alat pengering menggunakan tungku biomassa berbahan bakar tempurung kelapa dengan melakukan pengamatan suhu selama pengeringan, penurunan kadar air, waktu pengeringan, kebutuhan energi, efisiensi pengering, dan analisis finansial. Konstruksi alat pengering pati sagu model vibro fluidized bed bertenaga biomassa berukuran panjang, lebar dan tinggi masing-masing (200x50x1500 cm, serta memiliki daya tampung atau kapasitas maksimum pati sagu basah 35 kg/proses. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa alat pengering ini mampu mengeringkan pati sagu selama 7 jam, dengan konsumsi bahan bakar tempurung kelapa sebanyak 70 kg

  5. Rapid Sintering of Silica Xerogel Ceramic Derived from Sago Waste Ash Using Sub-millimeter Wave Heating with a 300 GHz CW Gyrotron (United States)

    Aripin, Haji; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Sudiana, I. Nyoman; Tani, Shinji; Sako, Katsuhide; Fujii, Yutaka; Saito, Teruo; Idehara, Toshitaka; Sabchevski, Sliven


    In this paper, we present and discuss experimental results from a microwave sintering of a silica-glass ceramic, produced from a silica xerogel extracted from a sago waste ash. As a radiation source for the microwave heating a sub-millimeter wave gyrotron (Gyrotron FU CW I) with an output frequency of 300 GHz has been used. The powders of silica xerogel have been dry pressed and then sintered at temperatures ranging from 300°C to 1500°C. The influence of the sintering temperature on the technological properties such as porosity and bulk density was studied in detail. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been used in order to study the structure of the produced silica glass-ceramics. It has been found that the silica xerogel crystallizes at a temperature of 800°C, which is about 200°C lower than the one observed in the conventional process. The silica xerogel samples sintered by their irradiation with a sub-millimeter wave at 900°C for 18 minutes are fully crystallized into a silica glass-ceramic with a density of about 2.2 g/cm3 and cristobalite as a major crystalline phase. The results obtained in this study allow one to conclude that the microwave sintering with sub-millimeter waves is an appropriate technological process for production of silica glass-ceramics from a silica xerogel and is characterized with such advantages as shorter times of the thermal cycle, lower sintering temperatures and higher quality of the final product.

  6. Floristic composition and structure of a peat swamp forest in the conservation area of the PT National Sago Prima, Selat Panjang, Riau, Indonesia

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    Yusi Rosalina


    Full Text Available We studied the floristic composition and structure of the logged-over peat swamp forest in the  PT National Sago Prima of PT Sampoerna Agro Tbk. group for future management of the conservation area that has been  set aside by the company.  In January - February 2012, 25 quadrats of 20 m × 20 m were laid out systematically along a transect,  thus covering a sampled area of 1-ha.  The results showed that the study site was a regenerating and developing secondary  peat swamp forests having high plant species richness. The total number of species recorded was 73 species of 38 families, consisting of 49 species (30 families of trees (DBH≥ 10 cm , 42     species (24 families of saplings (H > 1.5 m and DBH < 10 cm and 41 species (27 families of seedlings and undergrowth. Tree density was 550 individuals/ha and total tree basal area was 18.32 m2. The Shannon-Wiener’s Diversity Index for trees was high  (3.05  Two tree species with the highest Importance Values (IV were Pandanus atrocarpus (IV = 45.86 % and Blumeodendron subrotundifolium (22.46%. The tree families with the highest IV were Pandanaceae (45.86, Myrtaceae (40.37 and Dipterocarpaceae (39.20.  Forest structure dominated by trees with a diameter below 20 cm amounting to 408 trees/ha (74.05%. D and E strata with height of less than 20 m, and density of 431 trees/ha (78.36%. Jaccard Similarity index among species, showed strong association between Pandanus atrocarpus and Blumeodendron subrotundifolium and based on this association combined with high IVs, the two parameters of species characterized the forest, hence the forest  could be designated as the Pandanus atrocarpus–Blumeodendron   subrotundifolium association. Primary forest species with high economic values were still present in the forest. Eleven species can be included in the IUCN Red List, of which Shorea rugosa is in the category of Critically Endangered,  Shorea teysmanniana Endangered and

  7. Microbial community diversity of organically rich cassava sago factory waste waters and their ability to use nitrate and N2O added as external N-sources for enhancing biomethanation and the purification efficiency. (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjiitkumar; Soora, Maya; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Ratering, Stefan; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero


    Water shortage necessitated South Indian sago factory owners, extracting starch out of cassava tubers, to install biogas plants where a starch utilizing microbial community multiplies and reduces the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the waste waters by presently about 30%. The purification efficiency of sago factory waste waters, rich in solid particles and having wide C/N ratios, around 250, through unstirred biogas plants needs to be improved. Our approach was to apply instead of animal slurry nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as external N-sources anticipating a better N-distribution in the unstirred biogas plants. Estimated cell numbers, bacterial community changes, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and changing CO2-, CH4-, N2O releases due to the presence of nitrate or N2O suggest that acid tolerant Lactobacillus spp. dominate the biogas plant inflows (pH 3.5). They were very less or not found in the outflows (pH 7.3). Assumingly, the phyla Bacteroidetes (Prevotella spp.), Proteobacteria (Rhizobium spp., Defluvibacter sp.), Firmicutes (Megasphaera spp., Dialister spp., Clostridium spp.) and Synergistetes (Thermanaerovibrio spp.), not-detectable in the biogas plant inflows, replaced them. Anaerobes, about 400cellsml(-1) in the inflows, increased to about 10(6)cellsml(-1) in the outflows. The methane formation, as confirmed by the incubation experiments, suggests that methanogens must have been present among the anaerobes. In the biogas plant in- and outflows also about 300cellsml(-1) denitrifying bacteria and up to 10(4)cfu fungi were found. Despite the low number of denitrifying bacteria nitrate added to the biogas plant in- and outflows was widely consumed and added N2O decreased considerably. Thus, wide C/N ratios substrates like sago factory waste waters keep the N2O emissions low by using N2O either as electron acceptor or by incorporating it into the growing biomass what needs to be confirmed. The biogas plant inflow samples have

  8. Effect of physical and chemical properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch, decanter cake and sago pith residue on cellulases production by Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2. (United States)

    Zanirun, Zuraidah; Bahrin, Ezyana Kamal; Lai-Yee, Phang; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd-Aziz, Suraini


    The effect of cultivation condition of two locally isolated ascomycetes strains namely Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 were compared in submerged and solid state fermentation. Physical evaluation on water absorption index, solubility index and chemical properties of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content as well as the cellulose structure on crystallinity and amorphous region of treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) (resulted in partial removal of lignin), sago pith residues (SPR) and oil palm decanter cake towards cellulases production were determined. Submerged fermentation shows significant cellulases production for both strains in all types of substrates. Crystallinity of cellulose and its chemical composition mainly holocellulose components was found to significantly affect the total cellulase synthesis in submerged fermentation as the higher crystallinity index, and holocellulose composition will increase cellulase production. Treated OPEFB apparently induced the total cellulases from T. asperellum UPM1 and A. fumigatus UPM2 with 0.66 U/mg FPase, 53.79 U/mg CMCase, 0.92 U/mg β-glucosidase and 0.67 U/mg FPase, 47.56 U/mg and 0.14 U/mg β-glucosidase, respectively. Physical properties of water absorption and solubility for OPEFB and SPR also had shown significant correlation on the cellulases production.

  9. Recovery of starch from sago pith waste to increase sago starch production in Indonesia


    Budi, Santoso


    Recently, food security and fossil fuel are hot issues in the world because the number of world population continue to increase. This indicates that the world needs to produce at least 50 % more food to feed 9 billion people by 2050. Therefore, all countries should be seeking and utilizing a new source of food to anticipate food insecurity in the world. Beside that, the world faces fossil fuel problem. In 2012, total consumption of energy in the world is dominated by fossil fuel and only a sm...

  10. Detailed electrical measurements on sago starch biopolymer solid electrolyte (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Baghel, Jaya; Shukla, S.; Bhattacharya, B.; Rhee, Hee-Woo; Singh, Pramod K.


    The biopolymer solid electrolyte has been synthesized and characterized. Potassium iodide (KI) has been added in polymer matrix to develop solid polymer electrolyte. Relationships between electrical, ionic transport parameter and mechanism have been studied in detail. Impedance spectroscopy reveals the detailed electrical studies and ion transport mechanism. The ion dissociation factor is compared with a measured dielectric constant at a fixed frequency. The dielectric data are calculated which support the ionic conductivity data.

  11. A survey of fungi associated with lesioned and chlorotic sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) (United States)

    Lumsden, R.D.; Ellis, D.E.; Sincock, J.L.


    Isolations from 1000 Potamogeton pectinatus plants collected from six major stands in Back Bay, Virginia and 13 in Currituck Sound, North Carolina yielded Pythium spp. consistently and in relatively high frequency. Although specific determination of these isolates was unsuccessful, they were separated into three groups according to morphological and cultural characteristics. Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn was isolated in rare instances. In inoculation studies, isolates of R. solani were pathogenic to P. pectinatus, whereas inoculations with Pythium spp. proved inconclusive, even though one group of isolates exhibited pathogenic tendencies.

  12. A study of mathematical thoughts in the geometrical design of bertam (wild Bornean sago) weaving (United States)

    Wan Bakar, Wan Norliza; Ahmad Shukri, Fuziatul Norsyiha; Ramli, Masnira


    Kelarai, a design for weaving, which is made up of various motifs can be produced by a variety of natural products. The main focus of the study is on Kelarai Bertam which is selected based on the firm and robust quality of the wood which was often used as the building materials of traditional houses. The objective of the study is to investigate the geometrical design in the weaving art of kelarai bertam, the stimulation of mathematical thoughts in geometrical designs and the evolution of geometrical designs in the weaving art of kelarai bertam. The research method utilized in the study was the triangulation method consisting of observation, interview and analysis. The findings revealed that quadrilateral forms and symmetrical forms such as reflection, translation, rotation and magnification were present in the weaving of kelarai bertam. The design of kelarai has undergone the process of evolution beginning from the Siku Keluang motif and has now expanded to 20 exquisite motifs. The evolution of the design and motifs resulted from the observation made upon the natives' house and wall decorations from Indonesia. In fact, geometrical concept has long been applied in the weaving art but this was not realized by the individual weaver. It is suggested that extensive research can be conducted on the combination of different weaving materials such as wild bertam and bamboo which will produce different geometrical designs such as polygon.

  13. Radiation crosslinking of starch/water-soluble polymer blends for hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, K.; Mohid, N.; Bahari, K.; Dahlan, K.Z. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Institute Nuclear Technology Research Malaysia (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)


    Water-soluble polymers such as PVP(polyvinyl pyrrolidone) and PVA(polyvinyl alcohol), in aqueous solution can form hydrogel easily upon gamma or electron beam irradiation. The properties of hydrogels, particularly for wound dressing application, can be further improved by adding sago starch to the blend. Results show improved gel strength and elongation properties of the hydrogel with increasing sago concentration. It was found that the PVA/sago hydrogel gives better gel strength and elongation than the PVP/sago hydrogel. The tackiness property of the PVA/sago hydrogel increased with increase amount of sago starch added. In case of PVP/sago hydrogel, the tackiness property shows significant increase with increasing amount of sago except for the 5%PVP composition. The swelling properties of PVP/sago and PVA/sago hydrogel decreased with increasing amount of sago but the crosslink density of the hydrogels also reduced. (author)

  14. FORMULASI MI KERING SAGU DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG KACANG HIJAU (Formulation of Dry Sago Noodles with Mung Bean Flour Substitution

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    Hilka Yuliani


    dilakukan menggunakan Mixture Design (DX7 dengan variabel berupa persentase pati sagu (80-100% dan tepung kacang hijau (0-20%. Substitusi tepung kacang hijau dapat menurunkan kekerasan, kelengketan, dan elongasi mi sagu, namun meningkatkan cooking loss. Produk optimum mi sagu diperoleh dengan substitusi tepung kacang hijau 4,7%. Pada kondisi ini mi sagu memiliki karakteristik kekerasan 1996,03 gf, skor kelengketan -19,2 gf, skor elongasi 214,35% dan skor cooking loss 10,82%. Uji sensori terhadap mi sagu formula optimum menunjukkan bahwa mi sagu yang dibuat secara keseluruhan tidak berbeda nyata dengan mi kering terigu komersial. Kata kunci: Cooking loss, elongasi, mi pati, sagu, tepung kacang hijau

  15. Fish Protein Concentrate Fortification Siam Patin on Amplang Snack Products and Mi Sago Instant Product as a Leading Regional Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Buchari


    Full Text Available To enhance fish consumption in the community especially children, fortification on processed fish product is conducted. The processed fish products are developed to fill the requirements as the fish based food products that own characterizations such as ready to eat, easy to carry, and less time to cook. Amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles are defined as the products that fills the requirements. The research was aimed to process catfish into fish protein concentrate to become amplang snack and instant sagoo noodles. These products were designed as the effort to develop the local priority products in Riau by using diversification and fortification methods. Experimental method with fortification treatments on Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC extract from Catfish that generate products of amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles and fish tofu were carried out. The fortified products were examined by organoleptics test that involved panelists. The results showed that the proximate analysis on fortified Catfish Protein Concentrate products were presented as following :1. water contents of 3,13 %, ash of 2,85 %, protein content of 16,13 % and fat content of 18, 66 % for ampang snacks; and 2. water contents of 11,77 %, ash of 1,30 %, protein content of 12,35 % and fat content of 1,86 % for instant sagoo nodles. All fortified FPC products filled the Indonesian Nasional Standard (SNI.Keywords: Fortification, Catfish, and Fish Protein Concentrate

  16. Environmental Assessment for Lake Ashtabula Winter Drawdown, Barnes County, North Dakota (United States)


    not been surveyed in detail. Common species include sago pondweed, clasping leaf pondweed, northern Lake Ashtabula Winter Drawdown, Environmental...vegetation (Peterka 1972). Sago pondweed attracts waterfowl, which feed on the plant. 2.5 CULTURAL RESOURCES Cultural resources in the Lake...dewatering. In summers following these low drawdowns, the sago pondweed beds are smaller, especially near the Karnak Wildlife Management Area. The

  17. The characterization of axenic culture systems suitable for plant propagation and experimental studies of the submersed aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton pectinatus (Sago pondweed) (United States)

    Ailstock, M.S.; Fleming, W.J.; Cooke, T.J.


    Clonal lines of the submersed aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton pectinatus were grown in three culture systems. The first, which used sucrose as a carbon source in a liquid medium, supported vigorous vegetative growth and can be used to propagate large numbers of plants in axenic conditions. In this culture system, plants were responsive to increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) photon flux density (PFD) and were photosynthetically competent. However, their growth was heterotrophic and root development was poor. When these plants were transferred to a second nonaxenic culture system, which used 16-l buckets containing artificial sediments and tap water, growth was autotrophic and plants were morphologically identical to field-harvested P. pectinatus. The last culture system which consisted of a sand substrate and inorganic nutrient bathing solution aerated with 135 ml min-1 ambient air enhanced to 3.0% CO2 was axenic and supported autotrophic growth by plants that were also morphologically normal.

  18. The effect of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) from rattan biomass as filler and citric acid as co-plasticizer on tensile properties of sago starch biocomposite (United States)

    Nasution, Halimatuddahliana; Harahap, Hamidah; Afandy, Yayang; Fath, M. Thoriq Al


    Biocomposite containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from rattan biomass as fillers and citric acid as co-plasticizer. Rattan biomass is a fiber waste from processing industry of rattan which contains 37.6% cellulose. Isolation of alpha cellulose from rattan biomass was prepared by using three stages: delignification, alkalization, and bleaching. It was delignificated with 3.5% HNO3 and NaNO2, precipitated with 17.5% NaOH, bleaching process with 10% H2O2. The preparation of CNC includes acid hydrolysis using 45% H2SO4 and followed by mechanical processes of ultrasonication, centrifugation, and filtration with a dialysis membrane. Biocomposite was prepared using a solution casting method, which includes 1-4 wt % CNC as fillers, 10-40 wt% citric acid as co-plasticizer and 30 wt% glycerol as plasticizer. The results of TGA, SEM and XRD characteristic of CNC show that CNC has low residue mass, rod like and network like shape with crystallinity index 84.46%. Biocomposite characteristic consists of SEM, tensile strength and elongation at break. The resultshows that biocomposites by addition of CNC and citric acid have a smooth surface and homogeneous distribution of fillers. The tensile strength of biocomposites was increased by addition CNC and citric acid. The addition of CNC decreases the elongation at break but by addition of citric acid, the elongation at break was increased.

  19. Cellulolytic bacteria as primary colonizers ofPotamogeton pectinatus L. (Sago Pond Weed) from a Brackish South-Temperate Coastal Lake. (United States)

    Robb, F; Davies, B R; Cross, R; Kenyon, C; Howard-Williams, C


    Bacteria adhering to newly emerged and decomposing leaves ofPotamogeton pectinatus L. were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Bacteria obtained from mature leaves were isolated, grown in pure culture, and allowed to infect bacteria-free leaves. Infected leaves and individual isolates were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The method provided detail of the forms of bacterial attachment to leaf surfaces.Supernatants from isolate cultures were assayed for cellulase activity. Six out of eight isolates produced extracellular cellulase in medium containing carboxymethyl cellulose. In one isolate cellulase was produced at discrete intervals, at the beginning and end of the growth cycle. The adhesion of the isolates toP. pectinatus leaves, as well as their possession of cellulase, are considered as evidence of an active role of bacteria in the degradation ofP. pectinatus foliage. The system is unusual in that bacteria, as opposed to fungi, are primary colonizers of the leaves.

  20. Toxicological Effects of Military Smokes and Obscurants on Aquatic Threatened and Endangered Species (United States)


    aquatic plants that are used for shelter and food for TE fish, sago pondweed, Stuckenia pectinatus; and Selenastrum ca- pricornutum, a green algae. To...the water surface. For the 30 min exposures, even though there was statisti- cal significance, no overt bleaching of the sago pondweed leaves was...plants had higher chlorophyll values than the controls. Even though there was statistical significance, no overt bleaching of the sago pond- weed

  1. 77 FR 9268 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards (United States)


    ... Run, Imperial Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 46-09115, and Arch-Wolf Run, Sago Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 46-08791... Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 46-09115, and Arch-Wolf Run, Sago Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 46-08791, located in Upshur... Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 46-09115, and Arch-Wolf Run, Sago Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 46-08791, located in Upshur...

  2. Maritime Interdiction Operations in Logistically Barren Environments (United States)


    Resolution Imaging) from Sago Systems. Figure 22: ST15034 The ST150 passive millimeter-wave imager is a stand-off unit designed for outdoor...34 Sago Systems, “ST150,”, 17 April...the search. 35 Sago Systems, “ST150,”, 17

  3. Early-season, Low-dose Applications of Endothall to Selectively Control Curlyleaf Pondweed in Minnesota Lakes (United States)


    Pondweeds – such as Illinois pondweed (Potamogeton illinoensis Morong.) and sago pondweed (Stukenia pectinata L.) – and southern naiad [ Najas ...percent of the sample sites, including leafy pondweed, flat stem pondweed, sago pondweed, najas , horned pondweed, and chara. In 2002 and 2003 elodea...the sample sites, and included leafy pondweed, sago pondweed, najas , horned pondweed (Zannichellia palustris L.), and muskgrass (Chara spp.). In 2002

  4. Evaluasi Mutu dan Penerimaan Panelis terhadap Rainbow Cake yang Dibuat dari Tepung Terigu dan Pati Sagu Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Pato


    Full Text Available Riau is one of the sago starch-producing province in Indonesia. Nowadays, sago starch has been utilized to produce various types of tradisional foods. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of rainbow cake produced by the addition of 30% sago starch and rainbow cake using 100% wheat flour and to evaluate panelist acceptance of these rainbow cakes. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two treatments and eight replications thus obtained 16 experimental units. The treatments were TS1 (100% wheat and 0%sago starch and TS2 (70% wheat flour and 30%sago starch. The parameters observed were moisture, ash, sucrose and fat contents as well as panelist acceptance test. The results of this study indicated that rainbow cake of TS1 treatment (100% wheat flour and 0%sago starch had no significant difference with rainbow cake of TS2 treatment (70% wheat flour and 30% sago starch in case of ash and sucrose contents, but had significant effect on moisture and fat contents of rainbow cake. Based on the panelist acceptance test, the rainbow cake made from 70% wheat flour and sago starch 30% could be accepted by panelists similar to commercial rainbow cake.

  5. Combinations of Endothall With 2,4-D and Triclopyr for Eurasian Watermilfoil Control (United States)


    L., K. D. Getsinger, and A. B. Stewart. 1998. Selective effects of aquatic herbicides on sago pondweed. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 36:64-68. Sprecher...Westerdahl, H. E., and J. F. Hall. 1983. Threshold 2,4-D concentrations for control of Eurasian watermilfoil and sago pondweed. J. Aquat. Plant

  6. MARSnet: Mission-aware Autonomous Radar Sensor Network for Future Combat Systems (United States)


    West Virginia Sago mine disaster in January 2006, cognitive radar sensor network-based information integration for first responders is critical for...power supply and Utah Mine Collapse in August 2007 or West Virginia Sago Weather shield (small hut). The target is a trihedral reflector mine disaster in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarman Oktovianus Gultom


    Full Text Available In order to produce sago starch, sago bar had to be crushed and extracted using water to separate starch from other compounds. In the sago processing, a lot of water was used to extract sago starch and finally was discarded as liquid waste. In this study, the quality of sago liquid waste, before and after applying a layer-based filter containing: coir, charcoal, gravel and sand, was measured. The study was designed with a different time of storage of the Sago liquid waste, namely 0,1,2,3,4, and 5 day of storage. Each day the liquid waste was filterd using layer-based filter, and then the quality of the liquid waste was compared. The parameters measured were total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, final pH, and physical parameters such as smell and color. The results ofthis studyshowed that quality decrese of sago liquid waste accurs during 5 days of storage as indicated by increasing the total suspended solids (up to 1400 mg/L and the dissolved solids (up to 2000 mg/L, decresing the pH value (down to 5 and arising unpleasant smells. Furthermore,the use of thelayer-basedfilterwas effective enoughto restorethe quality of the sago liquid water bydecreasing thetotalsolids, neutralizing thepH valueand reducingthe unpleasant smell

  8. MARSnet: Mission-aware Autonomous Radar Sensor Network for Future Combat Systems 12/8/06 to 12/31/09 (United States)


    or West Virginia Sago mine disaster in January 2006, cognitive radar sensor network-based information integration for first responders is critical for...disaster scenario, such as Utah Mine Collapse in August 2007 or West Virginia Sago mine disaster in January 2006, radar sensor network-based information

  9. Karakter Morfologi dan Potensi Produksi Beberapa Aksesi Sagu (Metroxylon spp. di Kabupaten Sorong Selatan, Papua Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kemala Dewi


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSago palm is a carbohydrate source which has the highest carbohydrate content compared to the other crops. It can produce about 200-400 kg per trunk of sago dry starch. More than 50% sago palm population in the world are grown in Indonesia and 90% sago palm in Indonesia is found in Papua. This research was aimed to characterize several sago palm accessions in South Sorong District, West Papua. There were 12 accessions observed, i.e. Fasai, Fasampe, Falia, Fanomik, Fasongka, Fafion, Fakattao, Fanke, Fablen, Failik, Fakreit and Fasinan. Among these accessions, there were many differences based on morphological characteristics such as shoots color, crown shape, trunk height, number of leaf, existence of spine, starch content, also pith and starch color. Fablen was the only non-spiny type. Most of sago accessions were high yielding accessions with the potential yield more than 200 kg per trunk of sago dry starch. Fanomik had the highest potential yield. Sago palm productivity in the natural forest of Saifi Subdistrict, South Sorong District, West Papua was estimated to reach approximately 34.59 ton ha-1 per year of sago dry starch.   Keywords: accessions, starch, yield, food

  10. Mi Instan Berbasis Pati Sagu dan Ikan Patin serta Pendugaan Umur Simpan dengan Metode Akselerasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmarini Yusmarini


    Full Text Available Instant noodle is favorite food in Indonesia. Instant noodle generally made from wheat flour, which is not Indonesian agricultural product. Diversification was needed to solve this problem, and sago starch is potential resource to develop. The research purposed are to produce instant noodle from sago starch and catfish meat fulfilling Indonesia instant noodle quality standard (SNI 01-3551-2000 and to predict instant noodle shelf time using accelerations method. Treatments in this research were SP0 (instant noodle from 100% sago starch, SP1 (instant noodle from 97.5% sago starch and 2.5% catfish meat, SP2 (instant noodle from 95% sago starch and 5% catfish meat, SP3 (instant noodle from 92.5% sago starch and 7.5% catfish meat, SP4 (instant noodle from 90% sago starch and 10% catfish meat, and SP5 (instant noodle from 87.5% sago starch and 12.5% catfish meat. Parameters measured were moisture content before and after frying, protein content, acid value, compactness, and the best treatment continued with shelf time using accelerations method. The result showed that all treatment significantly affected moisture content before and after frying, protein content, acid value and instant noodle compactness. The best treatment was instant noodle from 90% sago starch and catfish meat 10% (SP4 with moisture content before frying 11.29%, moisture content after frying 9.32%, protein content 10.90%, acid value 1.48 mg/g and instant noodle compactness 93.86%. Shelf time for SP4 was 35.81 days. Keywords: instant noodle, sago starch, catfish, accelerated method

  11. Growth and development of true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottbøll) : with special reference to accumulation of starch in the trunk : a study on morphology, genetic variation and ecophysiology, and their implications for cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, D.L.


    Keywords: Metroxylon sagu, Arecaceae, starch crops, plant growth and development, plant morphology, inflorescence structure, electron microscopy, phenological scale, genetic variation, plant taxonomy, folk taxonomy, ethnobotany, leaf area, leaf area index, starch accumulation, starch distribution,

  12. Deflagrations, Detonations, and the Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Methane-Air Mixtures (United States)


    potentially generate enormous stress on coal mine seals. Recent NIOSH and USACE studies of an explosion at the Sago mine suggested that high pressures...Consider some of the recent large-scale events that we have read and heard about in the media. In 2006, the explosion in the Sago Mine trapped...McMahon, J.R. Britt, J.L. O’Daniel, CFD Study and Structural Analysis of the Sago Mine Ac- cident, Technical Report, US Army Corps of Engineers

  13. Kombinasi Tepung Tapioka dengan Pati Sagu terhadap Mutu Bakso Jantung Pisang dan Ikan Patin


    Ariani, Dyah Ayu; Hamzah, Faizah; Efendi, Raswen


    The objective of this research was to get the best combination flour formula in making banana's heart and fish meatball, while in terms of the benefits of this research are expected to improve the utilization of sago palm as a source of local food. The method used in the research was Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications of five treatments and treatment consists of TS1 (cassava flour 100 : sago starch 0), TS2 (cassava flour 75 : sago starch 25), TS3 (cassava flour 50 : sag...

  14. Experimental Effects of Lime Application on Aquatic Macrophytes: 2. Growth Response Versus Treatment Time and Lime Concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Barko, John W


    This research investigated the effects of applying lime (as calcium hydroxide; Ca(OH)2) either early or later in the life cycle on the growth, survivorship, and reproductive success of Sago Pondweed...

  15. Peningkatan Kualitas Ampas Tebu Sebagai Pakan Ternak Melalui Fermentasi dengan Penambahan Level Tepung Sagu yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadi Samadi


    Full Text Available (Improvement of fermented bagasse quality as animal feed by fermentation through administration of sago flour at different levels ABSTRACT. Feed plays an important role in livestock production system. Due to limitation of pasture and forege areas, it needs to find new feed alternative as replacement of forage as animal feed. One of feed alternatives as replacement of forage is bagasse. Bagasse has low nutritive content and digestibility. One of the efforts to improve bagasse quality is by fermentation. The purpose of this experiment was to improve nutritive values of bagasse by fermentation method by using Trichoderma harzianum as inoculum. This research was conducted at Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Department, Agricultural Faculty, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh from January to April 2015. The experiment was designed by completely randomized design (CRD with 4 treatments (addition of sago flour at defferent levels; R1 control (0% sago flour, R2 (5% sago flour, R3 (10% sago flour, R4 (15% sago flour of fermented material. Each treatment has 4 replications, therefore there were 16 units of treatment. Parameters observed in this experiment were nutritive values of fermented bagasse including the contents of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber and ash. The results of the experiments indicated that fermented bagasse with Trichoderma harzianum by addition of various levels of sago flour had significantly effect (P0, 05 on dry matter and crude protein contents. In conclusion, addition of various levels of sago flour by using Trichoderma harzianum at fermented bagasse was able to improve nutritive values of fermented bagasse.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadi Jading


    Full Text Available PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SAGO STARCH OBTAINED FROM FLUIDIZED BED DRYING USING SOLAR AND BIOMASS POWERED CROSS FLOW FLUIDIZED BED DRYER. The research aim is to study the comparative quality of sago starch drying results using cross flow fluidized bed dryer powered by solar and biomass in conventional drying, particularly the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics. This research was conducted through a drying phase of wet sago starch using a cross flow fluidized bed dryer, and drying in conventional as well as dried sago starch quality testing results are drying. The results of this study indicate that dry sago starch which has been drained by means of cross flow fluidized bed dryer has a chemical composition that does not vary much with starch which is dried by conventional drying, so that the dried sago starch produced by the dryer is very good. On the other hand the use of dryers is the more correct because the physicochemical properties of sago starch using a low drying temperature and drying time is short. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari perbandingan kualitas pati sagu hasil pengeringan menggunakan alat pengering cross flow fluidized bed bertenaga surya dan biomassa dengan pengeringan secara konvensional, khususnya komposisi kimia dan karakteristik fisikokimia. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui beberapa tahapan yaitu pengeringan pati sagu basah menggunakan alat pengering cross flow fluidized bed, pengeringan secara konvensional serta pengujian kualitas pati sagu kering hasil pengeringan. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pati sagu kering yang telah dikeringkan dengan alat pengering cross flow fluidized bed memiliki komposisi kimia yang tidak berbeda jauh dengan pati yang dikeringkan dengan cara pengeringan secara konvensional, sehingga pati sagu kering yang dihasilkan oleh alat pengering tersebut sangat baik. Di sisi lain penggunaan alat pengering ini semakin memperbaiki sifat fisikokimia pati

  17. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb. Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evra Raunie Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L. Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance.

  18. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb.) Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment (United States)

    Ibrahim, Evra Raunie


    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance. PMID:25295258

  19. PRODUKSI PULLULAN DARI SUBSTRAT PATI SAGU OLEH Pullularia pullulans [The Pullulan Production From Substrate of Sagoo Starch By Pullularia pullulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosis Undjung


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to recognize the potency of pullulan by Pullularia pullulans from hydrolyzed Sagoo starch as opposed to sucrose. Another objective was to find out a better condition for agitation of pullulan production in a batch fermentation.Sagoo can be found in Kuala Kapuas, Central Kalimantan. Initially sago was made into sago starch. The Sago starch was then hydrolyzed to be used as substrate for pullulan production. As a comparison, sucrose was also used. Pullulan production was carried out by pullaria pullulans, T37A or CBS CYPP using various agitation rate & incubation period. The research showed that increase in agitation resulted in increase in pullulan production. At 100 rpm, the yield was 1.299 g/l while at 150 rpm yield was 1.546 g/l. Strain CBSCYPP also produced more pullulan than T 374.

  20. Characteristics of raw starch degrading alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2 associated with soft coral Sinularia sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puspasari, Fernita; Nurachman, Zeily; Noer, Achmad Saefuddin; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Natalia, Dessy

    Partially purified alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2, a bacterium isolated from a soft coral Sinularia sp., Merak Kecil Island, West Java, Indonesia, showed an ability to degrade raw corn, rice, sago, cassava, and potato starches with adsorption percentage in the range of 65-93%. Corn


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Muhsafaat


    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate protein quality and amino acid composition of fermented sago pulp by Aspergillus niger with urea and zeolit addition at different levels. The experiment was design in factorial completely randomized with two factors and three replicates. The first factor was levels of urea addition (0, 2.5, and 5%, the second factor was levels of zeolite addition (0, 2.5, and 5% and used 2% A. niger on sago pulp (dry matter form. Variables observed were the levels of crude protein and amino acids. Data were tested using descriptive and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, the differences among treatments means examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results howed that there was interaction between levels of addition urea and zeolite on crude protein value. The addition urea and zeolite at 5% had the high increased 15.49 ± 0.33% to crude protein content. The amino acid content of fermented sago pulp descriptively increased in urea treatment, but didn’t show increased in zeolite treatment. Based on the calculation of the score of chemical and index essential amino acids, fermented sago pulp at 5% urea treatment has a chemical score of 17.86, 18.01, and 11.85 with the essential amino acid deficient is leucine, and has an index of 38.33, 36.43, and 28.45%.

  2. 58 Physico-chemical Analysis of an Ultisol Polluted with Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Molindo et. al EJESM Vol.2 no.2 2009. 66. Table 5 Mean of plant height and biomass of maize grown in soil previously polluted with petroleum products then later treated with poultry droppings. TREATMENTS. PARAMETERS. Plant Heights (cm). Biomass (g). CS. 46.00. 34.00. PD + CS. 51.50. 40.70. SAGO. 32.60. 26.20.

  3. the need for family meeting in the management of patients admitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2014 ... Abbott KH, Sago JG, Breen CM, Abernethy AP, Tulsky. JA. Families looking back: one year after discussion of withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining support. Crit Care Med. 2001; 29:197–201. 10. Wilkinson P. A qualitative study to establish the self- perceived needs of family members of patients in a.

  4. Tapioca-a new and cheaper alternative to agar for direct in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum tuberosum L.) from nodal explants was studied using agar and other new and cheaper gelling agents- tapioca and sago in Murashige & Skoog (MS) salt medium. For shoot regeneration, agar was maintained at 8 mg l -1, tapioca and ...

  5. Reducing ammonia volatilization from compound fertilizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 13, 2012 ... in waterlogged soils through mixing of urea with zeolite and sago waste water. Intl. J. Phy. Sci. 5(14):2193-2197. Lewis MD, Moore FDI, Goldsberry KL (1984). Ammonium-exchanged clinoptilolite and granulated clinoptilolite with urea as nitrogen fertilizers. In, Pond WG, Mumpton FA (eds) Zeo-Agriculture: ...

  6. Type setted SM tahir2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    Dal. 1937 are tapped as sources of sugar and palm wine yielding up to 1200 liters per annum. Sago, a starch prepared from the pith of Borassus forms part of an important human diet in. America and Europe used for thickening Soups and making Puddings. (Crosby 2007). Fibers from the leaves of palm trees are used as.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Okt 1977 ... Aktiewe Burgermag en 'n Kadetorganisasie, Die totstandkoming van die mediese diens is aan It- kol M,C, Roland (onder-sekretaris van Verdedi- ging) opgedra,. Die stigting van die SAGO is vergemaklik van- wee die feit dat daar reeds 3 mediese korpse (in. Transvaal, Natal en die Kaap) in die Unie was,.

  8. Page 1 " ~ILIT :RE GE~EESKU~[)E I~ SU -). AFRIKA GE[)URE~[)E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinde'l"skoenjare van die SAGO. Die Vrede van Vereeniging het die politieke en militere opset aan die suiderpunt van Afri- ka verander. Die twee republieke is in Britse kolonies omskep sodat daar vier kolonies onder Britse beheer was, instede van 'n re- publikeinse nool'"de en 'n imperiale suide. Elke kolonie sou egter ...

  9. A dozen miners perish in W.Va. mine explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A report is given of the mine explosion which occurred at the Sago mine in Upshur County, WV, leaving 13 coal miners trapped underground. Only one of the 13 was found alive. The cause of the explosion might have been the miners' equipment igniting trapped methane. Early reports blamed a lightning strike. 2 photos.

  10. Detoxification of cyanides in cassava flour by linamarase of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partially purified linamarase (53 KDa) enzyme from this organism showed considerable activity (9.6 U/ml) and effected rapid cyanide reduction in cassava flour. The results indicate scope for enzymatic detoxification of cassava cyanide without compromising nutrients in sago industries. Key words: Cyanogenic glucoside ...

  11. Analysis and optimization of coagulation and flocculation process (United States)

    Saritha, V.; Srinivas, N.; Srikanth Vuppala, N. V.


    Natural coagulants have been the focus of research of many investigators through the last decade owing to the problems caused by the chemical coagulants. Optimization of process parameters is vital for the effectiveness of coagulation process. In the present study optimization of parameters like pH, dose of coagulant and mixing speed were studied using natural coagulants sago and chitin in comparison with alum. Jar test apparatus was used to perform the coagulation. The results showed that the removal of turbidity was up to 99 % by both alum and chitin at lower doses of coagulant, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L, whereas sago has shown a reduction of 70-100 % at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 g/L. The optimum conditions observed for sago were 6 and 7 whereas chitin was stable at all pH ranges, lower coagulant doses, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L and mixing speed—rapid mixing at 100 rpm for 10 min and slow mixing 20 rpm for 20 min. Hence, it can be concluded that sago and chitin can be used for treating water even with large seasonal variation in turbidity.

  12. Comparison of plant nutrient contents in vermicompost from selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this experiment, earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae was fed with different plant residues: grass clippings, sago waste and rice straw. These organic wastes were also left to decompose naturally as the control. Analysis on samples vermicompost showed that humic acid content was highest in rice straw, followed by grass ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In a comparative evaluation, the disintegration efficiency of sodium starch glycolates prepared from seven different native starches (potato, maize, waxy maize, wheat, rice, sago and tapioca) were compared. All the sodium starch glycolates tested had a high swelling capacity, but the rate of water

  14. Sodium alginate/graphene oxide aerogel with enhanced strength-toughness and its heavy metal adsorption study. (United States)

    Jiao, Chenlu; Xiong, Jiaqing; Tao, Jin; Xu, Sijun; Zhang, Desuo; Lin, Hong; Chen, Yuyue


    Ordered porous sodium alginate/graphene oxide (SAGO) aerogel was fabricated by in situ crosslinking and freeze-drying method. GO, as reinforcing filler, can be easily incorporated with SA matrix by self-assembly via hydrogen bonding interaction. Compared with pure SA aerogel, the as-prepared SAGO exhibited excellent mechanical strength and elasticity, and the compression strength of SAGO can reach up to 324 kPa and remain 249 kPa after five compression cycles when 4 wt% GO was added, which were considered significant improvements. SEM result presents that the addition of GO obviously improves the porous structures of aerogel, which is beneficial for the enhancement of strength-toughness and adsorbability. As a consequence, the adsorption process of SAGO is better described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 98.0 mg/g for Cu2+ and 267.4 mg/g for Pb2+, which are extremely high adsorption capacities for metal ions and show far more promise for application in sewage treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbiological Quality of Street-Vended Foods and Ready-To

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    sampled at point sale. PHLS, Communicable Disease and. Public Health, vol. 3, number 3. Sago, S.K., Little, C.L., Ward, L., Gillespie, I.A., Mitchel,. T.L. (2003). Microbiological study of ready-to-eat salad vegetables from retail establishments uncovers a national outbreak of salmonellosis. Journal of Food Protection 66(3):.

  16. Enhanced production of cellulases by various fungal cultures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading cellulose to the smaller glucose units. These enzymes are produced by fungi and bacteria. The solid waste of sago industry using cassava tubers was fermented by. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Rhizopus stolonifer in solid state fermentation.

  17. Mechanical Properties of 3 Ply Plywood Made from Acacia Mangium Veneers and Green Starch-based Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Liew Kang


    Full Text Available Recently, starch has attracted great consideration as a raw material on wood adhesives in the wood industry. Cassava and sago starchbased adhesive are renewable, biodegradable and environmental friendly product when compared with other petroleum-based adhesives. In this study, different starches-based adhesive has been produced. Mechanical properties of plywood made from Acacia mangium veneers with different starches-based adhesives (cassava and sago as binder cured at different curing temperatures (100°C, 120°C and 140°C has been determined. All materials (starch, vinegar, water and glycerol were cooked and stirred until the mixture reached 70°C - 80°C which become sticky and whitish. After that, starch-based adhesives were applied on the veneers by using spreader, and the plywood were pre-pressed for 30 minutes with 20 kg load before hot-press. Cassava starch-based adhesive showed the highest Modulus of Elasticity which was 12410.56 N/mm2 than sago starch-based adhesive, while Modulus of Rupture of the cassava starch-based adhesive at 100°C showed highest mean value at 74.19 N/mm2. Sago-starch based adhesive at 140°C showed the highest shear strength with 1.11 N/mm2. In short, cassava and sago starch-based adhesives gave good performance in mechanical properties such as bending for pressed temperature (100°C and 120°C, and shear at 140°C pressed temperature.

  18. Hydrophilic and Compressible Aerogel: A Novel Draw Agent in Forward Osmosis. (United States)

    Yu, Mingchuan; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin


    Forward osmosis (FO) technology is an efficient route to obtain purity water for drinking from wastewater or seawater. However, there are some challenges in draw solution to limit its application. We first introduce a novel sodium alginate-graphene oxide (SA-GO) aerogel as draw agent for highly efficient FO process. The GO nanosheets covalently cross-linked to SA matrix to form a three-dimensional and highly porous aerogel to provide excellent water flux and operation stability, together with the property of compressibility served by SA-GO aerogel resulting in easy water production and regeneration process. When deionized water was used as the feed solution, the SA-GO aerogel exhibited a higher water flux (15.25 ± 0.65 L m(-2) h(-1), abbreviated as LMH) than that of 1 mol L(-1) NaCl (1 M), and there was no nonreverse osmosis phenomenon. The water fluxes were stabilized in the range of 5-6.5 LMH during recycle process of absorbing and releasing water as high as 100 times. It also had a great desalination capacity (water flux was 7.49 ± 0.61 LMH) with the seawater (Huanghai coast) as the feed solution. Moreover, the water production and regeneration process of the SA-GO aerogel can be rapidly and cost-effectively accomplished with low-strength mechanical compression (merely 1 kPa). The results present that the SA-GO aerogels as a promising, innovative draw agent can make the FO process simpler, more efficient, and lower energy consumption. It can be a potential material for hydration bags to fast and repeatable product fresh water from saline water or wastewater.

  19. Safety at coal mines: what role does methane play?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The recent Sago Mine disaster in West Virginia and other widely publicized coal mine accidents around the world have received a great deal of attention and have generated some confusion about the link between methane drainage and safety. In response, this article provides an overview of safety concerns faced by coal mines and how they do or do not relate to methane. The first section explains the variety of safety issues a coal mine must take into consideration, including methane build-up. The second section summarizes the recent coal mines accident at Sago Mine in West Virginia. The final section describes the regulatory and legislative responses in the US. 2 refs., 2 figs.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ndombi I, Mendome G. Audit des décès maternels au Centre Hospitalier de Libreville (2005 à 2007). Journal de la SAGO 2007; 8 :29-33. 14.Guillaume A, William M. L'avortement provoqué en. Afrique : un problème mal connu, lourd de conséquences.LaboratoirePopulation-. Environnement-Développement. Unité mixte de.

  1. l'eclampsie au centre hospitalier et universitaire de brazzaville ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 déc. 2009 ... 2001: p. 5-34. 9. Gaarba H, Diakite S, Haidara OC, Kane F, Konate. DK, Dicko E. Pronostic materno-foetal au cours de l'éclampsie. Livre des résumés du 5e Congrès de la SAGO, Dakar, décembre 1998, p41. 10. Mattar F, Sibat BM. Eclampsia: risk factors for maternal morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynaecol 2000;.

  2. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    22 juin 2017 ... utérine? J Gynecol obstet Biol Reprod. 1998 Jun;27(4):425-. 9. PubMed | Google Scholar. 16. Alihonou E, Lokossou A, Adisso S, Takpara I, Teguete I,. Adongnibo MO et al. Accouchement et utérus cicatriciel à. Cotonou: risques maternels, périnatals et pronostic. Journal de la SAGO. 2005;6(1):6-12.

  3. Campuran Terigu dan Sagu sebagai Ekstender Perekat Kayu Lapis


    Sumadiwangsa, Suwardi


    In 1983 Indonesian plywood industries consumed about 45 000 tons of wheat flour as an extender of ureaformaldehyde adhesive. This material is imported from foreign country, although Indonesia, as an agricultural country, is rich with carbohydrate resources such as palm trees.The result of a laboratory study on the effect of four wheat and sago flour mixtures and four levels of extender content on plywood property is presented in this paper.The mixtures of wheat and sag...

  4. Molecular And 3D-Structural Characterization Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase Derived From Metroxylon Sagu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairul Azman Roslan


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBAld is an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of D-fructose-1,6-phosphate (FBP to D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP, and plays vital role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, molecular characterization and functional roles of FBAld remain unknown in sago palm. Here we report a modified CTAB-RNA extraction method was developed for the isolation of good quality RNA (RIN>8 from sago leaves and the isolation of FBAld cDNA from sago palm. The isolated sago FBAld (msFBAld cDNA has total length of 1288 bp with an open reading frame of 1020 bp and a predicted to encode for a protein of 340 amino acid resides. The predicted protein shared a high degree of homology with Class-I FBAld from other plants. Meanwhile, the msFBAld gene spanned 2322 bp and consisted of five exons. Conserved domain search identified fifteen catalytically important amino acids at the active site and phylogenetic tree revealed localization of msFBAld in the chloroplast. A molecular 3D-structure of msFBAld was generated by homology modeling and a Ramachandran plot with 86.7% of the residues in the core region, 13.4% in the allowed region with no residues in the disallowed region. The modeled structure is a homotetramer containing an (/(-TIM-barrel at the center. Superimposition of the model with Class-I aldolases identified a catalytic dyad, Lys209-Glu167, which could be involved in the Schiff's base formation and aldol condensation. Apart from that, overproduction of the recombinant msFBAld in Escherichia coli resulted in increased tolerance towards salinity.

  5. Analysis of the Angle of Maximal Stability and Flow Regime Transitions in Different Proportions of Bi-phasic Granular Matter Mixtures (United States)

    Maquiling, Joel Tiu; Visaga, Shane Marie

    This study investigates the dependence of the critical angle θc of stability on different mass ratios γ of layered bi-phasic granular matter mixtures and on the critical angle of its mono-disperse individual components. It also aims to investigate and explain regime transitions of granular matter flowing down a tilted rough inclined plane. Critical angles and flow regimes for a bi-phasic mixture of sago spheres and bi-phasic pepper mixture of fine powder and rough spheres were observed and measured using video analysis. The critical angles θc MD of mono-disperse granular matter and θc BP of biphasic granular matter mixtures were observed and compared. All types of flow regimes and a supramaximal critical angle of stability exist at mass ratio γ = 0.5 for all biphasic granular matter mixtures. The θc BP of sago spheres was higher than the θc MD of sago spheres. Moreover, the θc BP of the pepper mixture was in between the θc MD of fine pepper and θc MD of rough pepper spheres. Comparison of different granular material shows that θc MD is not simply a function of particle diameter but of particle roughness as well. Results point to a superposition mechanism of the critical angles of biphasic sphere mixtures.

  6. Permanent Seismically Induced Displacement of Rock-Founded Structures Computed by the Newmark Program (United States)


    26/1980 SAGO South - Surface 300 534_h4ss_295a.dat 5.5 14 0.0615 -0.09 4.96 -9.26 1.500 -1.698 31.735 40.546 3.683 1.745 4.619 1.276 Rock WUS H2...295 XX-SS-09 Hollister-04 1/26/1980 SAGO South - Surface 301 535_h4ss_0upa.dat 5.5 14 0.0305 -0.053 3.27 -3.38 0.529 -0.388 42.260 25.143 1.477 1.764...1.692 0.026 Rock WUS V UP XX-SS-09 Hollister-04 1/26/1980 SAGO South - Surface 94 302 536_pgpk_0nsa.dat 5.0 176 0.1499 -0.157 8.04 -8.03 0.541 -0.496

  7. Soil CO{sub 2} flux from three ecosystems in tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melling, Lulie; Hatano, Ryusuke [Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Soil Science Laboratory; Goh, Kah Joo [Applied Agricultural Research Sdn Bhd, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Soil CO{sub 2} flux was measured monthly over a year from tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia using a closed-chamber technique. The soil CO{sub 2} flux ranged from 100 to 533 mg C/m{sup 2}/h for the forest ecosystem, 63 to 245 mg C/m{sup 2}/h for the sago and 46 to 335 mg C/m{sup 2}/h for the oil palm. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the environmental variables over all sites could be classified into three components, namely, climate, soil moisture and soil bulk density, which accounted for 86% of the seasonal variability. A regression tree approach showed that CO{sub 2} flux in each ecosystem was related to different underlying environmental factors. They were relative humidity for forest, soil temperature at 5 cm for sago and water-filled pore space for oil palm. On an annual basis, the soil CO{sub 2} flux was highest in the forest ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.1 kg C/m{sup 2}/yr followed by oil palm at 1.5 kg C/m{sup 2}/yr and sago at 1.1 kg C/m{sup 2}/yr. The different dominant controlling factors in CO{sub 2} flux among the studied ecosystems suggested that land use affected the exchange of CO{sub 2} between tropical peatland and the atmosphere.

  8. Pengaruh Penambahan Kitosan dalam Pembuatan Biodegradable Foam Berbahan Baku Pati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Hendrawati


    Full Text Available Biodegradable foam is an alternative packaging to replace the expanded polystyrene foam packaging currently in use.   Starch has been used to produce foam because of  its low cost, low density, low toxicity, and  biodegradability. Chitosan has been added to improve mechanical properties of product . The   effect of  variation on chitosan amount  and  starch types  was investigated in this study.  The amount of  chitosan  was varied as 0; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; and  30 % w/w and starch types were used in this research were cassava, Corn and sago starch. Biodegradable  foam was produced by using baking process method, all of material (Starch, Chitosan solution,  Magnesium Stearate, Carrageenan, Glyserol, Protein Isolates  dan polyvinil alcohol (PVOH  were mixed with kitchen aid mixer. The mixture was poured  into mold and heated in an oven at 125 oC for 1 hour. Then, foam was tested for its mechanical properties, water absorption  and biodegradability and  morphology (SEM.  The results show that  foam made from sago starch had lower water absortion than those made from cassava and corn starch.   While, foam made from cassava starch  was more biodegradable than the other foam.  Biodegradable foam based sago starch and 30 % w/w of Chitosan adition  gave the  best performence in tensile stress that  is 20 Mpa

  9. Karakterisasi Bakteri Asam Laktat Amilolitik dari Industri Pengolahan Pati Sagu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmarini Yusmarini


    Full Text Available Amylolytic lactic acid bacteria are a group of bacteria that are capable to use starch as the carbon source. The objectives of this research were to characterize, and identify the lactic acid bacteria from sago starch processing industry, which might be used to modify the sago starch. There were 39 isolates isolated from sago processing industry, and 36 of them were presumed as lactic acid bacteria. From 36 isolates suspected as lactic acid bacteria, 9 of them had amylolytic properties. Morphological identification results show that the 9 isolates were l Gram-positive bacteria, negative catalase, rod shape, and 5 isolates produced gas, while 4 isolates did not produce gas. The ability to produce amylase varied among isolates and isolate RN2.12112 had the higher amylolytic ability than others. Results show that the nine isolates identified as lactic acid bacteria were dominated by Lactobacillus plantarum 1.   ABSTRAK Bakteri asam laktat (BAL yang bersifat amilolitik adalah bakteri asam laktat yang mampu memanfaatkan pati sebagai substratnya. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengkarakterisasi sifat amilolitik dan mengidentifikasi bakteri asam laktat yang mempunyai kemampuan amilolitik untuk memodifikasi pati sagu. Hasil penelitian memperoleh 39 isolat dari industri pengolahan sagu dan 36 diantaranya diduga sebagai bakteri asam laktat. Sembilan dari 36 isolat yang diduga bakteri asam laktat mempunyai sifat amilolitik. Sembilan isolat yang bersifat amilolitik selanjutnya diidentifikasi secara morfologi yang meliputi pewarnaan Gram, bentuk sel, uji katalase, dan uji kemampuan fermentasi. Hasil identifikasi secara morfologi menunjukkan bahwa kesembilan isolat termasuk kelompok bakteri Gram positif, katalase negatif, bentuk basil, dan lima isolat menghasilkan gas sedangkan empat isolat tidak menghasilkan gas. Kemampuan isolat untuk menghasilkan amilase bervariasi dan isolat RN2.12112 mempunyai kemampuan amilolitik lebih tinggi dibanding isolat lainnya


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septina Elida


    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has an important role for rural communities in moving its economy. Therefore, that agricultural potential should be utilized as much as possible for socialwelfare. This study aimed to analyze the potential of agricultural commodities and priority of the factors that determine superioragroindustrybased potensial of agricultural commodities. This study usedsurvey, which was conduct in the Meranti IslandsDistrict from January to May 2016.Respondents involving stakeholders from experts, government agencies and community leaders. The analysis was the Hirarchi Analytical Process (AHP. The results showedthat the potential of agricultural commodities which was develope in Meranti Islands District were sago, coconut and rubber. Determinants: 1 Natural resources (climate, rainfall and land suitability, the priority factor were the land suitability and climate. 2 Human resources (formal education and skills, the priority factor was skill, 3 capital (land, seeds, tools, technology, and ease of cultivation, the priority factor were land, seeds, ease of cultivation. 4 Socio-economic and cultural (ethnic, contribution to GDP, the priority factor was the contribution to the GDP. Superior agroindustriesthat has be developed in the District of Meranti Islands based agricultural potential was agroindustrial sago and coconut. Determinants: 1. The technical aspects (raw materials, capital, technology and infrastructure, the priority factor were the raw material and capital. 2 Economical aspects (price, market, downstream prospects, and the contribution to the GDP, the priority factor are market and downstream prospects. 3 Socio-economic and cultural aspects (education and labor absorption, the priority factor in Agroindustry sago was education, whereas in the palm agro-industry was labor absorption.

  11. Stress protein synthesis and peroxidase activity in a submersed aquatic macrophyte exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siesko, M.M.; Grossfeld, R.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fleming, W.J. [National Biological Service, Raleigh, NC (United States). North Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit


    Sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.) was exposed to CdCl{sub 2} to evaluate peroxidase (POD) activity and stress protein (SP) synthesis as potential biomarkers of contaminant stress in an aquatic plant. Peroxidase activity did not increase in sago pondweed incubated for 24 h in a liquid culture medium containing 0.5, 0.75, or 1 mM CdCl{sub 2}. By contrast, at each of these CdCl{sub 2} concentrations, SPs of 162, 142, 1122, 82, and 61 kDa were preferentially synthesized, and synthesis of a 66-kDa protein was reduced relative to controls. Peroxidase activity also did not change in sago pondweed rooted for 21 d in agar containing 1 mM CdCl{sub 2}, despite the lower growth rate, lower protein content, and brown discoloration of the plants. Only when the plants were grown 7 or 21 d on agar containing 10 mM CdCl{sub 2} were the growth retardation and phenotypic deterioration accompanied by significantly increased POD activity. In contrast, plants rooted for 7 d in agar containing 1 mM CdCl{sub 2} were not significantly discolored or retarded in growth, yet they preferentially synthesized SPs of 122, 82, and 50 kDa and synthesized proteins of 59 and 52 kDa at reduced rates relative to controls. Similar changes in protein synthesis were accompanied by signs of depressed growth after 21 d of incubation with 1 mM CdCl{sub 2} and with 7 or 21 d of exposure to 10 mM CdCl{sub 2}. These data indicate that changes in SP synthesis may precede detectable alterations in growth of aquatic plants and, therefore, may be a potentially useful early biomarker of contaminant stress. However, further studies will be required to determine whether the SP response is measurable during exposure to environmentally relevant contaminant levels.

  12. Synthesis of Poly(hydroxamic Acid-Poly(amidoxime Chelating Ligands for Removal of Metals from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Lutfor


    Full Text Available Synthesis of poly(hydroxamic acid-poly(amidoxime chelating ligands were carried out from poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile grafted sago starch and hydroxylamine in alkaline medium. The binding property of metal ions was performed and maximum sorption capacity of the copper was 3.20 mmol/ g and the rate of exchange of some metals was faster, i.e. t½ ≈ 7 min (average. Two types of wastewater containing chromium, zinc, nickel, copper and iron, etc. were used and the heavy metal recovery was found to be highly efficient, about 99% of the metals could be removed from the metal plating wastewater.

  13. Deciphering microbiota associated to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in Italian samples: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Valzano


    Full Text Available The Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790 is the most dangerous and deadly pest of date, coconut, oil, sago and other palms. Recently introduced in the Mediterranean basin, it became the most relevant insect pest for ornamental palms in the urban environment. Given the development of an innovative control method based on symbiotic control, we have performed a pilot project to decrypt the microbiota associated to both adults and larval stages of the insect to identify potential tools for biocontrol agents against the Palm Weevil. A number of bacterial species were found associated with the insect. In particular, species of the genera Lactococcus, Proteus, and others were detected.

  14. Applications of electron accelerator in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)


    Current status of radiation processing, as one of the core research programs of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), is presented. Industrial applications of six electron accelerators from 150 kV up to 3 MV in Malaysia now in operation are mainly for curing of surface coatings, crosslinking of tubes, heat shrinkable tubes and packaging films, crosslinking of wire insulation. Their performances are listed. New technology now in R and D stage includes natural rubber, sago starch and chitosan for biomedical applications, and radiation curable materials from oil palm for pressure sensitive adhesive and printing ink. (S. Ohno)

  15. Effect of Different Medium on Survival Rate and Growth of Chironomus sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni


    Full Text Available In the ornamental fish and fish for food culture, feeding by natural feed is very suitable since they are easy to digest and their size is suitable with  to larval mouth.  One of natural foods is blood worm Chironomus sp. larvae that has high protein content (till  65.2% of  protein. Until now, blood worm is obtained from nature and their stock depends on the weather.  That problem  may be overcome by culturing blood worm in appropriate culture medium.  Naturally, Chironomus sp. grows well in the water containing sago waste.  This study was carried out to examine the growth of Chironomus sp. reared in the medium containing mud, solid sago waste, solid tapioca wastes and water with no waste in depth of 0.5 cm. After 35-day rearing, survival rate of Chironomus sp was different among the treatments, while growth in length was similar. The best survival rate, 58.93% was obtained in the media containing solid sago waste.   Keywords: Chironomus, blood worm, sago waste, tapioca waste   ABSTRAK Dalam usaha budidaya ikan hias maupun ikan konsumsi, pemberian pakan alami sangat cocok karena mudah dicerna dan sesuai dengan bukaan mulut larva. Salah satu contoh pakan alami adalah Chironomus sp. (blood worm yang mempunyai kandungan protein mencapai 65,2%. Selama ini cacing darah diperoleh dari alam dan suplainya tergantung pada kondisi musim. Hal ini mungkin dapat diatasi dengan membudidayakan cacing darah dengan  media yang sesuai sebagai tempat hidupnya. Secara alami, Chironomus sp. dapat tumbuh dan berkembang dengan baik pada limbah sagu. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Chironomus sp. yang dipelihara pada media berupa lumpur, limbah sagu padat, limbah tapioka padat dan air tanpa limbah dengan ketebalan media 0,5 cm. Setelah 35 hari masa pemeliharaan, diketahui bahwa penggunaan media limbah padat sagu, limbah padat tapioka, lumpur dan air tanpa limbah pada pemeliharaan Chironomus sp. masing-masing menghasilkan tingkat

  16. Hydrolysis of native and heat-treated starches at sub-gelatinization temperature using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme. (United States)

    Uthumporn, U; Shariffa, Y N; Karim, A A


    The effect of heat treatment below the gelatinization temperature on the susceptibility of corn, mung bean, sago, and potato starches towards granular starch hydrolysis (35°C) was investigated. Starches were hydrolyzed in granular state and after heat treatment (50°C for 30 min) by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme for 24 h. Hydrolyzed heat-treated starches showed a significant increase in the percentage of dextrose equivalent compared to native starches, respectively, with corn 53% to 56%, mung bean 36% to 47%, sago 15% to 26%, and potato 12% to 15%. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the presence of more porous granules and surface erosion in heat-treated starch compared to native starch. X-ray analysis showed no changes but with sharper peaks for all the starches, suggested that hydrolysis occurred on the amorphous region. The amylose content and swelling power of heat-treated starches was markedly altered after hydrolysis. Evidently, this enzyme was able to hydrolyze granular starches and heat treatment before hydrolysis significantly increased the degree of hydrolysis.

  17. Penggunaan Bahan Pengisi terhadap Mutu Nugget Vegetarian Berbahan Dasar Tahu dan Tempe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Rohaya


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare different sources of flours and protein sources based on soya bean products in producing vegetarian nugget. Factorial experimental design with three replications was employed where wheat, sweet potato, sago and banana flour as one factor, and tempeh and tofu as another factor. Moisture and raw protein content of vegetarian nuggets produced in this study was in accordance with the Indonesia Standard (SNI. Moisture was less than 60 percent and raw protein was above 12 percent. The highest organoleptic test was obtained from the nugget made of the combination of sago as filler and tofu as protein source. The nugget contained 60.00, 14.89, 28.89 and 2.00 percent of moisture, raw protein, raw fat and ash content, respectively. The organoleptic scores were 2.70, 3.58, 3.50, 3.53 and 3.62 for color, aroma, taste, texture and springiness, respectively. Keywords: nugget, vegetarian nugget, filler


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yondra Yondra


    Full Text Available Natural peat swamp forests converted can alter the soil chemical properties. This study aims to determine the extent to which changes in soil chemical properties that occur after the conversion of land from peat swamp forest to palm oil plantation, HTI Acacia crasicarpa, and sago plantation and to know which types of plants are sustainable on peatlands. The results showed that soil pH increased after the change of land function. While the water content decreased. Chemical properties such as C-organic, ash content, CEC, alkaline saturation, macro nutrients (NPK and bases can be changed also undergo changes after undergoing landuse changes, but no violations based on the law made by the government in pp No 25 of 2000 on the criteria of peatland damage and government regulation no. 150 of 2000 on the control of soil damage for biomass production. Sago is the most sustainable plant compared to others due to changes in soil chemical properties not too much different from other landuse although planted in the long term.

  19. Swelling and tensile properties of starch glycerol system with various crosslinking agents (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Mohd, N.; Nurazzi, N.; Siti Aisyah, M. I.; Fauzi, F. Mohd


    Brittle properties of starch had been overcome by the modification process. In this work, sago starch is being modified with variable amount of plasticiser, namely glycerol at 20 and 40% and crosslinking agent had been added to the system. The film of the modification and characterizations of the starch glycerol system with various crosslinking systems were produced by casting method. The film properties of the starch glycerol system were then characterized by tensile strength (mechanical properties) and swelling (physical properties). The modification of the starch glycerol had improved that system by increasing the tensile strength, modulus however lowering its elongation. The increasing in percentage of the water absorption and also swelling are due to the intrinsic hydroxyl groups presence from the starch and glycerol itself that can attract more water to the system. Upon crosslinking, films casted with chemicals namely, glyoxal, malonic acid, borax, PEG were characterised. It was found that, all the film of sago starch crosslinked and undergoing easy film formation. From this modification, borax and malonic acid crosslinking agent had been determined as the best crosslinking agent to the starch glycerol system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscillia Picauly


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the properties of Heat Moisture treatment (HMT modified ihur sago starch with different moisture contents. The starch was modified with HMT at 110°C after being adjusted to various moisture contents (23, 28, or 33% for 4 h. The physico-chemical and functional properties of the native and modified HMT Ihur sago starch observed were color, swelling power, solubility, paste clarity, moisture content, ash content, amylose content, phenol content, and resistant starch (RS content. Results of this study showed that the HMT starch has a higher degree of lightness (L*, redness (a*, and yellowness (b*, solubility (4.85-5.38% but lower swelling power (44.06-47.47 g/g than the native starch which has a solubility and swelling power of 4.90% and 50.72 g/g, respectively. Paste clarity was found to decrease along the storage period. In addition, higher moisture content (11.81-13.20%, but lower amylose (14.81-23.52%, phenol (2.50-4.04%, and RS (5.4-6.1% content were observed than the native starch with amylose, phenol, and RS content of 27.18, 7.91, and 6.5%, respectively.

  1. Hydrology-induced signals at superconducting gravimeter site at Sutherland/South Africa (United States)

    Kroner, Corinna; Werth, Susanna; Pflug, Hartmut; Güntner, Andreas; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Fourie, Pieter; Charles, Phil


    The superconducting gravimeter (SG) operating at the South African Geodynamic Observatory Sutherland (SAGOS) is one of the few instruments installed in the southern hemisphere and presently still the only one of its kind on the African continent. SAGOS is located in the Karoo, a semi-arid region with an average annual precipitation in the range of 200 to 400 mm. The distance to the ocean is approx. 220 km. A seasonal effect on gravity related to fluctuations in local hydrology is clearly seen in the SG record. Its general order of magnitude is estimated to be about 4 to 10 nm/s². A large-scale hydrological impact in a similar order of magnitude or even larger (up to 60 nm/s² peak-to-peak) is inferred from global hydrological models for the years 2003 to 2007. Significant contributions are found for the southern coast, the central Cape region, and the basin of the Orange river. Contributing basins with larger distance comprise the areas of Okavango/Sambesi, Congo, and eastern Africa. Between SG data, temporal GRACE gravity field solutions, and the gravity effect derived from global hydrological models clear differences are present. Among others, differences between the hydrological models can be traced to deviations in the gravity effect originating from the Okavango basin and the central Cape region. The present findings indicate the suitability of the SG observations at Sutherland for studies on changes in continental water storage in the South African region.

  2. Lessons learned for hydrogravimetry: the superconducting gravimeter observatories at Concepción (Chile) and Sutherland (South Africa) (United States)

    Güntner, Andreas; Ritschel, Maiko; Blume, Theresa; Dobslaw, Henryk; Förste, Christoph; Klügel, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Julian; Mikolaj, Michal; Reich, Marvin; Rossel, Ghislaine; Synisch, Jan; Wziontek, Hartmut


    Superconducting gravimeters (SGs) continuously measure temporal variations of the Earth's gravity with very high precision. As SGs are sensitive to water mass changes in their surroundings, they potentially provide unique measurements of total water storage variations (the sum of variations in snow, soil and groundwater storage) at scales of several hundreds of meters. However, other geophysical signals by mass attraction and loading effects (e.g., tides, atmosphere, ocean, regional and global hydrology) have to be adequately removed from SG observations. In addition, the local settings of SG deployment (e.g., topographic position and near-field observatory infrastructure) are important controls on SG is sensitivity to the hydrological signal of interest. In this study, we evaluate the hydrological value of SGs for two sites in contrasting climate regions, i.e., (1) the Geodetic Observatory TIGO in the Coast Range of Southern Chile in Concepción, and (2) the South African Geodynamic Observatory Sutherland (SAGOS) in the semidesert Karoo region. At both sites, gravimetric as well as independent hydro-meteorological observations are available for several years. We remove large-scale atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological gravity effects by an ensemble approach using several global models. For the highly seasonal sub-humid climate at TIGO, the residual gravity signals had a larger seasonal amplitude (300-400 nm/s2) and a later annual phase than the gravimetric signal estimated from near-surface soil moisture observations in previous analyses. The gravity observations alluded to important and delayed water storage variations in the deeper (20 meter) unsaturated zone. This has been corroborated by soil moisture observations in deeper soil horizons, monitoring of the groundwater level, and hydrological modelling. At the semi-arid site SAGOS, water storage variations are considerably smaller, as are variations of SG residuals (amplitudes smaller than 20 nm/s2). While some

  3. Status of macro and micro nutrients from deposited tailings in reclamation area, PT Freeport Indonesia, Timika

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    S. Taberima


    Full Text Available The reclamation program of deposited tailings (SIRSAT is the obligation of the mining concession holder PT Freeport Indonesia (PTFI. The monitoring of soil and plant qualities regularly is part of the study of the success or performance of mining reclamation. The objective of research in the reclamation area was to study the uptake of macro and micronutrients in inactive tailings, and representative plants that grow up on it. The result showed that pH was alkaline in the land of MP21 with its plants of M. sagoand C.nucifera, MP27 with Matoa (P.pinnata, both of the representative locations with tailings/soil depth of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm, except the surface layer of MP21 has lower pH, i.e. neutral. The organic matter tends to be higher at MP21 with M. sago, followed by C. nucifera, while at MP27 with P. pinnata was very low on the surface layer (topsoil and the bottom layer. MP27 was reclaimed in 2003 with P. pinnata, however these plants tend to be abnormal after being planted more than 10 years. While MP21 with M. sago and C. nucifera was more fertile due to high content of organic matter. Besides that, the tailings deposition at MP21 had became inactive tailings for longer, and were used for the land reclamation activities since 1992/1993. The uptake of macronutrients, especially K was high, which was found in both productive and old leaves in the representative plants of inactive tailings and natural soil. While the old leaves of P. pinnata produced the highest content of S, i.e. > 0,1%. Mnwas the highest in both of old leaves of C. nucifera (379,50ppm and M. Sago (558 ppm which were planted in the natural soil. These concentration levels were higher than normal criteria (> 300 ppm Mn. The uptake of Zn includes normal criteria, except in the productive leaves (170,67ppm, and also the old leaves (160.33 ppm, or exceeds of the normal criteria (> 100 ppm Zn found in P. pinnata MP21.

  4. Adsorpsi Surfaktan Nonionik Alkil Poliglikosida pada Antar muka Fluida-Fluida

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    Adisalamun Adisalamun


    Full Text Available Nonionic surfactants have been used extensively in various industrial applications such as cleaning, personal care, crop protection, paint and coating, textile finishing, emulsion stabilization, food and leather processing. In this study, we have studied the adsorption of three nonionic surfactants of alkyl polyglycoside, namely commercial APG from Cognis and APG produced from glucose as well as APG synthesized from sago starch, at fluid–fluid interfaces. The variation of surface and interfacial tension with the concentration of surfactant in the bulk was studied, and the data were fitted using a surface equation of state derived from the Langmuir isotherm. The agreement between ?(c data and Langmuir isotherm model was very good. Keywords: adsorption, air/water interface, interfacial tension, surface tension

  5. A Third Type of Resistance to Cydia pomonella Granulovirus in Codling Moths Shows a Mixed Z-Linked and Autosomal Inheritance Pattern. (United States)

    Sauer, A J; Schulze-Bopp, S; Fritsch, E; Undorf-Spahn, K; Jehle, J A


    Different isolates of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) are used worldwide to control codling moth larvae (Cydia pomonella) in pome fruit production. Two types of dominantly inherited field resistance of C. pomonella to CpGV have been recently identified: Z-chromosomal type I resistance and autosomal type II resistance. In the present study, a CpGV-resistant C. pomonella field population (termed SA-GO) from northeastern Germany was investigated. SA-GO individuals showed cross-resistance to CpGV isolates of genome group A (CpGV-M) and genome group E (CpGV-S), whereas genome group B (CpGV-E2) was still infective. Crossing experiments between individuals of SA-GO and the susceptible C. pomonella strain CpS indicated the presence of a dominant autosomal inheritance factor. By single-pair inbreeding of SA-GO individuals for two generations, the genetically more homogenous strain CpRGO was generated. Resistance testing of CpRGO neonates with different CpGV isolates revealed that isolate CpGV-E2 and isolates CpGV-I07 and -I12 were resistance breaking. When progeny of hybrid crosses and backcrosses between individuals of resistant strain CpRGO and susceptible strain CpS were infected with CpGV-M and CpGV-S, resistance to CpGV-S appeared to be autosomal and dominant for larval survivorship but recessive when success of pupation of the hybrids was considered. Inheritance of resistance to CpGV-M, however, is proposed to be both autosomal and Z linked, since Z linkage of resistance was needed for pupation. Hence, we propose a further type III resistance to CpGV in C. pomonella, which differs from type I and type II resistance in its mode of inheritance and response to CpGV isolates from different genome groups.IMPORTANCE The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is registered and applied as a biocontrol agent in nearly all pome fruit-growing countries worldwide to control codling moth caterpillars in an environmentally friendly manner. It is therefore the most

  6. A new era for underground mine seal construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.


    Even though many compliance questions remain about the US MSHA's emergency temporary standard (ETS) for mine seals, the industry presses forward. This article discusses the ETS which included new requirements to strengthen underground mine seals, introduced following the Sago and Darby mine disasters. The standard is based on dynamic loading. Seals should be constructed at 50 psi but the atmosphere behind them must be monitored and maintained. Mine operators must submit design and installation applications for MSHA approval. Five months down the line, several companies have 50- and 120-psi seals approved, including Precision Mine Repair, Minova, Micon and Almon Associates. Strata Mine Series has submitted a 120-psi seal for approval. The article discusses these companies' designs and their experiences and delays in obtaining approval. 4 figs.

  7. Produksi Enzim Amilolitik dari Bacillus megaterium Menggunakan Variasi Kadar Pati Sagu (Metroxylon sp.

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    Sandra Madonna


    Full Text Available The application of enzymes as biocatalysts for the industries in Indonesia has increased. Among the enzymes that are needed in Indonesia, one of which amylolytic enzymes. Amylolytic enzymes constitute a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch into simple sugars consisting of glucose units. In this study amylolytic enzyme isolated from the bacterium Bacillus megaterium. Enzyme production was submerged fermentation method for 14 hours using sagostarch Metroxylon sp. varies. Measurement of enzyme activity was determined by the method amylolytik Somogy-Nelson. Research results showed that2 % (w/v of sago starchis the optimum consentration in media with highest amylolytic enzyme activity that is equal to 0.076 units/ml and sugar medium formed by181.254ug/ml in the fermentation medium.


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    Ngafwan Ngafwan


    Full Text Available Nature composite from skin rice fibre and palm sago fibre have different mechanical and physycs properties characteristic , that have done from result of our researh before. Therefore there is many research that can composse the properties of materials above. The methode of compossing two fiber use poliester that have 20%, 30%, and 40% volume fraction of that matrice, compossing with sandwich layer. Caracterizing properties testing used are thermal conductivity test, and bending test. The result are, at high thermal condition the conductivity was decrease for all above materials. The decreasing of conductivity of this sandwich compsite is more significant. The sandwich composite more tough than skin rice fibre composite. The resume is the mechanical properties ( bending toughness more less significant of the thermal conductivity that more better.


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    Wenny Surya Murtius


    Full Text Available Penelitian yang telah dilakukan bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas amilolitik tertinggi dan waktu pemeraman yang tepat parutan ubi kayu sebelum dicetak menjadi kerupuk. Berdasarkan pengamatan dilapangan produsen kerupuk ubi kayu di Nagari Tanjuang Gadang Kecamatan Lareh Sago Halaban Kab. Lima Puluh Kota, mempunyai kebiasaan memeram parutan ubi kayu yang telah diparut selama ± 24 jam. Sehingga perlakuan penelitian adalah waktu pemeraman yang berbeda (0 Jam, 6 Jam, 12 Jam, 18 Jam, 24 Jam dan 30 Jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan aktivitas tertinggi amilolitik adalah pada waktu 30 jam, sedangkan waktu pemeraman terbaik adalah 18 jam, dengan karakteristik; granula pati sudah mulai pecah, kadar air 56,83%, pH 4,72, Aw 0,97, IA 5,8 mm, mikroorganisme amilolitik 5,0 * 103 cfu/g dan ALT 1,6 * 104 cfu/g.

  10. Incorporation of Kojic Acid-Azo Dyes on TiO2 Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Applications

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    Carolynne Zie Wei Sie


    Full Text Available Sensitization of heavy metal free organic dyes onto TiO2 thin films has gained much attention in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A series of new kojic acid based organic dyes KA1–4 were synthesized via nucleophilic substitution of azobenzene bearing different vinyl chains A1–4 with kojyl chloride 4. Azo dyes KA1–4 were characterized for photophysical properties employing absorption spectrometry and photovoltaic characteristic in TiO2 thin film. The presence of vinyl chain in A1–4 improved the photovoltaic performance from 0.20 to 0.60%. The introduction of kojic acid obtained from sago waste further increases the efficiency to 0.82–1.54%. Based on photovoltaic performance, KA4 achieved the highest solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (η = 1.54% in the series.

  11. A world of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.


    The paper explains why the time has come for the coal industry to look at advancing mine escape and rescue strategies. Many recent coal mining incidents required the intervention of mine rescue teams equipped with breathing apparatus. Self rescuers have only been widely used since the late 1960s in the form of filter rescuers. Now most US coal miners carry the 1 hour person-wearable SCSR, an oxygen producing unit rather than a filter. NIOSH has reported incidences of failures of SCSRs during detailed inspection - the author comments that it is high time the manufacturers produced 100% reliable products. Historically, a filter self-rescuer is simpler to design, easier to use and more reliable than an SCSR. At the Sago explosion miners may have fared better with this. Thermal imaging cameras would help mine rescue teams but these are expensive and not approved as intrinsically safe. 4 photos.

  12. Biodegradation kinetics during different start up of the anaerobic tapered fluidized bed reactor

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    Rangasamy Parthiban


    Full Text Available Kinetic study for different start up conditions of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the sago processingfrom tubers of tapioca (Mannihot utillisema is discussed. The experiment is carried out with synthetic waste water usinga tapered fluidized bed reactor. Mesoporous granulated activated carbon is used as a bacterial support. The kinetic modelfollows half order kinetics for substrate utilization and for methane formation and it exhibits an order of 0.20 during thestart up of the reactor without acclimatization. For the remaining start up with acclimatized sludge, kinetic parameters areexpressed in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics for the substrate utilization. The methane formation kinetics followsan order of the reaction as 0.30. The values of the kinetic constants are in the range of 0.13–0.21.

  13. Mercury residues in wood ducks and wood duck foods in eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, R.C.; Dimmick, R.W.


    Liver, breast muscle and body fat from 50 juvenile and five adult wood ducks (Aix sponsa) collected on the Holston River, Tennessee were analyzed for total mercury content. Black fly larvae (Simulium vittatum) sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), tapegrass (Vallisneria americanus), water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia), Elodea canadensis, and river bottom sediments were also analyzed to elucidate the distribution of mercury in the wood duck's environment. Liver tissues of juveniles contained the highest mean concentration of mercury (0.42 ppm). Mercury in breast muscle and body fat of juveniles averaged 0.15 and 0.10 ppm, respectively. Residues in corresponding tissues of adults were lower. Of environmental components tested, sediments had the highest mean concentration (0.76 ppm). Black fly larvae and aquatic plants had mean levels below 0.10 ppm.

  14. The system was blinking red: Awareness Contexts and Disasters

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    Vivian B. Martin


    Full Text Available The awareness context has been a source of inspiration for grounded theories for more than 50 years; yet little has been done to extend the theory beyond nursing and the medical field, and a few works on identity. This paper extends the awareness context by examining its role in several high-profile disasters, natural and man-made, where gaining a clear sense of what was going on was often blocked by poor information flow and general communication failures, interpersonal and technological. Selective coding and the introduction of new concepts after analyzing hundreds of pages of documents issued by special commissions in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Hurricane Katrina, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf, and the Sago Mine Disaster not only explain various processes around awareness in the midst of crisis, but also illuminate pre-crisis patterns that, if attended, could have mitigated the impact of the disasters.

  15. β-Cyclodextrin Production by Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from an Alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 Using Different Starch Substrates

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    Kiransinh N. Rajput


    Full Text Available Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC is an important member of α-amylase family which can degrade the starch and produce cyclodextrins (CDs as a result of intramolecular transglycosylation (cyclization. β-Cyclodextrin production was carried out using the purified CGTase enzyme from an alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 with different starches in raw as well as gelatinized form. Cyclodextrin production was confirmed using thin layer chromatography. Six different starch substrates, namely, soluble starch, potato starch, sago starch, corn starch, corn flour, and rice flour, were tested for CD production. Raw potato starch granules were found to be the best substrate giving 13.46 gm/L of cyclodextrins after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Raw sago starch gave 12.96 gm/L of cyclodextrins as the second best substrate. To achieve the maximum cyclodextrin production, statistical optimization using Central Composite Design (CCD was carried out with three parameters, namely, potato starch concentration, CGTase enzyme concentration, and incubation temperature. Cyclodextrin production of 28.22 (gm/L was achieved with the optimized parameters suggested by the model which are CGTase 4.8 U/L, starch 150 gm/L, and temperature 55.6°C. The suggested optimized conditions showed about 15% increase in β-cyclodextrin production (28.22 gm/L at 55.6°C as compared to 24.48 gm/L at 60°C. The degradation of raw potato starch granules by purified CGTase was also confirmed by microscopic observations.

  16. Productivity of laccase in solid substrate fermentation of selected agro-residues by Pycnoporus sanguineus. (United States)

    Vikineswary, S; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Renuvathani, M; Sekaran, M; Pandey, A; Jones, E B G


    A comparative study on solid substrate fermentation (SSF) of sago 'hampas', oil palm frond parenchyma tissue (OPFPt) and rubberwood sawdust with Pycnoporus sanguineus for laccase production was carried out. Optimal mycelial growth of Pyc. sanguineus was observed on all the substrates studied over a 21 days time-course fermentation. Laccase productivity was highest during degradation of sago 'hampas' and OPFPt and a range from 7.5 to 7.6 U/g substrate on the 11th day of fermentation compared to degradation of rubberwood sawdust with a maximum laccase productivity of 5.7 U/g substrate on day 11 of SSF. Further optimization of laccase production was done by varying the inoculum age, density and nitrogen supplementation. SSF of OPFPt by Pyc. sanguineus gave maximum productivity of laccase of 46.5 U/g substrate on day 6 of fermentation with a 30% (w/w) of 4 weeks old inoculum and 0.92% nitrogen in the form of urea supplemented in the substrate. The extraction of laccase was also optimized in this study. Recovery of laccase was fourfold higher at 30.6 U/g substrate on day 10 of SSF using unadjusted tap water at pH 8.0 as extraction medium at 25+/-2 degrees C compared to laccase recovery of 7.46 U/g substrate using sodium acetate buffer at pH 4.8 at 4 degrees C. Further optimization showed that laccase recovery was increased by 50% with a value of 46.5 U/g substrate on day 10 of SSF when the extraction medium was tap water adjusted to pH 5.0 at 25+/-2 degrees C.

  17. Modeling potential impacts of the Garrison Diversion Unit project on Sand Lake and Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuges: a feasibility analysis (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Roelle, James E.


    The Garrison Diversion Unit (GDU) of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin program was authorized in 1965, with the purpose of diverting Missouri River water to the James River for irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and flood control. The project was reauthorized in 1986, with the specification that comprehensive studies be conducted to address a variety of issues. One of these ongoing studies addresses potential impacts of GDU construction and operation on lands of the National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) system, including Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges (the Refuges) on the James River. A number of concerns at these Refuges have been identified; the primary concerns addressed in this report include increased winter return flows, which would limit control of rough fish; increased turbidity during project construction, which would decrease production of sago pondweed; and increased water level fluctuations in the late spring and early summer, which would destroy the nests of some over-water nesting birds. The facilitated workshop described in this report was conducted February 18-20, 1987, under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. The primary objectives of the workshop were to evaluate the feasibility of using simulation modeling techniques to estimate GDU impacts on Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges and to suggest enhancements to the James River Refuge monitoring program. The workshop was structured around the formulation of four submodels: a Hydrology and Water Quality submodel to simulate changes in Refuge pool elevations, turnover rates, and water quality parameters (e.g., total dissolved solids, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, water temperature, pesticides) due to GDU construction and operation; a Vegetation submodel to simulate concomitant changes in wetland communities (e.g., sago pondweed, wet meadows, deep


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    Nur Afni Evalia


    Full Text Available Aren is a type of palm that has a highly potential economic value. Lareh Sago Sub-district is the largest producer in the District of Lima Puluh Kota; however, it is only processed to produce wine and molded sugar. This study aimed to formulate a strategy for the sugar palm sugar agro-industrial development in Lareh Sagohalaban. The research method was a case study in the form of quantitative descriptive, and the data were processed using IFE/EFE, SWOT and AHP. The values obtained from IFE and EFE matrixes were 2.646 and 2.298 respectively. From the SWOT analysis, alternative strategies were obtained, namely, SO Strategy: Strengthening the R & D to develop market-based sugar processing for commercial scale and diversification of palm downstream products; WO Strategy: Improving upstream subsystem to develop nursery based on palm local seed varieties and providing institutional assistance; ST Strategy: Determining agro-technopark for palm industrialization, providing assistance in the form of appropriate packaging technology accordance with the standards, and WT Strategy: increasing commitment and cooperation among stakeholders in strengthening palm agro-industry, increasing marketing and promotion for the expansion and sanction policy for any company selling Aren in the form of wine. From the result of AHP analysis, the determinant factors in developing the business include Technology (0.439, the Government as the actor (0.577, and product diversification as the strategy (0.388.Keyword: Aren (palm, cluster- agro technopark, IFE/EFE matrixes, SWOT analysis, AHPABSTRAKAren (Arenga pinnata Merr adalah jenis palma yang memiliki potensi nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Kecamatan Lareh sago halaban merupakan penghasil Aren terbesar di Kabupaten Lima Puluh Kota, namun dalam pengolahannya masih mengolah menjadi gula cetak dan lebih banyak dalam bentuk tuak. Penelitian ini bertujuan merumuskan strategi pengembangan agroindustri gula semut aren di Kecamatan


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    Imelda Saputri


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this research was to study antioxidant activity in pegagan sago cookies with various concentrations of pegagan powder. This research was conducted in two stages which was preliminary and main research. Preliminary research included making of pegagan powder, cookies formula, and organoleptic test. Primary research included formulation and making cookies with various concentrations of pegagan powder, physico-chemical properties observations, antioxidant activity and organoleptic test. The method used in this research was Complete Randomized Design with the factor was pegagan powder concentration. Pegagan powder concentration used in this research were 0%, 5.5%, 6.5%, and 7.5%. The determination of selected products made by considering the results of organoleptic test, antioxidant activity, and total amount of phenol. The selected cookies was the 7.5% cookies which had antioxidant activity as much as 15.2% and equivalent to 140 mg of vitamin C and 905.4 mg phenols in 100 g of cookies. The result of variance analysis showed that addition of pegagan with various concentrations did not significantly affect the antioxidant activity and total phenol of cookies (p<0.05.Keywords: antioxidant, cookies, pegagan, sago, total phenolABSTRAKTujuan penelitian adalah mempelajari aktivitas antioksidan cookies sagu pegagan dengan berbagai konsentrasi serbuk pegagan. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahapan, yaitu penelitian pendahuluan dan utama. Penelitian pendahuluan mencakup pembuatan serbuk pegagan, formula cookies dan uji organoleptik. Penelitian utama terdiri atas formulasi dan pembuatan cookies dengan berbagai konsentrasi serbuk pegagan, pengamatan sifat fisiko-kimia, aktivitas antioksidan, dan uji organoleptik. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan faktor konsentrasi serbuk pegagan pada pembuatan cookies dengan empat taraf yaitu 0%, 5,5%, 6,5%, dan 7,5%. Penentuan produk terpilih dilakukan dengan

  20. Effect of K-N-Humates on Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Maize in Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Auldry Chaddy Petrus


    Full Text Available Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW, is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer, which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS, but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6 showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from

  1. Synthesis and characterization of porous biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold from different porogens for possible bone tissue engineering applications

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    Amera A.


    Full Text Available By using the wet precipitation method, Biphasic calcium phosphate granules were synthesized with Ca/P ratio1.52 and controlled porosity, pore size distribution, and granule size. Microporosity was then obtained by adjusting sintering temperature while macroporosity was prepared by adding 1:3 wt% ratio of two normally used porogens (naphthalene and sugar and 2 newly introduced porogens (sago and lentil. Samples from each ratio were pressed into pellets and were fired at 500ºC for 2 hours with 0.5°C/minute heating rate (for removal of porogens and further sintered at 850°C for 2 hours with 5°C/minute before cooling down to room temperature. The granules were prepared by crushing and sieving BCP sintered pellets to get granules of sizes ranging from 250-500μm. X-rays diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, particle size and porosity analyses were employed in order to characterize the granules. A round to oval shape pores with 200-400 μm size were obtained and identical to the prepared porogens’ particle size. This approach gives the desirable properties near to normal bone leading to a perfect osteogenesis for the purpose tissue engineering.


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    Nida El Husna


    Full Text Available Sago starch as local food rich in carbohydrates and crude extract of moringa leaves that rich in protein have potential to be developed as a raw material for wet noodle. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of percentage of moringa leaf extract (5%, 10%, 15% and the filtering process of extracts (with and without screening on the physical and sensory properties of wet noodle. This study was conducted using completely randomized design consisted of two factors with three replications. Analysis of wet noodles includes of cooking time, cooking loss, water absorption, percentage of breaking noodles, sensory (hedonic test of color, aroma, taste, and texture. The results showed that the higher of percentage of moringa leaves extract increased the cooking time, cooking loss, and percentage of breaking noodles. Moringa leaf extract with the screening process decreased the cooking time and breaking percentage of noodles. The best treatment was obtained from the addition of moringa leaves extract of 5 % and with the filtering process of extracts.

  3. Monitoring the Northern San Francisco Bay Water Quality with Landsat-8. Nicholas B. Tufillaroa , and Curtiss O. Davisa. aOregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA, (United States)

    Davis, C. O.; Tufillaro, N.


    Landsat-8's high spatial resolution ( 30 nm nominal), improved signal-to-noise (12bit digitizer) and expanded band set open up new applications for coastal and in-land waters. We use a recent ocean color processor for Landsat-8 created by Vanhellemont and Ruddick (RSE, 2015)to examine changes in the Northern San Francisco Bay, in particular looking for possiblechanges due to the on-going California drought. For instance, a temporary drought barrier to prevent salt water intrusion was placed during May of 2015 at West False River in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Using the new Landsat-8 ocean color products, we illustrate how to monitor changes in macro algae and plants (Sago pondweed (native), Curly pondweed (non-native)) in regions directly effected,such as the Franks Track region. Product maps using panchromatic enhancement ( 15 m resolution) andscene based atmospheric correction allow a detailed synoptic look every 16 days during theSpring, Summer, and Fall of 2015. This work is part of a larger NASA funded project aimed atimproving the modeling and predictive capabilities of the biogeochemical state for the San Francisco Bay(Davis, PI: Impacts of Population Growth on the San Francisco Bay and Delta Ecosystem, 2014-2017).

  4. The growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz on various alternative gelling agents

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    Full Text Available Gelling agents which is an important component in plant tissue culture media is considered expensive which causes high cost of plant micropropagation in developing countries. The objective of the study was to evaluate various commercial starches (hunkue, sago, tapioca, maize and arrowroot and food agars for substitution of standard technical agar which commonly used in tissue culture medium. Young stem cuttings with five buds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. genotype Iding and Gebang cultured on MS hormone-free media solidified with those starches and agars. Parameters observed were total and length of shoots and rate of contamination. Result of study showed that the highest total shoots (2.45 on genotype Iding obtained from Agar Swallow 0.8% (control, meanwhile on Gebang (2.85 obtained from tapioca 25%. The highest shoot length on genotype Iding (17.2 mm obtained from maize, meanwhile on Gebang obtained from agar Sinar Kencana 2% (8.95 mm. Contamination rate of explants caused by bacteria or fungi on genotype Iding was 30-70%, meanwhile on Gebang was 20-60%. Further study needs to be done to evaluate more gelling agents from different sources and their combinations.

  5. High thermal behavior of a new glass ceramic developed from silica xerogel/SnO{sub 2} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aripin, H., E-mail: [Faculty of Learning Teacher and Education Science, Siliwangi University, Jl. Siliwangi 24 Tasikmalaya 46115, West Java (Indonesia); Mitsudo, Seitaro, E-mail: [Research Center for Development of Far Infrared Region (FIR Center), University of Fukui, Bunkyo 3-9-1 Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Sudiana, I. Nyoman, E-mail: [Departement Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Haluoleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu, Kendari 93232 (Indonesia); Priatna, Edvin, E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Siliwangi University, Tasikmalaya (Indonesia); Sabchevski, Svilen, E-mail: [Lab. Plasma Physics and Engineering, Institute of Electronics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Shose Blvd., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)


    In this investigation, a new glass ceramics have been produced by mixing SnO{sub 2} and amorphous silica xerogel (ASX) extracted from sago waste ash. The composition has been prepared by adding 10 mol% of SnO{sub 2} into SX. The samples have been dry pressed and sintered in the temperature range between 800 °C and 1500 °C. The effects of temperature on the crystallization of silica xerogel after adding SnO{sub 2} and their relationship to bulk density have been studied. The crystallization process of the silica xerogel/SnO{sub 2} composite has been examined by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the bulk density has been characterized on the basis of the experimental data obtained using Archimedes′ principle. It has been found that an addition of SnO{sub 2} confers an appreciable effect on the grain and from the interpretation of XRD patterns allow one to explain the increase in the density by an increased crystallite size of SnO{sub 2} in the composite.

  6. Interpreting the Acoustic Characteristics of Rpw Towards Its Detection- A Review (United States)

    Leena Nangai, V.; Martin, Betty, Dr.


    Red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) is also known as Asian palm weevil or Sago weevil. This is a lethal pest of palms which can attack about 17 varieties of palm trees. The growth rate of the weevil depends upon the type of palm tree it feeds on. It attacks the palm trees which is less than 20 years. The presence of the weevil in the palm tree is not evident when seen by the naked eye. Hence palm tree cultivation is affected very badly by the red palm weevil larvae. The larva bores the trunk of the palm trees by feeding on the soft tissues which is present at the centre. The chewing activity produces a kind of sound. Other movements like crawling, emission also produces very feeble sound. The sound produced by the larvae lies between specific ranges of frequency and has its own spectral features. The spectral features extracted from the acoustic movement of the RPW larvae helps the early detection and protect the palm tree from further infestation. Here a survey on acoustic detection and development of instrument or sensors based on acoustic characteristic of RPW larvae is conducted.

  7. Kualitas Dange Yang Disubstitusi Tepung Daging Ikan Kembung (Rastrellinger kanagurta

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    Ambar Rukmini


    Full Text Available Dange is a traditional food made from delicate wet sago starch and further roasted in forna. Dange has rectangle form, flat with approximately 0,5 cm thickness. In addition, dange is also well known for its light, tasteless, hardness and relatively not hygroscopy. To increase the quality of dange and improve its flavour, a research was performed to study the quality of dange substituted with mackerel fish meat. The treatment was arranged in two classifications factorial completely randomized design. The classifications were variation of mackerel fish meat (0%, 2%, 5% and 8% and time of grill (1 minute, 2 minutes and 3 minutes. Furthermore, the dange product quality was tested chemical and sensory analysis. The chemical analysis consisted of moisture, protein, fat, ash and starch content. Whereas the different of dange product quality was tested sensory analysis using scoring test method and the consumers acceptance was tested by hedonic scale test method. It was found that the most liked dange was made from 5% substitute of mackerel fish meat at 1 minute grill. This dange had slightly brittle texture, yellow-white colour, fishy taste and relatively strong fishy flavour with 27.84% moisture, 3.98% protein, 0.50%fat, 2.48% ash and 57,78% starch content.

  8. Resistant starch in cassava products

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    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira


    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21% and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%. Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. More on Kerr geodesics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayos, F; Teijon, Ch [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)


    The equations of motion of a Kerr Black Hole are deeply analyzed in order to find out and classify the different kinds of orbits; i.e. bounded geodesics with null or non null eccentricity. Using Boyer-Lindquist coordinates; this classification is made in terms of the constants of motion: mass (m), energy (E) angular momentum (L) and Carter's constant (L). Constraints on the allowed values are found: constants of motion cannot take any value, and the allowed range of values depends on the values of the other parameters. Finally, a 'three dimensional space of parameters' is build, using the constants of motion at the axes: z = m{sup 2}/E{sup 2}, {xi} = L/E and {mu} L/E{sup 2} . In this representation, every point represents a geodesic and regions of different kind of orbits are delimited, becoming a powerful tool to visualize the position and relationship between them, and to see how one particle is able to go from one kind of geodesic to another by a slow change of its constants of motion. This slow change is predicted in the adiabatic limit hypothesis of gravitational radiationl [N Sago et al 2006 Progress of Theoretical Physics 115 873].


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    Gusnawaty HS


    Full Text Available Effectiveness test of several media for propagation biological agent Trichoderma sp.. This study aims to look at the effectiveness of some media to propagation of Trichoderma sp. and to determine the effectiveness of the media that has the best propagation of Trichoderma sp. This research is compiled in a completely randomized design (CRD, consists of seven treatment propagation medium that is 1 Media dregs sago (A, 2 Media dregs of the cashew nut shell (B, 3 Media sawdust (C, 4 Media maize (D, 5 Media bran (E , 6 Media rice (F, 7 Media rice husk (G. The results showed that the medium used for propagation Trichoderma sp. have varying effectiveness. The most effective media for propogation Trichoderma sp. is media bran, with growth capability Trichoderma sp on day 4days after incubation reaches 100%, the difference in weight of the media before and after incubation Trichoderma sp. 2,04 g and the number of conidia 104,125.103/g media.

  11. Physical and mechanical properties of LDPE incorporated with different starch sources (United States)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Kormin, Faridah; Dalour Hossen Beg, Mohammad; Bijarimi Mat Piah, Mohd


    In this study it was investigated the incorporation of different starches, such as sago starch, corn starch, potato starch, tapioca starch and wheat starch, in low-density polyethylene matrix (LDPE) to enhanced mechanical properties and to obtain partially biodegradable product with the aim to reduce the plastics wastes in the environment. For comparison, virgin LDPE, LDPE with different sources of starch blends were prepared and characterized under the same conditions. The starches were mixed to the LDPE using a twin screw extruder to guarantee the homogeneity of the formulations. The compound were shaping processed by injection moulding. The characterization of those compounds was done by physical (density, MFI), mechanical (Universal tensile machine). The addition of starch to LDPE reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength, whereas the elastic modulus, flexural modulus and flexural strength increased. LDPE/SS show the good mechanical behavior compared to other formulation. The physical and mechanical properties were evident when 5 and 30 wt% were added. Water uptake increased with increased starch content and immersion time. The time taken for the composites to equilibrate was about one month even when they were immersed completely in water.

  12. Strategi Subsistensi dan Pemilihan Lokasi Hunian Prasejarah di Situs Yomokho, Sentani

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    Hari Suroto


    Full Text Available The research in the Sentani was concucted in the Yomokho site to understand the strategy of human occupation and subsistence. Reconesaince survey and excavation was adopted in this research. Focus group discussion was also adopted in this research to test the most adoptable heritage socialication for the school students. Pottery is the main artifacts found in this research. The analysis also found that the past communities in the Yomokho site lived the traditional house. The main factor to consider this site as the place to live in the past was based on the location that nearby the lake and sago forest. Penelitian di Kawasan Danau Sentani dilakukan di Situs Yomokho untuk mengetahui strategi pemilihan tempat tinggal manusia pendukung budaya Situs Yomokho, dan pola subsistensi. Untuk itu dalam penelitian ini dilakukan survei permukaan tanah dan ekskavasi. Hasil ekskavasi di Situs Yomokho diperoleh temuan berupa fragmen gerabah polos maupun hias. Berdasarkan analisis data diketahui bahwa fragmen gerabah hanya ditemukan di lapisan tanah bagian atas yang berwarna hitam. Kondisi Bukit Yomokho berupa lereng bukit yang miring. Diasumsikan manusia pendukung Situs Yomokho tinggal di rumah panggung, tidak semua bagian bukit dipilih untuk mendirikan tempat tinggal, tetapi disesuaikan dengan kondisi lereng bukit dan kondisi tanah. Pemilihan Situs Yomokho sebagai hunian masa lalu didasarkan pada lokasinya yang dekat dengan danau dan didukung oleh keberadaan hutan sagu.


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    B. Santoso


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the nutrient degradability, in vitro methane (CH4 production ofseveral agricultural and food industry by-products in relation to their chemical composition. Twenty-onesamples of 7 feedstuffs from agricultural and food industry by-products consisted of corn straw, potatostraw, rice straw, cocoa pod, sago waste, rice bran, soybean curd residue were evaluated by an in vitro gasproduction and nutrient degradability. The feedstuffs varied greatly in their crude protein (CP, neutraldetergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC contents. Crude protein ranged from 1.5 to 21.8%,NDF from 31.6 to 71.1% and NFC from 1.5 to 50.8%. Among the seven feedstuffs, soybean curd residuehad the highest CP content, on the other hand it had the lowest NDF content. Dry matter (DM and organicmatter (OM degradability were highest (P<0.01 in soybean curd residue among the feedstuffs. The CH4production was significantly higher (P<0.01 in rice straw, cocoa pod and corn straw as compared to sagowaste. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.60; P<0.01 between NDF concentration and CH4production. However, the total gas productions was negatively correlated (r = -0.75; P<0.01 with NDFcontent. The CH4 production of feedstuff is influenced by NDF content.

  14. High thermal behavior of a new glass ceramic developed from silica xerogel/SnO2 composite (United States)

    Aripin, H.; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Sudiana, I. Nyoman; Priatna, Edvin; Sabchevski, Svilen


    In this investigation, a new glass ceramics have been produced by mixing SnO2 and amorphous silica xerogel (ASX) extracted from sago waste ash. The composition has been prepared by adding 10 mol% of SnO2 into SX. The samples have been dry pressed and sintered in the temperature range between 800 °C and 1500 °C. The effects of temperature on the crystallization of silica xerogel after adding SnO2 and their relationship to bulk density have been studied. The crystallization process of the silica xerogel/SnO2 composite has been examined by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the bulk density has been characterized on the basis of the experimental data obtained using Archimedes' principle. It has been found that an addition of SnO2 confers an appreciable effect on the grain and from the interpretation of XRD patterns allow one to explain the increase in the density by an increased crystallite size of SnO2 in the composite.

  15. Preferensi Pangan Rumah Tangga Berdasarkan Sosial Ekonomi Wilayah di Kalimantan Barat

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    Imelda Wynalda


    Full Text Available This research aim to identify the society food preferences at the level of households based onper capita income of the region in the West Kalimantan province. The research method usedwas cross sectional study. The location of the research is grouped into three strata of theeconomy based on GDP, namely Pontianak city (high strata, Sekadau district (the lowerstrata and Ketapang district (the intermediate strata. Then selected two subdistrict fromeach city/district. The sample of subjects is selected by purposive 25 householdsper subdistrict, and the total sample 150 households. The results showed that the foodpreferences of the subject significantly associated with per capita income of the area (p<0.05, namely corn, noodle, cassava, sweet potato, taro, sago, beef, chicken, duck egg, freshfish, shrimp, shellfish, anchovies, fish with soy, milk, milk powder, cooking oil, coconut,pecans, walnuts, chocolate, green beans, douchi fermented beans, granulated sugar, brownsugar, syrup, instant drinks, string beans, carrots, bananas, papaya, guava, mango, jackfruit,coffee and tea. Reasons for the selection of food preferences of the subject, because thehabits and the daily food.


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    Khaswar Syamsu


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of PEG 400 addition on the characteristics of bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA. PHA was obtained by cultivating Ralstonia eutropha on hydrolysed sago starch substrate using fed batch method for approximately 96 hours. The biomass concentration obtained was 4 g/L with PHA yield 20-30% of dry cell weight. The bioplastic was formed with solution casting method in which chloroform was used as solvent and PEG 400 was used as plasticizer. The concentrations of PEG 400added were 10, 20, and 30% (w/w, respectively. Bioplastic properties which were tested were tensile strength, elongation to break, density, thermal properties, cristalinity, and functional group. The addition of plastisizer tend to increase tensile strength and elongation to break, but decrease density, cristalinity and melting point. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 addition gave the best results. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 gave a value of tensile strength of 0.083 MPa; elongation to break of 0.881%; density of 0.7881 g/cm3; melting point of 158.95 ac; and cristalinity of 44.58%. With these properties, the resulted bioi plastic may be used for surgical strings

  17. Analysis of the sugar-binding specificity of mannose-binding-type Jacalin-related lectins by frontal affinity chromatography--an approach to functional classification. (United States)

    Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Uchiyama, Noboru; Peumans, Willy J; Van Damme, Els J M; Totani, Kiichiro; Ito, Yukishige; Hirabayashi, Jun


    The Jacalin-related lectin (JRL) family comprises galactose-binding-type (gJRLs) and mannose-binding-type (mJRLs) lectins. Although the documented occurrence of gJRLs is confined to the family Moraceae, mJRLs are widespread in the plant kingdom. A detailed comparison of sugar-binding specificity was made by frontal affinity chromatography to corroborate the structure-function relationships of the extended mJRL subfamily. Eight mJRLs covering a broad taxonomic range were used: Artocarpin from Artocarpus integrifolia (jackfruit, Moraceae), BanLec from Musa acuminata (banana, Musaceae), Calsepa from Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed, Convolvulaceae), CCA from Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut, Fagaceae), Conarva from Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed, Convolvulaceae), CRLL from Cycas revoluta (King Sago palm tree, Cycadaceae), Heltuba from Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke, Asteraceae) and MornigaM from Morus nigra (black mulberry, Moraceae). The result using 103 pyridylaminated glycans clearly divided the mJRLs into two major groups, each of which was further divided into two subgroups based on the preference for high-mannose-type N-glycans. This criterion also applied to the binding preference for complex-type N-glycans. Notably, the result of cluster analysis of the amino acid sequences clearly corresponded to the above specificity classification. Thus, marked correlation between the sugar-binding specificity of mJRLs and their phylogeny should shed light on the functional significance of JRLs.

  18. A Livelihood Asset Status Tracking Method for the Assessment of the Effects of a Development Programme on Agricultural Productivity and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from the Ejisu-Juaben District, Ghana

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    Peter Kojo Boateng


    Full Text Available This paper advances and discusses an innovative Livelihood Asset Status Tracking (LAST computational method based on the sustainable livelihoods analytical framework. It then uses the method to offer a theoretically informed empirical assessment of the effects of Ghana’s Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy II (GPRS II – 2006-2009 on smallholder farmers’ ability to develop sustainable livelihoods in the face of changing environmental and socio-economic conditions of production. Often, variability in climatic conditions interacts with adverse socio-economic conditions such as disadvantageous terms of trade and poor agricultural infrastructure to undermine agricultural productivity and by extension, Ghanaian smallholder farmers’ livelihoods (Sagoe, 2006. In this study, developing sustainable livelihoods is defined by a quantitative assessment of the development of 5 key livelihood capital assets – financial capital, social capital, natural capital, physical capital and human capital. Among others, the LAST analysis reveals that although a few smallholder farmers were able to develop productive capital assets and to build viable and sustainable livelihoods through the activities of the GPRS II, a greater majority of smallholder farmers in the municipality have not been able to adequately develop capital assets for more productivity, hence maintaining extremely poor and vulnerable livelihoods.

  19. Implementation of Temperature Sequential Controller on Variable Speed Drive (United States)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.


    There are many pump and motor installations with quite extensive speed variation, such as Sago conveyor, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and water pumping system. A common solution for these applications is to run several fixed speed motors in parallel, with flow control accomplish by turning the motors on and off. This type of control method causes high in-rush current, and adds a risk of damage caused by pressure transients. This paper explains the design and implementation of a temperature speed control system for use in industrial and commercial sectors. Advanced temperature speed control can be achieved by using ABB ACS800 variable speed drive-direct torque sequential control macro, programmable logic controller and temperature transmitter. The principle of direct torque sequential control macro (DTC-SC) is based on the control of torque and flux utilizing the stator flux field orientation over seven preset constant speed. As a result of continuous comparison of ambient temperature to the references temperatures; electromagnetic torque response is particularly fast to the motor state and it is able maintain constant speeds. Experimental tests have been carried out by using ABB ACS800-U1-0003-2, to validate the effectiveness and dynamic respond of ABB ACS800 against temperature variation, loads, and mechanical shocks.

  20. BIONOMY OF Anopheles punctulatus GROUP (Anopheles farauti, Anopheles koliensis, Anopheles punctulatus MALARIA VECTOR IN PAPUA PROVINCE

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    Semuel Sandy


    Anopheles farauti, An. punctulatus and An. koliensis. These three species were nocturnal, antrophopilic with the diferrencebionomics such as breeding habitats, biting activity, and resting places. The aim of this study was to determine the bionomicaspects of the malaria vectors (resting places, biting activity and breading habitats in the study areas. The larvae of An.farauti was reported found at coastal, area with brackish water (salinity ± 4.6 %, natural or artificial irrigation canals.Adult female mosquitoes of An. farauti were found nocturnal, eksofagik eksofilik , and antrophopilic habit. An. koliensislarvae not found in brackish, they were found in the swamp and sago forest, semipermanent or permanent ponds whichshallow and exposed to direct sunlight . Adult mosquitoes of An. koliensis were nocturnal, antrophopilic (78% human bites,eksofagik, eksofilik. The larvae of An. punctulatus was not found in brackish water, it was found in a pool with clear or turbidwater which presence or no water vegetation, the larvae of An. punctulatus also found in sago and swamp forest withexposure to direct sunlight. Adult mosquites of An. punctulatus were nocturnal, antrophopilic (98% human bites, eksofagik,endofilik. Basic data on the behaviour of Anopheles spp (bionomic is necessary in developing effective and efficientintervention pattern and control vector.Key words: malaria vector, An. punctulatus group, bionomic, Papua

  1. Efektifitas Berkumur Rebusan Daun Sirih Dibandingkan Rebusan Daun Saga terhadap Perubahan Derajat Keasaman Air Ludah

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    Ratna Wilis


    Full Text Available Extract from betel leaf stew and saga leaves to gargle can change the pH of saliva. Changes are measured by a pH of 0-14 to saliva, alkaline, and neutrality. By 2013, nationwide primary school children who experience dental and mouth problems of 25,9%, the picture shows that dental and oral health status is still problematic. The objective of the study was to measure the effectiveness of gargling with the decoction of betel leaf and the decoction of saga leaves to the degree of acidity of saliva in the students. The research design is quasi-experiment, conducted on 26 elementary students of Banda Aceh as many as 60 students and divided into 3 groups. Collecting data by measuring saliva pH between gargling with betel leaf stew and sago leaf stew, both before and after treatments. Data analysis used T-Test statistic at CI:95%. The result of the research was descriptive of saliva pH average after rinsing with betel leaf (6,9, higher than saliva pH after gargling with saga leaf (7,3. This shows a significant difference between after goulash stewing betel leaves after gargling stew saga leaves (p<0,05. In conclusion, gargle stew of betel leaf is more effective compared to glyskin sago stew to the change of pH saliva acidity degree. Suggestion, use of leaf saga as a mouthwash is very good for the community through the addition of other concentrates so as to have a favorite aroma of the community. Keywords:             Saliva, acidity, pH, betel and saga leaf extract Sari dari rebusan daun sirih dan daun saga  untuk berkumur dapat mengalami perubahan pH air ludah. Perubahan diukur dengan pH skala 0 – 14 terhadap keasaman ludah, basa dan netral.  Tahun 2013, secara nasional anak-anak sekolah dasar yang mengalami permasalahan gigi dan mulut sebesar 25,9%, gambaran tersebut menunjukan bahwa status kesehatan gigi dan mulut masih bermasalah. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengukur efektifitas berkumur dengan rebusan daun sirih dan rebusan daun saga

  2. Tingkat pendapatan dan pola makan berhubungan dengan status gizi balita di Daerah Nelayan Distrik Jayapura Utara Kota Jayapura

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    Vonny Persulessy


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Nutrition has an important role in human life cycle. Undernourishment in infants and underfives can cause growth and development disorder. Development of Papua community begins from village empowerment, such as nutrition improvement, health service, and people’s economy. There are544 fisherman families at District of Jayapura Utara. Main stipend of Papua community consists of rice, sago, hipere, taro and banana. Sago is consumed by the majority of people residing at coastal areas. Nutrition Status Monitoring of Jayapura Municipal Health Office in 2008 indicated that 3.4% of underfiveswere malnourished, 17.8% undernourished, 76% well nourished and 2.8% overnourished.Objectives: To identify correlation between level of income and diet pattern with nutritional status of underfive in fi sherman area of Jayapura District Jayapura Municipality.Methods: The study was observational with cross sectional design. The independent variables were level of income and eating pattern; the dependent variable was nutritional status. The study was undertaken in October-December 2010 at District of North Jayapura, Jayapura Municipality involving 162 underfives (of 12-59 moths, and mothers of underfives as respondents. Data were obtained through questionnaire of income, eating pattern using food frequency questionnaire, nutritional status measured from anthropometrybased on weight/age standard of WHO 2005. Data analysis used bivariate with chi square, multivariate with multiple logistic regression.Results: There was signifi cant correlation between income level with nutritional status with (p=0.000 and between diet pattern with nutritional status (p=0.000.Conclusions: Underfives having parents with sufficient income had better nutritional status than those having parent with insufficient income. Underfives with good diet pattern had better nutritional status than those with poor diet pattern.KEYWORDS: income, diet pattern, nutrition

  3. Pembuatan Plastik Kemasan Terbiodegradasikan Dari Polipropylena Tergrafting Anhidrid Maleat dengan Bahan Pengisi Pati Sagu Kelapa Sawit

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    Tuty Dwi Sriaty Matondang


    Full Text Available Abstrak   Pati sagu kelapa sawit mempunyai potensi yang besar untuk dijadikan filler pada pembuatan bahan kemasan terbiodegradasikan dari polypropylena tergrafting maleat anhidrida. Pati sagu kelapa sawit dapat diekstraksi dari batang kelapa sawit . Grafting polypropylena dengan maleat anhidrida dilakukan dengan metode refluks dari 1 g maleat anhidrida, 0,1 g BPO, 10 g polypropylene dengan xylene sebagai pelarut. Campuran polypropylena tergrafting maleat anhidrida dan pati sagu kelapa sawit dilakukan dengan metode kempa tekan pada temperatur 1700C selama 20 menit dengan variasi polypropylena tergrafting maleat anhidrida dan pati sagu kelapa sawit adalah (99,5: 0,5, (99:1, (98:2, (97:3, ( 96:4 (%b/b dan tapioka komersil sebagai pembanding dengan variasi (99,5:0,5, (99:1, (99:2 (%b/b. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan campuran dengan perbandingan (97:3 adalah yang paling optimum dimana tensil strenght 16,010 N/m2; elongation et break 8,593% sedangkan pada perbandingan (98:2 harga elongation et break hampir sam dengan harga elongation et break tapioka komersil sebagai pembanding yaitu 3,1875% dan 3,847%. Menurut persyaratan kemasan terbiodegradasikan SNI 7188.7:2011 campuran yang berisi termoplastik, pati alami tidak mengandung prodegradant dan harga elongation et break kurang dari 5% dapat dipakai untuk bahan pembuatan plastik kemasan terbiodegradasikan . Penelitian ini didukung oleh Uji SEM, Uji DTA, Uji FTIR dan Uji kemampuan terurai di alam.Uji SEM, Uji DTA, Uji FTIR dan Uji kemampuan terurai dialam.   Kata kunci : kemasan biodegradable, grafting polypropylena, pati dari batang kelapa sawit   Abstract   Palm sago starch has a big potential to be filler for biodegradable packaging material. Starch of palm sago starch can be extracted of the oil palm trunk. Grafted polypropylena with maleic unhidride by refluks method from 1g maleic unhidride, 0,1 g BPO and 10 g polypropylena   with xylene as solvent made PP-g-MA. Mixed between PP-g-MA and PSKS

  4. Research and Development on Animal Feed in Malaysia

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    M Wan Zahari


    Full Text Available The growth of the non-ruminant sector to self–sufficiency in meat and eggs has been matched by massive importation of feed. Thus, a major thrust to reduce the burden of feed imports is to increase the use of indigenous feed resources and intensify research to look for alternatives and substitutes. Over the past 3 decades, local researchers have reported on the availability nutritive content, optimal inclusion levels and treatment methods to enhance nutrient value of many locally available feed ingredients in practical poultry rations. The list includes evaluation and utilization of feed rice, palm kernel cake (PKC, broken rice, bran, sorghum, cassava, sago, fishmeal and commercial grain corn production; but the goal of import substitution and self- sufficiency is still unfulfilled. Although PKC, feed rice, local maize and specialty fats has potential to be viable energy feed sources and local fish meal is a promising protein feed source, more large scale Research and Development (R & D is needed. In the ruminant sub-sector, emphasis is towards maximizing use of locally available agro-industrial byproducts and crop residues for the production of cost-effective feeds. The utilization of local feed resources is highly dependent on the supply of agro- industrial byproducts or crop residues from the oil palm and rice industries. In order to encourage a sustainable ruminant industry in Malaysia, local feed production has to be maximized and strengthened. Current emphasis is towards the development of practical and low-cost feeds for various classes of livestock species, particularly by utilizing local forages, tree fodders, crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts. This paper highlights the research and development on animal feed in Malaysia over the last three decades and discusses various aspects of livestock feeding.


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    Maskota Delfi


    Full Text Available The remoteness of the Mentawai Islands has contributed to an almost autonomous development, unaided by mainland Sumatra. As a result of a well endowed environment and supported by staple local foods such as sago, taro and bananas, as well as an abundance of wildlife including wild boars, a finely tuned self-sufficiency was realised. In this space the management and distribution of food, including animal protein, is an important aspect of the culture of Arat Sabulungan. As the result of the compulsory state sanctioned religions program introduced in 1954, some Mentawaians have converted to Islam or Catholicism as their formal religious identity. However, a remarkable adaptation occured in which the layers of Mentawai identity were not lost in the adaption to the Islamic faith. Islam with its teachings, and other formal religions, are considered as  the sasareu (outsiders. The prohibition of consuming boar as part of islamic rules is a sasareu rules that contradict to Mentawaian Arat .[Kepulauan Mentawai yang terisolasi telah berkembang secara mandiri tanpa bantuan dari pulau induknya, Sumatra. Lingkungan yang subur dan mendukung ketersediaan sumber makanan pokok lokal seperti sagu, talas, dan pisang serta berlimpahnya satwa liar, termasuk babi hutan, telah mendorong terciptanya swasembada pangan. Manajemen dan distribusi makanan merupakan aspek penting dalam jalinan budaya dan sistem kepercayaan local, Arat Sabulungan. Sebagai hasil dari kebijakan pemerintah untuk menerapkan agama resmi bagi orang Mentawai pada tahun 1954, orang Mentawai kemudian masuk Islam atau Katolik. Namun demikian, adaptasi yang luar biasa juga terjadi, sehingga lapisan-lapisan identitas Mentawai tidak hilang dalam adaptasinya dengan keyakinan Islam. Islam dengan ajaran-ajarannya, juga agama-agama dunia lainnya, dipandang sebagai ajaran asing. Larangan mengkonsumsi daging babi sebagai bagian dari ajaran Islam, misalnya, dipandang sebagai ajaran asing yang bertentangan

  6. Biomass and energetics of non-timber forest resources in a cluster of tribal villages on the Eastern Ghats of Orissa, India

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    Misra, M.K.; Dash, S.S. [Berhampur University, Orissa (India). Dept. of Botany


    An empirical study on the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in three tribal villages on the Eastern Ghats of India was made during 1994-95. These village ecosystems - Rajikakhola, Nediguda and Badruguda - are situated in the Phulbani district of Orissa and are inhabited by the Kondh tribe. The average annual production of important non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was 1.87 t (26.78 GJ) of mohua flower, 2.96 t (54.41 GJ) of siali leaf, 6.73 t (107.06 GJ) of thatch grass, 4.2 t (8.01 GJ) of sago palm sap and 0.93 t (11.39 GJ) of tamarind pulp per village. Total production of NTFPs was 253.55 GJ per village. Total consumption of NTFPs was 190.57 GJ per village. However, average household consumption was 9.60 GJ. Annual country liquor consumption was 2287 1 per village, out of which a total of 762 1 was prepared locally and the rest imported. Total annual export of NTFPs was 3.69 t (61.47 GJ) per village, maximum being by Rajikakhola. Among the exported products siali leaf ranked highest. Total human energy expended for collection of NTFP was 16.1 GJ per village, out of which men contributed 37.3%, women 53.8% and children 8.9% in these villages. The average input-output ratio of energy for NTFP was 16.56. For sustainable development of tribal villages, conservation and proper management of existing forests, minimisation of waste and increase of the value of products through efficient processing are highly essential. (author)

  7. Moisture removal of paddy by agricultural residues: basic physical parameters and drying kinetics modeling

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    Saniso, E.


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study basic physical parameters of three agricultural residues that could be used for prediction of paddy drying kinetics using desiccants, to investigate a suitable methodfor moisture reduction of fresh paddy using 3 absorbents, and to modify the drying model of Inoue et al. for determining the evolution of moisture transfer during the drying period. Rice husk, sago palm rachis andcoconut husk were used as moisture desiccants in these experiments. From the results, it was concluded that the apparent density of all adsorbents was a linear function of moisture content whilst an equilibriummoisture content equation following Hendersonís model gave the best fit to the experimental results. From studying the relationship between moisture ratio and drying time under the condition of drying temperaturesof 30, 50 and 70oC, air flow rate of 1.6 m/s and initial moisture content of absorbents of 15, 20 and 27% dry-basis, it was shown that the moisture ratio decreased when drying time increased. In addition, thethin-layer desiccant drying equation following of the Page model can appropriately explain the evolution of moisture content of paddy over the drying time. The diffusion coefficient of all absorbents, which was in therange of 1x10-8 to 6x10-8 m2/h, was relatively dependent on drying temperature and inversely related to drying time. The diffusivity of coconut husk had the highest value compared to the other absorbents.The simulating modified mathematical model to determine drying kinetics of paddy using absorption technique and the simulated results had good relation to the experimental results for all adsorbents.

  8. Compensatory growth in an aquatic plant mediates exploitative competition between seasonally tied herbivores. (United States)

    Hidding, Bert; Nolet, Bart A; De Boer, Thujs; De Vries, Peter P; Klaassen, Marcel


    The degree to which vertebrate herbivores exploitatively compete for the same food plant may depend on the level of compensatory plant growth. Such compensation is higher when there is reduced density-dependent competition in plants after herbivore damage. Whether there is relief from competition may largely be determined by the life-history stage of plants under herbivory. Such stage-specific compensation may apply to seasonal herbivory on the clonal aquatic plant sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.). It winters in sediments of shallow lakes as tubers that are foraged upon by Bewick's Swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii Yarrell), whereas aboveground biomass in summer is mostly consumed by ducks, coots, and Mute Swans. Here, tuber predation may be compensated due to diminished negative density dependence in the next growth season. However, we expected lower compensation to summer herbivory by waterfowl and fish as density of aboveground biomass in summer is closely related to photosynthetic carbon fixation. In a factorial exclosure study we simultaneously investigated (1) the effect of summer herbivory on aboveground biomass and autumn tuber biomass and (2) the effect of tuber predation in autumn on aboveground biomass and tuber biomass a year later. Summer herbivory strongly influenced belowground tuber biomass in autumn, limiting food availability to Bewick's Swans. In contrast, tuber predation in autumn by Bewick's Swans had a limited and variable effect on P. pectinatus biomass in the following growth season. Whereas relief from negative density dependence largely eliminates effects of belowground herbivory by swans, aboveground herbivory in summer limits both above- and belowground plant biomass. Hence, there was an asymmetry in exploitative competition, with herbivores in summer reducing food availability for belowground herbivores in autumn, but not the other way around.

  9. RNAi effector diversity in nematodes.

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    Johnathan J Dalzell


    Full Text Available While RNA interference (RNAi has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (dsRNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii The Argonautes (AGOs responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research

  10. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

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    M. Nizar Machmud


    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  11. Response of sheep to supplementation of Probio-catalytic in the diets

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    B Haryanto


    Full Text Available biotic and catalytic supplement, on the productive performances of sheep fed Pennisetum purpuphoides (King grass. The concentrate was made of rice bran, molasses-coated palm kernel cake, minerals and salt. Probio-catalytic supplements were added either at 0.5% or 1.0% of the concentrate. The probiotic in the probio-catalytic supplements was either Probion (produced by Balitnak and assigned as probio-catalytic supplement A, or a mixture of rumen microbes of buffaloes which was assigned as probio-catalytic B. The catalytic supplement consisted of gelatinized sago, Zn, Co, urea and sulfur. Twenty heads of male young sheep with an average liveweight of 18.8 ± 1.7 kg were divided into 4 groups based on the bodyweight and allocated to 5 feeding treatments. The treatments were (1 Control (without probio-catalytic supplement, (2 R1 addition of probio-catalytic supplement A at 0.5%, (3 R2 addition of probio-catalytic supplement A at 1.0%, (4 R3 addition of probio-catalytic supplement B at 0.5%, and (5 R4 addition of probio-catalytic supplement B at 1.0%. The experiment was carried out by a randomized block design. A four-week adaptation period was then followed by a 12-week feed intake data collection and growth trial. An intake and digestibility study of the feed was carried out for 7 days. Rumen fluids were taken for analysis of pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids and microbial population. Results indicated a significantly greater weight gain in the group received R1 than that of the other treatments. Feed dry matter intakes were less in the groups supplemented with probio-catalytic resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. The pH and concentration of ammonia of rumen fluid were not significantly different among treatments. While the acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were not different among treatments, the butyric acid was significantly lower (P<0.05 in the groups received R3 and R4, whereas those received R2 and R3 was not


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    Suharno Suharno


    Numfor Island. Culture systems that they do are still relatively simple (conventional. Community has used of land around the village because it is easily affordable. Agricultural system is still done with the pattern of shifting cultivation. Condition of natural resources in the area of the island is very limited. The soils is calcareous and unavailability of sago palm as a major food source among Papuans enable the community to find  the alternative sources to provide local food, including pokem. The nutritional value of the seeds of this plant is quite high, so it would be possible to develope as one candidate to strengthen national food security.

  13. Value addition of traditional wheat flour vermicelli. (United States)

    Mogra, Renu; Midha, Seema


    Vermicelli is a product prepared by using whole or refined wheat flour. Hard dough is prepared, extruded and dried in the sun. Since wheat flour is deficient in lysine, one of the essential amino acids, the protein quality remains poor. Refining of wheat further reduces nutritional quality. Therefore value addition of vermicelli is of prime importance to improve nutrient content and to save its delicacy. Secondly, use of value added convenient/processed foods can be a solution to the problem of supplementary feeding and under nutrition Gernah et al. (Am J Food Technol 6:404-412, 2011). Three variations of vermicelli were prepared using whole wheat flour (WWF); malted wheat flour (MWF); malted wheat flour, green gram, spinach and sago (MGSS). A spice mix containing powders of tomato, coriander, chillies, turmeric, salt, raw mango powder, black pepper, cloves and asafetida was also prepared. Results revealed that the overall acceptability scores for WWF, MWF and MGSS were 7.3 ± 6.13, 6.5 ± 0.06 and 8.1 ± 0.01 on 9 point hedonic scale. MGSS vermicelli was most acceptable by the panel members than the other counterparts. WWF, MWF and MGSS contained moisture 6.9 to 7.7%, protein 9.3 to 13.5%, fat 1.2-2.7%, ash 2.9 to 5.8%, crude fibre 2.2 to 2.4%, carbohydrates 69.8 to 75.2% and energy 344 to 362 kcal/100 g respectively. MGSS vermicelli was highest in protein content (13.5%) while energy content was high in WWF. MWF vermicelli had highest amount of total (8.91%), reducing (2.41%) and non-reducing sugars (6.57%). Quality of protein was improved by mutual supplementation of amino acid. Regarding minerals, higher contents of sodium (100 mg), calcium (30 mg), iron (5.9 mg), zinc (1.4 mg) were found in MGSS. Vermicelli could be safely stored for 2 months period at room temperature (25-30 °C).

  14. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dissolved organic matter from eight dominant aquatic macrophytes in Lake Dianchi, China. (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoxia; Xie, Li; Lin, Ying; Bai, Yingchen; Zhu, Yuanrong; Xie, Fazhi; Giesy, John P; Wu, Fengchang


    The aim of this research was to determine and compare the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dissolved organic matters (DOM) from eight aquatic macrophytes in a eutrophic lake. C, H, N, and P in ground dry leaves and C, N, and P in DOM of the species were determined, and C/N, C/P, C/H, DOC/C, TDN/N, TDP/P, DOC/TDN, and DOC/TDP were calculated. Chemical structures of the DOM were characterized by the use of multiple techniques including UV-visible, FT-IR, and (13)C CP/MAS spectra. The results showed subtle differences in quantity and quality of DOM among species and life-forms. Except oriental pepper which had a C/H of 0.7, C/H of all the other species was 0.6. C/N and C/P of ground leaves was 10.5-17.3 and 79.4-225.3, respectively, which were greater in floating and submerged species than in the others. Parrot feather also had a small C/P (102.8). DOC/C, TDN/N, and TDP/P were 7.6-16.8, 5.5-22.6, and 22.9-45.6 %, respectively. Except C/N in emergent and riparian species, C/N in the other species and C/P in all the species were lower in their DOM than in the ground leaves. DOM of the macrophytes had a SUVA254 value of 0.83-1.80. The FT-IR and (13)C NMR spectra indicated that the DOM mainly contained polysaccharides and/or amino acids/proteins. Percent of carbohydrates in the DOM was 37.3-66.5 % and was highest in parrot feather (66.5 %) and crofton weed (61.5 %). DOM of water hyacinth, water lettuce, and sago pondweed may have the greatest content of proteins. Aromaticity of the DOM was from 6.9 % in water lettuce to 17.8 % in oriental pepper. DOM of the macrophytes was also different in polarity and percent of Ar-OH. Distinguished characteristics in quantity and quality of the macrophyte-derived DOM may induce unique environmental consequences in the lake systems.

  15. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert


    conditions in the trenches with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), which would be able to remove the rest of the accompanying pollutants, is proposed and merits evaluation. Preliminary batch experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of different chemical oxidation reactions (permanganate, persulphate, hydrogen peroxide and Fenton) on the complex contaminated recharge water which were, in general, more effective for degrading the chlorinated ethenes than for the chlorinated methanes (Torrentó et al. EGU 2012). Therefore, this study seeks to improve the understanding of CF and CT degradation mechanisms/processes that are going on in the interception trenches as well as to select between the two most effective chemical oxidation remediation treatments (persulphate and permanganate) taking into account their efficiency respect the chlorinated methanes removal, the generated acute toxicity and the applicability of the carbon isotopic fractionation as an indicator of the effectiveness of the future in situ remediation. Additionally, ongoing batch experiments are expected to elucidate if CT is undergoing abiotic reductive dechlorination by Fe-bearing minerals such as hydrophobic green rust (Ayala-Luis et al., 2012) which transform CT into non-chlorinated substances such as formic acid and carbon monoxide. This unstable iron compound might be formed in the interception trenches during chloride induced corrosion of iron mineral phases present in the concrete-based construction wastes (Sagoe-Crentsil and Glasser, 1993). The role of other minerals like iron oxy-hydroxides, carbonates or sulphides cannot be discarded at all. The potential of δ13C values to assess the efficiency of this abiotic CT degradation reaction will be also evaluated. References Ayala-Luis, K.; Cooper, N.; Bender C. and Hansen. H. (2012) Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercaled with dodecanoate anions. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 3390


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    Erlyna Wida R


    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPangan pokok seringkali diidentikkan dengan beras, padahal ada juga masyarakat yang mengkonsumsi bahan pangan pokok lain seperti jagung, sagu, umbi-umbian dan gandum. Tujuan khusus penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi pangan pokok berbasis kearifan lokal di rumah tanggapra sejahtera Jawa Tengah. Desain penelitian menggunakan riset eksploratori. Metode yang digunakan adalah survei sedangkan metode pendekataannya menggunakan cross sectional study. Dari 35 kabupaten dan kota di Jawa Tengah diambil tiga kabupaten secara purposive dengan pertimbangan kabupaten yang memiliki proporsi rumah tangga pra sejahtera terbesar  yaitu Kabupaten Grobogan, Rembang, dan Blora. Untuk menganalisis tujuan penelitian dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa identifikasi pangan pokok  rumah tangga pra sejahtera di Jawa Tengah menurut jenis pangan pokok sebesar 75,56 persen rumah tangga pra sejahtera mengkonsumsi beras saja sebagai pangan pokok dan 12,22 persen mengkonsumsi nasi jagung. Cara budidaya yang dilakukan dalam setahun 2 – 3 kali pola tanam dimana tanaman yang sering dibudidayakan adalah padi dan jagung. Cara budidaya masih konvensional dan zero tillage dilakukan untuk budidaya kacang hijau. Panen dan pengelolaan pasca panen dilakukan oleh petani menyimpan gabah antara 30 – 90 persen dari total panen dimana sebagian besar petani menyimpan 50 persen dari total panennya. Distribusi dan kelembagaan pangan pokok berbasis kearifan lokal di tingkat rumah tangga petani sudah ada pengelolaan cadangan pangan sedangkan di tingkat rukun tetangga maupun desa tidak ada lumbung pangan. ABSTRACTStaple food is oftentimes identical with rice, although there are also peoples consumes other staple food such as corn, sago, tubers and wheat.  Specific purpose of this study was identifying staple food by local wisdom base on poor households in Central Java.  The design of this research used exploratory research. The method used

  17. Rumah Adat Baileo di Kecamatan Saparua Kabupaten Maluku Tengah

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    Marlyn Salhuteru


    Full Text Available Baileo is the name for the traditional home of the Moluccas. One area where the building is still well preserved is in the district of Central Maluku Saparua. The house of  Baileo is not functioned as residences, but only used in the custom and religious execution. Based on the function, then Baileo has the same meaning as balai in Indonesian. Baileo buildings that can be found in most indigenous country in Saparua generally sized large enough, consisted of only one room without a bulkhead. The building is shaped stage house or home berkolong and square berdenah. Buildings made of wood, boards and sago leaves as the roof. However, current developments, some of these buildings have been using modern materials such as cement and roofing senk. However, this does not affect the value in the presence of Baileo itself. Proven local people still maintain the traditional values which are reflected in the maintenance and preservation of Baileo, so it remains to this day. This research is to explore  issues  about the existence, architectural forms, materials, and functions of  traditional home Baileo contained in the District of Saparua, Central Maluku district, and the aims is to have verbal and pictorial document of  Baileo as a tradition and  cultural heritage and also as  the identity of the Moluccan community in general. Results of the research will be described in the form of verbal and pictorial descriptions in order to address concerns and research purposes. Baileo adalah sebutan untuk rumah tradisional orang Maluku. Salah satu wilayah dimana bangunan ini masih terpelihara dengan baik adalah di Kecamatan Saparua Kabupaten Maluku Tengah. Rumah baileo tidak difungsikan sebagai rumah tinggal, melainkan hanya digunakan pada pelaksanaan acara adat atau keagamaan. Berdasarkan fungsinya, maka baileo kurang lebih sama dengan kata balai dalam bahasa Indonesia.  Bangunan baileo yang dapat ditemukan di sebagian besar negeri adat di Kecamatan

  18. Karakteristik Cookies Berbahan Dasar Tepung Sukun (Artocarpus communis Bagi Anak Penderita Autis

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    Dede Sukandar


    Abstract Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis has been reported as a functional food ingredient for autistic children. This study aims to determine the level of A panelist on cookies breadfruit and various formulations compared to other flour-based cookies which include the effect of additives on the properties of chemistry, physics, power accept cookies breadfruit, calcium and phosphorus levels cookies breadfruit, breadfruit cookies and find out the most preferred if it meets quality standards according to SNI 01-2973-1992 cookies or not. Organoleptic test was conducted to determine the level of preference and acceptance panelist on cookies breadfruit compared with other flour-based cookies     (wheat, rice, sago and breadfruit cookies in a variety of formulation. The parameters used include, colour, frageance, texture, flavor and overall acceptance. Calcium level test performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy method at λ 422.7 nm and phosphorus levels using UV-Vis spectroscopy at λ 880 nm. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance anova and Duncan analysis. The test results showed Cookies breadfruit organoleptif have low enrollment compared to other flour cookies views of the average revenue flavor and general acceptance of cookies breadfruit, breadfruit cookies formulations can improve the physical properties (fragrance, flavor, color, and texture and acceptance of cookies breadfruit by panelists. An increase in the average value of A formulation compared breadfruit cookies before formulation. Cookies are breadfruit tersukai 718 formulations with soy milk additives. Quality breadfruit cookies tersukai 718 formulations in general accordance with SNI 01-2973-1992 except protein content and contained 8.05% Cu content with a small concentration (1.56 ppm. Cookies breadfruit tersukai have the highest levels of calcium and phosphorus compared with breadfruit flour and commercial cookies for autistic children so that the most preferred breadfruit cookies very

  19. The Hydrochemical Evolution of Water-Filled Sinkholes at Bitter Lake NWR, Roswell, NM (United States)

    Premo, E.; Crossey, L. J.


    Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Roswell, NM houses one of the most ecologically significant wetlands in the US-SW including approximately 52 water-filled sinkholes each supporting a unique biological assemblage, including several endangered and endemic species (e.g., Pecos pupfish and Noel's amphipod, respectively). Forming in the karst landscape adjacent to the Pecos River where the regional dual-aquifer system discharges through a network of springs and seeps, these sinkholes are recharged by saline groundwater that is subject to anthropogenic withdrawals for irrigation and hydrocarbon production and chemically altered by a complex series of evaporation-precipitation reactions after discharge. This study investigates the hydrochemical differences among these sinkholes while considering the evolutionary processes affecting water column structure, geochemical mixing and ecological sustainability. Two major sampling suites, pre- and post-irrigation, yielded waters from 1.0m increments along the water columns of 10 representative sinkholes. Samples were analyzed for major ions, stable isotopes [δ18O, δD ], and dissolved gases; PHREEQc was used to model mineral saturation and speciation. An in-situ mineral precipitation experiment provided growth rate and mineral morphological (SEM) data. Source water is chemically similar to shallow springs found at the Refuge (Sago Spring). Sinkholes exhibit bimodal water column structure (well-mixed or stratified) organized in response to water density (with ~1.035 g/cm3 forming the modal transition threshold). By measuring the density, TDS or conductivity at sinkhole surface it is possible to predict modality of water column structure. Sinkhole waters - regardless of depth or season - fall along a common isotopic evaporation trajectory (δ D = 3.387*δ18O - 19.38), and adopt a Na-Cl chemical endmember facies. Driven primarily by physical sinkhole geometry (e.g., depth and surface area), sinkhole water follows a


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    Mithen .


    documentation search for past documents and do track changes of Banua Sulu' shape. Variables of research consist of zone layout, spatial layout, facade, structure/material of structures, and ornaments. The data analysis technique used was descriptive qualitative analysis, which analyzed every variable descriptive and interpret the meaning of any changes that occurred, four-flow of activities, namely the selection of data, presentation of data, analysis, and conclusion. The results showed that there has been a significant change in shape, especially in terms of the use of structural materials. It is used when they did renovation and the most changing physical form elements was the roof (Botting langi mainly coppo' or overwrite timpa’ laja', which was originally duplex, has turned into a three-tiered, roof material was also changed from the roof of sago palm leaves into tin roof. In the main shape of the house (Ale bola, main floor and walls were almost entirely replaced, resulting in a loss of identity in the form of wall ornaments, the number of poles also increased from 36 to 43 pieces, and the additional rooms caused by the need for space to accommodate the occupants, who has transformed into a modern society. Keywords: transformation, forms, traditional house, Banua Sulu’   REFERENCES Albert, Grubauer. 1911. Foto-foto dokumentasi Keluarga. Altman, Irwin and Werner, Coral M. (1985. Volume 8. Home Environments Human Behavior and Environments. New York and London: Plenum Press. Depdikbud.  (2007. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia Edisi Ketiga. Jakarta: PN Balai Pustaka Le Corbusier.1923. Toward A New Architecture (Vers Une Architecture, Paris: G. Crès et Cie, Frederick Etchells (trans., New York: Praeger, 1960; John Goodman (trans. Santa Monica, CA: Getty Publications, 2007. Lullulangi, Mithen dan Sampebua’, Onesimus. (2007. Arsitektur Tradisional Toraja. Makassar : Badan Penerbit UNM. Machmud. (2006. Architecture Articles. Antariksa. diposting 8 Januari 2011. (http

  1. Tanzimat Dönemi Türk Şiirinde Ölüm Algısı The Concept of Death in Turkish Poem in Tanzimat Reform Era

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    Mustafa AYDEMİR


    Full Text Available Death which is one of the inevitable facts of life gives great painand sorrow to all the living thins left behind. Of all the living things onlyhumans have the potential to express their feelings, thoughts, fear andsorrow through art. This humane and universal fact which is as old asthe human history has been examined by almost all religious andphilosophical ideas and has been reflected to the literary works of manysocieties. It can be said that death is one of the most widely usedthemes in world literature. It isn’t easy to accept a loved person’s death.That’s why remembering the one who is dead and mentioning about thegood things he did has been expressed in different ways.Death which was expressed through epic and sago beforeIslamism was continued through coronach and lament in Divan andFolk Literature, and in Tanzimat Reform era it appeared a moredifferent perspective. Losing the ones loved has been a great grief to hislovers. This in fact is because of the fact that the memories of the deadperson will never be lived again. Losing one’s children and spouse is themost depressing death.In Turkish Poetry in Tanzimat Reform era, the poems related todeath have occurred due to this natural and sincere need. In our studyafter the idea of death under the control has been handled in Akif Paşa(1787-1845 and Recaizade Mahmut Ekrem (1847-1914, the deathinsight has been discussed in Abdulhak Hâmid (1852-1937. But theidea of death hasn’t been discussed from a metaphysical perspective asin Abdulhak Hâmid Tarhan. Because his philosophy starts at the graveand ends in the grave. In most of the poems Hâmid who approaches thesubjects such as afterdeath, spirit, human, universe, death and dyingfrom a philosophical point of view avoids expressing the idea of deathwhich has settled subconscious on every occasion. Hayatın kaçınılmaz gerçeklerinden biri olan ölüm, geride kalan bütün canlılara büyük bir acı ve üzüntü verir. Ölüm kar