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Sample records for sagittal split ramus

  1. Osseous healing after sagittal splitting ramus osteotomy in mandibular prognathism. Three-dimensional CT measurement

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    Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Akizuki, Hiromichi; Michi, Ken-ichi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the cleavage and fixation of bone fragments and the osseous healing after sagittal splitting ramus osteotomy. Subjects consisted of 12 patients with mandibular prognathism, on which we performed sagittal splitting ramus osteotomy on both sides. Thus, we performed this osteotomy on 24 rami. These rami were studied immediately after, and 1 year after, surgery by Three-dimensional CT. With regard to the morphology of the anterior and posterior borders of the mandibular ramus, the majority (70.8%) showed the smooth type (smooth type: proximal and distal bone fragments are not discernible, and there is a smooth transition between them) in the lower plane. In the upper plane, the smooth type was less frequent (39.6%), and the stairway type (stairway type: either the proximal bone fragment or the distal bone fragment is protruded, thus showing a stairway form) was more frequent (43.8%). The concave type (concave type: there is a gap, i.e. an opened bone fragment, between two bone fragments, thus showing a concave form) was more frequently observed at the anterior border than at the posterior border, in both planes. With regard to the relationship between the morphology of the posterior border of the mandibular ramus and the cleavage of proximal and distal fragments, the stairway type was more frequent if both fragments were completely split through the posterior border, but the smooth type was more frequent if the cleavage spared the posterior border. With regard to the relationship between the morphology of the anterior and posterior borders of the mandibular ramus and the distance between proximal and distal bone fragments, the distance was greatest in the concave type, followed by the stairway type and the smooth type, in this order. The concave type was observed in cases in which the mean distance was more than 6.1 mm. As for the relationship between the posterior protrusion of the distal bone

  2. Influence of the design in sagittal split ramus osteotomy on the mechanical behavior.

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    Pozzer, Leandro; Olate, Sergio; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Márcio; Albergaría-Barbosa, José Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the design of the sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) on the mechanical resistance to vertical forces. An in vitro study was designed for 30 test specimens. Two osteotomy models were made on two polyurethane hemimandibles, where group I presented a SSRO with an angle at vestibular level between both molars and group II presented a linear SSRO towards the basilar border. In both groups a standard osteosynthesis was performed with a 2.0 system plate and four monocortical screws, establishing sub-groups according to the degree of mandibular advancement: group A without advancement, group B with an advancement of 3 mm, and group C with advancement of 7 mm. Hemimandibles were subjected to a vertical load in the Instron machine until reaching peak load with failure, recording the value of the load and displacement. The data were analyzed with a t-test to establish statistical significance, considering pdesign influences mechanical resistance and that the linear SSRO offers the best mechanical resistance.

  3. Biomechanical Loading Evaluation of Unsintered Hydroxyapatite/poly-l-lactide Plate System in Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

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    Shintaro Sukegawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OSTEOTRANS MX® (Takiron Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan is a bioactive resorbable maxillofacial osteosynthetic material composed of an unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-l-lactide composite, and its effective osteoconductive capacity has been previously documented. However, the mechanical strength of this plate system is unclear. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to assess its tensile and shear strength and evaluate the biomechanical intensity of different osteosynthesis plate designs after sagittal split ramus osteotomy by simulating masticatory forces in a clinical setting. For tensile and shear strength analyses, three mechanical strength measurement samples were prepared by fixing unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-l-lactide composed plates to polycarbonate skeletal models. Regarding biomechanical loading evaluation, 12 mandibular replicas were used and divided into four groups for sagittal split ramus osteotomy fixation. Each sample was secured in a jig and subjected to vertical load on the first molar teeth. Regarding shear strength, the novel-shaped unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-l-lactide plate had significantly high intensity. Upon biomechanical loading evaluation, this plate system also displayed significantly high stability in addition to bioactivity, with no observed plate fracture. Thus, we have clearly demonstrated the efficacy of this plate system using an in vitro model of bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible.

  4. [A biomechanic study on the relapse after sagittal split and oblique osteotomy of Ramus].

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    Li, Wei; Song, Yufeng; Wang, Dazhang

    2004-02-01

    The relapse after orthognathic surgery was frequently reported in recent years. But up to now researches concerning bio-mechanic mechanism of relapse are rare. The purpose of this study, by imitating the operation on monkeys, was to examine the biomechanical properties and histological characteristics after operation in order to investigate the mechanism of the relapse after orthognathic surgery. 20 rhesus monkeys divided into two groups were subjected to bilateral sagittal split and oblique osteotomy, respectively. The broken strength, stress and strain of the operated sites were examined with the use of biomechanical methods, and the healing scab was observed using histological method and SEM at 3, 6, 12, 24 weeks after operation. The results obtained demonstrated that bone healing and biomechanical properties reached certain level after 6 to 12 weeks' recovery in both operation groups; the biomechanical properties and histological characteristics recovered faster in sagittal split group than in oblique osteotomy group. Histological examination also demonstrated similar results. From the data above it is suggested that the higher relapse rate in sagittal split may more closely related to the mechanical effect different from the scab healing, although 8 weeks' fixation may meet the requirement of clinical treatment, accessory fixation method should be adopted after the removal of inter-maxilla fixation.

  5. Comparison of five different fixation techniques of sagittal split ramus osteotomy using three-dimensional finite elements analysis.

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    Sato, F R L; Asprino, L; Noritomi, P Y; da Silva, J V L; de Moraes, M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical stress over hemimandible substrate and hardware after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) fixed with five different techniques using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. A 3D finite element model of a hemimandible was created and a 5mm advancement SSRO was simulated on a computer model. The model was fixed with five different techniques: 3 linear 60° screw arrangement; 3 linear 90° screw arrangement; 3 inverted L screw arrangement; 1 conventional miniplate; and 1 locking miniplate with four monocortical screws. Load was applied until 3mm displacement was reached and the results were compared with previous mechanical and photoelastic tests, thus analysing the mechanical stresses developed in the proximity of miniplates and screws and within the fixation system itself. The maximum principal stress values demonstrate a lower mechanical stress rate in bone and in the fixation system with the inverted L arrangement, followed by the linear 90° and linear 60° arrangements. The locking miniplate/screw system presented lower maximum principal stress and better stress distribution compared with the conventional system. Under the conditions tested, the reversed L arrangement provided the most favourable stress dissipation behaviour. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MRI changes in the temporomandibular joint following mandibular setback surgery using sagittal split ramus osteotomy with rigid fixation.

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    Takahara, Namiaki; Kabasawa, Yuji; Sato, Masaru; Tetsumura, Akemi; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Omura, Ken

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the changes in temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) symptoms and investigated the variations in the disc position, disc and condylar morphology following sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) with rigid fixation in patients with mandibular prognathism. Furthermore, the authors examined the correlation between mandibular setback and TMD symptoms. The study included 24 Japanese patients with jaw deformities who were treated using bilateral SSRO and Le Fort I osteotomy. The clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the temporomandibular joint were evaluated preoperatively and at three and six months postoperatively. The preoperative TMD symptoms were significantly associated with the prevalence of TMD symptoms at six months postoperatively. Anterior disc displacement improved in four joints with slight displacement and with no morphological change. There were no postoperative changes in condylar morphology. There was no significant correlation between mandibular setback and the postoperative TMD symptoms. Postoperative TMD symptoms may be influenced mainly by preoperative TMD symptoms rather than mandibular setback using SSRO with rigid fixation. Therefore, patients with TMD symptoms require physical examination and MRI for appropriate diagnosis preoperatively.

  7. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion....

  8. Assessment of Soft Tissue Changes by Cephalometry and Two-Dimensional Photogrammetry in Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy Cases

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    Martin, Alice

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives We aimed to compare the standard methods of cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry, to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of both methods. Material and Methods Twenty-six patients (mean age 25.5, standard deviation (SD) 5.2 years) with Class II relationship and 23 patients with Class III relationship (mean age 26.4, SD 4.7 years) who had undergone bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy were selected, with a median follow-up of 8 months between pre- and postsurgical evaluation. Pre- and postsurgical cephalograms and lateral photograms were traced and changes were recorded. Results Pre- and postsurgical measurements of hard tissue angles and distances revealed higher correlations with cephalometrically performed soft tissue measurements of facial convexity (Class II: N-PG, r = - 0.50, P = 0.047; Class III: ANB, r = 0.73, P = 0.005; NaPg , r = 0.71, P = 0.007;) and labiomental angle (Class II: SNB, r = 0.72, P = 0.002; ANB, r = - 0.72, P = 0.002; N-B, r = - 0.68, P = 0.004; ANS-Gn, r = 0.71, P = 0.002; Class III: ANS-Gn, r = 0.65, P = 0.043) compared with two-dimensional photogrammetry. However, two-dimensional photogrammetry revealed higher correlation between lower lip length and cephalometrically assessed angular hard tissue changes (Class II: SNB, r = 0.98, P = 0.007; N-B, r = 0.89, P = 0.037; N-Pg, r = 0.90, P = 0.033; Class III: SNB, r = - 0.54, P = 0.060; NAPg, r = - 0.65, P = 0.041; N-Pg, r = 0.58, P = 0.039). Conclusions Our findings suggest that cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry offer the possibility to complement one another. PMID:24421994

  9. Assessment of soft tissue changes by cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry in bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy cases.

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    Rustemeyer, Jan; Martin, Alice

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to compare the standard methods of cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry, to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of both methods. Twenty-six patients (mean age 25.5, standard deviation (SD) 5.2 years) with Class II relationship and 23 patients with Class III relationship (mean age 26.4, SD 4.7 years) who had undergone bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy were selected, with a median follow-up of 8 months between pre- and postsurgical evaluation. Pre- and postsurgical cephalograms and lateral photograms were traced and changes were recorded. Pre- and postsurgical measurements of hard tissue angles and distances revealed higher correlations with cephalometrically performed soft tissue measurements of facial convexity (Class II: N-PG, r = - 0.50, P = 0.047; Class III: ANB, r = 0.73, P = 0.005; NaPg , r = 0.71, P = 0.007;) and labiomental angle (Class II: SNB, r = 0.72, P = 0.002; ANB, r = - 0.72, P = 0.002; N-B, r = - 0.68, P = 0.004; ANS-Gn, r = 0.71, P = 0.002; Class III: ANS-Gn, r = 0.65, P = 0.043) compared with two-dimensional photogrammetry. However, two-dimensional photogrammetry revealed higher correlation between lower lip length and cephalometrically assessed angular hard tissue changes (Class II: SNB, r = 0.98, P = 0.007; N-B, r = 0.89, P = 0.037; N-Pg, r = 0.90, P = 0.033; Class III: SNB, r = - 0.54, P = 0.060; NAPg, r = - 0.65, P = 0.041; N-Pg, r = 0.58, P = 0.039). Our findings suggest that cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry offer the possibility to complement one another.

  10. Assessment of Soft Tissue Changes by Cephalometry and Two-Dimensional Photogrammetry in Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy Cases

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    Jan Rustemeyer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to compare the standard methods of cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry, to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of both methods.Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients (mean age 25.5, standard deviation (SD 5.2 years with Class II relationship and 23 patients with Class III relationship (mean age 26.4, SD 4.7 years who had undergone bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy were selected, with a median follow-up of 8 months between pre- and postsurgical evaluation. Pre- and postsurgical cephalograms and lateral photograms were traced and changes were recorded.Results: Pre- and postsurgical measurements of hard tissue angles and distances revealed higher correlations with cephalometrically performed soft tissue measurements of facial convexity (Class II: N-PG, r = - 0.50, P = 0.047; Class III: ANB, r = 0.73, P = 0.005; NaPg , r = 0.71, P = 0.007; and labiomental angle (Class II: SNB, r = 0.72, P = 0.002; ANB, r = - 0.72, P = 0.002; N-B, r = - 0.68, P = 0.004; ANS-Gn, r = 0.71, P = 0.002; Class III: ANS-Gn, r = 0.65, P = 0.043 compared with two-dimensional photogrammetry. However, two-dimensional photogrammetry revealed higher correlation between lower lip length and cephalometrically assessed angular hard tissue changes (Class II: SNB, r = 0.98, P = 0.007; N-B, r = 0.89, P = 0.037; N-Pg, r = 0.90, P = 0.033; Class III: SNB, r = - 0.54, P = 0.060; NAPg, r = - 0.65, P = 0.041; N-Pg, r = 0.58, P = 0.039.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry offer the possibility to complement one another.

  11. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation on the condylar displacement following sagittal split ramus osteotomy in asymmetric setback patients: Comparison between conventional approach and surgery-first approach.

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    Oh, Min-Hee; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Lee, Kyung-Min; Cho, Jin-Hyoung

    2017-09-01

    To compare the condylar displacement following sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) in asymmetric setback patients between the conventional approach and surgery-first approach and to determine whether the condylar displacement is affected by asymmetric setback in SSRO patients. This was a retrospective study. The subjects consisted of patients with facial asymmetry who underwent SSRO and had cone-beam computed tomography taken before and 1 month after surgery. They were allocated into the conventional (n = 18) and surgery-first (SF) groups (n = 20). Descriptive, independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis were computed. The amount of condylar displacement in x-, y-, and z-directions and Euclidean distance showed no statistically significant differences between the conventional and SF groups. Comparing the postoperative condylar position with the preoperative position, the condylar displacement occurred in posterior (P groups except on the deviated side in the conventional group. The condylar displacement occurred in a posterior (P group. However, the condylar displacement in three dimensions showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. In the correlation analysis, the condylar displacement in both the deviated and contralateral sides showed no significant correlation with asymmetric setback in either group. The condylar displacement in three dimensions and the distance of condylar displacement in SSRO patients with facial asymmetry showed no significant difference between conventional and SF groups. Condylar displacement was not associated with asymmetric setback.

  12. Determination of the most appropriate stress distribution by Finite Element Analysis in fixation with resorbable screws after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy surgery

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    Sarkarat F.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Due to the complications associated with fixation by Titanium screws and plates in Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy (BSSRO surgery, the use of resorbable polymers has been increasingly recommended. Since there are not enough studies on this issue, this study aimed to assess the most appropriate stress distribution in fixation with resorbable screws after BSSRO surgery by Fnite Element Analysis (FEA."nMaterials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on simulated human mandible using Ansys and Catia softwares. The osteotomy line was applied to the simulated model and experimental loads of 75, 135 and 600 N were respectively exerted according to the natural direction of occlusal force. The distribution pattern of stress was assessed and compared for fixation with one resorbable screw, two resorbable screws in vertical pattern, two resorbable screws in horizontal pattern, three resorbable screws in L pattern and three resorbable screws in inverted backward L pattern using Ansys software."nResults: Among the four simulated fixations, L pattern showed the highest primary stability. Two screws in vertical pattern were also associated with sufficient primary stability and less trauma and cost for patients. One screw did not provide enough stability under 600 N."nConclusion: Polymer-based resorbable screws (polyglycolic acid and D, L polylactide acid provided satisfactory primary stability in BSSRO surgery.

  13. Comparison of skeletal stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy among mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation using absorbable plates and screws.

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    Ueki, Koichiro; Moroi, Akinori; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Hotta, Asami; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuta; Saito, Yuki

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skeletal stability and plate breakage after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) with the mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation techniques using absorbable plates and screws. A total of 76 Japanese patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism with and without maxillary deformity were divided into 3 groups randomly. A total of 28 patients underwent SSRO with mono-cortical plate fixation, 23 underwent SSRO with bi-cortical plate fixation, and 25 underwent SSRO with hybrid fixation. Skeletal stability and horizontal condylar angle were analyzed by axial, frontal, and lateral cephalograms from before the operation to 1 year postoperatively. Breakage of the plate and screws was observed by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) immediately after surgery and after 1 year. Although there was a significant difference between the mono-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group regarding right MeAg in T1 (P = 0.0488) and occlusal plane in T1 (P = 0.0346), there were no significant differences between the groups for the other measurements in each time interval. In 2 cases, namely, 6 sides in the mono-cortical plate fixation group, breakage of the absorbable plate was found by 3DCT. However, there was no breakage in the bi-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group. This study results suggested that there were no significant differences in the postoperative skeletal stability among the 3 groups, and bi-cortical fixation as well as hybrid fixation was a reliable and useful method to prevent plate breakage even if an absorbable material was used. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stability of biodegradable metal (Mg-Ca-Zn alloy) screws compared with absorbable polymer and titanium screws for sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible using the finite element analysis model.

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    Lee, Jee-Ho; Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Yu-Chan; Lee, Jin-Yong; Lee, Bu-Kyu

    2017-10-01

    Mg-Ca-Zn alloy has been suggested for the application of fixation materials during maxillofacial surgery. We investigated the stability of Mg-Ca-Zn alloy for clinical application during orthognathic surgery. The finite element model for the fixation of sagittal split ramus osteotomy was constructed. In the bicortical screw fixation of the mandible setback condition, the stress distributions of Mg-Ca-Za alloy, polylactic acid polymer, and titanium were evaluated using the virtual model with occlusal loading of 132 N. The deformations of the three different materials of fixation screw were observed according to masticatory force ranging from 132 to 1,000 N. When comparing the stress distribution placed on cortical bone between the polymer and magnesium alloy groups, the magnesium alloy screws could bear more stress, thereby decreasing the stress, which might be distributed to other biologic components, such as the condyle and cortical ramus of the mandible. Deformations of the screws according to functional load were minimal, and the deformation remained stability of sagittal split ramus osteotomy setback surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Intra-operative complications in sagittal and vertical ramus osteotomies

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    van Merkesteyn, J. P.; Groot, R. H.; van Leeuwaarden, R.; Kroon, F. H.

    1987-01-01

    In orthognatic surgery of the mandibular ramus, intra-operative complications as a lesion of the inferior alveolar nerve, fractures of the osteotomised segments, incomplete sectioning, malpositioning of segments and haemorrhage may occur. In this report, intra-operative complications in 124 sagittal

  16. The advantage of the three dimensional computed tomographic (3 D-CT for ensuring accurate bone incision in sagittal split ramus osteotomy

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    Coen Pramono D

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional and aesthetic dysgnathia surgery requires accurate pre-surgical planning, including the surgical technique to be used related with the difference of anatomical structures amongst individuals. Programs that simulate the surgery become increasingly important. This can be mediated by using a surgical model, conventional x-rays as panoramic, cephalometric projections and another sophisticated method such as a three dimensional computed tomography (3 D-CT. A patient who had undergone double jaw surgeries with difficult anatomical landmarks was presented. In this case the mandible foramens were seen highly relatively related to the sigmoid notches. Therefore, ensuring the bone incisions in sagittal split was presumed to be difficult. A 3D-CT was made and considered to be very helpful in supporting the pre-operative diagnostic.

  17. Surgical Access to a Complex Composite Odontoma via Sagittal Split Osteotomy of the Mandible

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    Periasamy, Senthilnathan; Devadoss, Poorna; Kumar, Santhosh P

    2017-01-01

    This case report presents the removal of complex composite odontoma in a young patient in the right body of mandible via the unilateral sagittal splitting of the mandible. This article shows that sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible can be very useful to access various pathologies in the body, angle, and ramus of the mandible and to navigate lesions that are in proximity to the inferior alveolar nerve. This technique also helps in avoiding postoperative morbidity when compared to other conventional surgical approaches. It can be used to remove large cysts, benign non-infiltrative tumours of the mandible, odontogenic myxoma, large odontoma, and deeply impacted lower third molars. PMID:29441249

  18. The influence of the sagittal split osteotomy on the condylar cartilage structure and the subchondral vascularization of the temporomandibular joint: a preliminary study in goats.

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    Borstlap, W.A.; Maltha, J.C.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The concern that a sagittal split osteotomy of the mandibular ramus could compromise the subchondral vascularization and especially the venous outflow in the condylar area, which in turn could influence the structure of the condylar cartilage, prompted this preliminary study on goats.

  19. Risk factors for breakage of biodegradable plate systems after bilateral sagittal split mandibular setback surgery.

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    Yoshioka, Izumi; Igawa, Kaori; Nagata, Jyunko; Yoshida, Maho; Baba, Takashi; Ichiki, Takeshi; Kondoh, Yudai; Takamori, Koichi; Kashima, Koji; Sakoda, Sumio

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with breakage of biodegradable plate systems after bilateral sagittal split mandibular setback. We studied 169 Japanese adults (62 men, 107 women; age range 16-53 years) with deformities of the jaw diagnosed as mandibular prognathism. All patients were treated by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) with 2 biodegradable fixation plates and screws at the anterior mandibular ramus. We collected the following data from the medical records and radiological findings: sex; age; degree of setback; presence of asymmetry; presence of open bite; operation; design of the plate; operating time; and blood loss. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the factors that were independently associated with the dependent variable: breakage of the biodegradable plate system. In 10 of the 169 patients (6%) the biodegradable plate system for the BSSO broke. Factors that influenced whether or not the biodegradable plate system fractured were if they were asymmetrical (odds ratio (OR) 5.35; P=0.02) and had an open bite (OR 5.20; P=0.02). Asymmetry or open bite was significantly associated with breaks in the biodegradable plate system. Biodegradable plates should be used only when loading is minimal. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

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    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Helleberg, M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean...... correlations were noted between preoperative values for somatosensory function and changes in these variables after BSSO. Patients with low sensory thresholds before BSSO experienced more impairment than those patients with higher preoperative sensory thresholds. Conclusion These findings imply...... that somatosensory function after BSSO is dependent on both intraoperative risk factors and preoperative sensation levels....

  1. Cost, operation and hospitalization times in distraction osteogenesis versus sagittal split osteotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strijen, P. J.; Breuning, K. H.; Becking, A. G.; Perdijk, F. B. T.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis in 'common' surgical orthodontics is mentioned as an alternative for conventional sagittal split osteotomy. After a 'learning curve' in the surgical skills of distraction, the two techniques can be compared concerning time and cost aspects. Forty-seven patients (male n=28,

  2. 3D analysis of condylar remodelling and skeletal relapse following bilateral sagittal split advancement osteotomies

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    Xi, T.; Schreurs, R.; Loon, B. van; Koning, M.J. de; Berge, S.J.; Hoppenreijs, T.J.; Maal, T.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    A major concern in mandibular advancement surgery using bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSO) is potential postoperative relapse. Although the role of postoperative changes in condylar morphology on skeletal relapse was reported in previous studies, no study so far has objectified the precise

  3. Long-term stability of anterior open-bite closure with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy.

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    Fontes, Adelina M; Joondeph, Donald R; Bloomquist, Dale S; Greenlee, Geoffrey M; Wallen, Terry R; Huang, Greg J

    2012-12-01

    Maxillary impaction and bimaxillary osteotomies are used to treat anterior open-bite malocclusions but can have adverse soft-tissue effects. Correcting an anterior open bite with a single mandibular procedure avoids these undesirable soft-tissue effects, but the stability of this procedure is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term stability of anterior open-bite correction with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and rigid internal fixation. Orthognathic surgical records of 1 oral surgeon were searched for all patients treated for anterior open bite with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and surgical closing rotation of the mandible with rigid internal fixation. Cephalometric films from initial consultation, presurgery, postsurgery, orthodontic appliance removal, and a mean of 4.5 years after orthodontic appliance removal were collected, traced, and measured. Thirty-one patients fit the inclusion criteria for this study and had an initial mean open bite of -2.6 mm (SD, 1.1 mm). The patients experienced an average mandibular closing rotation of 3.7° (SD, 2.4°) with surgery. By orthodontic appliance removal, the mandible rotated open 1.1°, and incisor overlap was 1.4 mm (SD, 1.0 mm). Approximately 4.5 years after orthodontic appliance removal, the mean incisor overlap was maintained at 1.0 mm (SD, 1.0 mm), yet the mandible rotated open an additional 1.1°. Only 3 patients relapsed to no incisor overlap in the long term, and only 3 patients experienced relapse greater than 1 mm in the long term. Approximately 90% of the treated patients had a positive incisor overlap 4.5 years after orthodontic appliance removal. Despite a 60% loss of mandibular surgical closing rotation, only 10% of the patients relapsed to no incisor overlap in the long term. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and surgical closing rotation of the mandible by using rigid internal fixation should be considered a stable alternative in the treatment of mild

  4. Osteosynthesis techniques used for mandibular sagittal split osteotomy – history of orthognathic procedures and modern practice.

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    Nowak, Rafał; Trybek, Grzegorz

    Choosing an appropriate fixation technique after maxillary or mandibular osteotomy is one of the key factors affecting the success of orthognathic surgery. In line with the development of new surgical methods and techniques, the surgeons’ approach to the fixation of bone fragments has evolved accordingly, varying from non-fusion to different osteosynthesis techniques. Advances in medical sciences and medical technologies, have changed our attitudes to bone fragment reduction in orthopaedics and traumatology, and also in maxillofacial surgery. The pivotal underlying principle which determines bone healing – that is proper positioning so as to ensure appropriate contact area and immobilisation so as to ensure osteosynthesis – has remained unchanged for centuries. However, over the years, patient comfort and the predictability of treatment outcomes have vastly improved. The paper provides an overview of the techniques and methods used for the fixation of osteotomized fragments after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy since its introduction by Hugo Obwegeser up to the present day.

  5. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: Surgery first approach for correction of skeletal Class II

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    Revathi Peddu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the skeletal malocclusions which require orthognathic surgeries are treated by traditional approach which requires time-consuming and unesthetic presurgical orthodontic phase. Surgery first approach (SFA avoids these disadvantages of the traditional approach. A 24-year-old female patient with skeletal and dental class II malocclusion due to retrognathic mandible was treated with SFA. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with mandibular advancement was done immediately after initial alignment and closure of the existing spaces in the maxillary arch. Angle's class I molar and canine relation was achieved after surgery. Bonding of the mandibular arch was done after 1 month of orthognathic surgery and treatment was completed within 13 months. A wrap-around retainer was placed in upper arch, and bonded lingual retainer was given in the lower arch.

  6. Resorbable plate osteosynthesis of sagittal split osteotomies with major bone movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Constantin A; Kriener, Susanne

    2003-05-01

    This study evaluates resorbable miniplate osteosyntheses in sagittal split osteotomies with major bone repositioning. Two resorbable 2.0-mm miniplate systems, MacroSorb (Macropore, San Diego, Calif.) and PolyMax (Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland), were compared consecutively. Amorphous 70:30 poly-L/DL-lactide copolymer plates sustain continuous hydrolysis through water penetration into the implant body during the first 6 months in situ. This breaks copolymer chains into smaller particles, which later become degraded through phagocytotic cells. Eighteen patients, 10 women and eight men, 16 to 57 years old (average, 27 years) were examined. They had severe dysgnathia caused by congenital craniofacial malformations, systemic disorders, trauma, amelogenesis imperfecta, oligodontia, and other conditions, and they needed five 8- to 10-mm and 13 major 10- to 12-mm repositions. Twelve sagittal split osteotomies were fixed with 12 MacroSorb plates in six patients, and 24 osteotomies were filled with 32 PolyMax plates in 12 patients. Ten mandibular plate, screw, hard-tissue, and soft-tissue specimens were taken at 3, 6, 9, or 12 months postoperatively in secondary operations (e.g., dental implant placement).Follow-up ranged from 4 to 19 months; all osteosyntheses reossified. Four patients showed proximal fragments rotated up to 5 mm sagittally anteriorly and nonaligned burr holes on the postoperative radiogram, suggesting plate fractures or screw pullout. When plate fracture was noted, guided occlusion was maintained 4 weeks after surgery. Occlusal, radiologic, and skeletal results remained stable. After starting fixation with two plates on each side, no more plate fractures were seen. In three other patients, minor skeletal relapses up to 3 mm horizontally resulted. Local histologic inspection of specimens showed thorough osseous union. Screw remnants embedded in bone made screw pullout unlikely; rather, screw-head or plate fractures were found as multiple degraded particles

  7. Skeletal Stability after Large Mandibular Advancement (> 10 mm) with Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy and Skeletal Elastic Intermaxillary Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Kristoffer; Rodrigo, Maria; Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the skeletal stability after large mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation and to correlate the skeletal stability with the vertical facial type. MATERIAL AND METHO...

  8. Mandibular Sagittal Split Osteotomy for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Teeth: Indications, Surgical Pitfalls, and Final Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Zulma; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the indications for mandibular sagittal split osteotomy (MSSO) for the removal of impacted mandibular teeth and to evaluate the surgical pitfalls and final outcomes. In this retrospective case-series study, radiologic and clinical data of all patients who underwent MSSO for the removal of impacted mandibular teeth between 2008 and 2015 at the University Hospitals of Geneva were reviewed. The primary outcome variables were 1) the indication for the removal of impacted mandibular teeth by MSSO, 2) complications, and 3) surgical pitfalls. Other variables included age, gender, teeth involved, indication for tooth removal, concomitant lesions such as cysts and/or tumors, and radiologic features. In 18 consecutive patients, 21 impacted mandibular teeth (18 third molars, 2 second molars, and 1 first molar) were extracted by MSSO. In all patients the indication for the MSSO approach included deeply impacted teeth associated with an intimate relationship between the inferior alveolar nerve and the dental roots as shown on computed tomography or cone-beam computed tomography scan images. A non-disabling hypoesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve developed in 6 patients (33.3%). Major complications occurred in 3 patients (16.6%), including 2 cases of infection (11.1%) and 1 case of a "bad split" (5.5%). This study showed that the MSSO approach is a valuable method for removing deeply impacted teeth in proximity to the mandibular canal. Local factors, such as bone remodeling, concomitant large lesions (cysts and/or tumors), and the mandibular canal within the buccal cortex, represent pitfalls that might increase the risk of complications developing. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous removal of third molars and completion of a sagittal split osteotomy: effects of age and presence of third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Igor Batista; Van Sickels, Joseph E; Cunningham, Larry L

    2016-05-01

    The risk of removal of third molars (M3) during a sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with removal of mandibular M3 during versus before SSO. A chart and radiographic review was completed in all patients who underwent an SSO from April 2010 until September 2014. The presence or absence of M3, degree of impaction, age, sex, and occurrence of bad splits were noted. The variables were analyzed using the Pearson χ(2), ANOVA, and Fisher's exact tests set to a significance of 5%. For the 215 patients, the mean age was 23.28 years with an increase in the incidence of bad splits in older patients (P = .013). Sixty-six (30.70%) of them had at least 1 M3 present at the time of surgery. There were 6 (2.79%) bad splits. Paradoxically, looking at the occurrence of bad splits and presence of third molar, when the data were analyzed by the number of patients undergoing the procedure, there was slight evidence of a difference (P = .073), but when the data were analyzed by the surgical site, there was a statistically significant association (P = .05). The discrepancy between the 2 ways of analyzing the data may be related to there being double the number of observations when analyzed by surgical site and thus the analysis being more powerful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stabilisation of sagittal split advancement osteotomies with miniplates: a prospective, multicentre study with two-year follow-up. Part II. Radiographic parameters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borstlap, W.A.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.; Hoppenreijs, T.J.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study implied a two-year follow-up on a group of patients that underwent a Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy (BSSO) for advancement (n=222) of the mandible that were treated in seven institutions following the same treatment protocol. The aim of Part II of this study was to

  11. Stabilisation of sagittal split advancement osteotomies with miniplates: a prospective, multicentre study with two-year follow-up. Part I. Clinical parameters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borstlap, W.A.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.; Hoppenreijs, T.J.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2004-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to assess the postoperative stability of bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSO) using two miniplates. Part I reports on the clinical results including treatment characteristics, nerve functions, TMJ function, occlusional relapse and patient satisfaction. This

  12. Stabilisation of sagittal split advancement osteotomies with miniplates: a prospective, multicentre study with two-year follow-up. Part III--condylar remodelling and resorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borstlap, W.A.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.; Hoppenreijs, T.J.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study implied a two-year follow-up in a group of patients that underwent a Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy (BSSO) for advancement of the mandible that were treated in seven institutions following the same treatment protocol (using two miniplates). The aim of Part III of this

  13. The role of intraoperative positioning of the inferior alveolar nerve on postoperative paresthesia after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible: prospective clinical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzelka, T.; Foltán, R.; Pavlíková, G.; Horká, E.; Šedý, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 9 (2011), s. 901-906 ISSN 0901-5027 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GAP304/10/0320 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : orthognathic surgery * paresthesia * bilateral sagittal split osteotomy Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2011

  14. Mandibular ramus fractures: a rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Tejraj Pundalik; Kotrashetti, S M; Louis, Archana; Lingaraj, J B; Sarvesh, B U

    2013-01-01

    To determine the incidence of mandibular ramus fractures in KLE's PK Hospital and to analyze the outcome of open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures. Using a retrospective study design, records of all trauma patients who reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, KLE's PK Hospital Belgaum, between the years January 2006 to October 2011 was obtained from the medical records office. The data variables that were analyzed were the name, age, sex, cause of injury, pretreatment occlusion, treatment given, period of MMF and post-treatment occlusion. Total number of mandibular fracture cases was 298. Ramus fractures were 10 in number which accounted for 3.3% of fractures. The age range of these 10 patients was seen to be between 20 to 80 years with the average age being 35.6 years. Of these 10 patients, 9 were male and 1 was female and 7 patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation and the remaining 3 by closed reduction. The average period of MMF was 3 days for the patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation. There was improvement in occlusion in all 10 patients post-treatment and there was no complication reported in any of the cases. Ramus fractures accounted for 3.3% of all mandibular fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of ramus fractures ensures adequate functional and anatomic reduction. This study makes an attempt to throw a light on the increasing incidence of ramus fractures and a successful management of these fractures by open reduction and internal fixation. How to cite this article: Kale TP, Kotrashetti SM, Louis A, Lingaraj JB, Sarvesh BU. Mandibular Ramus Fractures: A Rarity. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(1):39-42. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  15. Evaluation of the accuracy of linear measurements on multi-slice and cone beam computed tomography scans to detect the mandibular canal during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Maia, B; Machado, V deC; Valerio, C S; Custódio, A L N; Manzi, F R; Junqueira, J L C

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of linear measurements of the distance between the mandibular cortical bone and the mandibular canal using 64-detector multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). It was sought to evaluate the reliability of these examinations in detecting the mandibular canal for use in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) planning. Eight dry human mandibles were studied. Three sites, corresponding to the lingula, the angle, and the body of the mandible, were selected. After the CT scans had been obtained, the mandibles were sectioned and the bone segments measured to obtain the actual measurements. On analysis, no statistically significant difference was found between the measurements obtained through MSCT and CBCT, or when comparing the measurements from these scans with the actual measurements. It is concluded that the images obtained by CT scan, both 64-detector multi-slice and cone beam, can be used to obtain accurate linear measurements to locate the mandibular canal for preoperative planning of BSSO. The ability to correctly locate the mandibular canal during BSSO will reduce the occurrence of neurosensory disturbances in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coen’s ascending ramus fixator use for repositioning the ascending ramus during mandible reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of mandible reconstruction using reconstruction plate after resection is to restore aesthetic and function for muscles attachment and allow mandible movement during normal function and free from joint problem. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ is an area of concern during mandible reconstruction using reconstruction plate as misalignment on placing of the reconstruction plate may cause the joint place in distortion to the glenoid fossa. Loss large part of mandible bone structure may lead problems during mandible reconstruction procedure because the surgeon may lose in orientation during forming the reconstruction plate into a horseshoe-shaped form of the mandible as well as during plate placement. The plate can only be well adapted when the position of two distal ends of the resected mandible bone are in a stable position. Simple ascending ramus fixator (CARF to fix the ascending ramus in its stable original position to allow easy mandible reconstruction was created. Those CARF were designed in two types which have one and two fixator stems used to stabilize one or both sites of the ascending rami and showed its effectiveness.

  17. Mandibular Ramus Fracture: An Overview of Rare Anatomical Subsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anendd Jadhav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The present study aims at exemplifying the incidence, and aetiology and analyses the outcomes of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF over closed treatment of mandibular ramus fractures. Patients and Method. In the present retrospective analysis of mandibular fracture patients, variables analysed were age, sex, cause of injury, pretreatment occlusion, treatment given, period of maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF, and posttreatment occlusion. Results. Out of 388 mandibular fractures treated, ramus fractures were 12 (3.09%. In the present study, predominant cause of mandibular ramus fracture was road traffic accident (RTA n = 07 (58.33% followed by fall n = 04 (33.33% and assault n = 1 (8.33%. The average age was 35.9 years with a male predilection. Of these, 9 patients were treated with ORIF while remaining 3 with closed treatment. The average MMF after closed treatment was 21 days and 3 to 5 days after ORIF. There was improvement in occlusion in all 12 patients posttreatment with no major complication except for reduced mouth opening in cases treated with ORIF which recovered with physiotherapy and muscle relaxants. Conclusion. Mandibular ramus fractures accounted for 3.09% with RTA as a common aetiology. ORIF of ramus fractures facilitated adequate functional and anatomic reduction with early return of function.

  18. Osteomyelitis of the pubic ramus misdiagnosed as septic arthritis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of an 11-year-old male Saudi who presented with osteomyelitis of the left pubic ramus who was misdiagnosed and treated as a case of septic arthritis of the hip. Subsequent re-evaluation upon referral was carried out using CT scan and MRI which clarified the diagnosis. The lesion was explored, the pus ...

  19. Split Cord Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Gezercan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Split cord malformations are rare form of occult spinal dysraphism in children. Split cord malformations are characterized by septum that cleaves the spinal canal in sagittal plane within the single or duplicated thecal sac. Although their precise incidence is unknown, split cord malformations are exceedingly rare and represent %3.8-5 of all congenital spinal anomalies. Characteristic neurological, urological, orthopedic clinical manifestations are variable and asymptomatic course is possible. Earlier diagnosis and surgical intervention for split cord malformations is associated with better long-term fuctional outcome. For this reason, diagnostic imaging is indicated for children with associated cutaneous and orthopedic signs. Additional congenital anomalies usually to accompany the split cord malformations. Earlier diagnosis, meticuolus surgical therapy and interdisciplinary careful evaluation and follow-up should be made for good prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 199-207

  20. Panoramic radiography: effects of head alignment on the vertical dimension of the mandibular ramus and condyle region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Khonsari, Reza; Fenske, Christian; Behfar, Leyli; Bauss, Oskar

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether it is possible to derive accurate vertical measurements of the mandibular ramus and condyle from panoramic radiographs. A human dry skull was positioned in a panoramic machine. The skull was displaced along the sagittal and transverse plane and rotated around the vertical and transverse axes. A set of 252 digital radiographs with defined positioning errors was compared with a set of 42 radiographs in the 'ideal' position. The distances between the metal markers that had been attached at the angle of the mandible at a distance of 60 mm in the condyle region to produce fixed reference points on the radiographs were measured. Statistical differences were investigated using Friedman repeated measures analysis of variance on ranks followed by the Dunnett's test for the comparison against the control group in the ideal position (α = 0.05). Vertical measurements were significantly affected when the skull was rotated around the vertical (P panoramic machine.

  1. Intraoral distraction osteogenesis to lengthen the ascending ramus - Experience with seven patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J; Bierman, MWJ; Becking, AG

    2004-01-01

    Seven children with facial asymmetry, mean age 12 years (range 11-14.5) were treated by intraoral distraction osteogenesis to lengthen the hypoplastic ramus. We achieved a mean increase in length of the ramus of 13 mm (range 10-16). In only one patient did we achieve a posterior open bite on the

  2. Intraoral distraction osteogenesis to lengthen the ascending ramus. Experience with seven patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, Johan; Bierman, Michiel W. J.; Becking, Alfred G.

    2004-01-01

    Seven children with facial asymmetry, mean age 12 years (range 11-14.5) were treated by intraoral distraction osteogenesis to lengthen the hypoplastic ramus. We achieved a mean increase in length of the ramus of 13mm (range 10-16). In only one patient did we achieve a posterior open bite on the

  3. Excretory system of the liver in deers (Manzana americana, Blastocerus bezoarticus e Manzana simplicicornis II. Ramus principalis sinister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Miglino

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The excretory system of the liver in 8 specimens of Manzana americana (6, 1 of Manzana simplicicornis (1 and 1 of Blastocerus bezoarticus (I was injected with colored latex Neoprene, fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and dissected. The ramus principalis sinister is made up of the ramus dorsalis lobi sinistri, the truncus intermediomedialis, the truncus intermediolateralis, the ramus lateralis lobi sinistri and the ramus lobi quadrati.

  4. Biomechanical analysis of anterior ring fixation of the ramus in type C pelvis fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlin, S; Lesieur, M; Stephen, D; Kreder, H; Whyne, C

    2017-04-08

    This biomechanical study compared the stability of four different ramus fracture fixation methods for Type C pelvic ring injuries in the absence of posterior fixation. A 5-mm vertical osteotomy of the mid-superior and inferior pubic ramus was created in 12 synthetic pelvic models. Four surgical constructs were compared: (1) two-pin AIIS external fixation, (2) 3.5-mm reconstruction plating, (3) bicortical, fully threaded 3.5-mm, and (4) 6.5-mm pubic ramus screws. Specimens were tested in a simulated one-legged stance on a hemiarthroplasty implant in three stages: (1) no applied load, (2) application of the loading fixture preload to the sacrum (6N), and (3) following six cycles of a 250N load. Stability was assessed based on resultant displacement of the fracture sites at the superior ramus and the anterior sacroiliac joint. The bicortical, fully threaded 6.5-mm pubic ramus screw provided the most stable ramus fracture fixation (0.5 ± 0.4 mm) displacement under load and was the only construct to finish testing without gross posterior pelvic disruption. Plate constructs finished the final loading stage with only a small increase (3.1 ± 2.3 mm) in ramus fracture gap size, but had significant displacement at the SI joint (>20 mm). 3.5-mm screw constructs had 1.6 ± 0.7 mm of ramus displacement in the preload stage, but had complete posterior pelvic disruption (>20 mm) that prevented further testing. External fixation was unstable at the ramus and sacroiliac sites in the initial setup. The bicortical, fully threaded 6.5-mm pubic ramus screw was the only anterior fixation construct tested that controlled motion at both the anterior and posterior pelvic rings in the absence of posterior fixation.

  5. Embryo splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Illmensee; Mike Levanduski

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board appr...

  6. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  7. The Influence of Pelvic Ramus Fracture on the Stability of Fixed Pelvic Complex Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jianyin; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Guiying; Wang, Zhihua; Cai, Xianhua

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical mechanism of pelvic ring injury for the stability of pelvis using the finite element (FE) method. Complex pelvic fracture (i.e., anterior column with posterior hemitransverse lesion) combined with pelvic ramus fracture was used to evaluate the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. Three FE fracture models (i.e., Dynamic Anterior Plate-Screw System for Quadrilateral Area (DAPSQ) for complex pelvic fracture with intact pubic ramus, DAPSQ for complex...

  8. The Influence of Pelvic Ramus Fracture on the Stability of Fixed Pelvic Complex Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianyin; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Guiying; Wang, Zhihua; Cai, Xianhua

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical mechanism of pelvic ring injury for the stability of pelvis using the finite element (FE) method. Complex pelvic fracture (i.e., anterior column with posterior hemitransverse lesion) combined with pelvic ramus fracture was used to evaluate the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. Three FE fracture models (i.e., Dynamic Anterior Plate-Screw System for Quadrilateral Area (DAPSQ) for complex pelvic fracture with intact pubic ramus, DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with pubic ramus fracture, and DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with fixed pubic ramus fracture) were established to explore the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. The pubic ramus fracture leads to an unsymmetrical situation and an unstable situation of the pelvis. The fixed pubic ramus fracture did well in reducing the stress levels of the pelvic bone and fixation system, as well as displacement difference in the pubic symphysis, and it could change the unstable situation back to a certain extent. The pelvic ring integrity was the prerequisite of the pelvic stability and should be in a stable condition when the complex fracture is treated.

  9. Donor site complications in bone grafting: comparison of iliac crest, calvarial, and mandibular ramus bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerlinck, Laura M E; Muradin, Marvick S M; van der Bilt, Andries; Meijer, Gert J; Koole, Ronald; Van Cann, Ellen M

    2013-01-01

    To compare the donor site complication rate and length of hospital stay following the harvest of bone from the iliac crest, calvarium, or mandibular ramus. Ninety-nine consecutively treated patients were included in this retrospective observational single-center study. Iliac crest bone was harvested in 55 patients, calvarial bone in 26 patients, and mandibular ramus bone in 18 patients. Harvesting of mandibular ramus bone was associated with the lowest percentages of major complications (5.6%), minor complications (22.2%), and total complications (27.8%). Harvesting of iliac crest bone was related to the highest percentages of minor complications (56.4%) and total complications (63.6%), whereas harvesting of calvarial bone induced the highest percentage of major complications (19.2%). The length of the hospital stay was significantly influenced by the choice of donor site (P = .003) and age (P = .009); young patients with the mandibular ramus as the donor site had the shortest hospital stay. Harvesting of mandibular ramus bone was associated with the lowest percentage of complications and the shortest hospital stay. When the amount of bone to be obtained is deemed sufficient, mandibular ramus bone should be the first choice for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

  10. The Influence of Pelvic Ramus Fracture on the Stability of Fixed Pelvic Complex Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyin Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical mechanism of pelvic ring injury for the stability of pelvis using the finite element (FE method. Complex pelvic fracture (i.e., anterior column with posterior hemitransverse lesion combined with pelvic ramus fracture was used to evaluate the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. Three FE fracture models (i.e., Dynamic Anterior Plate-Screw System for Quadrilateral Area (DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with intact pubic ramus, DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with pubic ramus fracture, and DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with fixed pubic ramus fracture were established to explore the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. The pubic ramus fracture leads to an unsymmetrical situation and an unstable situation of the pelvis. The fixed pubic ramus fracture did well in reducing the stress levels of the pelvic bone and fixation system, as well as displacement difference in the pubic symphysis, and it could change the unstable situation back to a certain extent. The pelvic ring integrity was the prerequisite of the pelvic stability and should be in a stable condition when the complex fracture is treated.

  11. Quantitation of mandibular ramus volume as a source of bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Fernando; Simonian, Krikor; Smith McDonald, Roberto; Nowzari, Hessam

    2009-10-01

    When alveolar atrophy impairs dental implant placement, ridge augmentation using mandibular ramus graft may be considered. In live patients, however, an accurate calculation of the amount of bone that can be safely harvested from the ramus has not been reported. The use of a software program to perform these calculations can aid in preventing surgical complications. The aim of the present study was to intra-surgically quantify the volume of the ramus bone graft that can be safely harvested in live patients, and compare it to presurgical computerized tomographic calculations. The AutoCAD software program quantified ramus bone graft in 40 consecutive patients from computerized tomographies. Direct intra-surgical measurements were recorded thereafter and compared to software data (n = 10). In these 10 patients, the bone volume was also measured at the recipient sites 6 months post-sinus augmentation. The mandibular second and third molar areas provided the thickest cortical graft averaging 2.8 +/- 0.6 mm. The thinnest bone was immediately posterior to the third molar (1.9 +/- 0.3 mm). The volume of ramus bone graft measured by AutoCAD averaged 0.8 mL (standard deviation [SD] 0.2 mL, range: 0.4-1.2 mL). The volume of bone graft measured intra-surgically averaged 2.5 mL (SD 0.4 mL, range: 1.8-3.0 mL). The difference between the two measurement methods was significant (p AutoCAD software program did not overestimate the volume of bone that can be safely harvested from the mandibular ramus.

  12. Determination of craniofacial relation among the subethnic Indian population: A modified approach - (Sagittal relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sumathi Felicita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To measure the linear cephalometric dimensions of anterior and posterior segments of the craniofacial complex sagittally, to establish ratios between different linear dimensions of sagittal segments and check for dimensional balance among the various segments in subjects with normal occlusion, pleasing profile and facial harmony. Setting and Sample Population : Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha University. Lateral cephalograms of 120 subjects of both sexes in the age group of 17-28 years with normal occlusion belonging to Chennai, India Materials and Methods : Linear dimensions of anterior and posterior segments of the craniofacial complex were measured sagittally with the posterior maxillary plane as a key reference plane. Ratios were established between the various parameters in the anterior and posterior region. Results : A ratio of 1:1 was found to exist between the individual and aggregate sagittal segments of the craniofacial complex in both sexes. There was a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in the aggregate lengths(P=0.028,P=0.005.However, the ratio between the anterior cranial floor and effective maxillary length was 2:3 and 5:8 and that between anterior cranial floor to effective mandibular length was 5:8 and 3:5 in females and males respectively. The difference in the above values was not statistically significant. Conclusion : A dimensional balance was found to exist between the maxilla and mandible both at the dentoalveolar and skeletal level with a ratio of 1:1. There was also a dimensional balance between the posterior cranial floor and ramus width. However, there was no architectural balance between the anterior cranial floor and maxilla and mandible.

  13. [Clinical application of percutaneous iliosacral screws combined with pubic ramus screws in Tile B pelvic fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Fei; Lin, Kui-Ran; Zhao, Dai-Jie; Zhang, Song-Qin; Feng, Sheng-Kai; Li, Chen

    2017-03-25

    To investigate the application and effect of minimally invasive percutaneous anterior pelvic pubic ramus screw fixation in Tile B fractures. A retrospective review was conducted on 56 patients with posterior pelvic ring injury combined with fractures of anterior pubic and ischiadic ramus treated between May 2010 and August 2015, including 31 males and 25 females with an average age of 36.8 years old ranging from 35 to 65 years old. Based on the Tile classification, there were 13 cases of Tile B1 type, 28 cases of Tile B2 type and 15 cases of Tile B3 type. Among them, 26 patients were treated with sacroiliac screws combined with external fixation (external fixator group) and the other 30 patients underwent sacroiliac screw fixation combined with anterior screw fixation (pubic ramus screw group). Postoperative complications, postoperative ambulation time, fracture healing, blood loss, Majeed pelvic function score and visual analogue scale(VAS) were compared between two groups. Fifty-four patients were followed up from 3 to 24 months with a mean of 12 months. There were no significant difference in the peri-operative bleeding and operation time between two groups( P >0.05). The postoperative activity time and fracture healing time of pubic ramus screw group were shorter than those of the external fixator group, the differences were statistically significant( P safty treatment method to the Tile B pelvic fracture. It has advantages of early ambulation, relief of the pain and few complications.

  14. Splitting Descartes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division....... But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?...

  15. Analysis of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae-Young; Suh, Seung-Woo; Modi, Hitesh N; Park, Jong-Woong; Park, Jung-Ho

    2011-08-15

    Prospective radiological analysis of patients with achondroplasia. To analyze sagittal spinal alignment and pelvic orientation in achondroplasia patients. Knowledge of sagittal spinopelvic parameters is important for the treatment of achondroplasia, because they differ from those of the normal population and can induce pain. The study and control groups were composed of 32 achondroplasia patients and 24 healthy volunteers, respectively. All underwent lateral radiography of the whole spine including hip joints. The radiographic parameters examined were sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence (PI), S1 overhang, thoracic kyphosis, T10-L2 kyphosis, lumbar lordosis (LL1, LL2), and sagittal balance. Statistical analysis was performed to identify significant differences between the two groups. In addition, correlations between parameters and symptoms were sought. Sagittal spinopelvic parameters, namely, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, S1 overhang, thoracic kyphosis, T10-L2 kyphosis, lumbar lordosis 1 and sagittal balance were found to be significantly different in the patient and control groups (P achondroplasia patients and normal healthy controls. The present study shows that sagittal spinal and pelvic parameters can assist the treatment of spinal disorders in achondroplasia patients.

  16. Percutaneous augmentation of the superior pubic ramus with polymethyl methacrylate: treatment of acute traumatic and chronic insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, Douglas P. [University of Oklahoma, Clinical Radiology of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); D' Souza, Sharon L. [University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Costello, Richard F.; Stapp, Annette M. [Clinical Radiology of Oklahoma, Edmond, OK (United States); Prater, Scott D. [University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Edmond, OK (United States); Van Zandt, Bryan L. [University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Martin, Hal D. [Oklahoma Sports Science and Orthopaedics, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a minimally invasive image-guided procedure that is typically used to treat vertebral body fractures due to osteoporosis or neoplastic involvement. The injection of PMMA into various other locations including the sacrum, acetabulum, pedicles, femur and tibia has been reported previously, and these procedures have, overall, been highly effective at alleviating pain and discomfort. Although the injection of PMMA into the vertebral body is a very common procedure that has been performed for over 2 decades for the percutaneous treatment of vertebral body fractures, the percutaneous injection of PMMA has not been reported in the English literature as treatment for superior pubic ramus fractures. We report the percutaneous treatment of an acute superior pubic ramus fracture and of a chronic insufficiency fracture of the superior pubic ramus using a parasymphyseal approach to access the region of injury. (orig.)

  17. Massive Intrapelvic Hematoma after a Pubic Ramus Fracture in an Osteoporotic Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruki, Funao; Takahiro, Koyanagi

    2016-01-01

    An 88-year-old female presented with a left thigh pain and dysuria. She visited our hospital 2 week after she noticed her symptoms. She stated that she might have a low-energy fall, but she could not identify the exact onset. Her radiograph of the pelvis (Figure 1) showed displaced left pubic ramus fracture. Her computed tomographic scanning of the pelvis (Figure 2) showed massive intrapelvic hematoma (axial size, 11 cm by 5 cm) around the fracture site, although she did not use any anticoagulants. Because her bone mineral density was 0.357 g/cm 2 , and T score was -4.8 SD, she started a bisphosphonate therapy. She received a bed-rest physical therapy for 6 weeks, and the hematoma regressed spontaneously. She started full weight bearing after 6 weeks, and walked by a walker after 8 weeks. Although it is extremely rare to develop massive chronic intra-pelvic hematoma after a lowenergy pubic ramus fracture without any use of anticoagulants, it may occur in elderly and severely osteoporotic patient

  18. Massive Intrapelvic Hematoma after a Pubic Ramus Fracture in an Osteoporotic Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruki, Funao, E-mail: hfunao@yahoo.co.jp; Takahiro, Koyanagi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kawasaki Municipal Kawasaki Hospital, 12-1 Shinkawadori, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 210-0013 (Japan)

    2016-03-24

    An 88-year-old female presented with a left thigh pain and dysuria. She visited our hospital 2 week after she noticed her symptoms. She stated that she might have a low-energy fall, but she could not identify the exact onset. Her radiograph of the pelvis (Figure 1) showed displaced left pubic ramus fracture. Her computed tomographic scanning of the pelvis (Figure 2) showed massive intrapelvic hematoma (axial size, 11 cm by 5 cm) around the fracture site, although she did not use any anticoagulants. Because her bone mineral density was 0.357 g/cm{sup 2}, and T score was -4.8 SD, she started a bisphosphonate therapy. She received a bed-rest physical therapy for 6 weeks, and the hematoma regressed spontaneously. She started full weight bearing after 6 weeks, and walked by a walker after 8 weeks. Although it is extremely rare to develop massive chronic intra-pelvic hematoma after a lowenergy pubic ramus fracture without any use of anticoagulants, it may occur in elderly and severely osteoporotic patient.

  19. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  20. Morphological segmentation for sagittal plane image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, F N; Paula, I C; Medeiros, F S; Ushizima, D M; Cintra, L S

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a morphological image segmentation method by applying watershed transform with markers to scale-space smoothed images and furthermore provides images for clinical monitoring and analysis of patients. The database comprises sagittal plane images taken from a digital camera of patients submitted to Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) physiotherapy treatment. Orthopaedic specialists can use these segmented images to diagnose posture problems, assess physiotherapy treatment evolution and thus reduce diagnostic errors due to subjective analysis.

  1. Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome with Sagittal Craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew S; Weathers, William M; Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Bollo, Robert J; Hollier, Larry H; Buchanan, Edward P

    2015-06-01

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) is a rare disorder (the incidence is estimated at around 7/1,000,000) characterized by the clinical tetrad of chondrodystrophy, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cardiac anomalies. Sagittal synostosis is characterized by a dolichocephalic head shape resulting from premature fusion of the sagittal suture. Both are rare disorders, which have never been reported together. We present a case of EVC and sagittal synostosis. We report the clinical features of a Hispanic boy with EVC and sagittal craniosynostosis who underwent cranial vault remodeling. The presentation of this patient is gone over in detail. A never before reported case of EVC and sagittal synostosis is presented in detail.

  2. [Congenital malformations of the temporo-mandibular joint and the mandibular ramus: Grafting vs distraction osteogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, A; Graillon, N; Foletti, J M; Chossegros, C; Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    Congenital deformities of the mandibular ramus and of the temporo-mandibular joint are treated by surgery since the early 20th century. However, morphological and functional results are often disappointing, accounting for iterative operations. Today, a clear consensus concerning the type of intervention to be proposed, and at what age it should be carried out does not yet exist. For mild cases, "conventional" orthognathic or osteogenic distraction procedures seem to work well, especially if they are carried out at the end of growth. In severe cases, it is often necessary to proceed in several surgical steps, usually starting with a chondrocostal graft, especially when interceptive surgery, performed before the end of growth, is preferred in order to improve the patient's quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Sagittal crest formation in great apes and gibbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balolia, Katharine L; Soligo, Christophe; Wood, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The frequency of sagittal crest expression and patterns of sagittal crest growth and development have been documented in hominoids, including some extinct hominin taxa, and the more frequent expression of the sagittal crest in males has been traditionally linked with the need for larger-bodied individuals to have enough attachment area for the temporalis muscle. In the present study, we investigate sagittal cresting in a dentally mature sample of four hominoid taxa (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and Hylobates lar). We investigate whether sagittal crest size increases with age beyond dental maturity in males and females of G. g. gorilla and Po. pyg. pygmaeus, and whether these taxa show sex differences in the timing of sagittal crest development. We evaluate the hypothesis that the larger sagittal crest of males may not be solely due to the requirement for a larger surface area than the un-crested cranial vault can provide for the attachment of the temporalis muscle, and present data on sex differences in temporalis muscle attachment area and sagittal crest size relative to cranial size. Gorilla g. gorilla and Po. pyg. pygmaeus males show significant relationships between tooth wear rank and sagittal crest size, and they show sagittal crest size differences between age groups that are not found in females. The sagittal crest emerges in early adulthood in the majority of G. g. gorilla males, whereas the percentage of G. g. gorilla females possessing a sagittal crest increases more gradually. Pongo pyg. pygmaeus males experience a three-fold increase in the number of specimens exhibiting a sagittal crest in mid-adulthood, consistent with a secondary growth spurt. Gorilla g. gorilla and Po. pyg. pygmaeus show significant sex differences in the size of the temporalis muscle attachment area, relative to cranial size, with males of both taxa showing positive allometry not shown in females. Gorilla g

  4. Fatigue stress fractures of the pubic ramus in the army: imaging features with radiographic, scintigraphic and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Chang Hyun [The Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Although fatigue fractures are not unusual in athletes and military personnel those of the pubic ramus are rare. We report three cases of fatigue fractures of the inferior pubic rami in two male recruits and one female military cadet. On the initial radiograph, most of the lesions were subtle and easy to overlook. However, bone scintigraphy provided more distinct images that allowed easy and early detection of lesion, and MR imaging presented more diagnostic information, which allowed a precise diagnosis.

  5. Unlatching the Gate – Helping Adult Students Learn Mathematics by Katherine Safford-Ramus, (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Hollenstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Safford-Ramus is an associate professor of mathematics at Saint Peter’s College, a Jesuit College in New Jersey, USA. She has been teaching introductory mathematics courses at the tertiary level for 24 years at a community college. This book is based on her doctoral thesis. In Chapter 1, Unlatching the Gate deliberates a rich specra of conditions for, and peculiarities of, mathematics learning by adults in a formal environment. Influential theories and empirical findings in the fields of educational psychology, adult education and mathematics education are surveyed with a focus on adult learners and – of course –teachers and institutions. The text does not discuss empirical research undertaken by the author; it examines her broad personal teaching experience in the light of the above-mentioned body of knowledge and proposes directions for the development of adult mathematics education. In this sense, Unlatching the Gate is a theoretical book reflecting on practical issues. The target audience would be adult educators and students of post secondary mathematics education.

  6. Intraoperative Hemorrhage and Postoperative Sequelae after Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy to Treat Mandibular Prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the factors affecting intraoperative hemorrhage and postoperative sequelae after orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods. Eighty patients with mandibular prognathism underwent surgical mandibular setback with intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO. The correlation between the blood loss volume and postoperative VAS with the gender, age, and operating time was assessed using the t-test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The correlation between the magnitude of mandibular setback with the presence of TMJ clicking symptoms and lip sensation was also assessed. Results. The mean operating time and blood loss volume for men and women were 249.52 min and 229.39 min, and 104.03 mL and 86.12 mL, respectively. The mean VAS in men and women was 3.21 and 2.93, and 1.79 and 1.32 on the first and second postoperative days. There is no gender difference in the operating time, blood loss, VAS, TMJ symptoms, and lip numbness. The magnitude of mandibular setback was not correlated with immediate and long-term postoperative lip numbness. Conclusion. There are no gender differences in the intraoperative hemorrhage and postoperative sequelae (pain, lip numbness, and TMJ symptoms. In addition, neither symptom was significantly correlated with the amount of mandibular setback.

  7. Clinical, Biomechanical, and Anatomic Investigation of Colles Fascia and Pubic Ramus Periosteum for Use During Medial Thighplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Martin J; Matatov, Tim; Freeman, Matthew; Miller, John; Vemula, Rahul; Schuster, Jason; Dancisak, Michael; Lindsey, John; Rae, Guenevere

    2017-06-01

    The medial thighplasty is a procedure where patients may attain superior mobility, hygiene, and cosmesis. Most surgeons use attachment of the superficial fascial system (SFS) of the thigh flap to the Colles fascia, whereas others attach the SFS to the pubic ramus periosteum. Because of a high complication profile, we aim to elucidate the clinical, biomechanical, and anatomic qualities of the Colles fascia versus the pubic ramus periosteum. We performed a 17-year retrospective review documenting clinical complications, a biomechanical analysis of sutures placed in different tissue layers of the thigh, and a histologic analysis surrounding the ischiopubic ramus. Separate suture pull-out strength testing was conducted on cadaveric tissue using an Admet MTEST Quattro with no. 1 Vicryl suture and tissue grips at a displacement rate of 2.12 mm/s. Simultaneous displacement and force were acquired at 100 Hz and with measurements obtained at regular intervals between the pubic symphysis and the ischial tuberosity in both the Colles fascia and the deeper periosteal layers of the thigh. A histologic analysis was performed at 3 points along the ischiopubic ramus using paraffin-embedded large mount tissue sections stained with hematoxylin, eosin, and Gomori trichrome. Thirty-nine patients underwent medial thighplasty with a 46.16% complication rate. Suture pull-out force of the suspected superficial Colles fascia sites was, on average, 72.8% less than values from the deeper periosteum tissue. Anchor points in the Colles fascia elongated 17.4% further before failure than those in the periosteum. There was noticeable variability between anchor points and across samples. The histologic sections suggest that the Colles fascia from the different regions of the ischiopubic ramus varies considerably in both continuity and collagen fiber content with no discernible pattern. The periosteal and muscular fascial layers were more continuous histologically with direct attachments into the

  8. Sagittal synostosis: I. Preoperative morphology of the skull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimaraes-Ferreira, J.; Gewalli, F.; David, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the preoperative morphology of the skull in sagittal synostosis in an objective and quantified way. The shapes of the skulls of 105 patients with isolated premature synostosis of the sagittal suture ( SS group) were studied and compared with those of a co...

  9. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A two and half year-old-male child, known case of steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome presented with fever and vomiting of acute onset. He was diagnosed to have superior sagittal sinus thrombosis on a contrast computerised tomographic scan of brain. Recovery was complete without anticoagulant therapy. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an extremely rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

  10. Craniotomy of the Fused Sagittal Suture Over the Superior Sagittal Sinus Is a Safe Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölby, David; Fischer, Sara; Arab, Khalid; Maltese, Giovanni; Olsson, Robert; Paganini, Anna; Tarnow, Peter; Kölby, Lars

    2017-05-01

    Spring-assisted cranioplasty to correct sagittal synostosis is based on midline craniotomy through the closed sagittal suture, over the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perioperative safety of this technique. This is a retrospective study of all patients operated with median craniotomy and springs from 1998 to the end of 2015. For comparison, all Pi-plasties performed during the same time interval were also evaluated. The safety measures were evaluated based on incidence of damage to SSS, incidence of dural tears, perioperative blood loss, operative time, and hospital stay. In the group that had undergone midline craniotomy combined with springs (n = 225), 4 perioperative damages to SSS and 1 dural tear were seen. The perioperative blood loss was 62.8 ± 65.3 mL (mean ± standard deviation). The operative time was 67.9 ± 21.5 minutes and the hospital stay was 4.8 ± 1.1 days. In the group that had undergone pi-plasty (n = 105), no damages to SSS but 3 dural tears were seen. The perioperative blood loss was 352.8 ± 174.4 mL. The operative time was 126.0 ± 31.7 minutes and the hospital stay was 7.1 ± 1.4 days. Craniotomy SSS in sagittal synostosis is a safe procedure with low morbidity in terms of damage to the SSS. Midline craniotomy combined with springs has significantly lower preoperative blood loss, operative time, and hospital stay (P < 0.001 for all) compared to pi-plasty.

  11. The Average Change in Facial Height Following Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy Advancement in Class II Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    internship and residency programs. 3. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and your department has told you they... source for your study [ e .g., S9 MOW CRD Graduate Health Sciences Education (GHSE) (SGS O&M); SGS R&D; Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP...a legal ethics review to address any potential conflicts related to DoD personnel participating in non-DoD sponsored conferences, professional

  12. FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY, SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT AND PELVIC BALANCE IN LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Muñiz Luna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To demonstrate the recovery of lumbar sagittal pelvic alignment and sagittal pelvic balance after surgical reduction of lumbar spondylolisthesis and establish the benefits of the surgery for reduction and fixation of the lumbar spondylolisthesis with 360o circumferential arthrodesis for 2 surgical approaches by clinical and functional evaluation. Method: Eight patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with surgical reduction and fixation of listhesis and segmental circumferential fusion with two surgical approaches were reviewed. They were evaluated before and after treatment with Oswestry, Visual Analogue for pain and Odom scales, performing radiographic measurement of lumbar sagittal alignment and pelvic sagittal balance with the technique of pelvic radius. Results: Oswestry scales and EVA reported improvement of symptoms after treatment in 8 cases; the Odom scale had six outstanding cases reported. The lumbar sagittal alignment presented a lumbosacral lordosis angle and a lumbopelvic lordosis angle reduced in 4 cases and increased in 4 other cases; pelvic sagittal balance increased the pelvic angle in 4 cases and decreased in 3 cases and the sacral translation of the hip axis to the promontory increased in 6 cases. Conclusion: The surgical procedure evaluated proved to be useful by modifying the lumbar sagittal alignment and the pelvic balance, besides reducing the symptoms, enabling the patient to have mobility and movement and the consequent satisfaction with the surgery.

  13. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.

  14. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  15. Self-Inflicted Drywall Screws in the Sagittal Sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, Kern H; Ochi, Calvin

    2018-02-01

    A 30-year-old right-handed man with a history of schizophrenia presented with 2 self-inflicted drywall screws in the skull. The patient was sleepy but easily arousable; blood tests showed he had taken methamphetamines. Computed tomography and computed tomography angiography of the head showed the frontal screw abutted left of the superior sagittal sinus, and the posterior screw went through the superior sagittal sinus with no extravasation of contrast material at either site. Both screws were removed with exposure of the sagittal sinus using U-shaped craniectomies. There was no bleeding on the removal of the screws. It appears the posterior screw entered between the leaflets of the sagittal sinus dura mater. The patient had returned to work without any sequelae 1 month after injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement accuracy of condylar position on reformatted sagittal CT and sagittal tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiruma, Takayoshi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the measurement accuracy of the condylar position on reformatted sagittal CT with that on sagittal tomography (TG). The CTs were reformatted from the 1 mm thickness/interval coronal scan. The TGs were performed with hypocycloidal motion. Impressions of the joint space were taken in order to estimate the actual dimensions. The errors, differences between the values from the impressions and the values from CTs and TGs, were calculated and analyzed by ANOVA. The results were as follows: The mean measurement error of the condylar position on the CT was 0.1 mm. No statistically significant differences were observed among the CTs reformatted from the coronal scan obtained with the X-ray beam projecting at 90deg, 80deg and 70deg to the F-H plane. The measurement error on the TGs with a mean value of 0.3 mm was larger than that of the CTs. However, one of the 6 TMJs caused a great measurement error on the TG with a mean value of 0.9 mm while the measurement of the other 5 TMJs showed a smaller mean error of 0.1 mm. These findings suggest that the anatomic morphology of TMJs influence the measurement accuracy on the TGs. (author).

  17. CHANGES IN THE SAGITTAL BALANCE IN CONGENITAL SCOLIOSIS CORRECTION SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso Filho, José Antonio; Borges, Paulo Alvim; Tsuchiya, Eduardo Hideo; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to determine whether surgery leads to changes in sagittal balance in patients with congenital scoliosis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of scoliosis operated in a tertiary hospital between January 2009 and January 2013. In all cases the deformity in the coronal and sagittal planes, kyphosis, and lordosis were measured, using the Cobb method, and spinopelvic parameters: pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), and pelvic tilt (PT). Resul...

  18. Mid-sagittal plane and mid-sagittal surface optimization in brain MRI using a local symmetry measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl; Ryberg, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    , the mid-sagittal plane is not always planar, but a curved surface resulting in poor partitioning of the brain hemispheres. To account for this, this paper also investigates an optimization strategy which fits a thin-plate spline surface to the brain data using a robust least median of squares estimator....... Albeit computationally more expensive, mid-sagittal surface fitting demonstrated convincingly better partitioning of curved brains into cerebral hemispheres....

  19. Sagittal otolith morphogenesis asymmetry in marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, T; Mahe, K; Villanueva, M C; De Pontual, H; Ernande, B

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated and compared asymmetry in sagittal otolith shape and length between left and right inner ears in four roundfish and four flatfish species of commercial interest. For each species, the effects of ontogenetic changes (individual age and total body length), sexual dimorphism (individual sex) and the otolith's location on the right or left side of the head, on the shape and length of paired otoliths (between 143 and 702 pairs according to species) were evaluated. Ontogenetic changes in otolith shape and length were observed for all species. Sexual dimorphism, either in otolith shape and length or in their ontogenetic changes, was detected for half of the species, be they round or flat. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was detected in one roundfish species each, but its inconsistency across species and its small average amplitude (6·17% for shape and 1·99% for length) suggested that it has barely any biological relevance. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was found for all flatfish species except otolith length for one species. Its average amplitude varied between 2·06 and 17·50% for shape and between 0·00 and 11·83% for length and increased significantly throughout ontogeny for two species, one dextral and one sinistral. The longer (length) and rounder otolith (shape) appeared to be always on the blind side whatever the species. These results suggest differential biomineralization between the blind and ocular inner ears in flatfish species that could result from perturbations of the proximal-distal gradient of otolith precursors in the endolymph and the otolith position relative to the geometry of the saccular epithelium due to body morphology asymmetry and lateralized behaviour. The fact that asymmetry never exceeded 18% even at the individual level suggests an evolutionary canalization of otolith shape symmetry to avoid negative effects on fish hearing and balance. Technically

  20. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    project of the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia MTM2007-60333. References. [1] Calderón A J, On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 118(2008) 351–356. [2] Calderón A J, On split Lie triple systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 119(2009). 165–177.

  1. Fractured Inferior Pubic Ramus with Ipsilateral Total Hip Replacement: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkhell Radha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pubic rami fractures are common. They are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These fractures are usually classified as stable injuries and traditionally receive limited orthopaedic input. Management typically involves hospital admission and early input from physiotherapists and occupational therapists. Early mobilisation is advocated as a central part of managing these patients, with emphasis on secondary prevention. We report a case diagnosed as minimally displaced inferior pubic ramus fracture in a patient with an ipsilateral total hip replacement (THR. The patient was mobilised early and despite analgesia continued to complain of groin pain. Repeat radiographs showed a fracture of the acetabulum with displacement of the acetabular component of the hip replacement. We advocate early orthopaedic input for all pubic rami fractures, particularly in patients with hip arthroplasty, and thorough investigation including a CT scan of the pelvis to exclude acetabular extension prior to mobilisation.

  2. Aspects of Split Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, N; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Romanino, A

    2005-01-01

    We explore some fundamental differences in the phenomenology, cosmology and model building of Split Supersymmetry compared with traditional low-scale supersymmetry. We show how the mass spectrum of Split Supersymmetry naturally emerges from theories where the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking preserves an $R$ symmetry, characterize the class of theories where the unavoidable $R$-breaking by gravity can be neglected, and point out a new possibility, where supersymmetry breaking is directly communicated at tree level to the visible sector via renormalizable interactions. Next, we discuss possible low-energy signals for Split Supersymmetry. The absence of new light scalars removes all the phenomenological difficulties of low-energy supersymmetry, associated with one-loop flavor and CP violating effects. However, the electric dipole moments of leptons and quarks do arise at two loops, and are automatically at the level of present limits with no need for small phases, making them accessible to several ongo...

  3. Diffraction crystals for sagittally focusing x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1982-06-07

    The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

  4. Pedicle subtraction osteotomy in elderly patients with degenerative sagittal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Jung; Kim, Ki-Tack; Kim, Whoan-Jeang; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Young-Tae; Park, Hae-Bong

    2013-11-15

    Retrospective, radiographical analysis. To evaluate pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) as a means of correcting severe degenerative sagittal imbalance in elderly patients. PSO in patients with degenerative sagittal imbalance is likely to cause more complications than in patients with iatrogenic flatback deformity. This study analyzed 34 patients who underwent fusion to the sacrum, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Age of the patients were in the range from 58 to 73 with the mean at 65.5 years. PSO was performed at one segment in all cases, consisting of L3 (n = 26), L4 (n = 4), L2 (n = 3), and L1 (n = 1). The average number of levels fused was 8.15. Ten patients had structural interbody fusion at the lumbosacral junction. Applying PSO at one segment, the mean correction of the lordotic angle at the osteotomy site was 33.3°, of which the loss of correction (LOC) was 4.0° at the last visit. The correction of lumbar lordosis was 33.7° and the LOC was 8.5°. The sagittal C7 plumb was 215.9 mm before surgery, corrected to 35.1 mm after surgery, and changed to 95.9 mm by the last visit. The correction of the sagittal C7 plumb was 119.9 mm and the LOC was 60.9 mm. There was substantial LOC in lumbar lordosis and sagittal C7 plumb. In 10 patients with addition of posterior lumbar interbody fusion, the LOC of lumbar lordosis was 7.4°, which was less than 9° in those without it. PSO for the correction of degenerative sagittal imbalance in elderly patients resulted in correction of sagittal alignment with a significant LOC of lumbar lordosis and sagittal C7 plumb. The LOC of lumbar lordosis occurred at both the osteotomy and non-osteotomy site. The addition of anterior column support is helpful to maintain correction and reduce complications. N/A.

  5. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the structure of split Malcev algebras of arbitrary dimension over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We show that any such algebras is of the form M = U + ∑ j I j with U a subspace of the abelian Malcev subalgebra and any I j a well described ideal of satisfying [ I j , I k ] = 0 if ≠ .

  6. Splitting of Comets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Splitting of Comets. Utpal Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 11-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/01/0011-0022. Keywords. Cometary ...

  7. Lenke 1 and 5: changes in sagittal balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delson Valdemir Pessin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess in a cross-sectional study whether there are changes in sagittal balance in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Lenke types 1 and 5 compared with patients without pathology of the spine and compare the values of the parameters of normal subjects with the parameters found in the literature. METHODS: We measured the values of the parameters of sagittal balance of 21 patients with scoliosis and 14 patients without scoliosis in panoramic radiographs or simply collected data previously measured from the medical records. We compared the mean values of normal subjects, the mean values found in the literature, and the means between normal subjects and patients with scoliosis. For this, we used the Student t test. RESULTS: Using a confidence interval of 5% (p < 0.05 and the Student t test we obtained statistical significance in the comparison of two parameters of sagittal balance between normal subjects and patients with scoliosis. We observed similarities in the measurements of the average parameters of normal subjects with regard to the work already published. CONCLUSIONS: The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis causes changes in two parameters of sagittal balance with statistical significance but suggests changes in all other parameters. As for comparison with previously published work, the results were similar.

  8. Distraction Osteogenesis Technique for the Treatment of Nonsyndromic Sagittal Synostosis

    OpenAIRE

    Johns, Dana; Blagg, Ross; Kestle, John R. W.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay K.; Siddiqi, Faizi; Gociman, Barbu

    2015-01-01

    Background Historically, surgical treatment of children with a delayed presentation of cranial synostosis required complex cranial vault reconstruction. Recently, less invasive options for surgical correction, such as internal distraction osteogenesis, have been explored. In this study, we describe the successful management of delayed presentation of sagittal synostosis using distraction osteogenesis. Methods A bicoronal incision was made and 2 large rectangular osteotomies were performed bil...

  9. Sagittal plane considerations and the pelvis in the adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Patel, Ashish; Farcy, Jean-Pierre

    2009-08-01

    Research update, focused review. Identify the role of the pelvis in the setting of adults with spinal deformity. Sagittal plane alignment is increasingly recognized as a critical parameter in the setting of adult spinal deformity. Additionally, pelvic parameters reveal to be a key component in the regulation of sagittal alignment. Analysis of the pelvis in the sagittal plane is commonly assessed by 3 angular measurements: the pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter directly linked to sagittal morphotypes), the pelvic tilt (or pelvis retroversion used to maintain an upright posture in the setting of spinal deformity), and the sacral slope. Recent work using force plate technology has revealed that in the setting of anterior trunk inclination ("spinal imbalance"), the pelvis shifted posteriorly (toward the heels) in order to maintain a balanced mass distribution. The complex relationship between pelvic and spinal parameter were investigated in order to construct predictive formulas of postoperative spinopelvic alignment. It has emerged that pelvic tilt is highly correlated with patient self reported function (ODI, SF-12, and SRS). It has become evident that good clinical outcome in the treatment of spinal deformity requires proper alignment. Pelvis parameters play an essential role not only in terms of spine morphotypes but also in regulating standing balance and postoperative alignment. Thus, optimal treatment of a patient with spinal deformity requires integration of the pelvis in the preoperative evaluation and treatment plan.

  10. A morphological description of the sagittal otoliths of two mormyrids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology of the sagittal otoliths of two South African mormyrid fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus and Petrocephalus catostoma, were studied to determine possible morphological significance. The sagittae of M. macrolepidotus and P. catostoma are kidney-shaped and oblong, respectively. The ventral margin is ...

  11. Developing a System for Efficient Analysis of Lumbosacral Sagittal Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Zhuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral sagittal balance is the neutral vertical alignment in the sagittal plane to provide decreasing stress loading on muscular-ligamentous structures. The achieving sagittal balance is a basis to provide successful surgical treatment and minimize further complications. As of today, there is no standard quantitative evaluation method of sagittal lumbo-sacral balance, which allows conducting its effective analysis and planning surgical treatment taking into consideration the preservation of normal biomechanics of lumbosacral spine. The goal of the study is to develop a diagnostic system for individual correction of lumbo-sacral sagittal balance by the author’s method with automatic counting and optimized matching of data values based on a specified number of terms using medical visualization data. This study has been conducted with RMAPE’s Department of Traumatology and Orthopedic Surgery. To solve the problem, a random searching algorithm has been exploited. The stop condition of the algorithm was to achieve the objective function value in adjusted interval, initial points of which are the calculated (angular values. The interaction of the angular values, used in the proposed method has been investigated, and their proportional change has been proved. Moreover, the mathematical dependence among geometrical and anatomical parameters of lumbosacral spine has been determined. Based on conducted study, a number of algorithms enabling the automation of the individual determination of optimal lumbosacral balance’s parameters at preoperative planning stage for patients with vertebral column diseases have been created. This allows us to raise physician’s efficiency, minimize mid- and long-term risk of postoperative complications, and avoid reoperations, and prognosticate long-term complications already performed surgery.

  12. Split warhead simultaneous impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Singh Dhari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A projectile system is proposed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of damage done by anti-tank weapon system on its target by designing a ballistic projectile that can split into multiple warheads and engage a target at the same time. This idea has been developed in interest of saving time consumed from the process of reloading and additional number of rounds wasted on target during an attack. The proposed system is achieved in three steps: Firstly, a mathematical model is prepared using the basic equations of motion. Second, An Ejection Mechanism of proposed warhead is explained with the help of schematics. Third, a part of numerical simulation which is done using the MATLAB software. The final result shows various ranges and times when split can be effectively achieved. With the new system, impact points are increased and hence it has a better probability of hitting a target.

  13. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also introduced in [1] techniques of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie algebras. In the present paper we extend these techniques to the framework of split Lie triple systems so as to obtain a generalization of the results in [1]. We consider the wide class of split Lie triple systems (which contains the class of.

  14. Sagittal evaluation of usual standing and sitting spinal posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Kurt; Brumagne, Simon; Deklerck, Jan; Vanderhaeghen, Jacques; Dankaerts, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Postural rehabilitation often plays an important role in the management of non-specific low back pain. While cervical and lumbar correlations have been demonstrated previously, the different role of the pelvis and the thoracic spine for postural control in sitting and standing remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate postural correlations between all spinal regions in standing and sitting. Based on digital photographs eight postural angles were analyzed in 99 young healthy persons. Pearson correlations between different postural angles were calculated. In sitting pelvic tilt demonstrated mostly medium correlations with five out of seven other postural angles, compared to three in standing. In standing trunk angle showed five out of seven mostly medium correlations with other regions compared to four out of seven in usual sitting. The low and different correlations suggest a large between-subject variability in sagittal spinal posture, without the existence of any optimal sagittal posture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sagittal x-ray beam deviation at asymmetric inclined diffractors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korytár, D.; Hrdý, Jaromír; Artemiev, Nikolai; Ferrari, C.; Freund, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 1136-1139 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 305; GA MPO PZ-CH/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : x-ray optics * Si(111) W/grooved crystals * inclined diffraction * out-of-diffraction-plane beams * sagittal focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  16. Long-Term Stability of Pre-Orthodontic Orthognathic Bimaxillary Surgery Using Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy Versus Conventional Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-Hwa; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Kee-Deog; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Lee, Sang-Hwy; Yu, Hyung-Seog

    2018-02-20

    The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term stability of bimaxillary surgery using an intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) with and without presurgical orthodontic treatment. The present retrospective study included 31 consecutive patients with skeletal Class III malocclusions who had undergone bimaxillary surgery (Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral IVRO). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on treatment type: pre-orthodontic orthognathic surgery (POGS; n = 17) and conventional surgery with presurgical orthodontic treatment (CS; n = 14). Lateral cephalograms were obtained before surgery, 1 day after surgery, 1 month after surgery, 1 year after surgery, and 2 years after surgery to evaluate skeletal and soft tissue changes between the 2 groups. Data were analyzed using χ 2 tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, repeated-measures analyses of variance, and independent t tests. There was no significant difference in skeletal or soft tissue measurements-with the exception of the angle between the sella-and-nasion plane and the occlusal plane (SN-OP; P stability in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The three-dimensional assessment of dynamic changes of the proximal segments after intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Seigo; Nakao, Noriko; Awara, Kousuke; Tobita, Takayoshi; Minamizato, Tokutarou; Kawasaki, Takako; Koga, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Yuya; Yoshida, Noriaki; Asahina, Izumi

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the positional changes of the proximal segments after intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO). Fifteen patients underwent IVRO and were followed according to the authors' unique postoperative management regimen. The analyses of the positions and angles of the proximal segments were performed on frontal and lateral cephalograms, which were taken before surgery (T1) and within 3 days (T2), at 4 weeks (T3), and later than 6 months after surgery (T4). The three-dimensional positions of the condylar heads were also assessed by CT images, which were taken before and 1 year after surgery. The proximal segments temporarily swung posteriorly and laterally with a center on the condylar head as a fulcrum point at T2 and T3, compared with T1, and they repositioned at T4. The condylar heads moved inferior approximately 2 mm with lateral rotation one year after surgery, as seen in the CT. The condylar heads changed their positions physiologically for newly established jaw movement after IVRO with the authors' post-operative management regimen because the post-operative skeletal stability and the jaw function were good and stable using this method.

  18. A reflection on radiographic cephalometry: the evaluation of sagittal discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duterloo, Herman S

    2014-09-01

    A critical review is presented of the basic properties and applications of cephalometry as a clinical tool with a focus on the evaluation of sagittal discrepancy. Diagnostic cephalometric assessments are subjective and not based on evidence. To assess individual skeletal and/or facial soft tissue form subjectively, selected norms are used. Norms have been developed for various ethnical groups to improve clinical applicability, but subjectivity remains. That subjectivity precludes application of a modern review system, making the present review a personal account. The cephalometric evaluation of sagittal discrepancy finds its historic origin in the Angle classification. Recent publications try to improve accuracy in classifying sagittal discrepancy. It remains unclear in what sense such efforts influence treatment decisions and/or treatment effect. Almost all selected landmarks are located on or dependent upon periosteal/endosteal bone image contours. Their homology is based on circumstantial reasoning and stability over time, which is implicitly assumed. However, implant growth studies and histological investigations show most landmarks to be unstable, as they are involved in displacement and bone remodelling. These landmarks are therefore heterologous when used for individual evaluation of change over time. Notwithstanding the above-indicated limitations, diagnostic cephalometric assessments are clinically useful and help to develop perceptions of balance and harmony and communication between colleagues and patients. There is no evidence-based method to prefer one particular diagnostic method. Landmark location accuracy and geometric issues do not play a decisive role. The subjective characteristic of diagnostic evaluations limits their power to size/shape comparisons. Structural superimposition is the valid biologically evidence-based method to provide advanced insight in individual growth and/or treatment changes and their variations. © 2014 British Orthodontic

  19. Lumbosacral sagittal alignment in association to intervertebral disc diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Zohreh; Maleki, Farid; Meybodi, Ali Tayebi; Mahdavi, Ali; Saberi, Hooshang

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional case-control study was designed to compare the sagittal alignment of lumbosacral regions in two groups of patients suffering from low back pain, one with intervertebral disc pathologies and one without. To evaluate the correlation between lumbosacral sagittal alignment and disc degeneration. Changes in lumbar lordosis and pelvic parameters in degenerative disc lesions have been assessed in few studies. Overall, patients with discopathy were shown to have lower lumbar lordosis and more vertical sacral profiles. From patients with intractable low back pain undergoing lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging, 50 subjects with disc degeneration and 50 controls with normal scans were consecutively enrolled. A method was defined with anterior tangent-lines going through anterior bodies of L1 and S1 to measure global lumbosacral angle, incorporating both lumbar lordosis and sacral slope. Global lumbosacral angle using the proposed method and lumbar lordosis using Cobb's method were measured in both groups. Lumbar lordosis based on Cobb's method was lower in group with discopathy (20°-67°; mean, 40.48°±9.89°) than control group (30°-62°; mean, 44.96°±7.68°), although it was not statistically significant. The proposed global lumbosacral angle in subject group (53°-103°; mean, 76.5°±11.018°) was less than control group (52°-101°; mean, 80.18°±9.95°), with the difference being statistically significant (p=0.002). Patients with intervertebral disc lesions seem to have more straightened lumbosacral profiles, but it has not been proven which comes first: disc degeneration or changes in sagittal alignment. Finding an answer to this dilemma demands more comprehensive long-term prospective studies.

  20. ANALYSIS AND PLANNING OF HINDFOOT DEFORMITY CORRECTION IN SAGITTAL PLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Solomin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The disadvantage of the known methods of analysis and planning of hindfoot deformities in the sagittal plaBackground. Long bone deformity planning is well established. However, there are not well described methods of analysis and planning of hindfoot deformities in the sagittal plane. Such planning is made even more difficult with concomitant deformation of the midfoot and/or ankle contracture or malpositioned arthrodesis. The aim of our study was to develop a universal method of analysis and planning of the calcaneus correction, based on the normally derived reference lines and angles.Methods. We analyzed 65 standing lateral foot films in normal adults, 23-54 years old were analyzed. We drew the talus joint line (points “a” and “b” – Line 1. We drew a second line, (Line 2 the calcaneal line, which starts at the back of the calcaneal tuberosity (point “d”, drawn perpendicular to a line from top to bottom of the calcaneal tuberosity. The intersection of the calcaneal line and the talar joint line form point (c anteriorly. We measured lines ab, ac and cd, and their ratios: ac/ab, and cd/ab.Results. Talar joint line (Line 1 and calcaneal line (Line 2 intersect at a point (c, forming an angle 15.2° (±3.4°. The ratio ac/ab = 2.56 (± 1.1. The ratio cd/ab = 4.59 (±1.0. These ratios are constants for calculating the idealized joint lines for deformity planning. For deformity cases, draw Line 1, the talar joint line ab. Extend that line anteriorly to (c, which is a distance ab×2.56 from point (a. From (c, draw an idealized calcaneal line, Line-2, at an angle 15° to Line 1. Place (d on this line, at a distance ab×4.59 from point (c. Next, draw the deformed calcaneal line (Line 3 and point (d1 where it exits the calcaneal tuberosity. Use the same technique and landmarks as for drawing the normal calcaneal line. The intersection of Lines 2 and 3 is the apex of the deformity. Rotate the piece containing Line 3 around this

  1. Articulator-related registration and analysis of sagittal condylar inclination

    OpenAIRE

    Čimić, Samir; Kraljević Šimunković, Sonja; Simonić Kocijan, Sunčana; Matijević, Jurica; Dulčić, Nikša; Ćatić, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study sagittal condylar inclination values within a uniform sample (Angle class I occlusion) using ‘articulator-related registration’ and Camper’s plane as a reference plane. The study was performed on a sample of 58 Angle class I subjects (mean age 25.1, SD 3.1). Measurements were performed with an ultrasonic jaw tracking device with six degrees of freedom. After a paraocclusal tray was fixed in the mouth, each subject had to make three protrusive ...

  2. Diagnosis and evaluation of esophageal atresia by direct sagittal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, P.K.H.; Saing, H.; Chan, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Direct sagittal CT is possible in newborns because of their small body-size. With this noninvasive investigation, we were able to establish a correct diagnosis in two neonates with esophageal atresia. Moreover, the demonstration of the air-filled proximal pouch and distal tracheoesophageal fistula along their whole lengths allowed exclusion of the possibility of a proximal pouch fistula and gave knowledge of the exact distance of the two segments of the esophagus needed to be bridged to allow anastomosis, thus providing additional valuable information for the surgeon preoperatively.

  3. The Impact of Le Fort I Advancement and Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy Setback on Ventilation during Sleep

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foltán, R.; Hoffmannová, J.; Doněv, F.; Vlk, M.; Šedý, Jiří; Kufa, R.; Bulík, O.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 10 (2009), s. 1036-1040 ISSN 0901-5027 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NR8038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : orthognathic surgery * sleep apnoea * ventilation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.444, year: 2009

  4. The role of mandibular proximal segment rotations on skeletal relapse and condylar remodelling following bilateral sagittal split advancement osteotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xi, T.; Koning, M.; Berge, S.J.; Hoppenreijs, T.; Maal, T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the postoperative rotation of the proximal segments in 3D and to assess its role on skeletal relapse and condylar remodelling following BSSO advancement surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 56 patients with mandibular hypoplasia who underwent BSSO advancement surgery were enrolled

  5. Does Andrews facial analysis predict esthetic sagittal maxillary position?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Cory M; Daniels, Kimberly M; Vlahos, Maryann

    2018-04-01

    Cephalometric analyses have limited utility in planning maxillary sagittal position for orthognathic surgery. In Six Elements of Orofacial Harmony, Andrews quantified maxillary position relative to forehead projection and angulation and proposed an ideal relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of this technique to predict esthetic sagittal maxillary position. Survey study including a male and female with straight facial profiles, normal maxillary incisor angulations, and Angle's Class I. Maxillary position was modified on lateral photographs to create 5 images for each participant with incisor-goal anterior limit line (GALL) distances of -4, -2, 0, +2, and +4 mm. A series of health care professionals and laypeople were asked to rate each photo in order of attractiveness. A total of 100 complete responses were received. Incisor-GALL distances of +4 mm (41%) and +2 mm (40%) were most commonly considered "most esthetic" for the female volunteer (P < .001). For the male volunteer, there were 2 peak "most esthetic" responses: incisor-GALL distances of 0 mm (37%) and -4 mm (32%) (P < .001). Respondents considered maxillary incisor position 2 to 4 mm anterior to GALL most attractive in a woman and 0 to 4 mm posterior to GALL most esthetic in a man. Using these modified target distances, this analysis may be useful for orthognathic surgery planning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertebral artery loop formation depicted on oblique sagittal MR imaging: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Sun Woo; Han, Kyung Ream; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hyung Nam; Han, Jae Il; Park, Mi Na; Kim, Chan [Kim Chan Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Vertebral artery loop formation is an anatomic variation that possibly causes cervical nerve root compression, leading to cervical radiculopathy. A few cases of vertebral artery loop formation depicted with conventional sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been reported, but cases of vertebral artery loop formation depicted with oblique sagittal MRI have been less frequently reported. We present a case of vertebral artery loop formation depicted on oblique sagittal MRI.

  7. Vertebral artery loop formation depicted on oblique sagittal MR imaging: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Sun Woo; Han, Kyung Ream; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hyung Nam; Han, Jae Il; Park, Mi Na; Kim, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral artery loop formation is an anatomic variation that possibly causes cervical nerve root compression, leading to cervical radiculopathy. A few cases of vertebral artery loop formation depicted with conventional sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been reported, but cases of vertebral artery loop formation depicted with oblique sagittal MRI have been less frequently reported. We present a case of vertebral artery loop formation depicted on oblique sagittal MRI.

  8. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  9. How rivers split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, H. F.; Yi, R.; Devauchelle, O.; Petroff, A.; Rothman, D.

    2012-12-01

    River networks have fascinated mankind for centuries. They exhibit a striking geometry with similar shapes repeating on all scales. Yet, how these networks form and create these geometries remains elusive. Recently we have shown that channels fed by subsurface flow split at a characteristic angle of 2π/5 unambiguously consistent with our field measurements in a seepage network on the Florida Panhandle (Fig.1). Our theory is based only on the simple hypothesis that the channels grow in the direction at which the ground water enters the spring and classical solutions of subsurface hydrology. Here we apply our analysis to the ramification of large drainage basins and extend our theory to include slope effects. Using high resolution stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), we scrutinize our hypothesis in arbitrary channel networks and investigate the branching angle dependence on Horton-Strahler order and the maturity of the streams.; High-resolution topographic map of valley networks incised by groundwater flow, located on the Florida Panhandle near Bristol, FL.

  10. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  11. Global Locator, Local Locator, and Identifier Split (GLI-Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Menth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The locator/identifier split is an approach for a new addressing and routing architecture to make routing in the core of the Internet more scalable. Based on this principle, we developed the GLI-Split framework, which separates the functionality of current IP addresses into a stable identifier and two independent locators, one for routing in the Internet core and one for edge networks. This makes routing in the Internet more stable and provides more flexibility for edge networks. GLI-Split can be incrementally deployed and it is backward-compatible with the IPv6 Internet. We describe its architecture, compare it to other approaches, present its benefits, and finally present a proof-of-concept implementation of GLI-Split.

  12. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  13. The prevalence and risk factors for delayed union of the superior pubic ramus at one year after curved periacetabular osteotomy: its risk factor and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Ayumi; Akiho, Shunsuke; Kinoshita, Koichi; Naito, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki

    2017-12-05

    Curved periacetabular osteotomy (CPO) has been developed for the treatment of acetabular dysplasia. While several studies have reported its good clinical results, the complications of CPO include delayed union and nonunion of the superior pubic ramus. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of delayed union of the pubis one year after CPO, and to determine the risk factors for this complication. The study examined 113 hips that underwent CPO between 2008 and 2012. Delayed union was assessed based on the anteroposterior radiography one year after CPO. A superior pubic ramus union group (U group) and a delayed union group (D group) were retrospectively compared regarding patient characteristics, clinical evaluations, and radiographic parameters. Delayed union rate was 16.8%. The D group contained a significantly greater proportion of smokers (p 5.1 mm (OR 16.5, 95% CI 3.7-73.7) were significantly associated with delayed union as independent risk factors. The prevalence of delayed union one year after CPO was 16.8%. Smoking and a gap larger than 5.1 mm at the pubic osteotomy site are risk factors for delayed union after CPO.

  14. Constant existence of the sensory branch of the nerve to the pyramidalis distributing to the upper margin of the pubic ramus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Daijiro; Emura, Kenji; Watanabe, Yuko; Kageyama, Ikuo; Kikkawa, Satoshi; Uemura, Mamoru; Arakawa, Takamitsu

    2018-01-18

    Twenty-one sides of 11 adult Japanese cadavers were investigated, and 2 of 21 sides exhibited absence of the pyramidalis. We observed that all of the nerves to the pyramidalis included the sensory nerve branch, which distributed to the aponeurotic tissue in the upper area of the pubic ramus. To investigate the clinical relevance and developmental process of the pyramidalis, detailed innervation patterns of the pyramidalis and the lumber plexus were examined and compared with the case of absent pyramidalis. The nerves to the pyramidalis could be classified into five types by the derivative nerves and two subtypes by their courses associated with the funiculus spermaticus. In the cases of absent pyramidalis, similar sensory branches distributed close to the upper area of the pubic ramus. We deduced that the sensory branch extended along with the muscular branch to the pyramidalis after development of the pyramidalis and that only the sensory branch remained in cases in which the pyramidalis disappeared. The two subtypes might associate with descensus testis. Surgeons performing inguinal hernia repair using a mesh and tension-free surgical technique should preserve the nerves around the funiculus spermaticus to avoid diminished proprioception in the lower abdominal wall.

  15. Sagittal spinopelvic parameters in 2-level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Huan; Ma, Lei; Liu, Feng-Yu; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of our study is to evaluate sagittal parameters in 2-level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) (TLDS). A total of 15 patients with TLDS, 40 patients with single-level DS (SLDS), and 30 normal volunteers as control were included in our study. All subjects performed on full spine X-ray. Two categorized data were analyzed: patient characteristics—age, sex, body mass index, radiographic parameters-pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral slope (SS), PI–LL, Cobb between the fifth thoracic vertebral and 12th thoracic vertebral (T5–T12), sagittal vertical axis (SVA) Cobb angle of spondylolisthesis level (CSL), ratio of PT to SS (PT/SS), CSL/LL, variation trend of SS over PI, and LL over PI. The PI (73.1° vs 52.9°), SS (50.8° vs 32.2°), LL (53.1° vs 46.9°), SVA (66.1 vs 22.0 mm), PI–LL (20.0° vs 6.0°), and CSL (23.6° vs 20.0°) in TLDS were significantly larger than these in SLDS. The PI (73.1° vs 40.6°), PT (22.3° vs 17.1°), SS (50.8° vs 23.5°), LL (53.1° vs 32.5°), PI–LL (20.0° vs 8.1°), and SVA (66.1 vs 17.0 mm) in TLDS were significantly larger than those in the normal group (NG). The PI (52.9° vs 40.6°), PT (21.0° vs 17.1°), SS (32.2° vs 23.5°), LL (46.9° vs 32.5°), and SVA (22.0 vs 17.0 mm) in SLDS were significantly higher than those in NG. However, PT/SS (44.0%), LL over PI (y = 0.39x + 24.25), SS over PI (y = 10.79 + 0.55x) were lower in TLDS than these in SLDS (63.8%, y = 0.41x + 25, y = 0.65x − 2.09, respectively), and the similar tend between SLDS and NG (74.0%, y = 0.49x + 13.09, y = 0.67x − 3.9, respectively). Our results showed that 2-level lumbar DS, which was caused by multiple-factors, has a severe sagittal imbalance, but single-level has not any. When we plan for surgical selection for 2-level lumbar DS, global sagittal balance must be considered. PMID:27977581

  16. Assessment of spring cranioplasty biomechanics in sagittal craniosynostosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Schievano, Silvia; Rodriguez Florez, Naiara; McNicholas, Roisin; Rodgers, Will; Ponniah, Allan; James, Greg; Hayward, Richard; Dunaway, David; Jeelani, N U Owase

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Scaphocephaly secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis has been treated in recent years with spring-assisted cranioplasty, an innovative approach that leverages the use of metallic spring distractors to reshape the patient skull. In this study, a population of patients who had undergone spring cranioplasty for the correction of scaphocephaly at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children was retrospectively analyzed to systematically assess spring biomechanical performance and kinematics in relation to spring model, patient age, and outcomes over time. METHODS Data from 60 patients (49 males, mean age at surgery 5.2 ± 0.9 months) who had received 2 springs for the treatment of isolated sagittal craniosynostosis were analyzed. The opening distance of the springs at the time of insertion and removal was retrieved from the surgical notes and, during the implantation period, from planar radiographs obtained at 1 day postoperatively and at the 3-week follow-up. The force exerted by the spring to the patient skull at each time point was derived after mechanical testing of each spring model-3 devices with the same geometry but different wire thicknesses. Changes in the cephalic index between preoperatively and the 3-week follow-up were recorded. RESULTS Stiffer springs were implanted in older patients (p springs were used (p spring models, however, the devices all plateaued. Indeed, regardless of patient age or spring model, after 10 days from insertion, all the devices were open. CONCLUSIONS Results in this study provide biomechanical insights into spring-assisted cranioplasty and could help to improve spring design and follow-up strategy in the future.

  17. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  18. Strategic Considerations for Effective Sagittal Resection of the Mandible to Achieve a Slim and Attractive Jawline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghoon; Lee, Tae Sung

    2018-01-01

    Sagittal resection of the mandible has been widely used to reduce the width of the lower face and is usually carried out in combination with a mandibular contouring procedure. However, the surgical outcomes of this procedure are unclear because sagittal resection is rarely performed as a single procedure. The authors clarify misunderstandings regarding this procedure and introduce an improved strategic approach for sagittal resection of the mandible. Under general anesthesia, mandible contouring was performed first with a curved osteotomy, followed by sagittal resection of the outer cortex of mandible. The amount and extent of each procedure was determined in accordance with preoperative analysis. From 2012 to 2014, a consecutive series of 212 patients who underwent mandible contouring surgery without concomitant chin surgery were included in the study. A total of 189 patients underwent both mandibular contouring surgery and sagittal resection, whereas 13 underwent only sagittal resection and 10 underwent only mandibular contouring surgery. All operations were carried out successfully without any severe complications, and most patients had satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. The authors found that the sagittal resection of the mandible should be performed in accordance with the shape of the mandible to effectively reduce facial width and achieve better aesthetic outcomes for both profile and frontal views. In an outcurved-type mandible, conventional mandibular contouring may be effective alone, whereas sagittal resection focusing on removing the mandible body region is essential for incurved-type mandibles. In straight line-type mandibles, both procedures are necessary. Therapeutic, IV.

  19. Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi

    2017-03-01

    A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.

  20. Sagittal synostosis: II. Cranial morphology and growth after the modified pi-plasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimaraes-Ferreira, J.; Gewalli, F.; David, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the postoperative cranial growth and morphology after a modified pi-plasty for sagittal synostosis. The shape of the skull of 82 patients with isolated premature synostosis of the sagittal suture ( SS group) operated on with a modified pi-plasty was studi...

  1. [Cephalometric analysis of the relationship between occlusal plane and sagittal position of the mandible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rui; Wang, Sheng; Pei, Jiao; Zhao, Meiying

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between occlusal plane and sagittal position of the mandible by examining dental and skeletal morphologies of average angle patients for better understanding of etiologies and definitive clinical guidelines of mandibular malpositions. The lateral cephalograms of 114 female average angle patients with neutral maxillary positions were selected and divided into three groups according to sagittal mandibular positions (ANB angle). Twenty-five skeletal and dental measurements were compared. The correlations between skeletal and dental measurements were analyzed by rectilinear correlation. Cant of posterior occlusal plane (OP-P) and height of the upper second molar were significantly related to sagittal position of the mandible (P occlusal plane and sagittal position of the mandible in average angle patients, consistent with the dental morphologies of different skeletal configurations. In treating malocclusions of sagittal discrepancy of mandible, the height of posterior teeth and cant of OP-P might be a primary concern.

  2. The sagittal pelvic tilt index as a criterion in the evaluation of spondylolisthesis. Preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, F J; Farcy, J P; Roye, D P

    1997-07-15

    Radiographic analysis of a pediatric population with spondylolisthesis was performed to examine sagittal plane pelvic rotation and degree of slip over time. To determine whether the degree of standing sagittal offset of L5 with respect to the acetabulum correlated with slip progression and symptoms. The natural history of isthmic spondylolisthesis remains unclear. Attempts to predict slip progression in the clinical setting, and thus the possible need for eventual surgical intervention, remain imprecise. Predicting slip progression based on sagittal alignment of the L5 vertebra with respect to the acetabulum has been proposed by some investigators. Fifty-two children and adolescents were followed clinically and radiographically for an average of 5.6 years. Serial lateral standing radiographs that included the hips and lumbar spine were measured to compute a sagittal pelvic tilt index. The latter value is a ratio of relative distances from the center of S2 to the projection of L5 and the center of the femoral heads on the horizontal. Of the 52 patients studied, 38 have remained asymptomatic without significant slip progression or change in sagittal pelvic tilt index ratio. Of the original group, 13 patients had significant symptoms and revealed a decrease in the sagittal pelvic tilt index over time. Eight of the 13 stabilized at the end of adolescence, whereas 5 had continued decrease in the sagittal pelvic tilt index ratio. These five required operative treatment for pain and progressive slip. The sagittal pelvic tilt index gives the examiner an objective measure of the stability of the lumbosacral junction by quantifying the relationship between S2, the center of the hip, and L5. A decreasing sagittal pelvic tilt index ratio in this preliminary series correlated with slip progression and risk of conservative treatment failure, whereas those patients with a stable sagittal pelvic tilt index did not progress and remained clinically asymptomatic.

  3. Sagittal plane kinematics of the foot during passive ankle dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Alfred; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Chevalier, Thierry Larose

    2011-12-01

    Measurement of ankle joint dorsiflexion is an essential examination technique that needs to be performed prior to prescription of foot orthoses since the presence or absence of ankle equinus will affect the design of such devices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of foot posture on sagittal plane kinematics of various foot segments during passive dorsiflexion. Comparative repeated measures design. To determine the effect of foot posture on inter segmental kinematics during passive dorsiflexion. An optoelectronic movement analysis system was employed to collect kinematic data. A validated marker set (Oxford Foot Model) was applied to 16 subjects (12 males, 4 females) with a mean age of 35.5 years (range 20-56 years), who provided informed consent. An upward force was applied to the forefoot until maximum resistance. Sagittal movement of the hindfoot and forefoot segments along with the whole foot movement were analyzed in the pronated, neutral and supinated foot postures. While maximum foot dorsiflexion angle showed a significant difference between the three postures (p = 0.000) the actual recorded difference between the neutral and supinated postures was only 2.49°. For the hindfoot and forefoot segments, mean angle range of movement for the pronated foot posture was significantly higher than the other foot postures. The forefoot to hindfoot angle demonstrated a significant (p = 0.005) increase during dorsiflexion between the pronated and supinated postures. These results indicate that during passive dorsiflexion, the forefoot travels through a greater degree of movement than the hindfoot. While the maximum foot dorsiflexion angle differs significantly between the pronated and supinated foot postures, hindfoot movement also varies significantly between foot postures. Furthermore, the forefoot to tibia angle travels through a greater range than the hindfoot to tibia angle, in all three foot postures. The hindfoot to forefoot angle does not

  4. MRI delineation of the morphometric characteristics of type I split cord malformations: a retrospective analysis of 29 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Sun, Jian Min

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the morphometric characteristics by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of type I split cord malformation (SCM) patients. All subjects received conventional MRI with the Achieva 3.0T system (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA, USA), including T1WI/axial and sagittal T2WI/axial FLAIR. Transverse diameter (TD) and sagittal diameter (SD) of the split cord, TD of the convex (TDconvex) and the concave (TDconcave), cranial SD (SDcranial), and caudal SD (SDcaudal) were recorded on the sagittal image combined with the two-dimensional view. Statistical comparison was performed within and between the groups. Twenty-nine type I SCM patients were included, 24 (82.8%) of whom had scoliosis. Mean TD and SD of the split cord were 0.55±0.31 cm and 7.52±4.03 cm, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in TD, SD, and other parameters among the 3 groups. However, mean TD of the split cord in type I SCM patients with congenital scoliosis (0.49±0.29 cm) was significantly greater than in those without congenital scoliosis (0.18±0.44 cm) (p0.05); however, SDcranial was significantly smaller than SDcaudal in Group 2. Our study provides the first MRI characterization of the morphometric features of type I SCM, and our findings will help orthopedic surgeons in better navigating the surgical field in corrective surgery of congenital scoliosis of type I SCM patients.

  5. Back to the future: sagittal CT in the evaluation of COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, Jessica S.; Amadi, Chiemezie; Den, Elana; Schmitt, James E.; Shah, Rosita M.; Miller, Wallace T.

    2016-01-01

    To identify features of obstructive airway disease on sagittal reconstruction, compare the accuracy of findings to traditional imaging characteristics of COPD, and determine the fraction of additional cases identified using new characteristics. The study was approved by the centre's Institutional Review Board and is HIPAA compliant. Two hundred sixteen patients with HRCT and spirometry within a 3-month window were included. Four radiologists evaluated each HRCT for traditional characteristics of COPD and new quantitative and qualitative features of obstruction on axial and sagittal reconstructions. Imaging characteristics were assessed for correlation with the spirometric diagnosis of obstructive airway disease. Quantitative and qualitative findings on sagittal reconstruction are highly specific for COPD (specificity >90 %). Features of hyperinflation on sagittal reconstruction are more accurate predictors of obstruction than traditional axial measures, with greater interobserver reliability (hyperinflation left hemidiaphragm: accuracy: 70.08 % ± 2.49 %; kappa: 0.511 versus traditional measures: accuracy: 62.00 % ± 5.38 %; kappa: 0.407). Sagittal reconstruction identified 27-70 % more patients with COPD than traditional axial findings (p < 0.05). Analysis of sagittal reconstruction enables greater accuracy and specificity in the diagnosis of obstructive airway disease compared to traditional measures on axial imaging. Use of sagittal reconstructions can help identify up to 70 % more patients with COPD than traditional imaging findings alone. (orig.)

  6. Importance of sagittal MR imaging in nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Alice S. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    In nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis, characterization of femoral head collapse is important in staging disease progression and planning treatment. Few prior studies have quantitatively compared the ability of sagittal and coronal MR images to detect femoral head collapse. We hypothesized that sagittal MR images show a greater degree and angular span of femoral head collapse than coronal images. We reviewed 38 hip MRI scans of nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis from 34 pediatric patients. In both sagittal and coronal images, the maximal extent and angular location along with the angular span of the femoral head collapse were measured. Differences were evaluated using a paired t-test. The extent of bone and cartilage loss from the femoral head was evaluated. Sagittal MR images showed 29% maximal femoral head radius collapse, whereas coronal images showed 16% collapse (P<0.001). Sagittal images showed a larger angular span of collapse (115 ) than coronal images (55 , P<0.001). Sagittal images showed greater epiphyseal bone loss in the anterior than in the posterior portion (P<0.001), whereas coronal images did not show a significant difference in bone loss between the medial and lateral portion (P=0.32). Sagittal images show greater femoral head collapse than coronal images in nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  7. Importance of sagittal MR imaging in nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Alice S.; Wells, Lawrence; Jaramillo, Diego

    2008-01-01

    In nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis, characterization of femoral head collapse is important in staging disease progression and planning treatment. Few prior studies have quantitatively compared the ability of sagittal and coronal MR images to detect femoral head collapse. We hypothesized that sagittal MR images show a greater degree and angular span of femoral head collapse than coronal images. We reviewed 38 hip MRI scans of nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis from 34 pediatric patients. In both sagittal and coronal images, the maximal extent and angular location along with the angular span of the femoral head collapse were measured. Differences were evaluated using a paired t-test. The extent of bone and cartilage loss from the femoral head was evaluated. Sagittal MR images showed 29% maximal femoral head radius collapse, whereas coronal images showed 16% collapse (P<0.001). Sagittal images showed a larger angular span of collapse (115 ) than coronal images (55 , P<0.001). Sagittal images showed greater epiphyseal bone loss in the anterior than in the posterior portion (P<0.001), whereas coronal images did not show a significant difference in bone loss between the medial and lateral portion (P=0.32). Sagittal images show greater femoral head collapse than coronal images in nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  8. Sagittal plane momentum control during walking in elderly fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Masahiro; Chou, Li-Shan

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sagittal plane momentum control during walking with the use of center of mass (COM) velocity and acceleration. COM control in the antero-posterior direction during walking of healthy young and elderly adults, and elderly fallers (n=15/group) was examined. Using a single-link-plus-foot inverted pendulum model, boundaries for the region of stability were determined based on the COM position at toe-off and its instantaneous velocity or the peak acceleration prior to toe-off (ROSv or ROSa, respectively). Although no significant difference in forward COM velocity was detected between healthy young and elderly subjects, the peak forward COM acceleration differed significantly, suggesting age-related differences in momentum control during walking. Elderly fallers demonstrated significantly slower forward COM velocities and accelerations and placed their COM significantly more anterior than healthy young and elderly subjects at toe-off, which resulted in their COM position-velocity combination located within the ROSv. Similar results were obtained in the ROSa, where elderly fallers demonstrated a larger stability margin than healthy young and elderly subjects. Significantly slower peak COM accelerations could be indicative of a poor momentum control ability, which was more pronounced in elderly fallers. Examining COM acceleration, in addition to its velocity, would provide a greater understanding of person's momentum control, which would allow us to better reveal underlying mechanisms of gait imbalance or falls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human foot placement and balance in the sagittal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Matthew; Wight, Derek; McPhee, John; Kubica, Eric; Wang, David

    2009-12-01

    Foot placement has long been recognized as the primary mechanism that humans use to restore balance. Many biomechanists have examined where humans place their feet during gait, perturbations, and athletic events. Roboticists have also used foot placement as a means of control but with limited success. Recently, Wight et al. (2008, "Introduction of the Foot Placement Estimator: A Dynamic Measure of Balance for Bipedal Robotics," ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 3, p. 011009) introduced a planar foot placement estimator (FPE) algorithm that will restore balance to a simplified biped that is falling. This study tested the FPE as a candidate function for sagittal plane human-foot-placement (HFP) by recording the kinematics of 14 healthy subjects while they performed ten walking trials at three speeds. The FPE was highly correlated with HFP (rho>or=0.997) and its accuracy varied linearly from 2.6 cm to -8.3 cm as walking speed increased. A sensitivity analysis revealed that assumption violations of the FPE cannot account for the velocity-dependent changes in FPE-HFP error suggesting that this behavior is volitional.

  10. Assessment of Gender Dimorphism on Sagittal Cephalometry in Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamruddin, I.; Shahid, F.; Tanveer, S.; Mukhtiar, M.; Asim, Z.; Alam, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the cephalometric values among Pakistani males and females using commonly used sagittal skeletal measurements (ANB, Wits appraisal, Beta-angle) and newly developed cephalometric analyses (Yen-angle and W-angle). Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontic Department of Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan, from August to October 2013. Methodology: A total of 209 pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontic patients were selected from departmental records, comprised of 92 males and 117 females. Radiographs were traced for measurements of ANB, Wits appraisal, Beta-angle, W-angle and Yen-angle. Patients were categorized into skeletal classes I, II, and III on the basis of performed measurements, incisor classification, and profile recorded from their records. Descriptive analysis was used to obtain median interquartile range in both the genders and Mann-Whitney U-test was used to observe gender dimorphism. Result: Skeletal class II was the most prevalent type of malocclusion. There were no difference in the obtained measurements between males and females except the Wits appraisal and Beta-angle in class II patients, which showed significant difference in values (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Pakistani population has no significant different difference in the craniofacial morphology of males and females, with the exception of Wits-appraisal and Beta-angle in class II cases. (author)

  11. Sagittal venous sinus thrombosis after cesarean section: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Keypour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is uncommon after cesarean section. Although it can be a leading cause of maternal mortality. CVT may occur during pregnancy because of hypercoagulable states such as preeclampsia, thrombophilias, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and sepsis.Case presentation: A 31 years old woman G2 Ab1 at 37 weeks gestational age with  premature rupture of membrane underwent cesarean section because breech presentation and preeclampsia. Spinal anesthesia was done for emergent cesarean section. On the second day after cesarean section, she developed headache, vomiting, focal neurologic deficits, paresthesia, blurred vision. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed thrombosis in anterior half of superior sagittal sinus. Treatment consisted of anticoagulation.  Conclusion: Thrombophilias, pregnancy-related hypertension and cesarean section are the predisposing factors for thromboembolism. Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWs are effective drugs for thromboprophylaxis. It is vital to prevent venous thrombosis to reduce mortality during both intrapartum and postpartum periods. Consideration of cerebral venous thrombosis in similar cases is recommended.

  12. Assessment of Gender Dimorphism on Sagittal Cephalometry in Pakistani Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamruddin, Irfan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Shahid, Fazal; Tanveer, Sadaf; Mukhtiar, Marvi; Asim, Zainab

    2016-05-01

    To determine and compare the cephalometric values among Pakistani males and females using commonly used sagittal skeletal measurements (ANB, Wits appraisal, Beta-angle) and newly developed cephalometric analyses (Yen-angle and W-angle). Observational, cross-sectional study. Orthodontic Department of Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan, from August to October 2013. Atotal of 209 pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontic patients were selected from departmental records, comprised of 92 males and 117 females. Radiographs were traced for measurements of ANB, Wits appraisal, Beta-angle, W-angle and Yen-angle. Patients were categorized into skeletal classes I, II, and III on the basis of performed measurements, incisor classification, and profile recorded from their records. Descriptive analysis was used to obtain median interquartile range in both the genders and Mann-Whitney U-test was used to observe gender dimorphism. Skeletal class II was the most prevalent type of malocclusion. There were no difference in the obtained measurements between males and females except the Wits appraisal and Beta-angle in class II patients, which showed significant difference in values (p < 0.05). Pakistani population has no significant different difference in the craniofacial morphology of males and females, with the exception of Wits-appraisal and Beta-angle in class II cases.

  13. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicedo, Benoit

    2011-05-01

    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S 3 . Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet σ-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL 2 (C). (orig.)

  14. Severe gummy smile with class II malocclusion treated with LeFort I osteotomy combined with horseshoe osteotomy and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Nishiyama, Akiyoshi; Jinno, Tokiari; Sasaki, Akira

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the successful surgical treatment of a patient, 34 years of age, who had a severe gummy smile and a class II malocclusion. The patient had an 11-mm gingival exposure during full smile and a convex profile. A LeFort I osteotomy combined with a horseshoe osteotomy was used for the superior repositioning of the maxilla;then, an intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) and genioplasty were performed for mandibular advancement. The maxilla was acceptably impacted 8mm at the first incisor and 5mm at the first molar. Both the occlusion and facial appearance were significantly improved by this surgical-orthodontic treatment. Our results suggest that the combination of a horseshoe osteotomy with a LeFort I osteotomy is a useful technique for reliable superior repositioning of the maxilla.

  15. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with sin2 W ...

  16. VBSCan Split 2017 Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Christoph Falk; et al.

    2018-01-12

    This document summarises the talks and discussions happened during the VBSCan Split17 workshop, the first general meeting of the VBSCan COST Action network. This collaboration is aiming at a consistent and coordinated study of vector-boson scattering from the phenomenological and experimental point of view, for the best exploitation of the data that will be delivered by existing and future particle colliders.

  17. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. November 2006 physics pp. 793–802. Split supersymmetry in brane models. IGNATIOS ANTONIADIS∗. Department of Physics, CERN-Theory Division, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. E-mail: Ignatios. ... that LEP data favor the unification of the three SM gauge couplings are smoking guns for the presence of new ...

  18. Water splitting by cooperative catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetterscheid, D.G.H.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; de Bruin, B.; Reek, J.N.H.

    2009-01-01

    A mononuclear Ru complex is shown to efficiently split water into H2 and O2 in consecutive steps through a heat- and light-driven process (see picture). Thermally driven H2 formation involves the aid of a non-innocent ligand scaffold, while dioxygen is generated by initial photochemically induced

  19. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lie triple system; system of roots; root space; split Lie algebra; structure theory. 1. Introduction and previous definitions. Throughout this paper, Lie triple systems T are considered of arbitrary dimension and over an arbitrary field K. It is worth to mention that, unless otherwise stated, there is not any restriction on dim Tα or {k ...

  20. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The key tool in this job is the notion of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie triple systems. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 25 January 2008. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences.

  1. A comparison of standard definitions and sagittal abdominal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MeTS) is the cluster of several clinical symptoms that together represent the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of MeTS in adolescents is difficult to estimate given that there are several, but no agreed upon definition of MeTS for this age group. It is important to estimate MeTS and identify at-risk adolescents early in order to provide effective interventions prior to the development of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Objective: Study objectives are to: (1) estimate the prevalence of MeTS in U.S. adolescents using three widely adopted definitions and (2) compare changes in prevalence of MeTS when utilizing sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as a component of MeTS. Methods: Data from U.S. adolescents ages 12–19 years (N=970) in the NHANES (2011–2014) were analyzed. MeTS standard definitions developed by Cook et al. (2003), deFerranti et al. (2007), and the International Disease Federation (IDF, 2007) were applied to estimate the sex-stratified, weighted prevalence of MeTS and its individual components (i.e., high waist circumference (WC), hypertension, blood lipid abnormalities, and high fasting blood glucose (FBG)). The definitions were modified by substituting SAD for WC, and weighted MeTS prevalence was re-estimated. Results: Regardless of gender and definition, abnormal blood lipids and high WC were the most prevalent MeTS components. For both sexes, estimated prevalence of componen

  2. SAGITTAL DIAMETER OF FORAMEN MAGNUM IN NORMAL POPULATION: AN MRI STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Lower position of cerebellar tonsils was frequently noticed in Western studies. In some of the studies, sagittal diameter of foramen magnum was found to be larger in cases of Chiari malformation. However, there are no Indian studies for comparison. Our study was proposed to determine the standard values for sagittal diameter of foramen magnum in various age groups and both sexes. This gives a guideline for further studies in pathological conditions like Craniovertebral Junctional ...

  3. The Role of Proprioception in the Sagittal Setting of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments During Gait Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Marcelo P.; Pelicioni Paulo H. Silva; Gobbi Lilian T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Previous studies have studied the role of proprioception on the setting of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) during gait initiation. However, these studies did not investigate the role of proprioception in the sagittal APA setting. We aimed to investigate the role of proprioception manipulation to induce APA sagittal adaptations on gait initiation. Methods. Fourteen healthy adults performed gait initiation without, and with, vibration applied before movement onset, and during m...

  4. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: a rare complication in a child with nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirogovsky, A.; Adi, M.; Barzilai, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot (Israel); Dagan, A.; Sinai, L.; Sthoeger, D. [Div. of Paediatrics, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot (Israel); Tabachnik, E. [Div. of Paediatrics, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot (Israel); Paediatric ICU, Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot (Israel)

    2001-10-01

    A 2-year-old boy with new-onset nephrotic syndrome developed recurrent vomiting, apathy and papilloedema. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was diagnosed on cranial CT and MRI. He gradually recovered after treatment with heparin, fresh frozen plasma and warfarin with complete resolution of the thrombosis after 1 month. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an extremely rare complication of nephrotic syndrome in children. Early diagnosis is essential for institution of anticoagulation therapy and a successful outcome. (orig.)

  5. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: a rare complication in a child with nephrotic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirogovsky, A.; Adi, M.; Barzilai, N.; Dagan, A.; Sinai, L.; Sthoeger, D.; Tabachnik, E.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy with new-onset nephrotic syndrome developed recurrent vomiting, apathy and papilloedema. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was diagnosed on cranial CT and MRI. He gradually recovered after treatment with heparin, fresh frozen plasma and warfarin with complete resolution of the thrombosis after 1 month. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an extremely rare complication of nephrotic syndrome in children. Early diagnosis is essential for institution of anticoagulation therapy and a successful outcome. (orig.)

  6. Sagittal Plane Knee Biomechanics and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Are Modified Following ACL Injury Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occur because of excessive loading on the knee. ACL injury prevention programs can influence sagittal plane ACL loading factors and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). Objective: To determine the influence of ACL injury prevention programs on sagittal plane knee biomechanics (anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion angle/moments) and VGRF. Data Sources: The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1988 an...

  7. Influence of age and sagittal balance of the spine on the value of the pelvic incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Legaye

    2014-07-01

    The pelvic incidence (PI) was recognized as the key factor of the sagittal balance of the spine. Its value was described own for each individual and unchanged during adulthood. To bring out the effect of the age and of a sagittal imbalance in the variability of the value of PI. 200 subjects with chronic low back pain due to sagittal imbalance were compared to 89 normal subjects. For each groups, the cases were divided according to the age (19-40, 6-40 years, over 60 years). The PI and the sagittal positional parameters were measured on large radiographs in standardized standing position. The correlation between age and PI was observed significant only for the >60 years cases. The mean values of PI were significantly greater for these cases. An increase of the value of PI was attributable to a twisting mobilization within the sacroiliac joint. It results from a forward projection of the gravity due to a sagittal disturbance and a pelvic compensatory backward rotation. This twisting into the sacroiliac joint was incriminated in the origin of chronic low back pain. The sagittal pelvi-spinal imbalance may be incriminated in the increasing of the value of PI by a painful destabilization sacro-iliac, with leads to an increasing of the value of PI.

  8. The longitudinal sagittal growth changes of maxilla and mandible according to quantitative cervical vertebral maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Lin, Jiuxiang; Xu, Tianmin; Long, Xiaosi

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the longitudinal sagittal growth changes of maxilla and mandible according to the quantitative cervical vertebral maturation (QCVM) for adolescents with normal occlusion, mixed longitudinal data were used. The samples included 87 adolescents aged from 8 to 18 y old with normal occlusion (32 males, 55 females) selected from 901 candidates. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films were taken once a year, lasting for 6 y. The longitudinal sagittal growth changes of maxilla and mandible according to QCVM were measured. There were some significant differences between maxilla and mandible according to QCVM. The sagittal growth change of maxilla showed a trend towards high velocity-->decelerating velocity-->completing velocity from QCVM stage I to stage IV. The sagittal growth change of mandible showed a trend towards accelerating velocity-->high velocity-->decelerating velocity-->completing velocity from QCVM stage I to stage IV. With sagittal relationship, growth magnitude was almost the same between maxilla and mandible at QCVM stage I. At stage II the growth of mandible exceeded that of maxilla and growth in mandible continued at stages III and IV, while the maxilla ceased to grow. Growth magnitude was greater and the growth duration was longer with male mandible. It is concluded that the longitudinal sagittal growth changes of maxilla and mandible on the basis of QCVM is of value in the orthodontic practice.

  9. Tracking errors in tractography of the gastrocnemius muscle. A comparison between the transverse and sagittal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takako; Tohdoh, Yukihiro; Tawara, Noriyuki; Okuwaki, Toru; Horiuchi, Akira; Itagaki, Takuma; Niitsu, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    In scans taken in conventional direction, tracking errors may occur when using a streamline-based algorithm for the tractography of the gastrocnemius muscle. To solve errors in tracking, we applied tractography to the musculotendinous junction and performed fiber tracking on the gastrocnemius muscle of 10 healthy subjects with their written informed consent. We employed a spin-echo diffusion tensor imaging (SE-DTI) sequence with 6-direction diffusion gradient sensitization and acquired DTI images at 1.5 tesla using a body array coil with parallel imaging. We compared tractography obtained in the transverse and sagittal planes using anatomical reference and found that the gastrocnemius muscle and musculotendinous junction were significantly better visualized on sagittal scans and in 3 regions of interest. We utilized Mann-Whitney U-test to determine significant differences between rates of concordance (P 2 value of skeletal muscle is around 50 ms, and TE should be as short as possible. A streamline-based algorithm is based on the continuity of a vector. It is easy to take running of the muscle fiber in sagittal scan. Therefore, tracking error is hard to occur. In conclusion, sagittal scanning may be one way to eliminate tracking errors in the tractography of the gastrocnemius muscle. Tracking errors were smaller with sagittal scans than transverse scans, and sagittal scans allow better fiber tracking. (author)

  10. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waele, A T A M de; Liang, W

    2009-01-01

    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the cold finger are connected by a flexible tube. The displacer in the cold head is suspended by a spring. Its motion is pneumatically driven by the pressure oscillations generated by the compressor. In this paper we give the basic dynamic equations of split Stirling refrigerators and investigate the possibility of spontaneous mechanical oscillations if a large temperature gradient develops in the cold finger, e.g. during or after cool down. These oscillations would be superimposed on the pressure oscillations of the compressor and could ruin the cooler performance.

  11. Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab Gogberashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack. ...

  13. [Correlation between sagittal photogrammetric measurements of the soft tissue profile and dental arches measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Joseph Samba; Touré, Bécaye; Ndiaye, Marième; Badiane, Alpha; Diop-Bâ, Khady; Ngom, Papa Ibrahima; Diagne, Falou

    2015-12-01

    Sagittal soft-tissue analyses made from photographic records (sagittal photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissues) allow orthodontists to quantify the sagittal dimension and situation of the facial soft tissues. These tissues maintain close anatomical relationships with the underlying dental arches. However, little importance has been given to the description and the comparison of the sagittal soft tissue morphology according to dental arches parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the sagittal photogrammetric soft tissue profile and the dental arches measurements. A cross-sectional study was performed in a group of students. Standardized facial-profile photographs were taken with each student in natural head position, and relaxed lip posture. Photogrammetric parameters were measured on paper sheet using a graduated ruler. Dental arches measurements were also performed directly into the mouth with an electronic caliper. The strength of the association between sagittal photogrammetric soft tissue measurements and dental arches parameters was investigated by a Pearson's correlation. Results were regarded as significant at p=0.05. The lips protrusion parameters were significantly and positively correlated with the dental arch lengths. The overjet was significantly and positively correlated with Ls/Sn-Sm. The overbite was significantly and negatively correlated with the sagittal labial parameters Ls/N-Ort, Li/N-Ort, Ls-E, Li E, Ls-S, Li S, Ls/Sn-Sm and Li/Sn-Sm. The correlations found in this study show the importance of taking into account the soft tissue in the diagnosis and orthodontic treatment of patients. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2015.

  14. Biomechanical comparison of sagittal-parallel versus non-parallel pedicle screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Mazda; Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Bachmann, Elias; Snedeker, Jess G; Schmid, Samuel L

    2014-11-01

    While convergent placement of pedicle screws in the axial plane is known to be more advantageous biomechanically, surgeons intuitively aim toward a parallel placement of screws in the sagittal plane. It is however not clear whether parallel placement of screws in the sagittal plane is biomechanically superior to a non-parallel construct. The hypothesis of this study is that sagittal non-parallel pedicle screws do not have an inferior initial pull-out strength compared to parallel placed screws. The established lumbar calf spine model was used for determination of pull-out strength in parallel and non-parallel intersegmental pedicle screw constructs. Each of six lumbar calf spines (L1-L6) was divided into three levels: L1/L2, L3/L4 and L5/L6. Each segment was randomly instrumented with pedicle screws (6/45 mm) with either the standard technique of sagittal parallel or non-parallel screw placement, respectively, under fluoroscopic control. CT was used to verify the intrapedicular positioning of all screws. The maximum pull-out forces and type of failure were registered and compared between the groups. The pull-out forces were 5,394 N (range 4,221 N to 8,342 N) for the sagittal non-parallel screws and 5,263 N (range 3,589 N to 7,554 N) for the sagittal-parallel screws (p = 0.838). Interlevel comparisons also showed no statistically significant differences between the groups with no relevant difference in failure mode. Non-parallel pedicle screws in the sagittal plane have at least equal initial fixation strength compared to parallel pedicle screws in the setting of the here performed cadaveric calf spine experiments.

  15. Innovative wedge axe in making split firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.

    1998-01-01

    Interteam Oy, a company located in Espoo, has developed a new method for making split firewood. The tools on which the patented System Logmatic are based are wedge axe and cylindrical splitting-carrying frame. The equipment costs about 495 FIM. The block of wood to be split is placed inside the upright carrying frame and split in a series of splitting actions using the innovative wedge axe. The finished split firewood remains in the carrying frame, which (as its name indicates) also serves as the means for carrying the firewood. This innovative wedge-axe method was compared with the conventional splitting of wood using an axe (Fiskars -handy 1400 splitting axe costing about 200 FIM) in a study conducted at TTS-Institute. There were eight test subjects involved in the study. In the case of the wedge-axe method, handling of the blocks to be split and of the finished firewood was a little quicker, but in actual splitting it was a little slower than the conventional axe method. The average productivity of splitting the wood and of the work stages related to it was about 0.4 m 3 per effective hour in both methods. The methods were also equivalent of one another in terms of the load imposed by the work when measured in terms of the heart rate. As regards work safety, the wedge-axe method was superior to the conventional method, but the continuous striking action and jolting transmitted to the arms were unpleasant (orig.)

  16. Sagittal alignment as a predictor of clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery after anterior cervical arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Soo; Kelly, Michael P; Lee, Dong-Ho; Min, Woo-Kie; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Riew, K Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Postoperative malalignment of the cervical spine may alter cervical spine mechanics and put patients at risk for clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery. To investigate whether a relationship exists between cervical spine sagittal alignment and clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery (CASP-S) following anterior cervical fusion (ACF). Retrospective matched study. A total of 122 patients undergoing ACF between 1996 and 2008 were identified, with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Radiographs were reviewed to measure the sagittal alignment using C2 and C7 sagittal plumb lines, distance from the fusion mass plumb line to the C2 and C7 plumb lines, the alignment of the fusion mass, caudally adjacent disc angle, the sagittal slope angle of the superior end plate of the vertebra caudally adjacent to the fusion mass, T1 sagittal angle, overall cervical sagittal alignment, and curve patterns by Katsuura classification. A total of 122 patients undergoing ACF between 1996 and 2008 were identified, with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. Patients were divided into groups according to the development of CASP (control/CASP-S) and by number/location of levels fused. Radiographs were reviewed to measure the sagittal alignment using C2 and C7 sagittal plumb lines, distance from the fusion mass plumb line to the C2 and C7 plumb lines, the alignment of the fusion mass, caudally adjacent disc angle, the sagittal slope angle of the superior end plate of the vertebra caudally adjacent to the fusion mass, T1 sagittal angle, overall cervical sagittal alignment, and curve patterns by Katsuura classification. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to calculate relationships between the variables and the development of CASP-S. No funds were received in support of this work. No benefits in any form have been or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article. The groups were similar with regard to

  17. Effect of one- or two-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion on global sagittal balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hwan; Joo, Youn-Suk; Lim, Cheongsu; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Choon Sung

    2017-12-01

    Sagittal imbalance is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with degenerative lumbar disease. However, there is no consensus on the impact of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) on local and global sagittal balance. To reveal the effect of one- or two-level PLIF on global sagittal balance. A retrospective case-control study. This study included 88 patients who underwent a one- or two-level PLIF for spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis. Clinical and radiological parameters were measured pre- and postoperatively. All patients were followed up for >2 years. Clinical outcomes included a visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and EuroQol 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D). Radiological parameters were measured using whole-spine standing lateral radiographs. Fusion, loosening, subsidence rates, and adverse events were also evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups according to their preoperative C7-S1 sagittal vertical axis (SVA): Group N: SVA≤5 cm vs Group I: SVA>5 cm; they were also divided according to postoperative changes in C7-S1 SVA. Clinical and radiological outcomes were compared between the groups. All clinical outcomes and radiological parameters improved postoperatively. C7-S1 SVA improved (-1.6 cm) after L3-L5 fusion, but it was compromised (+3.6 cm) after L4-S1 fusion (p=.001). Preoperative demographic and clinical data showed no difference except in the anxiety or depression domain of EQ-5D. No differences were found in postoperative clinical outcomes. Lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and thoracic kyphosis slightly improved in Group N, whereas C7-S1 SVA decreased from 9.5 cm to 3.8 cm (pfusion (L3-L5 vs L4-S1, p=.033). Global sagittal balance improved after short-level lumbar fusion surgery in patients having spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis who showed preoperative sagittal imbalance. Restoration of sagittal balance predominantly occurred after L3-L4, L4-L5, or L3-L5 PLIF. However, no such restoration was

  18. Postoperative change in sagittal balance after Kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kunio; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Yamada, Makoto; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Ito, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shinji; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2015-04-01

    The influence of vertebral cement augmentation on spinal sagittal balance is unknown. The present study aimed to analyze the changes in total spinal alignment after Kyphoplasty in VCF patients. The study involved 21 VCF patients who underwent Kyphoplasty. In all patients, lateral radiographs of the entire spine were taken preoperatively and 1 month after surgery, to measure the pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and spinosacral angle (SSA). These parameters were compared between VCF patients and 30 healthy volunteers. In VCF patients, the parameters were compared before and after Kyphoplasty. In VCF patients, preoperative SVA was 7.00 ± 3.9 cm, showing a significant shift to anterior sagittal balance as compared to the healthy group (1.45 ± 2.7 cm) (P vertebra (r = 0.792, P < 0.01). VAS score decreased from 7.98 ± 1.8 before Kyphoplasty to 2.38 ± 2.3 postoperatively (P < 0.0001). Total spinal alignment is shifted to anterior sagittal balance in VCF patients. Kyphoplasty plays a role not only in reducing pain associated with fractures but also in improving sagittal imbalance in the treatment of painful vertebral compression fracture.

  19. Parallel BLAST on split databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathog, David R

    2003-09-22

    BLAST programs often run on large SMP machines where multiple threads can work simultaneously and there is enough memory to cache the databases between program runs. A group of programs is described which allows comparable performance to be achieved with a Beowulf configuration in which no node has enough memory to cache a database but the cluster as an aggregate does. To achieve this result, databases are split into equal sized pieces and stored locally on each node. Each query is run on all nodes in parallel and the resultant BLAST output files from all nodes merged to yield the final output. Source code is available from ftp://saf.bio.caltech.edu/

  20. Establishing Cephalometric Norms using Sagittal and Vertical Occlusal Cephalometric Analysis of Pancherz for Dakshina Kannada Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahitya, M; Shashidhar, E P; Chidanandeswara, G C; Shetty, Sharath Kumar B; Kumar, Y Mahesh

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish norms for the sagittal occlusal (SO) and vertical occlusal (VO) cephalometric analyses of Pancherz for Dakshina Kannada children and to analyze and compare the difference between boys and girls of same age group (10-14 years). Two hundred and sixty-three (132 boys and 131 girls) children of Dakshina Kannada were included in this study. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of children belonging to the age group of 10-14 years were taken. Dental lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained and these cephalometric radiographs were then manually traced. All the parameters considered in the Pancherz analysis were considered while establishing the norms for Dakshina Kannada children. Statistically significant sex differences were found for 9 of 11 parameters in the sagittal occlusal analysis, and 10 of 10 in the Vertical occlusal analysis. For the sagittal and Vertical occlusal analyses of Pancherz a separate sex-specific standards are needed for Dakshina Kannada children.

  1. Splintage in the treatment of sagittal band incompetence and extensor tendon subluxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelman, J; Markiewitz, A; Kiefhaber, T; Stern, P

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed the success of splintage for traumatic and atraumatic sagittal band incompetence and its relationship to the duration of symptoms before treatment. A retrospective review of all patients with sagittal band incompetence treated with splintage was performed. All patients had extensor tendon subluxation on physical examination. Ninety-two patients were included: 68 traumatic and 24 atraumatic. Subluxation resolved with splintage in 77 patients. Traumatic tendon subluxation resolved in 95% of acute injuries, 100% of subacute injuries, and 67% of chronic injures. Atraumatic tendon subluxation resolved in 100% of patients with acute presentation, 67% of patients with subacute presentation, and 57% of patients with chronic presentation. Surgery was rarely required. Splintage proved very effective for acute sagittal band incompetence, regardless of causation, but decreased in efficiency with chronicity. Level 4. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The accuracy of intramedullary tibial guide of sagittal alignment of PCL-substituting total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyuk-Soo; Kang, Seung-Baik; Jo, Chris H; Kim, Sun-Hong; Lee, Jung-Ha

    2010-10-01

    Experimental and clinical studies on the accuracy of the intramedullary alignment method have produced different results, and few have addressed accuracy in the sagittal plane. Reported deviations are not only attributable to the alignment method but also to radiological errors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the intramedullary alignment method in the sagittal plane using computed tomography (CT) and 3-dimensional imaging software. Thirty-one TKAs were performed using an intramedullary alignment method involving the insertion of a long 8-mm diameter rod into the medullary canal to the distal metaphysis of the tibia. All alignment instruments were set to achieve an ideal varus/valgus angle of 0° in the coronal plane and a tibial slope of 0° in the sagittal plane. The accuracy of the intramedullary alignment system was assessed by measuring the coronal tibial component angle and sagittal tibial slope angles, i.e., angles between the tibial anatomical axis and the tangent to the medial and lateral tibial plateau or the cut-surface. The mean coronal tibial component angle was 88.5° ± 1.2° and the mean tibial component slope in the sagittal plane was 1.6° ± 1.2° without anterior slope. Our intramedullary tibial alignment method, which involves passing an 8-mm diameter long rod through the tibial shaft isthmus, showed good accuracy (less than 3 degrees of variation and no anterior slope) in the sagittal plane in neutral or varus knees.

  3. Sagittal alignment and complications following lumbar 3-column osteotomy: does the level of resection matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Liabaud, Barthelemy; Henry, Jensen K; Ames, Christopher P; Kebaish, Khaled; Mundis, Gregory M; Hostin, Richard; Gupta, Munish C; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Smith, Justin S; Hart, Robert A; Obeid, Ibrahim; Diebo, Bassel G; Schwab, Frank J; Lafage, Virginie

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Three-column osteotomy (3CO) is a demanding technique that is performed to correct sagittal spinal malalignment. However, the impact of the 3CO level on pelvic or truncal sagittal correction remains unclear. In this study, the authors assessed the impact of 3CO level and postoperative apex of lumbar lordosis on sagittal alignment correction, complications, and revisions. METHODS In this retrospective study of a multicenter spinal deformity database, radiographic data were analyzed at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-up to quantify spinopelvic alignment, apex of lordosis, and resection angle. The impact of 3CO level and apex level of lumbar lordosis on the sagittal correction was assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed, controlling for cofounders, to investigate the effects of 3CO level and apex level on intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as on the need for subsequent revision surgery. RESULTS A total of 468 patients were included (mean age 60.8 years, mean body mass index 28.1 kg/m 2 ); 70% of patients were female. The average 3CO resection angle was 25.1° and did not significantly differ with regard to 3CO level. There were no significant correlations between the 3CO level and amount of sagittal vertical axis or pelvic tilt correction. The postoperative apex level significantly correlated with greater correction of pelvic tilt (2° per more caudal level, R = -0.2, p = 0.006). Lower-level 3CO significantly correlated with revisions for pseudarthrosis (OR = 3.88, p = 0.001) and postoperative motor deficits (OR = 2.02, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS In this study, a more caudal lumbar 3CO level did not lead to greater sagittal vertical axis correction. The postoperative apex of lumbar lordosis significantly impacted pelvic tilt. 3CO levels that were more caudal were associated with more postoperative motor deficits and revisions.

  4. Is there a sagittal imbalance of the spine in isthmic spondylolisthesis? A correlation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilharreborde, Brice; Dauzac, Cyril; Lenoir, Thibault; Rillardon, Ludovic; Guigui, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies suggested a predominant role of spinopelvic parameters to explain lumbosacral spondylolisthesis pathogeny. We compare the pelvic incidence and other parameters of sagittal spinopelvic balance in adolescents and young adults with developmental spondylolisthesis to those parameters in a control group of healthy volunteers. We compared the angular parameters of the sagittal balance of the spine in a cohort of 244 patients with a developmental L5–S1 spondylolisthesis with those of a control cohort of 300 healthy volunteers. A descriptive and correlation study was performed. The L5 anterior slipping and lumbosacral kyphosis in spondylolisthesis patients was described using multiple regression analysis study. Our study demonstrates that the related measures of sagittal spinopelvic alignment are disturbed in adolescents and young adults with developmental spondylolisthesis. These subjects stand with an increased sacral slope, pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis but with a decreased thoracic kyphosis. Pelvic incidence was significantly higher in spondylolisthesis patients as compared with controls but was not clearly correlated with the grade of slipping. We showed the same “sagittal balance strategy” in spondylolisthesis patients as in the control group regarding correlations between pelvic incidence, sacral slope, pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis. We believe that the lumbosacral kyphosis is a stronger factor than pelvic incidence which need to be taken into account as a predominant factor in theories of pathogenesis of lumbosacral spondylolithesis. We thus believe that increased lumbar lordosis associated with L5–S1 spondylolisthesis is secondary to the high pelvic incidence and is an important factor causing high shear stresses at the L5–S1 pars interarticularis. However, the “local” sagittal imbalance of the lumbosacral junction is compensated by adjacent mobile segments in the upper lumbar spine, the pelvis orientation and the thoracic spine

  5. [SPINO-PELVIC SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT IN PATIENTS WITH HIGH-GRADE L5 ISTHMIC SPONDYLOLISTHESIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Kong, Qingquan; Song, Yueming; Liu, Limin; Li, Tao; Gong, Quan; Zeng, Jiancheng; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    To observe the character of spino-pelvic sagittal alignment in patients with high-grade L5 isthmic spondylolisthesis, and to analyze the sagittal alignment alteration after operation. Between January 2009 and June 2014, 25 patients with high-grade L5 isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent posterior surgery, and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed as study group. There were 14 males and 11 females with a mean age of 42.5 years (range, 20-65 years). The mean disease duration was 6 months (range, 3-12 months). According to the Meyerding evaluating system, 15 cases were rated as degree III, and 10 cases as degree IV. Eighty healthy adult volunteers were recruited simultaneously as control group. The lumbar sacral angle (LSA), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) were measured on preoperative and last follow-up standing full length lateral X-ray films. And these parameters were compared between study group (preoperative parameters) and control group. Then the patients in study group were divided into 2 subgroups according to Hresko's method: the balanced pelvis subgroup (n = 14) and unbalanced pelvis subgroup (n = 11). The sagittal parameters were compared between 2 subgroups, and the alteration of sagittal parameters before surgery and at last follow-up was analyzed in each subgroup respectively. All patients in study group were followed up 18 months on average (range, 6-48 months). After surgery, spondylolisthesis was reduced from degree III to degree 0 in 12 cases and to degree I in 3 cases, and from degree IV to degree 0 in 6 cases and to degree I in 4 cases. Bone fusion was obtained in all patients at last follow-up. The preoperative PI, SS, PT, and SVA of study group were significantly greater than those of control group (P spondylolisthesis have greater PI, abnormal lumbosacral kyphosis, and sagittal imbalance.

  6. Identification and treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the distal sagittal ridge of the third metacarpal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I M; Minshall, G J

    2014-09-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the distal sagittal ridge of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) has not previously been described in the literature. To describe the clinical, radiological and arthroscopic features of OCD of the distal sagittal ridge of the McIII and to report outcome in a series of cases. Retrospective case series. Case records and images of horses with OCD of the distal sagittal ridge of the McIII admitted to a single referral centre between February 2006 and February 2013 were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone questionnaire and/or racing performance. Osteochondritis dissecans of the distal sagittal ridge of the McIII was found in 16 lame horses; 9 unilaterally and 7 bilaterally. Lesions were consistently identified with flexed lateromedial radiographs and in 21 joints in dorsopalmar projections also. These were arthroscopically accessible from the dorsal compartment with metacarpophalangeal joints maximally flexed. This permitted fragment removal and lesion debridement. Thirteen of 14 horses with follow-up of ≥12 months post surgery performed athletically including 11 of 12 Thoroughbreds that raced. Unlike more proximal lesions, OCD of the distal sagittal ridge appears to affect the McIII preferentially. Lesions were identified on dorsopalmar and flexed lateromedial radiographs only and are amenable to arthroscopic surgery. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for OCD to affect the distal sagittal ridge of the McIII together with the radiographic projections needed to identify its presence. A modified arthroscopic approach to the dorsal metacarpophalangeal joint is necessary in order to access lesions. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Lumbar sagittal contour after posterior interbody fusion: threaded devices alone versus vertical cages plus posterior instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemme, W R; Owens, B D; Dhawan, A; Zeidman, S; Polly, D W

    2001-03-01

    An observational radiographic study examining lumbar sagittal contour of patients undergoing posterior interbody arthrodesis. To compare operative alterations of lumbar sagittal contour after posterior interbody fusion using threaded interbody devices alone versus vertical cages combined with posterior compression instrumentation. Technique-related alterations of lumbar sagittal contour during interbody arthrodesis have received little attention in the spinal literature. Standing lumbar radiographs were measured for preoperative and postoperative segmental lordosis at levels undergoing posterior interbody arthrodesis using either stand-alone side-by-side threaded devices or vertical cages combined with posterior transpedicular compression instrumentation. Sagittal plane segmental correction (or loss of correction) was calculated and statistically compared. The radiographs of 30 patients (34 spinal segments) undergoing lumbar or lumbosacral arthrodesis were compared. Seventeen patients (18 segments) had undergone interbody fusion using threaded cages,whereas 13 patients (16 segments) underwent fusion using vertically oriented mesh cages combined with posterior compression instrumentation. Preoperative segmental lordosis averaged 8 degrees for both groups. For patients undergoing fusion with threaded cages, there was a mean lordotic loss of 3 degrees/segment. For patients undergoing fusion with vertically oriented mesh cages combined with posterior compression instrumentation,there was a mean lordotic gain of 5 degrees/segment. This difference in segmental sagittal plane contour was highly significant (P = 0.00). Threaded fusion devices placed under interbody distraction with the endplates parallel fail to preserve or reestablish segmental lordosis. Vertical cages, however, when combined with posterior compression instrumentation, not only maintain segmental lordosis, but also can correct sagittal plane deformity.

  8. [The theoretical substantiation of myofunctional correction of sagittal occlusion abnormalities and temporomandibular joint dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, M A; Ishmurzin, P V; Zakharov, S V

    2012-01-01

    Simulation in 3D-model of skeletal forms of sagittal malocclusion revealed tendency in tonus' modification of muscles of mastication in formation of distal and mesial occlusion. It's shown that distal occlusion is characterized by hypotonic condition of muscles of mastication, except posterior fibers of temporal muscle. Mesial occlusion is characterized by complex combination of muscle tone with prevalence of hypotonic condition of anterior fibers of temporal muscle, superficial portion of masseter muscle and medial pterygoid muscle. We have detected that using of myofunctional devices in treatment of sagittal malocclusion, temporomandibular joint dysfunction promotes of tone increasing of muscles of mastication.

  9. Normal anatomy of the female pelvis in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes demonstrated with reformatted CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, O.C.; Cooke, J.C.; Parsons, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Axial CT is used in assessing gynecologic malignancies. Accurate delineation of local tumor extent in carcinoma of the cervix is important in initial staging and in planning subsequent management. A modified scanning technique produces reformatted coronal and sagittal images, which demonstrate additional valuable information about the cardinal ligaments, parametria, ureters, boundaries between the cervix, bladder, and rectum, and extension to vagina and uterus. This information is illustrated by representative axial, coronal, and sagittal scans. Familiarity with normal appearances is essential to allow correct interpretation of pathology

  10. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tongsong, E-mail: jiangtongsong@sina.com [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China); Department of Mathematics, Heze University, Heze, Shandong 274015 (China); Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  11. Testing PVLAS axions with resonant photon splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, E; Gabrielli, Emidio; Giovannini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The photon splitting gamma -> gamma gamma in a time-independent and inhomogeneous magnetized background is considered when neutral and ultralight spin-0 particles are coupled to two-photons. Depending on the inhomogeneity scale of the external field, resonant photon splitting can occur. If an optical laser crosses a magnetic field of few Tesla with typical inhomogeneity scale of the order of the meter, a potentially observable rate of photon splittings is expected for the PVLAS range of couplings and masses.

  12. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  13. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

  14. Differences in early sagittal plane alignment between thoracic and lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; Shah, Suken A; Reichard, Samantha J; Rogers, Kenneth; Vincken, Koen L; Castelein, René M

    2014-02-01

    It has previously been shown that rotational stability of spinal segments is reduced by posteriorly directed shear loads that are the result of gravity and muscle tone. Posterior shear loads act on those segments of the spine that are posteriorly inclined, as determined by each individual's inherited sagittal spinal profile. Accordingly, it can be inferred that certain sagittal spinal profiles are more prone to develop a rotational deformity that may lead to idiopathic scoliosis; and lumbar scoliosis, on one end of the spectrum, develops from a different sagittal spinal profile than thoracic scoliosis on the other end. To examine the role of sagittal spinopelvic alignment in the etiopathogenesis of different types of idiopathic scoliosis. Multicenter retrospective analysis of lateral radiographs of patients with small thoracic and lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliotic curves. We included 192 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with either a thoracic (n=128) or lumbar (n=64) structural curve with a Cobb angle of less than 20° were studied. Children with other spinal pathology or with more severe idiopathic scoliosis were excluded, because this disturbs their original sagittal profile. Subjects who underwent scoliosis screening and had a normal spine were included in the control cohort (n=95). Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, T9 sagittal offset, C7 and T4 sagittal plumb lines, pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and sacral slope, as well as parameters describing orientation in space of each individual vertebra between C7 and L5 and length of the posteriorly inclined segment. On standardized lateral radiographs of the spine, a systematic, semi-automatic measurement of the different sagittal spinopelvic parameters was performed for each subject using in-house developed computer software. Early thoracic scoliosis showed a significantly different sagittal plane from lumbar scoliosis. Furthermore, both scoliotic curve patterns were different from controls, but in a

  15. Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yafei

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Dark matter from split seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2010-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.

  17. Emittance compensation in split photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Floettmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The compensation of correlated emittance contributions is of primary importance to optimize the performance of high brightness photoinjectors. While only extended numerical simulations can capture the complex beam dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams in sufficient detail to optimize a specific injector layout, simplified models are required to gain a deeper understanding of the involved dynamics, to guide the optimization procedure, and to interpret experimental results. In this paper, a slice envelope model for the emittance compensation process in a split photoinjector is presented. The emittance term is included in the analytical solution of the beam envelope in a drift, which is essential to take the emittance contribution due to a beam size mismatch into account. The appearance of two emittance minima in the drift is explained, and the matching into the booster cavity is discussed. A comparison with simulation results points out effects which are not treated in the envelope model, such as overfocusing and field nonlinearities.

  18. Gauge mediated mini-split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ- b μ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 105 to 108 GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  19. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  20. Gauge mediated mini-split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Craig, Nathaniel [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Knapen, Simon [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ−b{sub μ} problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  1. A genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis near BMP2 and within BBS9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Justice, C.M.; Yagnik, G.; Kim, Y.; Peter, I.; Jabs, E.W.; Erazo, M.; Ye, X.; Ainehsazan, E.; Shi, L.; Cunningham, M.L.; Kimonis, V.; Roscioli, T.; Wall, S.A.; Wilkie, A.O.; Stoler, J.; Richtsmeier, J.T.; Heuze, Y.; Sanchez-Lara, P.A.; Buckley, M.F.; Druschel, C.M.; Mills, J.L.; Caggana, M.; Romitti, P.A.; Kay, D.M.; Senders, C.; Taub, P.J.; Klein, O.D.; Boggan, J.; Zwienenberg-Lee, M.; Naydenov, C.; Kim, J.; Wilson, A.F.; Boyadjiev, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Sagittal craniosynostosis is the most common form of craniosynostosis, affecting approximately one in 5,000 newborns. We conducted, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide association study for nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis (sNSC) using 130 non-Hispanic case-parent trios of European

  2. SplitDist—Calculating Split-Distances for Sets of Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2004-01-01

    We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other.......We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other....

  3. An Assessment of Correlation between Dermatoglyphic Patterns and Sagittal Skeletal Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Susha Miriam; Philip, Biju; Madathody, Deepika; Mathew, Manu; Paul, Jose; Dlima, Johnson Prakash

    2017-03-01

    Investigators over years have been fascinated by dermatoglyphic patterns which has led to the development of dermatoglyphics as a science with numerous applications in various fields other than being the best and most widely used method for personal identification. To assess the correlation between dermatoglyphic patterns and sagittal skeletal discrepancies. A total of 180 patients, aged 18-40 years, were selected from those who attended the outpatient clinic of the Deparment of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Mar Baselios Dental College, Kothamangalam, Kerala, India. The fingerprints of both hands were taken by ink and stamp method after proper hand washing. The patterns of arches, loops and whorls in fingerprints were assessed. The total ridge count was also evaluated. Data was also sent to the fingerprint experts for expert evaluation. The sagittal jaw relation was determined from the patient's lateral cephalogram. The collected data was then statistically analyzed using Chi-square tests, ANOVA and Post-hoc tests and a Multinomial regression prediction was also done. A significant association was observed between the dermatoglyphic pattern exhibited by eight fingers and the sagittal skeletal discrepancies (pdermatoglyphic patterns and sagittal skeletal discrepancies. Dermatoglyphics could serve as a cost effective screening tool of these craniofacial problems.

  4. [Progressive Intracranial Hypertension due to Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Following Mild Head Trauma: A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Yuta; Maruya, Jun; Watanabe, Jun; Nishimaki, Keiichi

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis after mild head trauma without skull fracture or intracranial hematoma is exceptionally rare. We describe an unusual case of progressive intracranial hypertension due to superior sagittal sinus thrombosis following mild head trauma. A 17-year-old boy presented with nape pain a day after a head blow during a gymnastics competition (backward double somersault). On admission, he showed no neurological deficit. CT scans revealed no skull fractures, and there were no abnormalities in the brain parenchyma. However, his headache worsened day-by-day and he had begun to vomit. Lumbar puncture was performed on Day 6, and the opening pressure was 40 cm of water. After tapping 20 mL, he felt better and the headache diminished for a few hours. MR venography performed on Day 8 revealed severe flow disturbance in the posterior third of the superior sagittal sinus with multiple venous collaterals. Because of the beneficial effects of lumbar puncture, we decided to manage his symptoms of intracranial hypertension conservatively with repeated lumbar puncture and administration of glycerol. After 7 days of conservative treatment, his symptoms resolved completely, and he was discharged from the hospital. Follow-up MR venography performed on Day 55 showed complete recanalization of the superior sagittal sinus. The exact mechanism of sinus thrombosis in this case is not clear, but we speculate that endothelial damage caused by shearing stress because of strong rotational acceleration or direct impact to the superior sagittal sinus wall may have initiated thrombus formation.

  5. Investigation of reconstruction conditions in sagittal-plane multiplanar reconstruction of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Miyako; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Akira; Ichikawa, Ginichiro; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Ando, Ichiro

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, it has become possible to quickly obtain a large amount of 3D data with high continuity by helical CT scanning, in which the body is scanned continuously in a helical fashion. MPR (multiplanar reconstruction) can be performed using this data to generate images in arbitrary sectional planes, making it possible to obtain sagittal-plane images of the highest quality, which is useful for surgical planning. However, the procedures involved are rather complicated. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate conditions for standardization of sagittal-plane MPR examinations performed using Xvigor CT scanners and Xtension. The results showed that a slice interval of 1 mm, no imaging filter, a zooming factor of 1.5, a window level of 350, and a window width of 3500 are the optimal imaging conditions. The stapes can be visualized in 70% of cases with sagittal-plane MPR based on axial images, and can be recognized at surgery in 75% or more of cases. Images of consistent quality can be obtained by standardizing the conditions for sagittal-plane MPR, which should prove advantageous in the clinical setting. (author)

  6. Pedicle subtraction osteotomies (PSO) in the lumbar spine for sagittal deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjano, Pedro; Aebi, Max

    2015-01-01

    The narrow correlation between sagittal alignment parameters and clinical outcomes has been widely established, demonstrating that improper sagittal alignment is a clinical condition that is associated with increased pain and limitations in patients' functional ability. Lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is indicated in the treatment of large sagittal (more than 25° of rigid loss of lordosis) deformities of the lumbar spine or its combination with coronal deformity, especially when they are rigid. Indication should be based on careful assessment of the severity of symptoms, functional impairment, functional expectations of the patient, general clinical condition and surgical and anesthesiological team experience. Risk should be carefully assessed and discussed to obtain appropriate informed consent. Surgical planning includes selection of the safest levels for the upper and lower instrumented vertebra, site of the osteotomy, modality of fixation, and, most importantly angular value of the correction goal (target lumbar lordosis). Failure to adequately obtain the necessary amount of sagittal correction is the most frequent cause of failure and reoperation. PSO is a valuable surgical procedure in correction of severe hypolordosis (=relative kyphosis) in the lumbar spine. It is a demanding procedure for the surgeon, the anesthesiologist and the intensive care team. Although its complication rate is high, it has a substantial positive impact in the quality of life of patients, including the elderly.

  7. Direct sagittal CT scanning in the diagnosis of pituitary fossa tumours and posterior fossa pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlas, H.

    1981-01-01

    Two independent methods are presented for multidirectional CT scanning of the brain using the Philips Tomoscan 300. The advantages in scanning pituitary fossa tumours and pathology of the posterior fossa are discussed. No additional software or modifications are required. Direct sagittal scanning is particularly advantageous for accurate assessment of the size of pituitary tumours and intrasellar lesions requiring surgical intervention or radiation therapy. (Auth.)

  8. The Association between Maxillomandibular Sagittal Relationship and Pharyngeal Airway Passage Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurima Nanda

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion : Sagittal skeletal pattern had a close association between the pharyngeal airway passage and the dimensions of the pharyngeal airway passage. The dimensions of pharyngeal airway passage were decreased from Class III to Class I and Class I to Class II subjects.

  9. Skin movement errors in measurement of sagittal lumbar and hip angles in young and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Tully, Elizabeth A; Galea, Mary P

    2008-02-01

    Errors in measurement of sagittal lumbar and hip angles due to skin movement on the pelvis and/or lateral thigh were measured in young (n = 21, age = 18.6 +/- 2.1 years) and older (n = 23, age = 70.9 +/- 6.4 years) age groups. Skin reference markers were attached over specific landmarks of healthy young and elderly subjects, who were videotaped in three static positions of hip flexion using the 2D PEAK Motus video analysis system. Sagittal lumbar and hip angles were calculated from skin reference markers and manually palpated landmarks. The elderly subjects demonstrated greater errors in lumbar angle due to skin movement on the pelvis only in the maximal hip flexion position. The traditional model (ASIS-PSIS-GT-LFE) underestimated sagittal hip angle and the revised model (ASIS-PSIS-2/3Th-1/4Th) provided more accurate measurement of sagittal hip angle throughout the full available range of hip flexion. Skin movement on the pelvis had a small counterbalancing effect on the larger errors from lateral thigh markers (GT-LFE), thereby decreasing hip angle error.

  10. A review of methods for evaluating the quantitative parameters of sagittal pelvic alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Janssen, Michiel M A; Likar, Boštjan; Castelein, René M; Viergever, Max A; Pernuš, Franjo

    2012-05-01

    The sagittal alignment of the pelvis represents the basic mechanism for maintaining postural equilibrium, and a number of methods were developed to assess normal and pathologic pelvic alignments from two-dimensional sagittal radiographs in terms of positional and anatomic parameters. To provide a complete overview of the existing methods for quantitative evaluation of sagittal pelvic alignment and summarize the relevant publications. Review article. An Internet search for terms related to sagittal pelvic alignment was performed to obtain relevant publications, which were further supplemented by selected publications found in their lists of references. By summarizing the obtained publications, the positional and anatomic parameters of sagittal pelvic alignment were described, and their values and relationships to other parameters and features were reported. Positional pelvic parameters relate to the position and orientation of the observed subject and are represented by the sacral slope, pelvic tilt, pelvic overhang, sacral inclination, sacrofemoral angle, sacrofemoral distance, pelvic femoral angle, pelvic angle, and sacropelvic translation. Anatomic pelvic parameters relate to the anatomy of the observed subject and are represented by the pelvisacral angle (PSA), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic thickness (PTH), sacropelvic angle (PRS1), pelvic radius (PR), femorosacral posterior angle (FSPA), sacral table angle (STA), and sacral anatomic orientation (SAO). The review was mainly focused on the evaluation of anatomic pelvic parameters, as they can be compared among subjects and therefore among different studies. However, ambiguous results were yielded for normal and pathologic subjects, as the reported values show a relatively high variability in terms of standard deviation for every anatomic parameter, which amounts to around 10 mm for PTH and PR; 10° for PSA, PI, and SAO; 9° for PRS1 and FSPA; and 5° for STA in the case of normal subjects and is usually even

  11. Is Cervical Sagittal Imbalance a Risk Factor for Adjacent Segment Pathomechanics After Multilevel Fusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash G; Khayatzadeh, Saeed; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lam; Havey, Robert M; Voronov, Leonard I; Muriuki, Muturi G; Carandang, Gerard; Smith, Zachary A; Sears, William; Lomasney, Laurie M; Ghanayem, Alexander J

    2016-05-01

    A biomechanical study using human spine specimens. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of cervical sagittal imbalance is an independent risk factor for increasing the mechanical burden on discs adjacent to cervical multilevel fusions. The horizontal offset distance between the C2 plumbline and C7 vertebral body (C2-C7 Sagittal Vertical Axis (SVA)) or the angle made with vertical by a line connecting the C2 and C7 vertebral bodies (C2-C7 tilt angle) are used as radiographic measures to assess cervical sagittal balance. There is level III clinical evidence that sagittal imbalance caused by kyphotic fusions or global spinal sagittal malalignment may increase the risk of adjacent segment pathology. Thirteen human cadaveric cervical spines (Occiput-T1; age: 50.6 years; range: 21-67) were tested first in the native intact state and then after instrumentation across C4-C6 to simulate in situ two-level fusion. Specimens were tested using a previously validated experimental model that allowed measurement of spinal response to prescribed imbalance. The effects of fusion on segmental angular alignments and intradiscal pressures in the C3-C4 and C6-C7 discs, above and below the fusion, were evaluated at different magnitudes of C2-C7 tilt angle (or C2-C7 SVA). When compared with the pre-fusion state, in situ fusion across C4-C6 segments required increased flexion angulation and resulted in increased intradiscal pressure at the C6-C7 disc below the fusion in order to accommodate the same increase in C2-C7 tilt angle or C2-C7 SVA (P adjacent segment mechanical burden due to fusion became greater with increasing C2-C7 tilt angle or SVA. Cervical sagittal imbalance arising from regional and/or global spinal sagittal malalignment may play a role in exacerbating adjacent segment pathomechanics after multilevel fusion and should be considered during surgical planning. N/A.

  12. Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy Results in Good Long-Term Mandibular Stability in Patients With Mandibular Prognathism and Anterior Open Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Cha, Jung-Yul; Park, Hyung-Sik; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated the outcomes of intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) for the correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with an anterior open bite and the potential for postoperative relapse. Therefore, this study evaluated the stability of outcomes of IVRO for mandibular prognathism with and without an anterior open bite. This retrospective cohort study included consecutive patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion with (AOB group) and without (NAOB group) an anterior open bite who underwent IVRO at Yonsei Dental Hospital (Seoul, Korea). Lateral cephalograms were analyzed for predictor (open bite, yes or no) and outcome (horizontal and vertical relapse in the mandible) variables before and 7 days, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Other variables included the patients' demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed using independent t tests, repeated measures analysis of variance, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression analysis. The 2 groups (n = 15 each) were matched for baseline demographic characteristics. During the 2-year postoperative period, anterior and superior mandibular movements were observed in the NAOB group, whereas posterior and superior movements were observed in the AOB group. However, there were no meaningful intergroup differences in horizontal and vertical relapses of the mandible at all time points, although the amount of postoperative inferior relapse increased with a decrease in the amount of initial overbite. IVRO for the correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion resulted in good postoperative stability over time, regardless of the presence of a preoperative open bite, although the amount of postoperative inferior relapse showed a weak negative correlation with the initial overbite. Thus, IVRO can be a clinically acceptable treatment for skeletal Class III malocclusion with an anterior open bite. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by

  13. The Influence of Natural Head Position on the Cervical Sagittal Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated the relationship between the parameters related to the natural head position and cervical segmental angles and alignment of patients with neck pain. Material and Methods. The lateral radiographs of the cervical spine were collected from 103 patients and were used to retrospectively analyze the correlation between the natural head position, cervical local sagittal angles, and alignment. Sagittal measurements were as follows: cervical curvature classification, slope of McGregor’s line (McGS, local sagittal angles (C0–C2 angle, C2–C5 angle, C5–C7 angle, and C2–C7 angle, T1 slope, center of gravity of the head to sagittal vertical axis (CG–C7 SVA, and local sagittal alignment (C0–C2 SVA and C2–C7 SVA. Results. McGS was significantly correlated to C0–C2 angle (r=0.57, C0–C2 SVA (r=−0.53, C2–C7 SVA (r=−0.28, and CG–C7 SVA (r=−0.47. CG–C7 SVA was also significantly correlated to curvature type (r=0.27, C5–C7 angle (r=−0.37, and C2–C7 angle (r=−0.39. Conclusions. A backward shift with an extended head position may accompany a relatively normal curvature of the cervical spine. The effect of posture control in relieving abnormal mechanical state of the cervical spine needs to be further confirmed by biomechanical analysis.

  14. Sagittal synostosis in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, Guido [Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The recent observations of two new cases of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets associated with premature closure of the sagittal suture prompted a review of similar cases seen in this institution. To review the clinical records and skull radiographs of 28 children with hypophosphatemic rickets in order to investigate the frequency and type of craniosynostosis and other cranial vault changes seen in these conditions and to review the literature for relevant findings. Clinical and imaging records were reviewed on 28 patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, all younger than 18 years. Most patients had X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and a few had autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets or were non-familial cases. Of the 28 patients, 13 had sagittal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was present in ten patients. The configuration of the cranial vault in some of these ten patients with dolichocephaly varied somewhat from that seen in nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis. In one patient, a Chiari I malformation was demonstrated by MRI. In another patient with increased intracranial pressure the sagittal suture closure was associated with lambdoidal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was not present in three patients, suggesting that the synostosis started later than in the other patients, probably in the second year of life, a period of slower brain growth than in the first year. The two patients in this group of three showed thickening and sclerosis of the cranial vault of uncertain etiology. There is an increased risk of sagittal synostosis in hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases in children. The appearance of the cranial vault in this type of synostosis can vary from that seen in nonsyndromic synostosis. In this setting, careful clinical and imaging follow-up is warranted. (orig.)

  15. PARAMETERS FOR THE EVALUATION OF CERVICAL SAGITTAL BALANCE IN IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO COELHO LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: There are no values defined as standard in the literature for the parameters of assessment of cervical sagittal balance in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. This study describes the sagittal cervical parameters in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Methods: Study carried out in a tertiary public hospital in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, through the evaluation of panoramic radiographs in lateral view. The Cobb method was used to evaluate cervical lordosis from C2 to C7, distance from the center of gravity (COG of the skull to C7, measurement of T1 slope, thoracic inlet angle (TIA, neck tilt, and plumb line from C7 to S1 (SVA C7-S1. A statistical analysis was performed, to demonstrate the relationship between the alignment of the thoracic spine in the sagittal plane and the cervical sagittal balance of patients with scoliosis. Results: Thirty-four patients were female (69.4% and 15 male (30.6%. The mean values for COG-C7 were 0.71 mm (median 0.8 mm/standard deviation [SD]= 0.51 mm. For Cobb C2-C7, the mean was -11.7° (median -10°/SD= 20.4°. The mean slope of T1 was 23.5° (median 25°/SD= 9.5°. The mean cervical version was 58.8° (median 60°/DP= 15.4°. The mean TIA was 81.8° (median 85°/SD= 16.7°. The mean plumb line C7-S1 was -0.28 (-0.3/SD= 1.0. Conclusion: The analysis of the results showed that the mean values for the cervical lordosis are lower than the values described as normal in the literature, suggesting a loss of sagittal cervical balance in these patients.

  16. Split Questionnaire Design for Massive Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiguzel, F.; Wedel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Companies are conducting more and longer surveys than ever before. Massive questionnaires are pervasive in marketing practice. As an alternative to the heuristic methods that are currently used to split questionnaires, this study develops a methodology to design the split questionnaire in a way that

  17. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  18. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogberashvili M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  19. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  20. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  1. On split Lie triple systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lie triple system with a coherent 0-root space is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of T is characterized. In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces. Keywords.

  2. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-10-01

    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  3. The effects of orthognathic surgery on mandibular movements in patients with mandibular prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinobad Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mandibular prognathism, one of the most severe dentofacial deformities, affects the person’s appearance, psychological health and the quality of life in the most sensitive age period. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sagittal split ramus osteotomy on the range of mandibular border movements in the early postoperative period. Methods. The study was conducted on 20 patients, of mean age 20.8 years, with mandibular prognathism. All patients included in this study were operated on by bilateral sagittal spliting ramus osteotomy according to Obwegeser and Dal Pont followed by mandibular immobilization during eight weeks. In all patients mandibular border movements were recorded before and six months after surgery using the computerized pantograph Arcus-Digma (KaVo EWL GmbH, Leutkirch, Germany. Results. The analysis of the chosen kinematic parameters revealed that sagittal split ramus osteotomy followed by eight weeks of mandibular immobilization had severe effects on the mouth opening. Six months after surgery the range of maximal mouth opening decreased for approximately 13.9 mm in relation to the preoperative stage. On the contrary, the ranges of maximal protrusion and the border of laterotrusive excursions increased significantly after surgery. Conclusion. In patients with mandibular prognathism where enormous mandibular growth was the main causal factor of the deformity, the sagittal split ramus osteotomy yielded good results. The rigid fixation of bone fragments and reduced period of mandibular immobilization followed by appropriate physical therapy could considerably contribute to a more rapid recovery of mandibular kinematics in the postoperative period.

  4. Concurrent split cord malformation and teratoma: dysembryology, presentation, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ranjith; Reynolds, Renee; Moreno, Jessica R; Cummings, Thomas J; Bagley, Carlos A

    2014-02-01

    Split cord malformation (SCM) is a rare form of spinal dysraphism in which the spinal cord is divided in the sagittal plane, forming a double neural tube. In addition to being associated with a variety of malformations, SCM may occur with spinal cord tumors, with only exceptional cases involving teratomas. As only eight patients with a teratoma associated with SCM have been reported, their presentation characteristics and treatment are currently unclear. We review the literature of all patients with SCM with concurrent spinal teratoma, discuss the potential dysembryology, and report the first case of SCM with concurrent spinal teratoma in an elderly patient. The mean age of those with concurrent SCM and teratomas was 39.4 years, with 55.6% occurring in females. The lumbar spine was the most frequent location for teratomas (66.7%), with the Type II malformation more commonly occurring with these tumors (75%). The duration of symptoms varied widely, ranging from 1 month to 5 years, with the average duration being nearly 2 years. Back pain (87.5%) and lower extremity weakness (75%) were the most common presenting symptoms. As SCM may be associated with progressive neurological deterioration and teratomas can contain immature or malignant components, surgery should be attempted with the goal of gross total resection. Nonetheless, in patients with a concurrent tumor and spinal dysraphism, spinal teratomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Gross total resection of these lesions may be safely achieved even in the presence of SCM using intraoperative electrophysiologic monitoring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PLANIMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CORPUS CALLOSUM SAGITTAL PROFILE IN MIDDLE- AND ADVANCED AGED MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiagina, O; Kostilenko, Yu

    2017-10-01

    The sagittal profile of the corpus callosum is available for morphometric measurements of conditioned linear distances when elucidating its age-related changes and sexual dimorphism. But in this case, the opportunity to determine the total area of the sagittal profile of the corpus callosum is lost, while being a more full expression of its digital characteristics. We set the goal to establish the differences between planimetric indices of male corpus callosum of the first and second periods of adulthood and the advanced age. The work used 65 brain preparations of men aged 22 to 73 years who died for reasons unrelated to the pathology of the central nervous system. After a two-week fixation in a 10% solution of neutral formalin, the brain was dissected along the longitudinal sagittal fissure into two hemispheres, one of which was used to photograph its medial surface with an overlaid scale ruler. The received standardized photos were used to determine the basic metric parameters and conduct a planimetric study of the sagittal profile of the corpus callosum using the Adobe Photoshop CS6 Extended computer program. The overall evaluation of the results of planimetric analysis of the male corpus callosum sagittal profile we directed attention to the fact that within each age group there is a wide scatter of individual digital values of its area as well as random and irregular nature of their distribution that is completely independent of the intra-group age chronology. Thus, in the first period of adulthood, the minimum value of the area of the corpus callosum sagittal profile is 560 mm2, while the maximum value is 930 mm2 (the average statistical value is 747.5 ± 110.4 mm2). In the second period of adulthood, somewhat lower indicators are indicated; if the minimum value of it is equal to 412 mm2, then the maximum value is 868 mm2 (the average is 684.7 ± 130.0 mm2). In the advanced age, we find them in the range between 441 and 867 mm2 (the average value is 650.2

  6. Measurement and Finite Element Model Validation of Immature Porcine Brain-Skull Displacement during Rapid Sagittal Head Rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquesi, Stephanie A; Margulies, Susan S

    2018-01-01

    Computational models are valuable tools for studying tissue-level mechanisms of traumatic brain injury, but to produce more accurate estimates of tissue deformation, these models must be validated against experimental data. In this study, we present in situ measurements of brain-skull displacement in the neonatal piglet head ( n  = 3) at the sagittal midline during six rapid non-impact rotations (two rotations per specimen) with peak angular velocities averaging 51.7 ± 1.4 rad/s. Marks on the sagittally cut brain and skull/rigid potting surfaces were tracked, and peak values of relative brain-skull displacement were extracted and found to be significantly less than values extracted from a previous axial plane model. In a finite element model of the sagittally transected neonatal porcine head, the brain-skull boundary condition was matched to the measured physical experiment data. Despite smaller sagittal plane displacements at the brain-skull boundary, the corresponding finite element boundary condition optimized for sagittal plane rotations is far less stiff than its axial counterpart, likely due to the prominent role of the boundary geometry in restricting interface movement. Finally, bridging veins were included in the finite element model. Varying the bridging vein mechanical behavior over a previously reported range had no influence on the brain-skull boundary displacements. This direction-specific sagittal plane boundary condition can be employed in finite element models of rapid sagittal head rotations.

  7. Measurement and Finite Element Model Validation of Immature Porcine Brain–Skull Displacement during Rapid Sagittal Head Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Pasquesi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational models are valuable tools for studying tissue-level mechanisms of traumatic brain injury, but to produce more accurate estimates of tissue deformation, these models must be validated against experimental data. In this study, we present in situ measurements of brain–skull displacement in the neonatal piglet head (n = 3 at the sagittal midline during six rapid non-impact rotations (two rotations per specimen with peak angular velocities averaging 51.7 ± 1.4 rad/s. Marks on the sagittally cut brain and skull/rigid potting surfaces were tracked, and peak values of relative brain–skull displacement were extracted and found to be significantly less than values extracted from a previous axial plane model. In a finite element model of the sagittally transected neonatal porcine head, the brain–skull boundary condition was matched to the measured physical experiment data. Despite smaller sagittal plane displacements at the brain–skull boundary, the corresponding finite element boundary condition optimized for sagittal plane rotations is far less stiff than its axial counterpart, likely due to the prominent role of the boundary geometry in restricting interface movement. Finally, bridging veins were included in the finite element model. Varying the bridging vein mechanical behavior over a previously reported range had no influence on the brain–skull boundary displacements. This direction-specific sagittal plane boundary condition can be employed in finite element models of rapid sagittal head rotations.

  8. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.

    1992-08-01

    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  9. 2-Photon tandem device for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2014-01-01

    Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... absorption, this is the more difficult side to optimize. Nevertheless, by using TiO2 as a transparent cathode protection layer in conjunction with known H-2 evolution catalysts, protection is clearly feasible for a large bandgap photocathode. This suggests that there may be promising strategies...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....

  10. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-07

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν{sub 2} bending mode starting with 4ν{sub 2}.

  11. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department

    2017-01-01

    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  12. The Specific Sagittal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intradural Extra-Arachnoid Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Sasaji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intradural extra-arachnoid lumbar disc herniation is a rare disease. Few MRI findings have been reported. We experienced an intradural extra-arachnoid lumbar disc herniation. We reviewed the preoperative MRI findings. Lumbar spine T2-weighted sagittal MRI showed that one line of the ventral dura was divided into two by a disc herniation. We speculated that the two lines comprised the dura and arachnoid and that a disc herniation existed between them. We believe that division of the ventral dural line on T2-weighted sagittal images is a characteristic finding of intradural extra-arachnoid lumbar disc herniation. The division of ventral dural line seemed to be a “Y,” and, thus, we called it the “Y sign.” The “Y sign” may be useful for diagnosing intradural extra-arachnoid lumbar disc herniation.

  13. The Specific Sagittal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intradural Extra-Arachnoid Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaji, Tatsuro; Horaguchi, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Noboru; Iwai, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Intradural extra-arachnoid lumbar disc herniation is a rare disease. Few MRI findings have been reported. We experienced an intradural extra-arachnoid lumbar disc herniation. We reviewed the preoperative MRI findings. Lumbar spine T2-weighted sagittal MRI showed that one line of the ventral dura was divided into two by a disc herniation. We speculated that the two lines comprised the dura and arachnoid and that a disc herniation existed between them. We believe that division of the ventral dural line on T2-weighted sagittal images is a characteristic finding of intradural extra-arachnoid lumbar disc herniation. The division of ventral dural line seemed to be a “Y,” and, thus, we called it the “Y sign.” The “Y sign” may be useful for diagnosing intradural extra-arachnoid lumbar disc herniation. PMID:22431932

  14. Influence of implant rod curvature on sagittal correction of scoliosis deformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmingo, Remel A.; Tadano, Shigeru; Abe, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    scoliosis patients underwent surgery. Average age at the time of operation was 14 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: The preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature expressed in degrees was obtained for each patient. METHODS: Two implant rods were attached to the concave and convex side...... of curvature between the implant rod extreme ends was measured before implantation and after surgery. The sagittal curvature between the corresponding spinal levels of healthy adolescents obtained by previous studies was compared with the implant rod angle of curvature to evaluate the sagittal curve correction...... significantly deformed after surgery. The average degree of rod deformation Dq at the concave and convex sides was 15.8 and 1.6, respectively. The average preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature at the concave side was 33.6 and 17.8, respectively. The average preoperative and postoperative...

  15. Craniofacial characteristics in the sagittal dimension: A cephalometric study in Lebanese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraze, Antoine; Delatte, Myriam; Bou Saba, Sami; Majzoub, Zeina

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sagittal cephalometric characteristics of young adult Lebanese individuals and assess gender-related differences. Conventional lateral cephalograms were obtained from 117 subjects. Eight linear/angular measurements combining sagittal parameters selected form McNamara and Steiner analyses were recorded. Paired t-test was applied to evaluate differences between genders and skeletal classes. Males showed significantly greater maxillary and mandibular length than females. ANB was larger in females with no significant differences in SNA values indicating that Lebanese females tend to have a more convex profile than their male counterparts. Subjects with skeletal Class III tended to have a retrognathic maxilla rather than a prognathic mandible. Sexual dimorphism is evident in young Lebanese adults relative to linear skeletal dimensions regardless of the skeletal class. Skeletal determinants of Class III malocclusions may be different from those of other population groups. Copyright © 2016 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Sagittal synostosis: II. Cranial morphology and growth after the modified pi-plasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimaraes-Ferreira, J.; Gewalli, F.; David, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the postoperative cranial growth and morphology after a modified pi-plasty for sagittal synostosis. The shape of the skull of 82 patients with isolated premature synostosis of the sagittal suture ( SS group) operated on with a modified pi-plasty was studied...... developed by Kreiborg, which included the digitisation of 89 landmarks of the calvaria, cranial base, and orbit ( 43 in the lateral and 46 in the frontal projections), the production of mean shape plots for each group, and the intergroup comparison of a series of 78 variables ( linear distance between...... selected landmarks, and angles defined by groups of three landmarks). Paired and unpaired t tests were used to assess the differences between the variables studied. These were accepted as significant for values of p...

  17. A Review Of Referral Patterns For Sagittal Synostosis In Ireland: 2008-2013

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Berney, M J

    2018-01-01

    Sagittal synostosis (SS) is the commonest form of craniosynostosis. Children with sagittal synostosis in Ireland are treated in the National Paediatric Craniofacial Centre (NPCC) in Temple Street Children’s University Hospital. This retrospective study analysed the correlation between referral patterns to the unit and age at operation. The notes of 81 patients referred over a 5 year period (April 2008 – April 2013) to the NPCC with non-syndromic SS were reviewed and demographics and referral information were recorded. Of 81 patients reviewed, 60 (74%) were referred before 6 months of age, while 21 (26%) had late referrals. Neonatologists referred 100% of infants before 6 months, paediatricians referred 71%, and GPs 64%. Later referral was associated with a more complex referral pathway, including multiple-steps of referral and unnecessary investigations. Improved clinician knowledge and emphasis on the importance of early referral may lead to a reduction in late referrals.

  18. Sagittal crystal focusing of undulator radiation with high heat load inclined crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Sagittal focusing of undulator radiation is shown to be compatible with the proposed inclined double-crystal monochromator geometry for heat load reduction. The focusing aberrations are found to be negligible for typical undulator-beam divergences over a range of magnifications from 1:2 to 6:1 and energies from 3 to 40 keV. The inclined geometry reduces the required signal sagittal curvature of the focusing crystal compared to focusing with conventional symmetric crystals; hence, focusing is possible at higher X-ray energies and with less anticlastic bending. In addition, anticlastic stiffening ribs project a smaller footprint to the beam so that the achievable focal spot size is potentially better than with conventional symmetrically cut crystals. 16 refs

  19. Is Postoperative Intensive Care Unit Care Necessary following Cranial Vault Remodeling for Sagittal Synostosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Howell, Lori K; Fahradyan, Artur; Azadgoli, Beina; McComb, J Gordon; Urata, Mark M

    2017-12-01

    Of U.S. craniofacial and neurosurgeons, 94 percent routinely admit patients to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for correction of sagittal synostosis. This study aims to examine the outcomes and cost of direct ward admission following primary cranial vault remodeling for sagittal synostosis. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review was undertaken of the records of all patients who underwent primary cranial vault remodeling for isolated sagittal craniosynostosis from 2009 to 2015 at a single pediatric hospital. Patient demographics, perioperative course, and outcomes were recorded. One hundred ten patients met inclusion criteria with absence of other major medical problems. Average age at operation was 6.7 months, with a mean follow-up of 19.8 months. Ninety-eight patients (89 percent) were admitted to a general ward for postoperative care, whereas the remaining 12 (11 percent) were admitted to the intensive care unit for preoperative or perioperative concerns. Among ward-admitted patients, there were four (3.6 percent) minor complications; however, there were no major adverse events, with none necessitating intensive care unit transfers from the ward and no mortalities. Average hospital stay was 3.7 days. The institution's financial difference in cost of intensive care unit stay versus ward bed was $5520 on average per bed per day. Omitting just one intensive care unit postoperative day stay for this patient cohort would reduce projected health care costs by a total of $540,960 for the study period. Despite the common practice of postoperative admission to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for sagittal craniosynostosis, the authors suggest that postoperative care be considered on an individual basis, with only a small percentage requiring a higher level of care. Therapeutic, III.

  20. Evaluation of the Sagittal Saw Blade as an Intraoperative Fomite During Diabetic Foot Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Corine L; Malan, Jared R; Meyr, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Surgical site infection is a major potential complication of all operative interventions, and the diabetic foot is particularly at risk for bacterial recontamination and infectious sequelae. The objective of this study was to identify whether the sagittal saw blade used during partial foot amputations and diabetic foot debridements carries the potential to serve as a bacterial fomite. We physically cultured the sagittal saw blade during 20 foot debridements involving the resection of bone in patients diagnosed with a diabetic foot infection. The culture was taken after the initial debridement and during the irrigation phase of the procedure. We observed 16 positive routine intraoperative culture results, with positive saw blade culture results in 15 (93.8%; 15/16) of these cases. In 14 (93.3%; 14/15) of these cases, the saw blade culture grew at least one of the same bacteria as our other routine intraoperative cultures. We observed 4 negative routine intraoperative culture results, with negative saw blade culture results in 3 (75.0%; 3/4) of these cases. This results in agreement between routine intraoperative cultures and saw blade culture of 85.0% (17/20). The results of this investigation demonstrate that the sagittal saw blade used for osseous resection during diabetic foot debridements and partial foot amputations carries the potential for intraoperative bacterial transmission. We recommend changing at least the sagittal saw blade if more bone is resected following irrigation, particularly if it is used to obtain a "clean margin" for microbiological or histological examination. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  1. The Specific Sagittal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intradural Extra-Arachnoid Lumbar Disc Herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaji, Tatsuro; Horaguchi, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Noboru; Iwai, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Intradural extra-arachnoid lumbar disc herniation is a rare disease. Few MRI findings have been reported. We experienced an intradural extra-arachnoid lumbar disc herniation. We reviewed the preoperative MRI findings. Lumbar spine T2-weighted sagittal MRI showed that one line of the ventral dura was divided into two by a disc herniation. We speculated that the two lines comprised the dura and arachnoid and that a disc herniation existed between them. We believe that division of the ventral du...

  2. 3 Dimensional Plate in Management of Sagittal Palatal Fracture: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Anshul

    2017-12-01

    The palatal fracture is rare. There are varieties of techniques mentioned in the literature for fixation of palatal fracture. The management with Kirschner wire fixation, maxillary arch stabilization with the arch bars, trans-palatal, intra osseous, inter-molar, figure of eight wiring were technique sensitive and having poor patient compliance. We recommended the use of isolated 3 dimensional plate for fixation of sagittal palatal fracture.

  3. Sagittal fractures of the third carpal bone in horses: 12 cases (1977-1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.T. Jr.; Stover, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Third carpal sagittal fractures were found to be related to racing injuries in 10 of 12 horses. These fractures occurred most commonly on the medial aspect of the bone. A dorsoproximal-dorsodistal view of the carpus was required to visualize the fracture in all cases. Healing of the fracture required periods of rest of up to one year. Conservative management of these fractures resulted in return to function in 7 of 12 horses

  4. Correlation of Dental and Skeletal Malocclusions in Sagittal Plane among Saudi Orthodontic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamlan, Nasir; Al-Eissa, Balsam; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S; Albalawi, Farraj S; Ahmed, Anwar E

    2015-05-01

    Whether or not the dental relationship correlates with skeletal relationship in the sagittal plane is an area of interest for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the dental malocclusion and the skeletal malocclusion in the sagittal plane among Saudi orthodontic patients. Orthodontic dental casts and cephalometric radiographs of 124 patients were investigated and analyzed. The dental casts were classified in relation to the molar relationship according to Angle's classification and to the incisal relationship according to the British Standards Institution (BSI) classification. The sagittal relation in the cephalometric radiographs was analyzed according to ANB angle and WITS appraisal. The results show that the incisal relation had a very high significant association with WITS appraisal (p = 0.0045), whereas with ANB, the association was marginally significant (p =0.0528). No significant associations were found with molar relation neither at ANB (p = 0.2075) nor at the WITS (p = 0.4794) appraisal. Significant positive correlations between ANB and WITS appraisal were found at the three incisal classification classes (class I, r = 0.73; class II, r = 0.64; class III, r = 0.75) and no significant correlation was observed in all classes with the Angle's (molar) classification. The incisal classification had a significant association with WITS appraisal, whereas with ANB the association was marginally significant. No correlation was found between Angle's (molar) classification and ANB or WITS appraisal. The incisal relation could be considered as a good indicator of the skeletal malocclusion in the sagittal plane in the orthodontic practice.

  5. Sagittal changes in lower incisors by the use of lingual arch

    OpenAIRE

    Letti,Helen Carolina Becker; Rizzatto,Susana Maria Deon; Menezes,Luciane Macedo de; Reale,Chalana Sangalli; Lima,Eduardo Martinelli de; Martinelli,Fernando Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate a sagittal variation on the lower incisors with the use of the lingual arch on the transition from mixed to permanent dentition. METHODS: The sample was constituted of 44 Caucasian patients (26 girls and 18 boys), divided in two groups: CG, control group, monitoring the lower arch space with no orthodontic/orthopedic treatment during the rated period (n = 14); EG, experimental group, presenting anterior inferior mild crowding and installa...

  6. Current concepts on the sagittal balance and classification of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis ? ??

    OpenAIRE

    Tebet, Marcos Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons and paediatrics. In spondylolisthesis, it has been clearly demonstrated over the past decade that spino-pelvic morphology is abnormal and that it can be associated to an abnormal sacro-pelvic orientation as well as to a disturbed global sagittal balance of spine. This article presents the SDSG (Spinal Deformity Study Group) classification of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. The proper tr...

  7. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Natalia Cavalheri; de Oliveira, Erick Prado

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87?...

  8. The effect of neurocranial surgery on basicranial morphology in isolated sagittal craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, V B; Zumpano, M P; Richtsmeier, J T

    2001-03-01

    Isolated sagittal craniosynostosis produces a scaphocephalic neurocranium associated with abnormal basicranial morphology, providing additional evidence of the developmental relationship of the neurocranium and basicranium. Corrective surgical procedures vary, but the immediate impact of the surgical procedure is restricted to the neurocranium. This study addresses the secondary effects of neurocranial surgery on the cranial base. Three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained for preoperative (n = 25) and postoperative (n = 12) patients with isolated sagittal synostosis. Landmark data from 14 landmarks on and around the cranial base were collected from 3-D CT reconstructions and analyzed using Euclidean distance matrix analysis. Subsamples of age-matched patients were used to identify basicranial differences in pre- and postoperative patients and to compare postoperative growth patterns identified in longitudinal data with preoperative growth patterns characterized in cross-sectional data. Statistically significant differences (p asterion, and left asterion are similar in preoperative and postoperative patients. However, the position of these landmarks relative to the cranial base is different in the two groups, being positioned relatively more anteriorly in postoperative patients. In addition, we found that the cranial base angle, on average, neither increases nor decreases in the first postoperative year. These morphological differences are associated with divergent growth trajectories in the operated and unoperated cranial base. Regardless of specific procedure, neurocranial surgery in sagittal synostosis patients affects growth patterns of the cranial base. The lack of change in the postoperative cranial base angle suggests that neurocranial surgery alleviates the occipital rotation and decreased cranial base angle described in the sagittal synostosis basicranium.

  9. Evaluation of palatal rugae pattern in different sagittal skeletal relationship adolescent subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Oral, Ekrem; Buyuk, S. Kutalmi?; Simsek, Huseyin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological structure of palatal rugae in Turkish orthodontic subjects with different sagittal skeletal malocclusions. Orthodontic dental casts of 105 patients (Class I [23 females, 12 males]; 35, Class II [18 females, 17 males]; and 35, Class III [14 females, 21 males] 10?22 years old) were analyzed for rugae patterns. Palatal rugae pattern and number, direction of rugae alignment, shape of incisive papilla were analyzed. Modified Thom...

  10. Does Shoe Collar Height Influence Ankle Joint Kinematics and Kinetics in Sagittal Plane Maneuvers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fang, Ying; Zhang, Xini; He, Junliang; Fu, Weijie

    2017-12-01

    The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively) performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) maneuver, drop jumps (DJs), and lay-up jumps (LJs). Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041) was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028) and power (p = 0.022) were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion-extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane.

  11. [Analysis of variation of sagittal position of the jaw bones in skeletal Class III malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zdenka; Nikolić, Predrag; Nikodijević, Angelina; Milić, Jasmina; Duka, Milos

    2012-12-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion is a discrepancy in the sagittal jaw relationship, due to imbalances in their development and/or position, resulting in the dominant appearance of the lower jaw in facial profile. The aim of this study was to determine variations in the sagittal position of the jaw bones to the cranial base in subjects with skeletal Class III, for the earliest possible diagnosis of malocclusion. Fifty children and as many adults with skeletal Class III, both sexes, were examined and selected, based on the findings of sagittal interjaw relationship (ANB) children aged 6-12 years, and another group, of adults aged 18-26 years. We measured the angles of maxillary prognathism (SNA), mandibular prognathism (SNB) and ANB. Based on these results, within the respective groups subclassification into the subgroups was done, among which a significant difference measured values was evaluated. In both groups a significant correlation of the determined values was evaluated. An average SNA angle ranged 77.36 +/- 3.58 in children and 77.32 +/- 4.88 in adults, while an average SNB angle was 79.46 +/- 3.91 in the group of children and 81.12 +/- 3.76 in adults. An average ANB angle was -2.10 +/- 2.07 in children, and -4.00 +/- 2.34 in adults. In both groups, a significant correlation between the measured values and a significant difference in the values of all the measured parameters were found between patients from different subgroups (p children and adults. Sagittal position of the lower jaw in most of the adults was prognathic, while mandible prognathism in the children was less present.

  12. Correlation between sagittal plane changes and adjacent segment degeneration following lumbar spine fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Malhar; Baklanov, Andrei; Chopin, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Adjacent segment degeneration following lumbar spine fusion remains a widely acknowledged problem, but there is insufficient knowledge regarding the factors that contribute to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between abnormal sagittal plane configuration of the lumbar spine and the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Eighty-three consecutive patients who underwent lumbar fusion for degenerative disc disease were reviewed retrospectively. Patients ...

  13. Demonstration of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgers, S.L.; Strauss, E.; Smith, E.O.; Reed, D.; Ezekowitz, M.D.

    1986-10-01

    Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, documented by cerebral angiography, was demonstrated by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy in a 40-year-old man presenting with seizures and intracerebral hematoma. Early scintigraphy demonstrated focal increased indium-111 activity at the two ends of the thrombus, while later scintigraphy showed diffuse increased activity in the area of the sinus. This initial experience suggests that platelet scintigraphy may provide unique information regarding the natural history of intracranial venous thrombosis.

  14. Splitting Strip Detector Clusters in Dense Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Tracking in high density environments, particularly in high energy jets, plays an important role in many physics analyses at the LHC. In such environments, there is significant degradation of track reconstruction performance. Between runs 1 and 2, ATLAS implemented an algorithm that splits pixel clusters originating from multiple charged particles, using charge information, resulting in the recovery of much of the lost efficiency. However, no attempt was made in prior work to split merged clusters in the Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), which does not measure charge information. In spite of the lack of charge information in SCT, a cluster-splitting algorithm has been developed in this work. It is based primarily on the difference between the observed cluster width and the expected cluster width, which is derived from track incidence angle. The performance of this algorithm is found to be competitive with the existing pixel cluster splitting based on track information.

  15. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn 4 CaO 5 -cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed

  16. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. The Role of Proprioception in the Sagittal Setting of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments During Gait Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Marcelo P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Previous studies have studied the role of proprioception on the setting of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA during gait initiation. However, these studies did not investigate the role of proprioception in the sagittal APA setting. We aimed to investigate the role of proprioception manipulation to induce APA sagittal adaptations on gait initiation. Methods. Fourteen healthy adults performed gait initiation without, and with, vibration applied before movement onset, and during movement. In addition, the effects of two different vibration frequencies (80 and 120Hz were tested. Vibration was applied bilaterally on the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris and trapezius superior. The first step characteristics, ground reaction forces and CoP behaviour were assessed. Results. Vibration improved gait initiation performance regardless of the moment it was applied. CoP velocity during the initial phase of APA was increased by vibration only when it was applied before movement. When vibration was applied to disturb the movement, no effects on the CoP behaviour were observed. Manipulation of vibration frequency had no effects. Conclusions. Rather than proprioception manipulation, the results suggest that post-vibratory effects and attentional mechanisms were responsible for our results. Taken together, the results show that sagittal APA setting is robust to proprioception manipulation.

  18. CORRELATION BETWEEN OBESITY, SAGITTAL BALANCE AND CLINICAL OUTCOME IN SPINAL FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Machado da Motta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To correlate obesity with radiographic parameters of spinal and spinopelvic balance in patients undergoing spinal arthrodesis, and to correlate obesity with clinical outcome of these patients.Methods:Observational retrospective study including patients who underwent spinal arthrodesis, with minimum follow-up period of three months. We measured waist circumference, as well as height and weight to calculate body mass index (BMI and obtained radiographs of the total column. The clinical parameters studied were pain by visual analog scale (VAS and the Oswestry questionnaire (ODI. Obesity correlated with radiographic parameters of the sagittal and spinopelvic balance and postoperative clinical parameters.Results:32 patients were analyzed. The higher the BMI, the greater the value of VAS found, but without statistical significance (p=0.83. There was also no correlation between BMI and the ODI questionnaire. Analyzing the abdominal circumference, there was no correlation between the VAS and ODI. There was no correlation between BMI or waist circumference and the radiographic parameters of global spinopelvic sagittal alignment. Regarding the postoperative results, there was no correlation between the mean BMI and waist circumference and the postoperative results for ODI and VAS (p=0.75 and p=0.7, respectively.Conclusions:The clinical outcomes of patients who undergone spinal fusion were not affected by the BMI and waist circumference. Also, there was no correlation between radiographic parameters of spinal and spinopelvic sagittal balance with obesity in patients previously treated with arthrodesis of the spine.

  19. Differences of Sagittal Lumbosacral Parameters between Patients with Lumbar Spondylolysis and Normal Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Peng, Bao-Gan; Li, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Nai-Yang; Yang, Liang; Li, Duan-Ming

    2016-05-20

    Recent studies have suggested an association between elevated pelvic incidence (PI) and the development of lumbar spondylolysis. However, there is still lack of investigation for Han Chinese people concerning the normal range of spinopelvic parameters and relationship between abnormal sagittal parameters and lumbar diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate sagittal lumbosacral parameters of adult lumbar spondylolysis patients in Han Chinese population. A total of 52 adult patients with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis treated in the General Hospital of Armed Police Force (Beijing, China) were identified as the spondylolysis group. All the 52 patients were divided into two subgroups, Subgroup A: 36 patients with simple lumbar spondylolysis, and Subgroup B: 16 patients with lumbar spondylolysis accompanying with mild lumbar spondylolisthesis (slip percentage spondylolysis group and the control group with independent-sample t- test. There were no statistically significant differences of all seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters between Subgroup A and Subgroup B. PI, PT, SS, and LL were higher (P spondylolysis group than those in the control group, but STA was lower (P spondylolysis group. Current study results suggest that increased PI and decreased STA may play important roles in the pathology of lumbar spondylolysis in Han Chinese population.

  20. WAVELET ANALYSIS AND NEURAL NETWORK CLASSIFIERS TO DETECT MID-SAGITTAL SECTIONS FOR NUCHAL TRANSLUCENCY MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppa Sciortino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodology to support the physician in the automatic identification of mid-sagittal sections of the fetus in ultrasound videos acquired during the first trimester of pregnancy. A good mid-sagittal section is a key requirement to make the correct measurement of nuchal translucency which is one of the main marker for screening of chromosomal defects such as trisomy 13, 18 and 21. NT measurement is beyond the scope of this article. The proposed methodology is mainly based on wavelet analysis and neural network classifiers to detect the jawbone and on radial symmetry analysis to detect the choroid plexus. Those steps allow to identify the frames which represent correct mid-sagittal sections to be processed. The performance of the proposed methodology was analyzed on 3000 random frames uniformly extracted from 10 real clinical ultrasound videos. With respect to a ground-truth provided by an expert physician, we obtained a true positive, a true negative and a balanced accuracy equal to 87.26%, 94.98% and 91.12% respectively.

  1. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window

    OpenAIRE

    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  2. A split SUSY model from SUSY GUT

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, FeiDepartment of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, P.R. China; Wang, Wenyu(Institute of Theoretical Physics, College of Applied Science, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, P.R. China); Yang, Jin(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P.R. China)

    2015-01-01

    We propose to split the sparticle spectrum from the hierarchy between the GUT scale and the Planck scale. A split supersymmetric model, which gives non-universal gaugino masses, is built with proper high dimensional operators in the framework of SO(10) GUT. Based on a calculation of two-loop beta functions for gauge couplings (taking into account all weak scale threshold corrections), we check the gauge coupling unification and dark matter constraints (relic density and direct detections). We...

  3. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  4. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2018-02-01

    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  5. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  6. The accuracy of three-dimensional fused deposition modeling (FDM) compared with three-dimensional CT-Scans on the measurement of the mandibular ramus vertical length, gonion-menton length, and gonial angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitri, I. T.; Badri, C.; Sulistyani, L. D.

    2017-08-01

    Presurgical treatment planning plays an important role in the reconstruction and correction of defects in the craniomaxillofacial region. The advance of solid freeform fabrication techniques has significantly improved the process of preparing a biomodel using computer-aided design and data from medical imaging. Many factors are implicated in the accuracy of the 3D model. To determine the accuracy of three-dimensional fused deposition modeling (FDM) models compared with three-dimensional CT scans in the measurement of the mandibular ramus vertical length, gonion-menton length, and gonial angle. Eight 3D models were produced from the CT scan data (DICOM file) of eight patients at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Three measurements were done three times by two examiners. The measurements of the 3D CT scans were made using OsiriX software, while the measurements of the 3D models were made using a digital caliper and goniometry. The measurement results were then compared. There is no significant difference between the measurements of the mandibular ramus vertical length, gonion-menton length, and gonial angle using 3D CT scans and FDM 3D models. FDM 3D models are considered accurate and are acceptable for clinical applications in dental and craniomaxillofacial surgery.

  7. Analysis of variation of sagittal position of the jaw bones in skeletal class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Skeletal Class III malocclusion is a discrepancy in the sagittal jaw relationship, due to imbalances in their development and/or position, resulting in the dominant appearance of the lower jaw in facial profile. The aim of this study was to determine variations in the sagittal position of the jaw bones to the cranial base in subjects with skeletal Class III, for the earliest possible diagnosis of malocclusion. Methods. Fifty children and as many adults with skeletal Class III, both sexes, were examined and selected, based on the findings of sagittal interjaw relationship (ANB ≤ 0° from the cephalometric analysis of tele-x-ray profile head shots. The subjects were grouped according to age. The first group consisted of children aged 6-12 years, and another group, of adults aged 18-26 years. We measured the angles of maxillary prognathism (SNA, mandibular prognathism (SNB and ANB. Based on these results, within the respective groups subclassification into the subgroups was done, among which a significant difference measured values was evaluated. In both groups a significant correlation of the determined values was evaluated. Results. An average SNA angle ranged 77.36 ± 3.58 in children and 77.32 ± 4.88 in adults, while an average SNB angle was 79.46 ± 3.91 in the group of children and 81.12 ± 3.76 in adults. An average ANB angle was -2.10 ± 2.07 in children, and -4.00 ± 2.34 in adults. In both groups, a significant correlation between the measured values and a significant difference in the values of all the measured parameters were found between patients from different subgroups (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The most common morphological variation of sagittal position of the upper jaw is its retrognatism, which is equally present in both children and adults. Sagittal position of the lower jaw in most of the adults was prognathic, while mandible prognathism in the children was less present.

  8. Non-structural misalignments of body posture in the sagittal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Stoliński, Łukasz; Tyrakowski, Marcin; Kozinoga, Mateusz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The physiological sagittal spinal curvature represents a typical feature of good body posture in the sagittal plane. The cervical and the lumbar spine are curved anteriorly (lordosis), while the thoracic segment is curved posteriorly (kyphosis). The pelvis is inclined anteriorly, and the lower limbs' joints remain in a neutral position. However, there are many deviations from the optimal body alignment.The aim of this paper is to present the most common types of non-structural misalignments of the body posture in the sagittal plane. The most common types of non-structural misalignments of body posture in the sagittal plane are as follows: (1) lordotic, (2) kyphotic, (3) flat-back, and (4) sway-back postures. Each one may influence both the skeletal and the muscular system leading to the functional disturbance and an increased strain of the supporting structures. Usually, the disturbances localized within the muscles are analyzed in respect to their shortening or lengthening. However, according to suggestions presented in the literature, when the muscles responsible for maintaining good body posture (the so-called stabilizers) are not being stimulated to resist against gravity for an extended period of time, e.g., during prolonged sitting, their stabilizing function is disturbed by the hypoactivity reaction resulting in muscular weakness. The deficit of the locomotor system stability triggers a compensatory mechanism-the stabilizing function is overtaken by the so-called mobilizing muscles. However, as a side effect, such compensation leads to the increased activity of mobilizers (hyperactivity) and decreased flexibility, which may finally lead to the pathological chain of reaction within the musculoskeletal system. There exist four principal types of non-structural body posture misalignments in the sagittal plane: lordotic posture, kyphotic posture, flat-back posture, and sway-back posture. Each of them can disturb the physiological loading of the musculoskeletal

  9. Problems arising in differential diagnosis in the chest X-ray in patients with small sagittal diameter of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, P.; Stiglbauer, R.; Barton, P.; Frank, H.

    1989-01-01

    In patients with a small sagittal diameter of the thorax often carcia murmurs are heard. Since the p.a. chest X-ray in such cases often shows an enlarged heart shadow, problems arise in the interpretation of the films. In this paper, the typical appearance of the heart shadow in patients with small sagittal diameter of the thorax is described and the differential diagnosis is discussed. Echocardiography is the ideal additional diagnostic method, when problems in differential diagnosis occur. (orig.) [de

  10. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate purpose...

  11. Fano resonance Rabi splitting of surface plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguang; Li, Jiafang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2017-08-14

    Rabi splitting and Fano resonance are well-known physical phenomena in conventional quantum systems as atoms and quantum dots, arising from strong interaction between two quantum states. In recent years similar features have been observed in various nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic systems. Yet, realization of strong interaction between two or more Fano resonance states has not been accomplished either in quantum or in optical systems. Here we report the observation of Rabi splitting of two strongly coupled surface plasmon Fano resonance states in a three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructure consisting of vertical asymmetric split-ring resonators. The plasmonic system stably supports triple Fano resonance states and double Rabi splittings can occur between lower and upper pairs of the Fano resonance states. The experimental discovery agrees excellently with rigorous numerical simulations, and is well explained by an analytical three-oscillator model. The discovery of Fano resonance Rabi splitting could provide a stimulating insight to explore new fundamental physics in analogous atomic systems and could be used to significantly enhance light-matter interaction for optical sensing and detecting applications.

  12. Photochemical Water-Splitting with Organomanganese Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadassery, Karthika J; Dey, Suman Kr; Cannella, Anthony F; Surendhran, Roshaan; Lacy, David C

    2017-08-21

    Certain organometallic chromophores with water-derived ligands, such as the known [Mn(CO) 3 (μ 3 -OH)] 4 (1) tetramer, drew our attention as possible platforms to study water-splitting reactions. Herein, we investigate the UV irradiation of various tricarbonyl organomanganese complexes, including 1, and demonstrate that dihydrogen, CO, and hydrogen peroxide form as products in a photochemical water-splitting decomposition reaction. The organic and manganese-containing side products are also characterized. Labeling studies with 18 O-1 suggest that the source of oxygen atoms in H 2 O 2 originates from free water that interacts with 1 after photochemical dissociation of CO (1-CO) constituting the oxidative half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Hydrogen production from 1 is the result of several different processes, one of which involves the protons derived from the hydroxido ligands in 1 constituting the reductive half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Other processes that generate H 2 are also operative and are described. Collectively the results from the photochemical decomposition of 1 provide an opportunity to propose a mechanism, and it is discussed within the context of developing new strategies for water-splitting reactions with organomanganese complexes.

  13. Split-hand/split-foot malformation with paternal mutation in the p63 gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witters, I.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Goossens, A.; Assche, F.A. van; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    We report the prenatal diagnosis at 16 weeks' gestation of bilateral split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHSFM) with severe lobster claw deformity of hands and feet in a male fetus without associated malformations. A minor manifestation of SHSFM was present in the father with only mild bilateral

  14. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-11-06

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  15. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... (bismuth vanadate) was investigated in view of combining this 2.4 eV large bandgap semiconductor with a Si back-illuminated photocathode. A device obtained by mechanical stacking of BiVO4 photoanode and standard Si photocathode performs non-assisted water splitting under illumination with Solar......-to-Hydrogen efficiency lower than 0.5%. In addition, BiVO4 was synthesized on the back-side of a Si back-illuminated photocathode to produce a preliminary monolithic solar water splitting device.The Faradaic efficiency of different types of catalysts for the electrochemical production of hydrogen or oxygen was evaluated...

  16. Multiple spectral splits of supernova neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Raffelt, Georg G; Smirnov, Alexei Yu

    2009-07-31

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f(nu(e))(E) and f(nu[over ](e))(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu[over ] channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f(nu(e))=f(nu(x)), f(nu[over ](e))=f(nu[over ](x)) as well as E-->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  17. Split Notochord Syndrome: A Rare Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Vidhu; Kapoor, Kanchan; Singh, Balbir; Kochhar, Suman; Sehgal, Alka; Dada, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Split notochord syndrome represents an extremely rare and pleomorphic form of spinal dysraphism characterized by a persistent communication between the endoderm and the ectoderm, resulting in splitting or deviation of the notochord. It manifests as a cleft in the dorsal midline of the body through which intestinal loops are exteriorized and even myelomeningoceles or teratomas may occur at the site. A rare variant was diagnosed on autopsy of a 23+4-week-old fetus showing a similar dorsal enteric fistula and midline protruding intestinal loops in thoracolumbar region. The anteroposterior radiograph showed a complete midline cleft in the vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 region, and a split in the spinal cord was further confirmed by ultrasonography. Myelomeningocele was erroneously reported on antenatal ultrasound. Thus, awareness of this rare anomaly is necessary to thoroughly evaluate the cases of such spinal defects or suspected myelomeningoceles. PMID:28904581

  18. Fuzzy split and merge for shadow detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remya K. Sasi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Presence of shadow in an image often causes problems in computer vision applications such as object recognition and image segmentation. This paper proposes a method to detect the shadow from a single image using fuzzy split and merge approach. Split and merge is a classical algorithm used in image segmentation. Predicate function in the classical approach is replaced by a Fuzzy predicate in the proposed approach. The method follows a top down approach of recursively splitting an image into homogeneous quadtree blocks, followed by a bottom up approach by merging adjacent unique regions. The method has been compared with previous approaches and found to be better in performance in terms of accuracy.

  19. CORRELATION BETWEEN CERVICAL SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT AND FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY IN CERVICAL SPONDYLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Machado da Motta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To correlate the radiographic parameters of sagittal cervical alignment with quality of life and functional capacity in patients with cervical spondylosis under conservative treatment. Methods: This is an observational and prospective study in patients with cervical spondylosis under conservative treatment and without indication for surgery. The 52 patients included were divided into three groups: axial pain, radiculopathy, and cervical myelopathy. The radiographic parameters considered were cervical lordosis (CL, cervical sagittal vertical axis (CSVA, T1 slope (TS and the discrepancy between TS and CL (TS-CL. Quality of life and functional capacity were evaluated by the Neck Disability Index (NDI questionnaire. Pain was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The correlation between the radiographic parameters and the clinical scores was evaluated by the Pearson correlations coefficient. Results: There was no difference in cervical radiographic parameters between the three groups. In the total of the sample, the mean value of the CSVA was 17.8o (±8.3o, CL, 22.4° (± 8.8°; TS, 29.3° (±6.6°, and TS-CL, 7.0° (±7.4°. Significant inverse correlation (r= -0.3, p=0.039 was observed between NDI and CL, but there was no significant correlation between CL and VAS. CSVA (p=0.541, TS (p=0.287 and TS-CL (p=0.287 had no significantly correlated with NDI or VAS. Conclusion: Considering patients with cervical spondylosis not candidates for surgery, the only sagittal parameter that correlated with functional capacity was LC. In these patients, the correlation between cervical alignment and quality of life needs to be better characterized.

  20. Biomechanical Comparison of Single- and Double-Leg Jump Landings in the Sagittal and Frontal Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Shultz, Sandra J

    2016-06-01

    Double-leg forward or drop-jump landing activities are typically used to screen for high-risk movement strategies and to determine the success of neuromuscular injury prevention programs. However, research suggests that these tasks that occur primarily in the sagittal plane may not adequately represent the lower extremity biomechanics that occur during unilateral foot contact or non-sagittal plane movements that are characteristic of many multidirectional sports. To examine the extent to which lower extremity biomechanics measured during a jump landing on a double leg (DL) after a sagittal plane (SAG) movement is representative of biomechanics measured during single-leg (SL) or frontal plane (FRONT) jump landing tasks. Controlled laboratory study. Lower extremity biomechanics were measured in 15 recreationally active females (mean age [±SD], 19.4 ± 2.1 years; mean height, 163.3 ± 5.9 cm; mean weight, 61.1 ± 7.1 kg) while performing SAGDL, SAGSL, FRONTDL, and FRONTSL jump landing tasks. Repeated-measures analyses of variance examined differences in lower extremity biomechanics between the 4 tasks, and linear regressions examined the extent to which an individual's biomechanics during SAGDL were representative of their biomechanics during SAGSL, FRONTDL, and FRONTSL. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics differed by condition, with the SAGDL task generally eliciting greater hip and knee flexion angles and lower hip and knee forces than the other tasks (P plane jump landing tasks used to screen for ACL injury risk and the effectiveness of ACL injury prevention programs may not adequately represent the lower extremity biomechanics that occur during single-leg activities. These results support further investigation of single-leg multidirectional landings to identify high-risk movement strategies in female athletes playing multidirectional sports.

  1. Radiographic Restoration of Sagittal Spinopelvic Alignment After Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-De; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Wang, Feng; Kong, Fan-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Shen, Yong

    2016-03-01

    A retrospective study. This study was aimed to analyze the changes in spinopelvic parameters after surgical correction of degenerative spondylolisthesis and to determine which deformity is most responsible for changes in sagittal spinopelvic alignment. The basic deformities of degenerative spondylolisthesis are forward slippage of the vertebral body, segmental kyphotic angle, and loss of disk height. Correction of those deformities during surgery will subsequently affect the spinopelvic parameters. A few studies have reported the changes of sagittal spinopelvic alignment after surgical treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis. However, there appears to be relatively little information regarding degenerative spondylolisthesis. Fifty-three patients with L4-L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis were included. All patients underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation. Back pain, as the clinical outcome, was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS). The preoperative and postoperative spinopelvic parameters, including sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), and L1 axis S1 distance were measured, and then the correlations between spinopelvic parameters and local deformity parameters such as slip degree, slip angle (SA), and height of the intervertebral disk were evaluated. After surgical correction of local deformity, all spinopelvic parameters changed subsequently: PT and L1 axis S1 distance had a decrease, SS and LL had an increase. VAS score decreased from 6.1±2.3 before surgery to 2.4±1.7 at the final follow-up assessment. Patients with VAS score changes ≥3 showed significantly higher SS and LL, and lower PT compared with those with VAS score changes spondylolisthesis with posterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation resulted in relief of back pain, which may be associated with improvement of sagittal spinopelvic alignment. Surgeons should consider deformity parameters, especially the SA, in the surgical

  2. Direct repair of the sagittal band for extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In Tae; Oh, Chi Hoon; Sim, Young Suk; Han, Soo Hong

    2017-09-01

    For patients with metacarpophalangeal (MCP) extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking injury, we performed an extensor tendon realignment and direct repair technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome after direct repair of the sagittal band in patients with MCP extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking injury and to introduce the repair technique. A total of 26 patients with a mean age of 39.9 years were included in the study. The mean time from injury to surgery was 51.3 days. The ruptured sagittal band was reattached to the lateral side of the extensor tendon using a continuous interlocking suture. Patients were evaluated for pain using a visual analog scale (VAS), range of motion, long fingertip pinch strength, disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, and the recurrence of extensor tendon subluxation or dislocation. All patients had full range of motion compared to the uninjured contralateral digit. Long fingertip pinch strength was also comparable to that of the contralateral digit in all patients. The DASH score was also improved from a preoperative average of 28.8 to a postoperative average of 1.0. Realignment of the extensor tendon and direct repair of the superficial layer of the sagittal band to the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon is recommended as a treatment option in patients with chronic MCP extensor tendon subluxation, as well as for acute MCP extensor tendon subluxation in patients that have failed or could not maintain conservative treatment approaches.

  3. Sagittal standing posture, back pain, and quality of life among adults from the general population: a sex-specific association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Fábio; Lucas, Raquel; Alegrete, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana; Barros, Henrique

    2014-06-01

    A prospective radiographical study of sagittal standing posture among adults consecutively recruited from the general population. To analyze the relation of suboptimal sagittal standing posture with back pain and health-related quality of life in general adult males and females. Clinical studies have shown the association of sagittal standing posture with pain and reduced quality of life, but this relation has not been assessed in the general adult population. As part of the EPIPorto population-based study of adults, 178 males and 311 females were evaluated. Age, education, and body mass index were recorded. Radiographical data collection consisted of 36-in. standing sagittal radiographs. Creation of 3 groups for individual spinopelvic parameters was performed (low, intermediate, or high), and 1 of 4 sagittal types of postural patterns attributed to each participant (Roussouly classification). Back pain prevalence and severity were assessed on the basis of self-reported data and health-related quality of life using 2 main components of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. In males, differences in back pain severity were observed only among pelvic tilt/pelvic incidence ratio groups. Females presenting high pelvic incidence and sacral slope exhibited higher odds of severe back pain than those with intermediate values (adjusted odds ratios = 2.21 and 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-3.97 and 1.21-3.86; respectively). Sagittal vertical axis showed the largest differences in physical quality of life of females: high group had 8.8 lower score than the low group (P posture was not consistently associated with quality of life measures in males. Increased pelvic incidence and sacral slope may be involved in causing severe back pain among females. Monitoring sagittal postural parameters has limited usefulness as a screening tool for causes of unspecific musculoskeletal symptoms in the general adult population. 3.

  4. A clinico-radiographic analysis of sagittal condylar guidance determined by protrusive interocclusal registration and panoramic radiographic images in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Krishna Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between sagittal condylar guidance obtained by protrusive interocclusal records and panoramic radiograph tracing methods in human dentulous subjects. Materials and Methods: The sagittal condylar guidance was determined in 75 dentulous subjects by protrusive interocclusal records using Aluwax through a face bow transfer (HANAU™ Spring Bow, Whip Mix Corporation, USA to a semi-adjustable articulator (HANAU™ Wide-Vue Articulator, Whip Mix Corporation, USA. In the same subjects, the sagittal outline of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa was traced in panoramic radiographs. The sagittal condylar path inclination was constructed by joining the heights of curvature in the glenoid fossa and the corresponding articular eminence. This was then related to the constructed Frankfurt′s horizontal plane to determine the radiographic angle of sagittal condylar guidance. Results: A strong positive correlation existed between right and left condylar guidance by the protrusive interocclusal method (P 0.000 and similarly by the radiographic method (P 0.013. The mean difference between the condylar guidance obtained using both methods were 1.97° for the right side and 3.18° for the left side. This difference between the values by the two methods was found to be highly significant for the right (P 0.003 and left side (P 0.000, respectively. The sagittal condylar guidance obtained from both methods showed a significant positive correlation on right (P 0.000 and left side (P 0.015, respectively. Conclusion: Panoramic radiographic tracings of the sagittal condylar path guidance may be made relative to the Frankfurt′s horizontal reference plane and the resulting condylar guidance angles used to set the condylar guide settings of semi-adjustable articulators.

  5. Faster multiple emulsification with drop splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Adam R; Weitz, David A

    2011-06-07

    Microfluidic devices can form emulsions in which the drops have an intricate, controlled structure; however, a challenge is that the droplets are produced slowly, typically only a few millilitres per hour. Here, we present a simple technique to increase the production rate. Using a large drop maker, we produce large drops at a fast volumetric rate; by splitting these drops several times in a splitting array, we create drops of the desired small size. The advantage of this over forming the small drops directly using a small drop maker is that the drops can be formed at much faster rates. This can be applied to the production of single and multiple emulsions.

  6. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.

  7. Hyperfine splitting in lithium-like bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochmann, Matthias; Froemmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Will, Elisa [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Andelkovic, Zoran; Kuehl, Thomas; Litvinov, Yuri; Winters, Danyal; Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Botermann, Benjamin; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Dax, Andreas [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Hannen, Volker; Joehren, Raphael; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian [Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Geppert, Christopher [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Thompson, Richard [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Volotka, Andrey [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Wen, Weiqiang [IMP Lanzhou (China)

    2013-07-01

    High-precision measurements of the hyperfine splitting values on Li- and H-like bismuth ions, combined with precise atomic structure calculations allow us to test QED-effects in the regime of the strongest magnetic fields that are available in the laboratory. Performing laser spectroscopy at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI Darmstadt, we have now succeeded in measuring the hyperfine splitting in Li-like bismuth. Probing this transition has not been easy because of its extremely low fluorescence rate. Details about this challenging experiment will be given and the achieved experimental accuracy are presented.

  8. Central uplift of custom immobilization radiotherapy patients with lower limb overhead sagittal laser affected without mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Delgado Gil, M. M.; Ortiz Seidel, M.

    2011-01-01

    If you have a laser moving overhead sagittal or the location of tumors in the lower extremities is laborious, as to reference properly in the CT, is necessary before tattooing in the treatment table using their ability to relate the lateral midline with tattoos on the limb. For anatomical forms often happens that lasers are not displayed on the areas of our interest. The problem can be overcome if between the legs raise the bag or custom immobilizer above the height of the patient's abdomen, as this will have a central reference reliable and well designed lasers.

  9. Brief communication: age and fractal dimensions of human sagittal and coronal sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2003-01-01

    The fractal dimensions of human sagittal and coronal sutures were calculated on 31 complete skulls from the Terry Collection. The aim was to investigate whether the fractal dimension, relying on the whole sutural length, might yield a better description of age-related changes in sutural morphology......, as opposed to other methods of quantification, which generally rely on more arbitrary scoring systems. However, the fractal dimension did not yield better age correlations than other previously described methods. At best, the results reflected the general observation that young adults below age 40 years...

  10. Using smartphones in the evaluation of spinal curvatures in a sagittal plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In physiotherapeutic diagnostic processes, various tools and methods may be used. However, price and availability may limit their daily use in clinical practice. Therefore, the suggestion that smartphones with specific applications may be useful as diagnostic tools can be found in the literature. However, before using them in clinical practice, it is important to verify their reliability. The aim of the study was to evaluate the consistency of measurements of the curvatures in the sagittal plane performed with the Saunders digital inclinometer and a smartphone application.

  11. An incidental persistent falcine sinus with dominant straight sinus and hypoplastic distal superior sagittal sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj, Krishnan Sarojam [Metroscans, Trivandrum (India); Krishnamoorthy, Thamburaj; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, Tirur Raman [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum (India)

    2006-01-01

    An incidental persistent falcine sinus was detected in an otherwise normal brain on MRI in a 12-year-old girl who underwent imaging after clinical suspicion of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The falcine sinus was associated with a hypoplastic posterior third of the superior sagittal sinus and a dominant straight sinus. Generally, atresia or hypoplasia of the straight sinus is associated with a persistent falcine sinus in postnatal life; otherwise, the falcine sinus disappears before birth. We discuss the embryological basis for such an association in this case. (orig.)

  12. Papilledema secondary to a superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Mantle cell lymphoma paraneoplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platas-Moreno, I; Antón-Benito, A; Pérez-Cid-Rebolleda, M T; Rosado Sierra, M B

    2016-01-01

    A 46 year old patient presented with visual loss in the left eye during the previous months. Ophthalmoscopic examination and magnetic resonance angiography found the presence of papilledema due to thrombosis in superior sagittal sinus. The examination findings revealed a mantle cell lymphoma. Cerebral venous thrombosis is an unusual cause of papilledema. This type of thrombosis may be secondary to hyper-viscosity within a context of a paraneoplastic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Discrete objects, splitting closure and connectedness | Castellini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notions of discrete and indiscrete classes with respect to a closure operator are introduced and studied. These notions are strongly related to splitting and cosplitting closure operators. By linking the above concepts, two Galois connections arise whose composition provides a third Galois connection that can be used as a ...

  14. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...

  15. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  16. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Concept of split beta. -lactamase protein fragment complementation assay. (A) and (B) are vector systems involved in the assay. As an example, a vector system for bacterial host is described here. (C) Co-transformation of complementation vectors in appropriate bacterial host. (D) and (E) are types of inter- actions expected ...

  17. Molecular catalytic system for efficient water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to construct and explore artificial oxygen evolving complexes that are synthetically accessible, stable, functionally robust and efficient. To achieve this, a class of mono metal water splitting catalysts is introduced in this manuscript and exploitation of these

  18. Splitting up Beta’s change

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimated IBM beta from 2000 to 2013, then using differential equation mathematical formula we split up the annual beta’s change attributed to the volatility market effect, the stock volatility effect, the correlation effect and the jointly effect of these variables.

  19. Shear-wave splitting and moonquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimech, J. L.; Weber, R. C.; Savage, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Shear-wave splitting is a powerful tool for measuring anisotropy in the Earth's crust and mantle, and is sensitive to geological features such as fluid filled cracks, thin alternating layers of rock with different elastic properties, and preferred mineral orientations caused by strain. Since a shear wave splitting measurement requires only a single 3-component seismic station, it has potential applications for future single-station planetary seismic missions, such as the InSight geophysical mission to Mars, as well as possible future missions to Europa and the Moon. Here we present a preliminary shear-wave splitting analysis of moonquakes detected by the Apollo Passive Seismic Experiment. Lunar seismic data suffers from several drawbacks compared to modern terrestrial data, including severe seismic scattering, low intrinsic attenuation, 10-bit data resolution, thermal spikes, and timing errors. Despite these drawbacks, we show that it is in principle possible to make a shear wave splitting measurement using the S-phase arrival of a relatively high-quality moonquake, as determined by several agreeing measurement criteria. Encouraged by this finding, we further extend our analysis to clusters of "deep moonquake" events by stacking multiple events from the same cluster together to further enhance the quality of the S-phase arrivals that the measurement is based on.

  20. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-05-01

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  2. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  3. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...

  4. A Comparison of Plain Radiography with Computer Tomography in Determining Coronal and Sagittal Alignments following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solayar GN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Optimal coronal and sagittal component positioning is important in achieving a successful outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Modalities to determine post-operative alignment include plain radiography and computer tomography (CT imaging. This study aims to determine the accuracy and reliability of plain radiographs in measuring coronal and sagittal alignment following TKA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, consecutive study of 58 patients undergoing TKA was performed comparing alignment data from plain radiographs and CT imaging. Hip- knee-angle (HKA, sagittal femoral angle (SFA and sagittal tibial angle (STA measurements were taken by two observers from plain radiographs and compared with CT alignment. Intra- and inter-observer correlation was calculated for each measurement. RESULTS: Intra-observer correlation was excellent for HKA (r>0.89 with a mean difference of 0.95 and STA (r>0.8 compared to SFA (r=0.5. When comparing modalities (radiographs vs CT, HKA estimations for both observers showed the least maximum and mean differences while SFA observations were the least accurate. CONCLUSION: Radiographic estimation of HKA showed excellent intra- and inter-observer correlation and corresponds well with CT imaging. However, radiographic estimation of sagittal plane alignment was less reliably measured and correlated less with CT imaging. Plain radiography was found to be inferior to CT for estimation of biplanar prosthetic alignment following TKA.

  5. Prenatal MR imaging of Dandy-Walker complex: Midline sagittal area analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Alex M.; Bilaniuk, Larissa T.; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Liu, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To measure the mid-sagittal areas of vermis (VA) and of posterior fossa (PFA) and determine their differences among fetuses with various Dandy-Walker (DW) entities and control subjects. Methods: We reviewed data in 25 fetal patients with a MR diagnosis of DW complex including hypoplastic vermis (HV), HV with rotation (HVR), and mega cistern magna (MCM), and in 85 fetal controls with normal CNS. PFA and VA of each subject were manually traced on mid-sagittal MR images. Regarding each of VA and PFA, after age correction, we determined statistically significant differences among HVR, HV, MCM, and control groups. Results: The mean VA residue of MCM was greater than that of the control, which was in turn greater than those of HVR and HV. The mean PF residue of the control was smaller than all other groups. Conclusion: Fetuses with HVR or HV had smaller VA than fetuses with MCM or control subjects. Fetuses with MCM, HVR, or HV had larger PFA than control subjects. These results may be an early step leading to better understanding of the confusion about the PF anomalies in future.

  6. Skull fracture with effacement of the superior sagittal sinus following drone impact: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Lawrance K; Cheung, Yuri; Lagman, Carlito; Au Yong, Nicholas; McBride, Duncan Q; Yang, Isaac

    2017-09-01

    The popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, raises safety concerns as they become increasingly common for commercial, personal, and recreational use. Collisions between drones and people may result in serious injuries. A 13-year-old male presented with a comminuted depressed skull fracture causing effacement of the superior sagittal sinus secondary to a racing drone impact. The patient experienced a brief loss of consciousness and reported lower extremity numbness and weakness after the accident. Imaging studies revealed bone fragments crossing the superior sagittal sinus with a short, focal segment of blood flow interruption. Neurosurgical intervention was deferred given the patient's improving neurological deficits, and the patient was treated conservatively. He was discharged home in stable condition. Drones may represent a hazard when operated inappropriately due to their capacity to fly at high speeds and altitudes. Impacts from drones can carry enough force to cause skull fractures and significant head injuries. The rising popularity of drones likely translates to an increased incidence of drone-related injuries. Thus, clinicians should be aware of this growing trend.

  7. Flow velocity of the superior sagittal sinus is reduced in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Nagato; Tokuda, Takahiko; Yamada, Kei; Akazawa, Kentaro; Hosoda, Makoto; Sakai, Koji; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2011-10-01

    The pathogenesis and diagnostic methods for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) have been active areas of research in recent years. This study was performed to determine whether there is a venous return abnormality in the intracranial circulation of patients with iNPH. The subjects were 20 patients with iNPH (Group N) and 24 normal controls (Group C). MR venography (MRV) was performed at the superior sagittal sinus 2 cm above the confluence of the sinuses, and the flow velocities were compared between Groups N and C. During normal breathing, the maximum velocities were significantly lower in Group N (18.8 cm/second) than in Group C (22.9 cm/second; (P velocity decreased in both groups, but both the maximum (Max V) and minimum (Min V) velocities were significantly lower in Group N than in Group C (P velocity at the superior sagittal sinus was lower and the flow velocity during the Valsalva maneuver decreased more in patients with iNPH than in controls. The results may reflect the presence of abnormal intracranial venous flow in iNPH. © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  8. Novel Angular Measures of Cervical Deformity Account for Upper Cervical Compensation and Sagittal Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Lafage, Renaud; Vira, Shaleen; Sciubba, Daniel; Soroceanu, Alex; Hamilton, Kojo; Smith, Justin; Passias, Peter G; Mundis, Gregory; Hart, Robert; Schwab, Frank; Klineberg, Eric; Shaffrey, Christopher; Lafage, Virginie; Ames, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    This is a retrospective review of a prospective multicenter database. This study introduces 2 new cervical alignment measures accounting for both cervical deformity (CD) and upper cervical compensation. Current descriptions of CD like the C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) do not account for compensatory mechanisms such as C0-C2 lordosis and pelvic tilt, which makes surgical planning difficult. The craniocervical angle (CCA) combines the slope of McGregor's line and the inclination from C7 to the hard palate. The C2-pelvic tilt (CPT) combines C2 tilt and pelvic tilt. Like the T1 pelvic angle, CPT is less affected by lower extremity and pelvic compensation. Novel and existing CD measures were correlated in 781 patients from a thoracolumbar deformity (TLD) database and 61 patients from a prospective CD database. CD patients were subanalyzed by region of deformity driver: cervical or cervico-thoracic junction. TLD patients were substratified according to whether or not they had CD as well, where CD was defined as cSVA>4 cm or T1 slope minus cervical lordosis mismatch (TS-CL) >20. TLD cohort: mean cSVA was 31.7±17.8 mm. Subanalysis of TLD patients with CD versus no-CD demonstrated significant differences in CCA (56.2 vs. 60.6, Paccount for both cervical sagittal alignment and upper cervical compensation and can be utilized in assessment of cervical alignment.

  9. Normal development of brainstem in childhood. Measurement of the area on mid-sagittal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutomi, Kimiko

    2005-01-01

    Developmental abnormality of brainstem is shown in pediatric patients with mental retardation, autism, periventricular leukomalacia, neurodegenerative disease, and so on. Our purpose here is to clarify the normal developmental pattern of the brainstem. We measured the area of tectum, midbrain tegmentum, pons, basis pontis and pontine tegmentum on mid-sagittal MR images in 111 children (newborn to 20 year old). Different growth patterns were shown in all parts of the brainstem. Tectum showed a subtle increase in area from the newborn to adult period, while midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmenturn showed a mild and gradual increase in area. Pons and pontine tegmentum showed a rapid and prominent increase in area from newborn to infant period and gradual increase in area until the adult period. These different growth patterns seemed to be consistent with differences in the myelination cycles of the neuronal fibers, maturation of the nuclei and proliferation of glial cells in each part of the brainstem. Mid-sagittal MR imaging of the head is accurate and reproducible and is used conveniently in routine head MR study, making it very useful for the diagnosis of many central nervous diseases and anomalies. We believe that this new milestone provided in this study will be helpful in distinguishing normal children from those that have neurodegenerative disorders. (author)

  10. Current concepts on the sagittal balance and classification of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebet, Marcos Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons and paediatrics. In spondylolisthesis, it has been clearly demonstrated over the past decade that spino-pelvic morphology is abnormal and that it can be associated to an abnormal sacro-pelvic orientation as well as to a disturbed global sagittal balance of spine. This article presents the SDSG (Spinal Deformity Study Group) classification of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. The proper treatment of spondylolisthesis is dependent on recognizing the type of slip, sacro-pelvic balance and overall sagittal balance and its natural history. Although a number of clinical radiographic features have been identified as risk factors, their role as primary causative factors or secondary adaptative changes is not clear. The conservative treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis results in good outcome in the majority of cases. Of those patients who fail conservative treatment, success with surgery is quite good, with significant improvement in neurologic function in those patients with deficits, as well as improvement in patients with back pain. PMID:26229765

  11. Measuring the Reliability of Sagittal Facial Anthropometric Measurements under Soft Tissue Displacement Using a Modified Ruler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Mojtahedzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite the current use of radiography for quantifying sagittal skeletal measurements, it is an unsuitable way for screening or epidemiologic purposes. Although not fully approved, anthropometric measurements have been suggested as a substitute, and considering displacement of soft tissues, could possibly lead to more consistent results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of anthropometric anteroposterior facial measurements under soft tissue compression using a special ruler.Material and Methods: Anthropometric measurements were done with a specifically designed sliding ruler twice on 36 adult patients with a 14 day lag between two measurements. The ruler measured the distance between the external acoustic meatus and the nasion (Na, subnasal (Sn point and the soft tissue pogonion (Pog. The soft tissue was displaced during measurements only to the extent that the underlying hard tissue resistance was felt subjectively by each assessor. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated for both inter- and intra- rater measurements using SPSS software.Results: All measurements had inter- and intrarater agreements above 0.9, with only a few parameters having lower bound confidence intervals below 0.9, but more than 0.8.Conclusion: Sagittal facial anthropometric measurements under soft tissue displacement using the specific ruler are valid and reliable and could possibly aid orthodontists in chairside craniofacial assessments.

  12. Sagittal Alignment as Predictor of Adjacent Segment Disease After Lumbar Transforaminal Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Wang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Li-Wei; Huang, Hui; Fu, Na-Xin

    2018-02-01

    This study was carried out to explore the diagnostic value of sagittal measurements for adjacent segment disease after lumbar transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF). A total of 163 subjects who underwent TLIF for lumbar disease were initially enrolled in the study from July 2013 to August 2017. Sagittal alignment including thoracic inlet and spinopelvic parameters was measured by using preoperative full-length freestanding radiographs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate these parameters as the diagnostic index for adjacent segment disease (ASD). A total of 153 patients completed the final follow-up, and the mean follow-up period was 40.6 months. There were 53 (35.3%) cases with ASD found after the TLIF in the enrolled subjects. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis confirmed that preoperative pelvic tilt (PT) of more than 24.1° and thoracic kyphosis (TK) of more than 23.3° were significant risk factors of ASD after TLIF (P < 0.05). We confirmed that PT of more than 24.3° and TK of more than 23.3° could be regarded as predictors of ASD after lumbar TLIF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sagittal MR findings of L5 spondylolysis : changes of spinal canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Kim, Ihn Sub; Yoon, Yup [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate changes in the spinal canal in cases of L5 spondylolysis, as seen on sagittal MR images. We retrospectively analysed the MR findings of 27 patients suffering from L5 spondylolysis without spondylolisthesis and compared them with 100 control subjects. Spondylolysis had been confirmed by conventional radiography. On midsagittal MR images, sagittal canal ratio (SCR) was defined as midsagittal canal diameter at L5 devided by that at L1. We analysed the frequency of posterior epidural fat deposition(posterior epidural fat between the posterior margin of the dural sac and the anterior cortical margin of the spinous process on the midsagittal line), and compared this with the frequency in 100 control subjects. Mean SCR value in 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis(1.22) was significantly greater than 100 control subjects(0.96, p<0.001). Mean SCR value in 17 patients with L5 spondylolysis and posterior epidural fat deposition(1.27) was significantly higher than in nine control subjects with posterior epidural fat deposition(0.97). Posterior epidural fat deposition was more frequently indentified in patients with L5 spondylolysis(63%) than in control subjects(9%). The possibility of L5 spondylolysis is suggested when on midsaggital MR imaging, the anteroposterior diameter of the L5 spinal canal is seen to be widened and posterior epidural fat deposition is noted.

  14. Sagittal MR findings of L5 spondylolysis : changes of spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Kim, Ihn Sub; Yoon, Yup

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate changes in the spinal canal in cases of L5 spondylolysis, as seen on sagittal MR images. We retrospectively analysed the MR findings of 27 patients suffering from L5 spondylolysis without spondylolisthesis and compared them with 100 control subjects. Spondylolysis had been confirmed by conventional radiography. On midsagittal MR images, sagittal canal ratio (SCR) was defined as midsagittal canal diameter at L5 devided by that at L1. We analysed the frequency of posterior epidural fat deposition(posterior epidural fat between the posterior margin of the dural sac and the anterior cortical margin of the spinous process on the midsagittal line), and compared this with the frequency in 100 control subjects. Mean SCR value in 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis(1.22) was significantly greater than 100 control subjects(0.96, p<0.001). Mean SCR value in 17 patients with L5 spondylolysis and posterior epidural fat deposition(1.27) was significantly higher than in nine control subjects with posterior epidural fat deposition(0.97). Posterior epidural fat deposition was more frequently indentified in patients with L5 spondylolysis(63%) than in control subjects(9%). The possibility of L5 spondylolysis is suggested when on midsaggital MR imaging, the anteroposterior diameter of the L5 spinal canal is seen to be widened and posterior epidural fat deposition is noted

  15. Incomplete oblique sagittal fractures of the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bone in six horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, B.C.; Foerner, J.J.; Haines, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    To describe incomplete oblique sagittal dorsal cortical fractures of the equine third metacarpal bone, their surgical repair, and subsequent performance of the horses. Retrospective examination of medical records and racing performance. Six Thoroughbred race horses, 2 to 4 years of age. Radiographic confirmation of all fractures preceded general anesthesia and surgical correction. Three fractures were treated by intracortical compression using screws placed in lag fashion, and five fractures were treated by osteostixis. Race records were reviewed for each horse to determine performance after surgery. Fractures were best observed on palmarodorsal radiographic projections. Three horses treated by intracortical compression returned to racing, but fracture recurred in one horse and was treated by osteostixis. This horse and the other three horses treated by osteostixis raced after surgery. Horses with incomplete oblique sagittal fractures of the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bone can race after surgical management of the fracture by screws placed in lag fashion or osteostixis. The authors' preferred surgical procedure for managing this fracture is osteostixis. Palmarodorsal radiographic projections of the third metacarpal bone are recommended in young Thoroughbred race horses suspected of having dorsal metacarpal stress fractures

  16. Preliminary results of anterior lumbar interbody fusion, anterior column realignment for the treatment of sagittal malalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Pooria; Mundis, Gregory M; Eastlack, Robert K; Bagheri, Ramin; Vargas, Enrique; Tran, Stacie; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Sagittal malalignment decreases patients' quality of life and may require surgical correction to achieve realignment goals. High-risk posterior-based osteotomy techniques are the current standard treatment for addressing sagittal malalignment. More recently, anterior lumbar interbody fusion, anterior column realignment (ALIF ACR) has been introduced as an alternative for correction of sagittal deformity. The objective of this paper was to report clinical and radiographic results for patients treated using the ALIF-ACR technique. METHODS A retrospective study of 39 patients treated with ALIF ACR was performed. Patient demographics, operative details, radiographic parameters, neurological assessments, outcome measures, and preoperative, postoperative, and mean 1-year follow-up complications were studied. RESULTS The patient population comprised 39 patients (27 females and 12 males) with a mean follow-up of 13.3 ± 4.7 months, mean age of 66.1 ± 11.6 years, and mean body mass index of 27.3 ± 6.2 kg/m 2 . The mean number of ALIF levels treated was 1.5 ± 0.5. Thirty-three (84.6%) of 39 patients underwent posterior spinal fixation and 33 (84.6%) of 39 underwent posterior column osteotomy, of which 20 (60.6%) of 33 procedures were performed at the level of the ALIF ACR. Pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and pelvic incidence were not statistically significantly different between the preoperative and postoperative periods and between the preoperative and 1-year follow-up periods (except for PT between the preoperative and 1-year follow-up, p = 0.018). Sagittal vertical axis, T-1 spinopelvic inclination, lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch, intradiscal angle, and motion segment angle all improved from the preoperative to postoperative period and the preoperative to 1-year follow-up (p < 0.05). The changes in motion segment angle and intradiscal angle achieved in the ALIF-ACR group without osteotomy compared with the ALIF-ACR group with osteotomy

  17. Validity of a smartphone protractor to measure sagittal parameters in adult spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, William Aaron; Madden, Michael; Potts, Shannon; Fogelson, Jeremy; Hershman, Stuart

    2017-10-01

    Smartphones have become an integral tool in the daily life of health-care professionals (Franko 2011). Their ease of use and wide availability often make smartphones the first tool surgeons use to perform measurements. This technique has been validated for certain orthopedic pathologies (Shaw 2012; Quek 2014; Milanese 2014; Milani 2014), but never to assess sagittal parameters in adult spinal deformity (ASD). This study was designed to assess the validity, reproducibility, precision, and efficiency of using a smartphone protractor application to measure sagittal parameters commonly measured in ASD assessment and surgical planning. This study aimed to (1) determine the validity of smartphone protractor applications, (2) determine the intra- and interobserver reliability of smartphone protractor applications when used to measure sagittal parameters in ASD, (3) determine the efficiency of using a smartphone protractor application to measure sagittal parameters, and (4) elucidate whether a physician's level of experience impacts the reliability or validity of using a smartphone protractor application to measure sagittal parameters in ASD. An experimental validation study was carried out. Thirty standard 36″ standing lateral radiographs were examined. Three separate measurements were performed using a marker and protractor; then at a separate time point, three separate measurements were performed using a smartphone protractor application for all 30 radiographs. The first 10 radiographs were then re-measured two more times, for a total of three measurements from both the smartphone protractor and marker and protractor. The parameters included lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, and pelvic tilt. Three raters performed all measurements-a junior level orthopedic resident, a senior level orthopedic resident, and a fellowship-trained spinal deformity surgeon. All data, including the time to perform the measurements, were recorded, and statistical analysis was performed to

  18. Sagittal reconstruction computed tomography in metrizamide cisternography. Useful diagnostic procedure for malformations in craniovertebral junction and posterior fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, H.; Okita, N.; Fujii, T.; Yoshioka, M.; Saito, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    We studied the sagittal reconstruction technique in computed tomography with metrizamide. Ten ml of metrizamide, 170 mg iodine/ml in concentration, were injected by lumbar puncture. After diffusion of the injected metrizamide, axial computed tomograms were taken by thin slice width (5 mm) with overlapped technique. Then electrical sagittal reconstruction was carried out by optioned software. Injection of metrizamide, non-ionic water soluble contrast media, made clear contrasts among bone, brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid with computed tomography. Sagittal reconstruction technique could reveal more precise details and accurate anatomical relations than ordinary axial computed tomography. This technique was applied on 3 cases (Arnold-Chiari malformation, large cisterna magna and partial agenesis cerebellar vermis), which demonstrated a useful diagnostic procedure for abnormalities of craniovertebral junction and posterior fossa. The adverse reactions of metrizamide were negligible in our series.

  19. Non-Mendelian transmission in a human developmental disorder: split hand/split foot.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvik, G. P.; Patton, M. A.; Homfray, T.; Evans, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The study of Mendelian disorders that do not meet some Mendelian expectations has led to an increased understanding of such previously obscure genetic phenomena as anticipation. Split hand/split foot (SHSF), a human developmental malformation, demonstrates such distinctive genetic features as reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. In this study, new pedigrees with defined ascertainment confirm the existence of non-Mendelian transmission characterized by the overtransmission of SHSF fro...

  20. Splitting, splitting and splitting again: A brief history of the development of regional government in Indonesia since independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Booth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the changes in the structure and role of provincial and sub-provincial governments in Indonesia since independence. Particular attention is paid to the process of splitting both provinces and districts (kabupaten and kota into smaller units. The paper points out that this process has been going on since the 1950s, but has accelerated in the post-Soeharto era. The paper examines why the splitting of government units has occurred in some parts of the Outer Islands to a much greater extent than in Java, and also examines the implications of developments since 1999 for the capacity of local government units to deliver basic services such as health and education.

  1. Split mandrel versus split sleeve coldworking: Dual methods for extending the fatigue life of metal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, Geoffrey A.; Creager, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    It is common practice to use split sleeve coldworking of fastener holes as a means of extending the fatigue life of metal structures. In search of lower manufacturing costs, the aerospace industry is examining the split mandrel (sleeveless) coldworking process as an alternative method of coldworking fastener holes in metal structures. The split mandrel process (SpM) significantly extends the fatigue life of metal structures through the introduction of a residual compressive stress in a manner that is very similar to the split sleeve system (SpSl). Since the split mandrel process is significantly less expensive than the split sleeve process and more adaptable to robotic automation, it will have a notable influence upon other new manufacture of metal structures which require coldworking a significant number of holes, provided the aerospace community recognizes that the resulting residual stress distributions and fatigue life improvement are the same for both processes. Considerable testing has validated the correctness of that conclusion. The findings presented in this paper represent the results of an extensive research and development program, comprising data collected from over 400 specimens fabricated from 2024-T3 and 7075-T651 aluminum alloys in varied configurations, which quantify the benefits (fatigue enhancement and cost savings) of automating a sleeveless coldworking system.

  2. Evaluation of uterine peristalsis using cine MRI on the coronal plane in comparison with the sagittal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitano, Fuki; Kido, Aki; Kataoka, Masako; Fujimoto, Koji; Kiguchi, Kayo; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Togashi, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    Uterine peristalsis is supposed to be closely related to the early stages of reproduction. Sperms are preferentially transported from the uterine cervix to the side of the tube with the dominant follicle. However, with respect to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), uterine peristalsis has only been evaluated at the sagittal plane of cine MRI. To evaluate and compare uterine peristalsis both on sagittal and coronal planes using cine MRI. Internal ethics committee approval was obtained, and subjects provided informed written consent. Thirty-one women underwent MRI scans in the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. Cine MR images obtained by fast advanced spin echo sequence at 3-T field strength magnet (Toshiba Medical Systems) were visually evaluated by two independent radiologists. The frequency and the direction of peristalsis, and the presence of outer myometrium conduction of signal intensities (OMC), were evaluated. The laterality of the dominant follicle was determined on axial images and compared with the peristaltic direction in fundus. The subjects in which peristaltic directions were more clearly recognized were significantly frequent in coronal planes than in sagittal planes (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the peristaltic frequency between the sagittal and the coronal plane. However, the OMC was more recognized in the coronal plane than in the sagittal plane (P < 0.05). Peristaltic waves conducted toward the possible ovulation side were observed in only three of the 10 subjects. OMC of uterine peristalsis was better demonstrated in the coronal plane compared to the sagittal plane. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  3. Individual and contextual characteristics as determinants of sagittal standing posture: a population-based study of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Fábio; Lucas, Raquel; Alegrete, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana; Barros, Henrique

    2014-10-01

    Sagittal standing posture is associated with musculoskeletal symptoms and quality of life. However, the frequency and determinants of suboptimal sagittal alignment outside the clinical context remain to be clarified. To estimate the association of sociodemographic, anthropometric, and behavioral characteristics with sagittal standing posture among adults from the general population. Cross-sectional evaluation of a population-based sample. As part of the EPIPorto study, 489 adults were assessed during 2005 to 2008. Individual spinopelvic parameters were measured. Additionally, participants were classified into one of four types of sagittal postural patterns (Roussouly classification: Types 1, 2, and 4 corresponding to nonneutral postures and Type 3 to a neutral posture). Spinopelvic parameters were recorded from 36-inch sagittal radiographs obtained in free-standing posture. Age, sex, education, occupation, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total physical activity, leisure time physical activity, time spent in sitting position, smoking status, and tobacco cumulative exposure were collected. Individual parameters and patterns of sagittal posture were compared across categories of participants' characteristics. Older age, lower educational level, blue collar occupation, and overall and central obesity were associated with increased sagittal vertical axis and pelvic tilt/pelvic incidence ratio. Taking the neutral postural pattern (Type 3) as reference for the outcome in a multinomial regression model, independently of age, sex, education, total physical activity, and smoking status, overweight adults had higher odds of Type 2 (odds ratio [OR]=1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-3.27) and Type 4 (OR=2.13; 95% CI: 1.16-3.91) postural patterns in comparison with normal weight subjects. Overall and central obesity were positively related with Type 1 postural pattern (OR=6.10, 95% CI: 1.52-24.57 and OR=3.54, 95% CI: 1.13-11.11, respectively). There was also a

  4. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  5. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  6. Correlation between lumbar intervertebral disc height and lumbar spine sagittal alignment among asymptomatic Asian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Kai; Tian, Hai-Jun; Wu, Ai-Min; Cheng, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Tang-Jun; Zhao, Jie

    2018-02-12

    To investigate the distribution and characteristics of the lumbar intervertebral disc height (IDH) in asymptomatic Asian population and to determine whether the lumbar IDH is related to the lumbar spine sagittal alignment. A cohort of 169 cases of asymptomatic volunteers was enrolled from January 2014 to July 2016. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine and panoramic radiography of the spine. Panoramic radiographs of the spine were taken to evaluate pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), and pelvic tilt (PT) using Surgimap® software. Roussouly classification was utilized to categorize all subjects according to the four subtypes of sagittal alignment. The IDH was measured on the MRI mid-saggital section of the vertebral body. The relationships between lumbar IDH and spine-pelvic parameters were also assessed using the Spearman correlation analysis. The reference value ranges of IDH in asymptomatic Asian volunteers between L1/2, L2/3, L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 were (6.25, 10.99), (6.97, 12.08), (7.42, 13.3), (7.76, 14.57),and (7.11, 13.12) mm, respectively. Based on the above reference value, the high lumbar intervertebral space is defined as more than 14 mm. According to the Roussouly Classification, there are 33 cases in type I, 48 in type II, 66 in type III, and 22 in type IV. According to the definition of the high IDH, there are two cases in type I, three in type II, nine in type III, and eight in type IV. The results indicated that people in the Roussouly III and IV subtypes had greater values for IDH compared to those of Roussouly I and II subtypes, and the spinopelvic parameters were partly correlated with IDH in different subtypes. In addition, levels L4-L5 showed the highest IDH for all four groups followed by the L3-L4 and L5-S1 levels, and the value of L3-L4 is equivalent to that of L5-S1. All type groups showed moderate and positive correlations between the PI and IDH except the level of L1-L2 in type IV. The IDH may

  7. Reliability of the Radiographic Sagittal and Frontal Tibiotalar Alignment after Ankle Arthrodesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Willegger

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the tibiotalar alignment is important in radiographic outcome assessment of ankle arthrodesis (AA. In studies, various radiological methods have been used to measure the tibiotalar alignment leading to facultative misinterpretation of results. However, to our knowledge, no previous study has investigated the reliability of tibiotalar alignment measurement in AA. We aimed to investigate the reliability of four different methods of measurement of the frontal and sagittal tibiotalar alignment after AA, and to further clarify the most reliable method for determining the longitudinal axis of the tibia.Thirty-eight weight bearing anterior to posterior and lateral ankle radiographs of thirty-seven patients who had undergone AA with a two screw fixation technique were selected. Three observers measured the frontal tibiotalar angle (FTTA and the sagittal tibiotalar angle (STTA using four different methods. The methods differed by the definition of the longitudinal tibial axis. Method A was defined by a line drawn along the lateral tibial border in anterior to posterior radiographs and along the posterior tibial border in lateral radiographs. Method B was defined by a line connecting two points in the middle of the proximal and the distal tibial shaft. Method C was drawn "freestyle"along the longitudinal axis of the tibia, and method D was defined by a line connecting the center of the tibial articular surface and a point in the middle of the proximal tibial shaft. Intra- and interobserver correlation coefficients (ICC and repeated measurement ANOVA were calculated to assess measurement reliability and accuracy.All four methods showed excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability for the FTTA and the STTA. When the longitudinal tibial axis is defined by connecting two points in the middle of the proximal and the distal tibial shaft, the highest interobserver reliability for the FTTA (ICC: 0.980; CI 95%: 0.966-0.989 and for the

  8. Reliability of the Radiographic Sagittal and Frontal Tibiotalar Alignment after Ankle Arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willegger, Madeleine; Holinka, Johannes; Nemecek, Elena; Bock, Peter; Wanivenhaus, Axel Hugo; Windhager, Reinhard; Schuh, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the tibiotalar alignment is important in radiographic outcome assessment of ankle arthrodesis (AA). In studies, various radiological methods have been used to measure the tibiotalar alignment leading to facultative misinterpretation of results. However, to our knowledge, no previous study has investigated the reliability of tibiotalar alignment measurement in AA. We aimed to investigate the reliability of four different methods of measurement of the frontal and sagittal tibiotalar alignment after AA, and to further clarify the most reliable method for determining the longitudinal axis of the tibia. Thirty-eight weight bearing anterior to posterior and lateral ankle radiographs of thirty-seven patients who had undergone AA with a two screw fixation technique were selected. Three observers measured the frontal tibiotalar angle (FTTA) and the sagittal tibiotalar angle (STTA) using four different methods. The methods differed by the definition of the longitudinal tibial axis. Method A was defined by a line drawn along the lateral tibial border in anterior to posterior radiographs and along the posterior tibial border in lateral radiographs. Method B was defined by a line connecting two points in the middle of the proximal and the distal tibial shaft. Method C was drawn "freestyle"along the longitudinal axis of the tibia, and method D was defined by a line connecting the center of the tibial articular surface and a point in the middle of the proximal tibial shaft. Intra- and interobserver correlation coefficients (ICC) and repeated measurement ANOVA were calculated to assess measurement reliability and accuracy. All four methods showed excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability for the FTTA and the STTA. When the longitudinal tibial axis is defined by connecting two points in the middle of the proximal and the distal tibial shaft, the highest interobserver reliability for the FTTA (ICC: 0.980; CI 95%: 0.966-0.989) and for the STTA (ICC: 0

  9. Correlation between Sagittal Spinopelvic Parametersand Oswestry Disability Indexafter Thoracal and Lumbar Spine Stabilization and Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudistira Prama Tirta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Spinopelvic parameter consists of sagittal vertical axis (SVA, pelvic incidence (PI, pelvic tilt (PT, sacral slope (SS which are measured by whole-spine-lateral-view radiograph in standing position. Measurement of the separameters is pivotalas the land mark analysis toachieve correct sagittal balance. The objective of the study is to analyze the correlation between PI, PT, SVA and SSwith theclinical outcomes which was measured usingOswestry Disability Index (ODI scoring system.This is a cross-sectional study involving 19 patients who underwent thoracal and lumbar fusion surgery in our centerduring 2012-2014. Radiographi cevaluation of SVA, PI, PT, and SS and ODI score were performed 1 year after surgery. Pearson test was conducted to determine the correlation between SVA, PI, PT, and SS with ODI score.There wasa strong correlation between ODI withSVA and PI (p<0.001,r=0.866; p=0.006; r=0.603, respectively. There was no correlation between other parameters with ODI.Based on this study, spinopelvic parameters that can represent the clinical outcome after thoracal and lumbar fusion and stabilization surgeries are SVA and PI. Keywords: spinopelvic parameter, post operation, vertebrae fusion.   Korelasi antara Parameter Luaran Spinopelvik Sagital dengan Oswestry Disability Index pasca Stabilisasi dan Fusi Vertebra Torakal dan Lumbar   Abstrak Parameter spinopelvis terdiri atas sagittal vertical axis (SVA, pelvic incidence (PI, pelvic tilt (PT, sacral slope (SS dan diukur menggunakan X-ray seluruh tulang belakang lateral yang diambil pada posisi berdiri. Pengukuran parameter ini penting sebagai dasar analisis keseimbangan sagital pada operasi rekonstruksi vertebra. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis korelasi antara PI, PT, SVA, dan SS pada luaran klinis berdasarkan sistem skoring oswestry disability index (ODI. Studi ini adalah studi potong lintang dengan 19 subjek yang menjalani fusi dan stabilisasi torakal dan lumbal di center kami

  10. Chronic low back pain after lumbosacral fracture due to sagittal and frontal vertebral imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyoud-Garnier, L; Boudissa, M; Ruatti, S; Kerschbaumer, G; Grobost, P; Tonetti, J

    2017-06-01

    Over time, some patients with unilateral or bilateral lumbosacral injuries experience chronic low back pain. We studied the sagittal and frontal balance in a population with these injuries to determine whether mismatch in the pelvic and lumbar angles are associated with chronic low back pain. Patients with posterior pelvic ring fractures (Tile C1, C2, C3 and A3.3) that had healed were included. Foreign patients and those with an associated spinal or acetabular fracture or nonunion were excluded. The review consisted of subjective questionnaires, a clinical examination, and standing A/P and lateral stereoradiographic views. The pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), pelvic incidence (PI), measured lumbar lordosis (LLm), T9 sagittal offset, leg discrepancy (LD) and lateral curvature (LC). The expected lumbar lordosis (LLe) was calculated using the formula LLe=PI+9°. We defined lumbopelvic mismatch (LPM) as the difference between LLm and LLe being equal or greater than 25% of LLe. Fifteen patients were reviewed after an average follow-up of 8.8 years [5.4-15]. There were four Tile C1, five Tile C2, five Tile C3 and one Tile A3.3 fracture. Ten of the 15 patients had low back pain. The mean angles were: LLm 49.6° and LLe 71.9° (P=0.002), PT 21.3°, SS 44.1°, PI 62.9° in patients with low back pain and LLm 57.4° and LLe 63.2° (P=0.55), PT 13°, SS 43.1°, PI 54.2° in those without. LPM was present in 9 patients, 8 of who had low back pain (P=0.02). Six patients, all of whom had low back pain, had a mean LC of 7.5° [4.5-23] (P=0.02). The mean LD was 0.77cm. The findings of this small study suggest that patients who experience low back pain after their posterior arch of the pelvic ring fracture has healed, have a lumbopelvic mismatch. Early treatment of these patients should aim to reestablish the anatomy of the pelvic base relative to the frontal and sagittal balance. IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-radiographic methods of measuring global sagittal balance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Larry; Kobayashi, Sarah; Simic, Milena; Dennis, Sarah; Refshauge, Kathryn; Pappas, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Global sagittal balance, describing the vertical alignment of the spine, is an important factor in the non-operative and operative management of back pain. However, the typical gold standard method of assessment, radiography, requires exposure to radiation and increased cost, making it unsuitable for repeated use. Non-radiologic methods of assessment are available, but their reliability and validity in the current literature have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesise and evaluate the reliability and validity of non-radiographic methods of assessing global sagittal balance. Five electronic databases were searched and methodology evaluated by two independent reviewers using the13-item, reliability and validity, Brink and Louw critical appraisal tool. Fourteen articles describing six methodologies were identified from 3940 records. The six non-radiographic methodologies were biophotogrammetry, plumbline, surface topography, infra-red motion analysis, spinal mouse and ultrasound. Construct validity was evaluated for surface topography ( R  = 0.49 and R  = 0.68, p  infra-red motion-analysis (ICC = 0.81) and plumbline testing (ICC = 0.83). Reliability ranged from moderate (ICC = 0.67) for spinal mouse to very high for surface topography (Cronbach α = 0.985). Measures of agreement ranged from 0.9 mm (plumbline) to 22.94 mm (infra-red motion-analysis). Variability in study populations, reporting parameters and statistics prevented a meta-analysis. The reliability and validity of the non-radiographic methods of measuring global sagittal balance was reported within 14 identified articles. Based on this limited evidence, non-radiographic methods appear to have moderate to very high reliability and limited to three methodologies, moderate to high validity. The overall quality and methodological approaches of the included articles were highly variable. Further research should focus on the

  12. Tridimensional Analysis of Rotatory Subluxation and Sagittal Spinopelvic Alignment in the Setting of Adult Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Lafage, Renaud; Diebo, Bassel G; Challier, Vincent; Illharreborde, Brice; Schwab, Frank; Skalli, Wafa; Guigui, Pierre; Lafage, Virginie

    2017-07-01

    Retrospective single-center. To investigate rotatory subluxation (RS) in adult spinal deformity (ASD) with three-dimensional (3D) stereoradiographic images and analyze relationships between RS, transverse plane parameters, spinopelvic parameters, and clinical outcomes. Recent research has demonstrated that sagittal plane malalignment and listhesis correlate with ASD patient-reported outcomes. However, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the clinical impact of 3D evaluation and rotatory subluxation. Recent developments in stereoradiography allow clinicians to obtain full-body standing radiographs with low-dose radiation and 3D reconstruction. One hundred thirty lumbar ASD patients underwent full-spine biplanar radiographs (EOS Imaging, Paris, France). Clinical outcomes were recorded. Using sterEOS software, spinopelvic parameters and lateral listhesis were measured. 3D transverse plane parameters included apical axial vertebral rotation, axial intervertebral rotation (AIR), and torsion index (sum of AIR in the curve). ASD patients were divided in three groups: AIR 10°. Groups were compared with respect to radiographic and clinical data. Correlations were performed between the transverse and sagittal plane parameters and clinical outcomes. Patients with AIR >10° were significantly older, with larger Cobb angle (39.5°) and greater sagittal plane deformity (pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch 11.7° and pelvic tilt 22.6°). The AIR >10° group had significantly greater apical vertebra axial rotation apex (24.8°), torsion index (45°), and upper-level AIR (21.5°) than the two other groups. Overall, 27% of AIR patients did not have two-dimensional (2D) lateral listhesis. Patients with AIR >10° had significantly worse Oswestry Disability Index and more low back pain. For patients in which lateral listhesis was unreadable in 2D imaging, rotatory subluxation was revealed using stereoradiography and at an earlier disease stage. Moreover, different 3D

  13. Agreement between fiber optic and optoelectronic systems for quantifying sagittal plane spinal curvature in sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Beth A; Zhao, Kristin D; Breighner, Ryan; Giambini, Hugo; An, Kai-Nan

    2014-07-01

    Spinal posture affects how individuals function from a manual wheelchair. There is a need to directly quantify spinal posture in this population to ultimately improve function. A fiber optic system, comprised of an attached series of sensors, is promising for measuring large regions of the spine in individuals sitting in a wheelchair. The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement between fiber optic and optoelectronic systems for measuring spinal curvature, and describe the range of sagittal plane spinal curvatures in natural sitting. Able-bodied adults (n = 26, 13 male) participated. Each participant assumed three sitting postures: natural, slouched (accentuated kyphosis), and extension (accentuated lordosis) sitting. Fiber optic (ShapeTape) and optoelectronic (Optotrak) systems were applied to the skin over spinous processes from S1 to C7 and used to measure sagittal plane spinal curvature. Regions of kyphosis and lordosis were identified. A Cobb angle-like method was used to quantify lordosis and kyphosis. Generalized linear model and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess agreement. A strong correlation exists between curvature values obtained with Optotrak and ShapeTape (R(2) = 0.98). The mean difference between Optotrak and ShapeTape for kyphosis in natural, extension, and slouched postures was 4.30° (95% LOA: -3.43 to 12.04°), 3.64° (95% LOA: -1.07 to 8.36°), and 4.02° (95% LOA: -2.80 to 10.84°), respectively. The mean difference for lordosis, when present, in natural and extension postures was 2.86° (95% LOA: -1.18 to 6.90°) and 2.55° (95% LOA: -3.38 to 8.48°), respectively. In natural sitting, the mean ± SD of kyphosis values was 35.07 ± 6.75°. Lordosis was detected in 8/26 participants: 11.72 ± 7.32°. The fiber optic and optoelectronic systems demonstrate acceptable agreement for measuring sagittal plane thoracolumbar spinal curvature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiple Rabi Splittings under Ultrastrong Vibrational Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Shalabney, Atef; Devaux, Eloïse; Hiura, Hidefumi; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-10-07

    From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca. 60 meV. We also demonstrate that the multimode splitting effect defines a whole vibrational ladder of heavy polaritonic states perfectly resolved. These findings reveal the broad possibilities in the vibrational ultrastrong coupling regime which impact both the optical and the molecular properties of such coupled systems, in particular, in the context of mode-selective chemistry.

  15. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  16. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  17. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow

    2011-08-01

    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e + e - annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  18. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  19. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.

    1994-01-01

    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state

  20. On split Lie triple systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1 M Forero Piulestán1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 24 June 2009 ...

  1. A Change in Lumbar Sagittal Alignment After Single-level Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis With Normal Sagittal Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Park, Sung Bae; Yang, Seung Heon; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2017-08-01

    Retrospective analysis. The object is to assess the correlation between whole lumbar lordosis (LL) and the segmental angle (SA) after single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. The restoration of the SA at lower lumbar spine is meaningful, considering it contributes approximately 60% of LL, and revision surgery due to flat back or adjacent segment pathology was necessary decades after the initial surgery. However, little is known about the change of whole lumbar curvature after single-level lower lumbar fusion surgery, especially for balanced spine. We included 41 consecutive patients (M:F=9:32; mean age, 59.8±9.3 y) with a single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery for low-grade degenerative spinal spondylolisthesis, with C7 plumb line of <5 cm and ≥2-year follow-up period. The operated levels were L4-L5 in 34 patients and L5-S1 in 7 patients. Whole LL, SA, pelvic tilt, and sacral slope were compared. According to the Macnab criteria, a favorable outcome (excellent, 21; good, 15) was achieved in 36/41 (88%; excellent, 21; good, 15) patients. LL and SA were significantly changed from -50.8±9.9 to -54.6±11.1 degrees and -15.6±6.1 to -18.7±5.1 degrees (P<0.01), and a positive correlation (r=0.43, P=0.01) was observed between LL and SA at postoperative month 24. The changes to the pelvic tilt and sacral slope were not significant. Whole lumbar sagittal alignment was influenced by single SA. Therefore, obtaining adequate segmental lordosis is desirable considering the effect on the whole spine for a long time.

  2. Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lozić Knezović

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.

  3. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-15 Split-dollar loans. (a) General rules—(1... split-dollar loan depend upon the relationship between the parties and upon whether the loan is a demand...-dollar demand loan is any split-dollar loan that is payable in full at any time on the demand of the...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  5. Evaluation of facial morphology and sagittal relationship between dental arches in primary and mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traldi, Aline; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; de Souza, Luciane Zanin; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2015-01-01

    To assess facial morphology (Pattern) and sagittal relationship between dental arches (Class), and establish a potential association between them and the variables sex, age and ethnicity, among schoolchildren aged between 4 and 9 years old (mean age of 6.7 years) in primary and mixed dentitions. The sample comprised 875 children (457 males and 418 females) attending schools in Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil. An attempt was made with a view to establish a potential association between children's morphological features with sex, age and ethnicity. Descriptive analysis revealed a predominance of facial Pattern I (69.9 %) and Class I (67.4 %). Statistical tests (p dental arches tend to be correlated. Ethnicity was associated with facial pattern, with Pattern I being the most recurrent among Caucasians and facial Pattern II being recurrent among Afro-descendant subjects.

  6. Association of achondroplasia with sagittal synostosis and scaphocephaly in two patients, an underestimated condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accogli, Andrea; Pacetti, Mattia; Fiaschi, Pietro; Pavanello, Marco; Piatelli, Gianluca; Nuzzi, Daniele; Baldi, Maurizia; Tassano, Elisa; Severino, Maria Savina; Allegri, Anna; Capra, Valeria

    2015-03-01

    We report on two patients with an unusual combination of achondroplasia and surgically treated sagittal synostosis and scaphocephaly. The most common achondroplasia mutation, p.Gly380Arg in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), was detected in both patients. Molecular genetic testing of FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and TWIST1 genes failed to detect any additional mutations. There are several reports of achondroplasia with associated craniosynostosis, but no other cases of scaphocephaly in children with achondroplasia have been described. Recently it has been demonstrated that FGFR3 mutations affect not only endochondral ossification but also membranous ossification, providing new explanations for the craniofacial hallmarks in achondroplasia. Our report suggests that the association of isolated scaphocephaly and other craniosynostoses with achondroplasia may be under recognized. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Standing sagittal alignment of the whole axial skeleton with reference to the gravity line in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Masashi; Hatsushikano, Shun; Shimoda, Haruka; Ono, Masatoshi; Homma, Takao; Watanabe, Kei

    2017-05-01

    Human beings stand upright with the chain of balance beginning at the feet, progressing to the lower limbs (ankles, knees, hip joints, pelvis), each of the spinal segments, and then ending at the cranium to achieve horizontal gaze and balance using minimum muscle activity. The details of the alignment and balance of the chain, however, are not clearly understood, due to the lack of information regarding the three-dimensional (3D) orientation of all bony elements in relation to the gravity line (GL). We performed a clinical study to clarify the standing sagittal alignment of whole axial skeletons in reference to the GL using the EOS slot-scanning 3D X-ray imaging system with simultaneous force plate measurement in a healthy human population. The GL was defined as a vertical line drawn through the centre of vertical pressure measured by the force plate. The present study yielded a complete set of physiological alignment measurements of the standing axial skeleton from the database of 136 healthy subjects (a mean age of 39.7 years, 20-69 years; men: 40, women: 96). The mean offset of centre of the acoustic meati from the GL was 0.0 cm. The offset of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae was posterior to the GL with the apex of thoracic kyphosis at T7, 5.0 cm posterior to the GL. The sagittal alignment changed to lordosis at the level of L2. The apex of the lumbar lordosis was L4, 0.6 cm anterior to the GL, and the centre of the base of the sacrum (CBS) was just posterior to the GL. The hip axis (HA) was 1.4 cm anterior to the GL. The knee joint was 2.4 cm posterior and the ankle joint was 4.8 cm posterior to the GL. L4-, L5- and the CBS-offset in subjects in the age decades of 40s, 50s and 60s were significantly posterior to those of subjects in their 20s. The L5- and CBS-offset in subjects in their 50s and 60s were also significantly posterior to those in subjects in their 30s. HA was never posterior to the GL. In the global alignment, there was a positive correlation

  8. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Presenting with Hallucinations in the Puerperium: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zylfije Hundozi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke presenting with varied presentation patterns. We report a case of a 21-year-old woman with superior sagittal sinus (SSS thrombosis (SSST developing after childbirth, presenting with visual hallucinations, severe headache, and tonic-clonic seizures. Time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA demonstrated the presence of thrombus in SSS. She was treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH followed by warfarin. She had excellent recovery a few weeks after admission and was regularly followed up. Although this condition can be presented with different neurological symptoms, it does not typically present with hallucinations. We suggest that CSVT should be suspected even when a patient presents with an atypical picture in a category of patients at higher risk.

  9. Moyamoya disease and sagittal sinus thrombosis in a child with Down's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del-Rio Camacho, G.; Leal Orozco, A.; Camino Lopez, M.; Ruiz-Moreno, M.; Perez-Higueras, A.; Al-Assir, I.

    2001-01-01

    A girl with Down's syndrome, moyamoya disease and sagittal sinus thrombosis is described. She was diagnosed after acute neurological deterioration by MRI and angiography. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA) was injected locally to recanalise the thrombus. The patient's condition significantly improved and she was discharged. After 2 years of follow-up the child remains asymptomatic. Moyamoya syndrome and cerebral venous thrombosis should not be overlooked as a cause of acute neurological deterioration in a child with Down's syndrome. MRA appears to be a safe and accurate alternative to traditional angiography for the diagnosis of moyamoya disease. Local fibrinolysis with r-TPA is the treatment of choice for cerebral venous thrombosis due to its safety and efficacy. (orig.)

  10. Emergency surgical management of traumatic superior sagittal sinus injury: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Head injuries following fall of heavy objects are not very uncommon in developing countries. However, compound depressed skull fracture with superior sagittal sinus (SSS laceration caused by a flying asbestos fragment in a stormy afternoon is an unusual mode of head injury. We report such an unusual case of compound depressed skull fracture by an asbestos fragment injuring the middle third of SSS and its successful surgical management in a 14-year-old child. The role of computed tomography (CT scan of head with 3D reconstruction is highlighted. Early steps taken in this case to check the profuse bleeding, which helped save the life of this boy is interesting to note.

  11. An Experimental Study of Energy-Saving Shoes for Robot as Sagittal Plane Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Hideaki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    In this paper, we propose flexible shoe system to apply passive walking manner to ordinary humanoid biped. In this system, 2DOF (FF & FB) control scheme is used and realize walking with less ankle torque. Besides, this system is consisted as reference modification of position control system, so it can be applicable to most of walking robot even if its joint servo is black box. The effectiveness and characteristics of this system is confirmed by computer simulations and experimental result. The softness of shoe is very important parameter for energy consumption and walking stability. From the discussions of the system, it is said that sagittal plane assistance shoes reduce the energy loss due to the ankle joint friction. Finally, we confirmed the reduction of energy consumption on walking experiment, so we call this system as “energy saving shoes.”

  12. Ability of sagittal kinematic variables to estimate ground reaction forces and joint kinetics in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Christa M; Lenhart, Rachel L; Wang, Sijian; Thelen, Darryl G; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2014-10-01

    Controlled laboratory study, cross-sectional design. To determine if sagittal kinematic variables can be used to estimate select running kinetics. Excessive loading during running has been implicated in a variety of injuries, yet this information is typically not assessed during a standard clinical examination. Developing a clinically feasible strategy to estimate ground reaction forces and joint kinetics may improve the ability to identify those at an increased risk of injury. Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces of 45 participants were recorded during treadmill running at self-selected speed. Kinematic variables used to estimate specific kinetic metrics included vertical excursion of the center of mass, foot inclination angle at initial contact, horizontal distance between the center of mass and heel at initial contact, knee flexion angle at initial contact, and peak knee flexion angle during stance. Linear mixed-effects models were fitted to explore the association between the kinetic and kinematic measures, including step rate and sex, with final models created using backward variable selection. Models were developed to estimate peak knee extensor moment (R(2) = 0.43), energy absorbed at the knee during loading response (R(2) = 0.58), peak patellofemoral joint reaction force (R(2) = 0.55), peak vertical ground reaction force (R(2) = 0.48), braking impulse (R(2) = 0.50), and average vertical loading rate (R(2) = 0.04). Our findings suggest that insights into important running kinetics can be obtained from a subset of sagittal plane kinematics common to a clinical running analysis. Of note, the limb posture at initial contact influenced subsequent loading patterns in stance.

  13. Relationship between anthropometric measures and sagittal spinal curvatures in adult male handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Mariam Abdul-Moneem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Increasing anthropometric measures bring considerable spinal loads during sports practice, which inversely affects the adaptation abilities of the spinal structures; this in turn influences the spinal curvatures. The study was conducted to explore the relationship between anthropometric measures and sagittal spinal curvatures in handball players. Method. The total of 83 male handball players were divided into 2 groups, depending on their body height: group 1 (age, 23.62 ± 2.07 years consisted of 40 handball players with height above average, group 2 (age, 24.63 ± 2.58 years consisted of 43 handball players with height below average. The thoracic and lumbar curvatures and trunk height were measured with the Formetric III 4D spine and posture analysis system. Results. The thoracic kyphosis of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 2 (p = 0.038, without a significant difference in lumbar lordosis (p = 0.312, and significant difference in the coefficient of compensation between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis (p = 0.026. Group 1 showed strong positive correlation between body height and kyphotic angle (r = 0.897, and moderate positive correlation with lordosis angle (r = 0.496. In group 2, there was weak positive correlation with kyphotic angle (r = 0.381, and weak negative correlation with lumbar lordosis angle (r = -0.355. Conclusions. Increasing body height of handball players is associated with bigger kyphotic and lordotic angles. Owing to frequent sagittal asymmetric overloading of the spine during handball training, exercises that help maintain good posture and correct the thoracic kyphosis are required, especially for taller players.

  14. A dynamic finite element analysis of human foot complex in the sagittal plane during level walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Qian

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop a computational framework for investigating the dynamic behavior and the internal loading conditions of the human foot complex during locomotion. A subject-specific dynamic finite element model in the sagittal plane was constructed based on anatomical structures segmented from medical CT scan images. Three-dimensional gait measurements were conducted to support and validate the model. Ankle joint forces and moment derived from gait measurements were used to drive the model. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted, covering the entire stance phase from heel-strike impact to toe-off. The predicted ground reaction forces, center of pressure, foot bone motions and plantar surface pressure showed reasonably good agreement with the gait measurement data over most of the stance phase. The prediction discrepancies can be explained by the assumptions and limitations of the model. Our analysis showed that a dynamic FE simulation can improve the prediction accuracy in the peak plantar pressures at some parts of the foot complex by 10%-33% compared to a quasi-static FE simulation. However, to simplify the costly explicit FE simulation, the proposed model is confined only to the sagittal plane and has a simplified representation of foot structure. The dynamic finite element foot model proposed in this study would provide a useful tool for future extension to a fully muscle-driven dynamic three-dimensional model with detailed representation of all major anatomical structures, in order to investigate the structural dynamics of the human foot musculoskeletal system during normal or even pathological functioning.

  15. A dynamic finite element analysis of human foot complex in the sagittal plane during level walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhihui; Ren, Lei; Ding, Yun; Hutchinson, John R; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a computational framework for investigating the dynamic behavior and the internal loading conditions of the human foot complex during locomotion. A subject-specific dynamic finite element model in the sagittal plane was constructed based on anatomical structures segmented from medical CT scan images. Three-dimensional gait measurements were conducted to support and validate the model. Ankle joint forces and moment derived from gait measurements were used to drive the model. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted, covering the entire stance phase from heel-strike impact to toe-off. The predicted ground reaction forces, center of pressure, foot bone motions and plantar surface pressure showed reasonably good agreement with the gait measurement data over most of the stance phase. The prediction discrepancies can be explained by the assumptions and limitations of the model. Our analysis showed that a dynamic FE simulation can improve the prediction accuracy in the peak plantar pressures at some parts of the foot complex by 10%-33% compared to a quasi-static FE simulation. However, to simplify the costly explicit FE simulation, the proposed model is confined only to the sagittal plane and has a simplified representation of foot structure. The dynamic finite element foot model proposed in this study would provide a useful tool for future extension to a fully muscle-driven dynamic three-dimensional model with detailed representation of all major anatomical structures, in order to investigate the structural dynamics of the human foot musculoskeletal system during normal or even pathological functioning.

  16. REPRODUCIBILITY AND EQUIVALENCE OF COBBMETER APPLICATION IN THE SAGITTAL EVALUATION OF THE SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Marchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to evaluate the reliability and equivalency of using the Cobbmeter application for iPhone compared to the manual measurement method in the analysis of the sagittal spinal alignment. Methods: Cross-sectional, prospective, single-center study that had 20 panoramic radiographs of the spine in lateral view, in a neutral standing position, analyzed blindly and randomly by three independent examiners in three different times. The parameters were pelvic incidence (PI, pelvic tilt (PT and lumbar lordosis (LL. The statistical analysis was performed to measure the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between the two measurement methods, in addition to measuring the intra and inter-evaluators reliability. Results: For reproducibility analysis, the intra-evaluators ICC using the application resulted in a Kappa (K of 0.975 for the evaluation of pelvic incidence (PI evaluation. For pelvic tilt (PT, the K value obtained was 0.981 and the K measured for lumbar lordosis (LL analysis was 0.987. The inter-evaluators evaluation of reproducibility using the application resulted in a K value of 0.917 for PI, 0.930 for PT and 0.951 for LL. For the assessment of equivalency of methods, comparing the application to the standard method, with a goniometer and dermographic pencil, the K value found for PI was 0.873, for PV was 0.939 and for LL was 0.914. All values were significant (p<0.001 against the null hypothesis. Conclusion: This smartphone application is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the angle involved in the sagittal balance of the spine. Furthermore, the results show that its applicability is not inferior to the manual method with goniometer and dermographic pencil.

  17. Male and female runners demonstrate different sagittal plane mechanics as a function of static hamstring flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams III, D. S. Blaise; Welch, Lee M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Injuries to runners are common. However, there are many potential contributing factors to injury. While lack of flexibility alone is commonly related to injury, there are clear differences in hamstring flexibility between males and females. Objective: To compare the effect of static hamstring length on sagittal plane mechanics between male and female runners. Method: Forty subjects (30.0±6.4 years) participated and were placed in one of 4 groups: flexible males (n=10), inflexible males (n=10), flexible females (n=10), and inflexible females (n=10). All subjects were free of injury at the time of data collection. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were collected while subjects ran over ground across 2 force platforms. Sagittal plane joint angles and moments were calculated at the knee and hip and compared with a 2-way (sex X flexibility) ANOVA (α=0.05). Results: Males exhibited greater peak knee extension moment than females (M=2.80±0.47, F=2.48±0.52 Nm/kg*m, p=0.05) and inflexible runners exhibited greater peak knee extension moment than flexible runners (In=2.83±0.56, Fl=2.44±0.51 Nm/kg*m, p=0.01). For hip flexion at initial contact, a significant interaction existed (pHamstring flexibility results in different mechanical profiles in males and females. Flexibility in the hamstrings may result in decreased moments via active or passive tension. These differences may have implications for performance and injury in flexible female runners. PMID:26537812

  18. Maxillomandibular Advancement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Patients: a Restrospective Study on the Sagittal Cephalometric Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ronchi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present retrospective study analyzes sagittal cephalometric changes in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome submitted to maxillomandubular advancement. Material and Methods: 15 adult sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG and treated with maxillomandubular advancement (MMA were included in this study. Pre- (T1 and postsurgical (T2 PSG studies assessing the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI and the lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT level were compared. Lateral cephalometric radiographs at T1 and T2 measuring sagittal cephalometric variables (SNA, SNB, and ANB were analyzed, as were the amount of maxillary and mandibular advancement (Co-A and Co-Pog, the distance from the mandibular plane to the most anterior point of the hyoid bone (Mp-H, and the posterior airway space (PAS.Results: Postoperatively, the overall mean AHI dropped from 58.7 ± 16 to 8.1 ± 7.8 events per hour (P < 0.001. The mean preoperative LSAT increased from 71% preoperatively to 90% after surgery (P < 0.001. All the patients in our study were successfully treated (AHI < 20 or reduced by 50%. Cephalometric analysis performed after surgery showed a statistically significant correlation between the mean SNA variation and the decrease in the AHI (P = 0.01. The overall mean SNA increase was 6°.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the improvement observed in the respiratory symptoms, namely the apnea/hypopnea episodes, is correlated with the SNA increase after surgery. This finding may help maxillofacial surgeons to establish selective criteria for the surgical approach to sleep apnea syndrome patients.

  19. Male and female runners demonstrate different sagittal plane mechanics as a function of static hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D S Blaise; Welch, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to runners are common. However, there are many potential contributing factors to injury. While lack of flexibility alone is commonly related to injury, there are clear differences in hamstring flexibility between males and females. To compare the effect of static hamstring length on sagittal plane mechanics between male and female runners. Forty subjects (30.0±6.4 years) participated and were placed in one of 4 groups: flexible males (n=10), inflexible males (n=10), flexible females (n=10), and inflexible females (n=10). All subjects were free of injury at the time of data collection. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were collected while subjects ran over ground across 2 force platforms. Sagittal plane joint angles and moments were calculated at the knee and hip and compared with a 2-way (sex X flexibility) ANOVA (α=0.05). Males exhibited greater peak knee extension moment than females (M=2.80±0.47, F=2.48±0.52 Nm/kg*m, p=0.05) and inflexible runners exhibited greater peak knee extension moment than flexible runners (In=2.83±0.56, Fl=2.44±0.51 Nm/kg*m, p=0.01). For hip flexion at initial contact, a significant interaction existed (pFlexible females (36.7±7.4º) exhibited more hip flexion than inflexible females (27.9±4.6º, pflexible males (30.1±9.5º, pflexibility results in different mechanical profiles in males and females. Flexibility in the hamstrings may result in decreased moments via active or passive tension. These differences may have implications for performance and injury in flexible female runners.

  20. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun Jeong

    Photolysis of water with semiconductor materials has been investigated intensely as a clean and renewable energy resource by storing solar energy in chemical bonds such as hydrogen. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires can provide several advantages for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their high surface areas and excellent charge transport and collection efficiency. This dissertation discusses various nanowire photoelectrodes for single or dual semiconductor systems, and their linked PEC cells for self-driven water splitting. After an introduction of solar water splitting in the first chapter, the second chapter demonstrates water oxidative activities of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanowire arrays depending on their length and surface properties. The photocurrents with TiO2 nanowire arrays approach saturation due to their poor charge collection efficiency with longer nanowires despite increased photon absorption efficiency. Epitaxial grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiO2 nanowire increase the photocurrent density by 1.5 times due to improved charge collection efficiency especially in the short wavelength region. Chapter three compares the photocurrent density of the planar Si and Si nanowire arrays coated by anatase ALD TiO 2 thin film as a model system of a dual bandgap system. The electroless etched Si nanowire coated by ALD TiO2 (Si EENW/TiO2) shows 2.5 times higher photocurrent density due to lower reflectance and higher surface area. Also, this chapter illustrates that n-Si/n-TiO2 heterojunction is a promising structure for the photoanode application of a dual semiconductor system, since it can enhance the photocurrent density compared to p-Si/n-TiO 2 junction with the assistance of bend banding at the interface. Chapter four demonstrates the charge separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements show

  1. Splitting methods for split feasibility problems with application to Dantzig selectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun

    2017-05-01

    The split feasibility problem (SFP), which refers to the task of finding a point that belongs to a given nonempty, closed and convex set, and whose image under a bounded linear operator belongs to another given nonempty, closed and convex set, has promising applicability in modeling a wide range of inverse problems. Motivated by the increasingly data-driven regularization in the areas of signal/image processing and statistical learning, in this paper, we study the regularized split feasibility problem (RSFP), which provides a unified model for treating many real-world problems. By exploiting the split nature of the RSFP, we shall gainfully employ several efficient splitting methods to solve the model under consideration. A remarkable advantage of our methods lies in their easier subproblems in the sense that the resulting subproblems have closed-form representations or can be efficiently solved up to a high precision. As an interesting application, we apply the proposed algorithms for finding Dantzig selectors, in addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the splitting methods through some computational results on synthetic and real medical data sets.

  2. Significance of sagittal reformations in routine thoracic and abdominal multislice CT studies for detecting osteoporotic fractures and other spine abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Dirk; Bauer, Jan S.; Zeile, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, TU Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, UCSF, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-08-15

    The purpose was to assess osteoporotic vertebral fractures and other spinal lesions in sagittal reformations obtained from routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) studies of the thorax and abdomen, to compare sagittal reformations with axial images in detecting these lesions and to investigate how frequently they were missed in the official radiology report. Routine abdominal or thoracoabdominal MDCT using a standard protocol was performed in 112 postmenopausal women. Axial images and sagittal reformations were analyzed separately by two radiologists in consensus and were compared in order to evaluate how often spinal lesions could be detected. In addition the official radiology reports were assessed to determine how many of those abnormalities were identified. Spine abnormalities were visualized in 101/112 postmenopausal women. In 27 patients osteoporotic vertebral deformities were found; 6 of these were shown in the axial images, but none of these were diagnosed in the official radiology report. Additional abnormalities included degenerative disc disease, osteoarthritis of the facet joints, scoliosis, hemangiomas and bone metastases. In only 9/101 patients spine abnormalities were mentioned in the radiology report. Sagittal reformations of standard MDCT images provide important additional information on spinal abnormalities; in particular, osteoporotic vertebral deformities are substantially better detected. (orig.)

  3. Flow Cytometric Bead Sandwich Assay Based on a Split Aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Luyao; Bing, Tao; Liu, Xiangjun; Wang, Junyan; Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Nan; Shangguan, Dihua

    2018-01-24

    A few aptamers still bind their targets after being split into two moieties. Split aptamers have shown great potential in the development of aptameric sensors. However, only a few split aptamers have been generated because of lack of knowledge on the binding structure of their parent aptamers. Here, we report the design of a new split aptamer and a flow cytometric bead sandwich assay using a split aptamer instead of double antibodies. Through DMS footprinting and mutation assay, we figured out the target-binding moiety and the structure-stabilizing moiety of the l-selectin aptamer, Sgc-3b. By separating the duplex strand in the structure-stabilizing moiety, we obtained a split aptamer that bound l-selectin. After optimization of one part of the split sequence to eliminate the nonspecific binding of the split sequence pair, we developed a split-aptamer-based cytometric bead assay (SACBA) for the detection of soluble l-selectin. SACBA showed good sensitivity and selectivity to l-selectin and was successfully applied for the detection of spiked l-selectin in the human serum. The strategies for generating split aptamers and designing the split-aptamer-based sandwich assay are simple and efficient and show good practicability in aptamer engineering.

  4. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-02-01

    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  5. Value of sagittal color Doppler ultrasonography as a supplementary tool in the differential diagnosis of fetal cleft lip and palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of sagittal color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) for the diagnosis of fetal cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP). We performed targeted ultrasonography on 25 fetuses with CL and CP, taking coronal and axial images of the upper lip and maxillary alveolar arch in each case. The existence of defects in and malalignment of the alveolus on the axial image, hard palate defects on the midsagittal image, and flow-through defects on CDUS taken during fetal breathing or swallowing were assessed. We compared the ultrasonography findings with postnatal findings in all fetuses. Alveolar defects were detected in 16 out of 17 cases with CP and four out of eight cases with CL. Alveolar malalignment and hard palate defects were detected in 11 out of 17 cases and 14 out of 17 cases with CP, respectively, but not detected in any cases with CL. Communicating flow through the palate defect was detected in 11 out of 17 cases of CL with CP. The accuracy of detection in axial scans of an alveolar defect and malalignment was 80% and 76%, respectively. Accuracy of detection of in mid-sagittal images of hard palate defect and flow was 80% and 86%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy of combined axial and sagittal images with sagittal CDUS was 92%. Sagittal CDUS of the fetal hard palate is a feasible method to directly reveal hard palate bony defects and flow through defects, which may have additional value in the differential diagnosis of fetal CL and CP.

  6. Value of sagittal color Doppler ultrasonography as a supplementary tool in the differential diagnosis of fetal cleft lip and palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Seok; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of sagittal color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) for the diagnosis of fetal cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP). We performed targeted ultrasonography on 25 fetuses with CL and CP, taking coronal and axial images of the upper lip and maxillary alveolar arch in each case. The existence of defects in and malalignment of the alveolus on the axial image, hard palate defects on the midsagittal image, and flow-through defects on CDUS taken during fetal breathing or swallowing were assessed. We compared the ultrasonography findings with postnatal findings in all fetuses. Alveolar defects were detected in 16 out of 17 cases with CP and four out of eight cases with CL. Alveolar malalignment and hard palate defects were detected in 11 out of 17 cases and 14 out of 17 cases with CP, respectively, but not detected in any cases with CL. Communicating flow through the palate defect was detected in 11 out of 17 cases of CL with CP. The accuracy of detection in axial scans of an alveolar defect and malalignment was 80% and 76%, respectively. Accuracy of detection of in mid-sagittal images of hard palate defect and flow was 80% and 86%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy of combined axial and sagittal images with sagittal CDUS was 92%. Sagittal CDUS of the fetal hard palate is a feasible method to directly reveal hard palate bony defects and flow through defects, which may have additional value in the differential diagnosis of fetal CL and CP

  7. Influence of postoperative sagittal balance and spinopelvic parameters on the outcome of patients surgically treated for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, Ingrid; Urquhart, Jennifer C; Ganapathy, Venkat; Siddiqi, Fawaz; Gurr, Kevin R; Bailey, Stewart I; Bailey, Christopher S

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to determine the association between postoperative sagittal spinopelvic alignment and patient-rated outcome measures following decompression and fusion for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. METHODS The authors identified a consecutive series of patients who had undergone surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis between 2008 and 2012, with an average follow-up of 3 years (range 1-6 years). Surgery was performed to address the clinical symptoms of spinal stenosis, not global sagittal alignment. Sagittal alignment was only assessed postoperatively. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on a postoperative sagittal vertical axis (SVA) spondylolisthesis (p = 0.044), spondylolisthesis at the L3-4 level (p = 0.046), and multiple levels treated with fusion (p = 0.028) were more common among patients in the group with an SVA ≥ 50 mm. Patients with an SVA ≥ 50 mm had a worse SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) score (p = 0.018), a worse Oswestry Disability Index (ODI; p = 0.043), and more back pain (p = 0.039) than those with an SVA spondylolisthesis and multilevel fusion. The spinopelvic parameters differing between the < 50-mm and ≥ 50-mm groups included lumbar lordosis (LL; 56.4° ± 4.7° vs 49.8° ± 4.3°, respectively, p = 0.040) and LL < pelvic incidence ± 9° (51% vs 23.1%, respectively, p = 0.013) after controlling for type of surgical procedure. CONCLUSIONS Data in this study revealed that patient-rated outcome is influenced by the overall postoperative sagittal balance as defined by the SVA.

  8. Comparison Between Interactive Closest Point and Procrustes Analysis for Determining the Median Sagittal Plane of Three-Dimensional Facial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuxue; Zhao, Yijiao; Yang, Huifang; Sun, Yucun; Wang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    To compare 2 digital methods to determine median sagittal plane of three-dimensional facial data-the interactive closest point algorithm and Procrustes analysis. The three-dimensional facial data of the 30 volunteers were got by the Face Scan 3D optical sensor (3D-Shape GmbH, Erlangen, Germany), and then were input to the reverse engineering software Imageware 13.0 (Siemens, Plano, TX) and Geomagic 2012 (Cary, NC). Their mirrored data were acquired and superimposed with the original data by the methods of interactive closest points and Procrustes analysis. The median sagittal planes of the 2 methods were extracted from the original and mirrored facial data respectively, 3 asymmetry indices were measured for comparison. Differences between the facial asymmetry indices of the 2 methods were evaluated using the paired sample t-test. In terms of the 3 asymmetry indices, there were no significant differences between interactive closest points and Procrustes analysis for extracting median sagittal plane from three-dimensional facial data.(t = 0.0.060, P = 0.953 for asymmetry index (AI) 1, t = -0.926, P = 0.362 for AI 2, t = 1.1172, P = 0.0.251 for AI 3). In this evaluation of 30 subjects, the Procrustes analysis and the interactive closest point median-sagittal planes were similar in terms of the 3 asymmetry indices. Thus, Procrustes analysis and interactive closest point can both be used to abstract median sagittal plane from three-dimensional facial data.

  9. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  10. Injuries caused by firewood splitting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrand, P H

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the types of injury caused by firewood splitting machines and also to elucidate the accident mechanism. The study is based on 15 cases. The machine has a rotating spiral cone, and usually the victims' gloved fingertips were caught by the point of the cone. This led to either amputations, usually of radial fingers and/or penetrating wounds through the middle of the hand. In most cases the accidents could not be blamed on bad working techniques. The study of the mechanisms of injury points to insufficient protective devices in a machine construction which has a potentially dangerous working principle.

  11. Randomized clinical trial comparing fixed-time split dosing and split dosing of oral Picosulfate regimen for bowel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jae Hyuck; Han, Koon Hee; Park, Jong Kyu; Seo, Hyun Il; Kim, Young Don; Lee, Sang Jin; Jun, Baek Gyu; Hwang, Min Sik; Park, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Myeong Jong; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2017-08-28

    To compare the efficacy of fixed-time split dose and split dose of an oral sodium picosulfate for bowel preparation. This is study was prospective, randomized controlled study performed at a single Institution (2013-058). A total of 204 subjects were assigned to receive one of two sodium picosulfate regimens ( i.e ., fixed-time split or split) prior to colonoscopy. Main outcome measurements were bowel preparation quality and subject tolerability. There was no statistical difference between the fixed-time split dose regimen group and the split dose regimen group (Ottawa score mean 2.57 ± 1.91 vs 2.80 ± 2.51, P = 0.457). Cecal intubation time and physician's satisfaction of inspection were not significantly different between the two groups ( P = 0.428, P = 0.489). On subgroup analysis, for afternoon procedures, the fixed-time split dose regimen was equally effective as compared with the split dose regimen (Ottawa score mean 2.56 ± 1.78 vs 2.59 ± 2.27, P = 0.932). There was no difference in tolerability or compliance between the two groups. Nausea was 21.2% in the fixed-time split dose group and 14.3% in the split dose group ( P = 0.136). Vomiting was 7.1% and 2.9% ( P = 0.164), abdominal discomfort 7.1% and 4.8% ( P = 0.484), dizziness 1% and 4.8% ( P = 0.113), cold sweating 1% and 0% ( P = 0.302) and palpitation 0% and 1% ( P = 0.330), respectively. Sleep disturbance was two (2%) patients in the fixed-time split dose group and zero (0%) patient in the split dose preparation ( P = 0.143) group. A fixed-time split dose regimen with sodium picosulfate is not inferior to a split dose regimen for bowel preparation and equally effective for afternoon colonoscopy.

  12. Quantifying kinematic differences between land and water during squats, split squats, and single-leg squats in a healthy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Severin

    Full Text Available Aquatic exercises can be used in clinical and sporting disciplines for both rehabilitation and sports training. However, there is limited knowledge on the influence of water immersion on the kinematics of exercises commonly used in rehabilitation and fitness programs. The aim of this study was to use inertial sensors to quantify differences in kinematics and movement variability of bodyweight squats, split squats, and single-leg squats performed on dry land and whilst immersed to the level of the greater trochanter. During two separate testing sessions, 25 active healthy university students (22.3±2.9 yr. performed ten repetitions of each exercise, whilst tri-axial inertial sensors (100 Hz recorded their trunk and lower body kinematics. Repeated-measures statistics tested for differences in segment orientation and speed, movement variability, and waveform patterns between environments, while coefficient of variance was used to assess differences in movement variability. Between-environment differences in segment orientation and speed were portrayed by plotting the mean difference ±95% confidence intervals (CI throughout the tasks. The results showed that the depth of the squat and split squat were unaffected by the changed environment while water immersion allowed for a deeper single leg squat. The different environments had significant effects on the sagittal plane orientations and speeds for all segments. Water immersion increased the degree of movement variability of the segments in all exercises, except for the shank in the frontal plane, which showed more variability on land. Without compromising movement depth, the aquatic environment induces more upright trunk and shank postures during squats and split squats. The aquatic environment allows for increased squat depth during the single-leg squat, and increased shank motions in the frontal plane. Our observations therefore support the use of water-based squat tasks for rehabilitation as

  13. Quantifying kinematic differences between land and water during squats, split squats, and single-leg squats in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anna C; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R; Wiegand, Aaron N; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises can be used in clinical and sporting disciplines for both rehabilitation and sports training. However, there is limited knowledge on the influence of water immersion on the kinematics of exercises commonly used in rehabilitation and fitness programs. The aim of this study was to use inertial sensors to quantify differences in kinematics and movement variability of bodyweight squats, split squats, and single-leg squats performed on dry land and whilst immersed to the level of the greater trochanter. During two separate testing sessions, 25 active healthy university students (22.3±2.9 yr.) performed ten repetitions of each exercise, whilst tri-axial inertial sensors (100 Hz) recorded their trunk and lower body kinematics. Repeated-measures statistics tested for differences in segment orientation and speed, movement variability, and waveform patterns between environments, while coefficient of variance was used to assess differences in movement variability. Between-environment differences in segment orientation and speed were portrayed by plotting the mean difference ±95% confidence intervals (CI) throughout the tasks. The results showed that the depth of the squat and split squat were unaffected by the changed environment while water immersion allowed for a deeper single leg squat. The different environments had significant effects on the sagittal plane orientations and speeds for all segments. Water immersion increased the degree of movement variability of the segments in all exercises, except for the shank in the frontal plane, which showed more variability on land. Without compromising movement depth, the aquatic environment induces more upright trunk and shank postures during squats and split squats. The aquatic environment allows for increased squat depth during the single-leg squat, and increased shank motions in the frontal plane. Our observations therefore support the use of water-based squat tasks for rehabilitation as they appear to

  14. The Regularity of Functions on Dual Split Quaternions in Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows some properties of dual split quaternion numbers and expressions of power series in dual split quaternions and provides differential operators in dual split quaternions and a dual split regular function on Ω⊂ℂ2×ℂ2 that has a dual split Cauchy-Riemann system in dual split quaternions.

  15. Spring-Mediated Cranioplasty in Sagittal Synostosis: Does Age at Placement Affect Expansion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, James; Ter Maaten, Netanja S; Mazzaferro, Daniel M; Wes, Ari M; Naran, Sanjay; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2018-01-19

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing of surgery and spring characteristics on correction of scaphocephalic deformity in patients undergoing spring-mediated cranioplasty (SMC) for sagittal craniosynostosis. The authors conducted a review of patients with sagittal craniosynostosis who underwent SMC at a tertiary referral center between July 2011 and March 2017, with a primary outcome measure of head shape, both preoperatively and postoperatively, determined by cephalic index (CI). Patient demographics and operative details including timing of surgery and spring characteristics were collected. Differences in CI preoperation and postoperation were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Ordinary least-squares linear regression was used to assess the impact of timing, number of springs, maximum single spring force, and total spring force on postoperative change in CI. Thirty-six subjects (12 males and 24 females) were included in the study. Mean age at spring placement was 3.9 months (range: 1.9-9.2) with a mean follow-up of 1.4 years (range: 0.3-5.2). The mean number of springs used was 3 (range: 2-4). The mean maximum single spring force was 9.9 Newtons (N) (range: 6.9-13.0) and the mean total spring force was 24.6 N (range: 12.7-37.0). Mean CI increased from 70 ± 0.9 preoperatively to 77 ± 1.0 postoperatively (P spring placement was significantly associated with change in CI: for every month increase in age, the change in CI decreased by 1.3 (P = 0.03). The number of springs used, greatest single spring force, and total spring force did not correlate with changes in CI (P = 0.85, P = 0.42, and P = 0.84, respectively). In SMC, earlier age at time of surgery appears to correlate with greater improvement in CI, at least in the short-term. While spring characteristics did not appear to affect head shape, it is possible that the authors were underpowered to detect a difference, and spring-related variables likely

  16. Contact pressure in the facet joint during sagittal bending of the cadaveric cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumard, Nicolas V; Bauman, Joel A; Weisshaar, Christine L; Guarino, Benjamin B; Welch, William C; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2011-07-01

    The facet joint contributes to the normal biomechanical function of the spine by transmitting loads and limiting motions via articular contact. However, little is known about the contact pressure response for this joint. Such information can provide a quantitative measure of the facet joint's local environment. The objective of this study was to measure facet pressure during physiologic bending in the cervical spine, using a joint capsule-sparing technique. Flexion and extension bending moments were applied to six human cadaveric cervical spines. Global motions (C2-T1) were defined using infra-red cameras to track markers on each vertebra. Contact pressure in the C5-C6 facet was also measured using a tip-mounted pressure transducer inserted into the joint space through a hole in the postero-inferior region of the C5 lateral mass. Facet contact pressure increased by 67.6 ± 26.9 kPa under a 2.4 Nm extension moment and decreased by 10.3 ± 9.7 kPa under a 2.7 Nm flexion moment. The mean rotation of the overall cervical specimen motion segments was 9.6 ± 0.8° and was 1.6 ± 0.7° for the C5-C6 joint, respectively, for extension. The change in pressure during extension was linearly related to both the change in moment (51.4 ± 42.6 kPa/Nm) and the change in C5-C6 angle (18.0 ± 108.9 kPa/deg). Contact pressure in the inferior region of the cervical facet joint increases during extension as the articular surfaces come in contact, and decreases in flexion as the joint opens, similar to reports in the lumbar spine despite the difference in facet orientation in those spinal regions. Joint contact pressure is linearly related to both sagittal moment and spinal rotation. Cartilage degeneration and the presence of meniscoids may account for the variation in the pressure profiles measured during physiologic sagittal bending. This study shows that cervical facet contact pressure can be directly measured with minimal disruption to the joint and is the first to provide local

  17. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.

    1990-12-01

    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semisimple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity χ which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity χ has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggest that the hypercharge splitting may play an important role either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity χ tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms. (orig.)

  18. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  19. An Iterative Algorithm for the Split Equality and Multiple-Sets Split Equality Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoyi Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-sets split equality problem (MSSEP requires finding a point x∈∩i=1NCi, y∈∩j=1MQj such that Ax=By, where N and M are positive integers, {C1,C2,…,CN} and {Q1,Q2,…,QM} are closed convex subsets of Hilbert spaces H1, H2, respectively, and A:H1→H3, B:H2→H3 are two bounded linear operators. When N=M=1, the MSSEP is called the split equality problem (SEP. If  B=I, then the MSSEP and SEP reduce to the well-known multiple-sets split feasibility problem (MSSFP and split feasibility problem (SFP, respectively. One of the purposes of this paper is to introduce an iterative algorithm to solve the SEP and MSSEP in the framework of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces under some more mild conditions for the iterative coefficient.

  20. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Luigi; Riatti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males) were included in the study (mean age, 12.3 ± 1.7 years; range, 7.6–16.7 years). These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles) with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months). Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age (β coefficient, −0.7). These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases. PMID:27995136

  1. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Perinetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males were included in the study (mean age, 12.3±1.7 years; range, 7.6–16.7 years. These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months. Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age (β coefficient, −0.7. These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases.

  2. Conical geometry for sagittal focusing as applied to X rays from synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J.

    1993-06-01

    The authors describe a method for simultaneously focusing and monochromatization of X rays from a fan of radiation having up to 15 mrad divergence in one dimension. This geometry is well suited to synchrotron radiation sources at magnifications of one-fifth to two and is efficient for X-ray energies between 3 and 40 keV (0.48 and 6.4 fJ). The method uses crystals bent to part of a cone for sagittal focusing and allows for the collection of a larger divergence with less mixing of the horizontal into the vertical divergence than is possible with X-ray mirrors. They describe the geometry required to achieve the highest efficiency when a conical crystal follows a flat crystal in a nondispersive two-crystal monochromator. At a magnification of one-third, the geometry is identical to a cylindrical focusing design described previously. A simple theoretical calculation is shown to agree well with ray-tracing results. Minimum aberrations are observed at magnifications near one. Applications of the conical focusing geometry to existing and future synchrotron radiation facilities are discussed

  3. Reliable sagittal plane kinematic gait assessments are feasible using low-cost webcam technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Robert J; Washabaugh, Edward P; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) motion capture systems are commonly used for gait analysis because they provide reliable and accurate measurements. However, the downside of this approach is that it is expensive and requires technical expertise; thus making it less feasible in the clinic. To address this limitation, we recently developed and validated (using a high-precision walking robot) a low-cost, two-dimensional (2-D) real-time motion tracking approach using a simple webcam and LabVIEW Vision Assistant. The purpose of this study was to establish the repeatability and minimal detectable change values of hip and knee sagittal plane gait kinematics recorded using this system. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two kinematic assessments while walking on a treadmill at a range of gait velocities. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC) values were calculated for commonly used hip and knee kinematic parameters to demonstrate the reliability of the system. Additionally, Bland-Altman plots were generated to examine the agreement between the measurements recorded on two different days. The system demonstrated good to excellent reliability (ICC>0.75) for all the gait parameters tested on this study. The MDC values were typically low (gait assessments using webcam technology can be reliably used for clinical and research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing delay and lag in sagittal trunk control using a tracking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, N Peter; Luis, Abraham; Chan, Elizabeth C; Sal Y Rosas, Victor G; Tanaka, Martin L

    2018-03-17

    Slower trunk muscle responses are linked to back pain and injury. Unfortunately, clinical assessments of spine function do not objectively evaluate this important attribute, which reflects speed of trunk control. Speed of trunk control can be parsed into two components: (1) delay, the time it takes to initiate a movement, and (2) lag, the time it takes to execute a movement once initiated. The goal of this study is to demonstrate a new approach to assess delay and lag in trunk control using a simple tracking task. Ten healthy subjects performed four blocks of six trials of trunk tracking in the sagittal plane. Delay and lag were estimated by modeling trunk control for predictable and unpredictable (control mode) trunk movements in flexion and extension (control direction) at movement amplitudes of 2°, 4°, and 6° (control amplitude). The main effect of control mode, direction, and amplitude of movement were compared between trial blocks to assess secondary influencers (e.g., fatigue). Only control mode was consistent across trial blocks with predictable movements being faster than unpredictable for both delay and lag. Control direction and amplitude effects on delay and lag were consistent across the first two trial blocks and less consistent in later blocks. Given the heterogeneity in the presentation of back pain, clinical assessment of trunk control should include different control modes, directions, and amplitudes. To reduce testing time and the influence of fatigue, we recommend six trials to assess trunk control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Frank-ter Haar syndrome associated with sagittal craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendon, Charlotte L; Fenwick, Aimée L; Hurst, Jane A; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Wall, Steven A; Wilkie, Andrew O M; Johnson, David

    2012-11-09

    Frank-ter Haar syndrome is a rare disorder associated with skeletal, cardiac, ocular and craniofacial features including hypertelorism and brachycephaly. The most common underlying genetic defect in Frank-ter Haar syndrome appears to be a mutation in the SH3PXD2B gene on chromosome 5q35.1. Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the calvarial sutures, has not previously been described in Frank-ter Haar syndrome. We present a family of three affected siblings born to consanguineous parents with clinical features in keeping with a diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome. All three siblings have a novel mutation caused by the deletion of exon 13 of the SH3PXD2B gene. Two of the three siblings also have non-scaphocephalic sagittal synostosis associated with raised intracranial pressure. The clinical features of craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure in this family with a confirmed diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. The abnormal cranial proportions in a mouse model of the disease suggests that the association is not coincidental. The possibility of craniosynostosis should be considered in individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome.

  6. Frank-ter Haar syndrome associated with sagittal craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendon Charlotte L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frank-ter Haar syndrome is a rare disorder associated with skeletal, cardiac, ocular and craniofacial features including hypertelorism and brachycephaly. The most common underlying genetic defect in Frank-ter Haar syndrome appears to be a mutation in the SH3PXD2B gene on chromosome 5q35.1. Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the calvarial sutures, has not previously been described in Frank-ter Haar syndrome. Case presentation We present a family of three affected siblings born to consanguineous parents with clinical features in keeping with a diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome. All three siblings have a novel mutation caused by the deletion of exon 13 of the SH3PXD2B gene. Two of the three siblings also have non-scaphocephalic sagittal synostosis associated with raised intracranial pressure. Conclusion The clinical features of craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure in this family with a confirmed diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. The abnormal cranial proportions in a mouse model of the disease suggests that the association is not coincidental. The possibility of craniosynostosis should be considered in individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome.

  7. Sagittal plane lumbar loading when navigating an obstacle and carrying a load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriella, Jeevaka B; Perry, Carolyn J; Hawkins, Kara M; Shanahan, Camille J; Gage, William H; Moore, Anne E

    2016-11-01

    The current study quantified lumbar loading while carrying an anterior load mass and navigating an obstacle. Eight healthy male participants walked down a walkway and crossed an obstacle under three randomised LOAD conditions; empty-box (2 KG), five kilogram (5 KG) and ten kilogram (10 KG). Each walk was assessed at two events: left foot mid-stance (LMS) and right toe-crossing (TC) to characterise any changes from approach to crossing. Measures of interest included: trunk pitch, L4/L5 joint moment, compression, joint anterior-posterior shear and erector spinae activation. Findings demonstrate that obstacle crossing extended posture by 50, 41, 44%, respectively for each carried load magnitude. Further, these results indicate that shear rather than compressive loading may be an important consideration during crossing due to increase by 8, 9, 22% from LMS to TC for each load magnitude tested. These results provide insight into sagittal lumbar loading when navigating an obstacle while carrying a load. Practitioner Summary: The risk of carrying while navigating obstacles on the lumbar spine is not completely understood. The forces at the lumbar spine while simultaneously carrying and obstacle crossing were analysed. Data indicate that carrying and obstacle crossing influence lumbar shear loads, thereby moderately increasing the relative risk at lumbar spine.

  8. Evaluation of palatal rugae pattern in different sagittal skeletal relationship adolescent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Ekrem; Buyuk, S Kutalmiş; Simsek, Huseyin

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological structure of palatal rugae in Turkish orthodontic subjects with different sagittal skeletal malocclusions. Orthodontic dental casts of 105 patients (Class I [23 females, 12 males]; 35, Class II [18 females, 17 males]; and 35, Class III [14 females, 21 males] 10-22 years old) were analyzed for rugae patterns. Palatal rugae pattern and number, direction of rugae alignment, shape of incisive papilla were analyzed. Modified Thomas and Kotze classification was performed to analyze palatal rugae characteristics. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Wavy and curved types were the most common types of rugae pattern in all groups (Class I, Class II, Class III). As regards to the number of primary and secondary rugae on the left and right sides, there was no statistically significant difference among subjects with different skeletal malocclusions. Droplet-shaped incisive papilla was the most common form of incisive papillae among different skeletal malocclusion groups. The most common palatal rugae were direction type arranged in the horizontal direction. All rugae patterns were unique for each individual. The use of antemortem or postmortem palatal rugae records may facilitate identification of the suspects in forensic investigations by enabling facial reconstruction through skeletal malocclusions.

  9. Rapid Hip Osteoarthritis Development in a Patient with Anterior Acetabular Cyst with Sagittal Alignment Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Homma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC is rare and develops unusual clinical course. Recent studies suggest multiple possible mechanisms of the development of RDC. However the exact mechanism of RDC is still not clear. The difficulty of the study on RDC is attributed to its rareness and the fact that the data before the onset of RDC is normally unavailable. In this report, we presented the patient having the radiographic data before the onset who had rapid osteoarthritis (OA development after contralateral THA, which meets the current criteria of RDC. We thought that the increased posterior tilt of the pelvis after THA reinforced the stress concentration at pre-existed anterior acetabular cyst, thereby the destruction of the cyst was occurred. As a result the rapid OA was developed. We think that there is the case of rapid osteoarthritis developing due to alternating load concentration by posterior pelvic tilt on preexisting anterior acetabular cyst such as our patient among the cases diagnosed as RDC without any identifiable etiology. The recognition of sagittal alignment changes and anterior acetabular cyst may play important role in prediction and prevention of the rapid hip osteoarthritis development similar to RDC.

  10. Comparison of normal permanent and primary dentition sagittal tooth-crown inclinations of Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Iwase, Yoko; Kubota, Naoko; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of permanent and primary tooth-crown inclinations. Landmark points from cephalograms and dental casts of two groups; 23 women (mean 20.3 +/- 3.3 years) and 11 girls (mean 5.2 +/- 0.1 years) were digitized, and the coordinates were integrated and transformed to a standardized plane. The 3-dimensional crown inclinations were projected on the sagittal plane, and the angles between the tooth vectors and the FH plane were calculated. An independent-group t-test was used to test for group differences of each tooth inclination, and correlation coefficients were generated for the inclination angles among the permanent and primary teeth. Most maxillary tooth-crown inclinations showed significant age-related differences, while only the second premolar and primary second molar differed significantly in the mandible. The maxillary molars were parallel to the corresponding mandibular molars and correlated with each other, but the primary molars were not. Significant correlations were found between inclinations of most permanent teeth, but not the primary teeth. Maxillary tooth-crown inclinations change during growth, but tooth-crown inclinations of the mandibular teeth do not.

  11. SVR versus neural-fuzzy network controllers for the sagittal balance of a biped robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João P; Crisóstomo, Manuel M; Coimbra, A Paulo

    2009-12-01

    The real-time balance control of an eight-link biped robot using a zero moment point (ZMP) dynamic model is difficult due to the processing time of the corresponding equations. To overcome this limitation, two alternative intelligent computing control techniques were compared: one based on support vector regression (SVR) and another based on a first-order Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK)-type neural-fuzzy (NF) network. Both methods use the ZMP error and its variation as inputs and the output is the correction of the robot's torso necessary for its sagittal balance. The SVR and the NF were trained based on simulation data and their performance was verified with a real biped robot. Two performance indexes are proposed to evaluate and compare the online performance of the two control methods. The ZMP is calculated by reading four force sensors placed under each robot's foot. The gait implemented in this biped is similar to a human gait that was acquired and adapted to the robot's size. Some experiments are presented and the results show that the implemented gait combined either with the SVR controller or with the TSK NF network controller can be used to control this biped robot. The SVR and the NF controllers exhibit similar stability, but the SVR controller runs about 50 times faster.

  12. Electrocatalytic water splitting to produce fuel hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao

    Solar energy is regarded as a promising source for clean and sustainable energy. However, it is not a continuous energy source, thus certain strategies have to be developed to effectively convert and store it. Solar-driven electrocatalytic water splitting, which converts solar energy into chemical energy for storage as fuel hydrogen, can effectively mitigate the intermittence of solar radiation. Water splitting consists of two half reactions: water oxidation and hydrogen evolution. Both reactions rely on highly effective electrocatalysts. This dissertation is an account of four detailed studies on developing highly effective low-cost electrocatalysts for both reactions, and includes a preliminary attempt at system integration to build a functional photoanode for solar-driven water oxidation. For the water oxidation reaction, we have developed an electrochemical method to immobilize a cobalt-based (Co-OXO) water oxidation catalyst on a conductive surface to promote recyclability and reusability without affecting functionality. We have also developed a method to synthesize a manganese-based (MnOx) catalytic film in situ, generating a nanoscale fibrous morphology that provides steady and excellent water oxidation performance. The new method involves two series of cyclic voltammetry (CV) over different potential ranges, followed by calcination to increase crystallinity. The research has the potential to open avenues for synthesizing and optimizing other manganese-based water oxidation catalysts. For the hydrogen evolution reaction, we have developed a new electrodeposition method to synthesize Ni/Ni(OH)2 catalysts in situ on conductive surfaces. The new method involves only two cycles of CV over a single potential range. The resulting catalytic film has a morphology of packed walnut-shaped particles. It has superior catalytic activity and good stability over long periods. We have investigated the feasibility of incorporating manganese-based water oxidation catalysts

  13. The impact of payment splitting on liquidity requirements in RTGS

    OpenAIRE

    Denbee, Edward; Norman, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact that payment splitting could have upon the liquidity requirements and efficiency of a large-value payment system, such as the United Kingdom’s CHAPS. Using the Bank of Finland Payment and Settlement Simulator and real UK payments data we find that payment splitting could reduce the liquidity required to settle payments. The reduction in required liquidity would increase as the payment splitting threshold decreased but the relationship is non-linear. Liquidity sa...

  14. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao

    2016-01-01

    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  15. Comparison of maxillary stability after Le Fort I osteotomy for occlusal cant correction surgery and maxillary advanced surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Koichiro; Hashiba, Yukari; Marukawa, Kohei; Yoshida, Kan; Shimizu, Chika; Nakagawa, Kiyomasa; Yamamoto, Etsuhide

    2007-07-01

    To compare postoperative maxillary stability following Le Fort I osteotomy for the correction of occlusal cant as compared with conventional Le Fort I osteotomy for maxillary advancement. The subjects were 40 Japanese adults with jaw deformities. Of these, 20 underwent a Le Fort I osteotomy and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) to correct asymmetric skeletal morphology and inclined occlusal cant. The other 20 patients underwent a Le Fort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) to advance the maxilla. Lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms were taken postoperatively and assessed statistically. Thereafter, the 2 groups were followed for time-course changes. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups with regard to time-course changes during the immediate postoperative period. This suggests that maxillary stability after Le Fort I osteotomy for cant correction does not differ from that after Le Fort I osteotomy for maxillary advancement.

  16. A Power System Network Splitting Strategy Based on Contingency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawani Saharuddin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a network splitting strategy following critical line outages based on N-1 contingency analysis. Network splitting is the best option for certain critical outages when the tendency of severe cascading failures is very high. Network splitting is executed by splitting the power system network into feasible set of islands. Thus, it is essential to identify the optimal splitting solution (in terms of minimal power flow disruption that satisfies certain constraints. This paper determines the optimal splitting solution for each of the critical line outage using discrete evolutionary programming (DEP optimization technique assisted by heuristic initialization approach. Heuristic initialization provides the best initial cutsets which will guide the optimization technique to find the optimal splitting solution. Generation–load balance and transmission line overloading analysis are carried out in each island to ensure the steady state stability is achieved. Load shedding scheme is initiated if the power balance criterion is violated in any island to sustain the generation–load balance. The proposed technique is validated on the IEEE 118 bus system. Results show that the proposed approach produces an optimal splitting solution with lower power flow disruption during network splitting execution.

  17. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    Most of today’s complex systems and processes involve several stages through which input or the raw material has to go before the final product is obtained. Also in many cases factors at different stages interact. Therefore, a holistic approach for experimentation that considers all stages...... on the Kronecker product representation of orthogonal designs and can be used for any number of stages, for various numbers of subplots and for different number of subplots for each stage. The procedure is demonstrated on both regular and nonregular designs and provides the maximum number of factors that can...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  18. A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator....... Finally the velocity estimates from each frequency band are averaged to obtain an improved velocity estimate. The FS method has been evaluated in simulations using the Field II program and in flow phantom experiments using the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS. In both simulations and experiments...

  19. Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)

  20. Clinical Follow-up on Sagittal Fracture at the Temporal Root of the Zygomatic Arch: Does It Need Open Reduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Seon Cheon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe zygoma is a major portion of the midfacial contour. When deformity occurs in this area, a reduction should be conducted to correct it. If a sagittal fracture at the temporal root of the zygomatic arch occurs, this also requires reduction, but it is difficult to approach due to its anatomical location, and the possibility of fixation is also limited. Thus, the authors attempted the reduction of sagittal fracture by two- or three-point fixation and the Gillies approach without direct manipulation. The preoperative and postoperative results of the patients were evaluated. Follow-up was performed to establish a treatment guideline.MethodsA retrospective study was done with 40 patients who had sagittal fractures at the temporal root of the zygomatic arch from March 2009 to June 2012. Only two- or three-point fixation was performed for the accompanying zygomatic-orbital-maxillary fracture. The Gillies approach was used for complex fractures of the zygomatic arch, while the temporal root of the zygomatic arch was only observed without reduction. Preoperative and postoperative computed tomography and X-ray scans were performed to examine the results.ResultsThe result of the paired t-test on preoperative and postoperative bone gap differences, the depression level, and the degree of temporal protrusion showed a marked decrease in the mean difference at a 95% confidence interval. The results were acceptable.ConclusionsIn the treatment of sagittal fractures at the temporal root of the zygomatic arch, it is acceptable to use indirect reduction and non-fixation methods. This leads to a satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcome.

  1. Clinical Follow-up on Sagittal Fracture at the Temporal Root of the Zygomatic Arch: Does It Need Open Reduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Seon Cheon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The zygoma is a major portion of the midfacial contour. When deformity occursin this area, a reduction should be conducted to correct it. If a sagittal fracture at the temporalroot of the zygomatic arch occurs, this also requires reduction, but it is difficult to approachdue to its anatomical location, and the possibility of fixation is also limited. Thus, the authorsattempted the reduction of sagittal fracture by two- or three-point fixation and the Gilliesapproach without direct manipulation. The preoperative and postoperative results of thepatients were evaluated. Follow-up was performed to establish a treatment guideline.Methods A retrospective study was done with 40 patients who had sagittal fractures at thetemporal root of the zygomatic arch from March 2009 to June 2012. Only two- or three-pointfixation was performed for the accompanying zygomatic-orbital-maxillary fracture. The Gilliesapproach was used for complex fractures of the zygomatic arch, while the temporal root ofthe zygomatic arch was only observed without reduction. Preoperative and postoperativecomputed tomography and X-ray scans were performed to examine the results.Results The result of the paired t-test on preoperative and postoperative bone gap differences,the depression level, and the degree of temporal protrusion showed a marked decrease in themean difference at a 95% confidence interval. The results were acceptable.Conclusions In the treatment of sagittal fractures at the temporal root of the zygomatic arch,it is acceptable to use indirect reduction and non-fixation methods. This leads to a satisfactoryaesthetic and functional outcome.

  2. Factors influencing spinal sagittal balance, bone mineral density, and Oswestry Disability Index outcome measures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamoto, Kazutaka; Otsuki, Bungo; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Koichiro; Ito, Hiromu; Furu, Moritoshi; Hashimoto, Motomu; Tanaka, Masao; Lyman, Stephen; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Tanida, Shimei; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2018-02-01

    To identify the factors influencing spinal sagittal alignment, bone mineral density (BMD), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) outcome measures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We enrolled 272 RA patients to identify the factors influencing sagittal vertical axis (SVA). Out of this, 220 had evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) and vertebral deformity (VD) on the sagittal plane; 183 completed the ODI questionnaire. We collected data regarding RA-associated clinical parameters and standing lateral X-ray images via an ODI questionnaire from April to December 2012 at a single center. Patients with a history of spinal surgery or any missing clinical data were excluded. Clinical parameters included age, sex, body mass index, RA disease duration, disease activity score 28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, serum rheumatoid factor, serum matrix metalloproteinase-3, BMD and treatment type at survey, such as methotrexate (MTX), biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and glucocorticoids. We measured radiological parameters including pelvic incidence (PI), lumbar lordosis (LL), and SVA. We statistically identified the factors influencing SVA, BMD, VD, and ODI using multivariate regression analysis. Multivariate regression analysis showed that larger SVA correlated with older age, higher DAS28-ESR, MTX nonuse, and glucocorticoid use. Lower BMD was associated with female, older age, higher DAS28-ESR, and MTX nonuse. VD was associated with older age, longer disease duration, lower BMD, and glucocorticoid use. Worse ODI correlated with older age, larger PI-LL mismatch or larger SVA, higher DAS28-ESR, and glucocorticoid use. In managing low back pain and spinal sagittal alignment in RA patients, RA-related clinical factors and the treatment type should be taken into consideration.

  3. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population?Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Cassani, Roberta S. L.; Forti, Adriana C. e; Vilela, Brunna S.; Pareja, Jos? Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR. Methods A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 82...

  4. Sagittal Plane Knee Biomechanics and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Are Modified Following ACL Injury Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Darin A; Distefano, Lindsay J

    2009-03-01

    Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occur because of excessive loading on the knee. ACL injury prevention programs can influence sagittal plane ACL loading factors and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). To determine the influence of ACL injury prevention programs on sagittal plane knee biomechanics (anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion angle/moments) and VGRF. The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1988 and June 2008. Reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. Studies were included that evaluated healthy participants for knee flexion angle, sagittal plane knee kinetics, or VGRF after performing a multisession training program. Two individuals reviewed all articles and determined which articles met the selection criteria. Approximately 4% of the articles fulfilled the selection criteria. Data were extracted regarding each program's duration, frequency, exercise type, population, supervision, and testing procedures. Means and variability measures were recorded to calculate effect sizes. One reviewer extracted all data and assessed study quality using PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database). A second reviewer (blinded) verified all information. There is moderate evidence to indicate that knee flexion angle, external knee flexion moment, and VGRF can be successfully modified by an ACL injury prevention program. Programs utilizing multiple exercises (ie, integrated training) appear to produce the most improvement, in comparison to that of single-exercise programs. Knee flexion angle was improved following integrated training (combined balance and strength exercises or combined plyometric and strength exercises). Similarly, external knee flexion moment was improved following integrated training consisting of balance, plyometric, and strength exercises. VGRF was improved when incorporating supervision with instruction and feedback on proper technique. ACL injury prevention programs that are aimed at

  5. BMD measurements of the spine derived from sagittal reformations of contrast-enhanced MDCT without dedicated software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Thomas, E-mail: thbaum@gmx.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mueller, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.mueller@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Dobritz, Martin, E-mail: dobritz@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Rummeny, Ernst J., E-mail: institut@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Link, Thomas M., E-mail: thomas.link@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); Bauer, Jan S., E-mail: jsb@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess QCT equivalent BMD of the lumbar spine in sagittal reformations of routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT with simple PACS measurement tools and to apply this method to MDCT datasets for differentiating patients with and without osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Materials and methods: Eight postmenopausal women (65 {+-} 5years) underwent standard QCT to assess BMD of L1-L3. Afterwards routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT images of these women were obtained and apparent BMD of L1-L3 was measured using the sagittal reformations. The MDCT-to-QCT conversion equation for BMD was calculated with linear regression analysis. The conversion equation was applied to vertebral BMD datasets (L1-L3) of 75 postmenopausal women (66 {+-} 4years). Seventeen of the 75 patients had osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Results: BMD values of contrast-enhanced MDCT were on average 56 mg/ml higher than those of standard QCT. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.94 (p < 0.05) was calculated for the BMD values of MDCT and standard QCT with the conversion equation BMD{sub QCT} = 0.69 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 11 mg/ml. Accordingly converted BMD values of patients with vertebral fractures were significantly lower than those of patients without vertebral fractures (69 mg/ml vs. 85 mg/ml; p < 0.05). Using ROC analysis to differentiate patients with and without vertebral fractures, AUC = 0.72 was obtained for converted BMD values (p < 0.05). Short- and long-term reproducibility errors for BMD measurements in the sagittal reformations amounted 2.09% and 7.70%, respectively. Conclusion: BMD measurements of the spine could be computed in sagittal reformations of routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT with minimal technical and time effort. Using the conversion equation, the acquired BMD data could differentiate patients with and without osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

  6. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young; Eun, Jong Pil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. Methods From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each...

  7. Split-Doa10: a naturally split polytopic eukaryotic membrane protein generated by fission of a nuclear gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Stuerner

    Full Text Available Large polytopic membrane proteins often derive from duplication and fusion of genes for smaller proteins. The reverse process, splitting of a membrane protein by gene fission, is rare and has been studied mainly with artificially split proteins. Fragments of a split membrane protein may associate and reconstitute the function of the larger protein. Most examples of naturally split membrane proteins are from bacteria or eukaryotic organelles, and their exact history is usually poorly understood. Here, we describe a nuclear-encoded split membrane protein, split-Doa10, in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In most species, Doa10 is encoded as a single polypeptide with 12-16 transmembrane helices (TMs, but split-KlDoa10 is encoded as two fragments, with the split occurring between TM2 and TM3. The two fragments assemble into an active ubiquitin-protein ligase. The K. lactis DOA10 locus has two ORFs separated by a 508-bp intervening sequence (IVS. A promoter within the IVS drives expression of the C-terminal KlDoa10 fragment. At least four additional Kluyveromyces species contain an IVS in the DOA10 locus, in contrast to even closely related genera, allowing dating of the fission event to the base of the genus. The upstream Kluyveromyces Doa10 fragment with its N-terminal RING-CH and two TMs resembles many metazoan MARCH (Membrane-Associated RING-CH and related viral RING-CH proteins, suggesting that gene splitting may have contributed to MARCH enzyme diversification. Split-Doa10 is the first unequivocal case of a split membrane protein where fission occurred in a nuclear-encoded gene. Such a split may allow divergent functions for the individual protein segments.

  8. Effects of mirror placement on sagittal alignment of the spine during acquisition of full-spine standing X-Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, Shin; Togawa, Daisuke; Yoshida, Go; Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Yamato, Yu; Yasuda, Tatsuya; Banno, Tomohiro; Arima, Hideyuki; Mihara, Yuki; Ushirozako, Hiroki; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2018-02-01

    The line of sight when whole-spine radiographs are taken has not been defined. In our 2012 health screening study (TOEI study), whole-spine radiographs were taken with the volunteers in the most relaxed position and with a horizontal gaze. However, in the TOEI 2014 study, a mirror was placed in front of their faces to unify their line of sight. To our knowledge, there are no reports on how the sagittal alignment changes when radiographs are taken using a mirror. The purpose of this study was to investigate how mirror placement impacted sagittal spinal alignment in whole-spine radiographs taken while standing. Volunteers who participated in both the TOEI 2012 and 2014 studies were recruited. Pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), cervical lordosis (CL), slope of McGregor's line (McGS), and C7 sagittal vertical axis (C7 SVA) were examined using software. Three hundred fifty-four volunteers (142 males, 212 females, average age in 2012: 72 years) whose radiographs were evaluated in both previous studies were enrolled. The average parameters of 2012 and 2014 were: PT: 18° and 21° (P mirror placement could standardize the head's position. These results showed that the mirror placement retroflexed cervical alignment and caused the head to lean backward. It is important that a mirror is placed to unify the line of sight.

  9. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knirsch, Walter; Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias; Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  10. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  11. Cephalometric Investigation of First Cervical Vertebrae Morphology and Hyoid Position in Young Adults with Different Sagittal Skeletal Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz Arslan, Seher; Dildeş, Neval; Devecioglu Kama, Jalen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to examine hyoid bone position and C1 (atlas) morphology in males and females and analyze these parameters with respect to different sagittal skeletal patterns via cephalometry, with the goal of identifying cephalometric norms. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from 120 individuals (average age: 21.1 ± 2.9 years) were classified according to their ANB angle (Class I, II, or III) and used to assess 14 parameters. Class I and II patients showed significant differences in Hy-NSL, Hy-PD, Hy-CVT, Lum, and a-p measurements. These parameters were consistently larger in males than in females. Intergroup comparisons among males showed significant differences in the SNA, ANB, Hy-CVT, X, and Z measurements. The hyoid was positioned more inferiorly and anteriorly and was more prominent in males than in females in all groups. Among participants exhibiting a Class I skeletal pattern, C1 was also larger in the anterior-posterior direction in males than in females. In the sagittal plane, the hyoid was positioned similarly in males with either Class I or III skeletal patterns but was positioned posteriorly in males with a Class II skeletal pattern. In addition, the vertical position of C1 varied with sagittal skeletal pattern in males. PMID:25152900

  12. Spinal curves and health: a systematic critical review of the epidemiological literature dealing with associations between sagittal spinal curves and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sanne Toftgaard; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) determine whether sagittal spinal curves are associated with health in epidemiological studies, (2) estimate the strength of such associations, and (3) consider whether these relations are likely to be causal....

  13. Use of the Visante™ OCT to measure the sagittal depth and scleral shape of keratoconus compared to normal corneae: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigina Sorbara

    2013-07-01

    Conclusions: Measurement of the sagittal depth and the corneal-scleral junction angle in the steepest meridian at either the HVID or at 15 mm are two metrics that significantly differentiate normals from keratoconics.

  14. Neonatal posterior sagittal anorectoplasty for a subset of males with high anorectal malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh G Nagdeve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the results of primary posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP in male neonates with high anorectal malformations (ARM who on invertogram showed well descended rectum. Materials and Methods: Twelve full-term male neonates with high ARM over a period of one and half years were selected for primary PSARP based on the findings of invertogram. Primary PSARP was performed in all neonates with lower limit of rectal gas bubble at or below the ossified fifth sacral vertebra. The patients were followed-up for a period between three to four and half years. The clinical evaluation of fecal continence was performed using Pena′s criteria for assessment of continence. Results: All neonates underwent PSARP on second to fourth postnatal day. The fistula with urinary tract was found in 11 patients (seven had fistula to bulbar urethra and four to prostatic urethra. Rectal tapering was not required in any neonate. No patient had urinary problems after removal of catheter. Most of the neonates were discharged by ninth day. Postoperatively, two patients had superficial wound infection of anoplasty without any disruption or bowel retraction. Two patients had severe perianal excoriation. No patient had anorectal stenosis. Nine of twelve patients on follow-up had good voluntary bowel movements. Of the three patients who had grade I soiling two had recto-prostatic urethral fistula. No patient had constipation. All patients had good urinary stream. Conclusions: Repair of high ARM in male neonates with a well descended rectum is feasible without significant morbidity and good continence.

  15. Sagittal plane position of the functional joint centre of prosthetic foot/ankle mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusaw, David; Ramstrand, Nerrolyn

    2010-08-01

    The use of motion analysis techniques in amputee rehabilitation often utilizes kinematic data from the prosthetic limb. A problem with methods currently used is that the joint positions of the prosthetic ankle are assumed to be in the same position as that of an intact ankle. The aim of this study was to identify both traditional anatomical joint centres as well as functional joint centres in a selection of commonly used prosthetic feet. These coordinates were then compared across feet and compared to the contralateral intact ankle joint. Six prosthetic feet were fit to a unilateral trans-tibial amputee on two separate occasions. The subject's intact limb was used as a control. Three-dimensional kinematics were collected to determine the sagittal position of the functional joint centre for the feet investigated. None of the prosthetic feet had a functional joint centre that was within the 95% CI for that of an intact ankle (both x- and y-coordinate position), nor any of the other prosthetic feet investigated. The repeatability of the method was found to be adequate, with 95% CI of the difference (test-retest) of the prosthetic feet similar to that for the intact ankle and within clinically accepted levels of variability. The motion of the prosthetic feet tested is clearly different from that of an intact ankle. Kinematic methods that assume ankle constraints based on an intact ankle are subject to systematic error as this does not reflect the real motion of the prosthetic foot. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sagittal spinopelvic parameters in children with achondroplasia: identification of 2 distinct groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Isaac O; Mehta, Ankit I; Solakoglu, Can; Bagley, Carlos A; Ain, Michael C; Gottfried, Oren N

    2012-07-01

    Spinopelvic parameters in children with achondroplasia have not been described. Because they observed a unique sagittal spinopelvic phenotype in some achondroplastic children with very horizontal sacrums, the authors sought to quantify the spinopelvic parameters in a pediatric patient population. A retrospective review was performed to identify all children (age range 1 month-10 years) with a diagnosis of achondroplasia between 2004 and 2009. Clinical and radiographic data were analyzed for age, sex, lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar kyphosis (TLK), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), and pelvic incidence (PI). Differences among these variables were analyzed using a 2-tailed, unpaired Student t-test. Forty children, 23 males and 17 females, with achondroplasia were identified during the study period. The mean age was 2.6 years. Two groups of patients were identified based on PT (that is, negative or positive tilt and horizontal or not horizontal sacrum). A negative PT was identified in all children with an extremely horizontal sacrum. Seventeen children had a negative PT (mean -16.6°), and the mean parameters in this group were 65.4° for LL, 31.7° for TLK, 18.5° for TK, 43.3° for SS, and 26.4° for PI. Twenty-three children had a positive PT (mean 17.9°), and the mean parameters in this group were 53.4° for LL, 41.5° for TLK, 9.6° for TK, 30.8° for SS, and 43.8° for PI. A statistically significant difference was observed for LL (p = 0.01), TLK (p = 0.05), SS (p = 0.006), PT (p = 0.006), and PI (0.0002). Spinopelvic parameters in achondroplasia are potentially dichotomous. The future implications of this observation are not known and will need to be explored in future long-term studies that follow pediatric patients with achondroplasia through adulthood.

  17. A new model to produce sagittal plane rotational induced diffuse axonal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan eDavidsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new in vivo animal model that produces diffuse brain injuries (DBI in sagittal plane rearward rotational acceleration has been developed. In this model, the skull of an anesthetized adult rat is tightly secured to a rotating bar. During trauma, the bar is impacted by a striker that causes the bar and the animal head to rotate rearward; the acceleration phase last 0.4 ms and is followed by a rotation at constant speed and a gentle deceleration when the bar makes contact with a padded stop. The total head angle change is less than 30 degrees. By adjusting the air pressure in the rifle used to accelerate the striker, resulting rotational acceleration between 0.3 and 2.1 Mrad/s2 can be produced.Numerous combinations of trauma levels, post-trauma survival times, brain and serum retrieval and tissue preparation techniques were adopted to characterise this new model. The trauma caused subdural bleedings in animals exposed to severe trauma. Staining brain tissue with β-Amyloid Precursor Protein antibodies and FD Neurosilver that detect degenerating axons revealed wide spread axonal injuries (AI in the corpus callosum, the border between the corpus callosum and cortex and in tracts in the brain stem. The observed AI:s were apparent only when the rotational acceleration level was moderate and above. On the contrary, only limited signs of contusion injuries were observed following trauma. S100 serum analyses indicate that blood vessel and glia cell injuries occur following moderate levels of trauma despite the absence of obvious BBB injuries. We conclude that this rotational trauma model is capable of producing graded axonal injury, is repeatable and produces limited other types of traumatic brain injuries (TBI and as such is useful in the study of injury biomechanics, diagnostics and treatment strategies following diffuse axonal injury (DAI.

  18. A new model to produce sagittal plane rotational induced diffuse axonal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Johan; Risling, Marten

    2011-01-01

    A new in vivo animal model that produces diffuse brain injuries in sagittal plane rearward rotational acceleration has been developed. In this model, the skull of an anesthetized adult rat is tightly secured to a rotating bar. During trauma, the bar is impacted by a striker that causes the bar and the animal head to rotate rearward; the acceleration phase last 0.4 ms and is followed by a rotation at constant speed and a gentle deceleration when the bar makes contact with a padded stop. The total head angle change is less than 30°. By adjusting the air pressure in the rifle used to accelerate the striker, resulting rotational acceleration between 0.3 and 2.1 Mrad/s(2) can be produced. Numerous combinations of trauma levels, post-trauma survival times, brain and serum retrieval, and tissue preparation techniques were adopted to characterize this new model. The trauma caused subdural bleedings in animals exposed to severe trauma. Staining brain tissue with β-Amyloid Precursor Protein antibodies and FD Neurosilver that detect degenerating axons revealed wide spread axonal injuries (AI) in the corpus callosum, the border between the corpus callosum and cortex and in tracts in the brain stem. The observed AIs were apparent only when the rotational acceleration level was moderate and above. On the contrary, only limited signs of contusion injuries were observed following trauma. Macrophage invasions, glial fibrillary acidic protein redistribution or hypertrophy, and blood brain barrier (BBB) changes were unusual. S100 serum analyses indicate that blood vessel and glia cell injuries occur following moderate levels of trauma despite the absence of obvious BBB injuries. We conclude that this rotational trauma model is capable of producing graded axonal injury, is repeatable and produces limited other types of traumatic brain injuries and as such is useful in the study of injury biomechanics, diagnostics, and treatment strategies following diffuse axonal injury.

  19. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Natalia Cavalheri; de Oliveira, Erick Prado

    2013-01-01

    Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87 years. It was registered the patients' weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m(2)), WC (cm) and SAD (cm), and these parameters were correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and blood pressure. After adjustment for gender and age, it was observed a positive correlation between SAD and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.20), glycemia (r = 0.20), triglycerides (r = 0.32), LDL (r = 0.26), total cholesterol (TC) (r = 0.33), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = -0.21) (p correlation between WC and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.14), triglycerides (r = 0.31), total cholesterol (r = 0.21), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = -0.24) (p correlation with systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.22), total cholesterol (r = 0.20), and triglycerides (r = 0.23) (p correlated with almost all the cardiovascular risk factors analyzed and it might be considered the best predictor of abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk.

  20. A Comparative Study of Sagittal Balance in Patients with Neuromuscular Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alvim Borges

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Spinopelvic alignment has been associated with improved quality of life in patients with vertebral deformities, and it helps to compensate for imbalances in gait. Although surgical treatment of scoliosis in patients with neuromuscular spinal deformities promotes correction of coronal scoliotic deformities, it remains poorly established whether this results in large changes in sagittal balance parameters in this specific population. The objective of this study is to compare these parameters before and after the current procedure under the hypothesis is that there is no significant modification. METHODS: Sampling included all records of patients with neuromuscular scoliosis with adequate radiographic records treated at Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Clinics Hospital of University of São Paulo (IOT-HCFMUSP from January 2009 to December 2013. Parameters analyzed were incidence, sacral inclination, pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, spinosacral angle, spinal inclination and spinopelvic inclination obtained using the iSite-Philips digital display system with Surgimap and a validated method for digital measurements of scoliosis radiographs. Comparison between the pre- and post-operative conditions involved means and standard deviations and the t-test. RESULTS: Based on 101 medical records only, 16 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study, including 7 males and 9 females, with an age range of 9-20 and a mean age of 12.9±3.06; 14 were diagnosed with cerebral palsy. No significant differences were found between pre and postoperative parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Despite correction of coronal scoliotic deformity in patients with neuromuscular deformities, there were no changes in spinopelvic alignment parameters in the group studied.

  1. [Evaluation of the impact of sagittal spinal curvatures on musculoskeletal disorders in young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowska, Anna; Tuz, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    In Poland, about 85% of the population report low back pain (LBP) symptoms overall. Moreover, 70-80% of people aged below 20 have already experienced back pain. The primary cause of LBP is the loss of spinal lordosis, which initiates changes in geometry of the spine and has impact on limb arrangement. The aim of the study was to attempt to verify the relationship between the 2 main curvatures of the spine and its relation to symptoms in different parts of the musculoskeletal system, in a group of adults. It was assumed that hyperlordosis of the lumbar spine and misbalance of the thoraco-lumbar junction are risk factors for LBP. The study coverd 231 first-year students, (aged 19-21) of the University of Economics in Katowice. There were 103 men aged 19.5±0.8 years and 128 women aged 19.6±0.8 years. The students completed the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ): 7 days (NMQ7) and 6 months (NMQ6). A Rippstein's plurimeter, was used to measure the angles of thoracic kyphosis (KTH) and lumbar lordosis (KLL). Cut of points was set at 30±5. The results indicate strong and very strong correlation (r = 0.6 and r = 0.8, p < 0.05) between the concave of the back and LBP, which may suggest the relationship between these symptoms and the increased lordosis. Postural defects in the sagittal plane may predict the occurrence of pain. The results of the study indicate a higher frequency of pain in people with a higher angle of lumbar lordosis. Med Pr 2018;69(1):29-36. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Visuotactile interaction even in far sagittal space in older adults with decreased gait and balance functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Wataru; Honda, Keito; Furuta, Kento; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2017-08-01

    Spatial proximity of signals from different sensory modalities is known to be a crucial factor in facilitating efficient multisensory processing in young adults. However, recent studies have demonstrated that older adults exhibit strong visuotactile interactions even when the visual stimuli were presented in a spatially disparate position from a tactile stimulus. This suggests that visuotactile peripersonal space differs between older and younger adults. In the present study, we investigated to what extent peripersonal space expands in the sagittal direction and whether this expansion was linked to the decline in sensorimotor functions in older adults. Vibrotactile stimuli were delivered either to the left or right index finger, while visual stimuli were presented at a distance of 5 cm (near), 37.5 cm (middle), or 70 cm (far) from each finger. The participants had to respond rapidly to a randomized sequence of unimodal (visual or tactile) and simultaneous visuotactile targets (i.e., a redundant target paradigm). Sensorimotor functions were independently assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and postural stability tests. Results showed that reaction times to the visuotactile bimodal stimuli were significantly faster than those to the unimodal stimuli, irrespective of age group [younger adults: 22.0 ± 0.6 years, older adults: 75.0 ± 3.3 years (mean ± SD)] and target distance. Of importance, a race model analysis revealed that the co-activation model (i.e., visuotactile multisensory integrative process) is supported in the far condition especially for older adults with relatively poor performance on the TUG or postural stability tests. These results suggest that aging can change visuotactile peripersonal space and that it may be closely linked to declines in sensorimotor functions related to gait and balance in older adults.

  3. Sensory contributions to stabilization of trunk posture in the sagittal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dieën, Jaap H; van Drunen, Paul; Happee, Riender

    2018-03-21

    Trunk stabilization is required to control posture and movement during daily activities. Various sensory modalities, such as muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs and the vestibular system, might contribute to trunk stabilization and our aim was to assess the contribution of these modalities to trunk stabilization. In 35 healthy subjects, upper-body sway was evoked by continuous unpredictable, force-controlled perturbations to the trunk in the anterior direction. Subjects were instructed to either 'maximally resist the perturbation' or to 'relax but remain upright' with eyes closed. Frequency response functions (FRFs) of admittance, the amount of movement per unit of force applied, and reflexes, the modulation of trunk extensor activity per unit of trunk displacement, were obtained. To these FRFs, we fitted physiological models, to estimate intrinsic trunk stiffness and damping, as well as feedback gains and delays. The different model versions were compared to assess which feedback loops contribute to trunk stabilization. Intrinsic stiffness and damping and muscle spindle (short-delay) feedback alone were sufficient to accurately describe trunk stabilization, but only with unrealistically low reflex delays. Addition of muscle spindle acceleration feedback or inhibitory Golgi tendon organ feedback yielded realistic delays and improved the model fit, with a significantly better model fit with acceleration feedback. Addition of vestibular feedback did not improve the model fit. In conclusion, muscle spindle feedback and intrinsic mechanical properties are sufficient to describe trunk stabilization in the sagittal plane under small mechanical perturbations, provided that muscle spindles encode acceleration in addition to velocity and position information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative assessment of the superior sagittal sinus on unenhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanous, Randy, E-mail: randy.fanous@gmail.co [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging (Canada); Leung, Andrew; Karlik, Stephen [University of Western Ontario, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between hemoglobin levels and attenuation measurements of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) on unenhanced computed tomography (UECT). Secondly, to determine if SSS attenuation values are normally distributed such that measurements below and above certain thresholds are suggestive of pathology, such as anemia or acute venous thrombosis respectively. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for retrospective review of adult patients having both an UECT head examination and a complete blood count within 24 h of the scan. A cohort of 151 consecutive patients formed the study sample (76 males and 75 females, 17-91 years of age with a mean of 61). The dorsal aspect of the SSS was divided into upper, middle and lower segments. Using freehand and circle region of interest (ROI) techniques, a total of six attenuation measurements were obtained from each patient. Next, statistical analyses were preformed to assess the correlation between Hgb levels and attenuation values, and distribution curves were plotted to assess the normal range of SSS attenuation measurements. Results: There is a moderate, yet statistically significant (p < 0.001), correlation between Hgb levels and attenuation values in upper, middle and lower segments of the SSS (r = 0.487, 0.497 and 0.533 respectively). Based on the calculated mean, median and mode, the attenuation values are normally distributed. When using the freehand ROI technique, the mean value is 50 Hounsfield Units (HU) with a standard deviation (SD) of 7.5. Attenuation values less than 2 SDs (35 HU) are highly suggestive of anemia (specificity and PPV = 100%). Conclusion: There is a moderate, yet statistically significant, correlation between Hgb levels and attenuation of the SSS on UECT. Furthermore, attenuation measurements of the SSS are normally distributed with a mean of 50 HU and a SD of 7.5. Therefore, quantitative assessment of the SSS may prove useful in the clinical practice

  5. Short incomplete sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx in ten horses not used for racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle, Jan M; Auer, Jörg A; Rademacher, Nathalie; Lischer, Christoph J; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Fürst, Anton E

    2008-02-01

    To describe short incomplete sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx (type Ia P1 fractures) in horses not used for racing and report outcome. Retrospective study. Horses (n=10) with type Ia P1 fractures. Retrieved data of horses with type Ia P1 fractures were signalment, history and results of orthopedic examination. Radiographs were re-evaluated for position and length of the fracture line, presence of osteoarthritis or subchondral cystic lesions (SCL), periosteal new bone formation and subchondral sclerosis. Conservative treatment (n=4) included box confinement for 2 months followed by 1 month of hand walking. Surgical therapy (n=6) consisted of internal fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion in 5 horses. Concurrent SCL were debrided by curettage via a transcortical drilling approach. In 1 horse, only SCL curettage but not internal fixation was performed. Outcome was assessed on a clinical and radiographic follow-up examination in all horses. Mean follow-up time was 27 months (median, 13.5 months; range, 9 months to 9 years). All horses treated with internal fixation were sound at follow-up and had radiographic fracture healing. Of the 4 horses managed conservatively, 3 remained lame and only 1 horse had radiographic evidence of fracture healing. Catastrophic fracture propagation occurred in 2 horses not treated by internal fixation, 20 and 30 months after diagnosis, respectively. Horses with a type Ia P1 fracture treated surgically had a better outcome than those managed conservatively and lack of fracture healing seemingly increases the risk of later catastrophic fracture. Surgical repair of type Ia P1 fractures should be considered to optimize healing and return to athletic use.

  6. Dorsal Scaphoid Subluxation on Sagittal Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Marker for Scapholunate Ligament Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, David W; Hearns, Krystle A; Carlson, Michelle G

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of scaphoid dorsal subluxation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a predictor of scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) tears and compare this with radiographic findings. Thirty-six MRIs were retrospectively reviewed: 18 with known operative findings of complete Geissler IV SLIL tears that were surgically repaired, and 18 MRIs performed for ulnar-sided wrist pain but no SLIL tear. Dorsal subluxation of the scaphoid was measured on the sagittal MRI cut, which demonstrated the maximum subluxation. Independent samples t tests were used to compare radiographic measurements of scapholunate (SL) gap, SL angle, and capitolunate/third metacarpal-lunate angles between the SLIL tear and the control groups and to compare radiographic measurements between wrists that had dorsal subluxation of the scaphoid and wrists that did not have dorsal subluxation. Interrater reliability of subluxation measurements on lateral radiographs and on MRI were calculated using kappa coefficients. Thirteen of 18 wrists with complete SLIL tears had greater than 10% dorsal subluxation of the scaphoid relative to the scaphoid facet. Average subluxation in this group was 34%. Four of 18 wrists with known SLIL tears had no subluxation. No wrists without SLIL tears (control group) had dorsal subluxation. The SL angle, capitolunate/third metacarpal-lunate angle and SL gap were greater in wrists that had dorsal subluxation of the scaphoid on MRI. Interrater reliability of measurements of dorsal subluxation of the scaphoid was superior on MRI than on lateral x-ray. An MRI demonstration of dorsal subluxation of the scaphoid, of as little as 10%, as a predictor of SLIL tear had a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 100%. The high positive predictive value indicates that the presence of dorsal subluxation accurately predicts SLIL tear. Diagnostic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sagittal tibiotalar translation and clinical outcomes in mobile and fixed-bearing total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuelli, Federico G; Manzi, Luigi; Brusaferri, Giovanni; Neher, Robert E; Guelfi, Matteo; Maccario, Camilla

    2017-06-01

    Sagittal implant malalignment after total ankle replacement (TAR) has been considered to be a possible cause for premature implant failure. In a prior study, the change over time of the tibiotalar ratio (T-T ratio), which is the ratio between the posterior longitudinal talar length and the full longitudinal talar length, was assessed in 66 TARs where an unconstrained, mobile-bearing implant was implanted. The analysis documented an increase in the T-T ratio between 2 and 6 months post-surgery (on average from 34.6% to 37.2%). We hypothesized that this change might have been related to the presence of a mobile-bearing insert. In order to test our hypothesis, we designed a study to compare the translation of the talus in TARs performed with an unconstrained, mobile-bearing implant (designated the "Mobile ankle") and those performed with a semi-constrained, fixed-bearing implant (designated the "Fixed ankle"). The study included 71 consecutive patients (71 ankles) who underwent TAR with the Mobile ankle and 24 consecutive patients (24 ankles) who received the Fixed ankle from May 2011 to December 2014. Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically preoperatively (T 0 ), at 6 months (T 2 ) and 12 months (T 3 ) post-surgery. There was also a radiological assessment at 2 months post-surgery (T 1 ). The comparison of the T-T ratio between the two implant groups and over time indicated an interaction between time and group, therefore the changes of the T-T ratio over time were affected by the implant type factor (Pbearing interface. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Restoration of the spinopelvic sagittal balance in isthmic spondylolisthesis: posterior lumbar interbody fusion may be better than posterolateral fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yong; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Hui-Lin; Tang, Tian-Si

    2015-07-01

    More and more orthopedic surgeons recognize the importance of the sagittal balance of the spine. To analyze the pre- and postoperative sagittal and deformity parameters of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis and evaluate the effect of posterolateral fusion (PLF) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) on spinopelvic sagittal balance. Nonrandomized controlled prospective study with a historical control. A total of 99 patients with low-grade L5-S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis were treated surgically; 36 patients (mean age, 60.2±5.2 years) received the PLF operation, and 63 patients (mean age, 57.1±6.9 years) chose the PLIF operation. The healthy control group was composed of 60 volunteers (mean age, 44.5±8.4 years). The pre- and postoperative spinopelvic and deformity parameters. All patients had radiographs that allowed measurement of spinopelvic parameters before and after the operation. All the spinopelvic and deformity parameters were measured. Two radiologists measured the parameters with the Cobb method. All of the preoperative spinopelvic parameters showed no difference between the PLIF and PLF groups in this study (p>.05). In both of the operation groups, the preoperative pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope, lumbar lordosis (LL), and L5 incidence (L5I) were significantly higher than in the control group (p.05). LL increased in the PLIF group and decreased in the PLF group. The slip degree (SD) and L5I were restored significantly in both groups. The HOD of the PLIF group increased 5.04 mm, the postoperative HOD of the PLF group had no significant change. In both PLIF and PLF groups, the correction of SD was correlated with the change of LL (r=-0.398, p=.007; r=0.365, p=.022). The restoration of HOD in the PLIF group correlated with the change of LL (r=0.334, p=.011). No significant differences could be found between the short-term clinical outcomes of the PLF and PLIF. Either PLF or PLIF would lead a great change in spinopelvic parameters and

  9. The impact of sagittal balance on clinical results after posterior interbody fusion for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis: A Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Sung-Soo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparatively little is known about the relation between the sagittal vertical axis and clinical outcome in cases of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether lumbar sagittal balance affects clinical outcomes after posterior interbody fusion. This series suggests that consideration of sagittal balance during posterior interbody fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis can yield high levels of patient satisfaction and restore spinal balance Methods A retrospective study of clinical outcomes and a radiological review was performed on 18 patients with one or two level degenerative spondylolisthesis. Patients were divided into two groups: the patients without improvement in pelvic tilt, postoperatively (Group A; n = 10 and the patients with improvement in pelvic tilt postoperatively (Group B; n = 8. Pre- and postoperative clinical outcome surveys were administered to determine Visual Analogue Pain Scores (VAS and Oswestry disability index (ODI. In addition, we evaluated full spine radiographic films for pelvic tilt (PT, sacral slope (SS, pelvic incidence (PI, thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumbar lordosis (LL, sacrofemoral distance (SFD, and sacro C7 plumb line distance (SC7D Results All 18 patients underwent surgery principally for the relief of radicular leg pain and back pain. In groups A and B, mean preoperative VAS were 6.85 and 6.81, respectively, and these improved to 3.20 and 1.63 at last follow-up. Mean preoperative ODI were 43.2 and 50.4, respectively, and these improved to 23.6 and 18.9 at last follow-up. In spinopelvic parameters, no significant difference was found between preoperative and follow up variables except PT in Group A. However, significant difference was found between the preoperative and follows up values of PT, SS, TK, LL, and SFD/SC7D in Group B. Between parameters of group A and B, there is borderline significance on preoperative PT, preoperative LL and last

  10. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  11. 77 FR 8127 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and... affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the... that if there is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or...

  12. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... these proposed regulations. The regulations affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. Special... of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting events. [The text of...

  13. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  14. April / May 2006. 108 Harvesting split thickness skin in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Background: In the third world countries like Ethiopia the majority of Hospitals have difficulties in harvesting split thickness skin ... The grafts were well taken by the recipient areas and technically there was no danger of deep bite. Conclusion: Split ... to meet the hospital needs. Thus we need to improvise and use appropriate.

  15. Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    to a singularity in the transverse plane. Instead, the pulse spreads out along the direction of negative dispersion and splits up into small-scale cells, which may undergo further splitting events. The analytical results are supported by direct numerical solutions of the three dimensional cubic Schrodinger...

  16. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert

    2008-01-01

    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.

  17. Plasmonic nanoparticle-semiconductor composites for efficient solar water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, M.; Jonsson, M.P.; Biskos, G.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Smith, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising technology that uses light absorbing semiconductors to convert solar energy directly into a chemical fuel (i.e., hydrogen). PEC water splitting has the potential to become a key technology in achieving a sustainable society, if high solar

  18. Enhanced residual mean circulation during the evolution of split type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    keywords: split events, stratospheric sudden warming, residual mean circulation. 1 Introduction ... sudden warming. It is characterized by a rapid cooling of the polar cap tempera- ture (Kuroda, 2008). The competition between planetary waves and gravity waves to the residual .... any automated scheme. The split events ...

  19. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assistance of metal nanostructures and quantum dots to semiconductors attains vital importance as they are exuberant visible light harvesters and charge carrier amplifiers. Benevolent use of quantum dots in solar water splitting and photoelectrochemical water splitting provides scope to revolutionize the quantum efficiency ...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar varietal...

  1. Linear expansion of products out of thermal splitting graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishina, E.A.; Kurnevich, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Linear expansion of thermally split graphite in the form of foil and pressed items of different density was studied. It is ascertained that the extreme character of temperature dependence of linear expansion factor of pressed samples of thermally split graphite is determined by the formation of closed pores containing air in the course of their production. 3 refs., 2 figs

  2. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  3. Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Reaction from Catalytic and Kinetic Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Hisatomi, Takashi

    2014-10-16

    Abstract: Some particulate semiconductors loaded with nanoparticulate catalysts exhibit photocatalytic activity for the water-splitting reaction. The photocatalysis is distinct from the thermal catalysis because photocatalysis involves photophysical processes in particulate semiconductors. This review article presents a brief introduction to photocatalysis, followed by kinetic aspects of the photocatalytic water-splitting reaction.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. An interactive tool for CT volume rendering and sagittal plane-picking of the prostate for radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jani, Ashesh B.; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Chen, George T.Y.; Grzezcszuk, Robert P.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and precise target volume and critical structure definition is a basic necessity in radiotherapy. The prostate, particularly the apex (an important potential site of recurrence in prostate cancer patients), is a challenging structure to define using any modality, including conventional axial CT. Invasive or expensive techniques, such as retrograde urethrography or MRI, could be avoided if localization of the prostate were possible using information already available on the planning CT. Our primary objective was to build a software tool to determine whether volume rendering and sagittal plane-picking, which are CT-based, noninvasive visualization techniques, were of utility in radiotherapy treatment planning for the prostate. Methods: Using AVS (Application Visualization System) on a Silicon Graphics Indigo 2 High Impact workstation, we have developed a tool that enables the clinician to efficiently navigate a CT volume and to use volume rendering and sagittal plane-picking to better define structures at any anatomic site. We applied the tool to the specific example of the prostate to compare the two visualization techniques with the current standard of axial CT. The prostate was defined on 80-slice CT scans (scanning thickness 4mm, pixel size 2mm x 2mm) of prostate cancer patients using axial CT images, volume-rendered CT images, and sagittal plane-picked images. Results: The navigation of the prostate using the different visualization techniques qualitatively demonstrated that the sagittal plane-picked images, and even more so the volume-rendered images, revealed the prostate (particularly the lower border) better in relationship to the surrounding regional anatomy (bladder, rectum, pelvis, and penile structures) than did the axial images. A quantitative comparison of the target volumes obtained by navigating using the different visualization techniques demonstrated that, when compared to the prostate volume defined on axial CT, a larger volume

  5. Effect of the increase in the height of lumbar disc space on facet joint articulation area in sagittal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayong; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Haman, Steven P; Shafiq, Qaiser; Karkare, Nakul; Biyani, Ashok; Goel, Vijay K; Woldenberg, Lee

    2006-04-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine cadaveric specimens was used to evaluate the effect of increasing the height of the disc space in the lumbar spine to the facet joint articulation in the sagittal plane. To show how the facet joint articulation is affected by increasing the height of the disc space in the lumbar spine. The Charité Artificial Disc (DePuy Spine, Inc., Raynham, MA) was successful in relieving low back pain in the majority of patients, yet there was still a significant number of patients who did not obtain pain relief, or their pain even worsened. The etiology of their pain is still not known. To our knowledge, no study has addressed the effect on the facet joints when the disc height is increased. CT images passing through the center of the L3-S1 facet joints (sagittal plane) were obtained from 15 cadaveric lumbar spine specimens. The articulation overlap of facet joints in sagittal plane from the L3 to S1 was measured. A 1-mm incremental increase to a total 5 mm in disc space height was performed to simulate the changes seen in disc replacement. The change in the facet joint articulation overlap in sagittal plane at normal and each displacement was then measured. There were 5 lumbar spine specimens dissected to validate the technique and standardize the measurements. Mean, percentages, and standard deviation values were calculated for all measured dimensions. No significant difference was found between the measurements on CT and gross specimens (P > 0.05). In 15 specimens, the mean facet joint articulation overlap on the sagittal plane was: 16.29 +/- 1.20 mm (left) and 16.22 +/- 1.16 (right) at the L3-L4 level; 17.81 +/- 1.18 mm (left) and 17.74 +/- 1.18 mm (right) at the L4-L5 level; and 18.18 +/- 1.18 mm (left) and 18.23 +/- 1.15 mm (right) at the L5-S1 level. There is no significant difference between the measured values on left and right sides (P > 0.05). Each 1-mm incremental increase in disc space at the L3-L4 level translated

  6. Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The split cylinder testis subjected to an analysis combining nonlinear fracture mechanics and plasticity. The fictitious crack model is applied for the analysis of splitting tensile fracture, and the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is adopted for modelling the compressive crushing/sliding failure. Two...... demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive...... properties. This implies that the linear elastic interpretation of the ultimate splitting force in term of the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is only valid for special situations, e.g. for very large cylinders. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests that the split cylinder test is not well...

  7. Optimizing TCP Performance over UMTS with Split TCP Proxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    . To cope with large delay bandwidth product, we propose a novel concept of split TCP proxy which is placed at GGSN between UNITS network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products which can...... be pipelined and thus operating at higher speeds. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance in terms of RLC throughput under high bit rate DCH channel scenario (e.g.256 kbps). On the other hand, it only brings small performance improvement under low bit rate DCH...... scenario (e.g.64 kbps). Besides, the split TCP proxy brings more performance gain for downloading large files than downloading small ones. To the end, for the configuration of the split proxy, an aggressive initial TCP congestion window size (e.g. 10 MSS) at proxy is particularly useful for radio links...

  8. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Y.Alfaifi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.

  9. Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu

    2015-06-02

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.

  10. Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...

  11. Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces and Sagittal Knee Kinematics During Running Using Three Inertial Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouda, Frank J; Giuberti, Matteo; Bellusci, Giovanni; Maartens, Erik; Reenalda, Jasper; van Beijnum, Bert-Jan F; Veltink, Peter H

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of running mechanics has traditionally been limited to a gait laboratory using either force plates or an instrumented treadmill in combination with a full-body optical motion capture system. With the introduction of inertial motion capture systems, it becomes possible to measure kinematics in any environment. However, kinetic information could not be provided with such technology. Furthermore, numerous body-worn sensors are required for a full-body motion analysis. The aim of this study is to examine the validity of a method to estimate sagittal knee joint angles and vertical ground reaction forces during running using an ambulatory minimal body-worn sensor setup. Two concatenated artificial neural networks were trained (using data from eight healthy subjects) to estimate the kinematics and kinetics of the runners. The first artificial neural network maps the information (orientation and acceleration) of three inertial sensors (placed at the lower legs and pelvis) to lower-body joint angles. The estimated joint angles in combination with measured vertical accelerations are input to a second artificial neural network that estimates vertical ground reaction forces. To validate our approach, estimated joint angles were compared to both inertial and optical references, while kinetic output was compared to measured vertical ground reaction forces from an instrumented treadmill. Performance was evaluated using two scenarios: training and evaluating on a single subject and training on multiple subjects and evaluating on a different subject. The estimated kinematics and kinetics of most subjects show excellent agreement (ρ>0.99) with the reference, for single subject training. Knee flexion/extension angles are estimated with a mean RMSE forces are estimated with a mean RMSE force, loading rate and maximal knee flexion during stance were compared, however, no significant differences were found. With multiple subject training the accuracy of estimating discrete and

  12. Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in adults: The Wakayama Spine Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Asai

    Full Text Available To establish the normal values of spino-pelvic alignment and to clarify the effect of age-related changes using large, community-based cohorts.In this study, data from 1461 participants (466 men, 995 women were analyzed. On lateral standing radiographs, the following parameters were measured: thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumbar lordosis (LL, pelvic tilt (PT, pelvic incidence (PI, and C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA. All values are expressed as the mean±standard deviation. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to examine correlations between variables of spino-pelvic parameters. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between age and spino-pelvic parameters. Therefore, we entered values for the body mass index (BMI, SVA, TK, and PI-LL into a multiple regression model to adjust for potential confounding factors.The SVA, TK, and PT increased with age, and LL decreased with age. Regarding sex differences, the TK was statistically significantly larger in men than in women, and LL, PT, and PI were statistically significantly smaller in men than in women. Correlation coefficients between the SVA and TK, between the SVA and PI-LL, and between TK and PI-LL were none, strong, and weak, respectively. Results of multiple regression analysis between age and spino-pelvic parameters showed that the standardized partial regression coefficients for the SVA, TK, and PI-LL were 0.17, 0.30, and 0.23, respectively, in men and 0.29, 0.32, and 0.23, respectively, in women.We found that all parameters were significantly associated with age in men and women. The SVA, TK, and PT increased with age, and LL decreased with age. Results of multiple regression analysis also demonstrated that the SVA, TK, and PI-LL are related to age. Indeed, the PI-LL value increased with age. In this study, a more excessive PI-LL mismatch was shown, indicating an increased risk of spinal malalignment. Differences in the absolute values of spino-pelvic parameters in each sex were small

  13. Trombosis del seno sagital en un neonato Sagittal sinus thrombosis in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett Hernández León

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La trombosis de los senos venosos durales es una rara y devastadora enfermedad. Se presenta generalmente en mujeres y ancianos, y no es frecuente en niños, aunque se reconoce ya como una causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en la población pediátrica. Se han reportado pocos casos en el mundo de neonatos afectados por esta entidad, en su mayoría fatales e insuficientemente investigados. A continuación se presenta el caso de un recién nacido con una trombosis del seno sagital que sobrevivió. Los factores predisponentes para la aparición de la enfermedad en este caso fueron la asfixia neonatal, la deshidratación severa unida al uso de una línea venosa central, y la inmovilización prolongada. Aunque la TAC contrastada no es el estudio ideal para su diagnóstico, permitió realizarlo oportunamente en este caso. El tratamiento temprano con anticoagulantes permitió una rápida recuperación y favoreció la recanalización venosa del seno involucrado. Hasta el momento no se han detectado secuelas neurológicas y el paciente tiene buen desarrollo psicomotor.Dural venous sinus thrombosis is a rare devastating disease. It is generally found in females and old people, but is infrequent in children; however, it is already recognized as a morbidity and mortality cause in the pediatric population. Few cases of newborns with this disease have been reported worldwide; most of them were poorly studied and had fatal outcomes. Here is the presentation of a newborn with sagittal sinus thrombosis, who managed to survive. The predisposing factors for the disease were neonatal asphyxia, severe dehydration together with the use of central venous line and extended immobilization. Although contrast CAT is not the ideal study, it helped to promptly arrive at the right diagnosis in this case. The early treatment based on anticoagulants allowed rapid recovery and facilitated venous retaking of the involved venous sinus. No neurological sequels have been so far

  14. Quantitative evaluation of the lumbosacral sagittal alignment in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makirov, Serik K.; Jahaf, Mohammed T.; Nikulina, Anastasia A.

    2015-01-01

    Goal of the study This study intends to develop a method of quantitative sagittal balance parameters assessment, based on a geometrical model of lumbar spine and sacrum. Methods One hundred eight patients were divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group have been included 59 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis on L1-5 level. Forty-nine healthy volunteers without history of any lumbar spine pathlogy were included in the control group. All patients have been examined with supine MRI. Lumbar lordosis has been adopted as circular arc and described either anatomical (lumbar lordosis angle), or geometrical (chord length, circle segment height, the central angle, circle radius) parameters. Moreover, 2 sacral parameters have been assessed for all patients: sacral slope and sacral deviation angle. Both parameters characterize sacrum disposition in horizontal and vertical axis respectively. Results Significant correlation was observed between anatomical and geometrical lumbo-sacral parameters. Significant differences between stenosis group and control group were observed in the value of the “central angle” and “sacral deviation” parameters. We propose additional parameters: lumbar coefficient, as ratio of the lordosis angle to the segmental angle (Kl); sacral coefficient, as ratio of the sacral tilt (ST) to the sacral deviation (SD) angle (Ks); and assessment modulus of the mathematical difference between sacral and lumbar coefficients has been used for determining lumbosacral balance (LSB). Statistically significant differences between main and control group have been obtained for all described coefficients (p = 0.006, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001, accordingly). Median of LSB value of was 0.18 and 0.34 for stenosis and control groups, accordingly. Conclusion Based on these results we believe that that spinal stenosis is associated with an acquired deformity that is measureable by the described parameters. It's possible that spinal stenosis occurs in patients with an

  15. Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces and Sagittal Knee Kinematics During Running Using Three Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Wouda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of running mechanics has traditionally been limited to a gait laboratory using either force plates or an instrumented treadmill in combination with a full-body optical motion capture system. With the introduction of inertial motion capture systems, it becomes possible to measure kinematics in any environment. However, kinetic information could not be provided with such technology. Furthermore, numerous body-worn sensors are required for a full-body motion analysis. The aim of this study is to examine the validity of a method to estimate sagittal knee joint angles and vertical ground reaction forces during running using an ambulatory minimal body-worn sensor setup. Two concatenated artificial neural networks were trained (using data from eight healthy subjects to estimate the kinematics and kinetics of the runners. The first artificial neural network maps the information (orientation and acceleration of three inertial sensors (placed at the lower legs and pelvis to lower-body joint angles. The estimated joint angles in combination with measured vertical accelerations are input to a second artificial neural network that estimates vertical ground reaction forces. To validate our approach, estimated joint angles were compared to both inertial and optical references, while kinetic output was compared to measured vertical ground reaction forces from an instrumented treadmill. Performance was evaluated using two scenarios: training and evaluating on a single subject and training on multiple subjects and evaluating on a different subject. The estimated kinematics and kinetics of most subjects show excellent agreement (ρ>0.99 with the reference, for single subject training. Knee flexion/extension angles are estimated with a mean RMSE <5°. Ground reaction forces are estimated with a mean RMSE < 0.27 BW. Additionaly, peak vertical ground reaction force, loading rate and maximal knee flexion during stance were compared, however, no significant

  16. Photoswitchable Rabi Splitting in Hybrid Plasmon-Waveguide Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Wang, Mingsong; Wei, Xiaoling; Peng, Xiaolei; Xie, Chong; Zheng, Yuebing

    2016-12-14

    Rabi splitting that arises from strong plasmon-molecule coupling has attracted tremendous interests. However, it has remained elusive to integrate Rabi splitting into the hybrid plasmon-waveguide modes (HPWMs), which have advantages of both subwavelength light confinement of surface plasmons and long-range propagation of guided modes in dielectric waveguides. Herein, we explore a new type of HPWMs based on hybrid systems of Al nanodisk arrays covered by PMMA thin films that are doped with photochromic molecules and demonstrate the photoswitchable Rabi splitting with a maximum splitting energy of 572 meV in the HPWMs by controlling the photoisomerization of the molecules. Through our experimental measurements combined with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, we reveal that the photoswitchable Rabi splitting arises from the switchable coupling between the HPWMs and molecular excitons. By harnessing the photoswitchable Rabi splitting, we develop all-optical light modulators and rewritable waveguides. The demonstration of Rabi splitting in the HPWMs will further advance scientific research and device applications of hybrid plasmon-molecule systems.

  17. Contributions of individual muscles to the sagittal- and frontal-plane angular accelerations of the trunk in walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, Rudolf; Steele, Katherine M; Moilanen, Petro; Avela, Janne; Timonen, Jussi

    2014-07-18

    This study was conducted to analyze the unimpaired control of the trunk during walking. Studying the unimpaired control of the trunk reveals characteristics of good control. These characteristics can be pursued in the rehabilitation of impaired control. Impaired control of the trunk during walking is associated with aging and many movement disorders. This is a concern as it is considered to increase fall risk. Muscles that contribute to the trunk control in normal walking may also contribute to it under perturbation circumstances, attempting to prevent an impending fall. Knowledge of such muscles can be used to rehabilitate impaired control of the trunk. Here, angular accelerations of the trunk induced by individual muscles, in the sagittal and frontal planes, were calculated using 3D muscle-driven simulations of seven young healthy subjects walking at free speed. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that the abdominal and back muscles displayed large contributions throughout the gait cycle both in the sagittal and frontal planes. Proximal lower-limb muscles contributed more than distal muscles in the sagittal plane, while both proximal and distal muscles showed large contributions in the frontal plane. Along with the stance-limb muscles, the swing-limb muscles also exhibited considerable contribution. The gluteus medius was found to be an important individual frontal-plane control muscle; enhancing its function in pathologies could ameliorate gait by attenuating trunk sway. In addition, since gravity appreciably accelerated the trunk in the frontal plane, it may engender excessive trunk sway in pathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The significance of faint visualization of the superior sagittal sinus in brain scintigraphy for the diagnosis of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, R.; Sfakianakis, G.; Ihmedian, I.; Holzman, B.; Curless, R.; Serafini, A.

    1985-01-01

    Brain death is associated with cessation of blood flow to the brain. Tc-99m brain flow studies are used as a laboratory confirmatory test for the establishment of the diagnosis of brain death. Criteria for the diagnosis of cessation of blood flow to the brain are 1) visualization of carotid artery activity in the neck of the patient and 2) no visualization of activity in the distribution of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The authors noticed that in a significant number of patients, although there was no visualization of arterial blood flow to the brain the static images demonstrated faint accumulation of activity in the region of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). In a four year period 212 brain flow studies were performed in 154 patients for diagnosis of brain death; of them 137 studies (65%) showed no evidence of arterial flow. In 103 out of the 137 studies (75%) there was no visualization of the SSS; in the remaining 34 studies (3l patients) however three patterns of faint activity attributed to partial and or faint visualization of the SSS could be recognized at the midline of the immediate anterior static view: a) linear from the cranial vault floor up b) disk shaped at the apex of the vault and c) disk shaped at the apex tailing caudad. All of the 3l patients in this group satisfied brain death criteria within four days of the last study which showed faint visualization of the superior sagittal sinus. The authors conclude that even in the presence of a faint visualization of the superior sagittal sinus on static post brain flow scintigraphy, the diagnosis of cessation of blood flow to the brain can be made if there is no evidence of arterial blood flow

  19. Correlation Between Lumbopelvic and Sagittal Parameters and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults With Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussous, Yazeed; Theologis, Alexander A; Demb, Joshua B; Tangtiphaiboontana, Jennifer; Berven, Sigurd

    2018-02-01

    Secondary analysis of prospective, multicenter data. To evaluate impact of sagittal parameters on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. Adults with unoperated lumbosacral spondylolisthesis were identified in the Spinal Deformity Study Group database. Pearson's correlations were calculated between SF-12 (Short Form-12)/Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) scores and radiographic parameters (C7 sagittal vertical axis [SVA] deviation, T1 pelvic angle, pelvic tilt [PT], pelvic incidence, sacral slope, slip angle, Meyerding slip grade, Labelle classification). Main effects linear regression models measured association between individual health status measures and individual radiographic predictor variables. Forty-five patients were analyzed (male, 15; female, 30; average age 40.5 ± 18.7 years; 14 low-grade, 31 high-grade). For low-grade slips, SVA had strong negative correlations with SF-12 mental component score (MCS), SRS-30 appearance, mental, and satisfaction domains ( r = -0.57, r = -0.60, r = -0.58, r = -0.53, respectively; P grade slips, slip angle had a moderate negative correlation with SF-12 MCS ( r = -0.36; P = .05) and SVA had strong negative correlations with SF-12 physical component score (PCS), SRS-30 appearance and activity domains ( r = -0.48, r = -0.48, r = -0.45; P point decrease in SRS appearance, 0.05-point decrease in SRS activity, 0.06-point decrease in SRS satisfaction, and 0.04-point decrease in SRS total score ( P grade slips. Improvement of sagittal parameters is an important goal of surgery for adults with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis.

  20. Wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Jiameng; Xu, Jianchun; Wang, Qingmin; Zhao, Ruochen; Liu, Hao; Dong, Guoyan; Hao, Yanan; Bi, Ke

    2017-08-01

    A wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR) has been prepared. The frequency and transmission bandwidth of the metasurface filters with different split widths are discussed. After analyzing the mechanism of the metasurface, the proposed metasurface filters are fabricated. The electromagnetic properties of the metasurface are measured by a designed test system. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones, which shows that the metasurface filter has a wideband property. As the split width of the CSRR increases, the frequency of the passband shifts to higher frequency regions and the transmission bandwidth decreases.

  1. A splitting algorithm for directional regularization and sparsification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    We present a new split-type algorithm for the minimization of a p-harmonic energy with added data fidelity term. The half-quadratic splitting reduces the original problem to two straightforward problems, that can be minimized efficiently. The minimizers to the two sub-problems can typically...... be computed pointwise and are easily implemented on massively parallel processors. Furthermore the splitting method allows for the computation of solutions to a large number of more advanced directional regularization problems. In particular we are able to handle robust, non-convex data terms, and to define...

  2. Ridge Splitting Technique for Horizontal Augmentation and Immediate Implant Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanasiou Ioannis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient width of the alveolar ridge often prevents ideal implant placement. Guided bone regeneration, bone grafting, alveolar ridge splitting and combinations of these techniques are used for the lateral augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Ridge splitting is a minimally invasive technique indicated for alveolar ridges with adequate height, which enables immediate implant placement and eliminates morbidity and overall treatment time. The classical approach of the technique involves splitting the alveolar ridge into 2 parts with use of ostetomes and chisels. Modifications of this technique include the use of rotating instrument, screw spreaders, horizontal spreaders and ultrasonic device.

  3. Market Split based Congestion Management for Networks with Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmiroli, Marta; Tanimoto, Masahiko; Tsukamoto, Yukitoki; Yokoyama, Ryuichi

    Market splitting is one of the methods to solve the transmission congestion problem associated with the introduction of competitive electricity market and transmission access. Based on the concept of price difference among congested areas, the market splitting approach produces a solution that strongly informs market participants of congestion path. In this paper, an algorithm to solve the market splitting problem for complex networks including loop structures is proposed. The method, based on an algebraic approach, ensures a feasible optimal solution verifiable and easily understandable by the market participants. Complex networks are transformed into simple radial ones using the delta-star approach. The method was tested on large problems to evaluate the performances.

  4. Changing Sagittal-Plane Landing Styles to Modulate Impact and Tibiofemoral Force Magnitude and Directions Relative to the Tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokochi, Yohei; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Meyer, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Ground reaction force (GRF) and tibiofemoral force magnitudes and directions have been shown to affect anterior cruciate ligament loading during landing. However, the kinematic and kinetic factors modifying these 2 forces during landing are unknown. Objective: To clarify the intersegmental kinematic and kinetic links underlying the alteration of the GRF and tibiofemoral force vectors secondary to changes in the sagittal-plane body position during single-legged landing. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty recreationally active participants (age = 23.4 ± 3.6 years, height = 171.0 ± 9.4 cm, mass = 73.3 ± 12.7 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed single-legged landings using 3 landing styles: self-selected landing (SSL), body leaning forward and landing on the toes (LFL), and body upright with flat-footed landing (URL). Three-dimensional kinetics and kinematics were recorded. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sagittal-plane tibial inclination and knee-flexion angles, GRF magnitude and inclination angles relative to the tibia, and proximal tibial forces at peak tibial axial forces. Results: The URL resulted in less time to peak tibial axial forces, smaller knee-flexion angles, and greater magnitude and a more anteriorly inclined GRF vector relative to the tibia than did the SSL. These changes led to the greatest peak tibial axial and anterior shear forces in the URL among the 3 landing styles. Conversely, the LFL resulted in longer time to peak tibial axial forces, greater knee-flexion angles, and reduced magnitude and a more posteriorly inclined GRF vector relative to the tibia than the SSL. These changes in LFL resulted in the lowest peak tibial axial and largest posterior shear forces among the 3 landing styles. Conclusions: Sagittal-plane intersegmental kinematic and kinetic links strongly affected the magnitude and direction of GRF and tibiofemoral forces during the impact phase of single-legged landing

  5. Surgical overreduction and hyperlordotic fusion of C1-C2 joint are associated with cervical sagittal malalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-Chen; Qian, Bang-Ping; Qiu, Yong; Yu, Yang; Ni, Hong-Bin

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that hyperlordotic C1-C2 fusion was related to postoperative subaxial kyphosis. However, most of the patients in these studies were complicated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, no studies have specifically evaluated the relationship between C1-C2 fusion angle and cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA), T1 slope or cranial tilt (CRT) after posterior C1-C2 fusion. This study aimed to investigate the cervical sagittal alignment in non-RA patients following posterior C1-C2 fusion and the correlation between C1-C2 fusion angle and postoperative cervical sagittal alignment. From August 2004 to December 2015, twenty-eight consecutive patients with an average age of 39.2 years (range 6-70 years) who underwent posterior C1-C2 fusion from a single institution were enrolled. The mean follow-up period was 30.7 months (range 12-77 months). Angles of Oc-C1, C1-C2, C2-C3 and C2-C7, cSVA, T1 slope and CRT were measured in lateral cervical radiographs in neutral position before surgery and at the final follow-up. C1-C2 angle significantly increased from 13.6° ± 12.4° to 22.0° ± 8.1° at the final follow-up (P fusion angle was significantly associated with Oc-C1, C2-C7 angle, cSVA and CRT at the final follow-up. A significant correlation was also observed between postoperative change of C1-C2 angle and that of Oc-C1, C2-C7 angle, cSVA and CRT. Apart from decreased subaxial lordosis, posterior C1-C2 fusion in hyperextension may also lead to kyphotic change of atlanto-occipital alignment and increased tilting forward of the cervical spine. Therefore, intraoperative overreduction of C1-C2 angle and hyperlordotic C1-C2 fusion should be avoided to maintain the physiologic cervical sagittal alignment.

  6. Shear wave splitting in the Isparta Angle, southwestern Turkey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    broadband station in the Isparta Angle,southwestern Turkey.We selected 21 good quality seismic events out of nearly 357 earthquakes and calculated splitting parameters (polarization direction of fast wave, and delay time between fast and ...

  7. Field Monitoring Protocol. Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This Building America program report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential mini-split heat pump, which will be used in high-performance retrofit applications.

  8. Electrochemical Water-Splitting Based on Hypochlorite Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minhová Macounová, Kateřina; Simic, N.; Ahlberg, E.; Krtil, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 23 (2015), s. 7262-7265 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * hypochlorite oxidation * water-splitting Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 13.038, year: 2015

  9. Possibilities of Intermodal Passenger Transport between Split Airport and Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Roguljić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of passengers landing at Split Airportduring the tourist season continue their journey to the destinationson the central Dalmatian islands. Today the transfer isdone mainly through the ferry port in Split. The insufficient capacitiesof roads from the airport to the city centre which accommodatesthe ferry port and waiting for the embarkation onthe ferries and the transport itself to the islands and the finaldestinations take much longer than the air transport itself toSplit. The paper studies the possible improvements of the existingcondition as well as the construction completion and openingto traffic of the passenger sea port next to Split Airport whichwould provide a much better solution of passenger transfer tothe islands.

  10. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  11. Acoustic Split-Beam Echosounder Data (EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories collects data using Simrad EK60 scientific split-beam acoustic echosounders during resource...

  12. The homogeneous property and flux splitting in gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerat, A.

    The homogeneous property of fluxes in gas dynamics is investigated, and its consequences concerning the flux splitting introduced by Steger and Warming (1981) are examined. It is shown that, for any hyperbolic system w sub t + f(w) sub x = 0 which satisfies the homogeneous property, the flux f(w) can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix A(w) = df(w)/dw. This same result is also found to hold for the split fluxes f(+)(w) and f(-)(w). The problem of the validity of flux splitting is studied using these results. Three applications of flux splitting are then considered. The first application concerns uncentered schemes and particularly a precise analysis of their stability, the second is connected with a method for correcting the dispersive error of second-order accurate schemes, and the third deals with a nonreflective boundary condition.

  13. Recent Progress in Energy-Driven Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Si Yin; Win, Khin Yin; Teo, Wee Siang; Koh, Leng-Duei; Liu, Shuhua; Teng, Choon Peng; Han, Ming-Yong

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogen is readily obtained from renewable and non-renewable resources via water splitting by using thermal, electrical, photonic and biochemical energy. The major hydrogen production is generated from thermal energy through steam reforming/gasification of fossil fuel. As the commonly used non-renewable resources will be depleted in the long run, there is great demand to utilize renewable energy resources for hydrogen production. Most of the renewable resources may be used to produce electricity for driving water splitting while challenges remain to improve cost-effectiveness. As the most abundant energy resource, the direct conversion of solar energy to hydrogen is considered the most sustainable energy production method without causing pollutions to the environment. In overall, this review briefly summarizes thermolytic, electrolytic, photolytic and biolytic water splitting. It highlights photonic and electrical driven water splitting together with photovoltaic-integrated solar-driven water electrolysis.

  14. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  15. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Endoscopic classification of representations of quasi-split unitary groups

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Chung Pang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author establishes the endoscopic classification of tempered representations of quasi-split unitary groups over local fields, and the endoscopic classification of the discrete automorphic spectrum of quasi-split unitary groups over global number fields. The method is analogous to the work of Arthur on orthogonal and symplectic groups, based on the theory of endoscopy and the comparison of trace formulas on unitary groups and general linear groups.

  17. Spectral splitting for thermal management in photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Chiou, Yu-Cheng; Chiesa, Matteo; Almansouri, Ibraheem

    2017-09-01

    Spectral splitting is widely employed as a way to divide light between different solar cells or processes to optimize energy conversion. Well-understood but less explored is the use of spectrum splitting or filtering to combat solar cell heating. This has impacts both on cell performance and on the surrounding environment. In this manuscript we explore the design of spectral filtering systems that can improve the thermal and power-conversion performance of commercial PV modules.

  18. Split Octonion electrodynamics and unified fields of dyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Split octonion electrodynamics has been developed in terms of Zorn's vector matrix realization by reformulating electromagnetic potential, current, field tensor and other dynamical quantities. Corresponding field equation (Unified Maxwell's equations) and equation of motion have been reformulated by means of split octonion and its Zorn vector realization in unique, simpler and consistent manner. It has been shown that this theory reproduces the dyon field equations in the absence of gravito-dyons and vice versa

  19. Visualization of the sequence of a couple splitting outside shop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'......Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'...

  20. A Modified Halpern's Iterative Scheme for Solving Split Feasibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitsupa Deepho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a modified Halpern’s iterative scheme for solving the split feasibility problem (SFP in the setting of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Under suitable conditions a strong convergence theorem is established. The main result presented in this paper improves and extends some recent results done by Xu (Iterative methods for the split feasibility problem in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, Inverse Problem 26 (2010 105018 and some others.

  1. Precision and accuracy of age estimates obtained from anal fin spines, dorsal fin spines, and sagittal otoliths for known-age largemouth bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Zachary B.; Bonvechio, Timothy F.; Bowen, Bryant R.; Quist, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Sagittal otoliths are the preferred aging structure for Micropterus spp. (black basses) in North America because of the accurate and precise results produced. Typically, fisheries managers are hesitant to use lethal aging techniques (e.g., otoliths) to age rare species, trophy-size fish, or when sampling in small impoundments where populations are small. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the precision and accuracy of 2 non-lethal aging structures (i.e., anal fin spines, dorsal fin spines) in comparison to that of sagittal otoliths from known-age Micropterus salmoides (Largemouth Bass; n = 87) collected from the Ocmulgee Public Fishing Area, GA. Sagittal otoliths exhibited the highest concordance with true ages of all structures evaluated (coefficient of variation = 1.2; percent agreement = 91.9). Similarly, the low coefficient of variation (0.0) and high between-reader agreement (100%) indicate that age estimates obtained from sagittal otoliths were the most precise. Relatively high agreement between readers for anal fin spines (84%) and dorsal fin spines (81%) suggested the structures were relatively precise. However, age estimates from anal fin spines and dorsal fin spines exhibited low concordance with true ages. Although use of sagittal otoliths is a lethal technique, this method will likely remain the standard for aging Largemouth Bass and other similar black bass species.

  2. Intraoperative Simulated Weightbearing Lateral Foot Imaging: The Clinical Utility and Ability to Predict Sagittal Plane Position of the First Ray in Lapidus Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffeli, Troy J; Mahoney, Kevin J

    The sagittal plane relationship of the first to second ray is a primary determinant of proper alignment in Lapidus midfoot fusion as assessed both clinically and on postoperative weightbearing lateral radiographs. The traditional approach to intraoperative fluoroscopic imaging allows for accurate assessment of fixation placement and intermetatarsal angle correction but only a crude evaluation of final sagittal plane alignment. Surgeons have used various methods in an attempt to load the foot during lateral imaging. This had led to inconsistent results and the potential for poor outcome. Skepticism exists regarding the ability of simulated weightbearing fluoroscopy to predict the final outcome, and evidence is lacking to support this practice. A prospective investigation was performed to assess the correlation of the first to second ray sagittal plane alignment as demonstrated on intraoperative simulated weightbearing lateral foot imaging studies and the 10-week postoperative lateral weightbearing radiograph. A consistent simulated weightbearing technique was used prospectively with 50 consecutive cases of Lapidus midfoot fusion with the goal of achieving parallel sagittal plane alignment of the first and second metatarsals with no divergence. Although 47 cases had no divergence and 3 had divergence with mild first ray elevatus, all 50 cases demonstrated a direct correlation between the intraoperative simulated and postoperative full weightbearing images. In conclusion, we believe the findings from our intraoperative imaging technique are a reliable predictor of first ray sagittal plane alignment in Lapidus midfoot fusion. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogen Production from Semiconductor-based Photocatalysis via Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. S. Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for the future because it is clean, energy efficient, and abundant in nature. While various technologies can be used to generate hydrogen, only some of them can be considered environmentally friendly. Recently, solar hydrogen generated via photocatalytic water splitting has attracted tremendous attention and has been extensively studied because of its great potential for low-cost and clean hydrogen production. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the development of photocatalytic water splitting for generating hydrogen, particularly under visible-light irradiation. The topics covered include an introduction of hydrogen production technologies, a review of photocatalytic water splitting over titania and non-titania based photocatalysts, a discussion of the types of photocatalytic water-splitting approaches, and a conclusion for the current challenges and future prospects of photocatalytic water splitting. Based on the literatures reported here, the development of highly stable visible–light-active photocatalytic materials, and the design of efficient, low-cost photoreactor systems are the key for the advancement of solar-hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting in the future.

  4. A systematic review of the angular values obtained by computerized photogrammetry in sagittal plane: a proposal for reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczky, Bruna; Pacheco, Antonio G; Mainenti, Míriam R M

    2014-05-01

    Reference values for postural alignment in the coronal plane, as measured by computerized photogrammetry, have been established but not for the sagittal plane. The objective of this study is to propose reference values for angular measurements used for postural analysis in the sagittal plane for healthy adults. Electronic databases (PubMed, BVS, Cochrane, Scielo, and Science Direct) were searched using the following key words: evaluation, posture, photogrammetry, and software. Articles published between 2006 and 2012 that used the PAS/SAPO (postural assessment software) were selected. Another inclusion criterion was the presentation of, at least, one of the following measurements: head horizontal alignment, pelvic horizontal alignment, hip angle, vertical alignment of the body, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. Angle samples of the selected articles were grouped 2 by 2 in relation to an overall average, which made possible total average, variance, and SD calculations. Six articles were included, and the following average angular values were found: 51.42° ± 4.87° (head horizontal alignment), -12.26° ± 5.81° (pelvic horizontal alignment), -6.40° ± 3.86° (hip angle), and 1.73° ± 0.94° (vertical alignment of the body). None of the articles contained the measurements for thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. The reference values can be adopted as reference for postural assessment in future researches if the same anatomical points are considered. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment and post-treatment effects of facemask therapy on the sagittal pharyngeal dimensions in Class III subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Mucedero, Manuela; Cozza, Paola

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this cephalometric study was to analyse the treatment and post-treatment craniofacial effects of a facemask (FM) combined with a bite block (BB) with specific regard to the sagittal pharyngeal dimensions in subjects with a Class III malocclusion when compared with an untreated Class III control group. The FM/BB group (22 subjects, 12 females and 10 males) had a mean age pre-treatment (T1) of 8.9 +/- 1.5 years, at the end of active treatment (T2) of 10.5 +/- 1.3 years, and post-treatment (T3) of 12.6 +/- 1.9 years. The treated group was compared with a control group of 14 subjects (6 females and 8 males) with untreated Class III malocclusions that matched the FM/BB group as to age at T1, T2, and T3, observation periods and skeletal maturation. Comparisons of the T2-T1 and T3-T1 changes between the two groups were analysed with the Mann-Whitney test. Significant favourable skeletal changes in the maxilla and mandible were observed in the treated group both after Ts2 and T3. No significant short- or long-term changes in the sagittal oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal airway dimensions were induced by maxillary protraction in subjects with a Class III malocclusion when compared with untreated controls.

  6. The MRI findings of meniscal root tear of the medial meniscus: emphasis on coronal, sagittal and axial images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Hee; Bae, Sooho; Ji, Suk Kyeong; Chang, Moon Jong

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of medial meniscal root tear in the coronal, sagittal and axial planes. Thirty arthroscopically diagnosed patients who had undergone preoperative knee MRI were included in this study. They were compared to 30 age-matched patients with medial meniscus tears without root tears. The findings used for imaging analysis were as follows: the radial tear on the meniscal root of the medial meniscus in the axial plane, the presence of the truncation sign in the coronal plane and the ghost meniscus sign in the sagittal plane. Meniscal extrusion in the coronal plane was also evaluated. All the MRI findings of both groups were statistically analyzed. All the findings were more frequently found in the root tear group than those in the control group (P meniscal root tear were characteristic as compared with the control group. Radial tear in the axial plane also showed similar diagnostic accuracy as that seen in the other planes. The characteristic findings provide high diagnostic accuracy, and axial plane is helpful to detect medial meniscal root tear. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  7. Sagittal Alignment of a Strut Graft Affects Graft Subsidence and Clinical Outcomes of Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Koun; Fushimi, Kazunari; Miyamoto, Kei; Hioki, Akira; Shimizu, Katsuji; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2017-10-01

    Retrospective study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sagittal alignment of the strut graft on graft subsidence and clinical outcomes after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF). ACCF is a common technique for the treatment of various cervical pathologies. Although graft subsidence sometimes occurs after ACCF, it is one cause for poor clinical results. Malalignment of the strut graft is probably one of the factors associated with graft subsidence. However, to the best of our knowledge, no prior reports have demonstrated correlations between the alignment of the strut graft and clinical outcomes. We evaluated 56 patients (33 men and 23 women; mean age, 59 years; range, 33-84 years; 45 with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and 11 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament) who underwent one- or two-level ACCF with an autogenous fibular strut graft and anterior plating. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score recovery ratio for cervical spondylotic myelopathy was used to evaluate clinical outcomes. The JOA score and lateral radiograms were evaluated 1 week and 1 year postoperatively. Patients were divided into two groups (a straight group [group I] and an oblique group [group Z]) based on radiographic assessment of the sagittal alignment of the strut graft. Group I showed a significantly greater JOA score recovery ratio ( p subsidence than group Z ( p subsidence after ACCF. In contrast, an oblique strut graft can lead to significantly increased strut graft subsidence and poor clinical results.

  8. Surgical and nonsurgical management of sagittal slab fractures of the third carpal bone in racehorses: 32 cases (1991-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Beth M; Ross, Michael W; Boston, Raymond C

    2005-03-15

    To compare results (ie, return to racing and earnings per race start) of surgical versus nonsurgical management of sagittal slab fractures of the third carpal bone in racehorses. Retrospective study. 32 racehorses (19 Thoroughbreds, 11 Standardbreds, and 2 Arabians). Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment and treatment. Follow-up information was obtained from race records. Robust regression analysis was performed to evaluate earnings per start in horses that raced at least once before and after injury. 22 (69%) horses raced at least once after treatment of the fracture. All 7 horses treated by means of interfragmentary compression raced after treatment, and horses that underwent interfragmentary compression had significantly higher earnings per start after the injury than did horses treated without surgery. Eight of 9 horses treated by means of arthroscopic debridement of the damaged cartilage and bone raced after treatment, but only 7 of 16 horses treated without surgery (ie, stall rest) were able to return to racing after treatment. Results suggest that racehorses with sagittal slab fractures of the third carpal bone have a favorable prognosis for return to racing after treatment. Horses treated surgically were more likely to race after treatment than were horses treated without surgery.

  9. Ultrasound follow-up of posttraumatic injuries of the sagittal band of the dorsal hood treated by a conservative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willekens, Inneke, E-mail: Inneke.willekens@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Kichouh, Mimoun; Boulet, Cedric; De Maeseneer, Michel [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Clarys, Jan Pieter [Department of Experimental Anatomy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Mey, Johan de [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Dorsal Hood. • Extensor Hood. • Ultrasound. • Rupture. - Abstract: Traumatic dislocation of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is a rare problem in patients without rheumatoid disorders. The common extensor tendon is stabilized on the metacarpal head by components of the dorsal hood (DH). A tear in the sagittal bands, allows (sub)luxation of the tendon. To ensure appropriate treatment, the identification of the damaged structures is essential. Ultrasound (US) is a valuable method in the evaluation of DH injuries and in the follow-up for evaluation of healing or lack of healing of the lesions. We report three cases with partial rupture of the sagittal band of the DH: two cases in the index finger and one case in the long finger, which caused pain and swelling and was diagnosed with US. The patients were treated conservatively and the pain resolved after 9 months in case 1, 3 months in case 2 and 6 months in case 3. The follow-up at one year revealed painless full range of motion and no residual subluxation during the dynamic ultrasound.

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF BODY POSTURE IN THE SAGITTAL PLANE AND FITNESS OF FIRST-FORM PUPILS FROM RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Żukowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to find correlations between characteristics of body posture in the sagittal plane and fitness and endurance of first-form children from rural areas. Material: an analysis of more than 30 sources of scientific and educational literature. Results: the study involved 209 children, including 102 girls and 107 boys. They were children who lived in the country since they were born. To assess particular characteristics of body posture, the children were studied by means of the measuring equipment using the projection Moiré system. Motor skills were estimated using selected EUROFIT physical fitness tests (sitting forward bend, standing broad jump, handgrip, sit-and-reach, bent arm hang and 10 x 5 m shuttle run. The level of physical endurance was evaluated with the Harvard Step Test modified by Montoye. Conclusions: the conducted research reveals statistically significant correlations between the characteristics of body posture in the sagittal plane and selected EUROFIT physical fitness tests and physical endurance of the children involved in the study.

  11. Evaluation of three-dimensional position change of the condylar head after orthognathic surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-made condyle positioning jig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mo; Baek, Seung-Hak; Kim, Tae-Yun; Choi, Jin-Young

    2014-11-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM/CAD)-made condyle positioning jig in orthognathic surgery. The sample consisted of 40 mandibular condyles of 20 patients with class III malocclusion who underwent bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with semirigid fixation (6 men and 14 women; mean age, 25 y; mean amount of mandibular setback, 5.8 mm). Exclusion criteria were patients who needed surgical correction of the frontal ramal inclination and had signs and symptoms of the temporomandibular disorder before surgery. Three-dimensional computed tomograms were taken 1 month before the surgery (T1) and 1 day after the surgery (T2). The condylar position was evaluated at the T1 and T2 stages on the axial, frontal, and sagittal aspects in the three-dimensional coordinates. The linear change of the posterior border of the proximal segment of the ramus between T1 and T2 was also evaluated in 30 condyles (15 patients), with the exception of 10 condyles of 5 patients who received mandibular angle reduction surgery. There was no significant difference in the condylar position in the frontal and sagittal aspects (P > 0.05). Although there was a significant difference in the condylar position in the axial aspect (P jig is easy to install and reliable to use in orthognathic surgery.

  12. Numerical investigation of a dual-loop EGR split strategy using a split index and multi-objective Pareto optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions

  13. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Valenzuela, Scott K. Lynn, Lisa R. Mikelson, Guillermo J. Noffal, Daniel A. Judelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m. On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern –forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS] x 2 (Group – PFFG, PRFG mixed model ANOVAs (p < 0.05 were run on speed, active peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF, peak early stance and mid stance sagittal ankle moments, sagittal plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW, dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg-1, and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°. There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg-1, peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°, and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32° as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait.

  14. Posterior epidural fat on sagittal MR images: can it heIp in distinguishing between isthmic and degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Byung Jae; Choi, Jung Ah; Kim, Jung Eun; Choi, Ja Young; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kang, Heung Sik [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-01

    We tried to assess the value of posterior epidural fat for distinguishing isthmic spondylolisthesis from degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis on midline sagittal MR images. The midline sagittal MR images of the lumbar spines were retrospectively studied for 50 patients without spondylolisthesis, for 78 patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis and for 43 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. The anteroposterior diameter of the posterior epidural fat (ADEF) was measured at each intervertebral disc level by two radiologists and these values were then compared between each group. To normalize for difference of body size, the posterior epidural fat ratio (PEFR) at each level of spondylolisthesis and at L1-2 were also determined for each level of spondylolisthesis, and the PERF was compared between each group. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-square method. For the patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis, the ADEFs at the spinal levels with spondylolisthesis were significantly greater than those ADEFs in the control group that were measured at the corresponding disc levels (p<0.05). For the patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, the ADEFs at the spinal level with spondylolisthesis were significantly less than the ADEFs in the control group that were measured at the corresponding disc levels (p<0.05). The PEFRs obtained at L4-5 were 1.37{+-}0.12 for the control group, 2.61{+-}1.31 for the patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis, and 0.60{+-}0.05 for the patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. The PEFRs obtained at L5-S1 were 2.25{+-}1.32 for the control group, 3.47{+-}1.69 for the patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis and 1.65{+-}0.18 for the patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. At both levels, the PEFRs were greatest for the isthmic spondylolisthesis group and smallest for the degenerative spondylolisthesis group, and all the differences were statistically significant. The posterior epidural fat, which is easily seen structure

  15. An Examination Of Fracture Splitting Parameters Of Crackable Connecting Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Özdemir

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Fracture splitting method is an innovative processing technique in the field of automobile engine connecting rod (con/rod manufacturing. Compared with traditional method, this technique has remarkable advantages. Manufacturing procedures, equipment and tools investment can be decreased and energy consumption reduced remarkably. Furthermore, product quality and bearing capability can also be improved. It provides a high quality, high accuracy and low cost route for producing connecting rods (con/rods. With the many advantages mentioned above, this method has attracted manufacturers attention and has been utilized in many types of con/rod manufacturing. In this article, the method and the advantages it provides, such as materials, notches for fracture splitting, fracture splitting conditions and fracture splitting equipment are discussed in detail. The paper describes an analysis of examination of fracture splitting parameters and optik-SEM fractography of C70S6 crackable connectıng rod. Force and velocity parameters are investigated. That uniform impact force distrubition starting from the starting notch causes brittle and cleavage failure mode is obtained as a result. This induces to decrease the toughness.

  16. New Splitting Criteria for Decision Trees in Stationary Data Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek

    2017-05-10

    The most popular tools for stream data mining are based on decision trees. In previous 15 years, all designed methods, headed by the very fast decision tree algorithm, relayed on Hoeffding's inequality and hundreds of researchers followed this scheme. Recently, we have demonstrated that although the Hoeffding decision trees are an effective tool for dealing with stream data, they are a purely heuristic procedure; for example, classical decision trees such as ID3 or CART cannot be adopted to data stream mining using Hoeffding's inequality. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new algorithms, which are both mathematically justified and characterized by good performance. In this paper, we address this problem by developing a family of new splitting criteria for classification in stationary data streams and investigating their probabilistic properties. The new criteria, derived using appropriate statistical tools, are based on the misclassification error and the Gini index impurity measures. The general division of splitting criteria into two types is proposed. Attributes chosen based on type-$I$ splitting criteria guarantee, with high probability, the highest expected value of split measure. Type-$II$ criteria ensure that the chosen attribute is the same, with high probability, as it would be chosen based on the whole infinite data stream. Moreover, in this paper, two hybrid splitting criteria are proposed, which are the combinations of single criteria based on the misclassification error and Gini index.

  17. Experimental study on dynamic splitting of recycled concrete using SHPB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yubin; Yu, Shuisheng; Cai, Yong

    2015-09-01

    To study the recycled concrete splitting tensile properties and fracture state with various recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentage (i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), the dynamic splitting test of recycled concrete was carried out using large diameter (75 mm) split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The results show that the recycled concrete splitting tensile strength increases with the increase of loading rate, and the loading rate also affects the recycled concrete fracture state, which indicates that the recycled concrete has obvious rate sensitivity. The damage state of the recycled concrete is not only the destruction of the interface between coarse aggregate and cement mortar, but also associates with the fracture damage of aggregates. Under the same water cement ratio, when the replacement percentage of coarse aggregates is around 50%-75%, the gradation of natural and recycled coarse aggregate is optimal, and thus the splitting tensile strength is the largest. This study offers theoretical basis for the engineering applications of recycled concrete.

  18. SplitRacer - a semi-automatic tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We present a semi-automatic, graphical user interface tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting in MATLAB. Shear wave splitting analysis is a standard tool to infer seismic anisotropy, which is often interpreted as due to lattice-preferred orientation of e.g. mantle minerals or shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks or alternating layers in the lithosphere and hence provides a direct link to the earth's kinematic processes. The increasing number of permanent stations and temporary experiments result in comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. Their successive comparison with a growing number of global models of mantle flow further advances our understanding the earth's interior. However, increasingly large data sets pose the inevitable question as to how to process them. Well-established routines and programs are accurate but often slow and impractical for analyzing a large amount of data. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same quality criteria which complicates a straight-forward comparison. SplitRacer consists of several processing steps: i) download of data per FDSNWS, ii) direct reading of miniSEED-files and an initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold. iii) an analysis of the particle motion of selected phases and successive correction of the sensor miss-alignment based on the long-axis of the particle motion. iv) splitting analysis of selected events: seismograms are first rotated into radial and transverse components, then the energy-minimization method is applied, which provides the polarization and delay time of the phase. To estimate errors, the analysis is done for different randomly-chosen time windows. v) joint-splitting analysis for all events for one station, where the energy content of all phases is inverted simultaneously. This allows to decrease the influence of noise and to increase robustness of the measurement

  19. Computer navigation vs extramedullary guide for sagittal alignment of tibial components: radiographic study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Paul R T; Higgins, Gordon A; Tunggal, James A W; Sellan, Michael E; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2012-04-01

    Sagittal alignment of tibial components using computer navigation was compared with conventional methods. A radiologic study was performed using 110 total knee arthroplasties from 3 groups: computer navigation, cutting block with extramedullary guide, and manual tilt of extramedullary guide. Posterior tibial slopes were measured from radiographs and compared using statistical methods. The cutting block method was the most accurate, and computer navigation was the most precise. The manual tilt group had the greatest variance, significantly greater than computer navigation. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the percentage of knees with posterior slope within 3° of the desired slope. Meta-analysis of 10 studies found no reduction in outliers with computer navigation. Computer navigation offers greatest precision but does not reduce the number of outliers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transverse forces versus modified ashworth scale for upper limb flexion/extension in para-sagittal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Nitin; Johnson, Denise; Abdullah, Hussein A

    2017-07-01

    Spasticity is a common impairment following an upper motor neuron lesion in conditions such as stroke and brain injury. A clinical issue is how to best quantify and measure spasticity. Recently, research has been performed to develop new methods of spasticity quantification using various systems. This paper follows up on previous work taking a closer look at the role of transversal forces obtained via rehabilitation robot for motions in the para-sagittal plane. Results from 45 healthy individuals and 40 individuals with acquired brain injury demonstrate that although the passive upper motions are vertical, horizontal forces into and away from the individual's body demonstrate a relationship with the Modified Ashworth Scale. This finding leads the way to new avenues of spasticity quantification and monitoring.

  1. Interceptive orthopedics for the correction of maxillary transverse and sagittal deficiency in the early mixed dentition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Talapaneni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentofacial Orthopedics directed to a hypoplastic maxilla in the prepubertal period redirects growth of the maxilla in the vertical, transverse and sagittal planes of space. The orthopedic correction of maxillary hypoplasia in the early mixed dentition period thus intercepts the establishment of permanent structural asymmetry in the mandible and helps in the achievement of optimal dentofacial esthetics. This paper presents the growth redirection in a hypoplastic maxilla of an 8-year-old girl with simultaneous rapid maxillary expansion and protraction headgear therapy for a period of 11 months which corrected the posterior unilateral cross-bite, the positional asymmetry of the mandible and established an orthognathic profile in the individual.

  2. Extensive cranioplasty for sagittal synostosis in young children by preserving cranial bone flaps adhered to the dura mater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Bao; Bo, Yang; Yun-Hai, Song; Cheng, Chen; Xiong-Zheng, Mu

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate extensive cranioplasty involving the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal bones without removing the floating bone flaps in the treatment of sagittal synostosis. Sixty-three children with sagittal synostosis, aged 5 months to 3 years, were included in the study. The frontal bone flap was removed using an air drill. The occipital and bilateral temporal bone flaps were cut open but not detached from the dura mater or fixed to produce floating bone flaps. The skull bone was cut into palisade-like structures. Brain compression from both sides and the base of the skull was released and the brain expanded bilaterally through the enlarged space. Only a long strip-shaped bone bridge remained in the central parietal bone. Subsequently, the frontal bone flaps and occipital bone flap were pushed towards the midline and fixed with the parietal bone bridge to shorten the anteroposterior diameter of the cranial cavity and allow the brain to expand bilaterally to correct scaphocephaly. Patients were followed up 1-5 years. Skull growth was excellent in all patients, the anteroposterior diameter was shortened, the transverse diameter was increased, the prominent forehead was corrected, and scaphocephaly improved significantly. There were no complications such as death and skull necrosis. Surgery without removing bone flaps is less traumatic and results in no massive bleeding. It can effectively relieve brain compression and promotes transversal expansion of the brain during surgery and subsequent normal brain development. The skull of young children is relatively thin and early surgery can easily achieve satisfactory bone reshaping. Our surgical technique is not only safe and effective but also can avoid subsequent psychological disorders caused by skull deformity.

  3. EMG Analysis and Sagittal Plane Kinematics of the Two-Handed and Single-Handed Kettlebell Swing: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gelder, Leonard H; Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Alonzo, Bryan; Briggs, Dayna; Hatzel, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Kettlebell (KB) swing exercises have been proposed as a possible method to improve hip and spinal motor control as well as improve power, strength, and endurance. To describe electromyographic (EMG) and sagittal plane kinematics during two KB exercises: the two-handed KB swing (THKS) and the single-handed KB swing (SHKS). In addition, the authors sought to investigate whether or not hip flexor length related to the muscular activity or the kinematics of the exercise. Twenty-three healthy college age subjects participated in this study. Demographic information and passive hip flexor length were recorded for each subject. A maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of bilateral gluteus maximus (GMAX), gluteus medius (GMED), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles was recorded. EMG activity and sagittal plane video was recorded during both the THKS and SHKS in a randomized order. Normalized muscular activation of the three studied muscles was calculated from EMG data. During both SHKS and THKS, the average percent of peak MVIC for GMAX was 75.02% ± 55.38, GMED 55.47% ± 26.33, and BF 78.95% ± 53.29. Comparisons of the mean time to peak activation (TTP) for each muscle showed that the biceps femoris was the first muscle to activate during the swings. Statistically significant (p < .05), moderately positive correlations (r = .483 and .417) were found between passive hip flexor length and % MVIC for the GMax during the SHKS and THKS, respectively. The THKS and SHKS provide sufficient muscular recruitment for strengthening of all of the muscles explored. This is the first study to show significant correlations between passive hip flexor length and muscular activation of hip extensors, particularly the GMax. Finally, the BF consistently reached peak activity before the GMax and GMed during the SHKS. Level 3.

  4. Accuracy of the Precision Saw versus the Sagittal Saw during total knee arthroplasty: A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczko, Peter Z; Fokkenrood, Hugo J P; van Assen, Tijmen; Deckers, Patrick; Emans, Pieter J; Arts, Jacobus J

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the oscillating tip saw system (Precision Saw=PS) with the more conventional fully oscillating blade system (Sagittal Saw=SS) during computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty (CAS-TKA). A prospective, randomised, controlled trial included 58 consecutive patients who underwent primary CAS-TKA and were randomly assigned in the PS group or the SS group to compare the accuracy of both blades. The primary outcome was the difference between the intended cutting planes and the actual cutting planes in degrees (°) in two planes of both the femur and the tibia. The secondary outcome was total surgery time. Tibia: In the VV-plane no significant differences were registered for the mean absolute deviation (p=0.28). The PS was more accurate in the AP-plane (p=0.03). Femur: The PS showed significantly fewer mean absolute deviations in the VV-plane (p=0.03); however, the SS revealed better accuracy in the FE-plane (p=0.04). The difference in the surgery time between the groups was not statistically significant (p=0.45). Two outliers were measured using the SS, while seven outliers were detected using the PS. The Precision Saw is not proven to be overall more accurate than the Sagittal Saw. Significantly better accuracy was shown with the PS in the two cutting planes, with the exception of one cutting plane that favoured the SS. Greater number of outliers were found using the PS. II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and fabrication of a full-scale, sagittal-sliced, 3D-printed, patient-specific radiotherapy phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Daniel F; Howell, Rebecca M

    2017-09-01

    Patient-specific 3D-printed phantoms have many potential applications, both research and clinical. However, they have been limited in size and complexity because of the small size of most commercially available 3D printers as well as material warping concerns. We aimed to overcome these limitations by developing and testing an effective 3D printing workflow to fabricate a large patient-specific radiotherapy phantom with minimal warping errors. In doing so, we produced a full-scale phantom of a real postmastectomy patient. We converted a patient's clinical CT DICOM data into a 3D model and then sliced the model into eleven 2.5-cm-thick sagittal slices. The slices were printed with a readily available thermoplastic material representing all body tissues at 100% infill, but with air cavities left open. Each slice was printed on an inexpensive and commercially available 3D printer. Once the printing was completed, the slices were placed together for imaging and verification. The original patient CT scan and the assembled phantom CT scan were registered together to assess overall accuracy. The materials for the completed phantom cost $524. The printed phantom agreed well with both its design and the actual patient. Individual slices differed from their designs by approximately 2%. Registered CT images of the assembled phantom and original patient showed excellent agreement. Three-dimensional printing the patient-specific phantom in sagittal slices allowed a large phantom to be fabricated with high accuracy. Our results demonstrate that our 3D printing workflow can be used to make large, accurate, patient-specific phantoms at 100% infill with minimal material warping error. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. The Differences Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes

    It is often asserted that stock splits and stock dividends are purely cosmetic events. However, many studies have documented several stock market effects associated with stock splits and stock dividends. This paper examines the effects of these two types of events for the Danish stock market...... different. Second, the positive stock market reaction is closely related to associated changes in a firm's payout policy, but the relationship varies for the two types of events. Finally, there is only very weak evidence for a change in the liquidity of the stock. On the whole, after controlling...... for the firm's payout policy, the results suggest that a stock split is a cosmetic event and that a stock dividend on its own is considered negative news....

  7. Electron refrigeration in hybrid structures with spin-split superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, M.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.

    2018-01-01

    Electron tunneling between superconductors and normal metals has been used for an efficient refrigeration of electrons in the latter. Such cooling is a nonlinear effect and usually requires a large voltage. Here we study the electron cooling in heterostructures based on superconductors with a spin-splitting field coupled to normal metals via spin-filtering barriers. The cooling power shows a linear term in the applied voltage. This improves the coefficient of performance of electron refrigeration in the normal metal by shifting its optimum cooling to lower voltage, and also allows for cooling the spin-split superconductor by reverting the sign of the voltage. We also show how tunnel coupling spin-split superconductors with regular ones allows for a highly efficient refrigeration of the latter.

  8. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-07-25

    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under compression and decreases under tension, whereas the dependence of the Rashba spin splitting on the strain is the opposite. Large values of αR = 1.57 eV Å at the bottom of the conduction band (electrons) and αR = 3.34 eV Å at the top of the valence band (holes) are obtained without strain. These values can be further enhanced to αR = 1.83 eV Å and αR = 3.64 eV Å, respectively, by 2% tensile strain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Duysens, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in split-belt treadmill studies. We argue that the modified version of stride length for split-belt gait, which is different from the standard definition of stride length and actually is a measure of limb excursion, should be referred to as 'limb excursion' in future studies. Furthermore, the symmetry of stride length and stride time is specifically addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Geometric inductance effects in the spectrum of split transmon qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, R. T.; Blumoff, J.; Chou, K.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Girvin, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The low-energy spectra of transmon superconducting qubits in a cavity can be accurately calculated using the black-box quantization approach. This method involves finding the normal modes of the circuit with a linearized Josephson junction and using these as the basis in which to express the non-linear terms. A split transmon qubit consists of two Josephson junctions in a SQUID loop. This configuration allows the Josephson energy to be tuned by applying external flux. Ideally, the system otherwise behaves as a conventional transmon with a single effective Josephson junction. However, the finite geometric inductance of the SQUID loop causes deviations from the simplest ideal description of a split transmon. This alters both the linearized and non-linear behaviour of the Josephson junctions in the superconducting circuit. We study how these changes can be incorporated into the black-box quantization approach and their effects on the low-energy spectrum of the split transmon.

  11. Point splitting in a curved space-time background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  12. Splitting rules for spectra of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Youyan

    1997-10-01

    In the framework of the single-electron tight-binding on-site model, after establishing the method of constructing a class of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices, we have studied the rules of energy spectra splitting for these quasilattices by means of a decomposition-decimation method based on the renormalization-group technique. Under the first approximation, the analytic results show that there exist only six kinds of clusters and the electronic energy bands split as type Y and consist of nine subbands. Instead of the on-site model, the transfer model should be used for the higher hierarchy of the spectra, the electronic energy spectra split as type F. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  13. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela Nurlaela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  14. Split and delay photon correlation spectroscopy with a visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasch, Marten

    2016-04-01

    The development and performance of a setup constructed with the aim for the split pulse photon correlation spectroscopy is presented in this thesis. The double pulse time structure is accomplished with help of an Acusto-Optic Modulator (AOM) crystal, which mimics the splitting and delaying of photon pulses. The setup provides double pulses and allows to control the pulse width and delay and to synchronize them into one camera exposure window. The performance of the setup was successfully verified in a proof of principle experiment with a model system of polystyrene particles following Brownian motion. The measured radius of particles obtained with from the split pulse experiment (R h =(2.567±0.097) μm) is in agreement with the particle size provided by the manufacturer (R=(2.26±0.08) μm). The achieved results show higher statistics compared to a standard Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  15. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2016-04-03

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor photocatalysts can be independently studied, developed and optimized. The assumption of perfect catalysts leads to the realization that semiconductors are the limiting factor in photocatalysis. This dissertation presents a guideline for efficient photocatalysis using semiconductor particles developed from idealized theoretical simulations. No perfect catalysts exist; then the discussion focus on the development of efficient non-noble metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water reduction. Tungsten carbide (WC) is selective for the catalysis of hydrogen without the introduction of the reverse reaction of water formation, which is critical to achieving photocatalytic overall water splitting as demonstrated in this work. Finally, photoelectrochemistry is used to characterize thoroughly Cu-based p-type semiconductors with potential for large-scale manufacture. Artificial photosynthesis may be achieved by following the recommendations herein presented.

  16. Rabi splitting in an acoustic cavity embedded plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We design a structure to realize Rabi splitting and Rabi oscillation in acoustics. We develop rigorous analytical models to analyze the splitting effect from the aspect of phase matching, and from the aspect of mode coupling using a coupled mode model. In this model, we discover that the splitting effect is caused by the coupling of the Fabry–Perot fundamental mode with the resonant mode of an artificial acoustic ‘atom’. We then extract the coupling strength and analyze the impact of structural parameters on it. In addition, we demonstrate Rabi oscillation in the time domain. Such quantum phenomena in the classical regime may have potential applications in the design of novel ultrasonic devices.

  17. Immediate Loaded Implants in Split-Crest Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Bruschi, Giovanni B; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Capparé, Paolo; Gherlone, Enrico F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess survival rate of immediate loading implants placed after split-crest technique. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in the study. They underwent placement of 93 dental implants in edentulous region after split-crest ridge expansion procedure. Implants followed an immediate loading procedure. Crestal bone levels were measured at baseline, at temporary prosthesis placement, at 1 year, and at 2 years from implant placement. For dental implants, a survival rate of 98.92% was reported at 2-year follow-up, with a mean value bone loss of -1.02 ± 0.48. This study assessed immediate loading implant placement after split-crest procedure at 2-year follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2016-12-07

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  19. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Ken; Shindo, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible

  20. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2016-10-12

    Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.