WorldWideScience

Sample records for sagebrush artemisia tridentata

  1. Mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp vaseyana) seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa L. Landeen

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is the most widespread and common shrub in the sagebrush biome of western North America. Of the three most common subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), mountain big sagebrush (ssp. vaseyana; MBS) is the most resilient to disturbance, but still requires favorable climactic conditions and a viable post-...

  2. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities: Ecology, importance and restoration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy L. Shaw

    2000-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is the most common and widespread sagebrush species in the Intermountain region. Climatic patterns, elevation gradients, soil characteristics and fire are among the factors regulating the distribution of its three major subspecies. Each of these subspecies is considered a topographic climax dominant....

  3. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  4. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  5. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) in a shifting climate context: Assessment of seedling responses to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha A. Brabec

    2014-01-01

    The loss of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) throughout the Great Basin Desert has motivated efforts to restore it because of fire and other disturbance effects on sagebrush-dependent wildlife and ecosystem function. Initial establishment is the first challenge to restoration, and appropriateness of seeds, climate, and weather variability are factors that may...

  6. Reproductive Ecology of Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia Tridentata SSP. Wyomingensis) : Effects of Herbivory and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Richard T.

    1990-01-01

    Herbivory and plant competition affect sexual reproduction of plants in various ways. Exclusion of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and cattle, removal of plant competition (both inter- and intraspecific), and all combinations of the above treatments were used to examine the individual and combined affects on Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) reproduction. Reproduction of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis was divided into hierarchical levels of the number of: ...

  7. Seed production estimation for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa L. Landeen; Loreen Allphin; Stanley G. Kitchen; Steven L. Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Seed production is an essential component of postdisturbance recovery for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp vaseyana [Rydb] Beetle; MBS). We tested a method for rapid estimation of MBS seed production using measurements of inflorescence morphology. We measured total stem length, stem length from first branchlet to stem tip, stem diameter, fresh...

  8. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabin Bajgain; Bryce A. Richardson; Jared C. Price; Richard C. Cronn; Joshua A. Udall

    2011-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big...

  9. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  10. Seasonal soil CO2 flux under big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Amacher; Cheryl L. Mackowiak

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration is a major contributor to atmospheric CO2, but accurate landscape-scale estimates of soil CO2 flux for many ecosystems including shrublands have yet to be established. We began a project to measure, with high spatial and temporal resolution, soil CO2 flux in a stand (11 x 25 m area) of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at the Logan, Utah,...

  11. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronn Richard C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecological adaptation in this species. Here, we report on the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers in subspecies of big sagebrush. Results cDNA of A. tridentata sspp. tridentata and vaseyana were normalized and sequenced using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Assembly of the reads resulted in 20,357 contig consensus sequences in ssp. tridentata and 20,250 contigs in ssp. vaseyana. A BLASTx search against the non-redundant (NR protein database using 29,541 consensus sequences obtained from a combined assembly resulted in 21,436 sequences with significant blast alignments (≤ 1e-15. A total of 20,952 SNPs and 119 polymorphic SSRs were detected between the two subspecies. SNPs were validated through various methods including sequence capture. Validation of SNPs in different individuals uncovered a high level of nucleotide variation in EST sequences. EST sequences of a third, tetraploid subspecies (ssp. wyomingensis obtained by Illumina sequencing were mapped to the consensus sequences of the combined 454 EST assembly. Approximately one-third of the SNPs between sspp. tridentata and vaseyana identified in the combined assembly were also polymorphic within the two geographically distant ssp. wyomingensis samples. Conclusion We have produced a large EST dataset for Artemisia tridentata, which contains a large sample of the big sagebrush

  12. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecological adaptation in this species. Here, we report on the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in subspecies of big sagebrush. Results cDNA of A. tridentata sspp. tridentata and vaseyana were normalized and sequenced using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Assembly of the reads resulted in 20,357 contig consensus sequences in ssp. tridentata and 20,250 contigs in ssp. vaseyana. A BLASTx search against the non-redundant (NR) protein database using 29,541 consensus sequences obtained from a combined assembly resulted in 21,436 sequences with significant blast alignments (≤ 1e-15). A total of 20,952 SNPs and 119 polymorphic SSRs were detected between the two subspecies. SNPs were validated through various methods including sequence capture. Validation of SNPs in different individuals uncovered a high level of nucleotide variation in EST sequences. EST sequences of a third, tetraploid subspecies (ssp. wyomingensis) obtained by Illumina sequencing were mapped to the consensus sequences of the combined 454 EST assembly. Approximately one-third of the SNPs between sspp. tridentata and vaseyana identified in the combined assembly were also polymorphic within the two geographically distant ssp. wyomingensis samples. Conclusion We have produced a large EST dataset for Artemisia tridentata, which contains a large sample of the big sagebrush leaf transcriptome. SNP

  13. NARROW HYBRID ZONE BETWEEN TWO SUBSPECIES OF BIG SAGEBRUSH (ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA: ASTERACEAE). IV. RECIPROCAL TRANSPLANT EXPERIMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; McArthur, E Durant; Sanderson, Stewart C; Graham, John H; Freeman, D Carl

    1997-02-01

    Does endogenous or exogenous selection stabilize the big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) hybrid zone? After two years of study, our reciprocal transplant experiments showed significant genotype by environment interactions for a number of fitness components, including germination, growth, and reproduction. Hybrids were the most fit within the hybrid garden. In the parental gardens, the native parental taxon was more fit than either the alien parental or hybrids. These results are consistent with the bounded hybrid superiority model, which assumes exogenous selection, but are clearly at odds with the dynamic equilibrium model, which assumes endogenous selection and universal hybrid unfitness. © 1997 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Modeling regeneration responses of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to abiotic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), which are the most widespread ecosystems in semiarid western North America, have been affected by land use practices and invasive species. Loss of big sagebrush and the decline of associated species, such as greater sage-grouse, are a concern to land managers and conservationists. However, big sagebrush regeneration remains difficult to achieve by restoration and reclamation efforts and there is no regeneration simulation model available. We present here the first process-based, daily time-step, simulation model to predict yearly big sagebrush regeneration including relevant germination and seedling responses to abiotic factors. We estimated values, uncertainty, and importance of 27 model parameters using a total of 1435 site-years of observation. Our model explained 74% of variability of number of years with successful regeneration at 46 sites. It also achieved 60% overall accuracy predicting yearly regeneration success/failure. Our results identify specific future research needed to improve our understanding of big sagebrush regeneration, including data at the subspecies level and improved parameter estimates for start of seed dispersal, modified wet thermal-time model of germination, and soil water potential influences. We found that relationships between big sagebrush regeneration and climate conditions were site specific, varying across the distribution of big sagebrush. This indicates that statistical models based on climate are unsuitable for understanding range-wide regeneration patterns or for assessing the potential consequences of changing climate on sagebrush regeneration and underscores the value of this process-based model. We used our model to predict potential regeneration across the range of sagebrush ecosystems in the western United States, which confirmed that seedling survival is a limiting factor, whereas germination is not. Our results also suggested that modeled

  15. Artemisia L.: sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    Sagebrush - Artemisia L. - species are probably the most common shrubs in western North America. Big sagebrush alone occupies an estimated 60 million ha as a landscape dominant or codominant in the semiarid interior, and related species of the subgenus Tridentatae are estimated to occupy an additional 50 million ha (Beetle 1960; McArthur and Stevens in press)....

  16. Climate drives adaptive genetic responses associated with survival in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Lindsay; Richardson, Bryce A.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation for survival in Artemisia tridentata(big sagebrush). Artemisia tridentata is a widespread and foundational shrub species in western North America. This species has become extremely fragmented, to the detriment of dependent wildlife, and efforts to restore it are now a land management priority. Common-garden experiments were established at three sites with seedlings from 55 source-populations. Populations included each of the three predominant subspecies, and cytotype variations. Survival was monitored for 5 years to assess differences in survival between gardens and populations. We found evidence of adaptive genetic variation for survival. Survival within gardens differed by source-population and a substantial proportion of this variation was explained by seed climate of origin. Plants from areas with the coldest winters had the highest levels of survival, while populations from warmer and drier sites had the lowest levels of survival. Survival was lowest, 36%, in the garden that was prone to the lowest minimum temperatures. These results suggest the importance of climatic driven genetic differences and their effect on survival. Understanding how genetic variation is arrayed across the landscape, and its association with climate can greatly enhance the success of restoration and conservation.

  17. Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; McIlroy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe of North America is considered highly imperilled, in part owing to increased fire frequency. Sagebrush ecosystems support numerous species, and it is important to understand those factors that affect rates of post-fire sagebrush recovery. We explored recovery of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp.wyomingensis) and basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) communities following fire in the northern Columbia Basin (Washington, USA). We sampled plots across 16 fires that burned in big sagebrush communities from 5 to 28 years ago, and also sampled nearby unburned locations. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that density of large–mature big sagebrush plants and percentage cover of big sagebrush were higher with time since fire and in plots with more precipitation during the winter immediately following fire, but were lower when precipitation the next winter was higher than average, especially on soils with higher available water supply, and with greater post-fire mortality of mature big sagebrush plants. Bunchgrass cover 5 to 28 years after fire was predicted to be lower with higher cover of both shrubs and non-native herbaceous species, and only slightly higher with time. Post-fire recovery of big sagebrush in the northern Columbia Basin is a slow process that may require several decades on average, but faster recovery rates may occur under specific site and climate conditions.

  18. Consequences of pre-inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizae on root colonization and survival of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) seedlings after transplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Eugene Davidson

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a common practice aimed at improving seedling establishment. The success of this practice largely depends on the ability of the inoculum to multiply and colonize the growing root system after transplanting. These events were investigated in Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush...

  19. Challenges of establishing big sgebrush (Artemisia tridentata) in rangeland restoration: effects of herbicide, mowing, whole-community seeding, and sagebrush seed sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Martha M.; Germino, Matthew J.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Pilliod, David S.; McIlroy, Susan K.; Arkle, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) on sites disturbed by fire has motivated restoration seeding and planting efforts. However, the resulting sagebrush establishment is often lower than desired, especially in dry areas. Sagebrush establishment may be increased by addressing factors such as seed source and condition or management of the plant community. We assessed initial establishment of seeded sagebrush and four populations of small outplants (from different geographies, climates, and cytotypes) and small sagebrush outplants in an early seral community where mowing, herbicide, and seeding of other native plants had been experimentally applied. No emergence of seeded sagebrush was detected. Mowing the site before planting seedlings led to greater initial survival probabilities for sagebrush outplants, except where seeding also occurred, and these effects were related to corresponding changes in bare soil exposure. Initial survival probabilities were > 30% greater for the local population of big sagebrush relative to populations imported to the site from typical seed transfer distances of ~320–800 km. Overcoming the high first-year mortality of outplanted or seeded sagebrush is one of the most challenging aspects of postfire restoration and rehabilitation, and further evaluation of the impacts of herb treatments and sagebrush seed sources across different site types and years is needed.

  20. Deep sequencing of amplicons reveals widespread intraspecific hybridization and multiple origins of polyploidy in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Justin T. Page; Prabin Bajgain; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joshua A. Udall

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Hybridization has played an important role in the evolution and ecological adaptation of diploid and polyploid plants. Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) tetraploids are extremely widespread and of great ecological importance. These tetraploids are often taxonomically identified as A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis or as autotetraploids of diploid...

  1. Biomass Experiment for Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis), Spring 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The semi-arid sagebrush steppe ecosystem is one of the largest biomes in North America. The steppe provides critical habitat and forage for wildlife and is...

  2. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  3. Spectrophotometry of Artemisia tridentata to quantitatively determine subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Alicia A. Boyd; Tanner Tobiasson; Matthew J. Germino

    2018-01-01

    Ecological restoration is predicated on our abilities to discern plant taxa. Taxonomic identification is a first step in ensuring that plants are appropriately adapted to the site. An example of the need to identify taxonomic differences comes from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). This species is composed of three predominant subspecies occupying distinct...

  4. Studies of a new hybrid taxon in the Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather D. Garrison; Leila M. Shultz; E. Durant McArthur

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Artemisia tridentata complex (ASTERACEAE: Anthemideae: Artemisia subgen. Tridentatae) have adapted to changing environmental conditions through geographic migration, introgression, and hybridization. These processes have resulted in morphologic and genetic variation. A presumed hybrid ("Bonneville" big sagebrush) of the complex occurs in the...

  5. Flowering branches cause injuries to second-year main stems of Artemisia tridentata nutt. subspecies tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance S. Evans; Angela Citta; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Eccentricity of stems of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. (big sagebrush) has been reported previously. Analysis of samples observed over 2 years documented that each stem terminal produces about 8-10 branches each year, and during second-year growth, 3-8 of these develop into short, flowering, determinate branches. Each flowering branch produces hundreds of seeds and then...

  6. Abiotic and biotic influences on Bromus tectoreum invasion and Artemisia tridentata recovery after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea Condon; Peter J. Weisberg; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Native sagebrush ecosystems in the Great Basin (western USA) are often invaded following fire by exotic Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), a highly flammable annual grass. Once B. tectorum is established, higher fire frequencies can lead to local extirpation of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush) and have cascading effects on sagebrush ecosystems and...

  7. Is pile seeding Wyoming big sagebrush(Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) an effective alternative to broadcast seeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagebrush plays an important role in the ecological functions of sagebrush steppe plant communities and is a necessary component of habitat for a variety of wildlife including sage-grouse. At lower elevations, increased fire frequency associated with exotic annual grass invasion has heightened the ...

  8. Root elongation rates for Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) seedlings for Large Rootbox Experiment, Spring 2010.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The semi-arid sagebrush steppe ecosystem is one of the largest biomes in North America. The steppe provides critical habitat and forage for wildlife and is...

  9. Root elongation rates for Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) seedlings for Paired Rootbox Experiment, Spring 2010.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The semi-arid sagebrush steppe ecosystem is one of the largest biomes in North America. The steppe provides critical habitat and forage for wildlife and is...

  10. Transcriptome sequencing, characterization, and polymorphism detection in subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisa tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabin Bajgain

    2011-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the ecologically most important shrub species in western North America. The species serves as a major source of food and habitat for the nearthreatened sage grouse and various other fauna. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is considered as a serious threat...

  11. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  12. Spectrophotometry of Artemisia tridentata to quantitatively determine subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bryce; Boyd, Alicia; Tobiasson, Tanner; Germino, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Ecological restoration is predicated on our abilities to discern plant taxa. Taxonomic identification is a first step in ensuring that plants are appropriately adapted to the site. An example of the need to identify taxonomic differences comes from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). This species is composed of three predominant subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches, but overlap and hybridization are common in ecotones. Restoration of A. tridentata largely occurs using wildland collected seed, but there is uncertainty in the identification of subspecies or mix of subspecies from seed collections. Laboratory techniques that can determine subspecies composition would be desirable to ensure that subspecies match the restoration site environment. In this study, we use spectrophotometry to quantify chemical differences in the water-soluble compound, coumarin. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of A. tridentata subsp. vaseyana showed distinct differences among A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. No UV absorbance differences were detected between A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. Analyses of samples from > 600 plants growing in two common gardens showed that UV absorbance was unaffected by environment. Moreover, plant tissues (leaves and seed chaff) explained only a small amount of the variance. UV fluorescence of water-eluted plant tissue has been used for many years to indicate A.t. vaseyana; however, interpretation has been subjective. Use of spectrophotometry to acquire UV absorbance provides empirical results that can be used in seed testing laboratories using the seed chaff present with the seed to certify A. tridentata subspecies composition. On the basis of our methods, UV absorbance values 3.1 would indicate either A.t. tridentata or wyomingensis. UV absorbance values between 2.7 and 3.1 would indicate a mixture of A.t. vaseyana and the other two subspecies.

  13. Sagebrush systematics and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur

    2000-01-01

    In this paper on sagebrush systematics and distribution, it is appropriate to begin by defining a few terms. Sagebrush, under my definition, are woody North American Artemisia of the subgenus Tridentatae. Tridentatae are one of four subgenera in Artemisia. Tridentatae or true...

  14. Evolutionary and ecological implications of genome size in the North American endemic sagebrushes and allies (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Miguel A. Canela; Teresa Garnatje; E. Durant McArthur; Jaume Pellicer; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joan Valles

    2008-01-01

    The genome size of 51 populations of 20 species of the North American endemic sagebrushes (subgenus Tridentatae), related species, and some hybrid taxa were assessed by flow cytometry, and were analysed in a phylogenetic framework. Results were similar for most Tridentatae species, with the exception of three taxonomically conflictive species: Artemisia bigelovii Gray...

  15. Projections of contemporary and future climate niche for Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate subsp. wyomingensis): A guide for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon M. Still; Bryce A. Richardson

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widespread and abundant plant species in the intermountain regions of western North America. This species occupies an extremely wide ecological niche ranging from the semi-arid basins to the subalpine. Within this large niche, three widespread subspecies are recognized. Montane ecoregions are occupied by...

  16. Evaluating a seed enhancement technology (seed pillows) for sagebrush restoration efforts across a large elevation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) restoration is needed across vast areas, especially after large wildfires, to restore important ecosystem services. Sagebrush restoration success is inconsistent with a high rate of seeding failures, particularly at lower elevations. Seed enhancement tech...

  17. Protocols for sagebrush seed processing and seedling production at the Lucky Peak Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark D. Fleege

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the production protocols currently practiced at the USDA Forest Service Lucky Peak Nursery (Boise, ID) for seed processing and bareroot and container seedling production for three subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata).

  18. Effect of fungicides on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Cox; Lance H. Kosberg; Nancy L. Shaw; Stuart P. Hardegree

    2011-01-01

    Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different...

  19. Comparison of postfire seeding practices for Wyoming big sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey E. Ott; Robert D. Cox; Nancy L. Shaw

    2017-01-01

    Wildfires in the Great Basin have resulted in widespread loss of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young), an ecologically important shrub that has proven difficult to establish from seed.We sought to identify optimal seeding practices forWyoming big sagebrush in the context of postfire seeding operations involving...

  20. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  1. Wyoming big sagebrush: Efforts towards development of target plants for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayla R. Herriman

    2009-01-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis) is a dominant shrub throughout much of the interior western United States. It is a key component of sagebrush steppe ecosystems, which have been degraded due to European settlement, improper land use, and changing fire regimes resulting from the invasion of exotic...

  2. Ribosomal DNA, heterochromatin, and correlation with genome size in diploid and polyploid North American endemic sagebrushes (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Jaume Pellicer; E. Durant McArthur; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Joan Valles

    2009-01-01

    Subgenus Tridentatae (Artemisia, Asteraceae) can be considered a polyploid complex. Both polyploidy and hybridization have been documented in the Tridentatae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome banding were used to detect and analyze ribosomal DNA changes linked to polyploidization in this group by studying four diploidpolyploid species pairs. In...

  3. Big sagebrush in pinyon-juniper woodlands: Using forest inventory and analysis data as a management tool for quantifying and monitoring mule deer habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Witt; Paul L. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    We used Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IW-FIA) data to identify conditions where pinyon-juniper woodlands provide security cover, thermal cover, and suitable amounts of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.) forage to mule deer in Utah. Roughly one quarter of Utah's pinyon-juniper woodlands had a big sagebrush component in their understory....

  4. Improving sustainable seed yield in Wyoming big sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah C. Armstrong

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Great Basin Restoration Initiative, the effects of browsing, competition removal, pruning, fertilization and seed collection methods on increasing seed production in Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp wyomingensis Beetle & Young) were studied. Study sites were located in Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. A split-plot...

  5. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Charlotte C; Loik, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions. Snowfall, total precipitation, and soil moisture increased with elevation, but air temperature and soil N content did not. Plant water potential (Ψ), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum photosynthetic rate (A max), carboxylation rate (V cmax), and electron transport rate (J max) all significantly increased with elevations. Addition of water increased Ψ, g s, J max, and A max only at the lowest elevation; g s contributed about 30 % of the constraints on photosynthesis at the lowest elevation and 23 % at the other two elevations. The physiology of this foundational shrub species was quite resilient to this 1-in-1200 year drought. However, plant water potential and photosynthesis corresponded to differences in soil moisture across the gradient. Soil re-wetting in early summer increased water potential and photosynthesis at the lowest elevation. Effects on water relations and photosynthesis of this widespread, cold desert shrub species may be disproportionate at lower elevations as drought length increases in a future climate.

  6. Stress-gradient hypothesis explains susceptibility to Bromus tectorum invasion and community stability in North America's semi-arid Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Michael D.; Doescher, Paul S.; Pyke, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Questions: (1) What combinations of overlapping water and heat stress and herbivory disturbance gradients are associated with shifts in interactions between Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis (Artemisia) and herbaceous beneficiary species? (2) Do interactions between Artemisia and beneficiaries shift from competition to facilitation with increasing stress-disturbance where facilitation and competition are most frequent and strongest at the highest and lowest levels, respectively? (3) Do such relationships differ for native and non-native beneficiaries? (4) What are the implications of any observed shifts in interactions between community compositional stability in space and susceptibility to invasion?

  7. Do container volume, site preparation, and field fertilization affect restoration potential of Wyoming big sagebrush?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayla R. Herriman; Anthony S. Davis; Kent G. Apostol; Olga. A. Kildisheva; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Kas Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    Land management practices, invasive species expansion, and changes in the fire regime greatly impact the distribution of native plants in natural areas. Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), a keystone species in the Great Basin, has seen a 50% reduction in its distribution. For many dryland species, reestablishment efforts have...

  8. Native bunchgrass response to prescribed fire in ungrazed Mountain Big Sagebrush ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; J. Boone Kauffman

    2010-01-01

    Fire was historically a dominant ecological process throughout mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana [Rydb.] Beetle) ecosystems of western North America, and the native biota have developed many adaptations to persist in a regime typified by frequent fires. Following spring and fall prescribed fires...

  9. Galanthamine, an anti-cholinesterase drug, effects plant growth and development in Artemisia tridentata Nutt. via modulation of auxin and neurotransmitter signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Christina E; Axwik, Katarina E; Smith, Anderson; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K; Murch, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Galanthamine is a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor that has been well established as a drug for treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, but the role of the compound in plant metabolism is not known. The current study was designed to investigate whether galanthamine could redirect morphogenesis of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. cultures by altering concentration of endogenous neurosignaling molecules acetylcholine (Ach), auxin (IAA), melatonin (Mel), and serotonin (5HT). Exposure of axenic A. tridentata cultures to 10 µM galanthamine decreased the concentration of endogenous Ach, IAA, MEL, and AchE, and altered plant growth in a manner reminiscent of 2-4D toxicity. Galanthamine itself demonstrated IAA activity in an oat coleoptile elongation bioassay, 20 µM galanthamine showed no significant difference compared with 5 μM IAA or 5 μM 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Metabolomic analysis detected between 20,921 to 27,891 compounds in A. tridentata plantlets and showed greater commonality between control and 5 µM treatments. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis putatively identified coumarins scopoletin/isoscopoletin, and scopolin in A. tridentata leaf extracts and these metabolites linearly increased in response to galanthamine treatments. Overall, these data indicate that galanthamine is an allelopathic phytochemical and support the hypothesis that neurologically active compounds in plants help ensure plant survival and adaptation to environmental challenges.

  10. Insights into transcriptomes of big and low sagebrush.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Huynh

    Full Text Available We report the sequencing and assembly of three transcriptomes from Big (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis and A. tridentata ssp. tridentata and Low (A. arbuscula ssp. arbuscula sagebrush. The sequence reads are available in the Sequence Read Archive of NCBI. We demonstrate the utilities of these transcriptomes for gene discovery and phylogenomic analysis. An assembly of 61,883 transcripts followed by transcript identification by the program TRAPID revealed 16 transcripts directly related to terpene synthases, proteins critical to the production of multiple secondary metabolites in sagebrush. A putative terpene synthase was identified in two of our sagebrush samples. Using paralogs with synonymous mutations we reconstructed an evolutionary time line of ancient genome duplications. By applying a constant mutation rate to the data we estimate that these three ancient duplications occurred about 18, 34 and 60 million years ago. These transcriptomes offer a foundation for future studies of sagebrush, including inferences in chemical defense and the identification of species and subspecies of sagebrush for restoration and preservation of the threatened sage-grouse.

  11. Historical fire regimes, reconstructed from land-survey data, led to complexity and fluctuation in sagebrush landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Beth E; Baker, William L

    2013-04-01

    Sagebrush landscapes provide habitat for Sage-Grouse and other sagebrush obligates, yet historical fire regimes and the structure of historical sagebrush landscapes are poorly known, hampering ecological restoration and management. To remedy this, General Land Office Survey (GLO) survey notes were used to reconstruct over two million hectares of historical vegetation for four sagebrush-dominated (Artemisia spp.) study areas in the western United States. Reconstructed vegetation was analyzed for fire indicators used to identify historical fires and reconstruct historical fire regimes. Historical fire-size distributions were inverse-J shaped, and one fire > 100 000 ha was identified. Historical fire rotations were estimated at 171-342 years for Wyoming big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) and 137-217 years for mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana). Historical fire and patch sizes were significantly larger in Wyoming big sagebrush than mountain big sagebrush, and historical fire rotations were significantly longer in Wyoming big sagebrush than mountain big sagebrush. Historical fire rotations in Wyoming were longer than those in other study areas. Fine-scale mosaics of burned and unburned area and larger unburned inclusions within fire perimeters were less common than in modern fires. Historical sagebrush landscapes were dominated by large, contiguous areas of sagebrush, though large grass-dominated areas and finer-scale mosaics of grass and sagebrush were also present in smaller amounts. Variation in sagebrush density was a common source of patchiness, and areas classified as "dense" made up 24.5% of total sagebrush area, compared to 16.3% for "scattered" sagebrush. Results suggest significant differences in historical and modern fire regimes. Modern fire rotations in Wyoming big sagebrush are shorter than historical fire rotations. Results also suggest that historical sagebrush landscapes would have fluctuated, because of infrequent

  12. Airborne signals of communication in sagebrush: a pharmacological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Ozawa, Rika; Karban, Richard

    2015-01-01

    When plants receive volatiles from a damaged plant, the receivers become more resistant to herbivory. This phenomenon has been reported in many plant species and called plant-plant communication. Lab experiments have suggested that several compounds may be functioning as airborne signals. The objective of this study is to identify potential airborne signals used in communication between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) individuals in the field. We collected volatiles of one branch from each of 99 sagebrush individual plants. Eighteen different volatiles were detected by GC-MS analysis. Among these, 4 compounds; 1.8-cineol, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene and borneol, were investigated as signals of communication under natural conditions. The branches which received either 1,8-cineol or β-caryophyllene tended to get less damage than controls. These results suggested that 1,8-cineol and β-caryophyllene should be considered further as possible candidates for generalized airborne signals in sagebrush.

  13. Deciphering the language of plant communication: volatile chemotypes of sagebrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, Richard; Wetzel, William C; Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Ramirez, Santiago R; Blande, James D

    2014-10-01

    Volatile communication between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) individuals has been found previously to reduce herbivory and to be more effective between individuals that are genetically identical or related relative to between strangers. The chemical nature of the cues involved in volatile communication remains unknown for this and other systems. We collected headspace volatiles from sagebrush plants in the field and analyzed these using GC-MS. Volatile profiles were highly variable among individuals, but most individuals could be characterized as belonging to one of two chemotypes, dominated by either thujone or camphor. Analyses of parents and offspring revealed that chemotypes were highly heritable. The ecological significance of chemotypes and the genetic mechanisms that control them remain poorly understood. However, we found that individuals of the same chemotype communicated more effectively and experienced less herbivory than individuals of differing chemotypes. Plants may use chemotypes to distinguish relatives from strangers. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Seed bank and big sagebrush plant community composition in a range margin for big sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Trace E.; Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Burke, Ingrid C.; Laurenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    The potential influence of seed bank composition on range shifts of species due to climate change is unclear. Seed banks can provide a means of both species persistence in an area and local range expansion in the case of increasing habitat suitability, as may occur under future climate change. However, a mismatch between the seed bank and the established plant community may represent an obstacle to persistence and expansion. In big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plant communities in Montana, USA, we compared the seed bank to the established plant community. There was less than a 20% similarity in the relative abundance of species between the established plant community and the seed bank. This difference was primarily driven by an overrepresentation of native annual forbs and an underrepresentation of big sagebrush in the seed bank compared to the established plant community. Even though we expect an increase in habitat suitability for big sagebrush under future climate conditions at our sites, the current mismatch between the plant community and the seed bank could impede big sagebrush range expansion into increasingly suitable habitat in the future.

  15. Nitrogen limitation, 15N tracer retention, and growth response in intact and Bromus tectorum-invaded Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwicki, Dana L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Pyke, David A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Annual grass invasion into shrub-dominated ecosystems is associated with changes in nutrient cycling that may alter nitrogen (N) limitation and retention. Carbon (C) applications that reduce plant-available N have been suggested to give native perennial vegetation a competitive advantage over exotic annual grasses, but plant community and N retention responses to C addition remain poorly understood in these ecosystems. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the degree of N limitation of plant biomass in intact versus B. tectorum-invaded sagebrush communities, (2) determine if plant N limitation patterns are reflected in the strength of tracer 15N retention over two growing seasons, and (3) assess if the strength of plant N limitation predicts the efficacy of carbon additions intended to reduce soil N availability and plant growth. Labile C additions reduced biomass of exotic annual species; however, growth of native A. tridentata shrubs also declined. Exotic annual and native perennial plant communities had divergent responses to added N, with B. tectorum displaying greater ability to use added N to rapidly increase aboveground biomass, and native perennials increasing their tissue N concentration but showing little growth response. Few differences in N pools between the annual and native communities were detected. In contrast to expectations, however, more 15N was retained over two growing seasons in the invaded annual grass than in the native shrub community. Our data suggest that N cycling in converted exotic annual grasslands of the northern Intermountain West, USA, may retain N more strongly than previously thought.

  16. A spatial model to prioritize sagebrush landscapes in the intermountain west (U.S.A.) for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, C.W.; Knick, S.T.; Pyke, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The ecological integrity of Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems in the Intermountain West (U.S.A.) has been diminished by synergistic relationships among human activities, spread of invasive plants, and altered disturbance regimes. An aggressive effort to restore Sagebrush habitats is necessary if we are to stabilize or improve current habitat trajectories and reverse declining population trends of dependent wildlife. Existing economic resources, technical impediments, and logistic difficulties limit our efforts to a fraction of the extensive area undergoing fragmentation, degradation, and loss. We prioritized landscapes for restoring Sagebrush habitats within the intermountain western region of the United States using geographic information system (GIS) modeling techniques to identify areas meeting a set of conditions based on (1) optimum abiotic and biotic conditions favorable for revegetation of Sagebrush; (2) potential to increase connectivity of Sagebrush habitats in the landscape to benefit wildlife; (3) location of population strongholds for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, a species of conservation concern); and (4) potential impediments to successful restoration created by Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum, an invasive exotic annual grass). Approximately 5.8 million ha in southwestern Idaho, northern Nevada, and eastern Oregon met our criteria for restoring Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) and 5.1 million ha had high priority for restoring Mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana). Our results represent an integral component in a hierarchical framework after which site-specific locations for treatments can be focused within high-priority areas. Using this approach, long-term restoration strategies can be implemented that combine local-scale treatments and objectives with large-scale ecological processes and priorities. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  17. Sagebrush Biomass Estimation Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsoy, P.; Glenn, N. F.; Clark, P. E.; Spaete, L.; Mitchell, J.; Shrestha, R.

    2012-12-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a proven tool for inventory of many vegetation types. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been demonstrated for estimation of biomass of trees, but the relatively low number of laser points (1-10 m-2) typical of ALS datasets makes estimating biomass of shrubs and small stature vegetation challenging. This study uses terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to estimate sagebrush biomass (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) by relating destructively sampled estimates to TLS-derived volumetric estimates. At close range, TLS can commonly provide in excess of 100,000 3-D points for a single sagebrush of approximately 1 m3 in volume. In this study, thirty sagebrush were scanned and destructively sampled at 6 sites within Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho, USA. The 3-D point cloud data are converted into 1-cm voxels to give quantitative estimates of shrub volume. The accuracy of the TLS-based metrics for estimating biomass are then compared to several traditional plot sampling methods including point-intercept and simple crown dimension measurements. The findings of this study are expected to provide guidance on methods for data collection and analysis such that biomass can be accurately estimated across plot-scales (e.g., 100 m x 100 m).

  18. Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

  19. Big sagebrush seed bank densities following wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to many wildlife species including sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush is killed by wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived and do not s...

  20. Fungal and bacterial contributions to nitrogen cycling in cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded native sagebrush soils of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth J.; Giguere, Andrew T; Pyke, David A.; Bottomley, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    AimThere is interest in determining how cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) modifies N cycling in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) soils of the western USA.MethodsTo gain insight into the roles of fungi and bacteria in N cycling of cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded sagebrush soils, the fungal protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), and the bacteriocidal compound, bronopol (BRO) were combined with a 15NH4+ isotope pool dilution approach.ResultsCHX reduced gross N mineralization to the same rate in both sagebrush and cheatgrass soils indicating a role for fungi in N mineralization in both soil types. In cheatgrass soils BRO completely inhibited gross N mineralization, whereas, in sagebrush soils a BRO-resistant gross N mineralization rate was detected that was slower than CHX sensitive gross N mineralization, suggesting that the microbial drivers of gross N mineralization were different in sagebrush and cheatgrass soils. Net N mineralization was stimulated to a higher rate in sagebrush than in cheatgrass soils by CHX, implying that a CHX inhibited N sink was larger in the former than the latter soils. Initial gross NH4+ consumption rates were reduced significantly by both CHX and BRO in both soil types, yet, consumption rates recovered significantly between 24 and 48 h in CHX-treated sagebrush soils. The recovery of NH4+ consumption in sagebrush soils corresponded with an increase in the rate of net nitrification.ConclusionsThese results suggest that cheatgrass invasion of sagebrush soils of the northern Great Basin reduces the capacity of the fungal N consumption sink, enhances the capacity of a CHX resistant N sink and alters the contributions of bacteria and fungi to gross N mineralization.

  1. Land use and habitat conditions across the southwestern Wyoming sagebrush steppe: development impacts, management effectiveness and the distribution of invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick; Chong, Geneva; Homer, Collin G.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Schell, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    For the past several years, USGS has taken a multi-faceted approach to investigating the condition and trends in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This recent effort builds upon decades of work in semi-arid ecosystems providing a specific, applied focus on the cumulative impacts of expanding human activities across these landscapes. Here, we discuss several on-going projects contributing to these efforts: (1) mapping and monitoring the distribution and condition of shrub steppe communities with local detail at a regional scale, (2) assessing the relationships between specific, land-use features (for example, roads, transmission lines, industrial pads) and invasive plants, including their potential (environmentally defined) distribution across the region, and (3) monitoring the effects of habitat treatments on the ecosystem, including wildlife use and invasive plant abundance. This research is focused on the northern sagebrush steppe, primarily in Wyoming, but also extending into Montana, Colorado, Utah and Idaho. The study area includes a range of sagebrush types (including, Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata, Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia nova) and other semi-arid shrubland types (for example, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex gardneri), impacted by extensive interface between steppe ecosystems and industrial energy activities resulting in a revealing multiple-variable analysis. We use a combination of remote sensing (AWiFS (1 Any reference to platforms, data sources, equipment, software, patented or trade-marked methods is for information purposes only. It does not represent endorsement of the U.S.D.I., U.S.G.S. or the authors), Landsat and Quickbird platforms), Geographic Information System (GIS) design and data management, and field-based, replicated sampling to generate multiple scales of data representing the distribution of shrub communities for the habitat inventory. Invasive plant

  2. Contrasting effects of different mammalian herbivores on sagebrush plant communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari E Veblen

    Full Text Available Herbivory by both grazing and browsing ungulates shapes the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and both types of herbivory have been implicated in major ecosystem state changes. Despite the ecological consequences of differences in diets and feeding habits among herbivores, studies that experimentally distinguish effects of grazing from spatially co-occurring, but temporally segregated browsing are extremely rare. Here we use a set of long-term exclosures in northern Utah, USA, to determine how domestic grazers vs. wild ungulate herbivores (including browsers and mixed feeders affect sagebrush-dominated plant communities that historically covered ~62 million ha in North America. We sampled plant community properties and found that after 22 years grazing and browsing elicited perceptible changes in overall plant community composition and distinct responses by individual plant species. In the woody layer of the plant community, release from winter and spring wild ungulate herbivory increased densities of larger Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, ssp. wyomingensis at the expense of small sagebrush, while disturbance associated with either cattle or wild ungulate activity alone was sufficient to increase bare ground and reduce cover of biological soil crusts. The perennial bunchgrass, bottlebrush squirretail (Elymus elymoides, responded positively to release from summer cattle grazing, and in turn appeared to competitively suppress another more grazing tolerant perennial grass, Sandberg's blue grass (Poa secunda. Grazing by domestic cattle also was associated with increased non-native species biomass. Together, these results illustrate that ungulate herbivory has not caused sagebrush plant communities to undergo dramatic state shifts; however clear, herbivore-driven shifts are evident. In a dry, perennial-dominated system where plant community changes can occur very slowly, our results provide insights into

  3. Selecting sagebrush seed sources for restoration in a variable climate: ecophysiological variation among genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities dominate a large fraction of the United States and provide critical habitat for a number of wildlife species of concern. Loss of big sagebrush due to fire followed by poor restoration success continues to reduce ecological potential of this ecosystem type, particularly in the Great Basin. Choice of appropriate seed sources for restoration efforts is currently unguided due to knowledge gaps on genetic variation and local adaptation as they relate to a changing landscape. We are assessing ecophysiological responses of big sagebrush to climate variation, comparing plants that germinated from ~20 geographically distinct populations of each of the three subspecies of big sagebrush. Seedlings were previously planted into common gardens by US Forest Service collaborators Drs. B. Richardson and N. Shaw, (USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Provo, Utah and Boise, Idaho) as part of the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project. Seed sources spanned all states in the conterminous Western United States. Germination, establishment, growth and ecophysiological responses are being linked to genomics and foliar palatability. New information is being produced to aid choice of appropriate seed sources by Bureau of Land Management and USFS field offices when they are planning seed acquisitions for emergency post-fire rehabilitation projects while considering climate variability and wildlife needs.

  4. The Yellowstone sage belts 1958 to 2008: 50 years of change in the big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities of Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela G. Sikkink

    2011-01-01

    In 1958, 13 belt transects were established within the ungulate winter range in the northern portion of Yellowstone National Park to study how shrub communities were affected by grazing from ungulate populations. Between 1958 and 2008, the belts have been measured and photographed by different researchers at least once per decade, which has resulted in a comprehensive...

  5. Outplanting Wyoming big sagebrush following wldfire: stock performance and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler-Robinson, Eva; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Evans, James R.; Newsome, Heidi; Davies, G. Matt; Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.; Easterly, Richard T.; Salstrom, Debra; Dunwiddle, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Finding ecologically and economically effective ways to establish matrix species is often critical for restoration success. Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) historically dominated large areas of western North America, but has been extirpated from many areas by large wildfires; its re-establishment in these areas often requires active management. We evaluated the performance (survival, health) and economic costs of container and bare-root stock based on operational plantings of more than 1.5 million seedlings across 2 200 ha, and compared our plantings with 30 other plantings in which sagebrush survival was tracked for up to 5 yr. Plantings occurred between 2001 and 2007, and included 12 combinations of stock type, planting amendment, and planting year.We monitored 10 500 plants for up to 8 yr after planting. Survival to Year 3 averaged 21% and was higher for container stock (30%) than bare-root stock (17%). Survival did not differ among container stock plantings, whereas survival of bare-root stock was sometimes enhanced by a hydrogel dip before planting, but not by

  6. Sagebrush Ecosystems Under Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Janelle L.

    2014-12-30

    Since settlement of the western United States began, sagebrush (Artemisia L. spp.) ecosystems have decreased both in quantity and quality. Originally encompassing up to 150 million acres in the West, the “interminable fields” of sage described by early explorers (Fremont 1845) have been degraded and often eliminated by conversion to agriculture, urbanization, livestock grazing, invasion by alien plants, and alteration of wildfire cycles (Hann et al. 1997; West 1999). More than half of the original sagebrush steppe ecosystems in Washington have been converted to agriculture and many of the remaining stands of sagebrush are degraded by invasion of exotic annuals such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). Today, sagebrush ecosystems are considered to be one of the most imperiled in the United States (Noss, LeRoe and Scott 1995), and more than 350 sagebrush-associated plants and animals have been identified as species of conservation concern (Suring et al. 2005; Wisdom et al. 2005). The increasing frequency of wildfire in sagebrush-dominated landscapes is one of the greatest threats to these habitats and also presents one of the most difficult to control.

  7. Sagebrush, greater sage-grouse, and the occurrence and importance of forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Victoria E.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystems provide habitat for sagebrush-obligate wildlife species such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The understory of big sagebrush plant communities is composed of grasses and forbs that are important sources of cover and food for wildlife. The grass component is well described in the literature, but the composition, abundance, and habitat role of forbs in these communities is largely unknown. Our objective was to synthesize information about forbs and their importance to Greater Sage-Grouse diets and habitats, how rangeland management practices affect forbs, and how forbs respond to changes in temperature and precipitation. We also sought to identify research gaps and needs concerning forbs in big sagebrush plant communities. We searched for relevant literature including journal articles and state and federal agency reports. Our results indicated that in the spring and summer, Greater Sage-Grouse diets consist of forbs (particularly species in the Asteraceae family), arthropods, and lesser amounts of sagebrush. The diets transition to sagebrush in fall and winter. Forbs provide cover for Greater Sage-Grouse individuals at their lekking, nesting, and brood-rearing sites, and the species has a positive relationship with arthropod presence. The effect of grazing on native forbs may be compounded by invasion of nonnative species and differs depending on grazing intensity. The effect of fire on forbs varies greatly and may depend on time elapsed since burning. In addition, chemical and mechanical treatments affect annual and perennial forbs differently. Temperature and precipitation influence forb phenology, biomass, and abundance differently among species. Our review identified several uncertainties and research needs about forbs in big sagebrush ecosystems. First, in many cases the literature about forbs is reported only at the genus or functional type level. Second, information about forb

  8. Establishing native grasses in a big sagebrush-dominated site: an intermediate restoration step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Pyke, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Many semiarid rangelands in the Great Basin, U.S.A., are shifting dominance to woody species as a consequence of land degradation including intense livestock grazing and fire suppression. Whereas past rehabilitation efforts in Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) steppes removed the shrub and added introduced forage grasses to successfully shift communities from shrublands to grasslands, current consensus is that native species should be included in restoration projects and that retention of some woody plants is desirable. We examined the potential for interseeding grasses into dense shrub communities as a precursor to thinning shrubs and releasing grasses from shrub interference. We compared seedling establishment of the native grass, Bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), with that of the Eurasia grass, Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum), in dense Ar. tridentata stands. Shrubs may play an important role as nurse plants for seedling establishment (reduced solar radiation, 'island of fertility' effect) but result in highly contrasting light environments and root interference for seedlings. In experimental plots, we examined effects of Ar. tridentata shade levels (0, 40, 70, and 90% reduction of solar radiation) and initial root exclusion (present/absent) on the establishment and growth of P. spicata and Ag. desertorum seedlings. With this design we evaluated the interference effects of Ar. tridentata on the two grasses and identified the most beneficial microsites for grass restoration in Ar. tridentataa??dominated communities. We predicted seedling survival and growth to be greater under moderate shade (40% reduction) and limited root competition than under no or strong shade conditions (0 and 90%) and unrestricted root interactions. Fifty to 85% of the P. spicata and Ag. desertorum seedlings survived the dry summer months of 1995 and 1996 and the intervening winter. Neither shading nor root exclusion from Ar. tridentata affected final seedling

  9. Spatial and temporal dynamics of Aroga moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) populations and damage to sagebrush in shrub steppe across varying elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakova, Virginia L J; Evans, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the density of the Aroga moth, Aroga websteri Clarke (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and in its damage to its host plant, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nuttall), were examined at 38 sites across a shrub steppe landscape in mountain foothills of northern Utah. Sites were sampled from 2008 to 2012 during and after an outbreak of the moth, to assess whether and how local variation in moth abundance, survivorship, and damage to the host plant was accounted for by sagebrush cover, elevation, slope, aspect, or incident solar radiation. As moth numbers declined from a peak in 2009, individual sites had a consistent tendency in subsequent years to support more or fewer defoliator larvae. Local moth abundance was not correlated with sagebrush cover, which declined with elevation, and moth survivorship was highest at intermediate elevations (1,800-2,000 m). North-facing stands of sagebrush, characterized by lower values of incident solar radiation, were found to be especially suitable local habitats for the Aroga moth, as reflected in measures of both abundance and feeding damage. This high habitat suitability may result from favorable microclimate, both in its direct effects on the Aroga moth and in indirect effects through associated vegetative responses. North-facing sites also supported taller and more voluminous sagebrush plants in comparison to south-facing sites. Thus, the moth is reasonably predictable in the sites at which it is likely to occur in greatest numbers, and such sites may be those that in fact have most potential to recover from feeding damage.

  10. Selection of high producing shrubs of the Western United States for energy biomass. Final report, April 1, 1978-October 31, 1981. [Saltbush, sagebrush, rabbitbrush, and greasewood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKell, C.M.; Van Epps, G.A.; Barker, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    This project investigated the selection and preliminary study of the most productive native shrubs that are commonly found growing on millions of acres of arid and semiarid lands of the Western United States for their potential use as energy fuel from biomass. Many uncertainties exist in producing biomass for energy fuels. However, arid land shrub biomass production offers several advantages that may be more favorable than other biomass types. Shrubs could utilize available marginal croplands and rangelands; there would be little or no competition for scarce water resources, and within the wide diversity of native shrubs, a number of species have a potential for relatively large biomass production. Species chosen for study were fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), big saltbush (A. lentiformis), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), spreading rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus linifolis), rubber rabbitbrush (C. nauseosus), and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus). The study was divided into three phases. Phase one dealt with the selection, measurement, and burning quality of large growing shrubs in native populations. The main objective of phase two was to measure the biomass production of the selected large growing shrubs at a dryland field research station for three years. In addition the influence of planting space was ascertained. In phase three the genetic differences of large and small sagebrush (A. tridentata) were evaluated. 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Selection of anthropogenic features and vegetation characteristics by nesting Common Ravens in the sagebrush ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Common Raven (Corvus corax) numbers and distribution are increasing throughout the sagebrush steppe, influencing avian communities in complex ways. Anthropogenic structures are thought to increase raven populations by providing food and nesting subsidies, which is cause for concern because ravens are important nest predators of sensitive species, including Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). During 2007–2009, we located raven nests in southeastern Idaho and conducted a resource selection analysis. We measured variables at multiple spatial scales for 72 unique nest locations, including landscape-level vegetation characteristics and anthropogenic structures. Using generalized linear mixed models and an information-theoretic approach, we found a 31% decrease in the odds of nesting by ravens for every 1 km increase in distance away from a transmission line. Furthermore, a 100-m increase in distance away from the edge of two different land cover types decreased the odds of nesting by 20%, and an increase in the amount of edge by 1 km within an area of 102.1 ha centered on the nest increased the odds of nesting by 49%. A post hoc analysis revealed that ravens were most likely to nest near edges of adjoining big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and land cover types that were associated with direct human disturbance or fire. These findings contribute to our understanding of raven expansion into rural environments and could be used to make better-informed conservation decisions, especially in the face of increasing renewable energy development.

  12. Impact of sagebrush nutrients and monoterpenes on greater sage-grouse vital rates

    OpenAIRE

    Wing, Brian R.; Messmer, Terry A.

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) depend on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) to complete its annual life cycle. The winter diet for sage-grouse consists almost entirely of sagebrush leaves, and individual birds may gain weight while foraging on sagebrush. Previous studies have reported higher crude protein and lower monoterpene concentrations in the sagebrush species selected as winter forage by sagegrouse. However, no studies have attempted to link female sage-grouse vit...

  13. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: Final Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, Robin E.; Becker, James M.

    2013-09-26

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor), now Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades (2007). Three plantings have been installed on a 4.5-hectare mitigation area to date. This review provides a description and chronology of events, monitoring results, and mitigative actions through fiscal year (FY) 2012. Also provided is a review of the monitoring methods, transect layout, and FY 2012 monitoring activities and results for all planting years. Planting densities and performance criteria stipulated in the MAP were aimed at a desired future condition (DFC) of 10 percent mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis) cover. Current recommendations for yielding this DFC are based upon a conceptual model planting of 1000 plants/ha (400/ac) exhibiting a 60-percent survival rate after 5 monitoring years (DOE 2003). Accordingly, a DFC after 5 monitoring years would not be less than 600 plants/ha (240/ac). To date, about 8700 sagebrush plants have been grown and transplanted onto the mitigation site. Harsh site conditions and low seedling survival have resulted in an estimated 489 transplants/ha on the mitigation site, which is 111 plants/ha short of the target DFC. Despite this apparent shortcoming, 71, 91, and 24 percent of the surviving seedlings planted in FY 2007 and FY 2008 and FY 2010, respectively, showed signs of blooming in FY 2012. Blooming status may be a positive indication of future sagebrush recruitment, and is therefore a potential source for reaching the target DFC of 600 plants/ha on this mitigation site over time. Because of the difficulty establishing small transplants on this site, we propose that no additional plantings be considered for this mitigation area and to rely upon the potential recruitment by established seedlings to achieve the mitigation commitment set forth in the MAP of 600 plants/ha.

  14. Conserving and restoring habitat for Greater Sage-Grouse and other sagebrush-obligate wildlife: The crucial link of forbs and sagebrush diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Tara Luna; Bryce A. Richardson; Francis F. Kilkenny; Justin B. Runyon

    2015-01-01

    In the western US, Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus Bonaparte [Phasianidae]) have become an indicator species of the overall health of the sagebrush (Artemisia L. [Asteraceae]) dominated communities that support a rich diversity of flora and fauna. This species has an integral association with sagebrush, its understory forbs and grasses, and the...

  15. Climate and soil texture influence patterns of forb species richness and composition in big sagebrush plant communities across their spatial extent in the western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Victoria E.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2017-01-01

    Article for outlet: Plant Ecology. Abstract: Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) plant communities are widespread non-forested drylands in western North American and similar to all shrub steppe ecosystems world-wide are composed of a shrub overstory layer and a forb and graminoid understory layer. Forbs account for the majority of plant species diversity in big sagebrush plant communities and are important for ecosystem function. Few studies have explored the geographic patterns of forb species richness and composition and their relationships with environmental variables in these communities. Our objectives were to examine the small and large-scale spatial patterns in forb species richness and composition and the influence of environmental variables. We sampled forb species richness and composition along transects at 15 field sites in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming, built species-area relationships to quantify differences in forb species richness at sites, and used Principal Components Analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling to identify relationships among environmental variables and forb species richness and composition. We found that species richness was most strongly correlated with soil texture, while species composition was most related to climate. The combination of climate and soil texture influences water availability, with important consequences for forb species richness and composition, which suggests climate-change induced modification of soil water availability may have important implications for plant species diversity in the future. Our paper is the first to our knowledge to examine forb biodiversity patterns in big sagebrush ecosystems in relation to environmental factors across the big sagebrush region.

  16. What makes Great Basin sagebrush ecosystems invasible by Bromus tectorum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Bruce A. Roundy; Robert R. Blank; Susan E. Meyer; A. Whittaker

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem susceptibility to invasion by nonnative species is poorly understood, but evidence is increasing that spatial and temporal variability in resources has large-scale effects. We conducted a study in Artemisia tridentata ecosystems at two Great Basin locations examining differences in resource availability and invasibility of Bromus...

  17. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  18. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP): a test of state-and-transition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Mark Brunson; Steve C. Bunting; Jeanne Chambers; Nora Devoe; Paul Doescher; James Grace; Dale Johnson; Steve Knick; Richard Miller; Mike Pellant; Fred Pierson; David Pyke; Kim Rollins; Bruce Roundy; Eugene Schupp; Robin Tausch; David Turner

    2010-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is a comprehensive, integrated, long-term study that evaluates the ecological effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments designed to reduce fuel and to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities of the Great Basin and surrounding areas. SageSTEP has several features that make it ideal for testing...

  19. MX Siting Investigation. DTN/OBTS Field Surveys. Volume III. Biological Resources Nevada and Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    Grossen- heider (1976) and Hall (1946). For each animal trapped, the trap number, species, sex, and reproductive condition were recorded. Animals were... Artemisia tridentata - Chrysothamnus sp.) association. Vegetative data obtained is given by site in Appendix C. Table 4-4 contrasts the associa- tions...Areisia nova Black sagebrush S BS Artemisia . spinescens Spiny sagebrush S JS,WM,BM,BS Artemisia tridentata Big sagebrush S JS,BS Bleya multiradiata

  20. Gall-Insect Community on Big Sagebrush Varies With Plant Size but not Plant Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spawton, Kayla A; Wetzel, William C

    2015-08-01

    There is astounding variation in the abundance and diversity of insect herbivores among plant individuals within plant species in natural systems. One of the most well studied hypotheses for this pattern, the plant architecture hypothesis, suggests that insect community patterns vary with plant structural complexity and plant traits associated with structure. An important limitation to our understanding of the plant architecture hypothesis has been that most studies on the topic confound plant size and plant age. This occurs because, for most plant species, larger individuals are older individuals. This is a limitation because it prevents us from knowing whether insect community patterns are more dependent on traits associated with plant size, like resource quantity or plant apparency, or traits associated with plant age, like ontogenetic changes in phytochemistry. To separate these effects, we characterized galling insect communities on sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)-a shrub in which age and size are not tightly correlated. We identified gall insects and recorded morphological measurements from 60 plants that varied separately in size and age. We found that plant size explained significantly more variation in insect gall abundance and species richness than did plant age. These results suggest that processes supporting the plant architecture hypothesis in this system are driven primarily by plant size and not plant age per se. Resource qualities associated with host-plant ontogeny may be less important than resource quantity in the assembly of herbivorous insect communities. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Ecological influence and pathways of land use in sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Miller, Richard F.; Pyke, David A.; Wisdom, Michael J.; Finn, Sean P.; Rinkes, E. Thomas; Henny, Charles J.; Knick, Steven T.; Connelly, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Land use in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes influences all sage-grouse (Centrocer-cus spp.) populations in western North America. Croplands and the network of irrigation canals cover 230,000 km2 and indirectly influence up to 77% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 73% of sagebrush land cover by subsidizing synanthropic predators on sage-grouse. Urbanization and the demands of human population growth have created an extensive network of con-necting infrastructure that is expanding its influence on sagebrush landscapes. Over 2,500 km2 are now covered by interstate highways and paved roads; when secondary roads are included, 15% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 5% of existing sagebrush habitats are 2.5 km from roads. Density of secondary roads often exceeds 5 km/km2, resulting in widespread motorized access for recreation, creating extensive travel corridors for management actions and resource development, subsidizing predators adapted to human presence, and facilitating spread of exotic or invasive plants. Sagebrush lands also are being used for their wilderness and recreation values, including off highway vehicle use. Approximately 12,000,000 animal use months (AUM amount of forage to support one livestock unit per month) are permitted for grazing livestock on public lands in the western states. Direct effects of grazing on sage-grouse populations or sagebrush landscapes are not possible to assess from current data. However, management of lands grazed by livestock has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by vegetation treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences (2 km/km2 in some regions), roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements further modify the landscape. Oil and gas development influences 8% of the sagebrush habitats with the highest intensities occurring in the eastern range of sage-grouse; 20% of the sagebrush distribution is indirectly influenced in the Great

  2. Sagebrush wildfire effects on surface soil nutrient availability: A temporal and spatial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildfires occurring in Artemisia (sagebrush) ecosystems can temporarily increase soil nutrient availability in surface soil. Less is known, however, on how soil nutrient availability changes over time and microsite location post-wildfire. In Oct., 2013 a wildfire approximately 30 km north of Reno, N...

  3. Aeolian Nutrient Fluxes Following Wildfire in Sagebrush Steppe: Implications for Soil Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    assist in developing “islands of fertility ” (Schlesinger et al., 1996) or lead to the rapid loss of nutrients from the soil surface (Li et al., 2007... Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Rydb., absent from burned area) and an approximately even mix of bunchgrasses including bluebunch wheatgrass...through the depletion of soil fertility and subsequent decrease in crop production. More detailed studies are needed to better under- stand the feedbacks

  4. Restoring and rehabilitating sagebrush habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Knick, S.T.; Connelly, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Less than half of the original habitat of the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha-sianus) currently exists. Some has been perma-nently lost to farms and urban areas, but the remaining varies in condition from high quality to no longer adequate. Restoration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) grassland ecosystems may be pos-sible for resilient lands. However, Greater Sage-Grouse require a wide variety of habitats over large areas to complete their life cycle. Effective restoration will require a regional approach for prioritizing and identifying appropriate options across the landscape. A landscape triage method is recommended for prioritizing lands for restora-tion. Spatial models can indicate where to protect and connect intact quality habitat with other simi-lar habitat via restoration. The ecological site con-cept of land classification is recommended for characterizing potential habitat across the region along with their accompanying state and transi-tion models of plant community dynamics. These models assist in identifying if passive, manage-ment-based or active, vegetation manipulation?based restoration might accomplish the goals of improved Greater Sage-Grouse habitat. A series of guidelines help formulate questions that manag-ers might consider when developing restoration plans: (1) site prioritization through a landscape triage; (2) soil verification and the implications of soil features on plant establishment success; (3) a comparison of the existing plant community to the potential for the site using ecological site descriptions; (4) a determination of the current successional status of the site using state and transition models to aid in predicting if passive or active restoration is necessary; and (5) implemen-tation of post-treatment monitoring to evaluate restoration effectiveness and post-treatment man-agement implications to restoration success.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey sage-grouse and sagebrush ecosystem research annual report for 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.

    2017-09-08

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem extends across a large portion of the Western United States, and the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is one of the iconic species of this ecosystem. Greater sage-grouse populations occur in 11 States and are dependent on relatively large expanses of sagebrush-dominated habitat. Sage-grouse populations have been experiencing long-term declines owing to multiple stressors, including interactions among fire, exotic plant invasions, and human land uses, which have resulted in significant loss, fragmentation, and degradation of landscapes once dominated by sagebrush. In addition to the sage-grouse, over 350 species of plants and animals are dependent on the sagebrush ecosystem.Increasing knowledge about how these species and the sagebrush ecosystem respond to these stressors and to management actions can inform and improve strategies to maintain existing areas of intact sagebrush and restore degraded landscapes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a broad research program focused on providing the science needed to inform these strate-gies and to help land and resource managers at the Federal, State, Tribal, and local levels as they work towards sustainable sage-grouse populations and restored landscapes for the broad range of uses critical to stakeholders in the Western United States.USGS science has provided a foundation for major land and resource management decisions including those that precluded the need to list the greater sage-grouse under the Endangered Species Act. The USGS is continuing to build on that foundation to inform science-based decisions to help support local economies and the continued conservation, management, and restoration of the sagebrush ecosystem.This report contains descriptions of USGS sage-grouse and sagebrush ecosystem research projects that are ongoing or were active during 2017 and is organized into five thematic areas: Fire, Invasive Species, Restoration, Sagebrush and Sage

  6. Trajectories of change in sagebrush steppe vegetation communities in relation to multiple wildfires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, G. M.; Bakker, J. D.; Dettweiler-Robinson, E.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Hall, S. A.; Downs, Janelle L.; Evans, J.

    2012-07-01

    Repeated perturbations, both biotic and abiotic, can lead to fundamental changes in the nature of ecosystems including changes in state. Sagebrush-steppe communities provide important habitat for wildlife and grazing for livestock. Fire is an integral part of these systems, but there is concern that increased ignition frequencies and invasive species are fundamentally altering these systems. Despite these issues, the majority of studies of fire effects in Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis-dominated systems have focused on the effects of single burns. The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), in south-central Washington (U.S.A.), was one of the largest areas of continuous shrub-steppe habitat in the state until large wildfires burnt the majority of it in 2000 and 2007. We analysed data from permanent vegetation transects established in 1996 and resampled in 2002 and 2009. Our objective was to describe how the fires, and subsequent post-fire restoration efforts, affected communities successional pathways. Plant communities differed in response to repeated fire and restoration; these differences could largely be ascribed to the functional traits of the dominant species. Low elevation communities, previously dominated by obligate seeders, moved farthest from their initial composition and were dominated by weedy, early successional species in 2009. Higher elevation sites with resprouting shrubs, native bunchgrasses and few invasive species were generally more resilient to the effects of repeated disturbances. Shrub cover has been almost entirely removed from ALE, though there is evidence of recovery where communities were dominated by re-sprouters. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominance was reduced by herbicide application in areas where it was previously abundant but increased significantly in untreated areas. Several re-sprouting species, notably Phlox longifolia and Poa secunda, expanded remarkably following competitive release from shrub canopies and/or abundant

  7. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Arid West Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    dominated by grasses and shrubs (e.g., sagebrush ( Artemisia ), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus), bitterbrush (Purshia), and creosote bush (Larrea...mainly of uplifted and highly eroded sedi- mentary rocks. Sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata) and rabbit brush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) dominate much...may be due to variations in salinity or other soil conditions, uneven application of fertilizers or herbicides, or other factors not related to

  8. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Arid West Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Quercus, Platanus). Landscape mostly dominated by grasses and shrubs (e.g., sagebrush ( Artemisia ), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus), bitterbrush...whereas the Colorado Plateau consists mainly of uplifted and highly eroded sedi- mentary rocks. Sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata) and rabbit brush... fertilizers or herbicides, or other factors not related to wetness. (1) Compare and describe in field notes the size, vigor, or other stress

  9. Mechanical Mastication of Utah Juniper Encroaching Sagebrush Steppe Increases Inorganic Soil N

    OpenAIRE

    Kert R. Young; Bruce A. Roundy; Dennis L. Eggett

    2014-01-01

    Juniper (Juniperus spp.) has encroached on millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe. Juniper mechanical mastication increases cover of understory species but could increase resource availability and subsequently invasive plant species. We quantified the effects of juniper mastication on soil resource availability by comparing total C, total N, C : N ratio, Olsen extractable P, sulfate S, and pH using soil samples and inorganic N (NO3-+NH4+) using ion exchange membranes. We co...

  10. Distribution, Characteristics, and Biotic Availability of Fallout, Operation Plumbbob

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-10-01

    20 Days ................................ 133 6. 8 Persistence of Fallout Debris on Great Basin fit’. Sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata) from Selected...11 Areas in the Priscilla Fallout Pattern .......... ............. 136 6.9 Persistence of Fallout Debris on Great Basin Sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata...Unclassified. 5. Hayden, P. and H. French: Private Communication, 1961. 6. N. R. French, Ray McBride, and Jack Detmer; " Fertility and Population Density of

  11. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  12. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix E. Environment and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    are mixed with basalt cap rock which frequently has only a thin overlayer of soil, poor in fertility and moisture. The valley of the Spokane River...Covered Scablands 87 3-tip Sagebrush-Idaho Fescue ( Artemisia tripartita-Festuca idahoensis) Meadow-Steppe Community 105 Idaho Fescue - Common Snowberry...dogwood Cornus stolonifera Rocky Mountain maple Acer glabnum Douglasii Sagebrush Artemisia tridentata Sagebrush buttercup Ranunculus glaberrimus

  13. Proposed Infantry Division Force (9th) Conversion; Maneuver Damage, Erosion and Natural Resources Assessment Yakima Firing Center, Washington. Volume 1. Main Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    process: deflation-abrasion, transport, and deposition. Deflation causes loss of soil fertility , exposure of plant roots, removal of seeds, and scouring...quality of soil. In general, this cover type is big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata) with predomina- understory vegetation of bluebunch wheatgrass...use the map in Plate 60. 122. Sandberg bluegrass/stiff sagebrush. Bluegrass and stiff sagebrush ( Artemisia rigida) generally occur together on the high

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae, including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unwin Matthew M

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema, and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters.

  15. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Climate adaption and post-fire restoration of a foundational perennial in cold desert: Insights from intraspecific variation in response to weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha M. Brabec; Matthew J. Germino; Bryce A. Richardson

    2017-01-01

    The loss of foundational but fire-intolerant perennials such as sagebrush due to increases in fire size and frequency in semi-arid regions has motivated efforts to restore them, often with mixed or even no success. Seeds of sagebrush Artemisia tridentata and related species must be moved considerable distances from seed source to planting sites, but such transfers have...

  17. Eudesmanolides from Artemisia santonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriçli, A H; Jakupovic, J; Bohlmann, F; Damadyan, B; Ozhatay, N; Cubukçu, B

    1988-10-01

    The reinvestigation of the aerial parts of ARTEMISIA SANTONICUM afforded, in addition to three known eudesmanolides, six new ones, all closely related to taurin. The structures were elucidated by high-field NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Temporal origins and diversification of Artemisia and allies (Anthemideae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilatersana, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal origins and diversification of Artemisia and allies (Anthemideae, Asteraceae.- To assess temporal origins and diversification of lineages within subtribe Artemisiinae and Artemisia group a penalized likelihood analysis was applied on nrDNA ITS and ETS of 63 representatives. The tree was calibrated at the stem node of the Kaschgaria/ Artemisia lineage with the most reliable early Artemisia fossil pollen record from Late Oligocene (23 Ma. The results from this study suggest that the origin of the subtribe goes back to the Late Oligocene (24.6 ± 2.6 Ma whilst the onset of differentiation of the genus Artemisia and most closely related genera is dated to the Early Miocene (19.8 ± 2.3 Ma. Divergence ages for lineages within the Artemisia group are often between the Early and Middle Miocene, whereas their radiations mostly occurred in the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The temporal context was also used to examine biogeographic and morphological (capitula and pollen type evolution. Within the Artemisia group all lineages except the North American endemic have colonized the Mediterranean Basin at different epochs from Asian ancestors. Our analyses suggest the divergence of the North American endemic group from Asian ancestors (10.8 ± 1.5 Ma in the Late Miocene Homogamous-discoid capitula, characteristic of subgenera Seriphidium and Tridentatae, evolved not only in different geographic regions, but also at different times (2.0 ± 0.8 Ma and 7.9 ± 0.9 Ma respectively within the Artemisia group. The loss of fertility of central flowers of disciform capitula should be considered as an ancient event in the genus since subgenus Dracunculus is one of the first groups that diverged (17.6 ± 2.1 Ma.Evolución temporal y diversificación en Artemisia y géneros relacionados (Anthemideae, Asteraceae.- Con el objetivo de estimar el tiempo de diversificación de los linajes de la subtribu Artemisiinae y el grupo Artemisia se aplicó un análisis de

  19. Root Zone Microbial Communities and Restoration of Plant Communities in Owens Valley, California - Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    community is composed of Ambrosia dumosa (burrobush), Artemisia spinescens (bud sage), Atriplex con- fertifolia (schadscale), Atriplex polycarpa...pauciflora (desert milkaster). • The dryland nonalkaline scrub community is composed of Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush), Chrysothamnus teretifolius...locations all show significantly heavier ratios, probably indicating ordinary fertilizer with heavier nitrogen via the Haber process. Autotrophs

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for Construction and Operation of the Edgemeade Readiness Center and Tactical Unmanned Aerial System Storage and Maintenance Facility Idaho Army National Guard Elmore County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Artemisia spp.), cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and other weeds. The Danskin Mountains, 8 miles northeast of the project site, dominate the view to the...perfoliatum), cheatgrass, crested wheatgrass, Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), basin big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata), and rabbitbrush...summer and following winter flower and fruit along with the annual cohort of the following year. Biennials may have a much larger reproductive output

  1. An exotic grass disrupts mycorrhizal fungi which increases the mortality of Artemisia tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species are capable of changing the community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Changes to AMF communities may contribute to the net negative impact of invasives on resident plants. Here we compared the AMF communities of the invasive grass Agropyron cristatum acros...

  2. Implementation and Commercialization of New Plant Germplasms for Use on Military Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Buckley) Pilg. Native (western U.S.) Bering hairgrass (HG) Deschampsia beringénsis Native (northeastern and western U.S.) Big sagebrush Artemisia ...reseed, fertilize , or mow Evaluations over 2 to 3 years after planting Experience during demonstrations Plants required no maintenance after...montmorillonitic, mesic Xeric Camborthids) on a 0–3% slope, and dominated by big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata) (Daubenmire, 1970; Jones and Bagley, 1997

  3. Environmental Assessment for Routine and Recurring Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Operations at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    above. 3 • Genetic Diversity. Loss of genotypes, a reduction in generic variation, and genetically based 4 deformities and reproduction dysfunction...sage (Grayia spinosa), and bud sage ( Artemisia spinescens). AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER 95TH AIR BASE WING Page C-2 Supplemental Natural Resources...spp.); and sage-grass (also known as sagebrush grassland) dominated by Great Basin sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata), blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima

  4. Galanthamine, an anticholinesterase drug, effects plant growth and development in Artemisia tridentate Nutt. via modulation of auxin and neutrotransmitter signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Christina E; Axwik, Katarina E; Smith, Anderson; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K; Murch, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Galanthamine is a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor that has been well established as a drug for treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, but the role of the compound in plant metabolism is not known. The current study was designed to investigate whether galanthamine could redirect morphogenesis of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. cultures by altering concentration of endogenous neurosignaling molecules acetylcholine (Ach), auxin (IAA), melatonin (Mel), and serotonin (5HT). Exposure of axenic A. tridentata cultures to 10 µM galanthamine decreased the concentration of endogenous Ach, IAA, MEL, and AchE, and altered plant growth in a manner reminiscent of 2-4D toxicity. Galanthamine itself demonstrated IAA activity in an oat coleotile elongation bioassay, 20 µM galanthamine showed no significant difference compared with 5 μM IAA or 5 μM 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Metabolomic analysis detected between 20,921 to 27,891 compounds in A. tridentata plantlets and showed greater commonality between control and 5 µM treatments. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis putatively identified coumarins scopoletin/isoscopoletin, and scopolin in A. tridentata leaf extracts and these metabolites linearly increased in response to galanthamine treatments. Overall, these data indicate that galanthamine is an allelopathic phytochemical and support the hypothesis that neurologically active compounds in plants help ensure plant survival and adaptation to environmental challenges.

  5. seasonal variation in uterotonic activity of rhoicissus tridentata extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Rhoicissus tridentata lignotubers are widely used in southern African traditional pregnancy-related remedies. Objectives. To determine the seasonal variation in contractile activity of extracts from different parts of the plant. Methods. Isolated rat uterus tissue was used to compare the contractile activity of crude ...

  6. Forecasting sagebrush ecosystem components and greater sage-grouse habitat for 2050: learning from past climate patterns and Landsat imagery to predict the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Xian, George Z.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Meyer, Debra K.; Loveland, Thomas R.; O'Donnell, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems constitute the largest single North American shrub ecosystem and provide vital ecological, hydrological, biological, agricultural, and recreational ecosystem services. Disturbances have altered and reduced this ecosystem historically, but climate change may ultimately represent the greatest future risk. Improved ways to quantify, monitor, and predict climate-driven gradual change in this ecosystem is vital to its future management. We examined the annual change of Daymet precipitation (daily gridded climate data) and five remote sensing ecosystem sagebrush vegetation and soil components (bare ground, herbaceous, litter, sagebrush, and shrub) from 1984 to 2011 in southwestern Wyoming. Bare ground displayed an increasing trend in abundance over time, and herbaceous, litter, shrub, and sagebrush showed a decreasing trend. Total precipitation amounts show a downward trend during the same period. We established statistically significant correlations between each sagebrush component and historical precipitation records using a simple least squares linear regression. Using the historical relationship between sagebrush component abundance and precipitation in a linear model, we forecasted the abundance of the sagebrush components in 2050 using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) precipitation scenarios A1B and A2. Bare ground was the only component that increased under both future scenarios, with a net increase of 48.98 km2 (1.1%) across the study area under the A1B scenario and 41.15 km2 (0.9%) under the A2 scenario. The remaining components decreased under both future scenarios: litter had the highest net reductions with 49.82 km2 (4.1%) under A1B and 50.8 km2 (4.2%) under A2, and herbaceous had the smallest net reductions with 39.95 km2 (3.8%) under A1B and 40.59 km2 (3.3%) under A2. We applied the 2050 forecast sagebrush component values to contemporary (circa 2006) greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus

  7. Percent Area of Sagebrush Habitat Within an 50-km Radius

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map was developed to examine multi-scale spatial relationships between percentage of sagebrush and other response variables of interest. A map of sagebrush in...

  8. Percent Area of Sagebrush Habitat Within an 18-km Radius

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map was developed to examine multi-scale spatial relationships between percentage of sagebrush and other response variables of interest. A map of sagebrush in...

  9. Percent Area of Sagebrush Habitat Within an 5-km Radius

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map was developed to examine multi-scale spatial relationships between percentage of sagebrush and other response variables of interest. A map of sagebrush in...

  10. Percent Area of Sagebrush Habitat Within an 100-km Radius

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map was developed to examine multi-scale spatial relationships between percentage of sagebrush and other response variables of interest. A map of sagebrush in...

  11. Science framework for conservation and restoration of the sagebrush biome: Linking the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy to long-term strategic conservation actions, Part 1. Science basis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Bybee, Jared; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J; Clause, Karen J.; Collins, Gail; Crist, Michele R.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E; Edwards, Fred; Espinosa, Shawn; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Griffin, Paul; Haas, Jessica R.; Hanser, Steve; Havlina, Douglas W.; Henke, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Joyce, Linda A; Kilkenny, Francis F.; Kulpa, Sarah M; Kurth, Laurie L; Maestas, Jeremy D; Manning, Mary; Mayer, Kenneth E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Pellant, Mike; Perea, Marco A.; Prentice, Karen L.; Pyke, David A.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2017-01-01

    The Science Framework is intended to link the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy with long-term strategic conservation actions in the sagebrush biome. The Science Framework provides a multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies within the sagebrush biome. The emphasis is on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems and Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The approach provided in the Science Framework links sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative, invasive plant species to species habitat information based on the distribution and abundance of focal species. A geospatial process is presented that overlays information on ecosystem resilience and resistance, species habitats, and predominant threats and that can be used at the mid-scale to prioritize areas for management. A resilience and resistance habitat matrix is provided that can help decisionmakers evaluate risks and determine appropriate management strategies. Prioritized areas and management strategies can be refined by managers and stakeholders at the local scale based on higher resolution data and local knowledge. Decision tools are discussed for determining appropriate management actions for areas that are prioritized for management. Geospatial data, maps, and models are provided through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ScienceBase and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Landscape Approach Data Portal. The Science Framework is intended to be adaptive and will be updated as additional data become available on other values and species at risk. It is anticipated that the Science Framework will be widely used to: (1) inform emerging strategies to conserve sagebrush ecosystems, sagebrush dependent species, and human uses of the sagebrush system, and (2) assist managers in prioritizing and planning on-the-ground restoration and mitigation actions across the sagebrush biome.

  12. Landscape alterations influence differential habitat use of nesting buteos and ravens within sagebrush ecosystem: implications for transmission line development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    A goal in avian ecology is to understand factors that influence differences in nesting habitat and distribution among species, especially within changing landscapes. Over the past 2 decades, humans have altered sagebrush ecosystems as a result of expansion in energy production and transmission. Our primary study objective was to identify differences in the use of landscape characteristics and natural and anthropogenic features by nesting Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and 3 species of buteo (Swainson's Hawk [Buteo swainsoni], Red-tailed Hawk [B. jamaicensis], and Ferruginous Hawk [B. regalis]) within a sagebrush ecosystem in southeastern Idaho. During 2007–2009, we measured multiple environmental factors associated with 212 nest sites using data collected remotely and in the field. We then developed multinomial models to predict nesting probabilities by each species and predictive response curves based on model-averaged estimates. We found differences among species related to nesting substrate (natural vs. anthropogenic), agriculture, native grassland, and edge (interface of 2 cover types). Most important, ravens had a higher probability of nesting on anthropogenic features (0.80) than the other 3 species (Artemisia spp.), favoring increased numbers of nesting ravens and fewer nesting Ferruginous Hawks. Our results indicate that habitat alterations, fragmentation, and forthcoming disturbances anticipated with continued energy development in sagebrush steppe ecosystems can lead to predictable changes in raptor and raven communities.

  13. Mechanical Mastication of Utah Juniper Encroaching Sagebrush Steppe Increases Inorganic Soil N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kert R. Young

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juniper (Juniperus spp. has encroached on millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia spp. steppe. Juniper mechanical mastication increases cover of understory species but could increase resource availability and subsequently invasive plant species. We quantified the effects of juniper mastication on soil resource availability by comparing total C, total N, C : N ratio, Olsen extractable P, sulfate S, and pH using soil samples and inorganic N (NO3-+NH4+ using ion exchange membranes. We compared resource availability in paired masticated and untreated areas in three juniper-dominated sagebrush and bunchgrass ecosystems in the Utah portion of the Great Basin. Inorganic N was 4.7 times higher in masticated than in untreated areas across seasons (P<0.001. Within masticated areas, tree mounds of juniper leaf scales and twigs served as resource islands with 1.9 times higher inorganic N and total C, and 2.8 times higher total N than bare interspaces across seasons (P<0.01. Bare interspaces had 3.0–3.4 times higher inorganic N than interspaces covered with masticated trees during late-summer through winter (P<0.01. Soil fertility changes associated with mastication were not considered sufficient to favor establishment of annual over perennial grasses, and we expect both to increase in cover following juniper mastication.

  14. Pinyon and juniper encroachment into sagebrush ecosystems impacts distribution and survival of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Prochazka, Brian; Ricca, Mark; Gustafson, K. Ben; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    In sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems, encroachment of pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.; hereafter, “pinyon-juniper”) trees has increased dramatically since European settlement. Understanding the impacts of this encroachment on behavioral decisions, distributions, and population dynamics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and other sagebrush obligate species could help benefit sagebrush ecosystem management actions. We employed a novel two-stage Bayesian model that linked avoidance across different levels of pinyon-juniper cover to sage-grouse survival. Our analysis relied on extensive telemetry data collected across 6 yr and seven subpopulations within the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS), on the border of Nevada and California. The first model stage indicated avoidance behavior for all canopy cover classes on average, but individual grouse exhibited a high degree of heterogeneity in avoidance behavior of the lowest cover class (e.g., scattered isolated trees). The second stage modeled survival as a function of estimated avoidance parameters and indicated increased survival rates for individuals that exhibited avoidance of the lowest cover class. A post hoc frailty analysis revealed the greatest increase in hazard (i.e., mortality risk) occurred in areas with scattered isolated trees consisting of relatively high primary plant productivity. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that local sage-grouse distributions and demographic rates are influenced by pinyon-juniper, especially in habitats with higher primary productivity but relatively low and seemingly benign tree cover. Such areas may function as ecological traps that convey attractive resources but adversely affect population vital rates. To increase sage-grouse survival, our model predictions support reducing actual pinyon-juniper cover as low as 1.5%, which is lower than the published target of 4.0%. These results may represent effects of pinyon

  15. Artemisia allergy research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China.

  16. Climate influences the demography of three dominant sagebrush steppe plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Harmony J; Koons, David N; Hooten, Mevin B; Moffet, Corey A; Adler, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Climate change could alter the population growth of dominant species, leading to profound effects on community structure and ecosystem dynamics. Understanding the links between historical variation in climate and population vital rates (survival, growth, recruitment) is one way to predict the impact of future climate change. Using a unique, long-term data set from eastern Idaho, USA, we parameterized integral projection models (IPMs) for Pseudoroegneria spicata, Hesperostipa comata, and Artemisia tripartita to identify the demographic rates and climate variables most important for population growth. We described survival, growth, and recruitment as a function of genet size using mixed-effect regression models that incorporated climate variables. Elasticites for the survival + growth portion of the kernel were larger than the recruitment portion for all three species, with survival + growth accounting for 87-95% of the total elasticity. The genet sizes with the highest elasticity values in each species were very close to the genet size threshold where survival approached 100%. We found strong effects of climate on the population growth rate of two of our three species. In H. comata, a 1% decrease in previous year's precipitation would lead to a 0.6% decrease in population growth. In A. tripartita, a 1% increase in summer temperature would result in a 1.3% increase in population growth. In both H. comata and A. tripartita, climate influenced population growth by affecting genet growth more than survival or recruitment. Late-winter snow was the most important climate variable for P. spicata, but its effect on population growth was smaller than the climate effects we found in H. comata or A. tripartita. For all three species, demographic responses lagged climate by at least one year. Our analysis indicates that understanding climate effects on genet growth may be crucial for anticipating future changes in the structure and function of sagebrush steppe vegetation.

  17. Historical cover trends in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem from 1985 to 2013: Links with climate, disturbance, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hua; Rigge, Matthew B.; Homer, Collin; Xian, George Z.; Meyer, Debbie; Bunde, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of component change in sagebrush steppe is crucial for evaluating ecosystem sustainability. The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe ecosystem of the northwest USA has been impacted by the invasion of exotic grasses, increasing fire return intervals, changing land management practices, and fragmentation, often lowering the overall resilience to change. We utilized contemporary and historical Landsat imagery, field data, and regression tree models to produce fractional cover maps of rangeland components (shrub, sagebrush, herbaceous, bare ground, and litter) through the last 30 years. Our main goals were to (1) investigate rangeland component trends over 30 years, (2) evaluate the magnitude and direction of trends in components and climate drivers and their relationship, and (3) assess component trends influenced by climate. Results indicated that over the study period, shrub, sage, herbaceous, and litter cover decreased, while bare ground cover increased. Measured rates of change ranged from − 0.14% decade−1 for shrub cover to 0.05% decade−1 for bare ground, whereas herbaceous and litter cover trends were negligible. Net landscape cover changes were consistent with expectations of climate change and disturbance producing a loss of biotic cover, and converting a portion of shrub and sagebrush to herbaceous cover. Overall, fire and related successional recovery was the greatest change agent for all components in terms of area and cover change, while increasing minimum temperature, at a rate of 0.66°C decade−1, was found to be the most significant climate driver.

  18. Grass seedling demography and sagebrush steppe restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. J. James; M. J. Rinella; T. Svejcar

    2012-01-01

    Seeding is a key management tool for arid rangeland. In these systems, however, seeded species often fail to establish. A recent study inWyoming big sagebrush steppe suggested that over 90% of seeded native grass individuals die before seedlings emerged. This current study examines the timing and rate of seed germination, seedling emergence, and seedling death related...

  19. Seeding big sagebrush successfully on Intermountain rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Thomas W. Warren

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush can be seeded successfully on climatically suitable sites in the Great Basin using the proper seeding guidelines. These guidelines include using sufficient quantities of high-quality seed of the correct subspecies and ecotype, seeding in late fall to mid-winter, making sure that the seed is not planted too deeply, and seeding into an environment...

  20. Reseeding big sagebrush: Techniques and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Ann M. DeBolt; Roger Rosentreter

    2005-01-01

    Reestablishing big sagebrush on rangelands now dominated by native perennial grasses, introduced perennial grasses, or exotic annual grasses, particularly cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), serves to stabilize soil, improve moisture availability and nutrient recyling, increase biological diversity, and foster community stability and resiliency. A first...

  1. Understory cover responses to pinon-juniper treatments across tree dominance gradients in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Roundy; Richard F. Miller; Robin J. Tausch; Kert Young; April Hulet; Ben Rau; Brad Jessop; Jeanne C. Chambers; Dennis Eggett

    2014-01-01

    Pinon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees are reduced to restore native vegetation and avoid severe fires where they have expanded into sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) communities. However, what phase of tree infilling should treatments target to retain desirable understory cover and avoid weed dominance? Prescribed fire and tree felling were applied...

  2. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Alternative Potential Operating Base Locations, Beryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-22

    Atriplex canescens) and James’ galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii) occur around the town of Yale and northeast of Modena, respectively. There is a rather...Mixtures of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), galleta grass, winterfat and the little rabbitbrush species typify this subtype. Great Basin

  3. Low ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential and diversity from soils in and near ancient forests of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidartondo, M.I.; Baar, J.; Bruns, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    Intersite variation in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) inoculum potential in soils from 16 sites located in arid subalpine areas of the White Mountains of California was quantified. The study sites included valleys dominated by big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) and mountainsides dominated by ancient

  4. Wildfire case study: Butte City Fire, southeastern Idaho, July 1, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret W. Butler; Timothy D. Reynolds

    1997-01-01

    The Butte City Fire occurred on July 1, 1994, west of Idaho Falls, ID. Ignited from a burning flat tire, the blaze was driven by high winds that caused it to cover over 20,500 acres in just over 6.5 hours. Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) is the principal shrub species of this high desert rangeland...

  5. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    comprised of native sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata) habitat primarily consisting of Hill AFB HL4-70 Initial F-35A Operational Basing EIS Final...1981) and Ellis et al. (1991) found that responses to frequent jet overflights were often minimal and did not result in reproductive failure

  6. A strategy for maximizing native plant material diversity for ecological restoration, germplasm conservation and genecology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta Youtie; Nancy Shaw; Matt Fisk; Scott Jensen

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important steps in planning a restoration project is careful selection of ecologically adapted native plant material. As species-specific seed zone maps are not available for most species in the Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) ecoregion in the Great Basin, USA, we are employing a provisional seed zone map based on annual...

  7. Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Ivănescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Lazăr, M I

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections.

  8. Wing Infrastructure and Development Outlook (WINDO) Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    elevation is approximately 7,550 feet. The dominant flora of the valley bottoms on the TTR include shadscale, budsage ( Artemisia spinescens), winterfat...horsebrush (Tetradymia spinosa) and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus). Big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata) occurs in wash bottoms near the playa lakes...spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish. C. Soiled – hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other body

  9. The Use of California Sagebrush (Artemisia californica Liniment to Control Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adams

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of arthritis is increasing every year, as does the need for pain medication. The current work reviews an American Indian liniment that is traditionally used for pain therapy. The chemistry, therapeutic use and safety of the liniment are reviewed. The liniment contains monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids and other compounds.

  10. Artemisia sieversiana Willd.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    В настоящей работе исследованы содержание и состав биологически активных веществ вегетативной части Artemisia sieversiana Willd, произрастающей в Сибири, с целью ее использования в качестве пищевой растительной добавки. Полученные экспериментальные данные свидетельствуют о высоком содержании эфирного масла (0,65 % ), витамина С (25,31 % ), белка (1,75 % ), пектиновых веществ (3,42 % ), что обусловливает ценность данного растения для пищевых целей....

  11. Influences of the human footprint on sagebrush landscape patterns: Implications for sage-grouse conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Matthias; Hanser, Steven E.; Knick, Steven T.; Connelly, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterns influence the processes that maintain Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes on which they depend. We used connectivity analyses to: (1) delineate the dominant pattern of sagebrush landscapes; (2) identify regions of the current range-wide distribution of Greater Sage-Grouse important for conservation; (3) estimate distance thresholds that potentially isolate populations; and (4) understand how landscape pattern, environmental disturbance, or location within the spatial network influenced lek persistence during a population decline. Long-term viability of sagebrush, assessed from its dominance in relatively unfragmented landscapes, likely is greatest in south-central Oregon and northwest Nevada; the Owyhee region of southeast Oregon, southwest Idaho, and northern Nevada; southwest Wyoming; and south-central Wyoming. The most important leks (breeding locations) for maintaining connectivity, characterized by higher counts of sage-grouse and connections with other leks, were within the core regions of the sage-grouse range. Sage-grouse populations presently have the highest levels of connectivity in the Wyoming Basin and lowest in the Columbia Basin Sage-Grouse management zones (SMZs). Leks separated by distances 1318 km could be isolated due to decreased probability of dispersals from neighboring leks. The range-wide distribution of sage-grouse was clustered into 209 separate components (units in which leks were interconnected within but not among) when dispersal was limited to distances 18 km. The most important components for maintaining connectivity were distributed across the central and eastern regions of the range-wide distribution. Connectivity among sage-grouse populations was lost during population declines from 1965 1979 to 1998 2007, most dramatically in the Columbia Basin SMZ. Leks that persisted during this period were larger in size, were more highly connected, and had lower

  12. GORSKI PELIN ( Artemisia absinthium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kolak, Ivan; Carović, Klaudija; Šatović, Zlatko; Rozić, Ilija

    2004-01-01

    Gorski pelin (Artemisia absinthium L.) višegodišnja je zeljasta biljka čija su ljekovita svojstva poznavali i prije 3000 godina. Na našim prostorima raste samoniklo, a kao samonikla ili kultivirana vrsta rasprostranjen je diljem Europe, Azije i Sjeverne Amerike. U ovom radu prikazujemo raznolikost pelina te mogućnosti uzgoja ove vrste sa specifičnostima tehnološkog postupka proizvodnje.

  13. Swimming behaviour of juvenile Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

    2006-02-01

    Actively migrating juvenile Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata Richardson, 1836) were collected from hydroelectric bypass facilities in the Columbia River and transferred to the laboratory to study their diel movement patterns and swimming ability. Volitional movement of lamprey was restricted mainly to night, with 94% of all swimming activity occurring during the 12-hr dark period. Burst speed of juvenile lamprey ranged from 56 to 94 cm/s with a mean of 71 ±5 cm/s or an average speed of 5.2 body lengths (BL)/s. Sustained swim speed for 5-min test intervals ranged from 0 to 46 cm/s with a median of 23 cm/s. Critical swimming speed was 36.0±10.0 cm/s and 2.4±0.6 BL/s. There was no significant relationship between fish length and critical swimming speed. Overall swimming performance of juvenile Pacific lamprey is low compared to that of most anadromous teleosts. Their poor swimming ability provides a challenge during the freshwater migration interval to the Pacific Ocean.

  14. Phylogeny of Artemisia L.: Recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... spacer (ETS) regions of the DNA and chloroplast DNA suggested that the genus Artemisia is a .... (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (Kornkven et al., 1998; ..... The leaf structure. J. Botanize, 13(1):. 353-369. Jiang L, Lin YR (1997). Study of Comparative Morphology and Anatomy of Artemisia L., in China (III).

  15. Hairy roots induction and artemisinin analysis in Artemisia dubia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of two Artemisia species (Artemisia dubia and Artemisia indica) was carried out by using two Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and 8196 for hairy roots production. Induction of hairy roots was higher in both Artemisia species when infected with LBA9402 as compared to 8196. When biomass of ...

  16. Multiplex PCR method to discriminate Artemisia iwayomogi from other Artemisia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2012-01-01

    Some plants in the genus Artemisia have been used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Artemisia iwayomogi, commonly referred to as "Haninjin," is one of the major medicinal materials used in traditional Korean medicine. By contrast, Artemisia capillaris and both Artemisia argyi and Artemisia princeps, referred to as "Injinho" and "Aeyup," respectively, are used to treat diseases different from those for which "Haninjin" is prescribed. Therefore, the development of a reliable method to differentiate each Artemisia herb is necessary. We found that a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method can be used to efficiently discriminate a few Artemisia plants from one another. To improve the reliability of RAPD amplification, we designed primer sets based on the nucleotide sequences of RAPD products to amplify a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker of A. iwayomogi. In addition, we designed two other primer sets to amplify SCAR markers of "Aeyup" (A. argyi and A. princeps) along with "Injinho" (A. capillaris) and Artemisia japonica, which are also traded in Korean herbal markets. Using these three primer sets, we developed a multiplex PCR method concurrently not only to discriminate A. iwayomogi from other Artemisia plants, but also to identify Artemisia plants using a single PCR process.

  17. Artemisia Gentileschi and her world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohacsy, Ildiko

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with one of the most notable artists of 17th century Italy: Artemisia Gentileschi. Gentileschi holds a unique place in art history, both as a woman artist and as the first female member of the Academy of Design in Florence. Brought up to be an artist by her father--the painter Orazio Gentileschi--she was allowed to work in his studio, use models, receive instruction and collaborate with well-known artists. Artemisia Gentileschi became a follower of the school of Caravaggio--the school's only Caravaggista. She began public life in a notorious way; her father had his colleague Tassi--her painting instructor--charged with raping her. The relationship between historical and art historical events in Gentileschi's lifetime and creative processes are explored. Special attention is given to those vicissitudes of Gentileschi's personal life that may be reflected through her work. Popular psychoanalytic conceptualizations about Gentileschi are discussed, as are mythological and biblical themes in her art.

  18. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against df volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus , Artemisia abrotanum , Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris.(Research article)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obistioiu, Diana; Cristina, Romeo T; Schmerold, Ivo; Chizzola, Remigius; Stolze, Klaus; Nichita, Ileana; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    ... Candida albicans of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia dracunculus, A. abrotanum, A. absinthium and A. vulgaris (Asteraceae). The aim of the study was to identify new chemical compounds that have effect against C...

  19. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against Candida albicans of volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obistioiu, Diana; Cristina, Romeo T; Schmerold, Ivo; Chizzola, Remigius; Stolze, Klaus; Nichita, Ileana; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    ... Candida albicans of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia dracunculus, A. abrotanum, A. absinthium and A. vulgaris (Asteraceae). The aim of the study was to identify new chemical compounds that have effect against C...

  20. The economics of fuel management: Wildfire, invasive plants, and the dynamics of sagebrush rangelands in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H. Taylor; Kimberly Rollins; Mimako Kobayashi; Robin J. Tausch

    2013-01-01

    In this article we develop a simulation model to evaluate the economic efficiency of fuel treatments and apply it to two sagebrush ecosystems in the Great Basin of the western United States: the Wyoming Sagebrush Steppe and Mountain Big Sagebrush ecosystems. These ecosystems face the two most prominent concerns in sagebrush ecosystems relative to wildfire: annual grass...

  1. Dimeric guaianolides from Artemisia absinthium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turak, Ablajan; Shi, She-Po; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-09-01

    Five dimeric guaianolides, absinthins A-E, and seven known dimeric guaianolides were isolated from Artemisia absinthium. Their structures were elucidated based on 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY, and through HRESIMS data analysis. The absolute configuration of the known compound, anabsinthin, was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were tested to assess their inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 cells; absinthin C and isoanabsinthin exhibited significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values of 1.52 and 1.98μM, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dan [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-03

    The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife area was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife area staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in areas where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the

  3. Vegetation responses to sagebrush-reduction treatments measured by satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Aaron N.; Beever, Erik; Merkle, Jerod A.; Chong, Geneva W.

    2018-01-01

    Time series of vegetative indices derived from satellite imagery constitute tools to measure ecological effects of natural and management-induced disturbances to ecosystems. Over the past century, sagebrush-reduction treatments have been applied widely throughout western North America to increase herbaceous vegetation for livestock and wildlife. We used indices from satellite imagery to 1) quantify effects of prescribed-fire, herbicide, and mechanical treatments on vegetative cover, productivity, and phenology, and 2) describe how vegetation changed over time following these treatments. We hypothesized that treatments would increase herbaceous cover and accordingly shift phenologies towards those typical of grass-dominated systems. We expected prescribed burns would lead to the greatest and most-prolonged effects on vegetative cover and phenology, followed by herbicide and mechanical treatments. Treatments appeared to increase herbaceous cover and productivity, which coincided with signs of earlier senescence − signals expected of grass-dominated systems, relative to sagebrush-dominated systems. Spatial heterogeneity for most phenometrics was lower in treated areas relative to controls, which suggested treatment-induced homogenization of vegetative communities. Phenometrics that explain spring migrations of ungulates mostly were unaffected by sagebrush treatments. Fire had the strongest effect on vegetative cover, and yielded the least evidence for sagebrush recovery. Overall, treatment effects were small relative to those reported from field-based studies for reasons most likely related to sagebrush recovery, treatment specification, and untreated patches within mosaicked treatment applications. Treatment effects were also small relative to inter-annual variation in phenology and productivity that was explained by temperature, snowpack, and growing-season precipitation. Our results indicated that cumulative NDVI, late-season phenometrics, and spatial

  4. Mechanistic understanding of the effects of natural gas development on sagebrush-obligate songbird nest predation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.

    Natural gas development has rapidly increased within sagebrush ( Artemisia spp.) dominated landscapes of the Intermountain West. Prior research in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming demonstrated increased nest predation of sagebrush-obligate songbirds with higher densities of natural gas wells. To better understand the mechanisms underlying this pattern, I assessed this commonly used index of oil and gas development intensity (well density) for estimating habitat transformation and predicting nest survival for songbirds breeding in energy fields during 2008- 2009 and 2011-2012. We calculated landscape metrics (habitat loss, amount of edge, patch shape complexity, and mean patch size) to identify the aspect of landscape transformation most captured by well density. Well density was most positively associated with the amount of habitat loss within 1 square kilometer. Daily nest survival was relatively invariant with respect to well density for all three species. In contrast, nest survival rates of all three species consistently decreased with increased surrounding habitat loss due to energy development. Thus, although well density and habitat loss were strongly correlated, at times they provided contrasting estimates of nest survival probability. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that surrounding habitat loss influenced local nest predation rates via increased predator activity. During 2011- 2012, we surveyed predators and monitored songbird nests at twelve sites in western Wyoming. Nine species, representing four mammalian and three avian families, were video-recorded depredating eggs and nestlings. Approximately 75% of depredation events were caused by rodents. While chipmunk (Tamias minimus) detections were negatively associated with increased habitat loss, mice (Peromyscus maniculatus and Reithrodontomys megalotis) and ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus and Urocitellus armatus) increased with greater surrounding habitat loss. Consistent with our

  5. Phytochemical Contents of Five Artemisia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KURSAT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the fatty acid compositions, vitamin, sterol contents and flavonoid constituents of five Turkish Artemisia species (A. armeniaca, A. incana , A. tournefortiana, A. haussknechtii and A. scoparia were determined by GC and HPLC techniques. The results of the fatty acid analysis showed that Artemisia species possess high saturated fatty acid compositions. On the other hand, the studied Artemisia species were found to have low vitamin and sterol contents. Eight flavononids (catechin, naringin, rutin, myricetin, morin, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol were determined in the present study. It was found that Artemisia species contained high levels of flavonoids. Morin (45.35 ± 0.65 – 1406.79 ± 4.12 μg/g and naringenin (15.32 ± 0.46 – 191.18 ± 1.22 μg/g were identified in all five species. Naringin (268.13 ± 1.52 – 226.43 ± 1.17 μg/g and kaempferol (21.74 ± 0.65 – 262.19 ± 1.38 μg/g contents were noted in the present study. Present research showed that the studied Artemisia taxa have high saturated fatty acids and also rich flavonoid content.

  6. Melilotoside Derivatives from Artemisia splendens (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of solid-phase-extraction (SPE and reversed-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia splendens (common name: “Asia Minor Wormwood”, an endemic Iranian species, afforded Z- and E-melilotosides (1 and 2, Z- and E-4-methoxy-melilotosides (3 and 4, and a new dimer, bis-ortho-Z-melilotoside (5, named: splendenoside. Whilst the structures of these compounds (1-5 were elucidated unequivocally by spectroscopic means, the in vitro free-radical-scavenging property of 1-5 was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. This is the first report on the occurrence of any melilotoside derivatives in the genus Artemisia. Artemisia splendens, Asteraceae, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, free-radical scavenger, melilotoside, splendenoside

  7. Establishing big sagebrush and other shrubs from planting stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Anne Halford; J. Kent McAdoo

    2015-01-01

    Bareroot or container seedlings can be used to quickly re-establish big sagebrush and other native shrubs in situations where direct seeding is not feasible or unlikely to succeed. Guidelines are provided for developing a planting plan and timeline, arranging for seedling production, and installing and managing outplantings.

  8. Final Record of Decision/Remedial Action Plan, Nine Sites, Sierra Army Depot, Lassen County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    space and most of the land in this category is covered with native vegetation . A vast majority of this land is in public ownership, with some private...dominant vegetative cover in poorly drained, highly alkaline soil where the water table is near ground surface. Big sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata) and...Honey Lake Valley. The state-listed threatened bank swallow [ Riparia riparia ) is included on the list of SIAD wildlife (Colberg, 1992). Bank swallows

  9. Phenological Variations in the Surface Flavonoids of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Artemisia absinthium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolova, Milena; VELICKOVIC, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative variations in the surface flavonoids in relation to phenological development of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Artemisia absinthium L. were examined. Plant material was harvested at different phenological stages (vegetative, before budding, floral budding, flowering, and fruiting) of the life cycle of the species. In A. vulgaris and A. absinthium acetone exudates, 6 and 4 flavonoid aglycones were identified, respectively, by TLC analysis. Quercetin 3,7,3'-trim...

  10. Estimating sagebrush cover in semi-arid environments using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanpillai, Ramesh; Prager, Steven D.; Storey, Thomas O.

    2009-04-01

    Sagebrush ecosystems of the western US provide important habitat for several ungulate and vertebrate species. As a consequence of energy development, these ecosystems in Wyoming have been subjected to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Land managers require methodology that will allow them to consistently catalog sagebrush ecosystems and evaluate potential impact of proposed anthropogenic activities. This study addresses the utility of remotely sensed and ancillary geospatial data to estimate sagebrush cover using ordinal logistic regression. We demonstrate statistically significant prediction of ordinal sagebrush cover categories using spectral ( χ2 = 113; p < 0.0001) and transformed indices ( χ2 = 117; p < 0.0001). Both Landsat spectral bands ( c-value = 0.88) and transformed indices ( c-value = 0.89) can distinguish sites with closed, moderate and open cover sagebrush cover categories from no cover. The techniques described in this study can be used for estimating categories of sagebrush cover in arid ecosystems.

  11. Ameliorative potential of Artemisia Capillaris Formula on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Artemisia Capillaris Formula (ACF), a traditional Chinese medicinal therapy, has been used clinically in China to treat Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) for many years. However, the mechanism of action of this treatment on NAFLD is still unknown. The goal of the present study is to test whether ...

  12. MICRO PROPAGATION OF WORMWOOD ( Artemisia annua L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A study was carried out to determine the effect of varying concentrations of some plant growth hormones on the in vitro propagation of Artemisia annua from leaf primordial in the Biotechnology. Laboratory of Plant Science Department of Ahmadu. Bello University, Zaria. Leaf primordial from a. Chinyong variety ...

  13. Application of Partial Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences for the Discrimination of Artemisia capillaris from Other Artemisia Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Paek, Seung-Ho; Lee, Guemsan; Lee, Mi-Young; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Several Artemisia species are used as herbal medicines including the dried aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris, which are used as Artemisiae Capillaris Herba (known as “Injinho” in Korean medicinal terminology and “Yin Chen Hao” in Chinese). In this study, we developed tools for distinguishing between A. capillaris and 11 other Artemisia species that grow and/or are cultured in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on partial nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that differ between the species, we designed primers to amplify a DNA marker for A. capillaris. In addition, to detect other Artemisia species that are contaminants of A. capillaris, we designed primers to amplify DNA markers of A. japonica, A. annua, A. apiacea, and A. anomala. Moreover, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, we confirmed that primers developed in a previous study could be used to identify Artemisia species that are sources of Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba. By using these primers, we found that multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a reliable tool to distinguish between A. capillaris and other Artemisia species and to identify other Artemisia species as contaminants of A. capillaris in a single PCR. PMID:27313651

  14. FUNGICIDAL PROPERTIES OF ARTEMISIA AROMATIC PLANTS TOWARDS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Iryna Vіctorovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article establishes the fungicidal activity of water extracts of Artemisia maritimа L., Artemisia austriaca Jacq., under the concentration of 100, 50 and 25 mg/ml on dry matter with regard to the phytopathogenic mushroom Fusarium oxysporum. It also shows the fungistatic influence of extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. under concentration 25 and 50 mg/ml, fungicidal – under 100 mg/ml. Concerning Artemisia abrotanum L., the slow growth of mushroom is observed under the concentration 25 mg/ml, fungicidal effect – under 50 and 100 mg/ml. The paper provides the information on the component composition of ethereal oil and phenolic compounds of Artemisia maritimа, Artemisia austriaca, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia dracunculus, cultivated in Zhytomyr Polissya. The chief ingredients of ethereal oil which is synthesized by the plant of Artemisia abrotanum are 1,8-cineole (30.44% and camphor (31.92%. A high 1,8-cineole and camphor content determines antimicrobial properties of the plants. Amount of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw Artemisia abrotanum is 2.98 percent. By the method of highly efficient solution chromatography (HESChr in the grass of Artemisia abrotanum we have detected 23 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin, luteolin-7-glycoside as well as caffeic, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. The main compounds of ethereal oil of Artemisia austriaca are trans-verbenole (30.77 %, pinocarvone (10.77 % and sabinilacetate (18.16 %. In the grass of Artemisia austriaca we have detected 31 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin, apigenin, quercetin-bioside and the following acids: caffeic, chlorogenic, and isochlorogenic. Amount of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw Austrian wormwood is 27.25 mg / g (2.73 %. The main component of ethereal oil of Artemisia dracunculus is methyleugenol (94.65 %. We have discovered 31 phenolic compounds in the grass of linear-leaved wormwood

  15. Anticomplement activity of various solvent extracts from Korea local Artemisia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyung-In; Jung, Seil; Lee, Young-Choon; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-02-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of eight Artemisia plants (Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Artemisia fukudo Makino., Artemisia japonica Thunb., Artemisia montana (Nakai) Pamp., Artemisia keiskeana Miq., Artemisia rubripes Nakai., Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Kom., and Artemisia sylvatica Max.) from South Korea on the classical pathway (CP). We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from eight Artemisia plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the CP. A. rubripes and A. montana chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) values of 54.3 and 64.2 μg/mL. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Artemisia plants.

  16. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Steven T. Knick; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  17. Emergence of terpene cyclization in Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, Melissa; Laurendon, Caroline; Vardakou, Maria; Cheema, Jitender; Defernez, Marianne; Faraldos, Juan A.; O'Maille, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of terpene cyclization was critical to the evolutionary expansion of chemical diversity yet remains unexplored. Here we report the first discovery of an epistatic network of residues that controls the onset of terpene cyclization in Artemisia annua. We begin with amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) and (E)-b-farnesene synthase (BFS), a pair of terpene synthases that produce cyclic or linear terpenes, respectively. A library of B27,000 enzymes is generated by breeding combinations ...

  18. TWO NEW COMPOUNDS FROM ARTEMISIA DRACUNCULUS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAZIEH YAZDANPARAST

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds, 7-methoxycoumarin (I and 7-hydroxyartemidin (II were isolated from the ethanol/water (50:50, V/V extract of Artemisia drucunculus L. leaves. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral data ('H NMR and MS. It is shown that compound I is devoid of anticoagulation activity in male Albino rabbits in contrast to the same activity observed in rabbits using the crude extract of the leaves.

  19. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against Candida albicans of volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obistioiu, Diana; Cristina, Romeo T; Schmerold, Ivo; Chizzola, Remigius; Stolze, Klaus; Nichita, Ileana; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-29

    A large number of essential oils is reported to have significant activity against Candida albicans. But the different chemical composition influences the degree of their activity. The intention of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the activity against Candida albicans of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia dracunculus, A. abrotanum, A. absinthium and A. vulgaris (Asteraceae). The aim of the study was to identify new chemical compounds that have effect against C. albicans.The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation or extraction with dichloromethane (a new procedure we developed trying to obtain better, more separated compounds) from air dried above ground plant material and analyzed by GC-MS. Additionally commercial essential oils from the same species were tested. The Candida albicans inhibition studies were carried out by the paper disc diffusion method. The essential oils shared common components but presented differences in composition and showed variable antifungal activity. Davanone and derivatives thereof, compounds with silphiperfolane skeleton, estragole, davanone oil, β-thujone, sabinyl acetate, herniarin, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, 1,8-cineol, and terpineol were the main components of Artemisia volatiles. Among the volatile fractions tested those from A. abrotanum containing davanone or silphiperfolane derivatives showed the highest antifungal activity. The in vitro tests revealed that the Artemisia oils are promising candidates for further research to develop novel anti-candida drugs.

  20. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against Candida albicans of volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of essential oils is reported to have significant activity against Candida albicans. But the different chemical composition influences the degree of their activity. The intention of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the activity against Candida albicans of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia dracunculus, A. abrotanum, A. absinthium and A. vulgaris (Asteraceae). The aim of the study was to identify new chemical compounds that have effect against C. albicans. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation or extraction with dichloromethane (a new procedure we developed trying to obtain better, more separated compounds) from air dried above ground plant material and analyzed by GC-MS. Additionally commercial essential oils from the same species were tested. The Candida albicans inhibition studies were carried out by the paper disc diffusion method. Results The essential oils shared common components but presented differences in composition and showed variable antifungal activity. Davanone and derivatives thereof, compounds with silphiperfolane skeleton, estragole, davanone oil, β-thujone, sabinyl acetate, herniarin, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, 1,8-cineol, and terpineol were the main components of Artemisia volatiles. Conclusions Among the volatile fractions tested those from A. abrotanum containing davanone or silphiperfolane derivatives showed the highest antifungal activity. The in vitro tests revealed that the Artemisia oils are promising candidates for further research to develop novel anti-candida drugs. PMID:24475951

  1. Sagebrush ecosystem conservation and management: ecoregional assessment tools and models for the Wyoming Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, S.E.; Leu, M.; Knick, S.T.; Aldridge, C.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Wyoming Basins are one of the remaining strongholds of the sagebrush ecosystem. However, like most sagebrush habitats, threats to this region are numerous. This book adds to current knowledge about the regional status of the sagebrush ecosystem, the distribution of habitats, the threats to the ecosystem, and the influence of threats and habitat conditions on occurrence and abundance of sagebrush associated fauna and flora in the Wyoming Basins. Comprehensive methods are outlined for use in data collection and monitoring of wildlife and plant populations. Field and spatial data are integrated into a spatially explicit analytical framework to develop models of species occurrence and abundance for the egion. This book provides significant new information on distributions, abundances, and habitat relationships for a number of species of conservation concern that depend on sagebrush in the region. The tools and models presented in this book increase our understanding of impacts from land uses and can contribute to the development of comprehensive management and conservation strategies.

  2. In vivo antiplasmodial effect of chloroform extracts of Artemisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Key words: Malaria therapy, Plasmodium berghei, Artemisia maciverae, Artemisia maritima, medicinal plants. INTRODCUTION. Malaria is one of the most prevalent infections in the world. It constitutes one of the main causes of death in much of the tropics. Malaria is caused by parasites of the.

  3. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A decoction of Artemisia maciverae Linn. (Asteraceae) aerial part is used for the treatment of malaria in some parts of Northern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral acute toxicity and in vivo antiplasmodial effect of an ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part. Oral acute toxicity of the extract was ...

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phylogenetic analysis of Artemisia based on 9 micromorphological characters of pollens was conducted using Wagner parsimony method. In the resulting phylogenetic tree, relationships among different Artemisia species are shown. This study also presents the phylogenetic associations among 4 sections within the ...

  5. [Artemisia absinthium L. in complex treatment of inflammatory periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechina, E K; Belorukov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of Artemisia absinthium L. in complex treatment of inflammatory periodontal disease was assessed in the study by ELIZA evaluation of PGE2 in mixed saliva. Microcirculation in periodontal tissues was also assessed by means of laser Doppler flowmetry. It was found out that complex treatment involving Artemisia absinthium L. improves microcirculation in periodontal tissues and reduces inflammation.

  6. Chronic effects of hydro-alcoholic artemisia absinthium extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artemisia absinthium has many pharmacological effects, but toxic effects of it, were seen on nervous system and liver. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chronic effects of different doses of Artemisia absinthium extract on the enzymes and histopathological changes of the liver tissue of adult normal male rat.

  7. Micro propagation of wormwood ( Artemisia annua l .) using leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A study was carried out to determine the effect of varying concentrations of some plant growth hormones on the in vitro propagation of Artemisia annua from leaf ... Therefore, this is a viable approach to the supply of the raw ... Key Words: Artemisia annua, Plant growth hormones, in vitro propagation, leaf primordial ...

  8. A new species of subgenus Seriphidium of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KURŞAT, Murat; CİVELEK, Şemsettin; TÜRKOĞLU, İsmail; TABUR, Selma; GÜR, Nazmi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia bashkalensis Kurşat & Civelek sp. nov. from Hakkari Province in East Anatolia, Turkey, has been described. The differences between Artemisia bashkalensis and the related species Artemisia stenocephala Krash. ex Poljak. and Artemisia khorassanica Podl. are reported. The diagnosis, description, distribution map, and taxonomic comments on the new species are provided.

  9. Simulated big sagebrush regeneration supports predicted changes at the trailing and leading edges of distribution shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Taylor, Kyle A.; Pennington, Victoria E.; Nelson, Kellen N.; Martin, Trace E.; Rottler, Caitlin M.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Many semi-arid plant communities in western North America are dominated by big sagebrush. These ecosystems are being reduced in extent and quality due to economic development, invasive species, and climate change. These pervasive modifications have generated concern about the long-term viability of sagebrush habitat and sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (notably greater sage-grouse), highlighting the need for better understanding of the future big sagebrush distribution, particularly at the species' range margins. These leading and trailing edges of potential climate-driven sagebrush distribution shifts are likely to be areas most sensitive to climate change. We used a process-based regeneration model for big sagebrush, which simulates potential germination and seedling survival in response to climatic and edaphic conditions and tested expectations about current and future regeneration responses at trailing and leading edges that were previously identified using traditional species distribution models. Our results confirmed expectations of increased probability of regeneration at the leading edge and decreased probability of regeneration at the trailing edge below current levels. Our simulations indicated that soil water dynamics at the leading edge became more similar to the typical seasonal ecohydrological conditions observed within the current range of big sagebrush ecosystems. At the trailing edge, an increased winter and spring dryness represented a departure from conditions typically supportive of big sagebrush. Our results highlighted that minimum and maximum daily temperatures as well as soil water recharge and summer dry periods are important constraints for big sagebrush regeneration. Overall, our results confirmed previous predictions, i.e., we see consistent changes in areas identified as trailing and leading edges; however, we also identified potential local refugia within the trailing edge, mostly at sites at higher elevation. Decreasing

  10. Response of bird community structure to habitat management in piñon-juniper woodland-sagebrush ecotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steve; Grace, James B.; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Leu, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have been expanding their range across the intermountain western United States into landscapes dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) shrublands. Management actions using prescribed fire and mechanical cutting to reduce woodland cover and control expansion provided opportunities to understand how environmental structure and changes due to these treatments influence bird communities in piñon-juniper systems. We surveyed 43 species of birds and measured vegetation for 1–3 years prior to treatment and 6–7 years post-treatment at 13 locations across Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. We used structural equation modeling to develop and statistically test our conceptual model that the current bird assembly at a site is structured primarily by the previous bird community with additional drivers from current and surrounding habitat conditions as well as external regional bird dynamics. Treatment reduced woodland cover by >5% at 80 of 378 survey sites. However, habitat change achieved by treatment was highly variable because actual disturbance differed widely in extent and intensity. Biological inertia in the bird community was the strongest single driver; 72% of the variation in the bird assemblage was explained by the community that existed seven years earlier. Greater net reduction in woodlands resulted in slight shifts in the bird community to one having ecotone or shrubland affinities. However, the overall influence of woodland changes from treatment were relatively small and were buffered by other extrinsic factors. Regional bird dynamics did not significantly influence the structure of local bird communities at our sites. Our results suggest that bird communities in piñon-juniper woodlands can be highly stable when management treatments are conducted in areas with more advanced woodland development and at the level of disturbance measured in our study.

  11. Antimicrobial sesquiterpene lactones from Artemisia sieberi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarik A; Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Abd El Aty, Abeer A; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Alsaid, Mansour S; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Paré, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    Two new sesquiterpene lactones 3R, 8R-dihydroxygermacr-4(15),9(10)-dien-6S,7S,11RH,12,6-olide (1) and 1R, 8S-dihydroxy-11R,13-dihydrobalchanin(2), together with two known compounds 11-epiartapshin (3) and 3'-hydroxygenkwanin (4), were isolated from Artemisia sieberi. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR, MS, and X-ray diffraction. Compound 4 inhibited Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with Minimal inhibitory concentration values of 50 and 25 μg/disk, respectively. All the isolated compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activities.

  12. Artemisia scoparia – A new source of artemisinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is considered as the most active and potent antimalarial drug. Till date Artemisia annua Linn. plant is the only source for its production The present investigation was carried out with an objective to search a new plant for artemisinin. An attempt was made on a perennial faintly odoratus herb, Artemisia scoparia Waldst et Kit. to find out an alternative of A. annua for the production of artemisinin. The yield of artemisinin was higher in aerial plant parts (0.015% in comparison to callus culture (0.001%. The present study concluded that Artemisia scoparia contains an antimalarial drug artemisinin.

  13. Artemisia scoparia – A new source of artemisinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Singh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is considered as the most active and potent antimalarial drug. Till date Artemisia annua Linn. plant is the only source for its production The present investigation was carried out with an objective to search a new plant for artemisinin. An attempt was made on a perennial faintly odoratus herb, Artemisia scoparia Waldst et Kit. to find out an alternative of A. annua for the production of artemisinin. The yield of artemisinin was higher in aerial plant parts (0.015% in comparison to callus culture (0.001%. The present study concluded that Artemisia scoparia contains an antimalarial drug artemisinin.

  14. Floristic Provinces of Sagebrush and Associated Shrub-steppe Habitats in Western North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Boundary for floristic regions used for the conservation assessment of Greater Sage-grouse and sagebrush habitat conducted by the Western Association of Fish and...

  15. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of the study: Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can he...

  16. Role Of Wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium ) Extract On Oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposure related disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) on oxidative stress in rats protractedly exposed to lead. Aqueous extract of wormwood plant was administered ...

  17. antimicrobial activity of three medicinal plants (artemisia indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BASREEN

    Medicinal plants are abundant source of antimicrobial molecules. A wide .... chemical compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, phenols and saponins (Table 2). ..... of volatile components from Nepalese Artemisia species.

  18. Effects of kelp phenolic compounds on the feeding-associated mobility of the herbivore snail Tegula tridentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mariana; Tala, Fadia; Fernández, Miriam; Subida, Maria Dulce

    2015-12-01

    Tegula tridentata, is a common herbivore gastropod inhabiting the subtidal Lessonia trabeculata kelp forest, which tends to show higher densities after kelp harvesting. We investigated if harvested kelp beds may harbor higher densities of herbivore invertebrates, and the underlying mechanisms. Thus, we evaluated if the exudates of L. trabeculata change the seawater levels of soluble phenols, known to have a deterrent effect against the feeding behavior of some herbivore invertebrates. Finally we investigated whether the increase in T. tridentata densities in harvested kelp grounds could be related to a decrease in the seawater levels of soluble phenols. Our results showed that the density of invertebrate herbivores increased up to 32% in harvested kelp grounds. We provide the first estimate of the rate of phenolic exudation by L. trabeculata, and we demonstrate that T. tridentata changes its food dependent movement in the presence of exudates with synthetic phloroglucinol. We suggest that the recovery of harvested kelp ecosystems can be jeopardized by increased herbivory triggered by water-borne changes in the levels of herbivore deterrent compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-allergic effect of Artemisia extract in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Liu, Zijun; Geng, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia apiacea (also known as Artemisia annua L) is a herb commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the early 1970s, artemisinin was isolated and identified as the active antimalarial ingredient, and thereafter, A. apiacea and artemisinin have been studied extensively, such as anti-inflammation and antipyresis, antibacteria, antiparasitic and immunosuppression effects of A. apiacea extract. The present study investigated the extracts anti-allergic effect obtained from the dried flowering tips of A. apiacea in rats. A systemic anaphylactic reaction model was induced in rats using compound 48/80. Artemisia extract was administered 1 h prior to the injection of compound 48/80. Artemisia was extracted from dried flowering tips of A. deserti using 80% ethanol. Subsequently, the systemic anaphylactic shock, histamine release, scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by compound 48/80 were evaluated. The administration of Artemisia extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses suppressed the systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the Artemisia extract was able to effectively decrease systemic anaphylactic shock, histamine release, scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27446332

  20. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpene lactones of artemisinin was isolated from the aboveground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment.The purpose of the study was the review of the information from the open sources about the study for sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua referring to its pharmacological activity.Methods. The study was carried out using informational and search engines (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, and the results of our own researches.Results. It was established that apart from the essential oil and phenolic compounds, aboveground part of Artemisia annua, it contains a significant amount of sesquiterpene lactones. Qualitative content and quantitative composition of sesquiterpene lactones varies depending on the ecological and geographic factors, plants growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of the extracts from Artemisia annua herb with sesquiterpene lactones, as well as individual compounds of this group characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for more profound research.Conclusion. Our analysis of the open materials on the sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua, including phytochemical and pharmacological ones, allows characterization of the Artemisia annua herb as a perspective source for new drugs working out.

  1. The Herodotean »Amazonic« Artemisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Deligiorgis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the oeuvre written by Herodotus of Halicarnassus consists of narratives presenting female protagonists. The historian’s interest and curiosity are fascinated and attracted by mysterious queens with masculine attitudes. Perhaps the best-known heroine of that uncommon ‘elite’ is Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus and compatriot of Herodotus. Describing her presence and action during the great Persian War against Greece, the paper attempts to investigate her role by comparing her with the Amazons of myth and legend and their influence on the barbaric Scythian tribe of the Sauromatae. Herodotus interweaves reality and mythology in order to portray an unusual type, a miraculous female figure who commands our admiration.

  2. [Chemical constituents of Artemisia lactiflora(II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fu-Di; Luo, Dang-Wei; Ye, Jing; Xiao, Mei-Tian

    2014-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Artemisia lactiflora. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography with silica gel, C18 reverse-phase silica gel, semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. Twelve compounds were isolated from alcohol extracts of A. lactiflora and identified as 7-hydroxycoumarin (1), 7-methoxycoumarin (2), balanophonin (3), aurantiamide (4), aurantiamide acetate (5), isovitexin (6), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-rutinoside (7), rutin (8), caffeic acid ethyl ester (9), quercetin (10), methyl 3, 5-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (11) and methyl 3, 4-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (12), respectively. Compounds 3-12 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  3. Emergence of terpene cyclization in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Melissa; Laurendon, Caroline; Vardakou, Maria; Cheema, Jitender; Defernez, Marianne; Green, Sol; Faraldos, Juan A; O'Maille, Paul E

    2015-02-03

    The emergence of terpene cyclization was critical to the evolutionary expansion of chemical diversity yet remains unexplored. Here we report the first discovery of an epistatic network of residues that controls the onset of terpene cyclization in Artemisia annua. We begin with amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) and (E)-β-farnesene synthase (BFS), a pair of terpene synthases that produce cyclic or linear terpenes, respectively. A library of ~27,000 enzymes is generated by breeding combinations of natural amino-acid substitutions from the cyclic into the linear producer. We discover one dominant mutation is sufficient to activate cyclization, and together with two additional residues comprise a network of strongly epistatic interactions that activate, suppress or reactivate cyclization. Remarkably, this epistatic network of equivalent residues also controls cyclization in a BFS homologue from Citrus junos. Fitness landscape analysis of mutational trajectories provides quantitative insights into a major epoch in specialized metabolism.

  4. Pulmonary effects and disposition of luteolin and Artemisia afra extracts in isolated perfused lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel Mjiqiza, Sizwe; Abraham Syce, James; Chibuzo Obikeze, Kenechukwu

    2013-10-07

    Artemisia afra (Asteraceae) is a traditional medicinal plant frequently used in steam inhalation form to treat respiratory conditions. Quantify luteolin content in Artemisia afra dried crude and aqueous extract. Evaluate the pulmonary effects of Artemisia afra steam inhalation, nebulized Artemisia afra extract and luteolin in isolated perfused lungs (IPL). Evaluate the pulmonary disposition of intravenously administered luteolin. HPLC was used to quantify luteolin in Artemisia afra extracts. A modified version of the IPL was used to determine the effects of Artemisia afra steam inhalation, nebulized luteolin, and nebulized aqueous leaf extract on lung function, as well as the pulmonary disposition of IV luteolin. Artemisia afra extract contained significantly higher luteolin levels than the crude dried leaves. Inhaled Artemisia afra steam, and nebulized luteolin, and Artemisia afra extract and IV luteolin produced significant dose-dependent improvements in lung function, with nebulized Artemisia afra producing the greatest improvements. Nebulisation with Artemisia afra extract yielded higher quantities of luteolin than luteolin nebulisation. Results verify the traditional use of inhalation of Artemisia afra steam, although nebulized luteolin and aqueous extract are better alternatives. Luteolin significantly contributes to the bronchodilatory effects of Artemisia afra. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal origins and diversification of Artemisia and allies (Anthemideae, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilatersana, R.; Vallès, j.; Schneeweiss, G. M.; Sanz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal origins and diversification of Artemisia and allies (Anthemideae, Asteraceae).- To assess temporal origins and diversification of lineages within subtribe Artemisiinae and Artemisia group a penalized likelihood analysis was applied on nrDNA ITS and ETS of 63 representatives. The tree was calibrated at the stem node of the Kaschgaria/ Artemisia lineage with the most reliable early Artemisia fossil pollen record from Late Oligocene (23 Ma). The results from this study suggest that the ...

  6. The role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in nitrogen availability, competition and plant invasion into the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin M. Goergen

    2009-01-01

    In the semi-arid sagebrush steppe of the Northeastern Sierra Nevada, resources are both spatially and temporally variable, arguably making resource availability a primary factor determining invasion success. N fixing plant species, primarily native legumes, are often relatively abundant in sagebrush steppe and can contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets. ...

  7. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 3: Site level restoration decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Bruce A. Roundy; Eugene W. Schupp; Steven T. Knick; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2017-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2016) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  8. Natural recruitment of Wyoming big sagebrush in and adjacent to burned areas during an El Nino year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming big sagebrush is known to have episodic recruitment, but the driving factors for these recruitment events is poorly understood. Sagebrush is not fire adapted, is a mid to late seral species, and can take multiple decades to reach a similar density of unburned stands. Fire and climate regimes...

  9. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in Sagebrush-Steppe: The SageSTEP Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McIver; Mark Brunson; Steve Bunting; Jeanne Chambers; Paul Doescher; James Grace; April Hulet; Dale Johnson; Steve Knick; Richard Miller; Mike Pellant; Fred Pierson; David Pyke; Benjamin Rau; Kim Rollins; Bruce Roundy; Eugene Schupp; Robin Tausch; Jason Williams

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation...

  10. [The advantages and disadvantages of Artemisia princeps and A. montana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, R

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, Moxa is made from Artemisia princeps and A. montana P. which are plants of the composiae family. Evaluations of the superiority or inferiority of these raw materials for Moxa have been confusing. The judgement of superiority or inferiority is roughly based on the strenght of the fragrance and somewhat of down. When I investigated 14 kinds of documents from the Edo period to the Showa period, 10 of the documents gave good evaluations for Artemisia princeps. On the other hand the remaining four gave good evaluations for A. montana P. But there is quite an opposite opinion, because the four deemed good for Artemisia princeps were misunderstood regarding the discrimination of Artemisia princeps and A. montana P. Since correcting them, each material has seven good evaluations, tying the score. Therefore, I researched the contents of the principal ingredient, Cineole, using an important evaluation index and the fragrances were compared measuring both materials, which were collected from different places. The results to examining six kinds of Artemisia princeps, and eight kinds of A. montana P. (14 kinds in total) are as follows: The A. montana P. contents Cineole was more abundant than the other on average. However, it is from three to five times the change by the growing both ground, and superiority or inferiority cannot be decided indiscriminately. When quality is evaluated, it is necessary to clarify the materials orgin. Generally speaking, the fragrance of A. montana P. is stronger than the other.

  11. Phytochemical Contents of Five Artemisia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KURSAT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the fatty acid compositions, vitamin, sterol contents and flavonoid constituents of five Turkish Artemisia species (A. armeniaca, A. incana , A. tournefortiana, A. haussknechtii and A. scoparia were determined by GC and HPLC techniques. The results of the fatty acid analysis showed that Artemisia species possess high saturated fatty acid compositions. On the other hand, the studied Artemisia species were found to have low vitamin and sterol contents. Eight flavononids (catechin, naringin, rutin, myricetin, morin, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol were determined in the present study. It was found that Artemisia species contained high levels of flavonoids. Morin (45.35 ± 0.65 – 1406.79 ± 4.12 μg/g and naringenin (15.32 ± 0.46 – 191.18 ± 1.22 μg/g were identified in all five species. Naringin (268.13 ± 1.52 – 226.43 ± 1.17 μg/g and kaempferol (21.74 ± 0.65 – 262.19 ± 1.38 μg/g contents were noted in the present study. Present research showed that the studied Artemisia taxa have high saturated fatty acids and also rich flavonoid content.

  12. Diurnal patterns of branch movement in a desert shrub (Larrea tridentata) track hydraulic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, A.

    2016-12-01

    Near-surface, repeat digital photography has emerged as a powerful tool to collect continuous observations of plant traits of individuals and communities across daily, seasonal, and annual time scales. To date, this technology has largely been used to detect patterns of vegetative phenology or "canopy greenness." Little work has been done to use digital photographs to quantify changes in canopy structure or shifts in canopy function on shorter time scales. In this study, we tracked the position of creosote (Larrea tridentata) branches using a timeseries of photos taken in a creosote-dominated shrubland in central New Mexico, USA where radiation, temperature, humidity, soil water content, soil water potential, and stem water potential were also measured. We found that both living and dead woody branches displayed dramatic diurnal patterns of movement, with shrubs only 1-2 m in height sometimes undergoing vertical shifts in branch position of over 0.25 m and changes in branch angle of over 20 degrees. Although circadian rhythms in plants are often attributed to cyclical patterns of photoperiod or temperature, we found that creosote branch movements were best correlated with diurnal changes in stem water potential and atmospheric humidity and that this correlation was stronger under wetter soil conditions. Branches were straighter and oriented in higher positions in times of low hydraulic stress, possibly preparing the creosote to better capture moisture via stemflow. Branches were oriented lower to the ground in times of high hydraulic stress, possibly providing more shade and reducing soil evaporation beneath the base of the shrub. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe diurnal patterns of branch movements in creosote and is the most extensive dataset of observations of diurnal movements in any woody plant. It provides more knowledge about the biology of a desert shrub, but also offers novel methods for using repeat digital photography to gain

  13. Ploidy race distributions since the Last Glacial Maximum in the North American desert shrub, Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K.L.; Betancourt, J.L.; Riddle, B.R.; Van Devender, T. R.; Cole, K.L.; Geoffrey, Spaulding W.

    2000-01-01

    1 A classic biogeographic pattern is the alignment of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid races of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) across the Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mohave Deserts of western North America. We used statistically robust differences in guard cell size of modern plants and fossil leaves from packrat middens to map current and past distributions of these ploidy races since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). 2 Glacial/early Holocene (26-10 14C kyr BP or thousands of radiocarbon years before present) populations included diploids along the lower Rio Grande of west Texas, 650 km removed from sympatric diploids and tetraploids in the lower Colorado River Basin of south-eastern California/south-western Arizona. Diploids migrated slowly from lower Rio Grande refugia with expansion into the northern Chihuahuan Desert sites forestalled until after ???4.0 14C kyr BP. Tetraploids expanded from the lower Colorado River Basin into the northern limits of the Sonoran Desert in central Arizona by 6.4 14C kyr BP. Hexaploids appeared by 8.5 14C kyr BP in the lower Colorado River Basin, reaching their northernmost limits (???37??N) in the Mohave Desert between 5.6 and 3.9 14C kyr BP. 3 Modern diploid isolates may have resulted from both vicariant and dispersal events. In central Baja California and the lower Colorado River Basin, modern diploids probably originated from relict populations near glacial refugia. Founder events in the middle and late Holocene established diploid outposts on isolated limestone outcrops in areas of central and southern Arizona dominated by tetraploid populations. 4 Geographic alignment of the three ploidy races along the modern gradient of increasingly drier and hotter summers is clearly a postglacial phenomenon, but evolution of both higher ploidy races must have happened before the Holocene. The exact timing and mechanism of polyploidy evolution in creosote bush remains a matter of conjecture. ?? 2001 Blackwell Science Ltd.

  14. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, M R; Sharifi, S; Emami, S A; Khodaie, L

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials.

  15. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, M.R.; Sharifi, S.; Emami, S.A.; Khodaie, L.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials. PMID:25657784

  16. Evaluation and Selection of Mutative Artemisia (Artemisia annua L. According to the Altitude Variants

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    ENDANG GATI LESTARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction of genetic variant of Artemisia annua L. was conducted through the application of gamma ray irradiation in 2007-2008. The aim was to obtain a plant with high artemisine content ≥ 0.5% and late flowering period of about ≥ 7 month after planting. Tweleve selected genotypes were subsequently examined to gain genetic stability on altitude of 1500, 950, and 540 m asl. The results showed that the plants had shorter flowering age in Cicurug (540 m asl than that of in Pacet (950 m asl and Gunung Putri (1540 m asl. Genotype 8 had the latest age of flowering in the three locations than the other genotypes, however, the growth and biomass were the lowest. Vegetative growth of Artemisia in Pacet and Gunung Putri was better than those in Cicurug. Genotype of 15 in Cicurug and 5A genotype in Gunung Putri and Pacet had higher wet and dry weight than that of two other associates. Based on plant biomass, 5 genotypes from Gunung Putri and Pacet i.e. 1D, 3, 5A, 14, and 15 genotypes were selected, as well as 5 genotypes i.e. 1D, 3, 4, 5A, and 15 genotypes from Cicurug. Analisys on artemisin content successfully obtained 5 selected somaclone lines i.e. 1B, 2, 4, 14, and 3 somaclones.

  17. Fumigant Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Artemisia khorassanica and Artemisia sieberi on Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, B; Abedi, Z; Abdolmaleki, A; Jafary-Jahed, M; Borzoui, E; Mozaffar Mansouri, Seyed

    2017-09-01

    Fumigant toxicity and sublethal effects of essential oils from Artemisia khorassanica Podl. and Artemisia sieberi Bess were investigated against adults of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier. To assess the sublethal effects, adult moths were exposed to the LC30 of each essential oil, and life table parameters of the surviving S. cerealella were studied. Higher fumigant toxicity of A. khorassanica (LC50: 7.38 µl/liter air) than A. sieberi (LC50: 9.26 µl/liter air) was observed against S. cerealella. Also, the insecticidal effects of A. khorassanica (LT50: 9.01 h) were faster than A. sieberi (LT50: 14.37 h). A significant extension was observed in the developmental time (egg to adult) of S. cerealella treated with the essential oils. In addition, fecundity of S. cerealella reduced by 25.29 and 35.78% following exposure to sublethal concentrations of A. sieberi and A. khorassanica, respectively. Both tested essential oils caused a significant reduction in the gross and net reproductive rates, intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase of S. cerealella. The rm values following exposure to A. sieberi, A. khorassanica, and control were 0.098, 0.094, and 0.107 d-1, respectively. The results of this study suggest that tested essential oils have a good potential to apply in integrated pest management of S. cerealella. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  18. Study of artemisinin and sugar accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobot, Kateryna O; Matvieieva, Nadiia A; Ostapchuk, Andriy M; Kharkhota, Maxim A; Duplij, Volodymyr P

    2017-09-14

    We studied the effect of genetic transformation on biologically active compound (artemisinin and its co-products (ART) as well as sugars) accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and mannitol were accumulated in A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root lines. Genetic transformation has led in some cases to the sugar content increasing or appearing of nonrelevant for the control plant carbohydrates. Sucrose content was 1.6 times higher in A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines. Fructose content was found to be 3.4 times higher in A. dracunculus "hairy" root cultures than in the control roots. The accumulation of mannitol was a special feature of the leaves of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus control roots. A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines differed also in ART accumulation level. The increase of ART content up to 1.02 mg/g DW in comparison with the nontransformed roots (up to 0.687 mg/g DW) was observed. Thus, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation can be used for obtaining of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root culture produced ART and sugars in a higher amount than mother plants.

  19. Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris: a comparative study of infusion polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Ferreira, Marília Locatelli; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia

    2014-02-15

    The aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris are used in infusions for the treatment of several diseases. Besides secondary metabolites, carbohydrates are also extracted with hot water and are present in the infusions. The plant carbohydrates exhibit several of therapeutic properties and their biological functions are related to chemical structure. In this study, the polysaccharides from infusions of the aerial parts of A. absinthium and A. vulgaris were isolated and characterized. In the A. absinthium infusion, a type II arabinogalactan was isolated. The polysaccharide had a Gal:Ara ratio of 2.3:1, and most of the galactose was (1 → 3)- and (1 → 6)-linked, as typically found in type II arabinogalactans. In the A. vulgaris infusion, an inulin-type fructan was the main polysaccharide. NMR analysis confirmed the structure of the polymer, which is composed of a chain of fructosyl units β-(2 ← 1) linked to a starting α-d-glucose unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fumigant Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Artemisia khorassanica and Artemisia sieberi on Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Z; Abdolmaleki, A; Jafary-Jahed, M; Borzoui, E; Mozaffar Mansouri, Seyed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fumigant toxicity and sublethal effects of essential oils from Artemisia khorassanica Podl. and Artemisia sieberi Bess were investigated against adults of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier. To assess the sublethal effects, adult moths were exposed to the LC30 of each essential oil, and life table parameters of the surviving S. cerealella were studied. Higher fumigant toxicity of A. khorassanica (LC50: 7.38 µl/liter air) than A. sieberi (LC50: 9.26 µl/liter air) was observed against S. cerealella. Also, the insecticidal effects of A. khorassanica (LT50: 9.01 h) were faster than A. sieberi (LT50: 14.37 h). A significant extension was observed in the developmental time (egg to adult) of S. cerealella treated with the essential oils. In addition, fecundity of S. cerealella reduced by 25.29 and 35.78% following exposure to sublethal concentrations of A. sieberi and A. khorassanica, respectively. Both tested essential oils caused a significant reduction in the gross and net reproductive rates, intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase of S. cerealella. The rm values following exposure to A. sieberi, A. khorassanica, and control were 0.098, 0.094, and 0.107 d−1, respectively. The results of this study suggest that tested essential oils have a good potential to apply in integrated pest management of S. cerealella. PMID:29117375

  1. Chemical composition of the essential oils of serbian wild-growing Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Polina; Radulović, Niko; Palić, Radosav; Stojanović, Gordana

    2006-06-28

    The chemical composition of the aerial and root essential oils, hydrodistilled from Artemisia absinthium L. and Artemisia vulgaris L. (wild-growing populations from Serbia), were studied by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. During the storage of plant material under controlled conditions, a significant decrease of essential oil yields (isolated directly after drying and after 1 year of storage) and significant differences in their chemical compositions were observed. A possible mechanism for the observed oil component interconversion has been discussed. The noticeable differences in the chemical composition of the oils isolated from roots and aerial parts of A. absinthium and A. vulgaris were also correlated with the diverging biosynthetic pathways of volatiles in the respective plant organs. The antimicrobial activities against the common human pathogens of all of the isolated oils were tested according to National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards. The oils showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against the tested strains. Therefore, these oils can be used as flavor and fragrance ingredients.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Plant Extracts of Artemisia (Artemisia annua L. In Vitro

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    Alireza Massiha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the plants used to treat certain diseases, because they have showed antimicrobial activity. In this case, many studies have conducted on antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Artemisia annua. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this study is to determine the antibacterial effects of aqueous, chloroform, methanol and ethanol extracts of A. annua against eight bacterial species. Antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal activity of the essential oil and extract was performed by agar disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods.Results: The obtained results showed antibacterial activity of the organic and chloroformic extracts of Artemisia annua against the tested microorganisms. Presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, amino acids, phenolic compounds, quinines and terpenoids were identified in the composition of the obtained extract using mass gas-chromatograph. The best result for the minimum inhibitory Concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration was reported for the 32 mg/ml of chloroformic extract.Conclusion: The results indicate the fact that the extracts and essential oils of the plants can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition.

  3. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of seven Artemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

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    Hassan Mohabatkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of seven Artemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs toxicity and HIV-1 replication. Methods: The studied Artemisia species were Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression was performed by HIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increased PBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency of CD4 expression in PBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts of Artemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  4. Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua tissue cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Isaza, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    Production of artemisinin was studied in both plants and tissue cultures of Artemisia annua L. Incorporation of (3{prime}-{sup 14}C) mevalonic acid sodium salt into artemisinin or arteannuin B was not found when field-grown plants were fed once with 10 or 50 {mu}Ci and harvested after 44, 144 or 288 hr. Artemisinin was not present in root organ cultures, but was present in the shoot cultures in a concentration of less than 5 mg/100 g dry weight. The content of artemisinin in a shoot culture line with elongated and indented shoots was significantly higher at p value of 0.01 from that with short and compact shoots. Induction of roots on shoot cultures was associated with increased artemisinin production. Shoot cultures that developed into plants with roots had higher artemisinin content than those shoots cultures with aerial roots, or shoots cultures with basal roots. The artemisinin content in shoot cultures apparently increased with age. Preliminary studies on the metabolism of arteannuin B demonstrated that shoot cultures absorbed the exogenous arteannuin B from the medium without an increase in artemisinin content.

  5. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, Chokri; Haoues, Meriam; Neffati, Noura; Bassoumi Jamoussi, Imen; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Boussaid, Mohamed; Karoui, Habib

    2016-01-01

    We report the chemical composition and anti-Leishmania and antioxidant activity of Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oils (EOs). Our results showed that these extracts exhibit different antioxidant activities according to the used assay. The radical scavenging effects determined by DPPH assay were of IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL and IC50 = 9.1 mg/mL for Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba essential oils, respectively. However, antioxidant effects of both essential oils, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, were in the same range (2.3 and 2.97 mg eq EDTA/g EO, resp.), while the Artemisia herba-alba essential oil showed highest chelating activity of Fe2+ ions (27.48 mM Fe2+). Interestingly, we showed that both EOs possess dose-dependent activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes with IC50 values of 68 μg/mL and 44 μg/mL for A. herba-alba and A. campestris, respectively. We reported, for the first time, that antileishmanial activity of both EOs was mediated by cell apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. All our results showed that EOs from A. herba-alba and A. campestris plants are promising candidates as anti-Leishmania medicinal products. PMID:27807464

  7. CHEMOTYPIC Variation in Volatiles and Herbivory for Sagebrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, Richard; Grof-Tisza, Patrick; Blande, James D

    2016-08-01

    Plants that are damaged by herbivores emit complex blends of volatile compounds that often cause neighboring branches to induce resistance. Experimentally clipped sagebrush foliage emits volatiles that neighboring individuals recognize and respond to. These volatiles vary among individuals within a population. Two distinct types are most common with either thujone or camphor as the predominate compound, along with other less common types. Individuals respond more effectively to cues from the same type, suggesting that some of the informative message is contained in the compounds that differentiate the types. In this study, we characterized the chemical profiles of the two common types, and we examined differences in their microhabitats, morphologies, and incidence of attack by herbivores and pathogens. Analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that the camphor type had higher emissions of camphor, camphene, and tricyclene, while the thujone type emitted more α-thujone, β-thujone, (Z)-salvene, (E)-salvene, carvacrol, and various derivatives of sabinene. We were unable to detect any consistent morphological or microhabitat differences associated with the common types. However, plants of the thujone type had consistently higher rates of damage by chewing herbivores. One galling midge species was more common on thujone plants, while a second midge species was more likely to gall plants of the camphor type. The diversity of preferences of attackers may help to maintain the variation in volatile profiles. These chemical compounds that differentiate the types are likely to be informative cues and deserve further attention.

  8. Antifertility activity of Artemisia vulgaris leaves on female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Afsar; Kanhere, Rupesh S; Cuddapah, Rajaram; Nelson, Kumar S; Vara, Prasanth Reddy; Sibyala, Saisaran

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the antifertility activity of Artemisia vulgaris leaves on female Wistar rats. The plant extract was tested for its effect on implant formation at two dose levels, 300 and 600 mg·kg⁻¹, respectively. The effective methanolic plant extract was further studied for estrogenic potency on ovariectomised immature female Wistar rats. The data presented in this study demonstrate the antifertility potential of Artemisia vulgaris methanolic leaf extract, which shows a strong and significant decrease in implant formation (100%), and a strong estrogenic effect resulting in a significant increase in uterine weight in immature ovariectomised rats. These observations suggest that the methanolic extract of Artemisia vulgaris leaves has strong anti-implantation activity and estrogenic activity. The methanolic plant extract of A. vulgaris has antifertility activity. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Contrasting the patterns of aspen forest and sagebrush shrubland gross ecosystem exchange in montane Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, A.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the environmental controls on Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) at an aspen forest and a sagebrush shrubland in southwest Idaho. The two sites were situated within a mosaic of vegetation that included temperate deciduous trees, shrublands, and evergreen conifer trees. The distribution of vegetation was presumably linked to water availability; aspen were located in wetter high-elevations sites, topographic drainages, or near snow drifts. Local temperatures have increased by ~2-3 °C over the past 50 years and less precipitation has arrived as snow. These ongoing changes in weather may impact snow water redistribution, plant-water availability, and plant-thermal stress, with associated impacts on vegetation health and production. We used eddy covariance to measure the exchange of water and carbon dioxide above the two sites and partitioned the net carbon flux to determine GEE. The sagebrush record was from 2003-2007 and the aspen record was from 2007-12. The region experienced a modest-to-severe drought in 2007, with ~73% of typical precipitation. We found that aspen were local "hotspots" for carbon exchange; peak rates of aspen GEE were ~ 60% greater than the peak rates of sagebrush GEE. Light, temperature, and water availability were dominant controls on the seasonality of GEE at both sites. Sagebrush and aspen were dormant during winter, limited by cold temperatures during winter and early spring, and water availability during mid-late summer. The onset of summer drought was typically later in the aspen than in the sagebrush. Drifting snow, lateral water redistribution, or increased rooting depths may have increased water availability in the aspen stand. Seasonal patterns of observed soil moisture and evaporation indicated aspen were rooted to >= 1 m. The sagebrush and aspen both responded strongly to the 2007 drought; peak GEE decreased by ~75%, peak GEE shifted to earlier parts of the year, and mid-summer GEE was decreased. We consider potential

  10. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Treatment of Iron-Loaded Veterinary Sarcoma by Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Elmar; Efferth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Artemisinin, a constituent of Artemisia annua L., is a well-known antimalarial drug. Artemisinin-type drugs also inhibit cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Herbal extracts of A. annua inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines. Here, we report on the use of capsules containing powder of Herba Artemisiae annuae to treat pet sarcoma. The surgical tumor removal as standard treatment was supplemented by adjuvant therapy with A. annua. One cat and one dog with fibrosarcoma survived 40 and 37 months,...

  12. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Konovalov; O. M. Shevchuk; L. A. Logvinenko; A. A. Khamilo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is an herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpene lactones of artemisinin was isolated from the aboveground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment.The purpose of the study was the review of the information from the open sources about the study for sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua referring to its pharmacological activity.Meth...

  13. Identifikasi Kromatografi Lapis Tipis Sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Arundina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karsinoma sel skuamosa rongga mulut merupakan jenis kanker yang paling sering ditemukan di rongga mulut. Faktor risiko utama terjadi keganasan di rongga mulut meliputi riwayat serta kebiasaan mengkonsumsi tembakau dan atau alkohol. Tanaman sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L. sering digunakan di masyarakat sebagai anti tumor pada organ pencernaan termasuk di rongga mulut, namun belum ada penelitian tentang bahan aktif yang berperan sebagai anti kanker di rongga mulut. Banyak didapatkan spesies dari genus Artemisia, sedangkan yang banyak tumbuh di Indonesia adalah spesies Artemisia vulgaris L. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan identifikasi menggunakan Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT dari sudamala. Penelitian meliputi ekstraksi sudamala, identifikasi ekstrak sudamala, fraksinasi sudamala menggunakan Kromatografi Kolom Vakum dan identifikasi dari fraksi sudamala menggunakan Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT. Ekstrak heksan sudamala yang dilakukan fraksinasi menggunakan n-heksan: etil asetat menghasilkan 11 fraksi. Fraksi n-heksan: etil asetat (3:7,v/v dari sudamala yang teridentifikasi menggunakan Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT mengandung terpenoid. Identification of Sudamala ( Artemisia vulgaris L. Thin Layer Chromatography. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the type of cancer which is most frequently found in oral cavity. The primary risk factor of malignancy in oral cavity includes the habit of consuming tobacco and or alcohol. The plant sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L. is often used in the community as anti-tumor in digestive organ, including in oral cavity. However, there have been no studies on active ingredients playing the role as anti-cancer in oral cavity. The species are mostly from the genus Artemisia, while those generally growing in Indonesia are the species Artemisia vulgaris L. The objective of this study is to explain the identification by TLC of sudamala. The study was sudamala extraction, identification of sudamala extract

  14. Antifibrotic effects of Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi in a carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatic fibrosis animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Choi, Min-Kyung; Shin, Jang-Woo; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Son, Chang-Gue

    2012-03-06

    Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi, both members of the Compositae family, have been indiscriminately used for various liver disorders as traditional hepatotherapeutic medicines in Korea for many years. In this study, the anti-hepatofibrotic effects of Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi were comparatively analyzed using a carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis rat model. Hepatic fibrosis was induced via a 10-week course of intraperitoneal CCl(4) injections (50% dissolved in olive oil, 2mL/kg, twice per week). Water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC) or Artemisia iwayomogi (AI) was orally administered six times per week from the 5th to the 10th week. AI (50mg/kg) significantly attenuated the CCl(4)-induced excessive release of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum (p<0.05), and hydroxyproline and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in liver tissue (p<0.05). Further, AI markedly ameliorated the depletion of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue (p<0.01). Unexpectedly, AC did not exert any effects on the above parameters. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that AI drastically reduced inflammation, necrosis, fatty infiltration, collagen accumulation, and activation of hepatic satellite cells in liver tissue. These changes were not observed with AC treatment. Several critical genes of fibrosis-related cytokines including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor beta (PDGF-β), and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were more prominently downregulated by AI compared to AC treatment. Our results show that AI exerts greater hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects as compared with AC via enhancing antioxidant capacity and downregulating fibrogentic cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a Habitat Suitability Index Model for the Sage Sparrow on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Simmons, Mary Ann; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Mitigation threshold guidelines for the Hanford Site are based on habitat requirements of the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli) and only apply to areas with a mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) overstory and a native understory. The sage sparrow habitat requirements are based on literature values and are not specific to the Hanford Site. To refine these guidelines for the Site, a multi-year study was undertaken to quantify habitat characteristics of sage sparrow territories. These characteristics were then used to develop a habitat suitability index (HSI) model which can be used to estimate the habitat value of specific locations on the Site.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... The phylogenetic relationships within the genus Artemisia have been very controversial. In order to recognize the systematic inference of pollen grains in this genus, the micromorphological characteristics of pollens from 22 taxa were examined by means of light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron ...

  17. Artemisinin concentration and antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua distillation byproduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia annua is mostly known as the source of artemisinin, the raw material for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy, used against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum where malaria is endemic. Artemisinin drugs are also effective against helminthic and protozoan parasites tha...

  18. Comparative analysis of ADS gene promoter in seven Artemisia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-12-23

    Dec 23, 2014 ... ness, salicylic acid and abscisic acid responsiveness, induc- tion upon fungal elicitation, endosperm expression, MeJA- responsiveness, low-temperature responsiveness, elicitation, wounding and pathogen responsiveness were also found in. ADS promoters of all or some of the seven Artemisia species.

  19. Antidepressant and antioxidant activities of Artemisia absinthium L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... imipramine 10 mg kg-1 (p > 0.05) in TST. LD50 was 3700 mg/kg. These results introduced A. absinthium aerial parts as an easily accessible and edible source of natural antioxidants and antidepressant. Key words: Antidepressant, Antioxidant activity, Artemisia absinthium, DPPH, forced swimming test, tail.

  20. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    christy

    16(2) 77- 85, January – December, 2017. ISSN 1118 - 1028. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for antiplasmodial activity in mice. Nwaeze AC1 ... has led researchers to source for new antimalarial drugs from different sources, including higher plants. ... probably due to progressive spread of.

  1. Dietary inclusion of dried Artemisia annua leaves for management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coccidiosis constitutes a major problem in poultry rearing. Recourse to the use of prophylactic chemotherapy, for example, is only a short-term solution. Ostensibly, the drugs used are effective but they are also expensive. In the present study, the influence of adding dried Artemisia annua L. leaves as a botanical coccidistat ...

  2. The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermejo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011.

  3. Variations in antimalarial components of Artemisia annua Linn from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction:: Artemisia annua plant from the family Asteracea is a powerful antimalarial plant introduced to Uganda around 2003. In addition to the artemisinin component, the plant also contains flavonoids which work in synergy to arte- misinin against malaria parasites. The plant also contains aromatic oils which ...

  4. Genomic DNA isolation from Artemisia species grown in cold desert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protocol to extract pure genomic DNA from different Artemisia species was tailored. The protocol was based on the CTAB method with slight modifications. In the study, 1.6 M NaCl, 2% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and 0.5% β-mercaptoethanol was used in the extraction buffer.

  5. Stimulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different fractions of oligogalacturonides (OGA) from polygalacturonic acid by pectinase hydrolysate have been partially purified using column chromatography of Sephadex G-10. The isolated fraction OGA2 (degree of polymerization, DP = 4.57) was found to stimulate the accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua ...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of three medicinal plants ( Artemisia indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Artemisia indica, Medicago falcata and Tecoma stans are traditionally being use for medicinal purposes in Pakistan. Present study was designed to check in-vitro efficacy of these plants against selected bacterial and fungal strains. Methodology: Chloroform, butanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts of these ...

  7. Antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia taurica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from the earth parts of the Artemisia taurica Willd. and Salvia kronenburgii Rech. Fil. plants and their effects on xanthine oxidase enzyme were studied. The chemical contents of each volatile oil were determined by applying gas chromatograpghy-mass ...

  8. Genetic variability of Artemisia capillaris (Wormwood capillary) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variability among individuals of Artemisia capillaris from state of Terengganu, Malaysia was examined by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The samples were collected from differences regional in Terengganu State. The genomic DNA was extracted from the samples leaves.

  9. Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan) from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe) grown in two places ...

  10. Evaluating morphological variability of Artemisia herba-alba Asso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was interested on the study of the morphological variability of 120 individuals of Artemisia herba-alba Asso coming from three stations in western Algeria , which was assessed through 15 quantitative and qualitative characters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) results showed ...

  11. Obtaining phenolic acids from cell cultures of various Artemisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most productive cell cultures for phenolic acids were Artemisia frigida and Silybum marianum. Isochlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant phenolic acids identified in the analyzed cell cultures. Cell culture of Nicotiana tabacum contained only one hydroxycinnamic acid derivative in low amounts.

  12. Talking back: Biography as friendship in Anna Banti's Artemisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Artemisia, romanzo, autobiografia, e biografia si collocano all'interno di un dialogo fra narratore e personaggio che permette ad Anna Banti di sviluppare una sofisticata discussione metanarrativa sulla biografia, in particolare quella che tratta di donne, come processo di narrazione e come genere che richiede continua ...

  13. Artemisia absinthium: burning plant! | El Makrini | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The questioning found the application of a poultice, advised by a neighbor, containing the "Artemisia absinthium" to reduce wrinkles crow's feet and glabella. Dermatological examination revealed a dry and delicate erythema intersting cheeks and forehead without blistering, corresponding to a first degree burn. The care ...

  14. Page 1 Chemical Examination of Artemisia scoparia Waldst, and Kit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Examination of Artemisia scoparia Waldst, and Kit, 155. Scoparin is insoluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid either in the cold or in the hot. When treated with aqueous or alcoholic caustic potash, it dissolves with an intense yellow coloration, which is characteristic of many unsaturated lactones. It does not give ...

  15. In vitro growth response of Artemisia annua seeds to different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artemisia annua is a crop popularly known for its importance in the production of anti-malarial and possibly antibacterial agents and natural pesticides. A. annua anamed is a hybrid which is able to grow well in hot weather and still retain its anti-malarial characteristics. Seeds of annua were cultured on Murashige and ...

  16. Antidepressant and antioxidant activities of Artemisia absinthium L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. Its effects may be correlated with the presence of antioxidant compounds. Methanolic extract of A. absinthium aerial part at flowering stage was screened for antioxidant activities by five complementary test systems. Also, its antidepressant ...

  17. Comparative analysis of ADS gene promoter in seven Artemisia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artemisinin is the most effective antimalarial drug that is derived from Artemisia annua. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) controls the first committed step in artemisinin biosynthesis. The ADS gene expression is regulated by transcription factors which bind to the cis-acting elements on the ADS promoter and are probably ...

  18. Antibacterial and antiprotozoal effect of Artemisia annua extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, E.; Fretté, X. C.; Engberg, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    be banned in the EU. Extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (AA) showed antimicrobial activity in overnight cultures of CP strains isolated from diseased broilers. The hexane extract (HEX) gave the strongest inhibition (MIC=185ppm) while the dichloromethane extract (DCM) gave a weaker inhibition (MIC...

  19. Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea infusion is the most frequently worldwide consumed beverage next to water, with about 20 billion cups consumed daily. Artemisia annua leaves contain comparable levels of nutrients and mineral elements (dry matter basis) to many marketed tea (Camellia sinensis) leading us to suspect that this crop could also serve ...

  20. Variations in antimalarial components of Artemisia annua Linn from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Artemisia annua plant from the family Asteracea is a powerful antimalarial plant introduced to Uganda around 2003. In addition to the artemisinin component, the plant also contains flavonoids which work in synergy to artemisinin against malaria parasites. The plant also contains aromatic oils which repel ...

  1. Protective Role of Artemisia Afra Aqueous Extract on Tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in antioxidant capacity in the body as a result of oxidative stress play an important role in the development of diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. on antioxidant defense systems in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin–induced ...

  2. Phylogeny of Artemisia L. : Recent developments | Hayat | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus is divided into five large groups Absinthium DC., Artemisia L., Dracunculus Besser, Seriphidium Besser and Tridantatae (Rydb.) McArthur. Its phylogeny was based on the two hypothesized evolutionary trends, loss of fertility in the disc florets and loss of ray florets. Recently its molecular phylogeny based on ...

  3. Determination of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus and of the antifungal and antibacterial activities of Turkish Artemisia absinthium, A. dracunculus, Artemisia santonicum, and Artemisia spicigera essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Kotan, Recep; Mavi, Ahmet; Cakir, Ahmet; Ala, Arzu; Yildirim, Ali

    2005-11-30

    The essential oil isolated from Turkish tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC-MS. Thirty compounds representing 99.5% of total oil were identified. The predominant components in the oil were (Z)-anethole (81.0%), (Z)-beta-ocimene (6.5%), (E)-beta-ocimene (3.1%), limonene (3.1%), and methyleugenol (1.8%). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils isolated from A. dracunculus, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia santonicum, and Artemisia spicigera oils were also evaluated. In general, the oils exhibited potent antifungal activity at a wide spectrum on the growth of agricultural pathogenic fungi. Among the oils, the weakest antifungal activity was shown by the oil of A. dracunculus. In many cases, the oils of A. absinthium, A. santonicum, and A. spicigera completely inhibited the growth of some fungal species. As compared with antibacterial activities of all of tested oils, A. santonicum and A. spicigera oils showed antibacterial activities over a very wide spectrum. However, the essential oils tested showed lower inhibition zones than the inhibition zones of penicillin. In addition, antioxidant and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of tarragon oil were determined, and weak antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities were found in comparison to butylated hydroxytoluene.

  4. on in vitro callus initiation using leaf of artemisia annua

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Study was carried out to determine the effect of varying concentrations of auxin on callus initiation using the leaves. Artemisia annua as explants which were sterilized and inoculated into Murashig and Skoog basal medium supplemented with varying concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D).

  5. Peptides extracted from Artemisia herba alba have antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Ammonium sulfate precipitation, Artemisia herba alba, chromatography, Listeria monocytogenes, proteases, ultra-filtration. Abbreviations: AS-P: ammonium sulfate precipitate; MIC: minimum inhibitory concentration; PAMP: plant antimicrobial peptides ; PBC-E: phosphate buffer crude extract; RP-HPLC: reverse ...

  6. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... bacteria. 4595. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion pH under dark conditions on Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella ... among bacteria in some cases and stimulate the production of inhibitory substances in other cases. ...... under certain conditions, amino acids (glutamine,.

  7. Reproductive biology of Larrea tridentata: A comparison between core shrubland and isolated grassland plants at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary L. Pendleton; Burton K. Pendleton; Karen R. Wetherill; Terry Griswold

    2008-01-01

    Expansion of diploid creosote shrubs (Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville)) into grassland sites occurs exclusively through seed production. We compared the reproductive biology of Larrea shrubs located in a Chihuahuan desert shrubland with isolated shrubs well-dispersed into the semiarid grasslands at the Sevilleta...

  8. Response of a depleted sagebrush steppe riparian system to grazing control and woody plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren P. Clary; Nancy L. Shaw; Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab; John W. Kinney; Lynda C. Smithman

    1996-01-01

    To find out if a depleted riparian system in the sagebrush steppe of eastern Oregon would respond quickly to improved management, five management treatments were applied for 7 years, ranging from ungrazed to heavily grazed treatments, including in some cases, planting of woody species. While the results varied, all treatments were too limited to significantly restore...

  9. 76 FR 62087 - Draft Conservation Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment; Dunes Sagebrush Lizard, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Enhancement of Survival Permit under the Endangered Species Act (Act) of 1973, as amended. The permit... dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) by removing threats to the survival of the species and... species become listed in the future. The draft TCP Texas Conservation Plan and application for the...

  10. Tapping soil survey information for rapid assessment of sagebrush ecosystem resilience and resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy D. Maestas; Steven B. Campbell; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller

    2016-01-01

    A new ecologically-based approach to risk abatement has emerged that can aid land managers in grappling with escalating impacts of large-scale wildfire and invasive annual grasses in sagebrush ecosystems, particularly in the Great Basin. Specifically, ecosystem resilience and resistance (R&R) concepts have been more fully operationalized from regional...

  11. Sagebrush wildfire effects on soil chemistry: A temporal and spatial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    In sagebrush ecosystems, surface soil nutrient availability, particularly of N, often increases immediately following wildfire. However, little is known on how soil N availability and other nutrients, change over time post-wildfire. In October 2013, a wildfire approximately 30 km north of Reno, NV o...

  12. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: Implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; David I. Board; David A. Pyke; Bruce A. Roundy; James B. Grace; Eugene W. Schupp; Robin J. Tausch

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of pinon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species...

  13. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

  14. The Investigation of Three Species Belong To Artemisia L. (Asteraceae Grown Naturally In Turkey In Point Of Morphological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kürşat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the morphologcal features of Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss., Artemisia splendens Willd. and Artemisia caucasica Willd. grown naturally in Turkey and very close to each others in point of systematics are investigated. All taxa of genus Artemisia L. grown naturally in Turkey are located three subgenus (Artemisia, Dracunculus ve Seriphidium. Three species in this study are located subgenus Artemisia Less.. It were determined some new morphological features and differences which are lead to expansion of their descriptions in the Flora of Turkey. The detailed figures of important morphological features of these species are given for better recognition of their.

  15. Fire severity, sagebrush types, and soil regimes within large wildfires in greater sage-grouse population areas, 1984-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This table summarizes areas of burn severity, sagebrush biophysical types, and soil temperature/moisture regimes within large wildfires from 1984 to 2013 occuring...

  16. Creating of a plant compositions considering the Allelopathic activity of the Artemisia absinthium

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kornilova

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with Allelopathic impact of Artemisia absinthium L. on the growth and development of other kinds of medicinal plants. The effect of water extract of Artemisia absinthium L. on ge-rmination of seeds of medicinal plants has been studied. It has been determined, that extracts from Artemisia absinthium L. are characterized by significant Allelopathic activity and this kind can be sown from seed Calendula officinalis L., Lophanthus anisatus Benht., Hyssopus officinalis L, Salvia s...

  17. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Mongolia medicine Artemisia frigida and phylogenetic relationships with other plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuixian; Young, Hugh A; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yong Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome sequence will be useful for molecular ecology and molecular phylogeny

  18. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 2. Landscape level restoration decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Knick, Steven T.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2015-12-07

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2015) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a landscape-dependent bird that requires intact habitat and combinations of sagebrush and perennial grasses to exist. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals also have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrush-obligate animals.

  19. Predicting Forage Foodscapes with Spectroscopy and UAV Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. J.; Olsoy, P.; Forbey, J.; Glenn, N. F.; Burgess, M. A.; Rachlow, J. L.; Shipley, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    A major goal in conservation biology is to predict habitat use by animals. This goal requires methods for identifying and mapping habitat quality features such as concealment, nitrogen (N) and chemical defenses across different spatial scales. Remote sensing has been used for landscape-scale analysis of habitat features to explain the spatial use and selection of habitat by large herbivores. However, studies that directly link specific parameters of habitat quality to selection by wildlife are needed at the microsite-scale before landscape-scale mapping can be validated. Herbivores appear to make foraging decisions based on the nutritional quality of plants. For example, previous research has shown that sagebrush preferentially browsed by pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), a sagebrush specialist mammal, contain relatively higher amounts of crude protein and lower amounts of monoterpenes. Other research has shown that sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) select dwarf sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula and A. nova) over big sagebrush (A. tridentata subsp wyomingensis) for forage. In this study we examine the use of spectroscopy from the visible to shortwave infrared for predicting sagebrush nutritional quality, as measured by N (crude protein). Predictions are compared across instruments (FOSS NIRSystem 5000 and ASD FieldSpec Pro), sampling methods (i.e., dried ground leaves and fresh whole leaves), and species (dwarf and big sagebrush). We also build a foundation for spatial upscaling from whole leaf and individual shrubs to collective patches in a landscape by acquiring and classifying unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery in terms of sagebrush food types. The resultant 'foodscape' map concept will ultimately provide a tool for rapid assessment of the dietary quality of sagebrush and facilitate more effective conservation of herbivores that rely on sagebrush for food.

  20. Antifungal activity of essential oil from Artemisia afra Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundidza, M

    1993-07-01

    Artemisia afra is indigenous to the eastern highlands of Zimbabwe where it is used in folk medicine. Hydro-distilled volatile oil from the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antifungal activity against 10 fungal species using the dry weight method. The results obtained showed that the essential oil exhibited significant activity against Aspergillus ochraceus, Candida albicans, Alternaria alternata, Geotrichum candidum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrium and Aspergillus parasiticus.

  1. Anthelmintic properties of extracts from Artemisia plants against nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Afshan, K; Mirza, B; Miller, J E; Manan, A; Irum, S; Rizvi, S S R; Qayyum, M

    2015-06-01

    Artemisia plant genus, natural inhabitant of northern Punjab Pakistan, is well known for its anthelmintic properties; many Artemisia species have not been so far scientifically proved. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia indica and Artemisia roxburghiana against mixed infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study is first scientifically proven study on anthelmintic activity of A. indica and A. roxburghiana. Five different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.75 mg/mL) accompanied by negative control (PBS) and positive control (albendazole, 10%) were used to carry out the egg hatch inhibition assay, larval mortality assay and adult worm mortality assay. The Baermann technique was used first time in larval mortality assay and proved to be effective. The results revealed that methanolic extracts of both A. indica and A. roxburghiana, showed maximum anthelmintic activity at concentration of 50 mg/ml by egg hatch inhibition (85±21.2; 80±28.3), larvae mortality (18±2.8; 17±4.2) and adult worm mortality (8.5±2.1; 8±2.8) assays. However, at concentration of 50 mg/ml both plant extracts in comparison to albendazole showed statistically insignificant (p≤0.05) results. The A. indica showed higher anthelmintic activity at all concentrations as compared to A. roburghiana. It has been concluded both plants exhibit anthelmintic activity and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out to purify the active ingredients for anthelmintic activity. Moreover, the decoctions of these plants could be used to GINs after confirming anthelmintic properties through in vivo.

  2. New Polyphenols Identified in Artemisiae abrotani herba Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Baiceanu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia abrotanum L. (“southernwood” belongs to the Artemisia genus and it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of illnesses. Scarce data is available on the chemical composition of this medicinal plant, most research being focused on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of its essential oil. Our aim was to investigate the content and profile of polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives present in the Artemisiae abrotani herba extract. We conducted LC/MS analysis and we screened for 19 polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. We determined the total content of these compounds and we screened for antioxidant activity. Most polyphenol acids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified for the first time in this study. We found an original polyphenol distribution profile with high concentration of sinapic acid, rutin, quercetol, ferulic acid and patuletin. We measured the antioxidant activity, the ethanolic extract presenting a modest radical scavenging activity. The value of this study consists in its novelty as it adds new data on the chemical composition of A. abrotanum L. and it opens novel perspectives for medical and nutritional applications of this plant.

  3. New Polyphenols Identified in Artemisiae abrotani herba Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiceanu, Elisabeta; Vlase, Laurian; Baiceanu, Andrei; Nanes, Madalina; Rusu, Dan; Crisan, Gianina

    2015-06-15

    Artemisia abrotanum L. ("southernwood") belongs to the Artemisia genus and it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of illnesses. Scarce data is available on the chemical composition of this medicinal plant, most research being focused on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of its essential oil. Our aim was to investigate the content and profile of polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives present in the Artemisiae abrotani herba extract. We conducted LC/MS analysis and we screened for 19 polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. We determined the total content of these compounds and we screened for antioxidant activity. Most polyphenol acids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified for the first time in this study. We found an original polyphenol distribution profile with high concentration of sinapic acid, rutin, quercetol, ferulic acid and patuletin. We measured the antioxidant activity, the ethanolic extract presenting a modest radical scavenging activity. The value of this study consists in its novelty as it adds new data on the chemical composition of A. abrotanum L. and it opens novel perspectives for medical and nutritional applications of this plant.

  4. MICROMORPHOLOGY OF ACHENES OF THE ARTEMISIA SPECIES (ANTHEMIDEAE – ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Boyko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The achene surface structures (SEM of 58 species of Artemisia and the species: Neopallasia pectinata, Ajania pallasiana, Filifolium sibiricum, Leucanthemum vulgare, Matricaria recutita, M. matricarioides, as well as two species of Chrysanthemum (C. chanetii, C. coronarium are provided. The achene surface sculpture in Artemisia is determined by the complexes of mucilage containing cells located in the exocarp. Significant variation of pericarp surface sculpture was revealed in the species with wide distribution area – A. arctica and A. furcata. It is determined that Artemisia is rather uniform in its achene surface structure. None of the distinguished types of the achene surface structure is characteristic to any particular section or subgenus. Mucilage containing cell complexes are not a character of the genus, since similar cell complexes are typical for some other taxa of the tribe Anthemideae as well. However, the details of the sculpture discovered by means of SEM are good additional characters for identification of some species or particular groups of species.

  5. Comparison of the effects of Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium growing in western Anatolia against trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Ayşe; Döşkaya, Mert; Değirmenci, Aysu; Can, Hüseyin; Baykan, Sura; Uner, Ahmet; Başdemir, Gülçin; Zeybek, Ulvi; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2008-05-01

    Trichinellosis often causing diarrhea and more rarely fever, periorbital edema and myositis in human, is commonly treated with benzimidazole derivatives. The Artemisia genus has been found to be effective against a variety of parasites. In the present study, the efficacy against trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) of Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium was examined for the first time in rats. The results of trichinoscopy and artificial digestion, during the enteral (adult) phase of the illness show that 300 mg/kg doses of methanol extracts of the aerial parts of A. vulgaris and A. absinthium reduced the larval rate by 75.6% and 63.5% in tongue, 53.4% and 37.7% in diaphragm, 67.8% and 46.2% in quadriceps, and 66.7% and 60.5% in biceps-triceps muscles of rats, respectively. Furthermore, during the parenteral (encapsulated larvae) phase, 600 mg/kg doses of A. vulgaris and A. absinthium extracts decreased the larval rate by 66.4% and 59.9% in tongue, 57.4% and 50.0% in diaphragm, 47.6% and 43.7% in quadriceps, 60.2% and 46.4% in biceps-triceps muscles of rats, respectively. Analysis of antibody also showed that A. vulgaris significantly reduced the antibody response (P<0.05) during the enteral and parenteral phases. Thus, the results of the present study revealed that A. vulgaris could be an alternative drug against trichinellosis.

  6. Comparison of radionuclide levels in soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    Soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogam, and small mammal samples were collected and analyzed for cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium 239/240, technetium-99, and iodine-129 from 1981 to 1986 at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as part of site characterization and environmental monitoring activities. Samples were collected on the 200 Areas Plateau, downwind from ongoing waste management activities. Plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals are media that are not routinely utilized in monitoring or characterization efforts for determination of radionuclide concentrations. Studies at Hanford, other US Department of Energy sites, and in eastern Europe have indicated that plant litter and cryptogams may serve as effective ``natural`` monitors of air quality. Plant litter in this study consists of fallen leaves from sagebrush and ``cryptogams`` describes that portion of the soil crust composed of mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi. Comparisons of cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations in the soil, sagebrush, litter, and cryptogams revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) levels in plant litter and cryptogams. Technetium-99 values were the highest in sagebrush and litter. Plutonium-238 and 239/40 and iodine-129 concentrations never exceeded 0.8 pCi/gm in all media. No evidence of any significant amounts of any radionuclides being incorporated into the small mammal community was discovered. The data indicate that plant litter and cryptogams may be better, indicators of environmental quality than soil or vegetation samples. Augmenting a monitoring program with samples of litter and cryptogams may provide a more accurate representation of radionuclide environmental uptake and/or contamination levels in surrounding ecosystems. The results of this study may be applied directly to other radioecological monitoring conducted at other nuclear sites and to the monitoring of other pollutants.

  7. Artemisia copa aqueous extract as vasorelaxant and hypotensive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzalczany, Susana; Moscatelli, Valeria; Ferraro, Graciela

    2013-06-21

    Artemisia copa Phil. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used in traditional medicine in Argentina. The vasorelaxant and hypotensive activities of the aqueous extract of Artemisia copa have been investigated. The in vitro effect of the extract and isolated compounds from Artemisia copa was investigated using isolated rat aortic rings. The acute effect caused by the intravenous (i.v.) infusion (0.1-300mg/kg) on blood pressure and heart rate was evaluated in spontaneous hypertensive rats. In addition, a phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed by HPLC. Artemisia copa had a relaxant effect in endothelium-intact aortic rings that had been pre-contracted with 10(-7)M phenylephrine (Emax=96.7±1.3%, EC50=1.1mg/ml), 10(-5)M 5-hydroxytriptamine (Emax=96.7±3.5%, EC50=1.5mg/ml) and 80mM KCl (Emax=97.9± 4.4%, EC50=1.6mg/ml). In denuded aortic rings contracted by phenylephrine, a similar pattern was observed (Emax=92.7±6.5%, EC50=1.8mg/ml). l-NAME, indomethacin, tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide were not able to block the relaxation induced by the extract. Nevertheless, the pre-treatment with Artemisia copa attenuated the CaCl2-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner (Emax: 86% of inhibition for 3mg/ml and 52% de-inhibition for 1mg/ml). This pre-treatment also induced a significant attenuation of the norepinephrine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner (Emax: 72.7% of inhibition for 3mg/ml and 27% de inhibition for 1mg/ml) in a Ca(2+) free medium. Upon analyzing the composition of the extract, the presence of p-coumaric acid, isovitexin, luteolin and chrysoeriol were found. Luteolin (CE50: 1.5μg/ml), chrysoeriol (CE50: 13.2μg/ml) and p-coumaric acid (CE50: 95.2μg/ml), isolated from the aqueous extract, caused dilatation of thoracic aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Artemisia copa administered i.v. also induced a decrease in the mean arterial pressure but did not affect the heart rate in hypertensive

  8. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 1. Concepts for understanding and applying restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2015-10-26

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a landscape-dependent bird that requires intact habitat and combinations of sagebrush and perennial grasses to exist. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals also have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrushobligate animals. This restoration handbook is the first in a three-part series on restoration of sagebrush ecosystems. In Part 1, we discuss concepts surrounding landscape and restoration ecology of sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse that habitat managers and restoration practitioners need to know to make informed decisions regarding where and how to restore specific areas. We will describe the plant dynamics of sagebrush steppe ecosystems and their responses to major disturbances, fire, and defoliation. We will introduce the concepts of ecosystem resilience to disturbances and resistance to invasions of annual grasses within sagebrush steppe. An introduction to soils and ecological site information will provide insights into the specific plants that can be restored in a location. Soil temperature and moisture regimes are described as a tool for determining resilience and resistance and the potential for various restoration actions. Greater sage-grouse are considered landscape birds that require large areas of intact sagebrush steppe; therefore, we describe concepts of landscape ecology that aid our decisions regarding habitat restoration. We provide a brief overview of

  9. Essai de germination et de croissance de Artemisia annua L. au Niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INRAN de Kollo, et a porté sur la germination, croissance, développement de Artemisia annua (l'hybride F2 et M), plante qui a des vertus anti-paludique. Cette étude a pour objectif d'évaluer les meilleures conditions de culture de artemisia annua ...

  10. The influence of Artemisia Absinthium on neighbouring plants. (An essay of Experimental Plant Sociology No. III)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funke, G.L.

    1943-01-01

    Eighteen species of plants, most of which were chosen at random, were sown beside a hedge of Artemisia Absinthium; they were severely injured and in one ease ( Levisticum officinale) even killed by the chemical excretions of the latter within a distance of ± 100 cm; seedlings of Artemisia

  11. Composición química y efecto antibacteriano in vitro de extractos de larrea tridentata, origanum vulgare, artemisa ludoviciana y ruta graveolens

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Delgadillo Ruíz; Rómulo Bañuelos Valenzuela; Olivia Delgadillo Ruíz; Mónica Silva Vega; Perla Gallegos Flores

    2017-01-01

    Introducción . Los extractos de algunas plantas han demostrado tener propiedades antimicr o bianas relacionadas a ciertos compuestos químicos como son el timol, carvacrol, limoneno, linalol y terpineno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la concentración de estos compue s tos en los extractos de Larrea tridentata , Origanum vulgare , Artemisa ludoviciana y Ruta graveolens ; así como evaluar su efecto antimicrobiano en Escherichia coli ,...

  12. Genome size variation in the Artemisia arborescens complex (Asteraceae, Anthemideae) and its cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Twibell, John D; Vallès, Joan

    2006-03-01

    Different wild Mediterranean populations of Artemisia arborescens from diverse locations representing its geographical distribution, as well as some of its well-known cultivars and some specimens cultivated as ornamentals in gardens, streets, roads and nurseries, were analysed for genome size. Other closely related species endemic to Macaronesia, Artemisia canariensis, Artemisia argentea, and Artemisia gorgonum, were also analysed, and their nuclear DNA amount has been related to the biogeography of this group of species. Additionally, 5 populations of the closely related Artemisia absinthium were analysed to establish comparisons. Measurements acquired by flow cytometry ranged from 8.29 to 11.61 pg for 2C values. Statistically significant differences of 2C nuclear DNA amounts with respect to factors such as insularity or domestication have been detected. However, quite a low intraspecific genome size variation has been found in these species. Furthermore, the study also addressed the possible hybrid origins and possible misidentifications of some of the supposed cultivars of A. arborescens.

  13. Shrub-inhabiting insects of the 200 Area Plateau, southcentral Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This study characterizes the insects (including spiders) associated with major shrubs of the 200 Area Plateau on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus sp.) and hopsage (Grayia spinosa) were the three shrubs included in the study. Hemiptera (true bugs) and homoptera (bugs) were the two groups most abundant on sagebrush. Homoptera and Araneida (spiders) were the common inhabitants of rabbitbrush, and Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Coleoptera (beetles), and Araneida the taxa most frequently collected from hopsage. A discussion of the effects of insects on western native shrubs is included. None of the insect populations appeared to threaten the stability of shrub stands, which is important because of the erodability of 200 Area soils.

  14. W-519 Sagebrush Mitigation Project FY-2004 Final Review and Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes activities conducted as mitigation for loss of sagebrush-steppe habitats due to Project W-519, the construction of the infrastructure for the Tank Waste Remediation System Vitrification Plant. The focus of this report is to provide a review and final status of mitigation actions performed through FY2004. Data collected since FY1999 have been included where appropriate. The Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project W-519 prescribed three general actions to be performed as mitigation for the disturbance of approximately 40 ha (100 acres) of mature sagebrush-steppe habitat. These actions included: (1) transplanting approximately 130,000 sagebrush seedlings on the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE); (2) rectification of the new transmission line corridor via seeding with native grasses and sagebrush; and (3) research on native plant species with a goal of increasing species diversity in future mitigation or restoration actions. Nearly 130,000 Wyoming big sagebrush seedlings where planted on ALE during FY2000 and FY2001. About 39,000 of those seedlings were burned during the 24-Command Fire of June 2000. The surviving and subsequent replanting has resulted in about 91,000 seedlings that were planted across four general areas on ALE. A 50% survival rate at any monitoring period was defined as the performance standard in the MAP for this project. Data collected in 2004 indicate that of the over 5000 monitored plants, 51.1% are still alive, and of those the majority are thriving and blooming. These results support the potential for natural recruitment and the ultimate goal of wildlife habitat replacement. Thus, the basic performance standard for sagebrush survival within the habitat compensation planting has been met. Monitoring activities conducted in 2004 indicate considerable variation in seedling survival depending on the type of plant material, site conditions, and to a lesser extent, treatments performed at the time of planting

  15. Loss of sagebrush ecosystems and declining bird populations in the Intermountain West: Priority research issues and information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Sagebrush lands in the Intermountain West are declining rapidly in quality and extent. Consequently, populations of many bird species dependent on these ecosystems also are declining. The greater sage-grouse has been petitioned for listing as a threatened and endangered species, and other species of sagebrush-obligate birds have special conservation status in most states. We identified the primary issues and information needs during a multi-agency workshop, conducted in response to concerns by management agencies related to declining bird population trends in sagebrush habitats. Priority needs were to (1) obtain a better understanding of bird response to habitat and landscape features, (2) develop monitoring designs to sample habitats and bird populations, (3) determine the effects of land use on sagebrush habitats and dependent bird species, and (4) identify linkages between breeding and wintering ranges. This agenda will identify causes and mechanisms of population declines in birds dependent on sagebrush ecosystems and will lead to better management of the ecosystems upon which they depend.

  16. Effect of artemisia species on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via estrogen receptor-related pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunjeong; Kim, Gunhee

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of Artemisia species through the inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in breast carcinoma cells. To evaluate the anticancer activity of methanol extracts of eight Artemisia species (Artemisia stolonifera, Artemisia selengensis, Artemisia japonica, Artemisia Montana, Artemisia capillaris, Artemisia sylvatica, Artemisia keiskeana, and Artemisia scoparia), we first investigated the proliferation of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells exposed to 5 or 200 g/mL for 72 h. Apoptosis induction was assessed by an Annexin V binding assay in cells exposed to extracts at a high concentration (200 g/mL). To verify the mechanism of apoptosis, ER expression and its related signaling was investigated using an immunoblot assay under the same conditions. MCF-7 cells showed the strongest antiproliferative response to the tested extracts. However, a biphasic effect was observed: the extracts inhibited proliferation at high concentrations whereas they stimulated it at low ones. ER expression was similarly modulated by the extracts. However, all of the extracts induced apoptosis at a high concentration (200 g/mL). Compared to the control level, exposure to the extracts resulted in a remarkable increase in the shift of cell populations. The present study suggests that the tested Artemisia species exerted their anticancer effects through the induction of apoptosis via an ER-related pathway.

  17. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  18. Tests de germination et de croissance de Artemisia annua L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a porté sur la germination et la croissance de la variété améliorée anamed de l'armoise annuelle, Artemisia annua L. une espèce antipaludique d'origine chinoise. L'objectif était d'identifier la meilleure technique de production des plants de l'espèce au Bénin et en Afrique. A cet effet des tests de ...

  19. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antifertility Effect of Artemisia kopetdaghensis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliaee, Davood; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher; Oliaee, Naiime; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia Kopetdaghensis. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. Kopetdaghensis on reproduction of female rats. The pregnant rats were treated (i.p.) with vehicle or 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. Kopetdaghensis hydroalcoholic extract from the 2nd to 8th day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Also, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibro...

  20. Microbicidal effect of solar radiation (sodis) combined with artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Restrepo, Mariana; Orrego-Mejia, Leidy Viviana; Muñoz-Arango, Diana Carolina; Lozano-Andrade, Carlos Neftaly; Guzman-Ortiz, Diana Carolina; Escobar-Restrepo, Maria Cecilia; Arcos-Arango, Yamilet; Aguirre-Ramirez, Nestor Jaime; Lutgen, Pierre; Mejia-Ruiz, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the SODIS and SODIS method combined with Artemisia annua (SODIS+A. annua) as an alternative for water disinfection in communities without access to potable water. The efficiency of the method in removing E. coli, B. subtilis, E. faecalis and S. typhimurium was determined using PET bottles with sterile distilled water and an initial concentration of 1x106 UFC/ml of each microorganism. For SODIS+A. annua a 10% (v/v) infusion of A. annua was added; the bottles were exposed t...

  1. Gallic acid and tannase accumulation during fungal solid state culture of a tannin-rich desert plant (Larrea tridentata Cov.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Cueto, B; Luis, M; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Rodríguez, R; Aguilera, A; Aguilar, C N

    2007-02-01

    Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Mocino ex DC.) Coville, also known as Larrea, gobernadora, chaparral, or creosote bush, is a shrubby plant which dominates some areas of the desert southwest in the United States and Northern Mexico and its use has not been exploited and standardized. In this study, gobernadora was studied to evaluate its potential use for support of solid state culture. Influence of two minimal media added with gobernadora powder as the sole carbon source and inducer of tannin-degrading enzymes was evaluated. Cultures were initially 70% moisture, had a pH of 5.5 and were inoculated with Aspergillus niger Aa-20 at 2 x 10(7) spores per gram of media. Analysis of pH, moisture, tannin uptake, gallic acid accumulation and tannase production were evaluated. Results indicated a high content of condensed (39.4%dm) and hydrolysable (22.8%dm) tannins. Invasion capacity of fungal growth was of 0.15 mmh(-1). Tannase production reached values of 1040 Ul(-1) at 43 h of culture. During the first 48 h of culture, the concentration of gallic acid accumulation was 0.33 gl(-1). Gobernadora is a potential source of gallic acid and tannase production by solid state culture; however, further optimization of the process is needed.

  2. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyal, Bharat; Li, Linfeng; Bains, Trpta; Debnath, Anjan; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2017-08-01

    Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  3. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bashyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia and colon (E. histolytica causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  4. Protective effect of artemisia asiatica extract against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyuk Jai; Jeong, Eui Kyun; Kim, Seong Su; Lee, Ji Hwan; Oh, Mi Young; Kang, Ki Sung; Kwan, Hak Cheol; Song, Kyung Il; Eom, Dae Woon; Han, Duck Jong

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Artemisia asiatica was reported to possess antioxidative and cytoprotective actions in various experiments. Ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a major problem in kidney transplant, and the inflammatory response to ischemia-reperfusion injury exacerbates the resultant renal injury. In the present study, we investigated whether an extract of Artemisia asiatica exhibits renoprotective effects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury in mice. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by bilateral renal pedicle occlusion for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 48 hours. An extract of Artemisia asiatica (100 mg/kg oral) was administered 4 days before ischemia-reperfusion injury. Sham operation and phosphate-buffered saline were used as controls. Blood and renal tissues were evaluated at 48 hours after ischemiareperfusion injury. Treatment with an extract of Artemisia asiatica significantly decreased blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine levels, and kidney tubular injury (P ≤ .05). Western blot showed that an extract of Artemisia asiatica significantly increased the level of heme oxygenase-1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 at 48 hours after ischemia-reperfusion injury and attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase. An extract of Artemisia asiatica improves acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing inflammation and apoptosis. These findings suggest that an extract of Artemisia asiatica is a potential therapeutic agent against acute ischemia-induced renal damage.

  5. Allergenicity of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is proportional to its mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonotte-Varly, C

    2015-11-01

    Bee product mugwort is identified as being at the origin of allergic accidents but the biological potency of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is not well known. In this experiment, Artemisia mass was identified in bee pollen mass and after having calculated the proportion of Artemisia using the bee pollen melissopalynology spectrum. Skin reactivity to Artemisia was assessed by measuring wheal diameters (W) from skin prick tests using three serial dilutions of bee pollen on 11 allergic patients to Artemisia, in order to calculate the relationship between Artemisia mass (Massartemisia) in bee pollen and skin reactivity. The dose-response power regression curve (Wartemisia)=3.328 (Massartemisia)0.297 (R2=0.9947) and the linear function Log10 (Wartemisia)=0.297 (Log10 (Massartemisia)+0.520 (R=0.9974)) were established using a bee pollen sample with 0.246 mg of Artemisia pollen per mg. Mugwort allergens seem to be little or not altered by bee secretions and bee pollen retains its allergenic capacity. To our knowledge this is the first time it has been shown that skin reactivity of patients allergic to mugwort is proportional to the absolute mugwort mass contained in the bee pollen.

  6. [Onset feature and efficacy of early interventional treatment of Artemisia pollinosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yuhui; Fan, Erzhong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Luo

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the clinical feature and treatment methods of Artemisia pollinosis. Skin prick test results of 14 426 cases from Beijing Tongren hospital and pollen concentration of Beijing observatory from 2007 to 2011 were analyzed to identify the clinical feature of Artemisia pollinosis patients and its correlation with the pollen concentration. Patients were given leukotriene receptor antagonists (Montelukast) for 2 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of mometasone furoate nasal spray (EIT group: n = 21), or only 4 weeks of mometasone furoate nasal spray (POT group: n = 16). The nasal symptom score was compared between 2 groups.SPSS 16.0 software was used to analyze the data. Artemisia pollinosis accounted for 30.8% (4 442/14 426) of all SPT positive allergic rhinitis patients, and most Artemisia SPT positive results were strong positive(3 793/4 442, 85.4%); onset age peak of Artemisia pollinosis patients was at the age of 19 to 30, onset time concentrated in August to September, was consistent with the peak period of Artemisia pollen concentration; EIT treatment using leukotriene receptor antagonists two weeks before pollen season significantly improved sneeze, sniveling and rhinocnesmus symptoms (t value was 3.28, 3.92, 3.09, respectively, all P 0.05). Artemisia pollen is the main pollen allergen in Beijing, EIT treatment was effective to pollinosis.

  7. Anticancer, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory activity of Artemisia species in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunjeong; Park, Heesook; Lee, Jehyuk; Kim, Gunhee

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiobesity activity of methanol extracts of eight distinct species: Artemisia Stolonifera (AST), Artemisia Selengensis (ASE), Artemisia Japonica, Artemisia Montana, Artemisia Capillaris (ACA), Artemisia Sylvatica (ASY), Artemisia Keiskeana (AKE), and Artemisia Scoparia (ASC) in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was investigated in human breast cancer estrogen receptor-a positive T47D and negative HS578T cell lines exposed to the extracts at various concentrations (5-200 mg/ mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. For evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, inhibition of nitrite synthesis was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cultures of macrophages cells exposed to 10, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL for 24 h. The antiobesity activity of the extracts was determined as triglyceride content and by a lipolysis assay in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells exposed to the extracts for 72 h at the same concentrations described above. All extracts showed similar antiproliferative activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HS578T cells. Although extracts at lower concentrations and shorter times stimulated growth of T47D cells, the antiproliferative effects of the extracts on T47D cells at higher concentrations (> 100 mg/ mL) for 72 h were significantly greater than those of HS578T cells. In case of anti-inflammatory activity, some extracts (AST, ASE, ACA, and AKE) significantly reduced nitric oxide production at higher concentrations in the presence of LPS compared with that in control cells. Antiobesity activity was showed with reducing lipid accumulation significantly (> 50%) at concentrations above 100 mg/mL in most extracts (except AST and ACA). Additionally, AKE and ASC increased lipolysis by 11%-24% compared with that in the control. Artemisia spp. demonstrates potential as bioactive food supplements.

  8. Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Lutz, Daíse; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Kolodziejczyk, Paul P

    2008-05-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from aerial parts of seven wild sages from Western Canada -Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia biennis Willd., Artemisia cana Pursh, Artemisia dracunculus L., Artemisia frigida Willd., Artemisia longifolia Nutt. and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 110 components were identified accounting for 71.0-98.8% of the oil composition. High contents of 1,8-cineole (21.5-27.6%) and camphor (15.9-37.3%) were found in Artemisia cana, A. frigida, A. longifolia and A. ludoviciana oils. The oil of A. ludoviciana was also characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with a 5-ethenyltetrahydro-5-methyl-2-furanyl moiety, of which davanone (11.5%) was the main component identified. A. absinthium oil was characterized by high amounts of myrcene (10.8%), trans-thujone (10.1%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (26.4%). A. biennis yielded an oil rich in (Z)-beta-ocimene (34.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (40.0%) and the acetylenes (11.0%) (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers. A. dracunculus oil contained predominantly phenylpropanoids such as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and methyl eugenol (35.8%). Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans), dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger. A. biennis oil was the most active against dermatophytes, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger, and A. absinthium oil the most active against Staphylococcus strains. In addition, antioxidant (beta-carotene/linoleate model) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were determined, and weak activities were found for these oils.

  9. Toxicological and mutagenic analysis of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Galehdari, Hamid; Zaree, Zahra; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Varga, Balazs; Haines, David; Bombicz, Mariann; Tosaki, Arpad; Juhasz, Bela

    2013-01-01

    Mutagenicity and liver toxicity of the herb tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) were evaluated using single cell gel (comet) electrophoresis. Ten microlitres aliquots of peripheral venous human blood were incubated with tarragon extract, saline, or the mutagen sodium dichromate. Cell suspensions dispersed in low-melting agarose were electrophoresed in ethidium bromide. The resulting DNA migration trails were obtained using fluorescent microscopy at 400× magnification, and graded according to the mutagenicity index (MI) for each cell incubation condition. The in vivo liver toxicity of Artemisia dracunculus was assessed in the blood of mice treated orally with the extract of the herb, using alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as liver function indicators. Liver morphology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining of liver tissue. The present study demonstrated a direct correlation between tarragon extract dosage and three major outcome variables: MI; serum liver enzyme activity; and liver histopathology. These outcomes are possibly due to the presence in tarragon of methylchavicol and other genotoxic compounds. These findings provide a preliminary guide for risk assessment of tarragon in diet and in possible therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Artemisia biennis Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mojarrab*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The genus Artemisia contains over 250 species all over the world. A. biennis Willd is one of the species which grows wildly in Iran. Camphor and (E-beta-farnesene have been reported as the major components of the essential oil from A. biennis. In spite of the presence of a rather wide range of reported bioactivities there is no previous phytochemical study on  A. biennis. Methods: The plant was collected from Zoshk (Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Extraction was done by maceration method using petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and equal amounts of water and ethanol (hydroethanolic extract, respectively. A combination of solid phase extraction (SPE and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC of the hydroethanolic extract was used to purify the compounds. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic means, including MS and 1HNMR. Results: Three known flavonoids, luteolin, kaempferol and apigenin were isolated and identified from the hydroethanolic extract. Conclusion: Our results are in good agreement with dominant presence of derivatives of the flavones luteolin and apigenin in the genus Artemisia which has been previously reported .

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26784667

  12. Multi-model comparison highlights consistency in predicted effect of warming on a semi-arid shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Katherine M.; Curtis, Caroline; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradley, Bethany A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Poulter, Benjamin; Adler, Peter B.

    2018-01-01

    A number of modeling approaches have been developed to predict the impacts of climate change on species distributions, performance, and abundance. The stronger the agreement from models that represent different processes and are based on distinct and independent sources of information, the greater the confidence we can have in their predictions. Evaluating the level of confidence is particularly important when predictions are used to guide conservation or restoration decisions. We used a multi-model approach to predict climate change impacts on big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the dominant plant species on roughly 43 million hectares in the western United States and a key resource for many endemic wildlife species. To evaluate the climate sensitivity of A. tridentata, we developed four predictive models, two based on empirically derived spatial and temporal relationships, and two that applied mechanistic approaches to simulate sagebrush recruitment and growth. This approach enabled us to produce an aggregate index of climate change vulnerability and uncertainty based on the level of agreement between models. Despite large differences in model structure, predictions of sagebrush response to climate change were largely consistent. Performance, as measured by change in cover, growth, or recruitment, was predicted to decrease at the warmest sites, but increase throughout the cooler portions of sagebrush's range. A sensitivity analysis indicated that sagebrush performance responds more strongly to changes in temperature than precipitation. Most of the uncertainty in model predictions reflected variation among the ecological models, raising questions about the reliability of forecasts based on a single modeling approach. Our results highlight the value of a multi-model approach in forecasting climate change impacts and uncertainties and should help land managers to maximize the value of conservation investments.

  13. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irum, Shamaila; Ahmed, Haroon; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra; Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna; Qayyum, Mazhar; Simsek, Sami

    2015-09-15

    Current study was designed to evaluate in vivo and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus in comparison with ivermectin to investigate the effect of plant extracts on survival of infective L3 and adults under in vitro condition. Plant extracts were given to H. contortus infected sheep orally and it was infected with L3 stage of H. contortus at dose of 5000 larvae/sheep. Total of 25-30 larvae were incubated with plant extracts in PBS alone and ivermectin at different concentration used as positive control. It was recorded that there is a significant decrease in fecal egg count (FEC) after post-treatment period for both plants. The highest fecal egg count reduction for A. vestita was 87.2% at 100mg/kg while for A. maritima it was 84.5% on day 28 post-treatment. Investigated extracts indicated significant activity against larvae and adult worms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Restoring and rehabilitating sagebrush habitats In Knick, S.T., Connelly, J.W., eds., Greater Sage-Grouse: Ecology and Conservation of a Landscape Species and Its Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Knick, S.T.; Connelly, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Less than half of the original habitat of the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha-sianus) currently exists. Some has been perma-nently lost to farms and urban areas, but the remaining varies in condition from high quality to no longer adequate. Restoration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) grassland ecosystems may be pos-sible for resilient lands. However, Greater Sage-Grouse require a wide variety of habitats over large areas to complete their life cycle. Effective restoration will require a regional approach for prioritizing and identifying appropriate options across the landscape. A landscape triage method is recommended for prioritizing lands for restora-tion. Spatial models can indicate where to protect and connect intact quality habitat with other simi-lar habitat via restoration. The ecological site con-cept of land classification is recommended for characterizing potential habitat across the region along with their accompanying state and transi-tion models of plant community dynamics. These models assist in identifying if passive, manage-ment-based or active, vegetation manipulation?based restoration might accomplish the goals of improved Greater Sage-Grouse habitat. A series of guidelines help formulate questions that manag-ers might consider when developing restoration plans: (1) site prioritization through a landscape triage; (2) soil verification and the implications of soil features on plant establishment success; (3) a comparison of the existing plant community to the potential for the site using ecological site descriptions; (4) a determination of the current successional status of the site using state and transition models to aid in predicting if passive or active restoration is necessary; and (5) implemen-tation of post-treatment monitoring to evaluate restoration effectiveness and post-treatment man-agement implications to restoration success.

  15. Influence of habitat heterogeneity on the distribution of larval Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) at two spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Close, David A.

    2004-01-01

    1. Spatial patterns in channel morphology and substratum composition at small (1a??10 metres) and large scales (1a??10 kilometres) were analysed to determine the influence of habitat heterogeneity on the distribution and abundance of larval lamprey. 2. We used a nested sampling design and multiple logistic regression to evaluate spatial heterogeneity in the abundance of larval Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and habitat in 30 sites (each composed of twelve 1-m2 quadrat samples) distributed throughout a 55-km section of the Middle Fork John Day River, OR, U.SA. Statistical models predicting the relative abundance of larvae both among sites (large scale) and among samples (small scale) were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to identify the 'best approximating' models from a set of a priori candidate models determined from the literature on larval lamprey habitat associations. 3. Stream habitat variables predicted patterns in larval abundance but played different roles at different spatial scales. The abundance of larvae at large scales was positively associated with water depth and open riparian canopy, whereas patchiness in larval occurrence at small scales was associated with low water velocity, channel-unit morphology (pool habitats), and the availability of habitat suitable for burrowing. 4. Habitat variables explained variation in larval abundance at large and small scales, but locational factors, such as longitudinal position (river km) and sample location within the channel unit, explained additional variation in the logistic regression model. The results emphasise the need for spatially explicit analysis, both in examining fish habitat relationships and in developing conservation plans for declining fish populations.

  16. PRODUCTION OF THE NEW ANTIMALARIAL DRUG ARTEMISININ IN SHOOT CULTURES OF ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; LUERS, JFJ; VANUDEN, W; PRAS, N; MALINGRE, TM; ALFERMANN, AW

    From aseptically grown Artemisia annua plantlets, shoot cultures were initiated. Using different concentrations of auxine, cytokinine and sucrose, a suitable culture medium was developed, with respect to the growth of the shoots and their artemisinin accumulation. Nitrate concentration and

  17. Trichome dynamics and artemisinin accumulation during development and senescence of Artemisia annua leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.; Schenk, E.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verstappen, F.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide and an important antimalarial drug produced in Artemisia annua. To unravel the diverse processes determining artemisinin yield in A. annua crops, artemisinin accumulation during the development of individual leaves was studied in two field

  18. Flower morphology and development in Artemisia annua, a medicinal plant used as a treatment against malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia annua produces a wide spectrum of bioactive phytochemicals that possess pharmacological properties including antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against multi-drug resistant Plasmodium fal...

  19. Ethnopharmacology in overdrive: the remarkable anti-HIV activity of Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbe, Andrea; Seibert, Isabell; Klimkait, Thomas; van der Kooy, Frank

    2012-06-14

    Artemisia annua contains the well-known antimalarial compound artemisinin, which forms the backbone of the global malaria treatment regime. In African countries a tea infusion prepared from Artemisia annua has been used for the treatment of malaria only for the past 10-20 years. Several informal claims in Africa exist that the Artemisia annua tea infusions are also able to inhibit HIV. Since HIV is a relatively newly emerged disease, the claims, if substantiated, could provide a very good example of "ethnopharmacology in overdrive". The objective of this study was to provide quantitative scientific evidence that the Artemisia annua tea infusion exhibits anti-HIV activity through in vitro studies. A second objective was to determine if artemisinin plays a direct or indirect (synergistic) role in any observed activity. This was done by the inclusion of a chemically closely related species, Artemisia afra, known not to contain any artemisinin in our studies. Validated cellular systems were used to test Artemisia annua tea samples for anti-HIV activity. Two independent tests with different formats (an infection format and a co-cultivation format) were used. Samples were also tested for cellular toxicity against the human cells used in the assays. The Artemisia annua tea infusion was found to be highly active with IC(50) values as low as 2.0 μg/mL. Moreover we found that artemisinin was inactive at 25 μg/mL and that a chemically related species Artemisia afra (not containing artemisinin) showed a similar level of activity. This indicates that the role of artemisinin, directly or indirectly (synergism), in the observed activity is rather limited. Additionally, no cellular toxicity was seen for the tea infusion at the highest concentrations tested. This study provides the first in vitro evidence of anti-HIV activity of the Artemisia annua tea infusion. We also report for the first time on the anti-HIV activity of Artemisia afra although this was not an objective of this

  20. Composición química y efecto antibacteriano in vitro de extractos de larrea tridentata, origanum vulgare, artemisa ludoviciana y ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Delgadillo Ruíz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción . Los extractos de algunas plantas han demostrado tener propiedades antimicr o bianas relacionadas a ciertos compuestos químicos como son el timol, carvacrol, limoneno, linalol y terpineno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la concentración de estos compue s tos en los extractos de Larrea tridentata , Origanum vulgare , Artemisa ludoviciana y Ruta graveolens ; así como evaluar su efecto antimicrobiano en Escherichia coli , Acinetoba c ter baumanii , Pseudomona sp y Staphyloc o ccus aureus . Método . Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación simple empleando alcohol etílico como solvente, la composición química se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gases. La actividad antimicrobia na de cada uno de los extractos de plantas se realizó por los métodos difusión en pozo y difusión en disco. Resultados . Las bacterias mostraron diferentes grados de sensibilidad a los extractos, prese n tando inhibición de crecimiento S. aureus con el extra cto de O. vulgare y R. graveolens , mientras que la bacteria Pseudomona sp. , con los extracto s de A. ludoviciana, L. tridentata y O. vulgare . Discusión . La mayor concentración de timol y carvacrol se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y L. tridentata . El compuesto linalol se encontró en una proporción mayor en O. vulgare y en menor proporción en A. ludoviciana . Limoneno se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y R. graveolens . De las cuatro plantas evaluadas, el extracto de L. tridentata fue mejor , de bido a que presenta la mayor inhibición en comparación con los otros extractos; y con un efecto similar a los aceites empleados como control. La técnica de dif u sión en disco, permitió observar mejor los efectos inhibitorios de los extra c tos y los aceites s obre cada una de las bacterias empleadas en comparación con el método de difusión en pozo.

  1. Artemisia arborescens "Powis Castle" extracts and α-thujone prevent fruit infestation by codling moth neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Cory; Mollhagen, Ariel; Mollhagen, Noelle; Pszczolkowski, Maciej A

    2015-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of the apple. The potential of plant-derived semiochemicals for codling moth control is poorly studied. To evaluate the potential of crude extracts of five plants from the Asteraceae family: Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia arborescens L. "Powis Castle", Artemisia annua L., and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. to prevent apple infestation by C. pomonella larvae and to identify the deterrent(s) in these plants. Artemisia dried leaves were extracted in v/v mixture of 80% ethanol, 10% isopropanol, and 10% of methanol, and the extracts were analyzed using high-performance thin layer chromatography. Preference of fruit treated with test solutions (Artemisia extracts or α-thujone) versus fruit treated with solvent was studied using choice assays. α-Thujone was detected in A. arborescens extract at a concentration of 77.4 ± 2.4 mg/g of dry tissue, localized between Rf 0.75 and 0.79 and was absent from crude extracts of remaining Artemisia species. Material from each extract in the zone between Rf 0.75 and 0.79 was removed from chromatographic plates and tested for feeding deterrence. Only the material from A. arborescens showed feeding deterrent properties. Minimum concentrations that prevented fruit infestation were 10 mg/ml for α-thujone and 1 mg/ml for A. arborescens crude extract. Artemisia arborescens contains chemicals that prevent apple infestation by codling moth neonates. Thujone is one of these chemicals, but it is not the only constituent of A. arborescens crude extract that prevents fruit infestation by codling moth neonates.

  2. Persistent metabolic acidosis and severe diarrhoea due to Artemisia absinthium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Ozel, Ahmet

    2014-09-01

    Herbs have long been used in the treatment of various disorders in traditional medicine since ancient age. Artemisia absinthium, one of these herbs, has traditionally been used in different societies for antibiotic, antiparasitic, antifungal and antipyretic purposes. Here, we report a poisoning case of a 10-month-old male infant progressing with severe diarrhoea and persistent metabolic acidosis after ingesting home-prepared Artemisia absinthium extract which was given for the treatment of common cold.

  3. Searching for a trace of Artemisia campestris pollen in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Grewling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determinate whether Artemisia campestris was present in the vicinity of 8 pollen monitoring stations in Poland by examining temporal variations in daily average airborne Artemisia pollen data recorded by Hirst type volumetric traps. Three day moving averages of airborne Artemisia pollen were examined by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results show that Artemisia pollen seasons in Poland generally display similar unimodal patterns (correlation coefficients r > 0.900; P < 0.05. The only exception was the Artemisia pollen concentration noted in the outskirts of Poznań (Morasko, where the bimodal pattern was revealed. Correlations between Artemisia pollen data recorded at Poznań-Morasko and the other Polish sites were the lowest in the investigated dataset; this was particularly noticeable in the second part of pollen season (r ~0.730. We show that the typical bimodal pattern in Artemisia pollen seasons, which is characteristic of the presence of both A. vulgaris (first peak and A. campestris (second peak, does not occur at the majority of sites in Poland and is restricted to the outskirts of Poznań. In fact, it was noted that the pollen monitoring site in Poznań-Centre, just 8 km from Morasko, only exhibited one peak (attributed to A. vulgaris. This shows that the influence of A. campestris on airborne pollen season curves is limited and can be largely disregarded. In addition, this study supports previous records showing that the spatial distribution of airborne Artemisia pollen within a city (urban-rural gradient can vary markedly, depending on the species composition.

  4. Conservation and restoration of sagebrush ecosystems and sage-grouse: An assessment of USDA Forest Service Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Douglas A. Boyce; Jeanne C. Chambers; Chris J. Colt; Kas Dumroese; Stanley G. Kitchen; Clinton McCarthy; Susan E. Meyer; Bryce A. Richardson; Mary M. Rowland; Mark A. Rumble; Michael K. Schwartz; Monica S. Tomosy; Michael J. Wisdom

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush ecosystems are among the largest and most threatened ecosystems in North America. Greater sage-grouse has served as the bellwether for species conservation in these ecosystems and has been considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act eight times. In September 2015, the decision was made not to list greater sage-grouse, but to reevaluate its status...

  5. Survey of artemisinin production by diverse Artemisia species in northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Muhammad F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin is the current drug of choice for treatment of malaria and a number of other diseases. It is obtained from the annual herb, Artemisia annua and some microbial sources by genetic engineering. There is a great concern that the artemisinin production at current rate will not meet the increasing demand by the pharmaceutical industry, so looking for additional sources is imperative. Methods In current study, artemisinin concentration was analysed and compared in the flowers, leaves, roots and stems of Artemisia annua and 14 other Artemisia species including two varieties each for Artemisia roxburghiana and Artemisia dracunculus using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The highest artemisinin concentration was detected in the leaves (0.44 ± 0.03% and flowers (0.42 ± 0.03% of A. annua, followed by the flowers (0.34 ± .02% of A. bushriences and leaves (0.27 ± 0% of A. dracunculus var dracunculus. The average concentration of artemisinin varied in the order of flowers > leaves > stems > roots. Conclusion This study identifies twelve novel plant sources of artemisinin, which may be helpful for pharmaceutical production of artemisinin. This is the first report of quantitative comparison of artemisinin among a large number of Artemisia species.

  6. Artemisia santolinifolia enhances glutamatergic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Katie M; Ribnicky, David M; Rogers, Richard C; Hermann, Gerlinda E

    2014-10-17

    Artemisia extracts have been used as remedies for a variety of maladies related to metabolic and gastrointestinal control. Because the vagal afferent-nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) synapse regulates the same homeostatic functions affected by Artemisia, it is possible that these extracts may have activity at the synaptic level in the NST. Therefore, we evaluated how extracts of three common medicinal Artemisia species, Artemisia santolinifolia (SANT), Artemisia scoparia (SCO), and Artemisia dracunculus L (PMI-5011), modulate the excitability of the glutamatergic vagal afferent-NST synapse. Our in vitro live cell calcium imaging data from prelabeled vagal afferent terminals show that SANT extract is a positive modulator of vagal afferent calcium levels, as the extract significantly increased the calcium signal relative to the time control. Neither SCO nor PMI-5011 extract altered the vagal calcium signals compared to the time control. Furthermore, whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from NST neurons corroborated the vagal terminal calcium data in that SANT extract also significantly increased miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency in NST neurons. These data suggest that SANT extract could be a pharmacologically significant mediator of glutamatergic neurotransmission within the CNS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transport pathway and source area for Artemisia pollen in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoxin; Li, Yiyin; Sun, Xu; Meng, Ling; Wang, Xiaoke

    2017-12-01

    Artemisia pollen is an important allergen responsible for allergic rhinitis in Beijing, China. To explore the transport pathways and source areas of Artemisia pollen, we used Burkard 7-day traps to monitor daily pollen concentrations in 2016 in an urban and suburban locality. Backward trajectories of 24- and 96-h and their cluster analysis were performed to identify transport pathways of Artemisia pollen using the HYSPLIT model on 0.5° × 0.5° GADS meteorological data. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) were calculated to further identify the major potential source areas at local, regional, and long-range scales. Our results showed significant differences in Artemisia pollen concentration between urban and suburban areas, attributed to differences in plant distribution and altitude of the sampling locality. Such differences arisen from both pollen emission and air mass movements, hence pollen dispersal. At local or regional scales, source area of northwestern parts of Beijing City, Hebei Province and northern and northwestern parts of Inner Mongolia influenced the major transport pathways of Artemisia pollen. Transport pathway at a long-range scale and its corresponding source area extended to northwestern parts of Mongolia. The regional-scale transport affected by wind and altitude is more profound for Artemisia pollen at the suburban than at the urban station.

  8. Survey of artemisinin production by diverse Artemisia species in northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Artemisinin is the current drug of choice for treatment of malaria and a number of other diseases. It is obtained from the annual herb, Artemisia annua and some microbial sources by genetic engineering. There is a great concern that the artemisinin production at current rate will not meet the increasing demand by the pharmaceutical industry, so looking for additional sources is imperative. Methods In current study, artemisinin concentration was analysed and compared in the flowers, leaves, roots and stems of Artemisia annua and 14 other Artemisia species including two varieties each for Artemisia roxburghiana and Artemisia dracunculus using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The highest artemisinin concentration was detected in the leaves (0.44 ± 0.03%) and flowers (0.42 ± 0.03%) of A. annua, followed by the flowers (0.34 ± .02%) of A. bushriences and leaves (0.27 ± 0%) of A. dracunculus var dracunculus. The average concentration of artemisinin varied in the order of flowers > leaves > stems > roots. Conclusion This study identifies twelve novel plant sources of artemisinin, which may be helpful for pharmaceutical production of artemisinin. This is the first report of quantitative comparison of artemisinin among a large number of Artemisia species. PMID:21047440

  9. Desert shrub responses to experimental modification of precipitation seasonality and soil depth: relationship to the two-layer model and ecohydrological niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.; Reinhardt, Keith

    2013-01-01

    1. Ecohydrological niches are important for understanding plant community responses to climate shifts, particularly in dry lands. According to the two-layer hypothesis, selective use of deep-soil water increases growth or persistence of woody species during warm and dry summer periods and thereby contributes to their coexistence with shallow-rooted herbs in dry ecosystems. The resource-pool hypothesis further suggests that shallow-soil water benefits growth of all plants while deep-soil water primarily enhances physiological maintenance and survival of woody species. Few studies have directly tested these by manipulating deep-soil water availability and observing the long-term outcomes. 2. We predicted that factors promoting infiltration and storage of water in deep soils, specifically greater winter precipitation and soil depth, would enhance Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush) in cold, winter-wet/summer-dry desert. Sagebrush responses to 20 years of winter irrigation were compared to summer- or no irrigation, on plots having relatively deep or shallow soils (2 m vs. 1 m depths). 3. Winter irrigation increased sagebrush cover, and crown and canopy volumes, but not density (individuals/plot) compared to summer or no irrigation, on deep-soil plots. On shallow-soil plots, winter irrigation surprisingly decreased shrub cover and size, and summer irrigation had no effect. Furthermore, multiple regression suggested that the variations in growth were related (i) firstly to water in shallow soils (0-0.2 m) and secondly to deeper soils (> 1 m deep) and (ii) more by springtime than by midsummer soil water. Water-use efficiency increased considerably on shallow soils without irrigation and was lowest with winter irrigation. 4. Synthesis. Sagebrush was more responsive to the seasonal timing of precipitation than to total annual precipitation. Factors that enhanced deep-water storage (deeper soils plus more winter precipitation) led to increases in Artemisia tridentata that

  10. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    St?palska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Le?kiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Ch?opek; ?ukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Ma?gorzata, Malkiewicz; Ma?gorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Ma?gorzata, Puc; El?bieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, us...

  11. Examining the extraction of artemisinin from artemisia annua using ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briars, Rhianna; Paniwnyk, Larysa

    2012-05-01

    Artemisinin suppresses the life-cycle of the plasmodium parasite which causes malaria. It is found naturally occurring within the trichome glands of the Artemisia annua plant. Traditional methods for extracting artemisinin are time-consuming and have high environmental impact due to the temperatures and organic solvents which must be employed. Ultrasound decreases these through acoustic streaming and micro-jets. But to fully utilise this technology parameters, such as frequency, temperature and the properties of leaf and solvent, must be explored. As with the extraction process there is also no set analysis method for identification of artemisinin. Therefore several methods of analysing these extracts are employed. Initial results indicate that sonication is able to enhance levels of artemisinin extracted when compared to the conventional/traditional extraction process. In addition Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) have been shown to have a high level of reproducible calibration.

  12. Highly oxidized sesquiterpenes from Artemisia austro-yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jun; Li, Bao-Cai; Dai, Wei-Feng; Liu, Lan; Zhang, Mi

    2016-12-01

    Eight new sesquiterpenes, including four guaianolides (1-4), one guaian sesquiterpene (5), one norguaianolide (6), one 1, 10-secoguaianolides (7), and one eudesmane sesquiterpene (8), along with fourteen known sesquiterpenes (9-22) were isolated from the whole plants of Artemisia austro-yunnanensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic date and HRESIMS analysis. All isolated sesquiterpenes (1-22) were evaluated their activities by the assay of LPS-induced NO production on RAW264.7, of which compounds 2-4, 9, 10 and 17 produced significant inhibition of NO production with IC 50 values ranging from 2.38 to 10.67μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to interaction of Artemisia absinthium with warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkgöz, Sadık Kadri; Açıkgöz, Eser

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia absinthium, also known as wormwood, is used widely as an herbal medicine. In this report, we introduce an 82-year-old Turkish woman who was treated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation and was hospitalized for gastrointestinal bleeding as a result of extremely elevated international normalized ratio (INR) after consumption of A. absinthium. Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score was 6, which indicated a probable relationship between the patient's elevated INR and her concomitant use of wormwood and warfarin. Clinicians should be vigilant about potential dangers of herbal medicines taken with conventional drugs, and patients taking drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, such as warfarin, should be educated about avoiding consumption of herbal medicines.

  14. Composition of the Essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farukh S. Sharopov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of Artemisia absinthium were collected from two different locations in the central-south of Tajikistan. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. A total of 41 compounds were identified representing 72-94% of total oil compositions. The major components of A. absinthium oil were myrcene (8.6-22.7%, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (7.7-17.9%, a dihydrochamazulene isomer (5.5-11.6%, germacrene D (2.4-8.0%, β-thujone (0.4-7.3%, linalool acetate (trace-7.0%, α-phellandrene (1.0-5.3%, and linalool (5.3-7.0%. The chemical compositions of A. absinthium from Tajikistan are markedly different from those from European, Middle Eastern, or other Asian locations and likely represent new chemotypes.

  15. TARRAGON (Artemisia dracunculus L. “HAIRY” ROOT CULTURE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted the biotechnology development of Artemisia dracunculus L. genetic transformation. We obtained the transgenic A. dracunculus “hairy” root culture using A. rhizogenes A4-mediated transformation. The conditions of tarragon’s genetic transformation were optimized. It was shown that leaves of in vitro cultivated plants were the optimal type of explants. The transgenic root formation frequency was up to 20% in case of leaves usage. The time of explants cocultivation with Agrobacterium suspension was found to be an important factor of biotechnology which affects the frequency of transgenic root growth. Transgenic root lines differed in morphological features and growth rate. Specific mass increase varied from 17 to 32 times after 3 weeks cultivation on 1/2 Murashige-Skoog medium.

  16. Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe grown in two places in Ethiopia (Addis Ababa and Butajira was also analyzed for comparison. Morphological study on the leaves of A. absinthium L. from Ethiopia (previously called A. rehan and A. absinthium (from Europe was also conducted. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Forty three compounds representing 76 to 94% of the oils were identified. The composition of the essential oils of A. schimperi, A. afra and A. abyssinica are mainly dominated by irregular monoterpenes: yogomi alcohol (13.5-37.6%, artemisyl acetate (12.7-35.5%, and artemisia ketone (2.3-13.2%. The composition of the oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan however, differs from the other three species in having camphor (21.2-28.3% and davanone (21.3-26.5% as major components. The composition of A. absinthum (Europe was found to have β-thujone (42.3-66.4% and chamazulene (11.3-24.2% as major components. The study indicated that the composition of the essential oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan is not only different from the other three species but also from A. absinthium from Europe and does not belong to any of the chemotypes described for the species in the literature. The morphological study on the leaves also showed that it differs from that of A. absinthium from Europe. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.11

  17. Sagebrush Types, Soil Regime Classes, and Fire Frequencies in Greater Sage-grouse Population Areas of the Snake River Plain (1984-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This three-band, 30-m resolution raster contains sagebrush vegetation types, soil temperature/moisture regime classes, and large fire frequencies across greater...

  18. Sagebrush Types, Soil Regime Classes, and Fire Frequencies in Greater Sage-grouse Population Areas of the Great Plains (1984-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This three-band, 30-m resolution raster contains sagebrush vegetation types, soil temperature/moisture regime classes, and large fire frequencies across greater...

  19. Sagebrush Types, Soil Regime Classes, and Fire Frequencies in Greater Sage-grouse Population Areas of the Southern Great Basin (1984-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This three-band, 30-m resolution raster contains sagebrush vegetation types, soil temperature/moisture regime classes, and large fire frequencies across greater...

  20. Sagebrush Types, Soil Regime Classes, and Fire Frequencies in Greater Sage-grouse Population Areas of the Colorado Plateau (1984-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This three-band, 30-m resolution raster contains sagebrush vegetation types, soil temperature/moisture regime classes, and large fire frequencies across greater...

  1. Sagebrush Types, Soil Regime Classes, and Fire Frequencies in Greater Sage-grouse Population Areas of the Northern Great Basin (1984-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This three-band, 30-m resolution raster contains sagebrush vegetation types, soil temperature/moisture regime classes, and large fire frequencies across greater...

  2. Sagebrush Types, Soil Regime Classes, and Fire Frequencies in Greater Sage-grouse Population Areas of the Wyoming Basin (1984-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This three-band, 30-m resolution raster contains sagebrush vegetation types, soil temperature/moisture regime classes, and large fire frequencies across greater...

  3. Influence of habitat on behavior of Towndsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Peter B.; Van Horne, Beatrice

    1998-01-01

    Trade-offs between foraging and predator avoidance may affect an animal's survival and reproduction. These trade-offs may be influenced by differences in vegetative cover, especially if foraging profitability and predation risk differ among habitats. We examined above-ground activity of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) in four habitats in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southwestern Idaho to determine if behavior of ground squirrels varied among habitats, and we assessed factors that might affect perceived predation risk (i. e. predator detectability, predation pressure, population density). The proportion of time spent in vigilance by ground squirrels in winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata) and mosaic habitats of winterfat-sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) was more than twice that of ground squirrels in burned and unburned sagebrush habitats. We found no evidence for the 'many-eyes' hypothesis as an explanation for differences in vigilance among habitats. Instead, environmental heterogeneity, especially vegetation structure, likely influenced activity budgets of ground squirrels. Differences in vigilance may have been caused by differences in predator detectability and refuge availability, because ground squirrels in the winterfat and mosaic habitats also spent more time in upright vigilant postures than ground squirrels in burned-sagebrush or sagebrush habitats. Such postures may enhance predator detection in low-growing winterfat.

  4. Phytochemistry predicts habitat selection by an avian herbivore at multiple spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Graham G; Connelly, John W; Musil, David D; Forbey, Jennifer S

    2013-02-01

    Animal habitat selection is a process that functions at multiple, hierarchically. structured spatial scales. Thus multi-scale analyses should be the basis for inferences about factors driving the habitat selection process. Vertebrate herbivores forage selectively on the basis of phytochemistry, but few studies have investigated the influence of selective foraging (i.e., fine-scale habitat selection) on habitat selection at larger scales. We tested the hypothesis that phytochemistry is integral to the habitat selection process for vertebrate herbivores. We predicted that habitats selected at three spatial scales would be characterized by higher nutrient concentrations and lower concentrations of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) than unused habitats. We used the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), an avian herbivore with a seasonally specialized diet of sagebrush, to test our hypothesis. Sage-Grouse selected a habitat type (black sagebrush, Artemisia nova) with lower PSM concentrations than the alternative (Wyoming big sagebrush, A. tridentata wyomingensis). Within black sagebrush habitat, Sage-Grouse selected patches and individual plants within those patches that were higher in nutrient concentrations and lower in PSM concentrations than those not used. Our results provide the first evidence for multi-scale habitat selection by an avian herbivore on the basis of phytochemistry, and they suggest that phytochemistry may be a fundamental driver of habitat selection for vertebrate herbivores.

  5. Artemisia spp. essential oils against the disease-carrying blowfly Calliphora vomitoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Ascrizzi, Roberta; Echeverria, Maria Cristina; Guidi, Lucia; Landi, Marco; Lucchi, Andrea; Conti, Barbara

    2017-02-13

    Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. dracunculus EOs were extracted, analysed and tested in laboratory bioassays. Besides, the physiology of EOs toxicity and the EOs antibacterial and antifungal properties were evaluated. Both Artemisia EOs deterred C. vomitoria oviposition on fresh beef meat. At 0.05 μl cm -2 A. dracunculus EO completely inhibited C. vomitoria oviposition. Toxicity tests, by contact, showed LD 50 of 0.49 and 0.79 μl EO per fly for A. dracunculus and A. annua, respectively. By fumigation, LC 50 values were 49.55 and 88.09 μl l -1 air for A. dracunculus and A. annua, respectively. EOs AChE inhibition in C. vomitoria (IC 50  = 202.6 and 472.4 mg l -1 , respectively, for A. dracunculus and A. annua) indicated that insect neural sites are targeted by the EOs toxicity. Finally, the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the two Artemisia EOs may assist in the reduction of transmission of microbial infections/contaminations. Results suggest that Artemisia EOs could be of use in the control of C. vomitoria, a common vector of pathogenic microorganisms and agent of human and animal cutaneous myiasis. The prevention of pathogenic and parasitic infections is a priority for human and animal health. The Artemisia EOs could represent an eco-friendly, low-cost alternative to synthetic repellents and insecticides to fight synanthropic disease-carrying blowflies.

  6. Quantifying and predicting fuels and the effects of reduction treatments along successional and invasion gradients in sagebrush habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Pilliod, David; Arkle, Robert; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush shrubland ecosystems in the Great Basin are prime examples of how altered successional trajectories can create dynamic fuel conditions and, thus, increase uncertainty about fire risk and behavior. Although fire is a natural disturbance in sagebrush, post-fire environments are highly susceptible to conversion to an invasive grass-fire regime (often referred to as a “grass-fire cycle”). After fire, native shrub-steppe plants are often slow to regenerate, whereas nonnative annuals, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae), can establish quickly and outcompete native species. Once fire-prone annuals become established, fire occurrences increase, further promoting dominance of nonnative species. The invasive grass-fire regime also alters nutrient and hydrologic cycles, pushing ecosystems beyond ecological thresholds toward steady-state, fire-prone, nonnative communities. These changes affect millions of hectares in the Great Basin and increase fire risk, decrease habitat quality and biodiversity, accelerate soil erosion, and degrade rangeland resources for livestock production. In many sagebrush landscapes, constantly changing plant communities and fuel conditions hinder attempts by land managers to predict and control fire behavior, restore native communities, and provide ecosystem services (e.g., forage production for livestock). We investigated successional and nonnative plant invasion states and associated fuel loads in degraded sagebrush habitat in a focal study area, the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (hereafter the NCA), in the Snake River Plain Ecoregion of southern Idaho. We expanded our inference by comparing our findings to similar data collected throughout seven major land resource areas (MLRAs) across the Great Basin (JFSP Project “Fire Rehabilitation Effectiveness: A Chronosequence Approach for the Great Basin” [09-S-02-1]). 4 We used a combination of field

  7. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2005-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  8. Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored on western lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species (including sage grouse and pygmy rabbit). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, two UAV platforms, fixed wing and helicopter, were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate percent cover for six different vegetation types (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forb, litter, and bare ground) and (2) locate sage grouse using representative decoys. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Engineering (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetation cover. A software program called SamplePoint was used along with visual inspection to evaluate percent cover for the six cover types. Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform to use. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

  9. Native and exotic plants of fragments of sagebrush steppe produced by geomorphic processes versus land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntly, N.; Bangert, R.; Hanser, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and invasion by exotic species are regarded as major threats to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. We surveyed the plant communities of two types of remnant sagebrush-steppe fragments from nearby areas on the Snake River Plain of southeastern Idaho, USA. One type resulted from land use (conversion to dryland agriculture; hereafter AG Islands) and the other from geomorphic processes (Holocene volcanism; hereafter kipukas). We assessed two predictions for the variation in native plant species richness of these fragments, using structural equation models (SEM). First, we predicted that the species richness of native plants would follow the MacArthur-Wilson (M-W) hypothesis of island biogeography, as often is expected for the communities of habitat fragments. Second, we predicted a negative relationship between native and exotic plants, as would be expected if exotic plants are decreasing the diversity of native plants. Finally, we assessed whether exotic species were more strongly associated with the fragments embedded in the agricultural landscape, as would be expected if agriculture had facilitated the introduction and naturalization of non-native species, and whether the communities of the two types of fragments were distinct. Species richness of native plants was not strongly correlated with M-W characteristics for either the AG Islands or the **kipukas. The AG Islands had more species and higher cover of exotics than the kipukas, and exotic plants were good predictors of native plant species richness. Our results support the hypothesis that proximity to agriculture can increase the diversity and abundance of exotic plants in native habitat. In combination with other information, the results also suggest that agriculture and exotic species have caused loss of native diversity and reorganization of the sagebrush-steppe plant community. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Climate adaption and post-fire restoration of a foundational perennial in cold desert: Insights from intraspecific variation in response to weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Martha M.; Germino, Matthew; Richardson, Bryce A.

    2017-01-01

    1.The loss of foundational but fire-intolerant perennials such as sagebrush due to increases in fire size and frequency in semiarid regions has motivated efforts to restore them, often with mixed or even no success. Seeds of sagebrush Artemisia tridentata and related species must be moved considerable distances from seed source to planting sites, but such transfers have not been guided by an understanding of local climate adaptation. Initial seedling establishment and its response to weather are a key demographic bottleneck that likely varies among subspecies and populations of sagebrush. 2.We assessed differences in survival, growth, and physiological responses of sagebrush to weather among eleven seed sources that varied in subspecies, cytotype, and climates-of-origin over 18 months following outplanting. Diploid or polyploid populations of mountain, Wyoming, and basin big sagebrush (A.tridentata ssp. vaseyana, A.tridentata ssp. wyomingensis, and A.tridentata ssp. tridentata, respectively) were planted onto five burned sites that normally support A.t.wyomingensis with some A.t.tridentata. 3.A.t.wyomingensis had the most growth and survival, and tetraploid populations had greater survival and height than diploids. Seasonal timing of mortality varied among the subspecies/cytotypes and was more closely related to minimum temperatures than water deficit. 4.Temperatures required to induce ice formation were up to 6°C more negative in 4n-A.t.tridentata and A.t.wyomingensis than other subspecies/cytotypes, indicating greater freezing avoidance. In contrast, freezing resistance of photosynthesis varied only 1°C among subspecies/cytotypes, being greatest in A.t.wyomingensis and least in the subspecies normally considered most cold-adapted,A.t.vaseyana. A large spectrum of reliance on freezing-avoidance vs. freezing-tolerance was observed and corresponded to differences in post-fire survivorship among subspecies/cytotypes. Differences in water deficit

  11. Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil: Assessment of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oils (EO, also called volatile odoriferous oil, are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of plants. In general, the constituents in EOs are terpenes, aromatic compounds (aldehyde, alcohol, phenol, methoxy derivatives, and so on, and terpenoids (isoprenoids. Essential Oils have been known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, thereby serving as natural additives in foods and food products. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of compounds, with active chemical and antioxidant properties, of Artemisia spicigera essential oil (EO due to the effect of geographic location and season of harvest on the phenolic compounds of the plant. The plant was collected from east Azarbayjan province, Iran (both before and after the flowering stage. Materials and Methods A. spicigera EO was analyzed by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content before and after flowering were evaluated by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Also, the yields of essential oil as a percentage based on the level of dry plant and the volume of extracted oil was determined. Results Analysis of A. spicigera EO by gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry showed that spachulenol 1 H cycloprop (18.39% and bicyclo hexan-3-en, 4-met (26.16%, were the prominent EOs of Artemisia before and after the flowering stage; the total phenolic EO before and after the flowering stage was 23.61 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.71 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Also level of flavonoid content before and after the flowering stage was 37.27 ± 1.70 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 1.30 µg/mL, respectively. This EO was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenol,1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH with an IC50 of 86.14 ± 2.23 and 96.18 ± 2.61 µg/mL, before and after flowering, respectively. Yield of EO before and after flowering was 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Conclusions Results have shown that A. spicigera EO

  12. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  13. Identification of a 62 kDa major allergen from Artemisia pollen as a putative galactose oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Wanyi; Gao, Zhongshan; Gao, Ling; Jin, Jing; Liu, Meiling; Sun, Yuemei; Wu, Shandong; Wu, Lingying; Ma, Hongshan; Dong, Yimin; Wang, Xuefeng; Gao, Biyuan; Wang, Huiying; Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Versteeg, Serge A.; van Ree, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Around 20 years ago, a 60-70 kDa protein was reported as a major allergen of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen. This study was to identify and characterize its molecular properties. Sera from 113 Chinese and 20 Dutch Artemisia allergic/sensitized subjects (and pools thereof) were used to identify

  14. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed

    2014-04-04

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  15. Artemisia supplementation differentially affects the mucosal and luminal ileal microbiota of diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Shawna; Taylor, Christopher M; Luo, Meng; Blanchard, Eugene; Ribnicky, David M; Cefalu, William T; Mynatt, Randall L; Welsh, David A

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiome has been implicated in obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, most studies have focused on fecal or colonic samples. Several species of Artemisia have been reported to ameliorate insulin signaling both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to characterize the mucosal and luminal bacterial populations in the terminal ileum with or without supplementation with Artemisia extracts. Following 4 wk of supplementation with different Artemisia extracts (PMI 5011, Santa or Scopa), diet-induced obese mice were sacrificed and luminal and mucosal samples of terminal ileum were used to evaluate microbial community composition by pyrosequencing of 16 S rDNA hypervariable regions. Significant differences in community structure and membership were observed between luminal and mucosal samples, irrespective of diet group. All Artemisia extracts increased the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio in mucosal samples. This effect was not observed in the luminal compartment. There was high interindividual variability in the phylogenetic assessments of the ileal microbiota, limiting the statistical power of this pilot investigation. Marked differences in bacterial communities exist depending on the biogeographic compartment in the terminal ileum. Future studies testing the effects of Artemisia or other botanical supplements require larger sample sizes for adequate statistical power. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

  17. Evaluation of DNA barcode candidates for the discrimination of Artemisia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geyu; Ning, Huixia; Ayidaerhan, Nurbolati; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-11-01

    Because of the very similar morphologies and wide diversity of Artemisia L. varieties, they are difficult to identify, and there have been many arguments about the systematic classification Artemisia L., especially concerning the division of species. DNA barcode technology is used to rapidly identify species based on standard short DNA sequences. To evaluate seven candidate DNA barcodes (ITS, ITS2, psbA-trnH, rbcL, matK, rpoB, and rpoC1) regarding their ability to identify closely related species of the Artemisia genus in Xinjiang. The corresponding PCR amplification efficiency, detectable genetic divergence, identification efficiency and phylogenetic tree were assessed. We found that the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region exhibited the highest interspecific divergence, which was significantly higher than the observed intraspecific variation and showed the highest identification efficiency, followed by ITS2, psbA-trnH and, finally, rpoB. matK, rbcL, and rpoC1 performed poorly in this evaluation. ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH were able to perfectly identify the tested species Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, A. rupestris, A. tonurnefortiana, A. austriaca, A. dracunculus, A. vulgaris, and A. macrocephala. Therefore, we propose the ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH regions as promising DNA barcodes for the closely related species of Artemisia L. in Xinjiang.

  18. The genus Artemisia L. in the northern region of Saudi Arabia: essential oil variability and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetat, Arbi; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj A; Osman, Ahmed K

    2017-03-01

    Four species of the genus Artemisia L. (Artemisia monosperma, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia judaica and Artemisia sieberi) growing in the northern region of Saudi Arabia were investigated with respect to their volatile oil contents. The yield of oil varied between 0.30 and 0.41%, % (w/w). A. monosperma showed the highest number of compounds with 30 components representing 93.78% of oil composition. However, A. judaica showed the lowest number of compounds with only 16 components representing 87.47% of essential oil. A. scoparia and A. sieberi are both composed of 17 components, representing 97.14 and 94.2% of total oil composition. A. sieberi and A. judaica were dominated by spathulenol (30.42 and 28.41%, respectively). For A. monosperma, butanoic acid (17.87%) was a major component. However, A. scoparia was a chemotype of acenaphthene. (83.23%). Essential oil of studied species showed high antibacterial activities against common human pathogens.

  19. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of a polysaccharide from Artemisia argyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoli; Yuan, Huihui; Wang, Chengzhong; Liu, Jinjin; Lan, Minbo

    2013-10-15

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (FAAP-02), composed of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, glucose, mannose, galactose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose and ribose, with an average molecular weight of 5169 Da, was isolated from Artemisia argyi. The antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of FAAP-02 were evaluated in Sarcoma 180 (S180) tumor-bearing mice by intraperitoneal administration. As a result, FAAP-02 significantly inhibited the growth of the S180 transplanted tumors and prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, FAAP-02 could obviously increase the thymus and spleen indices, the levels of serum Interleukin 2 (IL-2), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the expression of CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T lymphocytes which were suppressed by the transplanted tumor or/and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the mice. These results indicated that the antitumor activity of FAAP-02 might be associated with its immunostimulatory effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and identification of mosquito repellents inArtemisia vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y S; Wu, K H; Kumamoto, J; Axelrod, H; Mulla, M S

    1985-09-01

    The mugwortArtemisia vulgaris L. (Compositae: Anthemideae) contains insect repellents which can be released from the plant tissues by combustion. Work was carried out to isolate and identify the repellent compounds. The dried, pulverized whole plants were steam-distilled to give a repellent essential oil which was fractionated by column chromatography. Active fractions were analyzed by capillary GC and by combined GC-MS. A number of compounds, mainly monoterpenoids, were identified. When tested as repellents against the yellow fever mosquitoAedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae), (±)-linalool, (±)-camphor, (+)-camphor, (-)-camphor, isoborneol, (-)-borneol, terpinen-4-ol, and isobornyl acetate were active at 0.14 mg/cm2 or higher. Nonanone-3, (α+β)-thujone, and bornyl acetate were active at 0.28 mg/cm(2) or higher. β-Pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, (+)- limonene, and cineole were active at 1.4 mg/cm(2). Of the repellent compounds identified, terpinen-4-ol was the most active and was as effective as dimethyl phthalate.

  1. Metabolic profiling of antioxidants constituents in Artemisia selengensis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Wang, Hui; Fu, Zhi-feng; Wen, Qing-hui; Fan, Dan

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Artemisia selengensis Turcz (AST) leaves, a byproduct when processing AST stalk, and identify the antioxidant constituents by using HPLC-QTOF-MS(2). The total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxidant abilities of fractions resulted from the successively partition of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were compared. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited the highest TFC (65.44 mg QuE/g fraction), n-butanol fraction (nBuF) showed the highest TPC (384.78 mg GAE/g fraction) and the best DPPH scavenging ability, ABTS(+) scavenging ability and reducing power. Totally, 57 compounds were identified or tentatively identified in nBuF and EAF, 40 of them were reported in AST for the first time. The major constituents in EAF were flavonoids, and the major constituents in nBuF were phenolic acids and organic acids. Thus, AST leaves might be a potential low-cost resource of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antifertility Effect of Artemisia kopetdaghensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Oliaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia Kopetdaghensis. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. Kopetdaghensis on reproduction of female rats. The pregnant rats were treated (i.p. with vehicle or 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. Kopetdaghensis hydroalcoholic extract from the 2nd to 8th day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Also, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929 and ovary (Cho cell lines. The A. Kopetdaghensis had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥200 μg/mL significantly (P<0.001 inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/mL (P<0.01. Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. Kopetdaghensis in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  3. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds.

  4. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antifertility Effect of Artemisia kopetdaghensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliaee, Davood; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher; Oliaee, Naiime; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia Kopetdaghensis. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. Kopetdaghensis on reproduction of female rats. The pregnant rats were treated (i.p.) with vehicle or 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. Kopetdaghensis hydroalcoholic extract from the 2nd to 8th day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Also, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929) and ovary (Cho) cell lines. The A. Kopetdaghensis had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥200 μg/mL significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/mL (P < 0.01). Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. Kopetdaghensis in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  5. Absolute configuration of the ocimene monoterpenoids from Artemisia absinthium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio, Luis F; Burgueño-Tapia, Eleuterio; Díaz, Carmen E; Pérez-Hernández, Nury; González-Coloma, Azucena; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2017-11-01

    The absolute configuration (AC) of the naturally occurring ocimenes (-)-(3S,5Z)-2,6-dimethyl-2,3-epoxyocta-5,7-diene (1) and (-)-(3S,5Z)-2,6-dimethylocta-5,7-dien-2,3-diol (2), isolated from the essential oils of domesticated specimens of Artemisia absinthium, followed by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) studies of 1, as well as from the acetonide 3 and the monoacetate 4, both derived from 2, since secondary alcohols are not the best functional groups to be present during VCD studies in solution due to intermolecular associations. The AC follows from comparison of experimental and calculated VCD spectra that were obtained by Density Functional Theory computation at the B3LYP/DGDZVP level of theory. Careful nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were compared with literature values, providing for the first time systematic 1 H and 13 C chemical shift data. Regarding homonuclear 1 H coupling constants, after performing a few irradiation experiments that showed the presence of several small long-range interactions, the complete set of coupling constants for 3, which is representative of the four studied molecules, was determined by iterations using the PERCH software. This procedure even allowed assigning the pro-R and pro-S methyl group signals of the two gem-dimethyl groups present in 3. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Anthelmintic activity of extracts of Artemisia absinthium against ovine nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, K A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, F; Shawl, A S

    2009-03-09

    The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistant strains of helminths, drug residues in animal products and high cost of conventional anthelmintics has created an interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Tethwen) is used traditionally by people as a vermifuge in addition to its other livestock uses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous extracts (CAE) and crude ethanolic extracts (CEE) of the aerial parts of A. absinthium in comparison to albendazole against the gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of sheep. To fulfill the objectives, the worm motility inhibition assay was utilized in order to investigate the direct effects of plant extracts on the survival of the adult nematodes under in vitro conditions and faecal egg count reduction assay to investigate the effects on faecal egg output of GI nematodes under in vivo conditions. Significant anthelmintic effects of CAE and CEE on live adult Haemonchus contortus worms (P absinthium. The better activity of CEE can be attributed to the greater concentration of alcohol soluble active anthelmintic principle/s and a more rapid transcuticular absorption of the CEE into the body of the worms when compared with the CAE. The results of the present study suggest that A. absinthium extracts are a promising alternative to the commercially available anthelmintics for the treatment of GI nematodes of sheep.

  7. Efficient in vitro micropropagation and regeneration of Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Govindaraj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes efficient propagation of Artemisia vulgaris using shoot tip explants isolated from 35 daysold in vitro grown seedlings. Optimum proliferation was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s salts and B5 vitamins supplementedwith 3% sucrose, 4.44 μM BA, and 0.7% agar. Shoot proliferation was maximal (99.8% with 14-23 shoots per explant after6 weeks of culture. Shoots with a minimum length of 1.5 cm were transferred to shoot elongation medium supplemented with0.44 μM BA and 1.44 μM GA3. The successfully elongated shoots with a height of 7.2-12.1 cm were transferred to rootingmedium augmented with 8.56 μM IAA. Rooted plantlets were transferred to plastic cups containing autoclaved garden soil,farmyard soil and sand (2:1:1 for hardening. Plantlets were initially maintained under culture room conditions (5 weeks,followed by normal laboratory conditions (4 weeks and finally transferred to a Botanical Evaluation Garden and maintainedthere.

  8. Anticoagulant activity of some Artemisia dracunculus leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Durić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Platelet hyperactivity and platelet interaction with endothelial cells contribute to the development and progression of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The impact of platelet activity with different pharmacological agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Artemisia dracunculus, L. Asteraceae (Tarragon is used for centuries in the daily diet in many Middle Eastern countries, and it is well known for its anticoagulant activity. The present study investigates the presence of coumarins in tarragon leaves and subsequently determines the extract with a major amount of coumarin derivatives. The solvents of different polarities and different pH values were used for the purpose of purifying the primary extract in order to obtain fractions with the highest coumarin content. Those extracts and fractions were investigated for their anticoagulant activity by determining prothrombin time (PT and the international normalized ratio (INR, expressed in relation to the coagulation time of the healthy person. Purified extracts and fractions obtained from plant residue after essential oil distillation, concentrated in coumarin derivatives, showed the best anticoagulant activity, using samples of human blood. INR maximum value (2.34 and consequently the best anticoagulant activity showed the methanol extract at concentration of 5%.  The INR value of normal plasma in testing this extract was 1.05. 

  9. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  10. Variation in bioactive principles of Artemisia amygdalina Decne. in wild and tissue culture regenerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Rafia; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Akbar, Seema; Kamili, Azra Nahaid; Dar, Muhammad Younus; Masood, Akbar

    2013-05-01

    Wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina, a critically endangered and endemic plant of Kashmir and North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan were screened for the amount of bioactive principles and in particular antimalarial compound artemesinin. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of terpenes, alkaloids, phenolics, tannins (polyphenolics), cardiac glycosides and steroids in wild (aerial, inflorescence) and tissue culture regenerants (in vitro grown plant, callus and green house acclimatized plants). HPLC of Artemisia amygdalina revealed the presence of artemesinin in petroleum ether extracts of wild aerial part, tissue culture raised plant and green house acclimatized plants. Acetonitrile and water in 70:30 ratios at flow rate of 1ml/min was standardised as mobile phase. Retention time for standard chromatogram was 6.7. Wild inflorescences and callus does not produce artemesinin. This is the first report of phytochemical screening and artemesinin estimation of wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina.

  11. Investigation of glandular trichome proteins in Artemisia annua L. using comparative proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs are called biofactories because they are active in synthesizing, storing and secreting various types of plant secondary metabolites. As the most effective drug against malaria, artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone is derived from GSTs of Artemisia annua. However, low artemisinin content (0.001%~1.54% of dry weight has hindered its wide application. We investigate the GST-expressed proteins in Artemisia annua using a comparative proteomics approach, aiming for a better understanding of the trichome proteome and arteminisin metabolism. 2D-electrophoresis was employed to compare the protein profiles of GSTs and leaves. More than 700 spots were resolved for GSTs, of which ∼93 non-redundant proteins were confidently identified by searching NCBI and Artemisia EST databases. Over 70% of these proteins were highly expressed in GTSs. Functional classification of these GSTs enriched proteins revealed that many of them participate in major plant metabolic processes such as electron transport, transcription and translation.

  12. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  13. Mercury distribution in two Sierran forest and one desert sagebrush steppe ecosystems and the effects of fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Mark A. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Mail Stop 370, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557 (United States); Sexauer Gustin, Mae [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Mail Stop 370, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557 (United States)]. E-mail: msg@unr.nevada.edu; Johnson, Dale W. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Mail Stop 370, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557 (United States); Murphy, James F. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Mail Stop 370, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557 (United States); Miller, Wally W. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Mail Stop 370, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557 (United States); Walker, Roger F. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Mail Stop 370, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557 (United States); Wright, Joan [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Mail Stop 370, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557 (United States); Markee, Melissa [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Mail Stop 370, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) concentration, reservoir mass, and Hg reservoir size were determined for vegetation components, litter, and mineral soil for two Sierran forest sites and one desert sagebrush steppe site. Mercury was found to be held primarily in the mineral soil (maximum depth of 60 to 100 cm), which contained more than 90% of the total ecosystem reservoir. However, Hg in foliage, bark, and litter plays a more dominant role in Hg cycling than the mineral soil. Mercury partitioning into ecosystem components at the Sierran forest sites was similar to that observed for other US forest sites. Vegetation and litter Hg reservoirs were significantly smaller in the sagebrush steppe system because of lower biomass. Data collected from these ecosystems after wildfire and prescribed burns showed a significant decrease in the Hg pool from certain reservoirs. No loss from mineral soil was observed for the study areas but data from fire severity points suggested that Hg in the upper few millimeters of surface soil may be volatilized due to exposure to elevated temperatures. Comparison of data from burned and unburned plots suggested that the only significant source of atmospheric Hg from the prescribed burn was combustion of litter. Differences in unburned versus burned Hg reservoirs at the forest wildfire site demonstrated that drastic reduction in the litter and above ground live biomass Hg reservoirs after burning had occurred. Sagebrush and litter were absent in the burned plots after a wildfire suggesting that both reservoirs were released during the fire. Mercury emissions due to fire from the forest prescribed burn, forest wildfire, and sagebrush steppe wildfire sites were roughly estimated at 2.0 to 5.1, 2.2 to 4.9, and 0.36 {+-} 0.13 g ha{sup -1}, respectively, with litter and vegetation being the most important sources.

  14. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic livestock grazing occurs in virtually all sagebrush habitats and is a prominent disturbance factor. By affecting habitat condition and trend, grazing influences the resources required by, and thus, the distribution and abundance of sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (for example, sage-grouse Centrocercus spp.). Yet, the risks that livestock grazing may pose to these species and their habitats are not always clear. Although livestock grazing intensity and associated habitat condition may be known in many places at the local level, we have not yet been able to answer questions about use, condition, and trend at the landscape scale or at the range-wide scale for wildlife species. A great deal of information about grazing use, management regimes, and ecological condition exists at the local level (for individual livestock management units) under the oversight of organizations such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). However, the extent, quality, and types of existing data are unknown, which hinders the compilation, mapping, or analysis of these data. Once compiled, these data may be helpful for drawing conclusions about rangeland status, and we may be able to identify relationships between those data and wildlife habitat at the landscape scale. The overall objective of our study was to perform a range-wide assessment of livestock grazing effects (and the relevant supporting data) in sagebrush ecosystems managed by the BLM. Our assessments and analyses focused primarily on local-level management and data collected at the scale of BLM grazing allotments (that is, individual livestock management units). Specific objectives included the following: 1. Identify and refine existing range-wide datasets to be used for analyses of livestock grazing effects on sagebrush ecosystems. 2. Assess the extent, quality, and types of livestock grazing-related natural resource data collected by BLM range-wide (i.e., across allotments, districts and regions). 3. Compile and

  15. Size and Density of Artemisia annua Stomata Soaked in Water Extract of Gloriosa superba Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indah Rahmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herbaceous plant that produces artemisinin as a malaria drug, haemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial. Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains high colchicine compounds, especially on the seeds. Gloriosa superba extracts of tubers, stems, seeds, and leaves were used as biomutagen for many plants. Colchicine contains of these plants as antimitotic have been studied and proven by the mitotic index plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds was used as a mutagen for Artemisia annua. The aim of this study was to determine the size and density of Artemisia annua stomata soaked in water extract of Gloriosa superba seeds as a mutagen. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained naturally on Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul by using a maceration method with water solvent (1:1. Artemisia annua sprouts were obtained from B2P2TOOT Tawangmangu. Variables treatment on sprouts using water extract concentration of Gloriosa superba seeds and soaking time of Artemisia annua sprouts. Measurements of stomatal length, width and density were conducted in epidermis of Artemisia annua leaf. Observation and measurements of the stomata were conducted by using a light microscope. The results showed that the length and width of stomata were 0.025 mm and 0.017 mm respectively. The stomatal density of the control leaf (174.69 amount/mm2 was lower than the other treated plants. Stomatal size and density has increased with the increasing concentration extracts on treated plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds proved the effects on stomatal size and density of treated plants.  

  16. [Essential oil from Artemisia lavandulaefolia induces apoptosis and necrosis of HeLa cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-min; Lv, Xue-wei; Shao, Lin-xiang; Ma, Yan-fang; Cheng, Wen-zhao; Gao, Hai-tao

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Artemisia lavandulaefolia essential oil on apoptosis and necrosis of HeLa cells. Cell viability was assayed using MTT method. The morphological and structure alterations in HeLa cells were observed by microscopy. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was measured by DNA Ladder and flow cytometry. DNA damage was measured by comet assay, and the protein expression was examined by Western blot analysis. MTT assay displayed essential oil from Artemisia lavandulaefolia could inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. After treated with essential oil of Artemisia lavadulaefolia for 24 h, HeLa cells in 100 and 200 microg/mL experiment groups exhibited the typical morphology changes of undergoing apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage and nucleus chromatin condensed. However, the cells in the 400 microg/mL group showed the necrotic morphology changes including cytomembrane rupture and cytoplasm spillover. In addition, DNA Ladder could be demonstrated by DNA electrophoresis in each experiment group. Apoptosis peak was also evident in flow cytometry in each experiment group. After treating the HeLa cells with essential oil of Artemisia lavadulaefolia for 6 h, comet tail was detected by comet assay. Moreover, western blotting analysis showed that caspase-3 was activated and the cleavage of PARP was inactivated. Essential oil from Artemisia lavadulaefolia can inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cells in vitro. Low concentration of essential oil from Artemisia lavadulaefolia can induce apoptosis, whereas high concentration of the compounds result in necrosis of HeLa cells. And,the mechanism may be related to the caspase-3-mediated-PARP apoptotic signal pathway.

  17. The Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mirzaei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Consumption of plant derived antioxidant contributes to reducing risks of certain chronic and degenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to study the antioxidant activities and total phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The Stem and flower sample of plants were air-dried, and then grinded and were finally extracted by ethanol: water (70: 30 for 48 h in room temperature. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum system. The antioxidant activity of three ethanol extract of the medicinal plants, Artemisia martima, Achillea millefolium and Matricaria recutica, were analyzed by five different methods (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2, 20azinobis- (3-ethylbenzthiazoline -6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation,Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power ( RP. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components, the total phenolic content was also analyzed. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: For all antioxidant activity assays, Artemisia martima had the highest antioxidant activity value and also total phenol content. Antioxidant capacity analyses revealed that the FRAP and DPPH had comparable results. Antioxidant activity at 1 mg/mL, in ABTS were in the order Artemisia martima> Achillea millefolium> Matricaria recutica. Similar trend was observed for PMB content. RP, FRAP and DPPH were in the order Artemisia martima> Matricaria recutica > Achillea millefolium . Conclusion: The extracts showed a variety of antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assay system. This study demonstrated that Artemisia martima crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  18. Cellular engineering of Artemisia annua and Artemisia dubia with the rol ABC genes for enhanced production of potent anti-malarial drug artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Bushra Hafeez; Suberu, John; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-05-04

    Malaria is causing more than half of a million deaths and 214 million clinical cases annually. Despite tremendous efforts for the control of malaria, the global morbidity and mortality have not been significantly changed in the last 50 years. Artemisinin, extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia sp. is an effective anti-malarial drug. In 2015, elucidation of the effectiveness of artemisinin as a potent anti-malarial drug was acknowledged with a Nobel prize. Owing to the tight market and low yield of artemisinin, an economical way to increase its production is to increase its content in Artemisia sp. through different biotechnological approaches including genetic transformation. Artemisia annua and Artemisia dubia were transformed with rol ABC genes through Agrobacterium tumefacienes and Agrobacterium rhizogenes methods. The artemisinin content was analysed and compared between transformed and untransformed plants with the help of LC-MS/MS. Expression of key genes [Cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS)] in the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin and gene for trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic (TFAR1) were measured using Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Trichome density was analysed using confocal microscope. Artemisinin content was significantly increased in transformed material of both Artemisia species when compared to un-transformed plants. The artemisinin content within leaves of transformed lines was increased by a factor of nine, indicating that the plant is capable of synthesizing much higher amounts than has been achieved so far through traditional breeding. Expression of all artemisinin biosynthesis genes was significantly increased, although variation between the genes was observed. CYP71AV1 and ALDH1 expression levels were higher than that of ADS. Levels of the TFAR1 expression were also increased in all transgenic lines. Trichome density was also significantly

  19. Preventive and curative effects of Artemisia absinthium on acetaminophen and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, A H; Janbaz, K H

    1995-03-01

    1. Effect of aqueous-methanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium (Compositae) was investigated against acetaminophen- and CCl4-induced hepatic damage. 2. Acetaminophen produced 100% mortality at the dose of 1 g/kg in mice while pretreatment of animals with plant extract (500 mg/kg) reduced the death rate to 20%. 3. Pretreatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg, orally twice daily for two days) prevented (P 0.05). 5. Plant extract (500 mg/kg) caused significant prolongation (P Artemisia absinthium exhibits hepatoprotective action partly through MDME inhibitory action and validates the traditional use of plant in hepatic damage.

  20. Sequence characterized amplified region marker as a tool for selection of high-artemisinin containing species of Artemisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Matin; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Abdol Hadi; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Poorebrahim, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most important causes of mortality in developing countries. High resistance to available antimalarial drugs has been reported frequently, thus it is crucial to focus on the discovery of new antimalarial drugs. Artemisinin, an effective antimalarial medication, is isolated from various Artemisia species. To identify the Artemisia species producing high quantity of artemisinin, eight species of Artemisia were screened with the genetic sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for higher quantity of artemisinin. The DNA band corresponding to SCAR marker was cloned into pGEM®-T Easy vector and sequenced. The content of artemisinin in tested species was also measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. The primers designed for high-artemisinin SCAR marker could amplify a specific band of approximately 1000 bp which was present in two Artemisia annua and Artemisia absinthium species. These SCAR marker sequences for two selected species were submitted into the GenBank databases under KC337116 and KC465952 accession numbers. HPLC analysis indicated that two selected Artemisia species, genetically recognized as high-artemisinin yielding plants, had higher artemisinin content in comparison to other examined species. Therefore, in this study, we propose developed SCAR marker as a complementary tool for confidently detection of high-artemisinin content in Artemisia species.

  1. Mass propagation and essential oil analysis of Artemisia vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Sujatha; Kumari, Bollipo Diana Ranjitha; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido

    2008-03-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) is a threatened and valuable medicinal plant. Attempts have been made in this research to mass propagate its plantlets through in vitro liquid culture technology using Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 6-benzyl adenine (BA) (0.44-8.88 microM). Initially, 22.6 shoots (99.9% shooting frequency) developed from shoot tip explants cultured in MS with 4.44 microM BA at 100 ml flask capacity. This was further subcultured at increasing flask capacity (150, 250, and 500 ml) for shoot proliferation. Of the different concentrations of BA and flask capacities tested, 4.44 microM BA and 500 ml flask capacity were found to produce a maximum of 85.5 shoots after 30 d of culture. Shoot proliferation was found to increase with increasing flask capacity whereas shoot number decreased with increasing BA concentration (>4.44 microM). Individual shoots were isolated and rooted on MS medium containing 8.56 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Then the plantlets were acclimatized under standard laboratory conditions and later under greenhouse conditions. Fresh leaves were collected from greenhouse-grown plants and subjected to essential oil analysis by the simultaneous distillation and extraction method. GC-MS results revealed the presence of 88 components and the extracted oil was rich in camphor (16.8%), alpha-thujone (11.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), camphene (6.5%), 1,8-cineole (5.8%) and beta-caryophyllene (5.4%). This in vitro strategy can be a reliable method for the steady production of a large number of plants for essential oil production, which is reported for the first time for A. vulgaris.

  2. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Hazel Y; Porter, Justin A; Janick, Jules; Ferreira, Jorge F S

    2014-05-01

    Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can help meet worldwide demand for artemisinin and its derivatives. However, fundamental reproductive processes, such as the sequence of flowering and fertility, are not well understood and impair breeding and seed propagation programs.• Capitulum structure and floral sequence were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy to describe inflorescence architecture, floret opening, and seed set.• Florets are minute and born in capitula containing pistillate ray florets and hermaphroditic disk florets. Ray florets have elongated stigmatic arms that extend prior to disk floret opening. Disk florets exhibit protandry. During the staminate phase, pollen is released within a staminate tube and actively presented with projections at the tip of stigmas as the pistil elongates. During the pistillate phase, stigmatic arms bifurcate and reflex. Stigmas are of the dry type and stain positively for polysaccharides, lipids, and an intact cuticle. Floret numbers vary with genotype, and capitula are predominantly composed of disk florets. Both ray and disk florets produce filled seed.• Gynomonoecy, early opening of ray florets, and dichogamy of disk florets promote outcrossing in A. annua For breeding and seed development, flowering in genotypes can be synchronized under short days according to the floral developmental stages defined. Floret number and percentage seed fill vary with genotype and may be a beneficial selection criterion. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Antinociceptive activity of the essential oil from Artemisia ludoviciana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Eugenio, Gerardo D; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Bye, Robert; Linares, Edelmira; Mata, Rachel

    2016-02-17

    Aerial parts of Artemisia ludoviciana are widely used in Mexico for treating gastrointestinal disorders, painful complaints and diabetes. To establish the preclinical efficacy as antinociceptive agent of the essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of A. ludoviciana using well-known animal models. Acute antinociceptive effect of EO (1, 10, 31.6, 100, and 316mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated using the hot plate and paw formalin models in mice. The motor effects were assessed with the rota-rod and open field assays. The volatile components obtained by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and hydrodistillation were determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. EO decreased first and second phases of formalin test; in the first stage, the better effect was obtained with the treatment of 316mg/kg but in the second phase, time licking was attenuated at the doses of 31.6, 100 and 316mg/kg. The effectiveness of EO (ED50=25.9mg/kg) for attenuating neurogenic pain was corroborated using the hot plate test. The antinociceptive action of EO was blocked by naloxone suggesting that its mode of action involved an opioid mechanism. Furthermore, EO (316mg/kg) did not affect animal motor and coordination functions when tested by the rota-rod and open field tests. The latter results indicated that the pharmacological effects exerted by EO during the hot plate and formalin test are truly antinociceptive. GC-MS analysis of EO revealed that (±)-camphor, γ-terpineol, 1,8-cineole and borneol were the major volatile compounds of the plant. EO from A. ludoviciana showed significant antinociceptive effect, which appeared to be partially mediated by the opioid system. These findings could support the long-term use of A. ludoviciana for treating painful complaints in Mexican folk medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Science framework for conservation and restoration of the sagebrush biome: Linking the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy to long-term strategic conservation actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Chambers; J.L. Beck; J.B. Bradford; J. Bybee; S. Campbell; J. Carlson; T.J. Christiansen; K.J. Clause; G. Collins; M.R. Crist; J.B. Dinkins; K.E. Doherty; F. Edwards; S. Espinosa; K.A. Griffin; P. Griffin; J.R. Haas; S.E. Hanser; D.W. Havlina; K.F. Henke; J.D. Hennig; L.A. Joyce; F.M. Kilkenny; S.M. Kulpa; L.L. Kurth; J.D. Maestas; M. Manning; K.E. Mayer; B.A. Mealor; C. McCarthy; M. Pellant; M.A. Perea; K.L. Prentice; D.A. Pyke; L.A. Wiechman; A. Wuenschel

    2017-01-01

    The Science Framework is intended to link the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy with long-term strategic conservation actions in the sagebrush biome. The Science Framework provides a multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies within the sagebrush biome. The emphasis...

  5. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and greater sage-grouse: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; David A. Pyke; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mike Pellant; Chad S. Boyd; Steven B. Campbell; Shawn Espinosa; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth E. Mayer; Amarina Wuenschel

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2...

  6. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeffrey L. Beck; Steve Campbell; John Carlson; Thomas J. Christiansen; Karen J. Clause; Jonathan B. Dinkins; Kevin E. Doherty; Kathleen A. Griffin; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth F. Henke; Jacob D. Hennig; Laurie L. Kurth; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mary Manning; Kenneth E. Mayer; Brian A. Mealor; Clinton McCarthy; Marco A. Perea; David A. Pyke

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses...

  7. Insect community responses to climate and weather across elevation gradients in the Sagebrush Steppe, eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.

    2016-11-17

    Executive SummaryIn this study, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of insects as bioindicators of climate change in sagebrush steppe shrublands and grasslands in the Upper Columbia Basin. The research was conducted in the Stinkingwater and Pueblo mountain ranges in eastern Oregon on lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management.We used a “space-for-time” sampling design that related insect communities to climate and weather along elevation gradients. We analyzed our insect dataset at three levels of organization: (1) whole-community, (2) feeding guilds (detritivores, herbivores, nectarivores, parasites, and predators), and (3) orders within nectarivores (i.e., pollinators). We captured 59,517 insects from 176 families and 10 orders at the Pueblo Mountains study area and 112,305 insects from 185 families and 11 orders at the Stinkingwater Mountains study area in 2012 and 2013. Of all the individuals captured at the Stinkingwater Mountains study area, 77,688 were from the family Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, gall gnats).We found that the composition of insect communities was associated with variability in long-term (30-yr) temperature and interannual fluctuations in temperature. We found that captures of certain fly, bee, moth, and butterfly pollinators were more strongly associated with some climate and vegetation variables than others. We found that timing of emergence, as measured by first detection of families, was associated with elevation. When analyzed by feeding guilds, we found that all guilds emerged later at high elevations except for detritivores, which emerged earlier at high elevations. The abundance of most taxa varied through time, mostly in response to temperature and precipitation. Of the pollinators, bees (particularly, Halictidae and Megachilidae) peaked in abundance in late June and early July, whereas butterflies and moths peaked in August. Flies peaked in abundance in July.Overall, our interpretation of these patterns is that

  8. Comprehensive GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of Artemisia indica and Artemisia vestita essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the leaf volatile constituents of the essential oils of Artemisia indica Willd. and Artemisia vestita Wall were studied using a combination of capillary GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infra-Red analytical techniques. The analysis led to the identification of 42 compounds in the essential oil of A. indica, representing 96.6% of the essential oil and the major components were found to be artemisia ketone (42.1%, germacrene D (8.6%, borneol (6.1% and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (4.8%. The essential oil was dominated by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes constituting 65.2% of the total oil composition followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene hydrocarbons constituting 15.7% and 10.7%, respectively of the total oil composition. The essential oil composition of A. vestita was found to contain a total of 18 components representing 94.2% of the total oil composition. The principal components were found to be 1,8-cineole (46.8%, (E-citral (13.7%, limonene (9.8%, α-phellandrene (6.4%, camphor (5.0%, (Z and (E-thujones (3.0% each. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant group of terpenes in the essential oil constituting 73.1% of the total oil composition followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (17.3%. The results of the current study reveal remarkable differences in the essential oil compositions of these two Artemisia species already reported in the literature from other parts of the globe.

  9. Artemisinin and sesquiterpene precursors in dead and green leaves of Artemisia annua L. crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.; Elzinga, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the accumulation and concentrations of the antimalarial artemisinin in green and dead leaves of Artemisia annua crops in two field experiments. Concentration differences were analysed as being determined by (a) the total production of artemisinin plus its upstream precursors

  10. Effects of N fertilization on trichome density, leaf size and artemisinin production in artemisia annua leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilkova, I.; Kjaer, A.; Kooy, van der F.; Lommen, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only economically viable source of the antimalarial compound artemisinin. Synthesis of artemisinin takes place in glandular trichomes, primarily on the leaves from where artemisinin is extracted. It is not well understood why yields and concentrations of

  11. ARTEMISININ, RELATED SESQUITERPENES, AND ESSENTIAL OIL IN ARTEMISIA-ANNUA DURING A VEGETATION PERIOD IN VIETNAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; CHAN, NG; BANG, BT; BOS, R; VANUDEN, W; Y, PV; BOI, NV; BATTERMAN, S; LUGT, CB

    The active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related

  12. Quality, energy requirement and costs of drying tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a favorite herbal and medicinal plant. Drying is necessary to achieve longer shelf life with high quality, preserving the original flavor. Essential oil content and color are the most important parameters that define the quality of herbal and medicinal plants.

  13. Loss of essential oil of tarragon (Artemisia dranunculus L.) due to drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Padhye, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Müller, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hot air-drying on the essential oil constituents and yield in French and Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. The tarragon leaves were dried at air temperatures ranging from 40 to 90 °C. The drying stopped when the moisture content of the samples reached 10%

  14. Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua to Molt-4 human leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is the second cause of death in the United States, and current treatment is expensive and kills also healthy cells. Affordable alternatives that kill only cancer cells are needed. Artemisinin, extracted from the Artemisia annua, has potent anticancer activity and low toxicity to normal cell...

  15. Inhibitory Activity of Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil Against Fungal Species Isolated From Minced Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Meat is an important source of several nutrients. The capability top of fresh meat to rot, causing the group of studies food science, biological and chemical stability meat consideration. Objectives This study was conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of Artemisias spicigera essential oil against fungal species isolated from minced meat. Materials and Methods Two types of media dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18 agar and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol (DRBC agar were selected for the mycological analysis of the minced meat samples. To evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils, the microdilution broth method based on the CLSI (M27A guideline was used. Results Artemisias spicigera essential oil has an inhibitory effect on the growth of fungi found in samples of minced meat. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most common genera on both medium types. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentration 50 = 1.88 µL/mL and MIC90 = 2 µL/mL were reported. The genus of Mucor with MIC = 1.0 µL/mL was the most sensitive and Aspergilus versicolor was the most resistant species to the essential oil with MIC = 4 µL/mL. Conclusions The results of the present study show a favorable inhibitory effect of Artemisias spicigera essential oil on fungal growth, especially Aspergillus species. According to the results, antifungal components of Artemisias spicigera in different forms are used to prevent fungal pollution.

  16. Artemisinin production and precursor ratio in full grown Artemisia annua L. plants subjected to external stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjaer, A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Ivarsen, E.; Frette, X.; Christensen, L.P.; Grevsen, K.; Jensen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of the lifesaving antimalarial compound artemisinin (AN) in cultivated Artemisia annua (A. annua) plants is relatively low, and thus research in improving the content is important. In the present study, external stress was applied to adult plants of A. annua and the effect was

  17. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of extracts from Artemisia parviflora and A. sieversiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irum S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the northern areas of Pakistan, the use of Artemisia based therapeutics is a common practice. Plants of genus Artemisia are known to possess anthelmintic and therapeutic effect. Infections caused by gastrointestinal nematodes are major threat to livestock industry across the world resulting in loss of production and indirect economic losses due to high cost of anthelmintic drugs. Present study was carried out to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effect of Artemisia sieversiana and Artemisia parviflora on Haemonchus contortus, a parasitic nematode of small ruminants. Methanolic plant extract was tested against three different developmental stages using an egg hatch assay, infective larvae and adult worm motility assay. Different concentrations were used for the bioassays and post exposure mortality was recorded after 8 hr for adult worms and infective larvae, while egg inhibition percentage was observed after 27 hr. A highly significant ability to inhibit the egg hatching (100 % was recorded for both plant extracts while, the highest activity for adult worm assay and larvicidal assay was 90 % for A. sieversiana. The highest activity for adult motility and larvicidal assay for A. parviflora was 89 % and 86.6 % respectively. For in vivo trials maximum parentage reduction was 77.0 % for A. sieversiana and 73.6 % for A. parviflora. It is concluded that selected plant extracts were effective in reducing worm burden in animals.

  18. Isolation and identification of dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide from Artemisia annua : A novel biosynthetic precursor of artemisinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, TE; Pras, N; Quax, WJ

    Dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide (2) was isolated for the first time as a natural product from the plant Artemisia annua in a 29% yield. Its structure was identified by H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Compound 2 is known as an intermediate of the photochemical oxidation of dihydroartemisinic

  19. Volatile components of the aerial parts of Artemisia pontica L. grown in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Stojanova, A.S.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Koulman, A; Quax, Wim

    2005-01-01

    The volatile components of the aerial parts of Artemisia pontica L., obtained through hydrodistillation, were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oxygen-containing monoterpene fraction dominated (36.7%), while 1.8-cineole (14.1%) and camphor (13.9%) were the main components. Other relatively abundant

  20. Artemisia Extract Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Up-Regulating Adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Ji, Xianghong

    2016-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has affected a great number of pregnant women worldwide. Artemisia extracts have been found to exhibit a potent antidiabetic effect in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine the effects of Artemisia extract on insulin resistance and lipid profiles in pregnant GDM patients. Patients in their second trimester were randomly assigned to the Artemisia extract group (AE) or to a placebo group (PO). They were instructed to consume either AE or PO daily for a period of 10 weeks. Glucose and insulin profiles and adiponectin level were assessed at baseline (week 0) and after the treatment (week 10). Compared to the PO group, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and β-cell function (HOMA-B) were significantly reduced in the AE group participants. Moreover, levels of circulating adiponectin were also significantly up-regulated in the AE group, which also positively contributed to improved insulin sensitivity. Daily administration of Artemisia extract improves insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adiponectin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Insecticidal activity of Artemisia annua L . (CBGE/CHNA/09/LTNGS/G)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry leaves (500g) and dry seeds (500g) of Artemisia annua L. were separately extracted with 2 litres of ethanol for a period of 48 hrs at room temperature (25oC). The phytochemical constituents of the plant were determined. The extracts (leaves and seeds) were tested singly and in combinations for their insecticidal ...

  2. Artemisia pallens alleviates acetaminophen induced toxicity via modulation of endogenous biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honmore, Varsha; Kandhare, Amit; Zanwar, Anand A; Rojatkar, Supada; Bodhankar, Subhash; Natu, Arun

    2015-04-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) leads to severe hepatic and renal necrosis and thus causes significant clinical problems. Artemisia pallens Walls ex D.C. (Asteraceae) possesses various pharmacological properties such as antidiabetic, antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activity. The objective was to evaluate the protective effects of Artemisia pallens methanol extract (APME) in APAP-induced hepatic and nephro-toxicity. The methanolic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia pallens (APME) was prepared. Toxicity was induced in male Wistar rats (180-220 g) by administration of APAP (700 mg/kg, p.o., 14 d). APME (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to rats 2 h before APAP oral administration. Various biochemical and molecular parameters along with histopathological aberration were studied in the kidney and liver of rats. Pretreatment with APME (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (p Artemisia pallens alleviates APAP induced in rats toxicity through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions.

  3. Antidiabetic Activity of Artemisia amygdalina Decne in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganai, Bashir A.; Akbar, Seema; Mubashir, Khan; Dar, Showkat Ahmad; Dar, Mohammad Younis; Tantry, Mudasir A.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia species have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Artemisia amygdalina. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia amygdalina were tested for their antidiabetic potentials in diabetic rats. The effect of extracts was observed by checking the biochemical, physiological, and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats. The hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts each at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b. w significantly reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. The other biochemical parameters like cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL), serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatise (ALP), were found to be reduced by the hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts. The extracts also showed reduction in the feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The histopathological results of treated groups showed the regenerative/protective effect on β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The current study revealed the antidiabetic potential of Artemisia amygdalina being effective in hyperglycemia and that it can effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by diabetes in rats, which seems to validate its therapeutic traditional use. PMID:24967338

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  5. Antimalaric effect of an alcoholic extract of Artemisia ludoviciana mexicana in a rodent malaria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, F; Vázquez, J; Delgado, G; Ruiz, A

    1997-03-01

    Chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum first and of P. vivax more recently, stimulated the search for new antimalarics. Chinese investigators have introduced new compounds obtained from extracts of Artemisia annua which possess an antimalaric active principle different from those of the drugs in use. In Mexico eight species of Artemisia have been described and among them just A. ludoviciana has been empirically used in the treatment of intermittent fever. To know whether mexican Artemisia had antimalaric activity several in vivo experiments were performed. Different type of extracts from two Artemisia species were prepared and assayed in five different doses on mice infected by Plasmodium yoelii yoelii, in a four-day test scheme. Here, only the results of the assays on ethanolic extract of A. ludoviciana are presented. The results of the in vivo experiments showed that the parasite reproduction was inhibited up to 98.6% at the fifth day, as compared with the controls; the ED50 was of 29.2 mg/kg and the SM50 of 28.7. We looked after the presence of artemisinin in the ethanolic extract, without success.

  6. Antidiabetic activity of Artemisia amygdalina Decne in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Khalid; Ganai, Bashir A; Akbar, Seema; Mubashir, Khan; Dar, Showkat Ahmad; Dar, Mohammad Younis; Tantry, Mudasir A

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia species have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Artemisia amygdalina. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia amygdalina were tested for their antidiabetic potentials in diabetic rats. The effect of extracts was observed by checking the biochemical, physiological, and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats. The hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts each at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b. w significantly reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. The other biochemical parameters like cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL), serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatise (ALP), were found to be reduced by the hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts. The extracts also showed reduction in the feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The histopathological results of treated groups showed the regenerative/protective effect on β -cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The current study revealed the antidiabetic potential of Artemisia amygdalina being effective in hyperglycemia and that it can effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by diabetes in rats, which seems to validate its therapeutic traditional use.

  7. Chemical and biological diversity of the volatiles of five Artemisia species from far east of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from aerial parts of Artemisia argyi, A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, A. olgensis (Asteraceae). Plants were collected in the Far East region (Primorski Krai) of the Russian Federatio...

  8. Neuroprotective effect of Artemisia absinthium L. on focal ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

    2010-06-16

    Artemisia absinthium L. has long been used as traditional herbal medicine in China, Europe and Pakistan for the treatment of gastric pain, cardiac stimulation, to improve memory and for the restoration of declining mental function. The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effects of Artemisia absinthium on cerebral oxidative stress and damage as well as behavioral disturbances induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Focal ischemia and reperfusion were induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion. MCAO led to significant rise in infarct size and lipid peroxidation, and depletion in glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in brain. Further, behavioral deficits like motor incoordination and impairment of short-term memory were also significantly impaired by MCAO as compared with sham group. The brain oxidative stress and damage, and behavioral deficits were significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with the methanol extract of Artemisia absinthium (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, p.o.). These findings suggested that Artemisia absinthium is neuroprotective and may prove to be useful adjunct in the treatment of stroke. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of Artemisia absinthium L. hydroalcholic extract in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadian Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Artemisia absinthium L. (AA is a large, diverse genus of the family Asteraceae. AAhas long been used as customary herbal medicine in world for the treatment of gastric pain, cardiacstimulation, improvement of memory and for the restoration of declined mental function. The aimof present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of AA on some factors ref lecting thedevelopment of oxidative toxic stress in plasma.Methods: Twenty male rats were equally divided in to 4 groups (5 rats each. Group I actedas control (received normal salin. Treatment groups were II, III and IV which were givenArtemisia 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day respectively only by gavage for 24 hours. After treatment,blood specimens were collected. Liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST andalanine aminotransferase (ALT with total antioxidant power (TAP and total thiol groups (TTGconcentrations were measured.Results: Levels of ALT, AST and TTG were decreased in the group II compared to the control(group I. ALT and AST in 50 mg/kg group was observed compared with control group. Also, TTGincreased in Artemisia 50 mg/kg group compared to control group.Conclusion: Results suggests that alcoholic extract of Artemisia can ameliorate liver toxicity inrats through reducing the serum levels of ALT, AST, and oxidative damage.

  10. Effects of light and drought stress on germination of Artemisia sieberi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preservation and development of plant cover are major factors in the management of range ecosystems. Artemisia sieberi is one of the native dominant species of vast areas in the Irano-Turanian bioclimatic region. This species is very tolerant to drought stress and grazing pressure. Therefore, it can be used to rehabilitate ...

  11. Insecticidal activity of Artemisia annua L. (CBGE/CHNA/09/ LTNGS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. The dry leaves (500g) and dry seeds (500g) of Artemisia annua L. were separately extracted with 2 litres of ethanol for a period of 48 hrs at room temperature (25oC). The phytochemical constituents of the plant were determined. The extracts (leaves and seeds) were tested singly and in combinations for their ...

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a broad substrate terpenoid oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Litjens, R.; Takahashi, S.; Quax, W.J.; Osada, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression, and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  13. Study of genetic polymorphism of Artemisia herba-alba from Tunisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artemisia herba-alba is an herbaceous aromatic and therapeutic plant widely distributed in semi-arid regions of Tunisia and is potentially usable to restore degraded ecosystems. A study of genetic variation among 216 accessions was conducted using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) markers to assess the ...

  14. Chemical Polymorphism of Essential Oils of Artemisia vulgaris Growing Wild in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzentiene, Asta; Budiene, Jurga

    2017-11-21

    Compositional variability of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) essential oils has been investigated in the study. Plant material (over ground parts at full flowering stage) was collected from forty-four wild populations in Lithuania. The oils from aerial parts were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC(FID) and GC/MS. In total, up to 111 components were determined in the oils. As the major constituents were found: sabinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, both thujone isomers, camphor, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, davanone and davanone B. The compositional data were subjected to statistical analysis. The application of PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and AHC (Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering) allowed grouping the oils into six clusters. AHC permitted to distinguish an artemisia ketone chemotype, which, to the best of our knowledge, is very scarce. Additionally, two rare cis-chrysanthenyl acetate and sabinene oil types were determined for the plants growing in Lithuania. Besides, davanone was found for the first time as a principal component in mugwort oils. The performed study revealed significant chemical polymorphism of essential oils in mugwort plants native to Lithuania; it has expanded our chemotaxonomic knowledge both of A. vulgaris species and Artemisia genus. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. The rise to prominence of Artemisia annua L. – the transformation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the transformation of a recently promoted medicinal plant named Artemisia annua L. For over 2000 years, the Chinese have used A. annua as a herbal tea preparation against malaria. Pharmacological studies led to the isolation of artemisinin as the principal anti-malarial compound. Since 2001, the ...

  16. Modeling of the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) of Tarragon (Artemisia Dracunculus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Huisman, W.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Mueller, J.

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture content of tarragon, Artemisia dracunculus L. (stem and leaf separately) was determined by using the saturated salt solutions method at three temperatures (25, 50 and 70°C) within a range of 5 to 90% relative humidity. Both adsorption and desorption methods were used for

  17. Effect of Drying on the Color of Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Padhye, S.; Huisman, W.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Müller, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of drying conditions on the color of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures of 40 to 90 °C with a constant airflow of 0.6 m/s. The samples were collected at 7%, 10%, 20%, and 30% moisture content wet basis for evaluation of the

  18. Reproductive toxic effects of Artemisia herba alba ingestion in female Spague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasad, Motasem M; Qazan, Walid S; Daradka, Haytham

    2007-09-15

    The objectives of this study is to investigate the toxic effects of Artemisia herba Alba (300 mg/kg/ body wight) on the reproductive system after administration to female Sprague-Dawley rats weighting 250-300 g for two time periods 4 and 12 weeks. Twenty adult female rats were divided into two groups and exposed to Topiramate diet at a concentration of 300 mg/kg/body weight for two periods of time. First group containing 10 rats received treatment for 4 weeks and a second group of 10 rats received the same dose of treatment for a period of 12 weeks and compared with twenty non-exposed female rats received vehicle treatment. Female rats were allowed mating with males after 10 days prior to the last administration dose. Animals were autopsied under light anesthesia after mating and several parameters were determined including: Number of pregnant rats, body and reproductive organ weight, number of implantation sites, viable fetuses and resorption sites. Assessment of pregnancies in females was measured and the significance of these results was calculated using student's t and Chi-square tests. The effect of Artemisia herba alba exposure on fertility was assessed in terms of pregnant rats number, implantation sites, viable fetuses and resorption sites. Exposure to Artemisia herba alba for 4 weeks did not have much effect on fertility. Significant decrease in the relative ovarian weights and embryo weights in rats exposed to Artemisia herba alba were observed. Exposure to Artemisia herba alba for a 12 weeks resulted in a reduction in the percentage of pregnancies and in the number of implantation sites when compared with controls in both treatment periods. Rats receiving 12 weeks treatment showed an increase in ovarian weights and a decrease in viable fetus's number. These results indicate that long-term exposure of female rats to Artemisia herba Alba causes adverse effects on the reproductive system and fertility. The results of the current study suggest that ingestion

  19. Sexual selection on cuticular hydrocarbons of male sagebrush crickets in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Sandra; Ower, Geoffrey D.; Stökl, Johannes; Mitchell, Christopher; Hunt, John; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2013-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an essential role in mate recognition in insects but the form and intensity of sexual selection on CHCs has only been evaluated in a handful of studies, and never in a natural population. We quantified sexual selection operating on CHCs in a wild population of sagebrush crickets, a species in which nuptial feeding by females imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males. Multivariate selection analysis revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface, suggesting a complex interplay between the total abundance of CHCs and specific CHC combinations in their influence on female choice. The fitness surface resulting from two axes of disruptive selection reflected a trade-off between short- and long-chained CHCs, suggesting that males may be sacrificing some level of desiccation resistance in favour of increased attractiveness. There was a significant correlation between male body size and total CHC abundance, suggesting that male CHCs provide females with a reliable cue for maximizing benefits obtained from males. Notwithstanding the conspicuousness of males’ acoustic signals, our results suggest that selection imposed on males via female mating preferences may be far more complex than previously appreciated and operating in multiple sensory modalities. PMID:24197415

  20. Using Unmanned Helicopters to Assess Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Randy Lee

    2012-07-01

    Evaluating vegetation cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. Methods that have sufficient accuracy and improved cost efficiency could dramatically alter how biotic resources are monitored on both public and private lands. This will be of interest to land managers because there are rarely enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, unmanned helicopters were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover during May, June, and July in 2005. The images were used to estimate percent cover for six vegetative cover classes (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forbs, litter, and bare ground). The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. Ocular assessments of digital imagery were performed using a software program called SamplePoint, and the results were compared against field measurements collected using a point-frame method to assess accuracy. The helicopter imagery evaluation showed a high degree of agreement with field cover class values for litter, bare ground, and grass, and reasonable agreement for dead shrubs. Shrub cover was often overestimated and forbs were generally underestimated. The helicopter method took 45% less time than the field method to set plots and collect and analyze data. This study demonstrates that UAV technology provides a viable method for monitoring vegetative cover on rangelands in less time and with lower costs. Tradeoffs between cost and accuracy are critical management decisions that are important when managing vegetative conditions across vast sagebrush ecosystems throughout the Intermountain West.

  1. Soil microbial communities and elk foraging intensity: implications for soil biogeochemical cycling in the sagebrush steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Lauren C; Zak, Donald R; Upchurch, Rima A; Freedman, Zachary B; Peschel, Anna R

    2017-02-01

    Foraging intensity of large herbivores may exert an indirect top-down ecological force on soil microbial communities via changes in plant litter inputs. We investigated the responses of the soil microbial community to elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range occupancy across a long-term foraging exclusion experiment in the sagebrush steppe of the North American Rocky Mountains, combining phylogenetic analysis of fungi and bacteria with shotgun metagenomics and extracellular enzyme assays. Winter foraging intensity was associated with reduced bacterial richness and increasingly distinct bacterial communities. Although fungal communities did not respond linearly to foraging intensity, a greater β-diversity response to winter foraging exclusion was observed. Furthermore, winter foraging exclusion increased soil cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzyme potential and higher foraging intensity reduced chitinolytic gene abundance. Thus, future changes in winter range occupancy may shape biogeochemical processes via shifts in microbial communities and subsequent changes to their physiological capacities to cycle soil C and N. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activities and mechanisms of Artemisia asiatica ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Deok; Yi, Young-Su; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Woo Seok; Park, Jae Gwang; Yoon, Keejung; Yoon, Deok Hyo; Song, Changsik; Lee, Yunmi; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Tae Woong; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2014-03-28

    Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Compositae) is a representative herbal plant used to treat infection and inflammatory diseases. Although Artemisia asiatica is reported to have immunopharmacological activities, the mechanisms of these activities and the effectiveness of Artemisia asiatica preparations in use are not known. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia asiatica ethanol extract (Aa-EE), we assayed nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in macrophages and measured the extent of tissue injury in a model of gastric ulcer induced in mice by treatment with HCl in EtOH. Putative enzymatic mediators of Aa-EE activities were identified by nuclear fractionation, reporter gene assay, immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and kinase assay. Active compound in Aa-EE was identified using HPLC. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages with Aa-EE suppressed the production of NO, PGE2, and TNF-α in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and induced heme oxygenase-1 expression. The Aa-EE also ameliorated symptoms of gastric ulcer in HCl/EtOH-treated mice. These effects were associated with the inhibition of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein (AP)-1, implying that the anti-inflammatory action of the Aa-EE occurred through transcriptional inhibition. The upstream regulatory signals Syk and Src for translocation of NF-κB and TRAF6 for AP-1 were identified as targets of this effect. Analysis of Aa-EE by HPLC revealed the presence of luteolin, known to inhibit NO and PGE2 activity. The anti-inflammatory activities attributed to Artemisia asiatica Nakai in traditional medicine may be mediated by luteolin through inhibition of Src/Syk/NF-κB and TRAF6/JNK/AP-1 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Pullulan film incorporated with Artemisia sieberi essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh hedayati rad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: A large number of non-recyclable packaging materials, which are harmful for the health of consumers, are produced all over the world. The Suggested solution is using films and coatings which are biodegradable in nature. Pullulan is a biopolymer that is produced by Aureobasidium pullulans and used in order to produce edible films. These edible films could contain antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The primary aim of this study is to produce edible blended films that form pullulan whit Artemisia sieberi essential oil and the secondary goal is to investigate the antimicrobial attributes of the obtained film. Materials and Methods: The Essential oil of Artemisia sieberi was added to the solution of pullulan films in seven concentrations. Then, the antimicrobial attributes were determined with the dick diffusion method. Finally, minimal inhibitory concentration was calculated for each microbe. The SAS program (Version 9.1 was used for the completely randomized design of data analyses. Results: It is possible to produce pullulan film containing Artemisia sieberi essential oil. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus had maximum and minimum resistance towards the antimicrobial attributes of Artemisia sieberi essential oil, respectively. MIC of Artemisia sieberi essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Escherichia coli were respectively obtained at 15%, 10% and 15%. Conclusion: Due to the possibility of the production of biodegradable films with the addition of natural antimicrobial agents such as essential oils it can be concluded that it is appropriate to use these materials in order to decrease microbial load and increase the shelf life of foods.

  4. Soil carbon and nitrogen in a Great Basin pinyon-juniper woodland: Influence of vegetation, burning, and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. M. Rau; D. W. Johnson; R. R. Blank; J. C. Chambers

    2009-01-01

    Much of the Great Basin, U.S. is currently dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ssp. (Rydb.) Boivin) ecosystems. At intermediate elevations, sagebrush ecosystems are increasingly influenced by pinyon (Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus osteosperma Torr.) expansion. Some...

  5. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of some representatives of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium (genus Artemisia, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès, J.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular cytogenetic study has been performed in three species of the genus Artemisia, complementing previous works on two subgenera that had been scarcely studied from this standpoint, Artemisia ( A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris and Absinthium ( A. absinthium. Chromomycin A3 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI banding have been carried out, as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal DNA. Morphometrical data of karyotype characters were calculated and idiograms with the position of the AT- and GC-rich regions as well as rDNA loci were constructed. Colocalization of most of these regions has been observed, confirming previous findings in this genus. Both ribosomal DNA appear always colocalized, which is a distinct feature with respect to most angiosperms surveyed. Regarding the differential characteristics of each species, a symmetrical karyotype has been found in the species studied. Artemisia absinthium shows long chromosomes and absence of centromeric banding signals that, conversely, are absent in A. vulgaris andA. chamaemelifolia. The last species also presents B-chromosomes in which ribosomal DNA and heterochromatin have been detected. Despite these differences, karyotype morphology and signal pattern of the three species are quite coincidental. This might reflect a close phylogenetic relationship between both subgenera, which is consistent with the available molecular phylogenies presenting species of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium intermixed.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio citogenético molecular en tres especies del género Artemisia, que complementa trabajos previos sobre dos subgéneros que han sido poco estudiados desde este punto de vista, Artemisia (A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris y Absinthium (A. absinthium. Se han efectuado tinciones de bandeo con cromomicina A3

  6. TARRAGON (Artemisia dracunculus L.) “HAIRY” ROOT CULTURE PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    K. O.; А. М.; N/A

    2016-01-01

    Целью работы была разработка биотехнологии генетической трансформации растений эстрагона Artemisia dracunculus L. В качестве вектора был использован дикий штамм Аgrobacterium rhizogenes А4. Впервые получена культура «бородатых» корней эстрагона. Среди использованных эксплантов (корни, стебли, листья и гипокотили 14-суточных in vitro культивируемых проростков эстрагона) оптимальным типом оказались листья. При их использовании частота трансформации достигала 20%. Установлено, что важным биотехн...

  7. Chemical composition of Artemisia annua L. leaves and antioxidant potential of extracts as a function of extraction solvents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents...

  8. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  9. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  10. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Italian Populations of Artemisia alba Turra (Asteraceae

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    Felice Senatore

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils as chemotaxonomic markers could be useful for the classification of Artemisia species and to caracterize biodiversity in the different populations. An analysis of the chemical composition of four essential oils from Italian populations of Artemisia alba Turra (collected in Sicily, Marche and Abruzzo was investigated. In this paper an in depth study of the significant differences observed in the composition of these oils is reported.

  11. Inhibitory effect of n-hexane: ethyl acetate fraction from Artemisia vulgaris L. on cell culture of oral epithelial carcinoma

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    Ira Arundina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudamala herb (Artemisia vulgaris L. is often used in society as an anti tumor for organs of digestive system including oral cavity. Nevertheless, there are still no further scientific researches on active materials which can be used as anti carcinogen in oral cavity. Most of anti carcinogens are actually obtained from the genus Artemisia. Moreover, in Indonesia, the species of the genus Artemisia that grows the most is Artemisia vulgaris L. The problem of this research, however, is that the effect of n-hexane fraction: ethyl acetate from Artemisia vulgaris L. towards the decreasing of oncogene in oral squamous cell carcinoma is still indefinite. Purpose: The objective of this research is to explain the effect of giving n-hexane : ethyl acetate (3:7 fraction containing terpenoid from Artemisia vulgaris L. towards the decreasing of oncogene in oral epithelial carcinoma cell line. Methods: The method of this research is laboratory experimental research by using squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity on cell culture. The inhibitory percentage test in vitro, furthermore, is taken during the analysis. The result then is analyzed by probit analysis with drawing relation curve between the inhibitory percentage and concentration. Result: The result of n-hexane : ethyl acetate (3:7 fraction containing terpenoid from Artemisia vulgaris L. has the smallest IC50, 3.902 μg/ml, less than 20 μg/ml suitable with NCI criteria; thus, it can potentially be used as anti carcinogen. Conclusion: There is the decreasing of oncogenes after being given n-hexane : ethyl acetate (3:7 fraction containing terpenoid from Artemisia vulgaris L. towards oral epithelial carcinoma cell line.

  12. Evaluation of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Artemisia indica linn (aeriel parts) in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

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    Ahmad, Waqar; Khan, Imran; Khan, Mir Azam; Ahmad, Manzoor; Subhan, Fazal; Karim, Nasiara

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major metabolic disorder affecting a huge population all over the world. Artemisia species have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folkloric medicine. The present study is designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of aeriel parts of Artemisia indica. Hydromethanolic crude extracts, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of aerial parts of Artemisia indica were tested for their antidiabetic potential in Streptozotocin (STZ) (50mg/kg, i.p.) induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood glucose level, body weight, serum lipid profile and activities of liver enzymes were determined. The extracts were further subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis. A daily oral dose of hydromethanolic crude extracts (200 and 400mg/kg b.w.) and chloroform fraction (200mg/kg b.w.) of Artemisia indica for 15 days showed a significant reduction in blood glucose level which was comparable to that of the standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide (500 μg/kg, p.o.). Artemisia indica extracts also showed reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoproteins as well as serum creatinine level, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in diabetic rats. According to the results Artemisia indica possesses hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and valuable effects on liver and renal functions in diabetic rats, which seems to validate its traditional usage. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Nephroprotective and antioxidant properties of Artemisia arborescens hydroalcoholic extract against oestroprogestative-induced kidney damages in rats.

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    Dhibi, Sabah; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Samout, Noura; Tlili, Zied; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-08-01

    Currently, medicinal plants are found to have biological and pharmacological activities and are used in various domains. This study, carried out on Wistar rats, evaluates the beneficial effects of Artemisia arborscens extract on oestroprogestative-induced damages in kidney. Thirty-six 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 batches of nine each: a control group, a group of rats receiving oestroprogestative treatment, a group undergoing oestroprogestative treatment after receiving Artemisia arborescens extract in drinking water, and a group that received only Artemisia arborescens. Artemisia arborescens extract was found to optimize many parameters which were shifted to pathological values as a consequence of oestroprogestative toxicity: plasma creatinine and urea levels were decreased, uric acid and proteins were restored to normal values. The alteration of renal architecture was also suppressed. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities that had been reduced in kidney of the treated group were restored by Aretmisia arborscens-based treatments and, therefore, the lipid peroxidation level was reduced in the renal tissue compared to the control group. The obtained results confirmed that the Artemisia-based treatment allowed efficient protection against oestroprogestative-induced nephrotoxicity by restoring the activities of kidney. The protective effect of Artemisia arborescens was mainly attributed to antioxidant properties as well as the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids detected by means of HPLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [THE ROLE OF THE PLANT ARTEMISIA IN SURVIVAL AND INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS OF B CELLS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA (CLL)].

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    Mirkin, Vita; Berrebi, Alain; Rakhman, Igor; Haran, Michal; Shvidel, Lev

    2017-02-01

    The cytotoxic effect of plants such as green tea and turmeric (curcumin) on B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells has been established. The plant Artemisia has been used in China for anti-cancer and anti-malaria applications. In Israel, Artemisia absinthium ("the Chiba") is used to release abdominal pain. In attempts to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of this plant in CLL cells, we prepared a decoction of Artemisia leaves and after filtration used it as an inducer of apoptosis of B CLL cells. CLL cells were collected from 7 patients in different stages of the disease. Apoptosis was measured using an annexin based flow cytometry assay. First a viability test showed that 100μl/106 cells was the most effective dilution for killing up to 70% cells after 48 hours of incubation. In these conditions Artemisia induced approximately 75% apoptosis in comparison to 32% in the cultures without Artemisia. We concluded that decoction of Artemisia absinthium is a potent inducer of in vitro apoptosis of CLL cells. Our results provide a laboratory basis for further clinical application.

  15. IDENTIFIKASI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR SENYAWA KUMARIN DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL Artemisia Annua L. SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS - DENSITOMETRI

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    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Artemisia annua L. contain the active compounds include: terpenoids, flavonoids, kumarin, artemisinin acid, artennuin B, phenols, saponins, and fat. Kumarin and its derivatives have biological activity that can stimulate skin pigment, blood anticoagulation and can inhibit the effects of carcinogens. With this biological activity of kumarin, the research is done to ensure there is kumarin by identification and measure kumarin level which is contained in the Artemisia annua L. herb. The analysis methods include the extraction and fractionation. Identification and determination of level with Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC using a Densitometer CS-9301 PC. From the result of TLC identification of kumarin standard known that Artemisia annua L extract contain kumarin compound which marked by a blue spot flouresense on standards and methanol extract of artemisia annua L. seeing under UV light at a wavelength of 366 nm with Rf value of standard and sample is 0.31, the measurement of kumarin spot with Densitometer known that kumarin concentration in the extract of Artemisia annua L. is 10.5 ul/ ml with 105% RecoveryKeywords: Artemisia annua L, kumarin, TLC-Densitometry

  16. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

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    Gulmira Özek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia argyi , A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, and A. olgensis (Asteraceae were collected in Far East Russia. Oils were hydrodistilled and simultaneously analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Main constituents were found as follows in Artemisia oils: selin-11-en-4 a -ol (18.0%, 1,8-cineole (14.2.0%, artemisia alcohol (12.9%, borneol (9.7% in A. argyi; camphor (31.2%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%, a -thujone (5.7% in A. feddei; longiverbenone (12.0%, isopinocamphone (8.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, camphor (5.8%, trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (5.3% in A. gmelinii; germacrene D (11.2%, rosifoliol (10.1%, caryophyllene oxide (6.8%, eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (5.6% in A. manshurica; eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (6.9%, caryophyllene oxide (5.6%, guaia-6,10(14-dien-4 b -ol (5.1% and hexadecanoic acid (5.0% in A. olgensis. Oils were subsequently submitted for antifungal and antimosquito evaluations. Artemisia species oils showed biting deterrent effects in Aedes aegypti and Artemisia gmelinii oil with the most active biting deterrence index values of 0.82 ± 0.1 at 10 m g/mL. Larval bioassay of A. gmelinii and A. olgensis oils showed higher larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LD50 values of 83.8 (72.6 – 95.7 ppm and 91.0 (73.8 – 114.5 ppm, respectively. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using direct overlay bioautography assay and all showed non-selective weak antifungal activity. Antioxidant evaluations of the oils were performed by using b -carotene bleaching, Trolox equivalent and DPPH tests. The tested Artemisia oils demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity.

  17. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  18. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  19. Essential Oil Variability in Natural Populations of Artemisia campestris (L.) and Artemisia herba-alba (Asso) and Incidence on Antiacetylcholinesterase and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younsi, Faten; Mehdi, Sameh; Aissi, Oumayma; Rahali, Najoua; Jaouadi, Rym; Boussaid, Mohamed; Messaoud, Chokri

    2017-07-01

    The intraspecific variability of Artemisia herba-alba and A. campestris essential oils and the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities were determined. Artemisia herba-alba essential oil was found rich in camphor (19.61%), α-thujone (19.40%), β-thujone (9.44%), chrysanthenone (9.26%), and trans-sabinyl acetate (8.43%). The major compounds of A. campestris essential oil were germacrene D (16.38%), β-pinene (16.33%), and limonene (9.17%). Significant variation in the essential oil composition was observed among populations of each species. The divergence between populations was attributed to the variation of some climatic factors such as altitude, annual rainfall, winter cold stress, summer precipitation, summer drought stress, evapotranspiration, and humidity. Artemisia herba-alba and A. campestris essential oils exhibited promising antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities. The level of activity varied significantly according to the species and the essential oil. The highest scavenging activity (IC 50 = 0.14 mg/ml) and the uppermost capacity to prevent β-carotene bleaching (IC 50 = 0.10 mg/ml) characterized A. campestris from population 6. A. campestris population 3 possessed the uppermost ability to reduce ferric ions (450.7 μmol Fe 2+ /g EO). The population 2 of A. campestris showed the strongest antiacetylcholinesterase activity (IC 50 = 0.02 mg/ml). The variation of these activities between the essential oils was explained by their composition differences. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Chemical Analysis of Essential oil of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss" by GC and GC/ MS

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    A. Nassir- Ahraadi . A. Rustaiyan

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss growing wild in the north-west of Iran, was investigated by GC and GC/MS."nThe main components of the volatile oil were 1,8 - cineol (16.5%, camphor (14.1%. artemisia ketone (10.5%, fragranol (9.0%, Yomogi alcohol (7.5% and B- pinene (5.4%. The total contribution of these compounds to the oil amounted to 63.0%."nMonoterpens and sesquiterpenes represent 90.08% and 1.52% of the oil respectively. Of the twenty oxygen-containing monoterpenes which made up a fairly large fraction of the terpenoid composition, the predominant components were 1,8 - cineole and camphor.

  1. [Screening and taxonomic identification of endophytic fungi with antitumor and antioxidant activities from Artemisia lactiflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi-Xin; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Lei, Bang-Xing; Wang, Lu; Huang, Ying

    2014-02-01

    Artemisia lactiflora is an important medicinal plant in China. The antitumor and antioxidant activities of the extracts of 54 endophytic fungi from the plant were screened via MTT assay and DPPH scavenging radical assay, respectively. The bioactive strains were identified based on similarity of 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. The results showed that extracts from ten (18.5%) isolates exhibited antitumor activity, and which from two (3.7%) isolates exhibited antioxidant activity. The Alternaria sp. GYBH47 strain was simultaneously having antagonistic activity against HL-60 leukemia, MCF-7 breast and COLO205 colon cell lines, and Phomopsis sp. GYBH42 strain having cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The results indicated that endophytic fungi from Artemisia lactiflora are potential resources to find valuable bioactive components.

  2. The génépi Artemisia species. Ethnopharmacology, cultivation, phytochemistry, and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, José F; Carlen, Christoph; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Pollastro, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Wormwoods (Artemisia species) from the génépi group are, along with Edelweiss, iconic plants of the Alpine region and true symbols of inaccessibility because of their rarity and their habitat, largely limited to moraines of glaciers and rock crevices. Infusions and liqueurs prepared from génépis have always enjoyed a panacea status in folk medicine, especially as thermogenic agents and remedies for fatigue, dyspepsia, and airway infections. In the wake of the successful cultivation of white génépi (Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.) and the expansion of its supply chain, modern studies have evidenced the occurrence of unique constituents, whose chemistry, biological profile, and sensory properties are reviewed along with the ethnopharmacology, botany, cultivation and conservation strategies of their plant sources.

  3. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI): Environmental Assessment of the Farish Recreation Area Observatory and Cabin Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    montana). Dominant forbs include white sagebrush ( Artemisia ludoviciana), fringed sage ( Artemisia frigida), common sandwort (Artemesia campestris...and other serious non-cancer health effects in animals, including effects on the immune system, reproductive system, nervous system, and endocrine

  4. Polyol monoterpenes and sesquiterpene lactones from the Pacific Northwest plant Artemisia suksdorfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed A; El-Moghazy, Safaa A; El-Shanawany, Mohamed A; Abdel-Ghani, Hoda F; Karchesy, Joe; Sturtz, George; Dalley, Kent; Paré, Paul W

    2004-10-01

    Five new polyol monoterpenes (1-5) and seven new sesquiterpene lactones (6-12), along with five previously identified compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia suksdorfii. The structures of the new compounds were established by high-field NMR techniques (1H, 13C, 1H-1H DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) and in case of 6 confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  5. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Artemisia arborescens L. Growing Wild in Algeria

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    Gilles Figuérédo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil extracted from dried aerial part of Artemisia arborescens L. collected from Bejaïa (Algeria, was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were chamazulene (30.2%, β-thujone (27.8%, β-eudesmol (8.1% and catalponol (5.5%.

  6. Artemisia extracts activate PPARγ, promote adipogenesis, and enhance insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue of obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Allison J; Burris, Thomas P; Sanchez-Infantes, David; Wang, Yongjun; Ribnicky, David M; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that the inability of adipose tissue to properly expand during the obese state or respond to insulin can lead to metabolic dysfunction. Artemisia is a diverse group of plants that has a history of medicinal use. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia scoparia (SCO) and Artemisia santolinifolia (SAN) to modulate adipocyte development in cultured adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Adipogenesis was assessed using Oil Red O staining and immunoblotting. A nuclear receptor specificity assay was used to examine the specificity of SCO- and SAN-induced PPARγ activation. C57BL/6J mice, fed a high-fat diet, were gavaged with saline, SCO, or SAN for 2 wk. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was examined using insulin tolerance tests. WAT depots were assessed via immunoblotting for markers of insulin action and adipokine production. We established that SCO and SAN were highly specific activators of PPARγ and did not activate other nuclear receptors. After a 1-wk daily gavage, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had lower insulin-induced glucose disposal rates than control mice. At the end of the 2-wk treatment period, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had enhanced insulin-responsive Akt serine-473 phosphorylation and significantly decreased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in visceral WAT compared with control mice; these differences were depot specific. Moreover, plasma adiponectin levels were increased following SCO treatment. Overall, these studies demonstrate that extracts from two Artemisia species can have metabolically favorable effects on adipocytes and WAT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Two natural compounds - a benzofuran and a phenylpropane - from Artemisia dracunculus.

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    Talbi, Mohammed; Saadali, Bouchra; Boriky, Driss; Bennani, Laila; Elkouali, M'hammed; Ainane, Tarik

    2016-08-01

    The structure elucidation of three metabolites herniarin (7-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one, 1), phytoalexin (5-acetyl-6-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)benzofuran, 2), and prestragol (3-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-prop-1,2-diol, 3) isolated from Artemisia dracunculus was determined on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR methods and by an X-ray crystallographic determination.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone 3-Hydroxylase gene from Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuo; Tian, Na; Long, Jinhua; Chen, Yuhong; Qin, Yu; Feng, Jinyu; Xiao, Wenjun; Liu, Shuoqian

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids were found to synergize anti-malaria and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, a very important economic crop in China. In order to discover the regulation mechanism of flavonoids in Artemisia annua, the full length cDNA of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) were isolated from Artemisia annua for the first time by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The completed open read frame of AaF3H was 1095 bp and it encoded a 364-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.18 kDa and a pI of 5.67. The recombinant protein of AaF3H was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) as His-tagged protein, purified by Ni-NTA agrose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The results showed that the His-tagged protein (AaF3H) catalyzed naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in the present of Fe(2+). The Km for naringenin was 218.03 μM. The optimum pH for AaF3H reaction was determined to be pH 8.5, and the optimum temperature was determined to be 35 °C. The AaF3H transcripts were found to be accumulated in the cultivar with higher level of flavonoids than that with lower level of flavonoids, which implied that AaF3H was a potential target for regulation of flavonoids biosynthesis in Artemisia annua through metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Artemisia lanata Extract on Reproductive Parameters of Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ainehchi Nava; Zahedi Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Until date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia lanata. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. lanata on reproduction of female rats. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated (i.p.) with vehicle or 200 and 400mg/kg of A. lanata hydroalcoholic extract from the 2-8 day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Furthermore, c...

  10. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium on appetite in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghban Taraghdari, Sara; Nematy, Mohsen; Mazidi, Mohsen; Kamgar, Maryam; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2015-01-01

    weight loss as a consecution of losing appetite in post-operative patients and those suffering from HIV, cancer, cachexia and inflammatory diseases are the main inducements of morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing demand for more efficacious and endurable appetite stimulating treatment for patients with cachexia. Health economics is influenced by the malnutrition which was accounted for 5% of Iranian populations in 2011. Artemisia absinthium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is available about its orexigenic effect and mechanism. So, the present study evaluated the possible effect on appetite of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium . Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Vehicle group received 0.5 ml water per day, control group did not receive anything and other 3 groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of Artemisia absinthium for 7 days respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 consecutive days. The amount of energy intake for each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. The results suggest that there was no significant (p>0.05) differences in energy received before and during intervention between three case groups compared with the control group. The energy intake in 1-2 hours after extract injection in all groups, and energy intake after 24 hours interval in third case group (receiving 150 mg/kg extract) is higher compared to other intervals, but it is not significant (p>0.05). So, it can be stated that there was no significant differences between energy intake of 3 case groups and control group. Artemisia absinthium had no positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant.

  11. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium on appetite in male rats

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    Sara Baghban Taraghdari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: weight loss as a consecution of losing appetite in post-operative patients and those suffering from HIV, cancer, cachexia and inflammatory diseases are the main inducements of morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing demand for more efficacious and endurable appetite stimulating treatment for patients with cachexia. Health economics is influenced by the malnutrition which was accounted for 5% of Iranian populations in 2011. Artemisia absinthium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is available about its orexigenic effect and mechanism. So, the present study evaluated the possible effect on appetite of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Vehicle group received 0.5 ml water per day, control group did not receive anything and other 3 groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of Artemisia absinthium for 7 days respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 consecutive days. The amount of energy intake for each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. Results: The results suggest that there was no significant (p>0.05 differences in energy received before and during intervention between three case groups compared with the control group. The energy intake in 1-2 hours after extract injection in all groups, and energy intake after 24 hours interval in third case group (receiving 150 mg/kg extract is higher compared to other intervals, but it is not significant (p>0.05. So, it can be stated that there was no significant differences between energy intake of 3 case groups and control group. Conclusion: Artemisia absinthium had no positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant.

  12. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia extracts on Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Jill M; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Lindsay, David S; Zajac, Anne M

    2011-01-10

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite of small ruminants that is responsible for major losses to producers worldwide. Resistance of this nematode to commercial anthelmintics has produced a demand for alternative control methods. Plants in the genus Artemisia have traditionally been used as anthelmintics and whole plants and plant extracts have demonstrated activity against gastrointestinal nematodes in several studies. In addition, Artemisia annua is the sole commercial source of artemisinin, the raw material used to produce drugs effective against the hemoprotozoan malaria parasites (Plasmodium species). Artemisinin derivatives have also shown efficacy against some trematodes, including Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma species. In this study, artemisinin was tested for efficacy against H. contortus in a gerbil model of infection. Also tested in the gerbil model were an aqueous extract, an ethanolic extract and the essential oil of A. annua, and an ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium. In all experiments, gerbils were infected with 600 third-stage H. contortus larvae. In experiment 1, gerbils were treated orally with 400 milligrams per kilogram body weight (mg/kg BW) artemisinin once or 200mg/kg BW artemisinin daily for 5 days (Days 4-8 post-infection). In experiment 2, gerbils were treated daily for 5 days with 600 mg/kg BW of A. annua ethanolic or aqueous extract. In Experiment 3, gerbils were treated with 1000 mg/kg BW of A. annua or A. absinthium ethanolic extract or with 300 mg/kg BW of A. annua essential oil daily for five consecutive days (Days 4-8 post-infection). No significant effects of treatment were seen with artemisinin or any of the Artemisia species extracts at the dosages studied. The non-ionic surfactant Labrosol(®) was an effective nontoxic solvent for delivery of hydrophilic plant extracts and the lipophilic essential oil used in the study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Volatile components of four Ethiopian Artemisia species extracts and their in vitro antitrypanosomal and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Wink, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Artemisia species are one of the many traditional medicinal plants of Ethiopia used for the treatment of infectious and non-infectious health problems. In the present study, eight extracts prepared from leaves and aerial parts of four Artemisia species (Artemisia absinthium, A. abyssinica, A. afra, and A. annua) growing in Ethiopia were tested in vitro against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. The most active extract was the dichloromethane extract from aerial parts of A. abyssinica with an IC(50) value of 19.13 microg/ml. A selectivity index (SI) of 8.24 was obtained with HL-60 cells treated with the same extract. Artemisinin, the best known antimalarial compound from A. annua showed antitrypanosomal activity with an IC(50) value of 35.91 microg/ml and with a selectivity index of 2.44. The dichloromethane extracts of the four species were further investigated for their volatile components using GLC/MS. Camphor was detected in the four species and was found to be the principal compound (38.73%) of A. absinthium extract. Octa-3,5-diene-2,7-dione, 4,5-dihydroxy was detected in three species except in A. afra and was present as the main volatile component (54.95%) of A. abyssinica. Epoxylinalool was detected only in A. afra and was the principal component (29.10%) of dichloromethane extract of the plant. Deoxyqinghaosu was only present in A. annua and absent in the other three Artemisia species. Deoxyqinghaosu was the principal volatile component (20.44%) of the dichloromethane extract of A. annua. In conclusion, the dichloromethane extract from aerial part of A. abyssinica should be considered for further study for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of the Essential Oil Extracted from Artemisia Absinthium

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Essential oils are found to have multiple active components which can show in vitro cytotoxic action against various cancerous cell lines. This study reports the in vitro cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) growing wild in Iran. Methods: Water-distilled essential oil of A. absinthium collected from Ardabil, north-western Iran, was examined for its cytotoxic effects using a modified MTT assay. Air-dried aerial parts of A. absinthium w...

  15. In vitro and in vivo activity of Artemisia sieberi against Trichomonas gallinae

    OpenAIRE

    Youssefi, M. R.; Abouhosseini Tabari, M.; Moghadamnia, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In Iranian folk medicine Artemisia sieberi has been used for treatment of parasite infections in human and animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of A. sieberi essential oil (EO) against Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonas gallinae were recovered by wet mount method from infected native pigeons. The in vitro assays were accomplished in multi-well plates containing metronidazole (MTZ) as a standard antitrichomonal and EO in final concentrations of 2....

  16. Phytochemical investigation on Artemisia dracunculus L. due to its introduction in the Ukrainian Polissya

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    Iryna V. Ivashchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 15 components in etheric oil of Artemisia dracunculus plants has been determined by the method of gas and liquid chromatography. The main component appeared to be methyleugenol (94.65%. Using highly effective method of liquid chromatography, we have discovered 31 phenolic compounds in the grass of linear-leaved wormwood. Within the discovered compounds, four substances have been identified as follows: rutin, luteolin‑7‑glycoside, apigenin‑7‑glycoside and isochlorogenic acid.

  17. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 3. Site level restoration decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Knick, Steven T.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2017-02-14

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2016) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) depends on large landscapes of intact habitat of sagebrush and perennial grasses for their existence. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrush-obligate animals, livestock, and wild horses, and to provide ecosystem services for humans now and for future generations.When a decision is made on where restoration treatments should be applied, there are a number of site-specific decisions managers face before selecting the appropriate type of restoration. This site-level decision tool for restoration of sagebrush steppe ecosystems is organized in nine steps.Step 1 describes the process of defining site-level restoration objectives.Step 2 describes the ecological site characteristics of the restoration site. This covers soil chemistry and texture, soil moisture and temperature regimes, and the vegetation communities the site is capable of supporting.Step 3 compares the current vegetation to the plant communities associated with the site State and Transition models.Step 4 takes the manager through the process of current land uses and past disturbances that may influence restoration success.Step 5 is a brief discussion of how weather before and after treatments may impact restoration success.Step 6 addresses restoration treatment types and their potential positive and negative impacts on the ecosystem and on habitats, especially for greater sage

  18. Locatable mineral assessment tracts for the U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Carma A.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Denning, Paul D.; Giles, Stuart A.; Hall, Susan M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hearn, Carter B.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Lund, Karen; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Rytuba, James J.; Smith, Steven M.; Stillings, Lisa; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Vikre, Peter G.; Wallis, John C.; Wilson, Anna B.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zurcher, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    The polygon (vector) feature class represents locatable mineral resource assessment tracts (tracts of land) associated with the Department of the Interior (DOI) Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Montana, Wyoming and Utah, central Idaho, and the Oregon-Nevada-Idaho border area. The mineral-resources tracts are geographic areas that were assessed by the USGS and were determined to be geologically favorable for a deposit type of interest to a depth of 1 kilometer. Qualitative assessment methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) were used to develop tract boundaries and to assign a level of mineral-resource potential and certainty to each tract. The general process included (1) identifying possible mineral deposit types for locatable commodities specified by BLM for each focal area, (2) outlining those areas that potentially contained mineral deposits based on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, soil and stream-sediment geochemistry, alteration mineral assemblages inferred from satellite imagery, BLM claims and permit data, mineral-exploration activity, and existing mineral-resource assessment data, and (3) evaluating the level of mineral-resource potential and level of certainty associated with the outlined areas using BLM assessment categories. A full description of the assessment is provided in the accompanying report (Day and others, 2016).SFAs, identified by agencies of the DOI, are high-quality sagebrush habitat areas supporting high densities of breeding greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). SFAs are within priority habitat areas or areas where land-use measures are intended to minimize or avoid habitat disturbance. Seven SFAs are within the USGS Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment Project study area. They include the Bear River Watershed, North-Central Idaho, North-Central Montana, Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada, and

  19. Mutagenic, Anti-Mutagenic and Cytotoxic Activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide, in vitro, extracted from Artemisia diffusa

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    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artediffusin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide group which has been isolated from Artemisia diffusa. Artemisia has always been of great botanical and pharmaceutical interest and is useful in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases and complaints. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide extracted from Artemisia diffusa. Methods: Cytotoxicity was measured using a modified MTT assay on normal human lymphocytes and cancer cells. The mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin were evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with and without metabolic activation S9. Results: 28μg/ml concentration of Artediffusin inactivated 77.73±0.78% of HeLa cells activity and 5600µg/ml concentration of Artediffusin inactivated 28.79±1.82% of lymphocytes activity. The maximum percentage of anti-mutagenic activity of Artediffusin was observed in the strain of S. typhimurium TA98, with the presence of metabolic activation S9. Conclusion: Artediffusin may be exploited as a natural anti-cancer and anti-mutagenic agent with low adverse side effects.

  20. Effects of Artemisia Princeps Supplementation on Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H-J; Kim, J-W; Ju, S-Y; Park, Y-K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Artemisia princeps (AP) extract on bone metabolism and its potential role in the prevention of osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Twenty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and treated as follows: sham-operated control group (SHAM); ovariectomized control group (OVX), ovariectomized group treated by gavage with 10 mg/kg/day alendronate (ALEN); ovariectomized group treated by gavage with 100 mg/kg/day Artemisia princeps (AP100); ovariectomized group treated by gavage with 300 mg/kg/day Artemisia princeps (AP300). Treatment of ovariectomized rats with AP extracts for 15 weeks prevented the reduction in bone thickness and trabecular bone mineral density caused by urinary Ca and Cr excretion, and also prevented the increase in bone turnover by maintaining the serum Ca/P ratio. As a result, the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and cortical bone after ovariectomy was markedly improved by administration of AP extracts. In conclusion, AP prevented bone loss and osteoclast activity associated with high bone turnover in ovariectomized rats by controlling the serum Ca/P ratio and through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Our data implicate AP as a promising therapeutic option for the improvement of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  1. In vitro immunomodulatory properties of a sesquiterpene lactone-bearing fraction from Artemisia khorassanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanai Taghizadeh Rabe, Shahrzad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Rastin, Maryam; Tabasi, Nafise; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia species are important medicinal plants throughout the world. The present in vitro study, using a sesquiterpene lactone-bearing fraction prepared from Artemisia khorassanica (SLAK), sought to investigate immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory properties of this plant and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms for the actions. Effects of the SLAK on mitogen-induced murine splenocyte proliferation and interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion were evaluated. To assess anti-inflammatory activities, levels of inducible of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in peritoneal macrophages was examined. The results showed that SLAK noticeably was capable of suppressing PHA/LPS-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and of up-regulating production of the T-helper (TH)-2 cell cytokine IL-4 while down-regulating formation of TH1 IFNγ. In addition, while SLAK caused negligible proliferation inhibition, peritoneal macrophages displayed considerable decrease in NO and PGE2 production along with iNOS and COX-2 expression. The current experiment shows Artemisia khorasanica - a traditionally used herb - may have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. It is anticipated that the ingredients may be employed as therapeutic candidates in the regulation of some immune responses implicated in various conditions and ailments.

  2. Histomorphometric study on the effects of Artemisia sieberi extract in mice skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaboutari Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skin as the biggest single body organ is always exposing to various injuries, therefore health and healing of its injuries is vital. Artemisia sieberi is a valuable medicinal plant with a long history of indication in folk and modern medicine. Due to different chemical components and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and cytoprotective properties of Artemisia, this study was conducted to study the histomorphometric effects of Artemisia sieberi (A. sieberi extract on mice skin. Methods: Ninety adult mice were randomly divided in 3 groups. In the treatment group A. sieberi extract dissolved in ethanol & distilled water, in the positive control ethanol & distilled water, and in negative control only distilled water were applied on the shaved dorsum twice daily for 21 days. Mean thickness of epidermis, hypodermis & dermis layers, percentage of collagen fibers and histological evaluation of skin layers were studied in 1, 3, 5, 14 and 21days post treatment. Data were presented as mean± SD and analyzed using one way ANOVA and LSD post hoc tests. The P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A. sieberi extract significantly increased epidermis thickness in day 1, hypodermis, dermis and percentage of collagen fibers in day 3 in comparison to positive and negative control groups. Histology study revealed normal structure of skin and no abnormality was seen. Conclusion: A. sieberi extract can be effective for health and healing of skin injuries by increasing thickness of the skin layers and amount of collagen fibers.

  3. Evaluation of anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Artemisia scoparia hydromethanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muheet; Waheed, Ishrat

    2013-01-09

    Artemisia scoparia (redstem wormwood) locally known as jhahoo or jaukay, is traditionally used in pain, inflammation and febrile conditions. So far, little or no scientific work has been reported to validate its folk uses in the alleviation of pain, fever and inflammation. The present study was designed to explore the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the Artemisia scoparia hydromethanolic extract (ASHME), and to validate its traditional use in Asia. This study made use of thermal (hot plate induced) and chemical (acetic acid induced) nociception models in mice. In addition, the mechanism of antinociception in hot plate test was further evaluated in the presence of caffeine (10mg/kg), naloxone (2mg/kg) and monosodium glutamate (1g/kg). While carrageenan induced rat paw edema and yeast induced mouse pyrexia models were used to test the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. Administration of single intraperitoneal doses (400mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) of ASHME significantly reduced the carrageenan induced paw edema in rats (P400mg/kg). These findings suggest that the Artemisia scoparia hydromethanolic extract of ASHME possesses anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potentials, which support its use, for the said conditions, in traditional medicine and should be further exploited for its use in clinical medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combining Sprague-Dawley rat uterus cell membrane chromatography with HPLC/MS to screen active components from Leonurus artemisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiangbo; Wei, Fen; Zhang, Yu; Su, Hongli; Ji, Zongzheng; He, Jianyu; Han, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Leonurus artemisia (Lour.) S.Y.Hu (Lamiaceae) (YiMuCao in Chinese) is a traditional Chinese medicine. Leonurus artemisia has been shown to have many pharmacological effects such as increasing uterine contraction amplitude, and tension, but the active components are still unknown. The objective of this study is to determine active components of L. Artemisia that are responsible for the biological activity using HPLC and cell membrane-based system. The whole L. artemisia ethanol extract and its eight fractions were screened using Sprague-Dawley rat uterus cell membrane chromatography (CMC) combined with the HPLC/MS system. Oxytocin was used to investigate the activity of CMC column. The effect of active components screened from L. artemisia was studied by tension measurement of isolated rat uterine strips in vitro at a dose of 10(-7)-10(-4 )mol/L with oxytocin as a control. The acetone extract showed obvious activity when compared with the eight extracts of L. artemisia. From the acetone extract, in the negative ionization mode, the active compound was identified as genkwanin, with a molecular weight of 283. In vitro pharmacological experiments proved that genkwanin promoted uterine contractions at a dose from 10(-7) to 10(-4 )mol/L. The EC50 value was 4.86 ± 4.21 μmol/L for genkwanin and 4.30 ± 3.65 μmol/L for oxytocin on the contractile amplitude of uterine strips isolated from rats. Genkwanin was identified as the active compound in L. artemisia by this method. In vitro pharmacological experiments proved that genkwanin promoted uterine contractions. Genkwanin may be used to uterine inertia and may have an effect on postpartum hemorrhage.

  5. Geology and mineral resources of the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming, and the Bear River Watershed Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming and Utah: Chapter E in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna B.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Yager, Douglas B.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming and Bear River Watershed, Wyoming and Utah, SFAs.

  6. Antiparasitic efficacy of Artemisia absinthium, toltrazuril and amprolium against intestinal coccidiosis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, A; Tariq, K A; Wazir, V S; Singh, R

    2013-04-01

    Various anti-protozoal dugs have been popularly used in the treatment of goat coccidiosis; however, residual effects are well noticed in host animals. The present study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of Artemisia absinthium, as a safe alternative in comparison to two conventional anticoccidial drugs (toltrazuril and amprolium) in goats (Capra hircus) naturally infected with Eimeria spp. (>5,000 oocyst per gram of faeces). Goat kids (1-3 month old, 10 kg body weight) were randomly allocated into five groups (eight kids each). Group A was negative for coccidiosis and was retained as uninfected and untreated (negative control). Group B was infected and was kept untreated (positive control). Group C was given a single oral dose of toltrazuril (Baycox 5 %) at 20 mg kg(-1) BW (IM). Group D received amprolium soluble powder 20 w/w% at 50 mg kg(-1) BW 5 days daily. Group E was given a single dose of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium at 2 g kg(-1) BW. Clinical signs, body-weight gain (BWG) and number of oocysts per gram faeces (OPG) were monitored daily for 30 days post treatment (DPT). The OPG was highly reduced as early as 7 DPT and there was a marked improvement in body weight gain (7 DPT) and faster clinical recovery (3-6 DPT) in the toltrazuril treated kids compared to amprolium and Artemisia absinthium treated groups (P ≤ 0.05). In Artemisia absinthium treated kids, the oocysts continued to be in faeces up to 28th day post treatment indicating that ethanolic extract of herb was less efficacious against caprine coccidiosis as compared to amprolium and toltrazuril. From the observations of the present study it can be concluded that control of goat coccidiosis through single treatment of toltrazuril was highly effective as compared to the other two treatments. However, integrated control involving pasture management, chemical and herbal control will be a more realistic and sustainable means of

  7. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nrf2-mediated mucoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of Artemisia extracts led to attenuate stress related mucosal damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biological actions between isopropanol and ethanol extracts of Artemisia including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective actions. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and confocal microscopy on lipopolysaccharide-induced RGM1 cells, cytoprotection effects evaluated by detecting heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Nf-E2 related factor2 (Nrf2) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and anti-inflammatory effects investigated by measuring inflammatory mediators. Water immersion restraint stress was imposed to provoke stress related mucosal damages (SRMD) in rats. Isopropanol extracts of Artemisia showed the higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and lesser LPS-induced reactive oxygen species productions and increased HO-1 expression through increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 transcription factor compared to ethanol extracts. The increased expression of HSP70 and decreased expression of endothelin-1 were only increased with isopropanol extracts. A concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS even at a rather lower concentration than ethanol extract was achieved with isopropanol extracts. Cytokine protein array revealed Artemisia extracts significantly attenuated the levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-16, and MCP-1. These orchestrated actions led to significant rescue from SRMD. Conclusively, Artemisia extracts imposed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity against SRMD and isopropanol extracts were superior to ethanol extracts in these beneficiary actions of Artemisia. PMID:25759519

  9. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible.

  10. The influence of stream channels on distributions of Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa in the Mojave Desert, CA, USA: Patterns, mechanisms and effects of stream redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, S.; Sandquist, D.R.; Miller, D.M.; Bedford, D.R.; Phillips, S.L.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Drainage channels are among the most conspicuous surficial features of deserts, but little quantitative analysis of their influence on plant distributions is available. We analysed the effects of desert stream channels (‘washes’) on Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa density and cover on an alluvial piedmont in the Mojave Desert, based on a spatial analysis of transect data encompassing a total length of 2775 m surveyed in 5 cm increments. Significant deviations from average transect properties were identified by bootstrapping. Predictably, shrub cover and density were much reduced inside washes, and elevated above average levels adjacent to washes. Average Larrea and Ambrosia cover and density peaked 1·2–1·6 m and 0·5–1·0 m from wash edges, respectively. We compared wash effects in runon-depleted (−R) sections, where washes had been cut off from runon and were presumably inactive, with those in runon-supplemented (+R) sections downslope from railroad culverts to help identify mechanisms responsible for the facilitative effect of washes on adjacent shrubs. Shrub cover and density near washes peaked in both + R and − R sections, suggesting that improved water infiltration and storage alone can cause a facilitative effect on adjacent shrubs. However, washes of < 2 m width in + R sections had larger than average effects on peak cover, suggesting that plants also benefit from occasional resource supplementation. The data suggest that channel networks significantly contribute to structuring plant communities in the Mojave Desert and their disruption has notable effects on geomorphic and ecological processes far beyond the original disturbance sites. 

  11. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardson) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2003-02-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). In particular: (1) we examined the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics in identification of larval lampreys, specifically pigmentation patterns, and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stages of lampreys, and (2) we examined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stages of Columbia River Basin lampreys.

  12. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  13. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  14. A Landscape Similarity Index: Multitemporal Remote Sensing and Multidimensional Scaling to Track Changes on Big Sagebrush Ecological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A. J.; Ramsey, R. D.; Green, S.; Johanson, J.

    2011-12-01

    A similarity index for big sagebrush ecological sites was developed in Northern Utah. In contrast to field measurements used to calculate similarity to reference states, our approach relies on the utilization of historic archives of satellite imagery to measure the ecological distance to benchmarks of undesired conditions such as invasion by exotic annuals and woodland encroachment. Our benchmarks consisted of locations for which there are field data collected for monitoring and evaluation purposes for several periods. We utilized a temporal series of Landsat TM imagery that spanned 1984 to 2008 from which the soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and other transformations were extracted. Topographic and climatic variables were also included as ancillary data. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) was used to obtain scores in reduced ordination space for two periods of interest: 1984-1996 and 1997-2008. Inter-annual SAVI mean-variance plots provided evidence that the benchmarks and ecological sites have a distinct temporal response that allows an objective comparison. Our MDS results also show that natural clusters may be identified in the reduced statistical space for ecological sites that are a dominant component of a soil map unit. The two MDS solutions allowed the ordination of ecological sites in two gradients of productivity and bare ground. Interpretations of the transitions and trajectories of mountain, Wyoming, and basin big sagebrush sites correlated well with the ecological expectation. We anticipate that range conservationists and others actively working in rangeland evaluation may use this application to develop and update ecological site descriptions and state and transition models from a remotely sensed perspective.

  15. Alteration of soil hydraulic properties and soil water repellency by fire and vegetation succession in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, D. G.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    This study explores the impacts of fire and plant community succession on soil water repellency (SWR) and infiltration properties to improve understanding the long term impacts of prescribed fire on SWR and infiltration properties in sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. The objectives of this study were: 1) To explore the temporal effects of prescribed burning in sagebrush dominated landscape; 2) To investigate spatial variability of soil hydrologic properties; 3) To determine the relationship among soil organic fraction, soil hydrophobicity and infiltration properties. Fieldwork was conducted in paired catchments with three dominant vegetation cover communities: Low sage, big mountain sage and aspen. Detailed, heavily replicated analyses were conducted for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, sorptivity water drop penetration time and static soil-water-air contact angle. The results show that the severity and presence of surface soil water repellency were considerably reduced six years after fire and that hydraulic conductivity increased significantly in each vegetation cover compared to pre-burn condition. Comparisons among soil hydrological properties shows that hydraulic conductivity is not strongly related to SWR, and that sorptivity is negatively correlated with SWR. The spatial variance of hydraulic properties within the burned high sage and low sage, in particularly, spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity is basically controlled by soil texture and sorptivity is affected by soil wettability. The average water repellency in Low Sage area was significantly different with Big Sage and Aspen as the gap of organic content between Low Sage and other vegetation area. The result of contact angle measurement and organic content analysis shows a strong positive correlation between SWR and organic matter.

  16. Data resources for range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, T.J.; Veblen, K.E.; Farinha, M.A.; Aldridge, C.L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Pyke, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this series were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report "Range-Wide Assessment of Livestock Grazing Across the Sagebrush Biome." This report can be accessed through the USGS Publications Warehouse (online linkage: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1263/). The dataset contains spatial and tabular data related to Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Grazing Allotments. We reviewed the BLM national grazing allotment spatial dataset available from the GeoCommunicator National Integrated Land System (NILS) website in 2007 (http://www.geocommunicator.gov). We identified several limitations in those data and learned that some BLM State and/or field offices had updated their spatial data to rectify these limitations, but maintained the data outside of NILS. We contacted appropriate BLM offices (State or field, 25 in all) to obtain the most recent data, assessed the data, established a data development protocol, and compiled data into a topologically enforced dataset throughout the area of interest for this project (that is, the pre-settlement distribution of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Western United States). The final database includes three spatial datasets: Allotments (BLM Grazing Allotments), OUT_Polygons (nonallotment polygons used to ensure topology), and Duplicate_Polygon_Allotments. See Appendix 1 of the aforementioned report for complete methods. The tabular data presented here consists of information synthesized by the Land Health Standard (LHS) analysis (Appendix 2), and data obtained from the BLM Rangeland Administration System (http://www.blm.gov/ras/). In 2008, available LHS data for all allotments in all regions were compiled by BLM in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request made by a private organization. The BLM provided us with a copy of these data. These data provided three major types of information that were of interest: (1) date(s) (if any) of the most recent LHS evaluation for each

  17. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Murine Model by Hydro Alcoholic Essence of Artemisia sieberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Doroodgar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the prevalence of leishmaniasis in Iran and many side effects associated with pentavalent antimony compounds use in its treatment, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of Artemisia sieberi essence on the experimental ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis on BALB/c mice.Methods: This experimental research was performed to determine the effect of various concentrations of  Artemisia essence in BALB/c mice previously infected with active Leishmania major promastigote. A total of 50 infected BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. Three groups (30 mice were used in the experimental condi­tions and the others were assigned as the control groups. The experimental groups received 1%, 3% and 5% of Ar­temisia, respectively. One of the control groups received ethanol 80% and the other received no treatment. The drug was administered by dropping the liquid on the top lesions, three times daily for maximum of 30 d. Every 10 days the ulcers diameter were measured and sampled for amastigote in all groups. Ulcers diameter changes were deter­mined by statistical tests.Results: After 30 days, diameter of CL lesions increased in 1%, 3% and 5% Artemisia concentrations and the control groups. Ulcers got bigger with the more concentration. Treatments could not reduce the diameter or caused small lesions. In addition, the mice direct smears in microscopic studies were positive.Conclusion: To find the effective concentration and the mechanism of the effectiveness of the drug, further investi­gations with less concentrates of A. sieberi essence are recommended.

  18. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  19. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Murine Model by Hydro Alcoholic Essence of Artemisia sieberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Doroodgar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the prevalence of leishmaniasis in Iran and many side effects associated with pentavalent antimony compounds use in its treatment, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of Artemisia sieberi essence on the experimental ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis on BALB/c mice."nMethods: This experimental research was performed to determine the effect of various concentrations of  Artemisia essence in BALB/c mice previously infected with active Leishmania major promastigote. A total of 50 infected BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. Three groups (30 mice were used in the experimental condi­tions and the others were assigned as the control groups. The experimental groups received 1%, 3% and 5% of Ar­temisia, respectively. One of the control groups received ethanol 80% and the other received no treatment. The drug was administered by dropping the liquid on the top lesions, three times daily for maximum of 30 d. Every 10 days the ulcers diameter were measured and sampled for amastigote in all groups. Ulcers diameter changes were deter­mined by statistical tests."nResults: After 30 days, diameter of CL lesions increased in 1%, 3% and 5% Artemisia concentrations and the control groups. Ulcers got bigger with the more concentration. Treatments could not reduce the diameter or caused small lesions. In addition, the mice direct smears in microscopic studies were positive."nConclusion: To find the effective concentration and the mechanism of the effectiveness of the drug, further investi­gations with less concentrates of A. sieberi essence are recommended.

  20. [Effects of zinc manganese and boron on artemisinin and yields of Artemisia annua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yekuan; Li, Longyun; Peng, Ma; Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Fangyi; Wang, Zhixue

    2010-02-01

    To explore the effects of micro-elements fertilizers on the quality and yields of Artemisia annua. Field experiments were conducted according to the method of random blocks design. After the harvest the yield was calculated and the content of artemisinin was determined. By applying 0.1%-0.5% Mn and 0.1%-0.5% Zn the dried leaf output and artemisinin content were increased. The suitable ranges of Mn and Zn can increased the yield and artemisinin content of A. annua.

  1. Effect of Artemisia vulgaris Rhizome Extracts on Hatching, Mortality, and Plant Infectivity of Meloidogyne megadora

    OpenAIRE

    da R. Costa, S. dos S.; de A. Santos, M. S. N.; Ryan, M F

    2003-01-01

    The activity of an ethanolic rhizome extract of Artemisia vulgaris against hatching, mortality, host plant infectivity, and galling of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne megadora was investigated. The extract inhibited egg hatch (50% inhibition by 2.35mg/ml) and caused second-stage juvenile mortality (50% lethality at 12 hours' exposure to 55.67 mg/ml), both in a dose-dependent manner. Nematode infectivity on Phaseolus vulgaris 'Bencanta Trepar', a susceptible host, decreased in a dose-respon...

  2. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Katoch, M; Khajuria, J K; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Verma, P K; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, N K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Four concentrations of the extract (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. In AIT, the mortality rates at 2.5, 5 and 10% were significantly different (p absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling H. anatolicum.

  3. Efecto microbicida de la radiación solar (SODIS) combinado con Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Muñoz-Restrepo; Leidy Viviana Orrego; Diana Carolina Muñoz-Arango; Carlos Neftaly Lozano- Andrade; Diana Carolina Guzman O.; Maria Cecilia Escobar-Restrepo; Yamilet Arcos-Arango; Néstor Jaime Aguirre R.; Pierre Lutgen; Roberto Mejia-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó el método SODIS y SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua como una alternativa para la desinfección del agua en comunidades sin acceso a agua segura. Se determinó la eficiencia del método en la remoción de Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis y Salmonella typhimurium usando botellas tipo PET con agua destilada estéril y una concentración inicial de 1x106 UFC/ml de cada microorganismo. Para la combinación SODIS-A. annua se adicionó a las botellas una...

  4. Actividades biológicas e estruturas secretoras em Artemisia campestris e Helichrysum stoechas (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Letícia José Santana Aguiar Freitas, 1985-

    2010-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Celular e Biotecnologia). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 Várias espécies da família Asteraceae, nomeadamente dos géneros Artemisia e Helichrysum, são frequentemente utilizadas em medicina tradicional para preparar chás para o tratamento de diversas patologias. Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo das actividades biológicas (actividade inibitória da acetilcolinesterase, antioxidante e antibacteriana) e do metabolismo in vitro de extr...

  5. Data Report: Meteorological and Evapotranspiration Data from Sagebrush and Pinyon Pine/Juniper Communities at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasoni, Richard L [DRI; Larsen, Jessica D [DRI; Lyles, Brad F. [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI; Cooper, Clay A [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI; Lefebre, Karen J [DRI

    2013-04-01

    Pahute Mesa is a groundwater recharge area at the Nevada National Security Site. Because underground nuclear testing was conducted at Pahute Mesa, groundwater recharge may transport radionuclides from underground test sites downward to the water table; the amount of groundwater recharge is also an important component of contaminant transport models. To estimate the amount of groundwater recharge at Pahute Mesa, an INFIL3.0 recharge-runoff model is being developed. Two eddy covariance (EC) stations were installed on Pahute Mesa to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) to support the groundwater recharge modeling project. This data report describes the methods that were used to estimate ET and collect meteorological data. Evapotranspiration was estimated for two predominant plant communities on Pahute Mesa; one site was located in a sagebrush plant community, the other site in a pinyon pine/juniper community. Annual ET was estimated to be 310±13.9 mm for the sagebrush site and 347±15.9 mm for the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 26, 2011 to March 26, 2012). Annual precipitation measured with unheated tipping bucket rain gauges was 179 mm at the sagebrush site and 159 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site. Annual precipitation measured with bulk precipitation gauges was 222 mm at the sagebrush site and 227 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 21, 2011 to March 28, 2012). A comparison of tipping bucket versus bulk precipitation data showed that total precipitation measured by the tipping bucket rain gauges was 17 to 20 percent lower than the bulk precipitation gauges. These differences were most likely the result of the unheated tipping bucket precipitation gauges not measuring frozen precipitation as accurately as the bulk precipitation gauges. In this one-year study, ET exceeded precipitation at both study sites because estimates of ET included precipitation that fell during the winter of 2010-2011 prior to EC instrumentation and the precipitation gauges started

  6. Susceptibility and antibody response of Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) to West Nile virus: A potential amplification host in sagebrush-grassland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Fassbinder-Orth, Carol; Owen, Benjamin; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) spread to the US western plains states in 2003, when a significant mortality event attributed to WNV occurred in Greater Sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ). The role of avian species inhabiting sagebrush in the amplification of WNV in arid and semiarid regions of the North America is unknown. We conducted an experimental WNV challenge study in Vesper Sparrows ( Pooecetes gramineus ), a species common to sagebrush and grassland habitats found throughout much of North America. We found Vesper Sparrows to be moderately susceptible to WNV, developing viremia considered sufficient to transmit WNV to feeding mosquitoes, but the majority of birds were capable of surviving infection and developing a humoral immune response to the WNV nonstructural 1 and envelope proteins. Despite clearance of viremia, after 6 mo, WNV was detected molecularly in three birds and cultured from one bird. Surviving Vesper Sparrows were resistant to reinfection 6 mo after the initial challenge. Vesper sparrows could play a role in the amplification of WNV in sagebrush habitat and other areas of their range, but rapid clearance of WNV may limit their importance as competent amplification hosts of WNV.

  7. Compositional Characters and Antimicrobial Potential of Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Manika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological investigations were carried out to evaluate the composition and anti-microbial potential of a rare Artemisia species viz. Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. essential oil for the first time. GC and GC/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27 compounds, which constituted 93.2% volatile constituents of the oil. The major constituents were capillene (41.6%, spathulenol (14.6% and β-caryophyllene (13.4%. The oil was also assayed to determine its antimicrobial potential against eight bacterial and six fungal strains. The oil exhibited both antifungal and antibacterial activities. Among bacteria, the oil was most effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC 0.625 mg/mL followed by Staphylococcu. Aureus (MIC 1.25 mg/mL . While among fungi, the oil was most effective against Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Sporothrix schenckii with MIC as low as 0.625 mg/mL.

  8. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Yarahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci, is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm.

  9. The effects of Artemisia aucheri extract on hepatotoxicity induced by thioacetamide in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Rezaei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Liver is an important organ that is exposed to many oxidant and carcinogenic agents, thus antioxidant compounds are beneficial for liver health. Artemisia contains flavonoid compounds and anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Due to possessing terpene and sesquiterpene compounds, this plant has antioxidant properties. This study was done to investigate the effects of Artemisia plant extract on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: For induction of hepatotoxicity, 50 mg/kg thioacetamide was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.After extraction and purification, the hydroalcoholicextract was injected i.p. at 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg doses for 21 days together with thioacetamide at 50 mg/kg dose in the last 3 days. After blood sampling and separation of serum, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin, and total protein concentrations were measured. Results: Significant decreases in aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and significant increases in the concentration of albumin and total protein in groups treated with the extract compared with thioacetamide-treated group were observed (p

  10. Exogenous nitric oxide donor protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Moinuddin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Ram, M

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the response of plants to environmental stress. Here we report the effects of boron (B) and aluminium (Al) contamination in soil, carried out with or without application of exogenous SNP (NO donor), on various plant processes in Artemisia annua, including changes in artemisinin content. The addition of B or Al to soil medium significantly reduced the yield and growth of plants and lowered the values of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content. The follow-up treatment of NO donor favoured growth and improved the photosynthetic efficiency in stressed as well as non-stressed plants. Artemisinin content was enhanced by 24.6% and 43.8% at 1mmole of soil-applied B or Al. When SNP was applied at 2mmole concentration together with either 1mmole of B and/or Al, it further stimulated artemisinin biosynthesis compared to the control. Application of B+Al+SNP proved to be the best treatment combination for the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, R; Ganai, B A; Akbar, S; Kamili, A N

    2013-07-01

    Artemisia amygdalina Decne. (Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan. Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia. The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day. This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A. amygdalina. In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium. Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays: DPPH assay, riboflavin photo-oxidation assay, deoxy ribose assay, ferric thiocyanate assay, thiobarbituric acid assay, post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel. In vitro grown plants, as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl, superoxide, and lipid peroxyl radicals. This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A. amydalina. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Anca; Corciova, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation. PMID:26495156

  13. Sesquiterpene lactone! a promising antioxidant, anticancer and moderate antinociceptive agent from Artemisia macrocephala jacquem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Mohammad; Shah, Ismail; Ali, Niaz; Adhikari, Achyut; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Ishtiaq, Saiqa; Khan, Jahangir; Khan, Shahzeb; Umer, Mohammad Naveed

    2017-01-07

    Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) make a diverse and huge group of bio-active constituents that have been isolated from several plant families. However, the greatest numbers are present in Asteraceae family having more than 3000 different reported structures. Recently several researchers have reported that STLs have significant antioxidant and anticancer potentials. To investigate the antioxidant, anticancer and antinociceptive potentials of STLs, gravity column chromatography technique was used for isolation from the biologically rich chloroform fraction of Artemisia macrocephala Jacquem. The antioxidant activity of the isolated STLs was determined by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activity, anticancer activity was determined on 3 T3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells by MTT assay while the antinociceptive activity was determined through acetic acid induced writhings, tail immersion method and formalin induced nociception method. The results showed that the STLs of Artemisia macrocephala possesses promising antioxidant activity and also it decreased the viability of 3 T3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells and mild to moderate antinociceptive activity. Sesquiterpenes lactones (STLs) are widely present in numerous genera of the family Asteraceae (compositae). They are described as the active constituents used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study reveals the significant potentials of STL and may be used as an alternative for the management of cancer. Anyhow, the isolated compound is having no prominent antinociceptive potentials.

  14. Role of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) extract on oxidative stress in ameliorating lead induced haematotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharoubi, Omar; Slimani, Miloud; Krouf, Djamil; Seddik, Leila; Aoues, Abdelkader

    2008-04-10

    Effects of ROS generation have been postulated to be major contributors to lead-exposure related disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) on oxidative stress in rats protractedly exposed to lead. Aqueous extract of wormwood plant was administered orally (200 mg x kg(-1) body weight). Plasma vitamin C, E and non-protein thiol concentrations, red blood cells (RBC) thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione levels and haemolysis test were evaluated. In addition, RBC antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase were also estimated. After 11-weeks, significant decreases of plasma vitamin C, E, non protein-thiol (NP-SH) and RBC-reduced glutathione levels were observed in Pb compared to control group (-32.9%, -57.1%, -53.1%, -33.9%, respectively); superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, uric aminolevulinic acid and haemolysis test significantly increased in Pb compared to control group (+64.3%, +40.3%, +145%, +44.3%, respectively). In our investigation, after 4-weeks of treatment all treated groups did not show any difference compared to the control group, except for glutathione peroxidase and RBC-superoxide dismutase activity (-15.7% and +16.4%, respectively). The findings of this study suggest that wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) extract restored the enzymes activities perturbed by exposure to lead, and had a protective role against lipid peroxidation.

  15. The Potential Anti Helicobacter pylori and antioxidant effects of Artemisia Judaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adel El-Sayed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTArtemisia judaica (AJ is one of the common species of the genus Artemisia that grows in Saudi Arabia desert and Sinai, Egypt where animals graze on it. It is widely used in traditional medicine and by Bedouins there. (AJ has anthelmintic, antibacterial,antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. The present study aimed to (1 elucidates the antibacterial action of AJ against H. pylori and different other bacterial species (2 delineate the potential antibacterial mechanism of action of AJ in comparison with tetracycline and cefotaxime (3 measure the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC of the AJ water extract. Preparation of the (AJ extracts was done by three different methods two of them are usually performed by population in Middle East by boiling of the shadedried herb in water as tea (decoction, or soaked in tap water for over night (infusion, other method was done by concentrating the aqueous extract of Artemisia judaica under vacuum. The results of this study revealed that (AJ has neither antibacterial effects either against H. pylori nor any other bacterial species. On the other hand the extract of AJ prepared by any of the above mentioned methods shows significant (p<0.005 antioxidant action as compared with blank and related to trolox antioxidant capacity.

  16. A status review on the pharmacological implications of Artemisia absinthium: A critically endangered plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Hussain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift for the humanity to treat various diseases and to spend a prosperous healthy life. There are almost 500 species of Artemisia. Among them, Artemisia absinthium (A. absinthium which is commonly known as wormwood is a well-known herb. It is mentioned in almost all the herbal medicinal books of the Western world. The aim of this review article is to gather information about A. absinthium which is currently scattered in form of various publications. Through this review article tried to attract the attention of people for therapeutic potential of A. absinthium. The present review comprises upto date information of active ingredients, up and down in absinthe, controversy, essential oil, traditional uses, in vitro production of secondary metabolites for pharmaceutical, pharmacology such as antitumor, neurotoxic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anthelminitc, antipyretic, antidepressant, antiulcer, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiprotozoal and challenges of A. absinthium. Some progress has been made, but still consistent efforts are required to explore the individual compounds isolated from A. absinthium to validate and understand its traditional uses and clinical practices. This review article provides preliminary information and gives a direction for the basic and clinical research on A. absinthium (wormwood.

  17. Carbon isotopic composition of Ambrosia and Artemisia pollen: assessment of a C₃-plant paleophysiological indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David M

    2012-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how shifts in plant physiological performance influence vegetation variations in the paleorecord. To evaluate δ¹³C of pollen from C₃ plants as an indicator of community-level physiology, small quantities (10-30 grains) of untreated pollen and sporopollenin from herbarium specimens of Ambrosia (A. tomentosa and A. psilostachya) and Artemisia (A. frigida, A. ludoviciana and A. dracunculus), genera abundant in grassland pollen profiles, were isolated by micromanipulation. Their δ¹³C values were measured using a spooling-wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. Leaf δ¹³C was also measured. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) for untreated pollen, sporopollenin and leaves was compared with historic records of seasonal precipitation amount, vapor pressure deficit and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Each species showed positive correlations between Δ of untreated pollen and sporopollenin. Sporopollenin Δ was most strongly correlated with PDSI. Correlations among leaf Δ and moisture indicators were stronger for Ambrosia than Artemisia. These results suggest that sporopollenin Δ indicates the level of moisture stress in C₃ plants. Therefore, δ¹³C analysis of pollen promises to help address important paleoecological questions, such as how community-level physiology contributes to shifts in vegetation composition. © 2012 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ivanescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation.

  19. Growth-inhibiting effects of seco-tanapartholides identified in Artemisia princeps var. orientalis whole plant on human intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S-H; Na, Y-E; Ahn, Y-J

    2003-01-01

    The present work aimed at isolating antibacterial constituents from the whole plant of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis active towards nine human intestinal bacteria. The growth-inhibiting activities of materials derived from the Artemisia whole plant towards test bacteria were examined using an impregnated paper disc method. The biologically active constituents of the Artemisia whole plant were characterized as the sesquiterpene lactones seco-tanapartholides A and B by spectroscopic analysis. In a test using 1 mg per disc, seco-tanapartholides A and B produced a clear inhibitory effect against Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis and Staphylococcus aureus. These compounds did not affect the growth of test lactic acid-producing bacteria (Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bif. breve, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lact. casei) and Escherichia coli, whereas weak growth inhibition towards Bif. bifidum was observed. At 0.5 mg per disc, seco-tanapartholides A and B exhibited moderate growth inhibition towards Cl. perfringens but weak growth inhibition towards Bact. fragilis and Staph. aureus. Inhibitory action of seco-tanapartholides A and B towards specific bacteria without any adverse effects on lactic acid-producing bacteria may be an indication of at least one of the pharmacological actions of A. princeps var. orientalis whole plant. These naturally occurring Artemisia whole plant-derived materials could be useful as a new preventive agent against various diseases caused by harmful intestinal bacteria such as clostridia.

  20. Seasonal variations of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursors in tetraploid Artemisia annua plants compared with the diploid wild-type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, T.E.; Pras, N.; Quax, Wim

    1999-01-01

    Using colchicine we induced tetraploidy in Artemisia annua L. plants. During a vegetation period we monitored the time course of the levels of artemisinin, its direct precursors, the biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes and the essential oil content in the diploid (wild-type) and tetraploid A.

  1. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K. Pandey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017 on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity.

  2. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on xenic bacteria isolated from clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, Ida; Hess, Claudia; Liebhart, Dieter

    nutrient supply due to their appearance in parasitic food vacuoles. However, the relationship of the parasite and the bacteria is not fully clear. Six previously established clonal cultures of H. meleagridis were used to evaluate the effect of five Artemisia annua derived materials (i.e. dry leaves...

  3. Isolation and identification of dihydroartemisinic acid from Artemisia annua and its possible role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, T.E.; van Uden, W; Lubberink, H.G M; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Pras, N.; Quax, Wim

    Dihydroartemisinic acid (2) was isolated as a natural product from Artemisia annua in a 66% yield, and its structure was confirmed by H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Compound 2 could be chemically converted to artemisinin (4) under conditions that may also be present in the living plant. The results

  4. The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity. PMID:28930281

  5. ANALYSIS OF ARTEMISININ AND RELATED SESQUITERPENOIDS FROM ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L BY COMBINED GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS-SPECTROMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; BOS, R; VISSER, JF; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1991-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoid artemisinin (3) and its biosynthetic precursors arteannuic acid (1), arteannuin B (2) and artemisitene (4) can be separated and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry both as a mixture of reference standards as well as in extracts of Artemisia annua L. From

  6. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human.

  7. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012-2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja

    2017-09-12

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012-2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity.

  8. Evaluating greater sage-grouse seasonal space use relative to leks: Implications for surface use designations in sagebrush ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    The development of anthropogenic structures, especially those related to energy resources, in sagebrush ecosystems is an important concern among developers, conservationists, and land managers in relation to greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) populations. Sage-grouse are dependent on sagebrush ecosystems to meet their seasonal life-phase requirements, and research indicates that anthropogenic structures can adversely affect sage-grouse populations. Land management agencies have attempted to reduce the negative effects of anthropogenic development by assigning surface use (SU) designations, such as no surface occupancy, to areas around leks (breeding grounds). However, rationale for the size of these areas is often challenged. To help inform this issue, we used a spatial analysis of sage-grouse utilization distributions (UDs) to quantify seasonal (spring, summer and fall, winter) sage-grouse space use in relation to leks. We sampled UDs from 193 sage-grouse (11,878 telemetry locations) across 4 subpopulations within the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS, bordering California and Nevada) during 2003–2009. We quantified the volume of each UD (vUD) within a range of areas that varied in size and were centered on leks, up to a distance of 30 km from leks. We also quantified the percentage of nests within those areas. We then estimated the diminishing gains of vUD as area increased and produced continuous response curves that allow for flexibility in land management decisions. We found nearly 90% of the total vUD (all seasons combined) was contained within 5 km of leks, and we identified variation in vUD for a given distance related to season and migratory status. Five kilometers also represented the 95th percentile of the distribution of nesting distances. Because diminishing gains of vUD was not substantial until distances exceeded 8 km, managers should consider the theoretical optimal distances for SU designation

  9. Seasonal variation of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursors in plants of Artemisia annua of different geographical origin : Proof for the existence of chemotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, TE; Pras, N; Beekman, AC; Quax, WJ

    The time course of the levels of artemisinin, its biosynthetic precursors and the biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes was monitored during a vegetation period of Artemisia annua plants of different geographical origin. Considerable differences in contents of artemisinin and its direct precursors

  10. Dades sobre la biologia d'espècies ibèrico-baleàriques d'Artemisia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès Xirau, Joan

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    [ca] S'estudien diversos aspectes de la biologia de les espècies ib èrico-baleàriques d'Artemisia L., fonamentalment de les seccions Artemisia L. i Seriphidium Besser. La germinació de les cipseles, el tipus de cicle biològic, la biologia de la reproducció i la fenologia són els principals termes tractats. [fr] On étude des aspects divers de la biologie des espèces ibéro-baléariques du genre Artemisia L., notamment des sections Artemisia L. et Seriphidium Besser. La germination des cypseles, le type du cycle biologique, la biologie de la reproduction et la phénologie sont les principaux points traités.

  11. Passage and behavior of radio-tagged adult Pacific Lamprey (Entosphenus tridentata) at the Willamette Falls Project, Oregon, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Magie, Robert J.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    We used radio telemetry to monitor passage and describe behavior characteristics of adult Pacific lampreys, Entosphenus tridentata, during their upstream migration at the Willamette Falls Project (Project) on the Willamette River near Portland, Oregon. Our objectives were to document: (1) specific routes of passage at the dam and falls; (2) duration of passage through different routes; and (3) overall passage success. During the spring through autumn of 2005 and 2006, fish were captured in a trap located in the fishway at the Project or collected by hand from the falls, surgically implanted with a radio tag, and released 2 kilometers downstream of the Project. We radio tagged 136 lampreys in 2005 and 107 in 2006. In both years, more than 90 percent of the fish returned to the Project with a median travel time of 7-9 hours. Most fish were first detected at the Project from about 20:00-23:00 hours. In 2005, 43 fish (35 percent) successfully passed through the fishway of the Project, which has four separate entrances and three distinct passage channels or legs that converge at one exit. Prior to the installation of flashboards around the perimeter of the falls in July, lampreys used all three legs of the fishway to pass the Project. After flashboards were installed, only fishway leg 1 was used. The peak of passage occurred in August. No fish passed over the falls, but 13 percent of the lampreys that traveled to the Project ascended at least partway up the falls. In 2006, 24 fish (23 percent) passed the Project, again primarily using fishway leg 1. Most fish passed prior to June 9 when the powerhouse was shut down due to construction. Although 19 lampreys ascended the falls, only 2 passed through this route in late June and early July. Flashboards were not installed in 2006. For both years, the time it took for fish to pass through the fishway depended on which leg they used - the median passage time was at least 4-5 hours in fishway legs 2 and 3 and ranged from 23 to

  12. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia absinthium aqueous extract — A comprehensive study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mohammad [Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd., Apopka, FL 32703 (United States); Kim, Bosung [Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Belfield, Kevin D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); College of Science and Liberal Arts, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Norman, David; Brennan, Mary [Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd., Apopka, FL 32703 (United States); Ali, Gul Shad, E-mail: gsali@ufl.edu [Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd., Apopka, FL 32703 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Unlike chemical synthesis, biological synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining tremendous interest, and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources due to their ample availability and wide array of reducing metabolites. In this project, we investigated the reducing potential of aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Optimal synthesis of AgNPs with desirable physical and biological properties was investigated using ultra violet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). To determine their appropriate concentrations for AgNP synthesis, two-fold dilutions of silver nitrate (20 to 0.62 mM) and aqueous plant extract (100 to 0.79 mg ml{sup −1}) were reacted. The results showed that silver nitrate (2 mM) and plant extract (10 mg ml{sup −1}) mixed in different ratios significantly affected size, stability and yield of AgNPs. Extract to AgNO{sub 3} ratio of 6:4 v/v resulted in the highest conversion efficiency of AgNO{sub 3} to AgNPs, with the particles in average size range of less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the direct imaging of synthesized AgNPs by TEM revealed polydispersed particles in the size range of 5 to 20 nm. Similarly, nanoparticles with the characteristic peak of silver were observed with EDX. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the differential behavior of plant extract and AgNO{sub 3} to synthesize biologically stable AgNPs. - Graphical abstract: Aqueous extract from Artemisia absinthium when used in appropriate ratio (shown in Eppendorf tubes and microtiter plate) is highly active in reducing elemental silver to colloidal silver nanoparticles in the 5–20 nm size range (shown in TEM image, bottom left panel; DLS histogram, upper left panel; EDX analysis, bottom right panel). - Highlights: • Artemisia absinthium extract provides excellent reducing potential for

  13. Multiple mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance are differentially expressed in ecotypes of Artemisia fragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirzayeva, Esmira; Neumann, Gunter; Horst, Walter; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Specht, Andre; Alizade, Valida

    2017-01-01

    Artemisia fragrans is a plant species with ability of growing on heavy metal-polluted soils. Ecotypes of this species naturally growing in polluted areas can accumulate and tolerate different amounts of heavy metals (HM), depending on soil contamination level at their origin. Heavy metal tolerance of various ecotypes collected from contaminated (AP, SP) and non-contaminated (BG) sites was compared by cultivation on a highly HM-contaminated river sediment and a non-contaminated agricultural control soil. Tissue-specific HM distribution was analyzed by laser ablation-inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and photosynthetic activity by non-invasive monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence. Plant-mineral analysis did not reveal ecotype-differences in concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu in shoots of Artemisia plants, suggesting no differential expression of root uptake or root to shoot translocation of HM. There was also no detectable rhizosphere effect on HM concentrations on the contaminated soil. However, despite high soil contaminations, all ecotypes accumulated Zn only in the concentration range of generally reported for normal growth of plants, while Cu and Cd concentrations were close to or even higher than the toxicity level for most plants. As a visible symptom of differences in HM tolerance, only the AP ecotype was able to enter the generative phase to complete its life cycle. Analysis of tissue-specific metal distribution revealed significantly lower concentrations of Cd in the leaf mesophyll of this ecotype, accumulating Cd mainly in the leaf petioles. A similar mesophyll exclusion was detectable also for Cu, although not associated with preferential accumulation in the leaf petioles. However, high mesophyll concentrations of Cd and Cu in the SP and BG ecotypes were associated with disturbances of the photosynthetic activity. The findings demonstrate differential expression of HM exclusion strategies in Artemisia ecotypes and suggest Cd and Cu

  14. Türkiye’de doğal olarak yetişen artemisia l. (asteraceae) cinsine ait üç türün morfolojik özellikleri bakımından incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Kurşat, Murat; Civelek, Şemsettin

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, Türkiye’de doğal olarak yetişen ve sistematik açıdan birbirine çok yakın olan Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss., Artemisia splendens Willd. ve Artemisia caucasica Willd. türleri morfolojik özellikleri bakımından incelenmiştir. Türkiye’de doğal yetişen Artemisia L. cinsinin bütün taksonları üç altcins (Artemisia, Dracunculus ve Seriphidium) içermektedir. Çalışmadaki üç tür de cinse ait Artemisia Less. altcinsi içinde yer almaktadır. Türlerin Türkiye Florası’nda verilen...

  15. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.

  16. Enhanced precipitation promotes decomposition and soil C stabilization in semiarid ecosystems, but seasonal timing of wetting matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Xochi; Germino, Matthew; de Graaff, Marie-Anne

    2017-01-01

    AimsChanging precipitation regimes in semiarid ecosystems will affect the balance of soil carbon (C) input and release, but the net effect on soil C storage is unclear. We asked how changes in the amount and timing of precipitation affect litter decomposition, and soil C stabilization in semiarid ecosystems.MethodsThe study took place at a long-term (18 years) ecohydrology experiment located in Idaho. Precipitation treatments consisted of a doubling of annual precipitation (+200 mm) added either in the cold-dormant season or in the growing season. Experimental plots were planted with big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), or with crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). We quantified decomposition of sagebrush leaf litter, and we assessed organic soil C (SOC) in aggregates, and silt and clay fractions.ResultsWe found that: (1) increased precipitation applied in the growing season consistently enhanced decomposition rates relative to the ambient treatment, and (2) precipitation applied in the dormant season enhanced soil C stabilization.ConclusionsThese data indicate that prolonged increases in precipitation can promote soil C storage in semiarid ecosystems, but only if these increases happen at times of the year when conditions allow for precipitation to promote plant C inputs rates to soil.

  17. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Russell J; Freeman, D Carl; McArthur, E Durant; Kim, Yong Ok; Redman, Regina S

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation.

  18. Grasshopper populations inhabiting the B-C Cribs and REDOX Pond Sites, 200 Area Plateau, United States Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, J K; Rogers, L E

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the taxonomic composition, abundance, and food habits of grasshopper populations inhabiting the 200 Area plateau. Two sites were selected for detailed study, one near the B-C Cribs control zone and the other near the former REDOX Pond. A total of 14 grasshopper species were collected from the B-C Cribs study area and 16 species from the REDOX Pond area. Thirteen of these species occurred at both locations. Population density was low throughout most of the spring, increased in late May, and reached a peak of about 4 grasshoppers per square meter in early July. A dietary analysis showed that 7 of the 28 species of vascular plants recorded from the area were major components in grasshopper diets. These included needle-and-thread grass (Stipa comata), turpentine cymopterus (Cymopterus terebinthinus), Carey's balsamroot (Balsamorhiza careyana), western tansymustard (Descurainia pinnata), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and green rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus). The plant most heavily utilized was big sagebrush, followed by turpentine cymopterus, green rabbitbrush, and Carey's balsamroot. Other species were less frequently eaten. Several plants were present in the diet at a much higher frequency than they occurred in the environment, indicating that they were preferred food items.

  19. Overexpression of the Artemisia Orthologue of ABA Receptor, AaPYL9, Enhances ABA Sensitivity and Improves Artemisinin Content in Artemisia annua L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangyuan; Lu, Xu; Lv, Zongyou; Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Mengmeng; Jiang, Weiming; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2013-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in plant development and environmental stress response. In this study, we cloned an ABA receptor orthologue, AaPYL9, from Artemisia annua L. AaPYL9 is expressed highly in leaf and flower. AaPYL9 protein can be localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid assay shows AaPYL9 can specifically interact with AtABI1 but not with AtABI2, AtHAB1 or AtHAB2. ABA can enhance the interaction between AaPYL9 and AtABI1 while AaPYL9-89 Pro→Ser and AaPYL9-116 His→Ala point mutations abolishes the interaction. BiFC assay shows that AaPYL9 interacts with AtABI1 in nucleus in planta. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing AaPYL9 are more sensitive to ABA in the seed germination and primary root growth than wild type. Consistent with this, ABA report genes have higher expression in AaPYL9 overexpressing plants compared to wild type after ABA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of AaPYL9 in A. annua increases not only drought tolerance, but also artemisinin content after ABA treatment, with significant enhancement of the expression of key genes in artemisinin biosynthesis. This study provides a way to develop A. annua with high-yielding artemisinin and high drought resistance. PMID:23437216

  20. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage persistent threats to sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Pyke, David A.; Boyd, Chad S.; Pellant, Mike; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species often demands addressing a complex suite of threats that undermine species viability. Regulatory approaches, such as the US Endangered Species Act (1973), tend to focus on anthropogenic threats through adoption of policies and regulatory mechanisms. However, persistent ecosystem-based threats, such as invasive species and altered disturbance regimes, remain critical issues for most at-risk species considered to be conservation-reliant. We describe an approach for addressing persistent ecosystem threats to at-risk species based on ecological resilience and resistance concepts that is currently being used to conserve greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)and sagebrush ecosystems. The approach links biophysical indicators of ecosystem resilience and resistance with species-specific population and habitat requisites in a risk-based framework to identify priority areas for management and guide allocation of resources to manage persistent ecosystem-based threats. US federal land management and natural resource agencies have adopted this framework as a foundation for prioritizing sage-grouse conservation resources and determining effective restoration and management strategies. Because threats and strategies to address them cross-cut program areas, an integrated approach that includes wildland fire operations, postfire rehabilitation, fuels management, and habitat restoration is being used. We believe this approach is applicable to species conservation in other largely intact ecosystems with persistent, ecosystem-based threats.