Sample records for sagan takashi aoyama

  1. Sagan numbers


    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.


    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  2. Takashi Murakami ja Peter Doigi suurnäitus Frankfurdis / Jaan Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elken, Jaan, 1954-


    Kuni 4. I 2009 Frankfurdi moodsa kunsti muuseumis avatud jaapani kunstniku Takashi Murakami (sünd. 1962) personaalnäitusest ning Shirni kunsthallis avatud inglise kunstniku Peter Doigi (sünd. 1959) maalinäitusest ja lühidalt Rene Magritte'i 1948. a. näituse "La Periode Vache" rekonstruktsioonist

  3. Wind power development field test project at Aoyama Heights, Aoyama-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Aoyamacho Aoyama Kogen ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Aoyama Heights, Aoyama-cho, Naga-gun, Mie Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 5.3m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 32m/s. Winds came prevalently from WNW (31.6%), and then from NW (16.8%), ESE (20.9%), and E (9.9%). The wind axis was in the direction of WNW-ESE, and the total wind direction occurrence rate was 89.0%. Turbulence intensity was 0.25 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.23 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 70-84% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Carl Sagan: A Life (United States)

    Jakeways, Robin


    This is a quite remarkable book. If you want a quick and sketchy evening's read about your favourite popular scientist then this is not for you! On the other hand, if you want a detailed, fascinating and exhaustively researched story about a very special person, then read it. The author has produced a painstaking picture of Sagan. The main text consists of 430 pages of stories, anecdotes, quotations etc, which lead us through the complex life of a very complex man. This is backed up with a further 70 pages of detailed references followed by a 19 page bibliography. We learn about Sagan from his early days, when he was a somewhat precocious schoolboy, right up to his final days when he was in poor health yet still turning out books at a great rate. Like many people, I knew of him but not very much about him before I read this book. He was a man of giant energy who attempted to combine the life of a working research scientist with that of a great popularizer as well as extending his tentacles into various aspects of (scientific) government policy. Even in his early days his one aim in life seemed to be that of furthering his own career by getting to know as many well-known scientists as possible. He had fingers in many pies - academic, something mysterious and military related, book writing, popular science on TV etc, etc. He was particularly concerned with the space programme, especially the planetary probes and the Voyager vehicles which took messages from Earth to outer space. We get the impression from the book that he was especially obsessed with extraterrestrial life and was desperate to confirm its existence. He was instrumental in keeping the SETI programme going even though it eventually had to go private. We learn that he was not a good family man and work usually took precedence over domestic issues. As a result his private life seems to have been as complicated as his professional life. He was a man whose mind went in several directions at once and he was

  5. Japanese Language as an Organizational Barrier for International Students to Access to University Services: A Case of Aoyama Gakuin University (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi


    In 2011, Aoyama Gakuin University (AGU) started a government-funded degree program (taught in English) to accept international students with limited or no Japanese language proficiency. However, the students faced obstacles in accessing all of the university resources provided. In this article, I investigated Japanese language as an organizational…

  6. Preservice Elementary Students Meet Sagan's "Demon-Haunted World." (United States)

    Nelson, Mike

    This paper describes a course in which preservice elementary teachers read and discussed "The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark" by Carl Sagan. Students discussed their beliefs about the nature of science, teaching, and learning. The paper concludes that preservice teachers appeared to develop reflective and critical…

  7. Carl Sagan: Cosmic Evolution vs. the Creationist Myth. (United States)

    Harnack, William J.


    Considers the dichotomy between the cosmic perspective and the creationist view. Presents an overview of various current explanations of the origin and nature of the universe, including scientific explanations, fundamentalist beliefs, and creation myths from other cultures. The article is based on comments made by Carl Sagan at the American…

  8. Sagan Medal Paper: Improving Impact in Public Outreach (United States)

    Morrison, D.


    Carl Sagan was masterful at reaching a wide public. He had great native talent as an educator, and he worked hard to hone his ability to promote his image as a television personality. Through TV as well as writing, he reached a far wider audience than would have been possible by classroom teaching or other direct personal contact. While none of us is "another Sagan", we can draw lessons from his use of media to leverage his message. One way to multiply our impact is through contributing to textbooks. I jumped at the opportunity to take on the popular George Abell college astronomy texts when the author unexpectedly died. I hoped that as a planetary scientist involved in NASA missions, I could do a better job than most astronomers to convey the excitement of planetary exploration. One edition of a text can reach tens of thousands of students and may represent the only college science course they will take. In the 1980s it was difficult for educators and writers to obtain high quality NASA images. Voyager and other missions issued press releases of first products, but the later, more carefully processed images were unavailable. By selecting the best planetary images and making them available with captions as slide sets, I could reach another large audience. Later I helped establish the NASA-USGS Planetary Photojournal for web-based images and captions. Developing websites for the public is today one of the best ways to broaden the impact of our work. My impact hazard website is now a decade old and exceeds a million hits a month. I also distribute "NEO News" via e-mail to more than 800 readers. I believe that the public is hungry for reliable, understandable information. We can all look at ways to use modern technology to help provide it.

  9. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  10. Carl Sagan and Joseph Shklovsky: Intelligent Life in the Universe (United States)

    Kurt, Vladimir

    J. S. Shklovsky and Carl Sagan played an outstanding role in modern astronomy. Their names are well known not only to professional astronomers, but also to millions of educated people in many countries, which are interested in modern state of science research. Among these trends of modern science, which are difficult to define, are such problems, as the creation of Solar system, the origin of life on Earth, the evolution of living organisms on Earth from the simplest viruses to Homo Sapiens, the evolution of intelligence and technology. Finally, both outstanding scientists were deeply interested in the problem of SETI (Search Extraterrestrial Intelligence), i.e. search of extraterrestrial civilizations and methods of making contacts with them. And both scientists were high professionals in their fields. Joseph Shklovsky was a theoretical astronomer in all fields of modern astronomy (geophysics and physics of the upper atmosphere of the Earth, Sun and Solar Corona, Interplanetary Medium and Solar Wind, Interstellar Medium, Supernova and their remnants, the Galaxy and galaxies, Quasars and Cosmology). There is hardly a field in modern astrophysics (except perhaps the theory of the interior structure of stars), where Joseph Shklovsky has not l a bright stamp of his talent…

  11. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories (United States)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  12. Carl Sagan and the Exploration of Mars and Venus (United States)

    Toon, Owen B.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)


    Inspired by childhood readings of books by Edgar Rice Burroughs, Carl Sagan's first interest in planetary science focused on Mars and Venus. Typical of much of his career he was skeptical of early views about these planets. Early in this century it was thought that the Martian wave of darkening, a seasonal albedo change on the planet, was biological in origin. He suggested instead that it was due to massive dust storms, as was later shown to be the case. He was the first to recognize that Mars has huge topography gradients across its surface. During the spacecraft era, as ancient river valleys were found on the planet, he directed studies of Mars' ancient climate. He suggested that changes in the planets orbit were involved in climate shifts on Mars, just as they are on Earth. Carl had an early interest in Venus. Contradictory observations led to a controversy about the surface temperature, and Carl was one of the first to recognize that Venus has a massive greenhouse effect at work warming its surface. His work on radiative transfer led to an algorithm that was extensively used by modelers of the Earth's climate and whose derivatives still dominate the calculation of radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres today. Carl inspired a vast number of young scientists through his enthusiasm for new ideas and discoveries, his skeptical approach, and his boundless energy. I had the privilege to work in Carl's laboratory during the peak of the era of Mars' initial exploration. It was an exciting time, and place. Carl made it a wonderful experience.

  13. The Sagan-Savage Lucas-Catalan Polynomials Have Positive Coefficients


    Ekhad, Shalosh B.


    This short article answers a question asked by Bruce Sagan in the last few minutes of his wonderful talk (, (describing joint work with Carla Savage) at the Rutgers University Experimental Mathematics seminar delivered on Dec. 9, 2010.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Otero Bello


    Full Text Available En su libro El Hombre y sus demonios, subtitulado La ciencia como una luz en la oscuridad, el astrónomo Carl Sagan, incluye el siguiente cuento, probable-mente inventado por él mismo y que nosotros recreamos aquí con ligeras y no sustanciales modificaciones, con el propósito de oponer el gesto científico y el pensamiento ilusorio.



    Edison Otero Bello


    En su libro El Hombre y sus demonios, subtitulado La ciencia como una luz en la oscuridad, el astrónomo Carl Sagan, incluye el siguiente cuento, probable-mente inventado por él mismo y que nosotros recreamos aquí con ligeras y no sustanciales modificaciones, con el propósito de oponer el gesto científico y el pensamiento ilusorio.

  16. Education and public outreach at the Carl Sagan Solar Observatory of the University of Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Saucedo-Morales


    Full Text Available We discuss the importance of small solar observatories for EPO (Education and Public Outreach, mentioning why they are relevant and what kind of equipment and software require. We stress the fact that technological advances have made them affordable and that they should be widely available. This work is a result of our experience with one: The Carl Sagan Solar Observatory (CSSO. We briefly describe its status and the solar data obtained daily with students participation. We present examples of the data obtained in the visible, Ca II and two in Hα. Data which is widely used for education. Finally we talk about the capability for remote operation as an open invitation for collaboration in educational and scientific projects.

  17. Education and public outreach at the Carl Sagan Solar Observatory of the University of Sonora (United States)

    Saucedo-Morales Julio; Loera-González, Pablo


    We discuss the importance of small solar observatories for EPO (Education and Public Outreach), mentioning why they are relevant and what kind of equipment and software require. We stress the fact that technological advances have made them affordable and that they should be widely available. This work is a result of our experience with one: The Carl Sagan Solar Observatory (CSSO). We briefly describe its status and the solar data obtained daily with students participation. We present examples of the data obtained in the visible, Ca II and two in Hα. Data which is widely used for education. Finally we talk about the capability for remote operation as an open invitation for collaboration in educational and scientific projects.

  18. Aoyama Gakuin University team winning the second prize in junior class in a solar car race; Aogaku team wa junior nii (solar car race ni sankashite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces how the Aoyama Gakuin University team competed in the World Solar Car Rally race held at Ogata Village in Akita Prefecture, Japan, in the summer of 1994. The race was formed with solar cars mounting a solar panel with the maximum area of 8 m{sup 2} and batteries with a total output of 3 kWh to compete how many rounds the cars can run around a course of 31 km during three days (25 hours in total). The solar car used by the University team had consumed power of about 600 W at a speed of 40 km/h, with the solar panel generating power of 800 Wp. The first day morning was sunny making possible to set the average speed to 45 km/h (power generation of 500 W or more), but the weather worsened in the afternoon compelling the car to change the speed to 30 km/h (power generation of 200 W). The power generated on the second day, which was cloudy all day, stayed at 250 W at the maximum, hence the speed was kept at 30 km/h to suppress the power consumption. On the sunny third day, the team drove the car worrying about the remaining battery capacity, and succeeded the drive of 23 rounds in total, winning the second prize among 30 cars participated in the junior class race.

  19. Z-100, an immunomodulatory extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Aoyama B, prevents spontaneous lymphatic metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma. (United States)

    Horii, Takayuki; Yoshinaga, Koji; Kobayashi, Nobuyoshi; Seto, Koichi; Orikawa, Yuki; Okamoto, Masahiro; Eta, Runa; Ohira, Yuta; Katsunuma, Kokichi; Hori, Yuko; Tanaka, Takao; Takei, Mineo


    Lymphatic metastasis is common in advanced-stage carcinoma and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, few effective treatments to inhibit it are available. Z-100 is an immunomodulatory extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Aoyama B that contains polysaccharides such as arabinomannan and mannan. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Z-100 on spontaneous lymphatic metastasis. C57BL/6N mice injected subcutaneously with B16-BL6 melanoma cells in the right hind footpad were administered Z-100 subcutaneously in the right inguinal region on a daily basis. On day twenty-one after the injection, the right inguinal lymph nodes were excised, and the extent of metastasis, the number of immune cells, and the amount of granzyme B protein in the lymph nodes were examined. We also investigated the combined effect of Z-100 and irradiation in this model. Results showed that Z-100 reduced number of animals with metastasis, with respective metastasis rates of 85.7%, 42.9%, 7.1% and 0.0% in saline, 0.1 mg/kg Z-100, 1 mg/kg Z-100 and 10 mg/kg Z-100 group. Further, mice that had been given Z-100 were found to have more immune cells and granzyme B protein in the lymph nodes than control mice. The combination of low dose Z-100 and irradiation also inhibited spontaneous lymph node metastases. These findings suggest that Z-100 may be beneficial in preventing lymphatic metastasis by enhancing the immune response.

  20. An Examination of the Sagan-Coleman formula for application to planetary protection for Europa (United States)

    Barengoltz, Jack


    The Sagan-Coleman formulafootnote{ Sagan, C.; Coleman, S. (1965). "Spacecraft sterilization standards and contamination of Mars". Journal of Astronautics and Aeronautics 3 (5): 22-27.} was originally published as a method to estimate the probability of contamination of Mars by a spacecraft. This estimate was required to satisfy the NASA planetary protection requirements for Mars, which were at the time specified in terms of a maximum allowed value for the probability of contamination. The form of the formula is: P{}_{c} = N{}_{0}{}_{ }P{}_{1}*P{}_{2}*....P{}_{n}*P{}_{g} Here P{}_{c}, the probability of contamination is the probability that one or more of N{}_{0} microbes on the spacecraft will survive to a release on the surface of Mars and reproduce. P{}_{g} is the probability of growth (reproduction, per microbe). Before the identification of the necessary parameters for a flight mission to Europa, it is worthwhile to clarify the mathematical origin of the formula. In fact, the phrase ``one or more'' of the N{}_{0}{}_{ }microbes provides{}_{ }a clue. The exact mathematical form is: [P_c=1-{(1-p)}^{N_0}] Here p is the probability per microbe that it will survive and grow, 1-p is the probability that it won't, {(1-p)}^{N_0} is the probability that all N{}_{0} microbes fail to survive and grow. Thus the last value subtracted from unity is the probability of ``one or more'' surviving and growing. For the case that N{}_{0} p factor (and possibly others) may not be used to demonstrate N{}_{0} p factors may not be automatically small enough to justify the approximation. The difference in the other two categories is subtler. It concerns the difference between a reduction factor that applies to all of the microbes as a group, versus a true probability per microbe. The former factors should multiply N{}_{0} in the exact formula; the latter factors should be included in the value of p. Fortunately, there is no effect in the approximate formula. There is again some effect in

  1. America's First Carl Sagan: Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Pre-Civil War Astronomer and Lecturer on the Cosmos (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.


    In the years before television, videos, radio. movies, or even loudspeakers, Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862) was the best-known popularizer of astronomy and the scientific study of the universe in nineteenth-century America. Each winter he traveled the country by railroad, steamer, and stagecoach, speaking to large paying crowds in principal cities from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia through Cincinnati to New Orleans on the cosmos and our place in it, with special attention to possible inhabitants of planers orbiting other stars. Mitchel had much the same attraction as Sagan did in our time, and awakened many people's interest in astronomy through the human angle, as Carl did. His argument was simple, and according to Frank Triplett goes back thousands of years: other stars are suns, our sun has planets with people on one of them, why should not other stars also have populated planets? But first Mitchel, like Sagan, always explained clearly the discoveries of astronomy that fleshed out this argument with facts. He emphasized the ``clockwork universe", governed by gravity, that Newton, Herschel, and Laplace had investigated and found to be stable. There were many other similarities between these two great popularizers. Mitchel's base was the Cincinnati Observatory, which he had founded, raising the funds for it himself in small contributions from hundreds of ``members", which he publicised as far more democratic than support from European kings and lords. He went abroad to get a telescope, and finally found his ``Great [12-inch] Refractor" in Munich, with help from John Quincy Adams, Astronomer Royal George Biddle Airy, and Paris Observatory Director Fracois Arago, in spite of a rebuff by President John Tyler. These episodes have similarities in Sagan's lobbying NASA for close-up images of Mars. Views of other American professional astronomers on life on other worlds will also be described briefly, from Denison Olmsted, Elias Loomis, Charles A. Young (who

  2. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Agel, Jerome


    Foreword Freeman Dyson; Personal reflections Ann Druyan; Preface; Part I. Cosmic Perspective: 1. A transitional animal; 2. The Unicorn of Cetus; 3. A message from earth; 4. A message to earth; 5. Experiments in utopias; 6. Chauvinism; 7. Space exploration as a human enterprise I. The scientific interest; 8. Space exploration as a human enterprise II. The public interest; 9. Space exploration as a human enterprise III. The historical interest; Part II. The Solar System: 10. On teaching the first grade; 11. 'The ancient and legendary Gods of old'; 12. The Venus detective story; 13. Venus is hell; 14. Science and 'intelligence'; 15. The moons of Barsoom; 16. The mountains of Mars I. Observations from earth; 17. The mountains of Mars II. Observations from space; 18. The canals of Mars; 19. The lost pictures of Mars; 20. The Ice Age and the cauldron; 21. Beginnings and ends of the Earth; 22. Terraforming the plants; 23. The exploration and utlization of the solar system; Part III. Beyond the Solar System: 24. Some of my best friends are dolphins; 25. 'Hello, central casting? Send me twenty extraterrestrials'; 26. The cosmic connection; 27. Extraterrestrial life: an idea whose time has come; 28. Has the Earth been visited?; 29. A search strategy for detecting extraterrestrial intelligence; 30. If we succeed 31. Cables, drums, and seashells; 32. The night freight to the stars; 33. Astroengineering; 34. Twenty questions: a classification of cosmic civilisations; 35. Galactic cultural exchanges; 36. A passage to elsewhere; 37. Starfolk I. A Fable; 38. Starfolk II. A future; 39. Starfolk III. The cosmic Cheshire cats; Epilog David Morrison; Index.

  3. Solitude and Growth in the Consciousness of Feminism---On Aoyama Nanae’s Good Weather ofOne Person%女性意识下的孤独与成长--论青山七惠的《一个人的好天气》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The novel Good Weather ofOne Person written by Japanese authoress Aoyama Nanae ,in a relaxed tone,shows us the loneliness and growth of young women’s under the metropolis background.The felling of fe-male’s solitude and self - growth in the novel inflects her particular awareness to feminism,i.e.the self discovery and self cognition of the women.Although the feminism awareness in the novel is hidden in the simple narration a-bout the daily life,it always leads the development of the stories and becomes the focus to attract and move the readers.%日本作家青山七惠的小说《一个人的好天气》以轻松的笔调呈现出大都市背景下年轻女性的孤独与成长。小说中女性独特的孤独心理和自我成长体现了作者特有的女性意识,即作为女性对自我的发现和认知。这一女性意识隐藏在对日常生活的平淡叙述中,但始终牵引着故事的发展,成为小说吸引和感染读者的关键所在。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Roberto Plaza Teixeira


    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa diferentes aspectos dos livros “O mundo assombrado pelos demônios”, escrito pelo físico Carl Sagan, e “Deus, um delírio”, escrito pelo biólogo Richard Dawkins, bem como suas possibilidades didáticas no ensino médio. Ambos os livros são obras de divulgação científica nas quais o tema central é o desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico e a reflexão sobre temas controversos. Eles podem colaborar para a formação de consciências críticas no ensino médio. Estes livros, além disso, apresentam uma interface muito grande com muitos temas científicos e também com tópicos de história da ciência. A linguagem utilizada neles evidencia para o leitor como se estrutura um texto argumentativo no qual o objetivo principal é o de persuadir. Estes livros foram lidos por alunos de uma turma de terceiro ano do ensino médio do Instituto Federal de São Paulo em uma disciplina- projeto cujos eixos eram Ciência, História e Cultura. O trabalho pedagógico realizado é analisado, a partir dos relatos dos próprios estudantes no processo de avaliação realizado.

  5. Sagan, Carl Edward (1934-96) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Planetary scientist, born in Brooklyn, NY, became professor at Cornell University and director of its Laboratory for Planetary Studies. He directed programs on theoretical, laboratory and spacecraft studies of organic molecules in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of planets, satellites and comets in the solar system, and in the interstellar medium. This was a means of understanding the origin ...

  6. From Genomes to Life to the Planet and the Cosmos: In Appreciation of Carl Sagan (United States)

    Benner, S. A.


    The Earth and life have evolved in tandem; It is impossible to separate the two over most of geologic time. Geological and geochemical processes create and define the conditions necessary for life. In turn, life has shaped geological processes in ways that are understood, and ways that are not yet understood. The reciprocal interaction between the planet and its inhabitants has driven changes in the molecules, metabolisms, and morphologies of terrean organisms. Today, with the emergence of complete genome sequences and tools from molecular biology, we are now better able, more than ever before, to tell stories of how we came to be, on a planet and in a cosmos that has both nourished us and (from time to time) threatened to extinguish us. The stories to be told in this talk combine information from the geological and paleontological records, analysis of genome sequence data, and experiments that resurrect ancient, extinct life forms for study in the laboratory. The talk will emphasize the non-recurring, progressive feature of the dance between Earth and Life. We will show how the emergence of humans was influenced by the environment, and how humans placed their irreversible mark on the genes of organisms that they touched. We will show how the global environmental crisis that began in the Oligocene irreversibly transformed the plant and animal kingdoms. We will proceed back to the Cretaceous, to explore how plants and dinosaurs influenced each other, and the genomes of surviving fungus and flies. From there we will go to the Jurassic, as the first placental mammals reconstructed their reproductive systems in response to the planetary changes. We will ask how cosmic events, from asteroids to supernova, may have influenced life on Earth. We will ask what consequential features of life that we see around us might be unique to Earth, and what features might be found universally in life elsewhere. The talk will also review some of the methodological issues associated with converting just-so stories into experimentally testable hypotheses. We will emphasize the "present day backwards" strategy, where tools developed for the recent past can be tested in a regime where testing is possible, and then applied to more ancient events. We also will show how a natural history approach to the analysis of human biology has practical value, offering approaches to treating human diseases as diverse as obesity and cancer, by understanding these diseases in the context of the history through which they have passed.

  7. Sagan om vinylens återkomst : Värdet av vinylskivan hos den unga konsumenten i den digitala eran


    Gezelius, Oscar; Bergelv, Rasmus


    Since 2007, there has been a boom in sales of the vinyl record, which still continues to this day. The purpose of this paper is therefore to shed some light on this unlikely revival by studying the vinyl record’s consumer value as perceived by members of Generation Y. By adopting a consumer dominant view and a multidimensional perspective of consumer value the study aims to show how the vinyl record’s customer value is constructed in the eyes of its consumers. Through interviews the authors m...

  8. Hubungan Antara Pola Asuh Ibu Bekerja Dan Tidak Bekerja Dengan Kepercayaan Diri Anak Di TK Purbonegaran Sagan Yogyakarta


    Juliana Sinaga, Lely Lusmilasari dan Fitri Haryanti, Hanna


    Background: Sometimes ago child mothering generally done by mother because they are not work. Nowdays, at the height of education of woman and demand of live the effect of monetary crisis that was made mother work to earn life. Mother with child of preschool ought to be correct how to lead time prudently, because the basic in raising child personality especially self confidence was at preschool. The problem is how mothering applied by mother to their children so that the child growing ...

  9. Action taken by three humans, an American physicist in the bomber, two Japanese with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the atomic bombs were exploded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Shuji


    Luis W. Alvarez of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), University of California, USA, won the Nobel Prize for physics of elementary particle in 1968. He was very famous physicist and concerned the World War II in some ways. He joined the radar research development at MIT Radiation Lab. in 1940, then he developed the magnetron and the ground-controlled approach (GCA) for blind landing of planes. Afterwards he joined the Manhattan Project to fabricate the atomic bombs. His career connecting to those is introduced partly based on his autobiography. In addition, introduced are two reports by two Japanese, the personal experience of Yoko Ota with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima, and the action of Takashi Nagai who assisted the victims of radiation poisoning in Nagasaki even if he had radiation poisoning himself, as well as a letter from Luis W. Alvarez to Ryokichi Sagane, which was put in the tube of atomic bomb energy measuring instruments. Nightmares of the Hiroshima view are also introduced. (S.Y.)

  10. Dew Point


    Goldsmith, Shelly


    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  11. On the usability of frequency distributions and source attribution of Cs-137 detections encountered in the IMS radio-nuclide network for radionuclide event screening and climate change monitoring (United States)

    Becker, A.; Wotawa, G.; Zähringer, M.


    . Aoyama, K. Hirose,M. Takashi and S. Yabuki, 2001: Is It Possible to Use 90Sr and 137Cs As Tracers for the Aeolian Dust Transport? Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 130, 349-354. Mikami, M. and G. Shi, 2005: Preliminary summary of aeolian dust experiment on climate impact -Japan-Sino joint project ADEC. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 7, 05985 Wotawa, G., L.-E. De Geer, A. Becker, R.D'Amours, M. Jean, R. Servranck and K. Ungar, 2006: Inter- and intra-continental transport of radioactive cesium released by boreal forest fires, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L12806, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026206 Disclaimer The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the CTBTO Preparatory Commission.

  12. Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Reaction By-Products Presentation type:Poster Section:Ocean Sciences Session:General Contribution Authors:Takashi Teraji (1) Takemitsu Arakaki (2) AGU# 10173629 (1) Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (, (2) Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan ( (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.


    Use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. In particular, we focused on the fate of aspartame by determining its bimolecular rate constants with hydroxyl radicals at various pH and temperature conditions and reaction by-products. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, which could be regarded as zero. We will report reaction rate constants at different pHs and reaction by-products which will be analyzed by GC-MS. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  13. Kompott õudusfilmifestivalil / Jaan Franclin Perlitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Perlitz, Jaan Franclin


    Haapsalu õudusfilmifestivali filmidest : Fr. W. Murnau "Nosferatu - õuduste sümfoonia" (Saksamaa, 1922), Lõuna-Korea "R-Point", Takashi Miike "Izo" (Jaapan, 2004), itaallase Dario Argento "Ohked" ("Suspiria"), Eesti lühifilm "Hirm"

  14. Neli jaapani mängufilmi / Lauri Kitsnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kitsnik, Lauri


    Jaapani filmidest: "Elagu filmitegija!" ("Kantoku banzai") rezh. Takeshi Kitano (2007); "Sukiyaki Western Django" rezh. Takashi Miike (2007); "Hana" ("Hana yori mo nao)" rezh. Kore-eda Hirokazu (2006); "Leinav mets" ("Mogari no mori") rezh. Kawase Naomi (2007)


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    lem: The case of dimension 3. 71. Hinz Andreas ... Ichinose Takashi. On the norm convergence of the self- ... Mirakjan operators on weighted spaces. 571 ... Kesavan S. On the limit matrix obtained in the ... A basic inequality for submanifolds in.

  16. Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces. Volume 16, Number 4 (United States)


    atomic level structure and Fermi level pinning on GaAs(110) surfaces grown by molecular beam epitaxy Yasuhiko Ishikawa, Naohiro Tsurumi, Takashi Fukui...molecular beam epitaxy Yasuhiko lshikawa,a) Naohiro Tsurumi, Takashi Fukui, and Hideki Hasegawa Research Center for Interface Quantum Electronics and...Inoue, K.-(2) 895 Iriguchi, T.-(2) 790 Isakozawa, S.-(4) 2532 Ishikawa, J.-(2) 829, 833, 895 Ishikawa, Junzo-(4) 2515 Ishikawa, Yasuhiko -(4) 2387

  17. Q&A: The space crusader (United States)

    Cowen, Ron


    US astronomer Neil deGrasse Tyson, director of New York's Hayden Planetarium, currently hosts the television series Cosmos -- an update of Carl Sagan's 1980 show -- broadcast in 181 countries and 45 languages. As it winds down, Tyson talks about the rich mix of science and pop culture, the 'neurosynaptic snapshot' of public responses to his tweets, and his momentous meeting with Sagan.

  18. Mobile Manipulators for Assisted Living in Residential Settings (United States)


    unplanned “bumps” and reduces the probability of damage to itself, the client, or the environment. These trade - offs mean that it will not initially be able...Sakagami, Y.; Watanabe, R.; Aoyama, C.; Matsunaga, S.; Higaki, N.; and Fujimura, K. 2002. The intelli- gent ASIMO: System overview and intergration

  19. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Analytical Quality Circles (United States)


    standard tools for quality control, in English, see “Guide to Quality Control” by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa , Asian Productivity Organization, Aoyama Dai-ichi...factors affect work evaluation is shown schemati- cally by Characteristic-Factor Diagrams (also called Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagrams), see Figure 2-5

  20. Hybrid Studies: Looking at Solar System Astronomy in America (United States)

    DeVorkin, David

    In his 1980 book Cosmos, Carl Sagan proclaimed that in the 1940s and 1950s, 'the world's only full-time planetary astrophysicist' was Gerard Kuiper. Sagan, a student of Kuiper at the Yerkes Observatory, reflected a mindset that had become a missionary statement for planetary specialists and NASA programme managers. 'The subject was then considered by most professional astronomers to be at least slightly disreputable, tainted with Lowellian excesses', Sagan contended (1980, p. 143), referring to Percival Lowell's flamboyant claims about observing evidence of advanced civilisations on Mars at the turn of the century.

  1. The meaning of professionalism in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    simultaneous needs: ~) to achieve economic growth while redistributing resources; and ~'t) to ..... Mass.: Harvard. University Press, 1885. 10. Sagan LA. The Health ofNations. N&w York: Basic Books, 1987. 11. Williams R, ed. International ...

  2. Pale blue dot a vision of the human future in space

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, Carl


    In Cosmos, the late astronomer Carl Sagan cast his gaze over the magnificent mystery of the Universe and made it accessible to millions of people around the world. Now in this stunning sequel, Carl Sagan completes his revolutionary journey through space and time. Future generations will look back on our epoch as the time when the human race finally broke into a radically new frontier--space. In Pale Blue Dot Sagan traces the spellbinding history of our launch into the cosmos and assesses the future that looms before us as we move out into our own solar system and on to distant galaxies beyond. The exploration and eventual settlement of other worlds is neither a fantasy nor luxury, insists Sagan, but rather a necessary condition for the survival of the human race.

  3. Raamat : [Tutvustus] / Livia Viitol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viitol, Livia, 1953-


    Toona, Elin. Lotukata; Sagan Franȯise. Kurbus kummaline tunne. Killuke päikest jahedas vees; Vee, Elo. Võlavalgel; Plath Sylvia. Klaaskuppel; Pühakuteraamat : Nende elulood, teod ja ikonograafilised embleemid; Terhart, Franjo. Mina, Grace O'Malley

  4. Putting Science FIRST: Memories of Family Science Experiences. (United States)

    Science and Children, 1996


    Presents anecdotes from prominent citizens including Bill Clinton, Alan Alda, Carl Sagan, Gerald Wheeler, JoAnne Vasquez, and Lynn Margulis in which they reminisce about interesting science experiences with their families. (JRH)

  5. The Integrated Day Comes to College. (United States)

    Walton, Sherry; And Others


    Describes how a university faculty used Carl Sagan's "Cosmos" series as a vehicle for demonstrating the integrated curriculum approach to instruction, modeling this approach with their pre-service teachers. A daily account of the week's activities is provided. (JDH)

  6. Teaching Hiroshima: Thinking about the Unthinkable. (United States)

    Dyke, Reg


    Describes the instructional materials used in a sophomore literature course to deal with the topic of possible nuclear destruction, including John Hersey's "Hiroshima"; photographs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Carl Sagan's "Cosmos"; and specially prepared handouts and worksheets. (LAL)

  7. Qualia: A Prescription for Developing a Quality Health Threat Assessment (United States)


    openness to new ideas, no matter how bizarre or counterintuitive they may be, and the most ruthless skeptical scrutiny of all ideas, old and new. — Carl ... Sagan , The Demon Haunted World, 1996 A. INTELLIGENCE AND FUSION This chapter will present various models for intelligence preparation and Sagan , C. (1996). The demon haunted world. Science as a candle in the dark. New York: Ballantine Books. 102

  8. Just War Theory and its Applicability to Targeted Killing (United States)


    Briefly put, the Realist feels that there is no place for ethics in war or in the decisions that lead to declaring war ( Sagan 2004, 77). Tracing their...the weak do what they must‖ ( Sagan 2004, 77). This belief that it is sometimes necessary 21 to be cruel in order to maintain peace and stability...publications/hoover-digest/article/7926 (accessed 19 April 2011). Clausewitz, Carl Von. 1976. On war. Trans. and Edited by Michael Howard and Peter Paret

  9. United States Military Space: Into the Twenty-First Century (United States)


    famous and articulate spokesmen for planetary science; Pale Blue Dot : A Vision of the Human Future in Space (New York: Random House, 1994) was one...and defining human characteristic. Carl Sagan is a primary spokesman for those who view spaceflight in scientific and ecological terms and see it as...Spacefaring Civilization (New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1999). Carl Sagan cofounded the Planetary Society in 1980 and was one of the most

  10. Circulatory Shock. Volume 34. Number 1. May 1991. International Conference on Shock (2nd), Meeting of European Shock Society (5th), Annual Meeting of the Shock Society (USA) (14th), Vienna Shock Form (3rd) Held in Vienna, Austria on 2-6 June 1991 (United States)


    OCTADECENOATE, AS A BURN TOXIN Takayuki Ozawa, Mika Hayakawa, Kazuhiro Kosaka, Satoru Sugiyama, Kazuhisa Yokoo, Hisashi Aoyama, and Yohei Izawa Department...shock. 41 CARDIOPULMONARY HEMODYNAMIC AND PERIPHERAL CIRCULATORY RESPONSES IN SHOCK T. Muteki, N. Kaku. T. Fukushige, I. Kohno and T. Hiraki Department...Tadashi, 242 Machleidt, Werner, 213 Ozawa, Takayuki , 11 Kawarada, Yoshifumi, 442 Mackie, D.P., 348 Ozawa, Kazue, 268 Keser, Claudia, 380 Maitra, Subir R

  11. 143 - 148_Makeri et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 1, 2015 ... Yuan et al., 2003), antimicrobial activity (Sundarrao et al., 1993; Betancur-Galvis et al., 1999; Takashi et al., 2006), anti-parasitic, anti-malarial activities (Alali et al., 1998; Jaramillo et al., 2000; Luna et al.,. 2005). This study evaluates the antibacterial activity of extract of stem –bark and leaf extracts of Annona.

  12. China’s Emerging Capabilities in Energy Technology Innovation and Development (United States)


    44(4): 823-30. Chandler , Alfred D. and Takashi Hikino (1997). The Large Industrial Enterprise and the Dynamics of Modern Growth. Big Business...and the Wealth of Nations. A. D. Chandler , F. Amatori and T. Hikino. Cambrige Cambridge University Press. Deutch, John and Edward S. Steinfeld

  13. Koletised meie sees / Alar Niineväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineväli, Alar


    Tallinna VIII Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme - filmisari "Kolm... Äärmused" ("Three... Extremes") kui Aasia horrori antoloogia : Hongkongi režissööri Fruit Chani "Ravioolid" ("Ravioli") ; Lõuna-Korea režissööri Park Chan-wooki "Sisselõige" ("Cut") ; Jaapani režissööri Takashi Miike "Kast"

  14. DVD-d. "Borat", "United 93", "Must Daalia", "Vimm 2" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016


    Uued mängufilmide DVD-d : Larry Charlesi "Borat" (peaosas Sacha Baron Cohen; USA 2006), Paul Greengrassi "United 93" (USA 2006), Brian De Palma "Must Daalia" ("The Black Dahlia", USA 2006), Takashi Shimizu "Vimm 2" ("The Grudge 2", USA 2006)

  15. Tagasi puu otsa! / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-


    Puu otsa ehitatud ja puudel rippuvatest majadest. Üle 60 San Francisco kunstniku koostöös sündinud Steampunk Tree House, Takashi Kobayashi loodud puumaja, Toronto arhitektuuri- ja disainiülikooli tudengi Lukasz Kosi disainitud 4TreeHouse, Tom Chudleighi disainitus "Vaba hinge sfäärid", 02 Sustainability Tree House, Romero Studiosi ja Baumraumi puumajad

  16. Assessing the Viability of Team Learning with Remedial Students in a Lecture Based Japanese Higher Education Culture (United States)

    Duncan, Brent


    Despite a culture with cooperation as a core value, (Nagao, Takashi, & Okuda, 2011) Japanese higher education generally uses rigid lecture-test teaching models that neither support nor condone small-group learning methods in the classroom. As a result, Japanese college students usually work outside the classroom to develop the collaborative…

  17. Database Description - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo(when creating) Creator Name: Takashi ...ating) Contact address GSFS - CB-06, Transdisciplinary Sciences, The University of ...Ito* Creator Affiliation: Department of Computational Biology, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo(when cre

  18. Tri... ekstrima : jugo-vostotshnõi variant

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Kagu-Aasia art-house kino - kolme režissööri lühifilmide kassett "Three... Extremes" (2004) : "Dumplings" (Hongkong ; režii Fruit Chan), "Cut" (Lõuna-Korea ; režii Park Chan-Wook), "Box" (Jaapan ; režii Takashi Miike)

  19. Põrgulikud piinad ja tingimusteta armastus / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-


    Helsingis 17. korda toimuva festivali "Armastus ja Anarhia" kavas olnud filme - Takashi Miike "Üks vastamata kõne" ("One Missed Call"), korealase Park Chan-Wooki "Vana poiss" ("Old Boy") ja Jean-Luc Godardi "Meie muusika" ("Notre Musique")

  20. Millions and Billions of Channels (United States)

    Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

    The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

  1. Miscalculated Ambiguity: The Effects of US Nuclear Declaratory Policy on Deterrence and Nonproliferation (United States)


    Use. (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 1995) 7. 5 Sagan , Scott. "The Case for No First Use." Survival 51, no. 3 (2009): 163-182. 6 The Stanley Foundation...America’s Nuclear Posture. (Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists Global Security Program, 2010) 1. 60 Sagan , Scott. "The Case for No First...Foreign Policy for the 1970s: Building for Peace. S.l.: s.n., 1971. Nonproliferation--60 Years Later. DVD. Directed by Carla Robbins. Washington D.C

  2. Heuristics, Anecdote and Applying Art: Why War Theorists are Kidding Themselves (United States)


    Impact of the Highly Improbable (New York: Random House, 2007), 199. 2 Carl Sagan , Cosmos (New York: Random House, 1980), 48-71. Sagan artfully...what makes war. Carl Von Clausewitz cuts to the heart of the matter, famously calling war “an act of force to compel an enemy to do our will.”8 The force...they offer as partial proof the work of Carl Barksdale, a 2002 Naval War College graduate who analyzed the Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979-1989), the

  3. 研究発表 茂吉の再生


    佐々木, 比佐子


    There are two big crises in the poet Saitō Mokichi’s life. One is the time when Japan was defeated in 1945 and the other is the time when the Aoyama mental hospital was burned down in the end of 1924. The latter crisis was especially hard on forty-four year old Mokichi who had just returned from studying in Europe. He had to think about how to rebuild the hospital as well as how to support his family by himself. It is the harsh situation that he suffered both physically and mentally. In this ...

  4. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: Japan. (United States)


    Molding Technology [Takashi Kasai , Akihiko Hirota; KIKAI TO KOGU, May 88] 106 Injection Molding Technology [Toshiyuki Iwahashi; KIKAI TO KOGU, May 88...Development Shu Isa -Planning Office Fumio Sato —Control Office Shizuka Kudo - Patent Office Taro Inoue —Technical Information Office Takeshi...the possibility that a more serious situation could occur. Fumio Kaneko, who is in charge of the marine sector, joined the company in 1971 after

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, 89 Sairas Symposium (United States)


    Electric) B2-5 Region Segmentation Process for Visual Data Mikio Fukase, Tsugito Maruyama, Takashi Uchiyama (Fujitsu Labs.) Osamu Okamoto, Isao Yamaguchi (N...Shigeoki Hirai, Tomomasa Sato (ETL) Tadao Hiruma (Meiji Univ.) B2-12 A Teleoperating Assembly System Hajime Morikawa, Nobuaki Takanashi, Norio Tagawa...Processing for Space Robot Teleoperation 230 Eiichi Ogawa, Shigeki Kuzuoka (Mitsubrshi Electric) B32-5 Region Segmentation Process for Visual Data 234 Mikio

  6. Comprehensive and Critical Literature Review on Insitu Micro-Sensors for Application in Tribology (United States)


    Tsugai, Masahiro; Bessho, Mikio ; Araki, Toru; Onishi, Masayoshi; Sesekura, Takashi Source: SAE Technical Paper Series. Publ by SAE, Warrendale, PA, USA...MONITORING OF HYDROGEN ASSISTED CRACKING OF LOW ALLOY STEEL. Author. Hayashi, Yasuhisa; Takemoto, Mikio Source: Boshoku Gijutsu/Corrosion Engineering v...METALS AND ITS APPLICATION TO AE SENSOR. Author. Shimizu, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sato , Michio Source:. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Supplement

  7. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature.


    Blom, R.M.; Vulink, Nienke C; Van der Wal, S.J.; Nakamae, Takashi; Tan, Z.; Derks, Eske M; Denys, D.


    Rianne M Blom,1 Nienke C Vulink,1 Sija J van der Wal,1 Takashi Nakamae,1–3 Zhonglin Tan,1,4 Eske M Derks,1 Damiaan Denys1,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 3Department of Neural Computation for Decision-Making, ATR Brain Information Communication Research Laboratory Group, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Psych...

  8. Jaapan Helsingis - mangad pööritavad Tennispalatsis silmi / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-


    Jaapani mangakultuurist ja nüüdiskunstist. Helsingi Tennispalatsis olevast näitusest "Japan Pop : manga ja nüüdiskunst". Näitusel originaaltöödega esindatud manga-kunstnike Katsushika Hokusai ja Osamu Tezuka loomingust. Nüüdiskunstnike Yasumasa Morimura, Makiko Kudo, Yoshitomo Nara, Takashi Murakami töödest. Jaapani neopopi mõjutusi Eestis: Kiwa, Martin Pedanik

  9. International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion (8th): Advancements in Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion Held in Cape Town, South Africa on 2-6 November 2009 (United States)


    Mark Morgan4 USA Dr. Tam Nguyen9,7,6,1,2 Australia Prof. Takashi Niioka6,8 Japan Prof. Boris V. Novozhilov6,8 Russia Dr. Elaine S. Oran8 USA Dr...predicted to continue for the foreseeable future. The lessons learned from other international peacekeeping forces in foreign countries, has a direct...reprocessing or blending again to meet the specific requirements. Another advantage is that after mixing, the excess product can be reheated and used

  10. Uncertainties in the North Korean Nuclear Threat (United States)


    Bermudez, Joseph S., “The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Unconventional Weapons,” in Peter R. Lavoy, Scott D. Sagan , and James J. Wirtz, eds...Korea Has ‘Weaponized’ Plutonium,” Associated Press, January 17, 2009. Robbins, Carla Anne, and Gordon Fairclough, “North Korea Sparks Proliferation

  11. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence


    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  12. Pakistan’s Nuclear Future: Reining in the Risk (United States)


    contribute to the fog of war, which is further thickened by other conditions, as elucidated by Carl von Clausewitz in On War. Second, during peacetime...Emerging Power, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2001, pp. 204, 209- 211. 16. Scott D. Sagan and Kenneth N. Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear

  13. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 2, Summer 2011 (United States)


    September 1990): 737–38. 23. Kenneth N. Waltz, “More May Be Better,” in The Spread of Nuclear Weapons, eds. Scott D. Sagan and Kenneth N. Waltz (New...See Carl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 141. We encourage

  14. Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century (United States)


    Freedman, Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 735. 4 Carl von Clausewitz, On...26 Scott D. Sagan , "How to Keep the Bomb from Iran," Foreign Affairs 85, (September/October 2006): 45 27 Matthew Bunn, "Bombs We Can Stop

  15. Confronting Emergent Nuclear-Armed Regional Adversaries: Prospects for Neutralization, Strategies for Escalation Management (United States)


    states vulnerable to 6 Scott D. Sagan , “The Perils of Proliferation: Organization Theory...substantially less than those of the opponent’s. As Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz so famously asserted, “The political object—the...powers or that the United States could not manage 6 Carl von Clausewitz, On War, edited and translated

  16. Turbulent Convection in an Anelastic Rotating Sphere: A Model for the Circulation on the Giant Planets (United States)


    Raffaele Ferrari, Adam Showman, Dick Lindzen, Baylor Fox-Keiper, Jonathan Lilly, Tapio Schneider, Carl Wunsch and Bill Hubbard. Particularly I thank Jean...Cuzzi, J., Pollack, J. B.. Danielson, G. E., Ingersoll, A., Davies, M. E., Hunt, G. E., Morrison, D., Owen, T.. Sagan , C., Veverka, J., Strom, R

  17. Taking the Lead: Russia, the United States, and Nuclear Nonproliferation after Bush (United States)


    2002), especially chap. 5; Henry D. Sokolski, ed., Pakistan’s Nuclear Future: Worries beyond War ( Carl - isle: SSI, January 2008); Henry Sokolski and...Two sides of this issue are argued in Scott D. Sagan and Kenneth N. Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate (New York: W. W. Norton, 995

  18. Real hazards of nuclear fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; Shapiro, C.S.


    The paper discusses an article by Carl Sagan entitled ''On minimizing the consequences of nuclear war'' (Nature 317 485 Oct 1985), in the light of the authors' own work on global fallout. Consequences of local fallout, human impact of local fallout, and global fallout calculations using computer models, are all described. (U.K.).

  19. A DRDC Management Accountability Framework (United States)


    DRDC Atlantic CR 2009-136 Sagan , S. (1993), The Limits of Safety: Organizations, Accidents, and Nuclear Weapons. Princeton: Princeton...3701 Carling Avenue Ottawa, ON K1A 0Z4 1 Director General DRDC Toronto 1133 Sheppard Avenue West Toronto, ON M3M 3B9 1 Director General

  20. The real hazards of nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Shapiro, C.S.


    The paper discusses an article by Carl Sagan entitled ''On minimizing the consequences of nuclear war'' [Nature 317 485 Oct 1985], in the light of the authors' own work on global fallout. Consequences of local fallout, human impact of local fallout, and global fallout calculations using computer models, are all described. (U.K.)

  1. The Ethical Imperative of Reason: How Anti-Intellectualism, Denialism, and Apathy Threaten National Security (United States)


    imperative for “reason” and factual discussion to rule the policy process. 14. SUBJECT TERMS ethics, philosophy , reason, anti-intellectualism...opinion, public trust, science, scientific process, discurisive reasoning, morality , technology, futurology, Aristole, Sagan, Hofstader, Kant, Ross 15...9 D. CONCLUSION ........................................................................................10 III. PHILOSOPHY AND

  2. Mizan Text, V1,N1- Final 4-b

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It only leads our students to fall back into the traditional comfort zone of memorizing ..... and jump into my car and vanish as rapidly as I came in. But we ..... planetary system, Carl Sagan begged it to turn the camera towards earth before the ...

  3. A Case of Preservice Elementary Teachers Exploring, Retelling, and Reframing. (United States)

    Nelson, Michael


    Presents preservice elementary teachers' frames (points of view) on science curriculum. Uses Carl Sagan's text, "The Demon Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark". Explores how students retelling their reactions to experiences of their own design might influence their awareness of beliefs in general and reconsideration of…

  4. Writing for Physics Mastery. (United States)

    Weber, Stephen W.

    A study examined the effectiveness of incorporating writing as a tool to master the concepts of physics. Subjects were students in the three traditional physics classes and one non-math or conceptual physics class at East High School in Rockford, Illinois. The instructor tried a variety of methods--students wrote criticisms of Carl Sagan videos,…

  5. Tearing Down the Wall: Literature and Science. (United States)

    Westcott, Warren B.; Spell, J. Everett


    Suggests English teachers might draw from authors such as Carl Sagan, Arthur C. Clarke, Mary Shelly and others: (1) to knock down the walls that separate science and literature; (2) to show their interrelationship; and (3) to instill enthusiasm for the study of both. (NH)

  6. Teaching Science Rhetorically: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Natural History, 1948-1985. (United States)

    DePaolo, Charles


    Considers the different analogies used by James Rettie, Teilhard de Chardin, Robert Ardrey, Jacob Bronowski, Richard Leakey, Steven Weinberg, Heinz Pagels, and Carl Sagan to make concepts related to time and natural history accessible to the layperson. Suggests that these analogies be used at the undergraduate level in both humanities and science…

  7. Integration of Field Studies and Undergraduate Research into an Interdisciplinary Course: Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems (United States)

    Eves, Robert L.; Davis, Larry E.; Brown, D. Gordon; Lamberts, William L.


    According to Carl Sagan (1987), "Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge." Field studies and undergraduate research provide students with the best opportunities for "thinking" about science, while at the same time acquiring a body of knowledge. Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems is a…

  8. Crisis in Science and Math Education. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate. One Hundred First Congress, First Session. (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

    This document contains the transcript of a senate hearing on the crisis in science and math education. The document includes the opening statements of Senators Glenn, Kohl, Bingaman, Lieberman, Heinz, and Sasser, and the testimony of seven witnesses including: Honorable Mark O. Hatfield, Senator from the State of Oregon; Carl Sagan, Ph.D. Cornell…

  9. Excellence in Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education Act of 1990. Report To Accompany S. 2114. 101st Congress, 2d Session. (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document contains the transcript of a Senate hearing on the crisis in science and math education. The document includes mathematics, science, and engineering education; enhance the scientific and technical literacy of the U.S. public; stimulate the professional from the state of Oregon; Carl Sagan, Cornell women and minorities in careers in…

  10. Estimate of radiocaesium derived FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi


    134Cs and 137Cs (radiocaesium) were released to the North Pacific Ocean by direct discharge and atmospheric deposition released from the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident in 2011. After the FNPP1 accident, measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs were conducted by many researches. However, those results are only snapshots in order to interpret the distribution and transport of the released radiocaesium on a basin scale. It is recognized that estimation of the total amount of released 134Cs and 137Cs is necessary to assess the radioecological impacts of their release on the environment. It was reported that the inventory of 134Cs or 137Cs on the North Pacific Ocean after the FNPP1 accident was 15.2-18.3 PBq based on the observations (Aoyama et al., 2016a), 15.3±1.6 PBq by OI analysis (Inomata et al., 2016), 16.1±1.64 PBq by global ocean model (Tsubono et al., 2016). These suggest that more than 75 % of the atmospheric-released radiocaesium (15.2-20.4 PBq; Aoyama et al., 2016a) were deposited on the North Pacific Ocean. The radiocaesium from the atmospheric fallout and direct discharge were expected to mixing as well as diluting near the coastal region and transported eastward across the North Pacific Ocean in the surface layer. Furthermore, radicaesium were rapidly mixed and penetrated into the subsurface water in the North Pacific Ocean in winter. It was revealed that these radiocaesium existed in the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b; Kaeriyama et al., 2016) and Central Mode Water (CMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b), suggesting that mode water formation and subduction are efficient pathway for the transport of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium into the ocean interior within 1-year timescale. Kaeriyama et al. (2016) estimated the total amount of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium in the STMW was 4.2 ± 1.1 PBq in October-November 2012. However, there is no estimation of the amount of radiocaesium in the CMW. Therefore, it is impossible to discuss

  11. Corrigendum

    CERN Multimedia


    In the 27th issue of the Weekly Bulletin (28th June 2004) we have reported, under the heading "Lord Shiva Statue Unveiled", that "Carl Sagan drew the metaphor between the cosmic dance of the Nataraj and the modern study of the ‘cosmic dance' of subatomic particles." In fact, as was kindly pointed out to us by his editors, it was Fritjof Capra,  who in his well-known book "The Tao of Physics" (1975), drew this metaphor, and not Carl Sagan. We have apologized for this unintentional misappropriation and we have also modified the relevant part of the text as shown on the explanatory plaque adjacent to the statue.

  12. Education and Outreach: Advice to Young Scientists (United States)

    Lopes, R. M. C.


    Carl Sagan set an example to all scientists when he encouraged us to reach out to the public and share the excitement of discovery and exploration. The prejudice that ensued did not deter Sagan and, with the passing of years, more and more scientists have followed his example. Although at present scientists at all ranks are encouraged by their institutions to do outreach, the balancing of a successful scientific career with teaching and outreach is often not an easy one. Young scientists, in particular, may worry about how their outreach efforts are viewed in the community and how they will find the time and energy for these efforts. This talk will offer suggestions on how to balance an active science research program with outreach activities, the many different ways to engage in education and public outreach, and how the rewards are truly priceless.

  13. Digital Dimension Disruption: A National Security Enterprise Response (United States)


    PRISM 7, NO. 2 FEATURES | 41 Digital Dimension Disruption A National Security Enterprise Response By Charles Rybeck, Lanny Cornwell, and Philip Sagan...1 The slow-motion collapse of parts of the 20th century’s legacy is now accelerating in ways that likely will usher in a monumental realignment of...societal institutions, methods of business, and fundamental ideas about national security. This realignment will , of necessity, change the frameworks

  14. Normative Factors in U.S. Nuclear Policy (United States)


    Debate, ed. Kenneth Waltz and Scott Sagan (New York: W.W. Norton , 2013). 32 Brodie, Strategy in the Missile Age; Robert Jervis, “Deterrence Theory...200 and Carter internalized some of these concerns himself.201 198 Fred Kaplan , The Wizards of...Presidency Project. February 16, 1968. ws/?pid=29377. Kaplan , Fred. The Wizards of Armageddon. Palo Alto, CA

  15. Learning to See the Opportunities in Crisis and Catastrophe: A Decision Makers Guide to the Issue-Attention Cycle (United States)


    Adapting from the tourism industry, Birkland notes a crisis as an organizationally caused event (e.g., Exxon Valdez), a disaster as an event beyond... Tourism and SME Sectors,” Proceedings of the 1st International Conference in Safety and Crisis Management in the Construction, ed. Georgio Boustras...172 Carl Sagan, The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark (New York: Ballantine, 1997). 213. 173 Selected crises were valuated

  16. Dark Matter (United States)

    Lincoln, Don


    It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…

  17. U.S. Biodefense & Homeland Security: Toward Detection & Attribution (United States)


    in Planning the Unthinkable: How New Powers Will use Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons, ed. Peter R. Lavoy, Scott D. Sagan , and James J...another year, and then only due to public statements issued by Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. Carla Chamberlain, the nurse who ran the county public health...that the dressing had been contaminated during or after its preparation.”107 4. Suspicions & Initial Epidemiological Reports Both Carla Chamberlain

  18. Geologic Exploration of the Planets: The First 50 Years (United States)

    Carr, Michael H.


    Fifty years ago, on 14 December 1962, the Mariner 2 spacecraft flew by Venus and inaugurated the modern era of planetary exploration. Since that first Venus flyby, roughly 80 spacecraft have successfully probed, orbited, flown by, landed on, or roved on other planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. As Carl Sagan used to say, only one generation of humankind can be the first explorers of the solar system, and we are that generation.

  19. Bending the Eagle’s Wing - How Advanced Air Defenses put the Enemy’s Vital Centers Beyond the Reach of American Airpower (United States)


    29 Carl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 358. 68 More so...Air University Press, 1994. Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. Edited and Translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton, NJ: Princeton...Randolph, Stephen P. Powerful and Brutal Weapons. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007. Sagan , Scott D. and Kenneth N. Waltz. The Spread of

  20. Mars Pathfinder (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  1. Extended Nuclear Deterrence for Europe Without Forward-based Weapons (United States)


    financial costs of nuclear burden sharing, bolsters safety and security and further reduces proliferation risks. 22 Bibliography Bildt, Carl and... Sagan , Scott D. and Waltz, Kenneth N. The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate Renewed. W. W. Norton and Company New York, NY and London...Point. Center for International Relations, Reports and Analyses. Konrad-Adenauer Foundation, Warsaw, 2011, 2. 30 Bildt, Carl and Sikorski, Radek

  2. Subspace Arrangement Codes and Cryptosystems (United States)


    Signature Date Acceptance for the Trident Scholar Committee Professor Carl E. Wick Associate Director of Midshipmen Research Signature Date SUBSPACE...Professor William Traves. I also thank Professor Carl Wick and the Trident Scholar Committee for providing me with the opportunity to conduct this... Sagan . Why the characteristic polynomial factors. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 36(2):113–133, February 1999. [16] Karen E. Smith

  3. Curiosities of the sky

    CERN Document Server

    Serviss, Garrett P


    Long before figures like Carl Sagan and Neil deGrasse Tyson simplified astronomy for popular consumption, Garrett P. Serviss was traveling the United States with an early version of a PowerPoint presentation to teach people about eclipses, the orbit of the planets, and other celestial concepts. This basic introduction to the subject is simple and enjoyable enough to ensure that science-phobes or young readers won't be turned off.

  4. Planetary Society (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  5. The Challenge of Adaptation: The US Army in the Aftermath of Conflict, 1953-2000 (United States)


    on U.S. National Security Strategy, 21 June 2001, pp.4-5. Chaired by Senator Carl Levin (D-MI). Retrieved from LexisNexis Congressional Search...and Scott D. Sagan , Moving Targets: Nuclear Strategy and National Security (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989). 4. Boyd L. Dastrup, The...KS: Combat Studies Institute, July 1980), available at: http://www. carl /resources/csi/heller2/heller2.asp. 13. Condit, HOSD, v.II: The

  6. Preliminary review of the TTAPS nuclear winter scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Kornegay, F.C.; Perry, A.M.


    The paper by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollock and Sagan (TTAPS) on Global Consequences of Nuclear War was reviewed. The possibility of climate upset must be taken seriously but the uncertainties are larger than the postulated effects. The effects if real would fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than on the US and would provide incentive for smaller, more accurate weapons, avoiding cities, and earth-penetrating weapons

  7. Scientists: Engage the Public!


    Shugart, Erika C.; Racaniello, Vincent R.


    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or ?Sagan effect? associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist?s career. There are a varie...

  8. Le crayon bleu de la censure : oeuvres d’auteurs français interdites au Portugal entre 1933 et 1974


    Gonçalves, Luís Carlos Pimenta


    The Censor’s Blue Pen: Works by French Authors Banned in Portugal between 1933 and 1974. The dictatorial regime imposed by the Estado Novo regime in force in Portugal between 1933 and 1974 imposed a severe censorship of publications in general and more specifically to books published in Portugal and abroad. Because of the influence that French culture had, many authors, ancient and contemporary, from Flaubert to Sartre going through Sagan, had their works banned. The reasons for the ban were ...

  9. Should We Let the Bomb Spread (United States)


    in an ecologically clean manner. According to Schelling, both arms control and energy policy analysts universally rejected the proposal at the html. 176 27. Scott D. Sagan, “Realist Perspectives on Ethical Norms and Weapons of...Mass Destruction,” in Sohail H. Hashmi and Steven P. Lee, eds., Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, p

  10. Strange science takes time

    CERN Multimedia


    The late astronomer Carl Sagan popularized the saying that "extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence," in reference to reports of alien visitations. Generating low-cost commercial fusion power, isolating antimatter and tracing reverse-time causality aren't as far out there as UFOs, but a similar rule might well apply: Extraordinary science requires extraordinary effort. With that in mind, here's a progress report on three extraordinary science projects that have popped up in the news...

  11. Wind turbine technology principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa


    IntroductionPart I: AerodynamicsWind Turbine Blade Design; Peter J. Schubel and Richard J. CrossleyA Shrouded Wind Turbine Generating High Output Power with Wind-Lens Technology; Yuji Ohya and Takashi KarasudaniEcomoulding of Composite Wind Turbine Blades Using Green Manufacturing RTM Process; Brahim AttafAerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Using Differential Evolution; Travis J. Carrigan, Brian H. Dennis, Zhen X. Han, and Bo P. WangPart II: Generators and Gear Systems

  12. In Pursuit of New Liberal Arts Education : A Project for Further Development by the Department of Intercultural Studies(新しい教養教育をもとめて-総合文化学科の取り組み-)


    The Department of Intercultural Studies


    This is a compiled file of a college-wide symposium held by the Department of Intercultural Studies at Kobe College on March 13, 2003. Titled "in Pursuit of New Liberal Arts Education," the whole program aims to reexamine our educational ideal and practice and to further cultivate our educational potential as a department of a liberal arts college. The first part of the program consists of a couple of presentations, one by Professor Takashi Furusho and the other by Professor Tatsuru Uchida. B...

  13. Habituation contributes to the decline in wheel running within wheel-running reinforcement periods. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; McLaughlin, Ryan J


    Habituation appears to play a role in the decline in wheel running within an interval. Aoyama and McSweeney [Aoyama, K., McSweeney, F.K., 2001. Habituation contributes to within-session changes in free wheel running. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 76, 289-302] showed that when a novel stimulus was presented during a 30-min interval, wheel-running rates following the stimulus increased to levels approximating those earlier in the interval. The present study sought to assess the role of habituation in the decline in running that occurs over a briefer interval. In two experiments, rats responded on fixed-interval 30-s schedules for the opportunity to run for 45 s. Forty reinforcers were completed in each session. In the first experiment, the brake and chamber lights were repeatedly activated and inactivated after 25 s of a reinforcement interval had elapsed to assess the effect on running within the remaining 20 s. Presentations of the brake/light stimulus occurred during nine randomly determined reinforcement intervals in a session. In the second experiment, a 110 dB tone was emitted after 25 s of the reinforcement interval. In both experiments, presentation of the stimulus produced an immediate decline in running that dissipated over sessions. No increase in running following the stimulus was observed in the first experiment until the stimulus-induced decline dissipated. In the second experiment, increases in running were observed following the tone in the first session as well as when data were averaged over several sessions. In general, the results concur with the assertion that habituation plays a role in the decline in wheel running that occurs within both long and short intervals. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The pre- and post-accretion irradiation history of cometary ices (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl


    Comets Halley and Wilson exhibited similar 3.4 micron emission features at approx. 1 AU from the Sun. A simple model of thermal emission from organic grains fits the feature, provides optical depths in good agreement with spacecraft measurements, and explains the absence of longer-wavelength organic features as due to spectral heliocentric evolution (Chyba and Sagan, 1987). The model utilizes transmission spectra of organics synthesized in the laboratory by irradiation of candidate cometary ices; the authors have long noted that related gas-phase syntheses yield polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, among other organic residues (Sagan et al., 1967). The authors previously concluded (Chyba and Sagan, 1987) that Halley's loss of several meters' depth with each perihelion passage, combined with the good fit of the Halley 3.4 micron feature to that of comet Wilson (Allen and Wickramasinghe, 1987), argues for the primordial - but not necessarily interstellar - origin of cometary organics. The authors examine the relative importance to the formation of organics of the variety of radiation environments experienced by comets. They conclude that there is at present no compelling reason to choose any of three contributing mechanisms (pre-accretion UV, pre-accretion cosmic ray, and post-accretion radionuclide processing) as the most important.

  15. Miliardi e miliardi riflessioni di fine millennio sulla terra e i suoi inquilini

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, Carl


    Carl Sagan, ancora una volta - l'ultima, purtroppo - ci mette a disposizione la sua esperienza (e le sue conoscenze) per vedere il mondo sotto una prospettiva diversa. Questa volta tuttavia, le domande a cui vuole dare risposta non sono soltanto scientifiche ma anche, soprattutto, umanistiche. Con gli occhiali dello scienziato, ma il cuore appassionato dell'uomo, Sagan affronta i temi che condizioneranno i nostri prossimi anni, dai piccoli - ma sorprendenti - problemi di ogni giorno, fino alle grandi domande sul futuro del Pianeta. Così, partendo dai servizi televisivi di Monday Night Football - una sorta di Domenica sportiva americana - Sagan ci accompagna fra le tribù dei cacciatori-raccoglitori che un tempo popolavano la Terra per arrivare a guardare da vicino il fragile equilibrio su cui poggia la vita. Allo stesso modo, prendendo spunto dall'invenzione degli scacchi, ci troviamo di fronte ai temi dell'esplosione demografica, della diffusione dell'Aids e a tutti quei fenomeni dove una piccola unità (un...

  16. Profile of trifluridine/tipiracil hydrochloride in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: efficacy, safety, and place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunakawa Y


    Full Text Available Yu Sunakawa, Naoki Izawa, Takuro Mizukami, Yoshiki Horie, Mami Hirakawa, Hiroyuki Arai, Takashi Ogura, Takashi Tsuda, Takako Eguchi Nakajima Department of Clinical Oncology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan Abstract: TAS-102, with its robust survival efficacy and feasible toxicity, is one of the standard salvage-line treatments for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. No definitive data are available to determine which drug should be administered first during salvage-line treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that we establish the sequence of administration by considering drug toxicity profiles based on patient characteristics, such as age, performance status, comorbidities, tolerability to previous treatments, and patient preferences. The identification of predictive biomarkers in response to TAS-102 or its toxicity is urgently needed for better patient selection. Moreover, to strengthen efficacy or relieve toxicity, combinations with other agents, which could potentially emerge as standard treatment regimens, have been investigated and compared to existing active regimens for mCRC. Keywords: TAS-102, metastatic colorectal cancer, regorafenib, biomarker

  17. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth? (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Wolf, Adam


    Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993) noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis) as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position) which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  18. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Doughty

    Full Text Available Sagan et al. (1993 used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993 could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993 noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  19. The WSTIAC Quarterly. Volume 9, Number 4 (United States)


    elements of command– Major Eric D. Trias Captain Bryan M. Bell US Air Force You have to know the past to understand the present. — Carl Sagan This article is...Quarterly, Volume 9, Number 4 3 INTRODUCTION Carl von Clausewitz defined war as “…an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will...controlled systems. NOTES & REFERENCES ‡ Joint Pub 3-13 provides the doctrinal foundation for the conduct of IO in joint operations. [1] von Clausewitz, Carl

  20. The Telling Takes Us Home (United States)

    Lazic, G. M.


    Carl Sagan reminded us in Cosmos that we have wondered about the stars for as long as we have been human. “Star tellers” like Von Del Chamberlain and Lynn Moroney remind us that, for just as long, we have been telling stories about the stars to explain what we observed. This presentation describes methods of reuniting science and storytelling as complementary approaches to comprehending the cosmos. Examples illustrate how stories can serve as “springboards,” inspire their listeners to new awareness, and involve astronomy educators as reporters, tellers, and mediators.



    Bartlett, Rodney


    A few lines from the article -"Many religions, from Hinduism to Gnostic Christianity to Mormon doctrine, teach that – as impious as it may sound – it is the goal of humans to become gods." ["Pale Blue Dot – A Vision of the Human Future in Space” by Carl Sagan - Headline Book (1995, p. 382)]. The human body and brain might become immaterial, and entangled with all space and time^ (no doubt many people, even today, would call such invisible, endlessly powerful, entangled beings “supernatural”)....

  2. The pale blue dot a vision of the human future in space uma experiência tradutória


    Matos, Bruno Fernandes Belchior de


    O presente Projeto de Mestrado na área de Estudos de Tradução tem por objetivo apresentar uma proposta de tradução comparativa comentada para Português Europeu da seleção de quatro capítulos da obra divulgadora de ciência The Pale Blue Dot – A vision of the human future in space, escrito em 1994 e da autoria de Carl Sagan. Pretende-se dividir este trabalho em dois capítulos distintos. No primeiro capítulo será feita uma breve abordagem autobiográfica do autor da obra, o percurs...

  3. Management of Water Resources and Protected Territories


    Antonio Cezar Leal; Carlos Christian Della Giustina; Cristiane Gomes Barreto; Vivian da Silva Braz


    According to Carl Sagan (1934-1996) water is the singular element gives color and life to this pale blue dot of the solar system we inhabit - the Earth. Interspersed by five large oceans, there are terrestrial ecosystems, which house a diverse set of living beings and, also, more water in different forms. In this arena of life, mankind has evolved, created its own media and ecosystems, moving away from the natural world (Thomas 2010). This contrast has led us to face planetary crises never be...

  4. Lesbian classics in Germany? A film historical analysis of Mädchen in Uniform (1931 and 1958). (United States)

    Mayer, Veronika


    The films Mädchen in Uniform (Leontine Sagan, 1931, Germany; Géza von Radványi, 1958, Germany) both tell the story of a schoolgirl falling in love with her teacher at a Prussian boarding school. Whereas the 1931 version is regarded as a lesbian classic in queer (German) cinema, the 1958 remake, however, is not even considered part of the lesbian genre. The following analysis examines both films within their historical context to answer the question what makes Mädchen in Uniform (1931) a lesbian film and why the remake did not measure up to its original's significance.



    Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.



    With the Vehicle Assembly Building looming in the background, Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.



    From left, Bruce Moriarty, first assistant director; Robert Zemeckis, director/producer; Don Burgess, director of photography; and other Warner Bros. crew members oversee the filming of scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best-selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.



    Robert Zemeckis, director/producer, and other Warner Bros. crew members oversee the filming of scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best-selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.



    The filming of scenes for the movie 'Contact' by Warner Bros.' cast and crew at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29 is captured by cameras on the roof of the Vehicle Assembly Building. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best-selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  10. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang Zhongliang


    The 137 Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by γ spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137 Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m -3 over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137 Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137 Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137 Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400 ± 30 Bq m -2 to 560 ± 30 Bq m -2 during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137 Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850 ± 70 Bq m -2 in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270 ± 90 Bq m -2 in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137 Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137 Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9 ± 0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1 ± 0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137 Cs deposition density in 10 o latitude by 10 deg. longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137 Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137 Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137 Cs from

  11. Observations of magnetic field and TEC fluctuations caused by ionospheric responses to acoustic and gravity waves from ground-level, natural hazard sources (United States)

    Inchin, P.; Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.


    Recent studies have reported magnetic field fluctuations following intense seismic hazard events [e.g. Aoyama et al., EPS, 68, 2016; Toh et al., JGR, 116, 2011]. These perturbations can be associated with ionospheric dynamo phenomena driven by seismically generated acoustic and gravity waves (AGWs). AGW-related dynamo effects can be separated from other sources of magnetic fluctuations (e.g. piezo magnetic effects, magnetospheric forcing or Rayleigh surface waves) based on time delays from event onset (corresponding closely with travel times for AGWs from ground to the ionosphere) and spectral content measured concurrently in total electron content (TEC). Modeling studies aimed at understanding these magnetic field fluctuations have demonstrated the idea that AGWs propagating through the conducting ionosphere can induce current densities sufficient to produce observable magnetic signatures [Zettergren and Snively, JGR, 120, 2017]. Here, we investigate the features of seismic-related magnetic field fluctuations in data and their generation via the effects of seismically-forced AGWs on the ionosphere [Iyemori et al., EPS, 65, 2013; Hasbi et al., JASTP, 71, 2005]. Concurrent magnetic field and TEC data are analyzed for several events: the Chilean earthquakes of 2010 and 2015, Chile's Calbuco volcano eruption and the Sumatran earthquake on March 28, 2005. We investigate the qualitative features of the disturbances as well as quantitative spectral and timing analysis of the data. For Chilean earthquakes, TEC and ground-based magnetometer data reveal fluctuations in magnetic field exhibiting 4-5 mHz frequencies, the same as in TEC. For the Calbuco volcano eruption and Sumatran earthquake both TEC and magnetic field perturbations exhibit frequencies of 4-5 mHz. The results are consistent with previous reports [Aoyama et al., EPS, 68, 2016, Hasbi et al., JASTP, 71, 2005, Iyemori et al., EPS, 65, 2013]. These observations are further interpreted through detailed numerical

  12. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Nivolumab in the treatment of malignant melanoma: review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashima E


    Full Text Available Emi Mashima, Akiha Inoue, Yumiko Sakuragi, Takashi Yamaguchi, Natsuko Sasaki, Yoko Hara, Daisuke Omoto, Shun Ohmori, Sanehito Haruyama, Yu Sawada, Manabu Yoshioka, Daisuke Nishio, Motonobu Nakamura Department of Dermatology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan Abstract: Nivolumab was developed as a monoclonal antibody against programmed death receptor-1, an immune checkpoint inhibitor which negatively regulates T-cell proliferation and activation. Intravenous administration of nivolumab was approved for the treatment of unresectable malignant melanoma in 2014 in Japan. When advanced melanoma patients were treated with nivolumab, median overall survival became longer. Overall survival rate was significantly better in nivolumab-treated melanoma patients than dacarbazine-treated melanoma patients. Nivolumab had an acceptable long-term tolerability profile, with 22% of patients experiencing grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to the drug. Therefore, nivolumab can become an alternative therapy for advanced malignant melanoma. Keywords: monoclonal antibody, PD-1, PD-L1

  14. Verivärskeid elamusi igale maitsele / Marianne Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõrver, Marianne, 1980-


    Ülevaade 10. PÖFFi võistlusprogrammist. PÖFFi filme: "Meeletu" (rezh. Elmo Nüganen), "TumeSininePeaaeguMust" (rezh. Daniel Sanchez Arevalo), "Taksitermia" (rezh. György Palfi), "Eravaldus" (rezh. Joachim Lafosse), "Lahtikistud mees" (rezh. Aku Louhimies), "Rõhkkonnad" (rezh. Nuri Bilge Ceylan), "Reekviem" (rezh. Hans-Christian Schmid), "Väikesed punased lilled" (rezh. Zhang Yuan), "Sündroomid ja sajand" (režissöör Apichatpong Weerasethakul), "Mängides ohvrit" (rezh. Kirill Serebrennikov), "Et taevasse pääseda, tuleb kõigepealt surra" (rezh. Djamshed Usmonov), "Pojad" (rezh. Erik Strand Richter), "Maximo Oliverose õitseaeg" (rezh. Auraeus Solito), "Kelner" (rezh. Alex van Warmerdam), "Tagasinõudja" (rezh. Slawomir Fabick), "Mehed tööl" (rezh. Mani Haghighi), "4,6 miljardit aastat armastust" (rezh. Takashi Miike), "Sina oled mina" (rezh. Kristijonas Vildziunas)

  15. Acute pyogenic discitis in a degenerative intervertebral disc in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamitsu Tanaka


    Full Text Available Masamitsu Tanaka1,2, Hiroshi Shimizu2, Yoshiyuki Yato1, Takashi Asazuma1, Koichi Nemoto11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Self Defense Force Fukuoka Hospital, Kasuga, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: A 35-year-old male who had been receiving conservative treatment for L4 isthmic spondylolisthesis suffered from pyogenic spondylodiscitis in the degenerative L4/L5 intervertebral disc space, which could be identified by comparison with previous images. Symptoms improved with conservative antibiotic treatment. Neovascularization may occur in the annulus fibrosus of a degenerative intervertebral disc, which may increase the risk of hematogenous infection, leading to “discitis” even in adults.Keywords: spondylodiscitis, spondylitis, discitis, isthmic spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, intervertebral disc degeneration

  16. Correction to: Comparison of glycyrrhizin content in 25 major kinds of Kampo extracts containing Glycyrrhizae Radix used clinically in Japan. (United States)

    Nose, Mitsuhiko; Tada, Momoka; Kojima, Rika; Nagata, Kumiko; Hisaka, Shinsuke; Masada, Sayaka; Homma, Masato; Hakamatsuka, Takashi


    The article Comparison of glycyrrhizin content in 25 major kinds of Kampo extracts containing Glycyrrhizae Radix used clinically in Japan, written by Mitsuhiko Nose, Momoka Tada, Rika Kojima, Kumiko Nagata, Shinsuke Hisaka, Sayaka Masada, Masato Homma and Takashi Hakamatsuka, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 71, issue 4, page 711-722 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to © The Author(s) 2018 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

  17. Meson masses in electromagnetic fields with Wilson fermions (United States)

    Bali, G. S.; Brandt, B. B.; Endrődi, G.; Gläßle, B.


    We determine the light meson spectrum in QCD in the presence of background magnetic fields using quenched Wilson fermions. Our continuum extrapolated results indicate a monotonous reduction of the connected neutral pion mass as the magnetic field grows. The vector meson mass is found to remain nonzero, a finding relevant for the conjectured ρ -meson condensation at strong magnetic fields. The continuum extrapolation was facilitated by adding a novel magnetic field-dependent improvement term to the additive quark mass renormalization. Without this term, sizable lattice artifacts that would deceptively indicate an unphysical rise of the connected neutral pion mass for strong magnetic fields are present. We also investigate the impact of these lattice artifacts on further observables like magnetic polarizabilities and discuss the magnetic field-induced mixing between ρ -mesons and pions. We also derive Ward-Takashi identities for QCD +QED both in the continuum formulation and for (order a -improved) Wilson fermions.

  18. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Stephen Jay Gould and the Value of Neutrality of Science During the Cold War. (United States)

    Sheldon, Myrna


    Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament. The theory of nuclear winter claimed that even a small nuclear exchange could result in a atmospheric blackening akin to the extinction event of the late Cretaceous. Gould was not a climate scientist but he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives as an expert on historical extinction events. Gould's insistence on the value-neutrality of nuclear winter reveals much about the moral politics of science in late Cold War America. Coming at the heels of leftist scientific activism of the 1980s, the nuclear winter episode demonstrates how value-neutrality emerged the salient feature of scientific involvement in American politics in this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Report on the survey on the project for working out the new energy vision of Oyamada Village; 2001 nendo Oyamada mura chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Oyamada Village, Mie Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the energy demand amount, existence amount of new energy and project for new energy introduction, and a vision was worked out. The energy demand amount of the village was 672,289 x 10{sup 3} MJ/y. The rate of energy source was about 27% of electric power and 65% of petroleum-base such as gasoline, light oil and kerosene. The amount of CO2 emitted from these was estimated at 50,333 t-CO2. As viewed by sector, the energy demand amount consisted of 46.7% in the transportation sector, 36.3% in the industrial sector, 9.6% in the residential sector and 7.3% in the business sector. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: Aoyama Heights wind farm (wind power generation: 700kW x 12 turbines); wind power generation project jointly with citizen; introduction of photovoltaic power generation/solar heat utilization to public facilities; greenhouse of Western orchard using waste heat from hot spring, stockbreeding waste utilization project, recycle project for thinnings, introduction of clean energy vehicle, etc. (NEDO)

  1. 2nd Industry-Academia Research Exchange Conference. Research report for fiscal 1992; Dai 2 kai sangaku kenkyu koryukai. 1992 nendo kenkyu hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The above-named conference was convened on June 24, 1993, hosted by the Photovoltaic Power Generation Technology Research Association. The research achievement reports made at the event were 'Thermodynamic evaluation of boron in silicon' by Professor Sano of Tokyo University, 'Solar cell system payback time' by Professor Komiyama of Tokyo University, 'Delta-doped amorphous silicon solar cell' by Professor Konagai of Tokyo Institute of Technology, 'Interaction of silicon thin film and atom-state hydrogen' by Professor Shimizu of Tokyo Institute of Technology, 'Simulation of solar module characteristics' by Professor Saito of Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 'Manufacture of CuInSe{sub 2} thin film for solar cell' by Professor Kunioka of Aoyama Gakuin University, 'Solar cell material/process characterization by use of photoluminescence surface state spectroscopy' by Professor Hasegawa of Hokkaido University, 'Research on tandem solar cell using compound-on-silicon semiconductor crystal' by Professor Umeno of Nagoya University, and 'Efficiency improvement in amorphous Si/polycrystalline Si tandem solar cell' by Professor Hamakawa of Osaka University. (NEDO)

  2. Geochemical and biologic constraints on the Archaean atmosphere and climate – A possible solution to the faint early Sun paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Brid, Dennis K.; Sleep, Norman H.

    into account the apparent growth of Earth continents (Collerson and Kamber 1999) and the absence of land vegetation during the Precambrian for the evolution of the surface albedo, and a model for the abundance and properties of clouds that takes into account the lower abundance of biogenic cloud condensation......There is ample geological evidence that Earth’s climate resembled the present during the Archaean, despite a much lower solar luminosity. This was cast as a paradox by Sagan and Mullen in 1972. Several solutions to the paradox have been suggested, mostly focusing on adjustments of the radiative...... properties of Earth’s atmosphere e.g. Kasting (1993), by increasing the mixing ratio of CO2 and/or adding various other greenhouse gasses. We have used banded iron formation (BIF), which are chemical sediments precipitated out of the Archaean ocean to characterize the composition of the atmosphere...

  3. Astronomy in the Digital Universe (United States)

    Haisch, Bernard M.; Lindblom, J.; Terzian, Y.


    The Digital Universe is an Internet project whose mission is to provide free, accurate, unbiased information covering all aspects of human knowledge, and to inspire humans to learn, make use of, and expand this knowledge. It is planned to be a decades long effort, inspired by the Encyclopedia Galactica concept popularized by Carl Sagan, and is being developed by the non-profit Digital Universe Foundation. A worldwide network of experts is responsible for selecting content featured within the Digital Universe. The first publicly available content is the Encyclopedia of Earth, a Boston University project headed by Prof. Cutler Cleveland, which will be part of the Earth Portal. The second major content area will be an analogous Encyclopedia of the Cosmos to be part of the Cosmos Portal. It is anticipated that this will evolve into a major resource for astronomy education. Authors and topic editors are now being recruited for the Encyclopedia of the Cosmos.

  4. Simon Newcomb: America's Unofficial Astronomer Royal (United States)

    Graham, John


    Bill Carter and Merri Sue Carter Mantazas; xiii + 213 pp.; ISBN 1-59113-803-5 2006; $26.95 This book introduced me to a commanding figure in American science from the late nineteenth century: Simon Newcomb. Newcomb has been called the nineteenth-century equivalent of Carl Sagan and Albert Einstein. He rose from humble beginnings to be the preeminent American astronomer of his generation. He made basic, far-reaching, and enduring contributions to positional astronomy and planetary dynamics. On the more practical side, he determined a remarkably accurate value for the velocity of light, one within 0.01% of the value accepted today. His work provided an experimental grounding for the special and general theories of relativity to be formulated by Einstein in the coming twentieth century.

  5. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence in the 1960s: Science in Popular Culture (United States)

    Smith, Sierra


    Building upon the advancement of technology during the Second World War and the important scientific discoveries which have been made about the structure and components of the universe, scientists, especially in radio astronomy and physics, began seriously addressing the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence in the 1960s. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) quickly became one of the most controversial scientific issues in the post Second World War period. The controversy played out, not only in scientific and technical journals, but in newspapers and in popular literature. Proponents for SETI, including Frank Drake, Carl Sagan, and Philip Morrison, actively used a strategy of engagement with the public by using popular media to lobby for exposure and funding. This paper will examine the use of popular media by scientists interested in SETI to popularize and heighten public awareness and also to examine the effects of popularization on SETI's early development. My research has been generously supported by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  6. The politics of atmospheric sciences: "nuclear winter" and global climate change. (United States)

    Dörries, Matthias


    This article, by exploring the individual and collective trajectories that led to the "nuclear winter" debate, examines what originally drew scientists on both sides of the controversy to this research. Stepping back from the day-to-day action and looking at the larger cultural and political context of nuclear winter reveals sometimes surprising commonalities among actors who found themselves on opposing sides, as well as differences within the apparently coherent TTAPS group (the theory's originators: Richard P. Turco, Owen Brian Toon, Thomas P. Ackerman, James B. Pollack, and Carl Sagan). This story foreshadows that of recent research on anthropogenic climate change, which was substantially shaped during this--apparently tangential--cold war debate of the 1980s about research on the global effects of nuclear weapons.

  7. The Ascent of Science (United States)

    Silver, Brian L.


    From the revolutionary discoveries of Galileo and Newton to the mind-bending theories of Einstein and Heisenberg, from plate tectonics to particle physics, from the origin of life to universal entropy, and from biology to cosmology, here is a sweeping, readable, and dynamic account of the whole of Western science.In the approachable manner and method of Stephen Jay Gould and Carl Sagan, the late Brian L. Silver translates our most important, and often most obscure, scientific developments into a vernacular that is not only accessible and illuminating but also enjoyable. Silver makes his comprehensive case with much clarity and insight; his book aptly locates science as the apex of human reason, and reason as our best path to the truth. For all readers curious about--or else perhaps intimidated by--what Silver calls "the scientific campaign up to now", The Ascent of Science will be fresh, vivid, and fascinating reading.

  8. Mapping the Habitable Zone of Exoplanets with a 2D Energy Balance Model (United States)

    Moon, Nicole Taylor; Dr. Lisa Kaltenegger, Dr. Ramses Ramirez


    Traditionally, the habitable zone has been defined as the distance at which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. However, different complexity models (simplified and fast:1D, and complex and time-intense:3D) models derive different boundaries for the habitable zone. The goal of this project was to test a new intermediate complexity 2D Energy Balance model, add a new ice albedo feedback mechanism, and derive the habitable zone boundaries. After completing this first project, we also studied how other feedback mechanisms, such as the presence of clouds and the carbonate-silicate cycle, effected the location of the habitable zone boundaries using this 2D model. This project was completed as part of a 2017 summer REU program hosted by Cornell's Center for Astrophysics and Plantary Sciecne and in partnership with the Carl Sagan Institute.

  9. Management of Water Resources and Protected Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cezar Leal


    Full Text Available According to Carl Sagan (1934-1996 water is the singular element gives color and life to this pale blue dot of the solar system we inhabit - the Earth. Interspersed by five large oceans, there are terrestrial ecosystems, which house a diverse set of living beings and, also, more water in different forms. In this arena of life, mankind has evolved, created its own media and ecosystems, moving away from the natural world (Thomas 2010. This contrast has led us to face planetary crises never before experienced by our species, such as loss of biodiversity, global climate change, and changes in biogeochemical fluxes (Steffen et al. 2015. These crises, in addition to water crises, threaten our quality of life and even our ability to survive.

  10. Origins of Life Research: a Bibliometric Approach (United States)

    Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Taşkın, Zehra


    This study explores the collaborative nature and interdisciplinarity of the origin(s) of life (OoL) research community. Although OoL research is one of the oldest topics in philosophy, religion, and science; to date there has been no review of the field utilizing bibliometric measures. A dataset of 5647 publications that are tagged as OoL, astrobiology, exobiology, and prebiotic chemistry is analyzed. The most prolific authors (Raulin, Ehrenfreund, McKay, Cleaves, Cockell, Lazcano, etc.), most cited scholars and their articles (Miller 1953, Gilbert 1986, Chyba & Sagan 1992, Wolchtershauser 1988, etc.), and popular journals ( Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres and Astrobiology) for OoL research are identified. Moreover, interdisciplinary research conducted through research networks, institutions (NASA, Caltech, University of Arizona, University of Washington, CNRS, etc.), and keywords & concepts (astrobiology, life, Mars, amino acid, prebiotic chemistry, evolution, RNA) are explored.

  11. Space 2000 Symposium (United States)


    The purpose of the Space 2000 Symposium is to present the creativity and achievements of key figures of the 20th century. It offers a retrospective discussion on space exploration. It considers the future of the enterprise, and the legacy that will be left for future generations. The symposium includes panel discussions, smaller session meetings with some panelists, exhibits, and displays. The first session entitled "From Science Fiction to Science Facts" commences after a brief overview of the symposium. The panel discussions include talks on space exploration over many decades, and the missions of the millennium to search for life on Mars. The second session, "Risks and Rewards of Human Space Exploration," focuses on the training and health risks that astronauts face on their exploratory mission to space. Session three, "Messages and Messengers Informing and Inspire Space Exploration and the Public," focuses on the use of TV medium by educators and actors to inform and inspire a wide variety of audiences with adventures of space exploration. Session four, "The Legacy of Carl Sagan," discusses the influences made by Sagan to scientific research and the general public. In session five, "Space Exploration for a new Generation," two student speakers and the NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin address the group. Session six, "Destiny or Delusion? -- Humankind's Place in the Cosmos," ends the symposium with issues of space exploration and some thought provoking questions. Some of these issues and questions are: what will be the societal implications if we discover the origin of the universe, stars, or life; what will be the impact if scientists find clear evidence of life outside the domains of the Earth; should there be limits to what humans can or should learn; and what visionary steps should space-faring people take now for future generations.

  12. Influence of patient characteristics on care time in patients hospitalized with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugibayashi Y


    Full Text Available Yukiko Sugibayashi,1 Kimio Yoshimura,1 Keita Yamauchi,1,2 Ataru Inagaki,3 Naoki Ikegami1 1Department of Health Policy and Management, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Keio University Graduate School of Health Management, Kanagawa, 3Aoyama Gakuin University, School of International Politics, Economics and Communication, Tokyo, Japan Background: In the current Japanese payment system for the treatment of psychiatric inpatients, the length of hospital stay and nurse staffing levels are key determinants of the amount of payment. These factors do not fully reflect the costs of care for each patient. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between patient characteristics and their care costs as measured by “care time” for patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Patient characteristics and care time were investigated in 14,557 inpatients in 102 psychiatric hospitals in Japan. Of these 14,557 inpatients, data for 8,379 with schizophrenia were analyzed using a tree-based model.Results: The factor exerting the greatest influence on care time was ”length of stay”, so subjects were divided into 2 groups, a “short stay group” with length of stay ≦104 days, and “long stay group” ≧105 days. Each group was further subdivided according to dependence with regard to “activities of daily living”, “psychomotor agitation”, “verbal abuse”, and “frequent demands/repetitive complaints”, which were critical variables affecting care time. The mean care time was shorter in the long-stay group; however, in some long-stay patients, the mean care time was considerably longer than that in patients in the short-stay group.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that it is necessary to construct a new payment system reflecting not only length of stay and nurse staffing levels, but also individual patient characteristics. Keywords: psychiatric hospital, schizophrenia, care time, case mix, tree-based model

  13. Experimental study of the antitumor effect of Z-100 in the treatment of MM46 tumor transplanted in C3H/He mice, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Inomata, Taisuke; Yoshida, Shoji; Maeda, Tomoho; Seguchi, Harumichi


    Female C3H/He mice aged 14 weeks with transplanted MM46 tumor were used to investigate the effect of an immunomodulator, Z-100 (An arabinomannan lipid extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Aoyama B) combined with local irradiation of 30 Gy (3,000 rad). Daily doses of 5μg, 50μg and 500μg/kg of Z-100 were injected intramuscularly for 14 consecutive days after irradiation, and 2 times a week for 6 weeks thereafter. The antitumor effect was evaluated by the changes in tumor volume and survival curves. In groups administered 50 μg and 500μg/kg of Z-100, tumor growth decreased significantly compared with the control group (radiotherapy group). Concerning survival rates of each group of mice, there were no marked difference between Z-100 administered groups and the control group. To clarify the mechanisms of action of Z-100, the changes in the lymphocyte subsets infiltrated into tumor tissue after Z-100 treatment were analysed immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies, anti-Thy 1.2, anti-Lyt-1, anti-Lyt-2, anti-L3T4, MAS034b and MAS053c and Avidin-Biotin-peroxidase Complex method (ABC method). In the findings of immunohistochemical studies, differences were hardly observed between groups administered Z-100 and groups treated with radiation only. From these results, it was concluded that immunological effects of Z-100 resembled to that of radiotherapy on the topical tumor tissue. (author)

  14. Validation of a new mass screening tool for cognitive impairment: Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoda K


    Full Text Available Keiichi Onoda,1 Tsuyoshi Hamano,2 Yoko Nabika,1 Atsuo Aoyama,1 Hiroyuki Takayoshi,1 Tomonori Nakagawa,1 Masaki Ishihara,1 Shingo Mitaki,1 Takuya Yamaguchi,1 Hiroaki Oguro,1 Kuninori Shiwaku,3 Shuhei Yamaguchi1 1Department of Neurology, 2Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education, Shimane University, Izumo, 3Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan Background: We have developed a new screening test for dementia that runs on an iPad and can be used for mass screening, known as the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version (CADi. The CADi consists of items involving immediate recognition memory for three words, semantic memory, categorization of six objects, subtraction, backward repetition of digits, cube rotation, pyramid rotation, trail making A, trail making B, and delayed recognition memory for three words. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the CADi. Methods: CADi evaluations were conducted for patients with dementia, healthy subjects selected from a brain checkup system, and community-dwelling elderly people participating in health checkups. Results: CADi scores were lower for dementia patients than for healthy elderly individuals and correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Cronbach’s alpha values for the CADi were acceptable (over 0.7, and test–retest reliability was confirmed via a significant correlation between scores separated by a one-year interval. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CADi is a useful tool for mass screening of dementia in Japanese populations. Keywords: dementia, mass screening, early detection, iPad

  15. Properties of the twisted Polyakov loop coupling and the infrared fixed point in the SU(3) gauge theories (United States)

    Itou, Etsuko


    We report the nonperturbative behavior of the twisted Polyakov loop (TPL) coupling constant for the SU(3) gauge theories defined by the ratio of Polyakov loop correlators in finite volume with twisted boundary condition. We reveal the vacuum structures and the phase structure for the lattice gauge theory with the twisted boundary condition. Carrying out the numerical simulations, we determine the nonperturbative running coupling constant in this renormalization scheme for the quenched QCD and N_f=12 SU(3) gauge theories. First, we study the quenched QCD theory using the plaquette gauge action. The TPL coupling constant has a fake fixed point in the confinement phase. We discuss this fake fixed point of the TPL scheme and obtain the nonperturbative running coupling constant in the deconfinement phase, where the magnitude of the Polyakov loop shows the nonzero values. We also investigate the system coupled to fundamental fermions. Since we use the naive staggered fermion with the twisted boundary condition in our simulation, only multiples of 12 are allowed for the number of flavors. According to the perturbative two-loop analysis, the N_f=12 SU(3) gauge theory might have a conformal fixed point in the infrared region. However, recent lattice studies show controversial results for the existence of the fixed point. We point out possible problems in previous work, and present our careful study. Finally, we find the infrared fixed point (IRFP) and discuss the robustness of the nontrivial IRFP of a many-flavor system under the change of the analysis method. Some preliminary results were reported in the proceedings [E. Bilgici et al., PoS(Lattice 2009), 063 (2009); Itou et al., PoS(Lattice 2010), 054 (2010)] and the letter paper [T. Aoyama et al., arXiv:1109.5806 [hep-lat

  16. Post-marathon wearing of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes facilitates recovery from race-induced fatigue: an evaluation utilizing a visual analog scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa K


    Full Text Available Kento Nakagawa, Takashi Obu, Kazuyuki KanosueFaculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan Purpose: To investigate the potential benefit of post-race wearing of unstable shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology [MBT] on recovery from marathon race–induced fatigue.Patients and methods: Forty-five runners who participated in a full marathon race were divided into three groups: 1 MBT shoes, 2 trail running shoes, and 3 control (CON. Participants ran a full marathon with their own running shoes, and then put on the assigned shoes immediately after the race. They continued to wear the assigned shoes for the ensuing 3 days. The CON group wore their usual shoes. Estimates of post-race fatigue were made by the participants on questionnaires that utilized a visual analog scale. Estimates were made just after the race, as well as for the next 3 days.Results: The subjective fatigue of the MBT group was lower than that of the CON (P<0.05 or trail running shoe groups (P<0.05 on day 3.Conclusion: MBT shoe intervention can promote recovery from the fatigue induced by running a full marathon.Keywords: footwear, VAS, full marathon

  17. Molecular diagnostics of a single drug-resistant multiple myeloma case using targeted next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda H


    Full Text Available Hiroshi Ikeda,1 Kazuya Ishiguro,1 Tetsuyuki Igarashi,1 Yuka Aoki,1 Toshiaki Hayashi,1 Tadao Ishida,1 Yasushi Sasaki,1,2 Takashi Tokino,2 Yasuhisa Shinomura1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, 2Medical Genome Sciences, Research Institute for Frontier Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Abstract: A 69-year-old man was diagnosed with IgG λ-type multiple myeloma (MM, Stage II in October 2010. He was treated with one cycle of high-dose dexamethasone. After three cycles of bortezomib, the patient exhibited slow elevations in the free light-chain levels and developed a significant new increase of serum M protein. Bone marrow cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex karyotype characteristic of malignant plasma cells. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of this patient, we sequenced for mutations in the entire coding regions of 409 cancer-related genes using a semiconductor-based sequencing platform. Sequencing analysis revealed eight nonsynonymous somatic mutations in addition to several copy number variants, including CCND1 and RB1. These alterations may play roles in the pathobiology of this disease. This targeted next-generation sequencing can allow for the prediction of drug resistance and facilitate improvements in the treatment of MM patients. Keywords: multiple myeloma, drug resistance, genome-wide sequencing, semiconductor sequencer, target therapy

  18. TNF-α and LPS activate angiogenesis via VEGF and SIRT1 signalling in human dental pulp cells. (United States)

    Shin, M R; Kang, S K; Kim, Y S; Lee, S Y; Hong, S C; Kim, E-C


    To assess whether SIRT1 and VEGF are responsible for tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced angiogenesis and to examine the molecular mechanism(s) of action in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Immortalized HDPCs obtained from Prof. Takashi Takata (Hiroshima University, Japan) were treated with LPS (1 μg mL(-1) ) and TNF-α (10 ng mL(-1) ) for 24 h. mRNA and protein levels were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Migration and tube formation were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The data were analysed by one-way anova. Statistical analysis was performed at α = 0.05. LPS and TNF-α upregulated VEGF and SIRT1 mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of SIRT1 activity by sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA or inhibition of the VEGF receptor by CBO-P11 significantly attenuated LPS + TNF-α-stimulated MMPs production in HDPCs, as well as migration and tube formation in HUVECs (P disease. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pathological and radiological correlation in an autopsy case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karata H


    Full Text Available Hiroki Karata,1 Tomonori Tanaka,1 Ryoko Egashira,2 Kazuhiro Tabata,1 Kyoko Otani,3 Ryuji Hayashi,4 Takashi Hori,5 Junya Fukuoka1 1Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan; 3Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama, Japan; 5Laboratory of Pathology, Toyama University Hospital, Toyama, Japan Abstract: We report an educational autopsy case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Radiological patterns of the upper lung were considered as mostly emphysema, but pathological observation revealed significant interstitial fibrosis of usual interstitial pneumonia as a major pathology. The patient eventually developed acute exacerbation of background interstitial pneumonia. Careful radiological and pathological correlation of the current case indicates that regions with distal acinar emphysema on computed tomography image may possess histologically marked dense fibrosis of lethal interstitial pneumonia. Keywords: interstitial pneumonia, CPFE, AEF, smoking, CT

  20. Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Hijikata


    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Takashi Kano2, Lu Xi31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2Kano Clinic, Osaka city, Osaka, Japan; 3Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute, Si-chuan Province, ChinaObjective: Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method: Placenta Hominis (PH, steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion: Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.Keywords: placenta, antler glue, Cervi Cornus Colla, anemia, aplastic anemia

  1. Bioresorbable scaffolds in the treatment of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y


    Full Text Available Yaojun Zhang,1,2 Christos V Bourantas,1 Vasim Farooq,1 Takashi Muramatsu,1 Roberto Diletti,1 Yoshinobu Onuma,1 Hector M Garcia-Garcia,1 Patrick W Serruys11Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Drug-eluting stents have reduced the risk of in-stent restenosis and have broadened the application in percutaneous coronary intervention in coronary artery disease. However, the concept of using a permanent metallic endovascular device to restore the patency of a stenotic artery has inherited pitfalls, namely the presence of a foreign body within the artery causing vascular inflammation, late complications such as restenosis and stent thrombosis, and impeding the restoration of the physiologic function of the stented segment. Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS were introduced to potentially overcome these limitations, as they provide temporary scaffolding and then disappear, liberating the treated vessel from its cage. Currently, several BRSs are available, undergoing evaluation either in clinical trials or in preclinical settings. The aim of this review is to present the new developments in BRS technology, describe the mechanisms involved in the resorption process, and discuss the potential future prospects of this innovative therapy.Keywords: bioresorbable scaffold, drug-eluting stent, biodegradable, design, mechanism, coronary artery disease

  2. 5S program to reduce change-over time on forming department (case study on CV Piranti Works temanggung) (United States)

    Rosiana Dewi, Septika; Setiawan, Budi; P, Susatyo Nugroho W.


    Productivity is one aspect that determines the success of a company in the competitive world of business. There are seven main types of activities that do not have value-added in manufacturing processes such as overproduction, waiting time, transportation, excess inventory, unnecessary motion and defects. The whole activity is a waste (waste) that can cause harm to the Company. Therefore, in production activities is important to pay attention so that the objectives of production productivity can be achieved. Problems experienced by CV Piranti Works is a production target is not achieved resulting in a lost sale raises the cost of which can cause harm to the Company. From the analysis conducted major known cause of the problem is the length of time required for changeover. This is supported by the high non-value added activity in the changeover activities. Lean Manufacturing is an approach to make system more efficient by reducing waste. This study refers to the book compiled by Takashi Osada (2004) and several other references. In this research used method 5S (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke) for the of forming departement. The purpose of this research is to design a work environment using the 5S method (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke) and make arrangement of equipment and working tool cabinet design with TRIZ methods. From these results, is expected to eliminate or reduce of non-value added activity and improved the changeover time so as to meet production targets completion of the company.

  3. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em


    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  4. TRT and SCT barrels merge

    CERN Multimedia

    Wells, P S


    The SCT barrel was inserted in the TRT on 17 February, just missing Valentine's day. This was a change of emphasis for the two detectors. In the preceeding months there had been a lot of focus on testing their performance. The TRT had been observing cosmic rays through several sectors of the barrel, and all the modules on each of the four layers of the SCT had been characterised prior to integration. In parallel, the engineering teams, lead by Marco Olcese, Andrea Catinaccio, Eric Perrin, Neil Dixon, Iourii Gusakov, Gerard Barbier and Takashi Kohriki, had been preparing for this critical operation. Figure 1: Neil Dixon and Marco Olcese verifying the final alignment The two detectors had to be painstakingly aligned to be concentric to within a millimetre. The SCT was held on a temporary cantilever stand, and the TRT in the ID trolley had to inch over it. Finally the weight of the SCT was transferred to the rails on the inside of the TRT itself. The SCT services actually protruded a little outside the oute...

  5. Summary report of working group I CO{sub 2} capture, fixation/utilization, and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The topics of our working group were divided into four key areas: CO{sub 2} Capture, Utilization/Fixation, Ocean Disposal, and Land Disposal. Fourteen presentations were made as follows: CO{sub 2} Capture: Toshikatsu Hakuta (Japan) and Rod Judkins, Bruce St. John, and Alan Wolsky (US). Utilization/Fixation: Hironori Arakawa, Yasuo Asada, and Takashi lbusuki (Japan) and Ed Lipinsky (US). Ocean Disposal: Yuji Shindo (Japan) and Eric Adams, Gerard Nihous, and Wheeler North (US). Land Disposal: Shoichi Tanaka (Japan) and Roger Bailey (US/Canada). Co-chairs for this working group were Toshikatsu Hakuta (Japan) and Howard Herzog (US). This document contains only a summary outline of research needs in the area of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. It should be used in conjunction with other assessments made in this area. For the U.S., a DOE report entitled A Research Needs Assessment for the Capture, Utilization and Disposal of Carbon Dioxide from Fossil Fuel-Fired Power Plants will be forthcoming in 1993.

  6. Correction to: Ephedra Herb extract activates/desensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and reduces capsaicin-induced pain. (United States)

    Nakamori, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Jun; Hyuga, Sumiko; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto; Hyuga, Masashi; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Goda, Yukihiro; Hanawa, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Yoshinori


    The article Ephedra Herb extract activates/desensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and reduces capsaicin-induced pain, written by Shunsuke Nakamori, Jun Takahashi, Sumiko Hyuga, Toshiko Tanaka-Kagawa, Hideto Jinno, Masashi Hyuga, Takashi Hakamatsuka, Hiroshi Odaguchi, Yukihiro Goda, Toshihiko Hanawa and Yoshinori Kobayashi, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 71, issue 1, page 105-113 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to © The Author(s) 2018 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

  7. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography might be useful for diagnosis of hepatic amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawada A


    Full Text Available Akinobu Tawada,1 Tatsuo Kanda,1 Takashi Oide,2 Toshio Tsuyuguchi,1 Fumio Imazeki,1,3 Yukio Nakatani,2 Osamu Yokosuka11Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Chiba University Hospital, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Japan; 3Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: We report on a woman with hepatic involvement of primary systemic (immunoglobulin light chain, AL amyloidosis. Her diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy. Clinical symptoms of hepatic amyloidosis are generally mild at its first stage, with most frequent findings being hepatomegaly and alkaline phosphatase elevation. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of systemic amyloidosis have made several treatments available. However, its prognosis is occasionally poor. Because liver biopsy is not always safe, other modalities for the diagnosis are needed. Of interest was that fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG uptake into the liver was observed, compared with that into the spleen, in this patient, indicating that FDG positron emission tomography and computed tomography might be useful for the diagnosis of hepatic amyloidosis with mild liver dysfunction.Keywords: amyloidosis, diagnosis, hepatic involvement, FDG PET

  8. Effect of Stiffness of Rolling Joints on the Dynamic Characteristic of Ball Screw Feed Systems in a Milling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Wang


    Full Text Available Dynamic characteristic of ball screw feed system in a milling machine is studied numerically in this work. In order to avoid the difficulty in determining the stiffness of rolling joints theoretically, a dynamic modeling method for analyzing the feed system is discussed, and a stiffness calculation method of the rolling joints is proposed based on the Hertz contact theory. Taking a 3-axis computer numerical control (CNC milling machine set ermined as a research object, the stiffness of its fixed joint between the column and the body together with the stiffness parameters of the rolling joints is evaluated according to the Takashi Yoshimura method. Then, a finite element (FE model is established for the machine tool. The correctness of the FE model and the stiffness calculation method of the rolling joints are validated by theoretical and experimental modal analysis results of the machine tool’s workbench. Under the two modeling methods of joints incorporating the stiffness parameters and rigid connection, a theoretical modal analysis is conducted for the CNC milling machine. The natural frequencies and modal shapes reveal that the joints’ dynamic characteristic has an important influence on the dynamic performance of a whole machine tool, especially for the case with natural frequency and higher modes.

  9. Antiplatelet antibody may cause delayed transfusion-related acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torii Y


    Full Text Available Yoshitaro Torii1, Toshiki Shimizu1, Takashi Yokoi1, Hiroyuki Sugimoto1, Yuichi Katashiba1, Ryotaro Ozasa1, Shinya Fujita1, Yasushi Adachi2, Masahiko Maki3, Shosaku Nomura11The First Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, 2Department of Clinical Pathology, Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo, 3First Department of Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, JapanAbstract: A 61-year-old woman with lung cancer developed delayed transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI syndrome after transfusion of plasma- and leukoreduced red blood cells (RBCs for gastrointestinal bleeding due to intestinal metastasis. Acute lung injury (ALI recurred 31 days after the first ALI episode. Both ALI episodes occurred 48 hours after transfusion. Laboratory examinations revealed the presence of various antileukocyte antibodies including antiplatelet antibody in the recipient's serum but not in the donors' serum. The authors speculate that antiplatelet antibodies can have an inhibitory effect in the recipient, which can modulate the bona fide procedure of ALI and lead to a delay in the onset of ALI. This case illustrates the crucial role of a recipient's platelets in the development of TRALI.Keywords: delayed TRALI syndrome, recurrence, anti-platelet antibody

  10. 5S program to reduce change-over time on forming department (case study on CV Piranti Works temanggung)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi, Septika Rosiana; Setiawan, Budi; Susatyo Nugroho W P


    Productivity is one aspect that determines the success of a company in the competitive world of business. There are seven main types of activities that do not have value-added in manufacturing processes such as overproduction, waiting time, transportation, excess inventory, unnecessary motion and defects. The whole activity is a waste (waste) that can cause harm to the Company. Therefore, in production activities is important to pay attention so that the objectives of production productivity can be achieved. Problems experienced by CV Piranti Works is a production target is not achieved resulting in a lost sale raises the cost of which can cause harm to the Company. From the analysis conducted major known cause of the problem is the length of time required for changeover. This is supported by the high non-value added activity in the changeover activities. Lean Manufacturing is an approach to make system more efficient by reducing waste. This study refers to the book compiled by Takashi Osada (2004) and several other references. In this research used method 5S (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke) for the of forming departement. The purpose of this research is to design a work environment using the 5S method (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke) and make arrangement of equipment and working tool cabinet design with TRIZ methods. From these results, is expected to eliminate or reduce of non-value added activity and improved the changeover time so as to meet production targets completion of the company.

  11. Scientists as Producers, Presenters, Videographers, Distributors and 'Stars': The Revolution In Science Filmmaking, from COSMOS to iPhones on Kilimanjaro (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.; Morris, K.


    In 1980, Carl Sagan's COSMOS received ratings of some 16 million and won three Emmys and a Peabody award. Sagan was hailed as a 'Showman of Science' by Time magazine, confirming his status as a science superstar. Haines-Stiles, 1st author for this presentation, was a Senior Producer and series director on what was for several decades PBS's highest-rated science series. Some researchers still consider primetime series on national networks as THE way to engage and inform audiences. But a revolution in both the making and consuming of science film and television has transformed the media landscape from high profile series such as COSMOS to more of a 'horizontal' ecosystem in which different formats for diverse audiences via multiple distribution networks are the norm. From the early 1990's the Internet has played an increasingly prominent role in this revolution. In 1993, Haines-Stiles and Akuginow added interactivity to traditional one-way TV broadcasts with 'Dale's Dive Diary,' in what was arguably the world's first science blog, detailing online the joys and rigors of working in Antarctica. Increasingly, the evolution of media allowed for the documentation of the process of doing science along with "eureka" discoveries and press conference results. In POLAR-PALOOZA (PPZA) this new perspective was further extended by taking Arctic and Antarctic researchers on the road to science museums in some 25 communities across the USA for spoken-word performances supported by High Definition video profiles of scientists at work at remote locations. In one instance, a researcher was given a crash course in videography and loaned a low-cost prosumer camcorder to take with her to the heart of East Antarctica. Excellent video was captured, and made part of large screen presentations in IMAX-scale theaters. In addition to the Summative Evaluation (required by project sponsors, NSF and NASA) which focused on audience responses, a recent research paper by communications scholar, Kim

  12. NASA Announces 2009 Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellows (United States)


    WASHINGTON -- NASA has selected fellows in three areas of astronomy and astrophysics for its Einstein, Hubble, and Sagan Fellowships. The recipients of this year's post-doctoral fellowships will conduct independent research at institutions around the country. "The new fellows are among the best and brightest young astronomers in the world," said Jon Morse, director of the Astrophysics Division in NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. "They already have contributed significantly to studies of how the universe works, the origin of our cosmos and whether we are alone in the cosmos. The fellowships will serve as a springboard for scientific leadership in the years to come, and as an inspiration for the next generation of students and early career researchers." Each fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years. The fellows may pursue their research at any host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2009. "I cannot tell you how much I am looking forward to spending the next few years conducting research in the U.S., thanks to the fellowships," said Karin Oberg, a graduate student in Leiden, The Netherlands. Oberg will study the evolution of water and ices during star formation when she starts her fellowship at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Cosmic Heavyweights in Free-for-all Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs Cassiopeia A Comes Alive Across Time and Space A diverse group of 32 young scientists will work on a wide variety of projects, such as understanding supernova hydrodynamics, radio transients, neutron stars, galaxy clusters and the intercluster medium, supermassive black holes, their mergers and the associated gravitational waves, dark energy, dark matter and the reionization process. Other research topics include

  13. Um sopro de Luz e Letra em meio ao caos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tomazi


    Full Text Available Enquanto compreende avanços científicos, o homem busca compreender a si mesmo. Partindo da citação de Carl Sagan, vemos que a Arte é um dos caminhos para a humanização, e os vínculos entre ciência (tecnologia e arte são cada vez mais estreitos. Um dos artistas que melhor trabalham dentro do nicho conhecido como “arte tecnológica” é Eduardo Kac. Sua trajetória inicial é apresentada aqui, dos “holopoemas” à “arte da telepresença”. Vemos o artista-teórico completo, profundo conhecedor da história da arte eletrônica. O livro Luz & letra: ensaios de arte, literatura e comunicação, sua obra de referência, é apresentado em essência, situando-se sua importância. É uma das poucas obras no Brasil a discutir, pela ótica de quem fez parte, eventos ligados ao advento da arte tecnológica nos anos 1980.In our quest to understand scientific advances, we seek to understand ourselves. Employing Carl Sagan's insight as a departure point, we see that art is one of the paths for humanization and that the links between science (technology and art are increasingly narrow. One of the artists who best works within the realm known as “art and technology” is Eduardo Kac. This essay explores Kac's early artworks, starting with “holopoems” and arriving at “telepresence art”, and especially his texts. We see a complete artist-theorist, with an unrivaled knowledge of electronic art and literature, in part because his theorizing emerges from having actively participated in the creation of the events he refers to. Of special interest is Kac's book Light & letter: essays in art, literature, and communication, which collects his writings of the 1980s. This is a fundamental work and mandatory reference for the study of the experimental art and literature of the period.

  14. Envisioning the Shôjo Aesthetic in Illustrations of Miyazawa Kenji’s Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Claire Kilpatrick


    Full Text Available Despite an ever-growing body of scholarship on the shôjo (girl in manga and anime, little has been written about representations of the ‘girl’ in Japanese picture books. Shôjo literature and culture have grown exponentially in Japan since about the 1980s, but there has been a tendency in popular media to overemphasise the 'cute', disempowering aspects of the ‘girl’. By using Takahara Eiri's (1999 concept of “girl consciousness” and Honda Masuko's (1992 envisioning of the girl’s imagined freedom through a hirahira (fluttering aesthetic, notions of the powerless or mindlessly consuming shôjo can be dispelled. Such concepts help demonstrate that the girl ‘has her own creative, critical and cultural, if not social or political, power’ (Aoyama 2008: 286. This paper examines the shôjo tropes in contemporary illustrations that were produced to accompany two tales by the renowned author Miyazawa Kenji (1896-1933, Futago no Hoshi (Twin Stars and Ginga Tetsudô no Yoru (Night of the Milky Way Railway. Although Kenji (as he is known is not generally considered a shôjo author, some of his works incorporate gently transgressive shôjo themes reminiscent of, for example, Yoshiya Nobuko’s Hana Monogatari (Flower Tales from the 1920s. I argue that the current artwork of two award-winning artists, Makino Suzuko and Azuma Itsuko, reflects and enhances Kenji’s ‘girlish’ verbal images, bringing them to the fore in their accompanying imagery for Futago and Ginga by drawing on shôjo art, manga and literature. The artists thus bring into play intertextual references that occur not only across different historical temporalities but also through relations between the author, the artist, the text(s, the protagonists and the reading/viewing audience. The analysis of their striking artwork shows how they bring Kenji’s 1920s’ works firmly into the arena of the contemporary ‘girl’, expanding the abstract consciousness of the shôjo to

  15. Intact molecular characterization of cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate) from nine species of mycobacteria by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Fujita, Yukiko; Naka, Takashi; McNeil, Michael R; Yano, Ikuya


    Cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate, TDM) is an unique glycolipid with a trehalose and two molecules of mycolic acids in the mycobacterial cell envelope. Since TDM consists of two molecules of very long branched-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids, the molecular mass ranges widely and in a complex manner. To characterize the molecular structure of TDM precisely and simply, an attempt was made to determine the mycolic acid subclasses of TDM and the molecular species composition of intact TDM by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for the first time. The results showed that less than 1 microg mycolic acid methyl ester of TDM from nine representative species of mycobacteria and TDM from the same species was sufficient to obtain well-resolved mass spectra composed of pseudomolecular ions [M+Na]+. Although the mass ion distribution was extremely diverse, the molecular species of each TDM was identified clearly by constructing a molecular ion matrix consisting of the combination of two molecules of mycolic acids. The results showed a marked difference in the molecular structure of TDM among mycobacterial species and subspecies. TDM from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv and Aoyama B) showed a distinctive mass pattern and consisted of over 60 molecular ions with alpha-, methoxy- and ketomycolate. TDM from Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 similarly showed over 35 molecular ions, but that from M. bovis BCG Connaught showed simpler molecular ion clusters consisting of less than 35 molecular species due to a complete lack of methoxymycolate. Mass ions due to TDM from M. bovis BCG Connaught and Mycobacterium kansasii showed a biphasic distribution, but the two major peaks of TDM from M. kansasii were shifted up two or three carbon units higher compared with M. bovis BCG Connaught. Within the rapid grower group, in TDM consisting of alpha-, keto- and wax ester mycolate from Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium flavescens, the

  16. Analysis on descriptions of precautionary statements in package inserts of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya F


    Full Text Available Keita Nabeta1, Masaomi Kimura2, Michiko Ohkura2, Fumito Tsuchiya31Graduate School of Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8548 Japan; 2Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8548 Japan; 3School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, Minami-Aoyama 1-24-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 JapanBackground: To prevent medical accidents, users must be informed of the cautions written in medical package inserts. To realize countermeasures by utilizing information systems, we must also implement a drug information database. However, this is not easy to develop, since the descriptions in package inserts are too complex and their information poorly structured. It is necessary to analyze package insert information and propose a data structure.Methods: We analyzed the descriptions of 'precautions for application' in package inserts via text mining methods. In order to summarize statements, we applied dependency analysis to statements and visualized their relations between predicate words and other words. Furthermore, we extracted words representing timing to execute the order.Results: We found that there are four types of statements: direct orders such as "使用する" (use, causative orders such as "使用させる" (make someone use, direct interdictions such as "使用しない" (do not use, and causative interdictions such as "使用させない" (do not make user use. As for words representing timing, we extracted six groups: "at the time of delivery," "at the time of preparation," "in use," "after use," and "at the time of storage." From these results, we obtained points of consideration concerning the subjects of orders in the statements and timing of their execution.Conclusion: From the obtained knowledge, we can define the information structure used to describe the precautionary statement. It should contain information such

  17. Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yamaoka


    Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, JapanAbstract: Although mandibular third molar has a high risk of infection extending any complications, the influence of diabetes on radiolucency and acute inflammation in pericoronitis remains unclear. The present study was to evaluate whether radiolucency below the crown is related to acute inflammation in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and to review the records of 140 men more than 45 years with and without diabetes. The odds ratio of exhibiting acute inflammation was 3.38 (95% CI: 1.13–10.16, p < 0.05 and that of exhibiting severe acute inflammation was 15.38 (95% CI: 3.56–66.49, p < 0.0001, indicating an association of acute pericoronitis in diabetes. The frequency of radiolucency below the crown and below the root in diabetics was similar to that in nondiabetics. However, the odds ratio of exhibiting both radiolucency below the crown and acute inflammation under the diabetic condition was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.60–14.73, p < 0.01, whereas that of diabetics showing both radiolucency below the root and acute inflammation was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.06–3.74, p = 0.74. Radiolucency below the crown and acute inflammation were associated with diabetes, but that below root and acute inflammation were not associated with diabetes, indicating that the region below the crown carries susceptibility to acute pericoronitis, whereas the periodontium shows a protective effect against acute pericoronitis.Keywords: radiolucency, acute inflammation, mandible, third molar, diabetes, periodontium

  18. Acute inflammation in horizontal incompletely impacted third molar with radiolucency in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yamaoka


    Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahiro Takahashi, Masahide Ishizuka, Takayuki Uchihashi, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaMatsumoto Dental University, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Although radiolucency has been shown as a risk of infection, the poorly understood effects of aging on radiolucency correlate with acute pericoronitis, which has a high risk of infection extending any complications. We reviewed the records of 346 consecutive patients aged more than 41 years to evaluate whether pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars is related to acute inflammation. The frequency of acute inflammation in teeth with pericoronal radiolucency below the crown was similar to that in teeth without; however, the odds ratio of acute inflammation exhibited in women aged more than 61 years compared to women aged 41–50 years was 9.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67–57.29; P <<0.05, and in women aged more than 61 years compared to women aged 51–60 years was 26.25 (95% CI: 2.94–234.38; P < 0.01. The odds ratio of severe acute inflammation exhibited in men aged more than 61 years compared to men aged 41–50 years was 16.67 (95% CI: 1.76–158.27; P < 0.01. These odds ratios indicate an association of acute pericoronitis, including the severe forms of acute inflammation that result from pericoronitis, with pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in the elderly.Keywords: radiolucency, mandible, third molar, acute inflammation, aging

  19. Modeling single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 genes: implications for functional and genotyping analyses.

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    Jonathan W Arthur


    Full Text Available Enzymes encoded by the AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 genes are responsible for the metabolism of progesterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT, respectively. The effect of amino acid substitutions, resulting from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the AKR1C2 gene, on the enzyme kinetics of the AKR1C2 gene product were determined experimentally by Takashi et al. In this paper, we used homology modeling to predict and analyze the structure of AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 genetic variants. The experimental reduction in enzyme activity in the AKR1C2 variants F46Y and L172Q, as determined by Takahashi et al., is predicted to be due to increased instability in cofactor binding, caused by disruptions to the hydrogen bonds between NADP and AKR1C2, resulting from the insertion of polar residues into largely non-polar environments near the site of cofactor binding. Other AKR1C2 variants were shown to involve either conservative substitutions or changes taking place on the surface of the molecule and distant from the active site, confirming the experimental finding of Takahashi et al. that these variants do not result in any statistically significant reduction in enzyme activity. The AKR1C1 R258C variant is predicted to have no effect on enzyme activity for similar reasons. Thus, we provide further insight into the molecular mechanism of the enzyme kinetics of these proteins. Our data also highlight previously reported difficulties with online databases.

  20. A feasibility study of NIR fluorescent image-guided surgery in head and neck cancer based on the assessment of optimum surgical time as revealed through dynamic imaging

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    Yokoyama J


    Full Text Available Junkichi Yokoyama,* Mitsuhisa Fujimaki,* Shinichi Ohba, Takashi Anzai, Ryota Yoshii, Shin Ito, Masataka Kojima, Katsuhisa IkedaDepartment of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this study Background: In order to minimize surgical stress and preserve organs, endoscopic or robotic surgery is often performed when conducting head and neck surgery. However, it is impossible to physically touch tumors or to observe diffusely invaded deep organs through the procedure of endoscopic or robotic surgery. In order to visualize and safely resect tumors even in these cases, we propose using an indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence method for navigation surgery in head and neck cancer. Objective: To determine the optimum surgical time for tumor resection after the administration of ICG based on the investigation of dynamic ICG fluorescence imaging. Methods: Nine patients underwent dynamic ICG fluorescence imaging for 360 minutes, assessing tumor visibility at 10, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 minutes. All cases were scored according to near-infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging visibility scored from 0 to 5. Results: Dynamic NIR fluorescence imaging under the HyperEye Medical System indicated that the greatest contrast in fluorescent images between tumor and normal tissue could be observed from 30 minutes to 1 hour after the administration of ICG. The optimum surgical time was determined to be between 30 minutes to 2 hours after ICG injection. These findings are particularly useful for detection and safe resection of tumors invading the parapharyngeal space. Conclusion: ICG fluorescence imaging is effective for the detection of head and neck cancer. Preliminary findings suggest that the optimum timing for surgery is from 30 minutes to 2 hours after the ICG injection. Keywords: indocyanine green (ICG, navigation surgery, robotic surgery, endoscopic surgery, minimally invasive

  1. Factors affecting high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T elevation in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients

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    Hitsumoto T


    Full Text Available Takashi Hitsumoto,1 Kohji Shirai2 1Hitsumoto Medical Clinic, Yamaguchi, Japan; 2Department of Vascular Function (donated, Sakura Hospital, Toho University School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan Purpose: The blood concentration of cardiac troponin T (ie, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T [hs-cTnT], measured using a highly sensitive assay, represents a useful biomarker for evaluating the pathogenesis of heart failure or predicting cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the clinical significance of hs-cTnT in metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting hs-cTnT elevation in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients. Patients and methods: We enrolled 258 metabolic syndrome patients who were middle-aged males without a history of cardiovascular events. We examined relationships between hs-cTnT and various clinical parameters, including diagnostic parameters of metabolic syndrome. Results: There were no significant correlations between hs-cTnT and diagnostic parameters of metabolic syndrome. However, hs-cTnT was significantly correlated with age (P<0.01, blood concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (P<0.01, reactive oxygen metabolites (markers of oxidative stress, P<0.001, and the cardio–ankle vascular index (marker of arterial function, P<0.01. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that these factors were independent variables for hs-cTnT as a subordinate factor. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that in vivo oxidative stress and abnormality of arterial function are closely associated with an increase in hs-cTnT concentrations in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients. Keywords: troponin, metabolic syndrome, risk factor, oxidative stress, cardio–ankle vascular index

  2. Effect of transarterial chemoembolization with miriplatin plus epirubicin on local control of hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective comparison with miriplatin monotherapy

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    Hashimoto N


    Full Text Available Naoko Hashimoto,1 Jin Iwazawa,1 Shoichi Ohue,2 Takashi Mitani11Department of Radiology, Nissay Hospital, Nishiku, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Komatsu Hospital, Neyagawa, JapanObjective: We aimed to evaluate local tumor control after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE for hepatocellular carcinoma using miriplatin and low-dose epirubicin combination therapy.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients who underwent TACE using miriplatin plus low-dose epirubicin (30 patients, 61 nodules, August 2011–March 2012 and control patients who underwent TACE using miriplatin alone (36 patients, 70 nodules, June 2010–July 2011. The local control rate was compared between the two groups using the Kaplan–Meier estimator and the log-rank test. Factors affecting local tumor recurrence were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Treatment-related toxicity was evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events.Results: The local control rates at 6 months and 1 year were 87% and 65% for the miriplatin plus low-dose epirubicin group, and 61% and 43% for the miriplatin group, respectively. Local tumor control rates were significantly better in the miriplatin plus low-dose epirubicin group than in the miriplatin group (P = 0.038. Multivariate analysis showed that the addition of epirubicin was an independent factor associated with better local tumor control (hazard ratio 0.2, P = 0.001. Overall incidence rates for adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: Additional usage of low-dose epirubicin for TACE using miriplatin improved local tumor control of hepatocellular carcinoma with adverse effects comparable to those observed with TACE using miriplatin alone.Keywords: combination therapy, local recurrence, liver, embolization, comparative study

  3. Neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome in bipolar disorder with psychosis

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    Ueda S


    Full Text Available Satoshi Ueda,1 Takeshi Sakayori,1 Ataru Omori,2 Hajime Fukuta,3 Takashi Kobayashi,3 Kousuke Ishizaka,1 Tomoyuki Saijo,4 Yoshiro Okubo1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Tamachuo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Kurumegaoka Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 4Saijo Clinic, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Neuroleptics can induce not only physical adverse effects but also mental effects that produce deficit status in thought, affect, cognition, and behavior. This condition is known as neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS, which includes apathy, lack of initiative, anhedonia, indifference, blunted affect, and reduced insight into disease. Although this old concept now appears almost forgotten, neuroleptics, whether typical or atypical, can make depression or bipolar disorder resemble other more refractory conditions, readily leading to mistaken diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. The authors describe three cases of NIDS superimposed on depressive phase in bipolar disorder with psychosis, where the attending psychiatrist’s failure to recognize NIDS prevented patients from receiving effective treatment and achieving remission. All cases achieved remission after reduction of neuroleptics and intensive therapy, including electroconvulsive therapy, for bipolar depression. The concept of NIDS was originally introduced for schizophrenia, and it has rarely been highlighted in other diseases. In recent years, however, atypical antipsychotics are being more often administered to patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists, therefore, should also remember and exercise caution regarding NIDS in the pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder with and without psychosis. The authors believe that the concept of NIDS needs to be reappraised in current psychiatry. Keywords: neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS, bipolar disorder, psychosis, atypical antipsychotics, electroconvulsive therapy

  4. Maintenance of remission with low-dose olopatadine hydrochloride for itch in well-controlled chronic urticaria

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    Makino T


    Full Text Available Teruhiko Makino,1 Yoshiaki Takegami,1 Mati Ur Rehman,1 Yoko Yoshihisa,1 Waka Ishida,2 Takashi Toyomoto,3 Tadamichi Shimizu11Department of Dermatology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Niigata Central Hospital, Joetsu, Japan; 3Department of Dermatology, Saiseikai Takaoka Hospital, Takaoka, JapanBackground: The long-term follow-up of chronic urticaria (CU is important to ensure the adequate treatment of patients. Olopatadine hydrochloride is one of the second-generation nonsedating antihistamines.Methods: This study was designed to assess the optimal dose of olopatadine to suppress symptoms of chronic urticarial itch in well-controlled patients. After CU patients were treated with 10 mg olopatadine, patients having a visual analogue scale (VAS itch score of less than 20 were randomly allocated into one of three groups: 10 mg/day (n = 35, 5 mg/day (n = 30, or no medication (n = 32.Results: The suppressive effects of both the 5 mg and 10 mg olopatadine treatments on the VAS itch score were more significant and longer lasting over a period of 4 weeks than the no-medication treatment. Both the 5-mg group and the 10-mg group showed improved urticarial symptoms and maintained their VAS itch score within normal limits compared to the no-medication group. The differences between the 5-mg and 10-mg groups were not significant.Conclusion: These results demonstrate that treatment with olopatadine at a dose of 5 mg once daily is effective and safe for the management and prevention of CU symptoms for itch in well-controlled patients.Keywords: chronic urticaria, olopatadine, dose, antihistamine, itch, histamine

  5. Control-matched comparison of refractive and visual outcomes between small incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK

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    Kataoka T


    Full Text Available Takahiro Kataoka,1 Tomoya Nishida,1 Azusa Murata,1 Mayuka Ito,1 Naoki Isogai,1 Rie Horai,1 Takashi Kojima,1,2 Yoko Yoshida,1 Tomoaki Nakamura1 1Nagoya Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: This retrospective case-matched study aimed to compare visual and refractive outcomes between small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE and LASIK. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent SMILE (34 eyes of 23 patients or LASIK (34 eyes of 24 patients were enrolled and matched according to preoperative manifest refractive spherical equivalents. The mean preoperative manifest refractive spherical equivalent was −4.69±0.6 and −4.67±0.64 D in the SMILE and LASIK groups, respectively. The safety, efficacy, and predictability were compared 3 months after surgery. Changes in corneal refractive power from the center to peripheral points and their maintenance ratios were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: In the SMILE and LASIK groups, 82.4% and 85.3% of patients, respectively, achieved 20/13 or better uncorrected distance visual acuity (p=1.00. There were no eyes that lost two or more lines of corrected distance visual acuity in either group. The maintenance ratios of corneal refractive power changes at the peripheral points in the SMILE group were significantly higher than those in the LASIK group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Both groups achieved similar high efficacy and safety. SMILE surgery resulted in higher refractive power correction in the peripheral cornea than LASIK surgery. Keywords: small incision lenticule extraction, LASIK, corneal refractive power, refractive power correction efficiency, corneal topography

  6. Managing refractory Crohn's disease: challenges and solutions

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    Tanida S


    Full Text Available Satoshi Tanida, Keiji Ozeki, Tsutomu Mizoshita, Hironobu Tsukamoto, Takahito Katano, Hiromi Kataoka, Takeshi Kamiya, Takashi Joh Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Aichi Prefecture, Japan Abstract: The goals of treatment for active Crohn's disease (CD are to achieve clinical remission and improve quality of life. Conventional therapeutics for moderate-to-severe CD include 5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, purine analogs, azathioprine, and 6-mercaptopurine. Patients who fail to respond to conventional therapy are treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α inhibitors such as infliximab and adalimumab, but their efficacy is limited due to primary nonresponse or loss of response. It is suggested that this requires switch to another TNF-α inhibitor, a combination therapy with TNF-α blockade plus azathioprine, or granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis, and that other therapeutic options having different mechanisms of action, such as blockade of inflammatory cytokines or adhesion molecules, are needed. Natalizumab and vedolizumab are neutralizing antibodies directed against integrin a4 and a4ß7, respectively. Ustekinumab is a neutralizing antibody directed against the receptors for interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. Here, we provide an overview of therapeutic treatments that are effective and currently available for CD patients, as well as some that likely will be available in the near future. We also discuss the advantages of managing patients with refractory CD using a combination of TNF-α inhibitors plus azathioprine or intensive monocyte adsorptive apheresis. Keywords: adalimumab, granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis, combination therapy, complete remission

  7. Randomized Phase II trial of paclitaxel plus valproic acid vs paclitaxel alone as second-line therapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fushida S


    Full Text Available Sachio Fushida,1 Masahide Kaji,2 Katsunobu Oyama,1 Yasuo Hirono,3 Hideaki Nezuka,4 Toshiya Takeda,5 Tomoya Tsukada,1 Daisuke Fujimoto,3 Shigekazu Ohyama,6 Takashi Fujimura,7 Tetsuo Ohta1 On behalf of the Digestive Disease Support Organization (DDSO 1Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, 2Department of Surgery, Toyama Prefectural Central Hospital, Toyama, 3First Department of Surgery, Fukui University Hospital, Fukui, 4Department of Surgery, Yatsuo General Hospital, Toyama, 5Department of Surgery, Ishikawa Matto Central Hospital, Hakusan, 6Department of Surgery, Kanazawa Medical Center, Kanazawa, 7Toyama City Hospital, Toyama, Japan Abstract: The standard regimen of second-line chemotherapy for patients with unresectable gastric cancer has not been established. However, weekly paclitaxel (wPTX has become the preferable second-line chemotherapy in Japan. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been shown to have antiproliferative activity through cell-cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. One HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA, also inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis, and enhances the efficacy of paclitaxel in a mouse xenograft model of gastric cancer. wPTX plus VPA as a second-line chemotherapy is expected to improve survival in gastric cancer patients. A multicenter randomized Phase II study was conducted to compare the effects of wPTX plus VPA and wPTX alone. A total of 66 patients participated in this study. The primary end point of the study was overall survival, and secondary end points were progression-free survival, response rate, and assessment of peripheral neuropathy. Keywords: valproic acid, paclitaxel, second-line therapy, advanced gastric cancer 

  8. Long-term survival after a favorable response to anti-EGFR antibody plus chemotherapy to treat bone marrow metastasis: a case report of KRAS-wildtype rectal cancer

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    Nakamura S


    Full Text Available Sho Nakamura, Tadahisa Fukui, Shuhei Suzuki, Hiroyuki Takeda, Kaname Watanabe, Takashi Yoshioka Department of Clinical Oncology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Abstract: Bone marrow metastasis is a rare consequence of colorectal cancer that results in a poor prognosis; few reports describe a favorable response to doublet chemotherapy combined with targeted therapy, which is currently the standard treatment. We experienced a case where anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR antibody produced a marked anti-tumor response to bone marrow metastasis that led to long-term survival. A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with a primary KRAS-wildtype rectal cancer with multiple metastases, including the bone marrow. Disease control was achieved for 10.8 months following chemotherapy with a modified FOLFOX6 regimen combined with an anti-EGFR antibody. He died of cancer 22.7 and 16.6 months after disease onset and first-line chemotherapy, respectively. This case shows that early tumor shrinkage and deepness of response to the anti-EGFR antibody were observed even in a patient with bone marrow metastasis. Anti-EGFR antibody therapy should therefore be considered even when a patient’s medical condition appears to be poor owing to bone marrow metastasis. Moreover, tumors that are likely to be sensitive to chemotherapy, such as RAS-wildtype colorectal cancers, can be considered for anti-EGFR antibody therapy even if the patient is considered unfit for chemotherapy. Keywords: colorectal cancer, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody, molecular targeted therapies, disseminated intravascular coagulation, standard of care

  9. FGF23 modulates the effects of erythropoietin on gene expression in renal epithelial cells

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    Yashiro M


    Full Text Available Mitsuru Yashiro,1 Masaki Ohya,1 Toru Mima,1 Yumi Ueda,2 Yuri Nakashima,1 Kazuki Kawakami,1 Yohei Ishizawa,2 Shuto Yamamoto,1 Sou Kobayashi,1 Takurou Yano,1 Yusuke Tanaka,1 Kouji Okuda,1 Tomohiro Sonou,1 Tomohiro Shoshihara,1 Yuko Iwashita,1 Yu Iwashita,1 Kouichi Tatsuta,1 Ryo Matoba,2 Shigeo Negi,1 Takashi Shigematsu1 1Department of Nephrology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan; 2DNA Chip Research Inc., Minato, Japan Background: FGF23 plays an important role in calcium–phosphorus metabolism. Other roles of FGF23 have recently been reported, such as commitment to myocardium enlargement and immunological roles in the spleen. In this study, we aimed to identify the roles of FGF23 in the kidneys other than calcium–phosphorus metabolism. Methods: DNA microarrays and bioinformatics tools were used to analyze gene expression in mIMCD3 mouse renal tubule cells following treatment with FGF23, erythropoietin and/or an inhibitor of ERK. Results: Three protein-coding genes were upregulated and 12 were downregulated in response to FGF23. Following bioinformatics analysis of these genes, PPARγ and STAT3 were identified as candidate transcript factors for mediating their upregulation, and STAT1 as a candidate for mediating their downregulation. Because STAT1 and STAT3 also mediate erythropoietin signaling, we investigated whether FGF23 and erythropoietin might show interactive effects in these cells. Of the 15 genes regulated by FGF23, 11 were upregulated by erythropoietin; 10 of these were downregulated following cotreatment with FGF23. Inhibition of ERK, an intracellular mediator of FGF23, reversed the effects of FGF23. However, FGF23 did not influence STAT1 phosphorylation, suggesting that it impinges on erythropoietin signaling through other mechanisms. Conclusion: Our results suggest cross talk between erythropoietin and FGF23 signaling in the regulation of renal epithelial cells. Keywords: FGF23, STAT1, PPARγ, DNA microarray

  10. Survey on lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep disorders in patients treated at urology departments

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    Shimizu N


    Full Text Available Nobutaka Shimizu,1 Yasuharu Nagai,1 Yutaka Yamamoto,1 Takafumi Minami,1 Taiji Hayashi,1 Hidenori Tsuji,1 Masahiro Nozawa,1 Kazuhiro Yoshimura,1 Tokumi Ishii,1 Hirotsugu Uemura,1 Takashi Oki,2 Koichi Sugimoto,2 Kazuhiro Nose,2 Tsukasa Nishioka21Department of Urology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Urology, Sakai Hospital, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, JapanObjectives: This study examined the association between sleep disorders and lower urinary tract symptoms in patients who had visited urology departments.Methods: This was an independent cross-sectional, observational study. Outpatients who had visited the urology departments at the Kinki University School of Medicine or the Sakai Hospital, Kinki University School of Medicine, between August 2011 and January 2012 were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale and the International Prostate Symptom Score.Results: In total, 1174 patients (mean age, 65.7 ± 13.7 years, with 895 men (67.1 ± 13.2 years old and 279 women (61.4 ± 14.6 years old, were included in the study. Approximately half of these patients were suspected of having a sleep disorder. With regard to the International Prostate Symptom Score subscores, a significant increase in the risk for suspected sleep disorders was observed among patients with a post-micturition symptom (the feeling of incomplete emptying subscore of ≥1 (a 2.3-fold increase, a storage symptom (daytime frequency + urgency + nocturia subscore of ≥5 (a 2.7-fold increase, a voiding symptom (intermittency + slow stream + hesitancy subscore of ≥2 (a 2.6-fold increase, and a nocturia subscore of ≥2 (a 1.9-fold increase.Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the risk factors for sleep disorders could also include voiding, post-micturition, and storage symptoms, in addition to nocturia.Keywords: lower urinary tract symptoms, sleep disturbance, urological disease

  11. Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Furutate R


    Full Text Available Ryuko Furutate1, Takeo Ishii1,2, Ritsuko Wakabayashi1, Takashi Motegi1,2, Kouichi Yamada1,2, Akihiko Gemma2, Kozui Kida1,21Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.Methods: We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101 and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62. We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and the extent of emphysema.Results: The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.Conclusion: COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.Keywords: abdominal obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema

  12. Possibility of leg muscle hypertrophy by ambulation in older adults: a brief review

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    Ozaki H


    Full Text Available Hayao Ozaki,1 Jeremy P Loenneke,2 Robert S Thiebaud,2 Joel M Stager,3 Takashi Abe31Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USAAbstract: It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate (>3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking, jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout, although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur independently of exercise mode and load.Keywords: aerobic exercise, muscle mass, aging, strength, sarcopenia

  13. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.


    If the world chooses to seek a solution to the energy dilemma through nuclear energy, the element plutonium will become an article of commerce to be handled in quantities of thousands of tonnes annually. Plutonium is a uniquely potent inhalation carcinogen, the potential induction of lung cancer dwarfing other possible toxic effects. For reasons to be presented here, it is the author's opinion that plutonium's carcinogenicity has been very seriously underestimated. If one couples the corrected carcinogenicity with the probable degree of industrial containment of the plutonium, it appears that the commercialization of a plutonium-based energy economy is not an acceptable option for society. Sagan's statement that ''the experience of 30 years supports the contention that plutonium can be used safely'' is manifestly indefensible. No meaningful epidemiological study of plutonium-exposed workers for that 30-year period has ever been done. Since thousands of those possibly exposed have left the industry and are not even available to follow-up, it is doubtful that any meaningful study of ''the experience of 30 years'' will ever be accomplished

  14. Discussion on ``Foundations of the Second Law'' (United States)

    Silbey, Robert; Ao, Ping; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Freedman, Steven; Graeff, Roderich; Keck, James C.; Lloyd, Seth; Maroney, Owen; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Weissman, Michael


    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Seth Lloyd, Owen Maroney, Silviu Guiasu, Ping Ao, Jochen Gemmer, Bernard Guy, Gian Paolo Beretta, Speranta Gheorghiu-Svirschevski, and Dorion Sagan. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law true? Is it an inviolable law of nature? If not, is it possible to develop a perpetual motion machine of the second kind? • Are second law limitations objective or subjective, real or apparent, due to the nature of physical states or the representation and manipulation of information? Is entropy a physical property in the same sense as energy is universally understood to be an intrinsic property of matter? • Does the second law conflict with quantum mechanics? Are the differences between mechanical and thermodynamic descriptions of physical phenomena reconcilable? Does the reversible law of motion of hamiltonian mechanics and quantum mechanics conflict with the empirical observation of irreversible phenomena?

  15. Lord Shiva Statue Unveiled

    CERN Multimedia


    On 18 June, CERN unveiled an unusual new landmark, a 2m tall statue of the Indian deity Lord Shiva. The Director-General and Dr. Kakodkar watch as Mr.Chandrasekhar signs the Guest Book. The statue is a gift from India, celebrating CERN's long association with India which started in the 1960's and continues strongly today. It was unveiled by the Director General, Dr Robert Aymar, His Excellency Mr K. M. Chandrasekhar, Ambassador (WTO-Geneva) and Dr Anil Kakodkar, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Dept of Atomic Energy, India. In the Hindu religion, this form of the dancing Lord Shiva is known as the Nataraj and symbolises Shakti, or life force. As a plaque alongside the statue explains, the belief is that Lord Shiva danced the Universe into existence, motivates it, and will eventually extinguish it. Carl Sagan drew the metaphor between the cosmic dance of the Nataraj and the modern study of the 'cosmic dance' of subatomic particles. The statue was made in India. The original sculpture was...

  16. Graphics interfaces and numerical simulations: Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (United States)

    Hernández, L.; González, A.; Salas, G.; Santillán, A.


    Preliminary results associated to the computational development and creation of the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) are presented. Basically, the MVSO prototype consists of two parts: the first, related to observations that have been made during the past ten years at the Solar Observation Station (EOS) and at the Carl Sagan Observatory (OCS) of the Universidad de Sonora in Mexico. The second part is associated to the creation and manipulation of a database produced by numerical simulations related to solar phenomena, we are using the MHD ZEUS-3D code. The development of this prototype was made using mysql, apache, java and VSO 1.2. based GNU and `open source philosophy'. A graphic user interface (GUI) was created in order to make web-based, remote numerical simulations. For this purpose, Mono was used, because it is provides the necessary software to develop and run .NET client and server applications on Linux. Although this project is still under development, we hope to have access, by means of this portal, to other virtual solar observatories and to be able to count on a database created through numerical simulations or, given the case, perform simulations associated to solar phenomena.

  17. Making Starships and Stargates The Science of Interstellar Transport and Absurdly Benign Wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, James F


    What is needed to get around the galaxy quickly has been known in science fiction since at least the 1960s TV's Star Trek made famous "warp drive" and a bunch of attendant, less well-known "technologies." Some of the episodes even featured "stargates," portals to the distant past or future. Until the 1980s, all this was regarded in the serious scientific community as speculative, if entertaining, silliness. That situation changed when Kip Thorne, instigated by Carl Sagan, reverse engineered the general relativistic requirements for any technology purporting to enable such rapid spacetime transport. The key requirement that Thorne identified was the creation of a Jupiter mass of "exotic" matter - that is, matter with negative rest mass. Thorne's work put discussion of rapid spacetime transport on the public agenda of serious science. It also set the benchmark for what has to be done to achieve truly advanced propulsion. Being able to create the stupendous exotic mass of stuff needed to make stargates and warp ...

  18. APRESENTAÇÃO (Um pálido ponto azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os Editores da Prometeus


    Full Text Available Em meados de abril deste ano tivemos a notícia (cf. de que as naves Voyager 1 e 2, lançadasem 1977, estão nos limites da heliosfera e a ponto de penetrarem no espaço interestelar.Essa informação nos traz à memória Carl Sagan (1934-1996, cientista e astrônomonorte-americano que se dedicou não só à docência (foi professor de astronomia eciências espaciais na Universidade de Cornell e professor visitante no Laboratório dePropulsão a Jato do Insittuto de Tecnologia da Califórnia e à exploração espacial(consultor da NASA desde os anos 50, tomou parte do Projeto Apollo, chefiou osprojetos Mariner e Viking, e participou das missões Voyager e Galileu, mas também seconsagrou à divulgação científica, através de uma série de livros e programastelevisivos, entre os quais se destaca a série (e o livro Cosmos.

  19. Cosmic Evolution: The History of an Idea (United States)

    Dick, S. J.


    Cosmic evolution has become the conceptual framework within which modern astronomy is undertaken, and is the guiding principle of major NASA programs such as Origins and Astrobiology. While there are 19th- and early 20th century antecedents, as in the work of Robert Chambers, Herbert Spencer and Lawrence Henderson, it was only at mid-20th century that full-blown cosmic evolution began to be articulated and accepted as a research paradigm extending from the Big Bang to life, intelligence and the evolution of culture. Harlow Shapley was particularly important in spreading the idea to the public in the 1950s, and NASA embraced the idea in the 1970s as part of its SETI program and later its exobiology and astrobiology programs. Eric Chaisson, Carl Sagan and others were early proponents of cosmic evolution, and it continues to be elaborated in ever more subtle form as a research program and a philosophy. It has even been termed "Genesis for the 21st century." This paper documents the origin and development of the idea and offers a glimpse of where it could lead if cultural evolution is taken seriously, possibly leading to the concept of a postbiological universe.

  20. Is there treatment for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (United States)

    Katz, David M; Trobe, Jonathan D


    Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common cause of an acute optic neuropathy over the age 50 with an annual incidence of 2-10/100 000. Most patients are left with a permanent decrease in visual acuity and visual field loss. No approved treatment has conclusively reversed the process or prevented a second event that typically involves the previously unaffected eye. Many medical and surgical treatments have been proposed with conflicting results. The goal of this review is to present current data in order to permit clinicians and patients to make an educated decision about treatment. Recently, there has been a flurry of case reports, small clinical trials and testing in animal models of NAION for various treatments for NAION and this review attempts to present the data concisely with the authors' opinions about the reliability of the data. To date, there is no class I evidence of benefit for the treatment of NAION; however, the aphorism attributed to Carl Sagan, PhD aptly applies: 'Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence'.

  1. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award Talk: How a Physics Education has Influenced Practice and Graduate Education in Technically-Focused Quantitative Policy Analysis (United States)

    Granger Morgan, M.


    In a book for the general public published a year before his death, Carl Sagan wrote, "Every time a scientific paper presents a bit of data, it's accompanied by an error bar---a quiet but instant reminder that no knowledge is complete or perfect." For those of us educated in experimental natural science such an observation seems so obvious as to hardly need saying. Yet when, after completing a PhD in experimental radio physics, I began to work on problems in environmental and energy risk and policy analysis in the early 1970s, I was amazed to find that the characterization and treatment of uncertainty was almost completely lacking in the analysis of that day. In the first part of this talk, I will briefly summarize how I, and a number of my physics-educated colleagues, have worked to rectify this situation. Doctoral education in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) at Carnegie Mellon University has also been shaped by a number of ideas and problem-solving styles that derive from physics. These have been strengthened considerably through integration with a number of ideas from experimental social science -- a field that too many in physics ignore or even belittle. In the second part of the talk, I will describe the PhD program in EPP, talk a bit about some of its unique features, and describe a few of the problems we address.

  2. Spatial Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in 2008 TC3 Samples (United States)

    Sabbah, Hassan; Morrow, A.; Zare, R. N.; Jenniskens, P.


    Hassan Sabbah1, Amy L. Morrow1, Richard N. Zare1 and Petrus Jenniskens2 1Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, 2 SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 515 North Whisman Road, Mountain View, California 94043, USA. In October 2006 a small asteroid (2-3 meters) was observed in outer space. On October 7, 2008, it entered the Earth's atmosphere creating a fireball over Northern Sudan. Some 280 meteorites were collected by the University of Khartoum. In order to explore the existence of organic materials, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we applied two-step laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry (L2MS) to some selected fragments. This technique consists of desorbing with a pulsed infrared laser beam the solid materials into a gaseous phase with no fragmentation followed by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization to analyze the PAH content. L2MS was already applied to an array of extraterrestrial objects including interplanetary dust particles IDPs, carbonaceous chondrites and comet coma particles. Moreover, spatial resolution of PAHs in 2008 TC3 samples was achieved to explore the heterogeneity within individual fragments. The results of these studies and their contribution to understanding the formation of this asteroid will be discussed.

  3. So, You Want to be a Science Communicator? (United States)

    Radzilowicz, John G.


    The late Carl Sagan opined that somehow we have managed to create a global civilization dependant on science and technology in which almost no one understands science and technology. This is an unacceptable recipe for disaster with social, political and financial implications for the future of scientific research. And so, like it or not, popular science communication, more than ever before, is an important and necessary part of the scientific enterprise. Public outreach programs, media interviews, and popular articles have become required parts of the scientist's professional repertoire. But, what does it take to be a good science communicator? What is needed to develop and deliver meaningful public outreach programs? How do you handle non-technical presentations? And, what help is available in developing the necessary skills for good popular science communication? This presentation will look at the essential components of effective science communication aimed at a broad public audience. The components of successful science communication in programs, presentations and articles will be discussed. Specific attention will be given to how university-museum partnerships can expand the reach and enhance the quality of public outreach programs.

  4. What Possible Life Forms Could Exist on Other Planets: A Historical Overview (United States)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence


    Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than real considerations about the habitability of our solar system, but it opened the way to some reflections about the possible life forms on other planets. The nineteenth century took up this idea again in a context of planetary studies showing the similarities as well as the differences of the celestial bodies orbiting our Sun. Astronomers attempted to look deeper into the problem of habitability such as Richard Proctor or Camille Flammarion, also well-known for their fine talent in popular writings. While the Martian canals controversy was reaching its height, they imagined how the living forms dwelling in other planets could be. Nowadays, no complex exo-life is expected to have evolved in our solar system. However, the famous exobiologist Carl Sagan and later other scientists, formulated audacious ideas about other forms of life in the light of recent discoveries in planetology. Through these few examples, this paper underlines the originality of each author’s suggestions and the evolution and contrast of ideas about the possible life forms in the universe.

  5. Wormholes in spacetime and their use for interstellar travel: A tool for teaching general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.S.; Thorne, K.S.


    Rapid interstellar travel by means of spacetime wormholes is described in a way that is useful for teaching elementary general relativity. The description touches base with Carl Sagan's novel Contact, which, unlike most science fiction novels, treats such travel in a manner that accords with the best 1986 knowledge of the laws of physics. Many objections are given against the use of black holes or Schwarzschild wormholes for rapid interstellar travel. A new class of solutions of the Einstein field equations is presented, which describe wormholes that, in principle, could be traversed by human beings. It is essential in these solutions that the wormhole possess a throat at which there is no horizon; and this property, together with the Einstein field equations, places an extreme constraint on the material that generates the wormhole's spacetime curvature: In the wormhole's throat that material must possess a radial tension tau 0 with the enormous magnitude tau 0 ∼ (pressure at the center of the most massive of neutron stars) x (20 km) 2 /(circumference of throat) 2 . Moreover, this tension must exceed the material's density of mass-energy, rho 0 c 2 . No known material has this tau 0 >rho 0 c 2 property, and such material would violate all the ''energy conditions'' that underlie some deeply cherished theorems in general relativity. However, it is not possible today to rule out firmly the existence of such material; and quantum field theory gives tantalizing hints that such material might, in fact, be possible

  6. Steve Ostro and the Near-Earth Asteroid Impact Hazard (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.


    The late Steve Ostro, whose scientific interests in Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) primarily related to his planetary radar research in the 1980s, soon became an expert on the impact hazard. He quickly realized that radar provided perspectives on close-approaching NEAs that were both very precise as well as complementary to traditional astrometry, enabling good predictions of future orbits and collision probabilities extending for centuries into the future. He also was among the few astronomers who considered the profound issues raised by this newly recognized hazard and by early suggestions of how to mitigate the hazard. With Carl Sagan, Ostro articulated the "deflection dilemma" and other potential low-probability but real dangers of mitigation technologies that might be more serious than the low-probability impact hazard itself. Yet Ostro maintained a deep interest in developing responsible mitigation technologies, in educating the public about the nature of the impact hazard, and in learning more about the population of threatening bodies, especially using the revealing techniques of delay-doppler radar mapping of NEAs and their satellites.

  7. Captured by Aliens (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel


    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  8. Self Organization in Compensated Semiconductors (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.


    In partially compensated semiconductor (PCS) Fermi level is pinned to donor sub-band. Due to positional randomness and almost isoenergetic hoppings, donor-spanned electronic subsystem in PCS forms fluid-like highly mobile collective state. This makes PCS playground for pattern formation, self-organization, complexity emergence, electronic neural networks, and perhaps even for origins of life, bioevolution and consciousness. Through effects of impact and/or Auger ionization of donor sites, whole PCS may collapse (spinodal decomposition) into microblocks potentially capable of replication and protobiological activity (DNA analogue). Electronic screening effects may act in RNA fashion by introducing additional length scale(s) to system. Spontaneous quantum computing on charged/neutral sites becomes potential generator of informationally loaded microstructures akin to "Carl Sagan Effect" (hidden messages in Pi in his "Contact") or informational self-organization of "Library of Babel" of J.L. Borges. Even general relativity effects at Planck scale (R.Penrose) may affect the dynamics through (e.g.) isotopic variations of atomic mass and local density (A.A.Berezin, 1992). Thus, PCS can serve as toy model (experimental and computational) at interface of physics and life sciences.

  9. Detecting Close-In Extrasolar Giant Planets with the Kepler Photometer via Scattered Light (United States)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Doyle, L. R.; Kepler Discovery Mission Team


    NASA's Kepler Mission will be launched in 2007 primarily to search for transiting Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of solar-like stars. In addition, it will be poised to detect the reflected light component from close-in extrasolar giant planets (CEGPs) similar to 51 Peg b. Here we use the DIARAD/SOHO time series along with models for the reflected light signatures of CEGPs to evaluate Kepler's ability to detect such planets. We examine the detectability as a function of stellar brightness, stellar rotation period, planetary orbital inclination angle, and planetary orbital period, and then estimate the total number of CEGPs that Kepler will detect over its four year mission. The analysis shows that intrinsic stellar variability of solar-like stars is a major obstacle to detecting the reflected light from CEGPs. Monte Carlo trials are used to estimate the detection threshold required to limit the total number of expected false alarms to no more than one for a survey of 100,000 stellar light curves. Kepler will likely detect 100-760 51 Peg b-like planets by reflected light with orbital periods up to 7 days. LRD was supported by the Carl Sagan Chair at the Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, a division of the SETI Institute. JMJ received support from the Kepler Mission Photometer and Science Office at NASA Ames Research Center.

  10. Interdisciplinary Research Produces Results in the Understanding of Planetary Dunes (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Hayward, Rosalyn Kay; Bourke, Mary C.


    Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Planetary Analogs—Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data; Alamosa, Colorado, 18-21 May 2010; Dunes and other eolian bed forms are prominent on several planetary bodies in our solar system. Despite 4 decades of study, many questions remain regarding the composition, age, and origins of these features, as well as the climatic conditions under which they formed. Recently acquired data from orbiters and rovers, together with terrestrial analogs and numerical models, are providing new insights into Martian sand dunes, as well as eolian bed forms on other terrestrial planetary bodies (e.g., Titan). As a means of bringing together terrestrial and planetary researchers from diverse backgrounds with the goal of fostering collaborative interdisciplinary research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, the Desert Research Institute, and the U.S. National Park Service held a workshop in Colorado. The small group setting facilitated intensive discussion of problems and issues associated with eolian processes on Earth, Mars, and Titan.

  11. Mars atmospheric water vapor abundance: 1996-1997 (United States)

    Sprague, A. L.; Hunten, D. M.; Doose, L. R.; Hill, R. E.


    Measurements of martian atmospheric water vapor made throughout Ls = 18.0°-146.4° (October 3, 1996-July 12, 1997) show changes in Mars humidity on hourly, daily, and seasonal time scales. Because our observing program during the 1996-1997 Mars apparition did not include concomitant measurement of nearby CO 2 bands, high northern latitude data were corrected for dust and aerosol extinction assuming an optical depth of 0.8, consistent with ground-based and HST imaging of northern dust storms. All other measurements with airmass greater than 3.5 were corrected using a total optical depth of 0.5. Three dominant results from this data set are as follows: (1) pre- and post-opposition measurements made with the slit crossing many hours of local time on Mars' Earth-facing disk show a distinct diurnal pattern with highest abundances around and slightly after noon with low abundances in the late afternoon, (2) measurements of water vapor over the Mars Pathfinder landing site (Carl Sagan Memorial Station) on July 12, 1997, found 21 ppt μm in the spatial sector centered near 19° latitude, 36° longitude while abundances around the site varied from as low as 6 to as high as 28 ppt μm, and (3) water vapor abundance is patchy on hourly and daily time scales but follows the usual seasonal trends.

  12. The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler (United States)

    Kipping, David M.


    Extrasolar moons may be frequent temperate abodes for life and their detection would not only have astrobiological significance but would also greatly further our understanding of planet/moon formation theories. To date, the bulk of research on this topic has been mostly theoretical, focussing on detection techniques and expected sensitivities as well as exomoon origin and evolution. Here, we introduce a new observational project which aims to change this, enabled by the fact both the theory and available instrumentation have evolved to the required level to make such a search feasible. Our project, "The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler” (HEK), will be a systematic search for exomoons around planets which are viable hosts, with the explicit goal of determining the frequency of large exomoons in the cosmos. We will overview the observational strategy including the detection tools and target selection routines which have been developed, methods to vet false-positives, and some preliminary results from our first batch of candidates. This research is enabled by the NASA Carl Sagan fellowships for exoplanetary research.

  13. Reply to “Comment on “Should Memphis build for California's earthquakes?” From A.D. Frankel” (United States)

    Stein, Seth; Tomasello, Joseph; Newman, Andrew

    Carl Sagan observed that “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.” In our view, A.D. Frankel's arguments (see accompanying Comment piece) do not reach the level required to demonstrate the counter-intuitive propositions that the earthquake hazard in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) is comparable to that in coastal California, and that buildings should be built to similar standards.This interchange is the latest in an ongoing debate beginning with Newman et al.'s [1999a] recommendation, based on analysis of Global Positioning System and earthquake data, that Frankel et al.'s [1996] estimate of California-level seismic hazard for the NMSZ should be reduced. Most points at issue, except for those related to the costs and benefits of the proposed new International Building Code 2000, have already been argued at length by both sides in the literature [e.g.,Schweig et al., 1999; Newman et al., 1999b, 2001; Cramer, 2001]. Hence,rather than rehash these points, we will try here to provide readers not enmeshed in this morass with an overview of the primary differences between our view and that of Frankel.

  14. The Order of the Dolphin: Origins of SETI (United States)

    Temming, Maria; Crider, Anthony


    In 1961, the National Academy of Sciences organized a meeting on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia. The ten scientists who attended, including future SETI icons such as Frank Drake and Carl Sagan, represented a variety of scientific fields. At the conclusion of the meeting, the attendees adopted the moniker "The Order of the Dolphin," in honor of participant John Lilly's work on interspecies communication. Since this seminal meeting, researchers in each of the attendees' fields have contributed in some way to the search for intelligent life. This study investigates the circumstances that led to each attendee's invitation to Green Bank and explores SETI as the legacy of this meeting. We will focus in this talk on the SETI connections of two attendees, astronomer Otto Struve and physicist Philip Morrison, both in regards to their personal contributions to SETI and the influence of their work on subsequent SETI research. Specifically, we will examine proposals by Otto Struve for exoplanet discovery methods, and Philip Morrison for radio searches that laid the groundwork for modern SETI.

  15. Proyecto multidisciplinar `Marte nos visita' (United States)

    Merlo, D.; Merlo, N.; Parodi, B.; Garis, A.; Peralta, G.; Rovessi, V.; Urrutia, S.; Calderón, J.; Bustos Fierro, I.; Melia, R.

    The planets Earth and Mars reached in August 2003 the most approximation in the last 58,000 years. In order to that we carried out a transversal study of red planet, joining the knowledges from several subjects of second school year of unified basic cycle (eighth basic general education) at I.P.E.M. No 249 "Nicolás Copérnico" (a public secondary institution from Córdoba, Argentine). In this study, activities in accordance with current contents has been proposed by common consents of each teacher. Besides, students visited Córdoba Astronomical Observatory in order to search informations and received a multimedia exposition about of astronomical event and a performance of the "Carl Sagan" Moveable Planetary. Finally, each student carried out practical works and wrote an integrative report, which one has been evaluated and exposed at ExpoIPEM 2003, an annual exhibition of several specialities that Institution offers in its specialization cycle (10-12 grade), where the annual students' activities are exhibited too (workshops, school projects, etc.).

  16. Archean Earth Atmosphere Fractal Haze Aggregates: Light Scattering Calculations and the Faint Young Sun Paradox (United States)

    Boness, D. A.; Terrell-Martinez, B.


    As part of an ongoing undergraduate research project of light scattering calculations involving fractal carbonaceous soot aggregates relevant to current anthropogenic and natural sources in Earth's atmosphere, we have read with interest a recent paper [E.T. Wolf and O.B Toon,Science 328, 1266 (2010)] claiming that the Faint Young Sun paradox discussed four decades ago by Carl Sagan and others can be resolved without invoking heavy CO2 concentrations as a greenhouse gas warming the early Earth enough to sustain liquid water and hence allow the origin of life. Wolf and Toon report that a Titan-like Archean Earth haze, with a fractal haze aggregate nature due to nitrogen-methane photochemistry at high altitudes, should block enough UV light to protect the warming greenhouse gas NH3 while allowing enough visible light to reach the surface of the Earth. To test this hypothesis, we have employed a rigorous T-Matrix arbitrary-particle light scattering technique, to avoid the simplifications inherent in Mie-sphere scattering, on haze fractal aggregates at UV and visible wavelenths of incident light. We generate these model aggregates using diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) algorithms, which much more closely fit actual haze fractal aggregates than do diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) algorithms.

  17. Highlights: Spring Council Meeting (United States)

    Council members present at the May 24, 1981, meeting were Keiiti Aki, Steven Burges (for Jim Wallis), Peter S. Eagleson, E. R. Engdahl, Charles E. Helsley, James R. Heirtzler, Carl Kisslinger, Leslie H. Meredith, Chris N. K. Mooers, Norman F. Ness, Marcia M. Neugebauer, James J. O'Brien, Richard Rapp, Carl Sagan, James C. Savage, Joseph V. Smith, Fred Spilhaus, Donald L. Turcotte, James A. Van Allen, J. Tuzo Wilson, and Jay Winston (for Elmar R. Reiter until his arrival at 6:50 P.M.). David Strangway, representing the Canadian Geophysical Union, and Peter Steinhauser, representing the European Geophysical Society, were special observers at the meeting. Council meetings are open, and a number of section secretaries, committee chairmen, journal editors, and other members attended. The following major actions were adopted by the Council:The experiment of publishing oceanography and lower-atmosphere papers in JGR Green issues alternate to those containing upper-atmosphere papers will be continued through 1982. From preliminary indications the experiment seems to be working, but a full year of data, including a renewal cycle, is needed to assess the success of the experiment. Final decision will be made prior to the 1983 dues notices.

  18. Is mass media beneficial or not for the information of the general public? (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mosoia, C.


    The International Year of Physics reminds us, among other things, of the way in which Einstein became famous. In spite of all his remarkable scientific results, without the contribution of the press he would not have become so well known in the entire world as he was and continues to be after a century. And he is not the unique example of celebrity due to mass media (see Carl Sagan or Stephen Hawking). In 1969 the first man stepped on the Moon. It was maybe the first cosmic event, which became famous due to a live TV broadcast. Others followed, if we are to mention only the total solar eclipse of 1999 or Venus's transit of last year. Consequently, mass media can make a scientist famous, can also make an event understood and admired and can attract hundreds or maybe millions of people to science. The same mass media can also destroy a personality or an event. We shall give only two examples: the distrust of many people concerning the same Moon landing or the manipulation of millions of people by means of astrology. All this urges us to make a very thorough analysis of the way in which scientific information is communicated to the general public: well done, it can be beneficial; otherwise it may drive the new generations away from research, the understanding of the phenomena, the neglect of the environment and finally from the neglect and the destruction of our own planet.

  19. Antony Flew Del ateísmo al teísmo por la razón científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monserrat


    Full Text Available Nos hemos referido principalmente en los últimos números de Pensamiento a lo que se ha venido en llamar en la última década el Nuevo Ateísmo, representado por Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Sam Harris y Christopher Hitchens. Stephen Hawking no pertenece a este grupo, pero sus ideas han sido comentadas con frecuencia en relación a la cuestión de Dios. Por ello, hemos abordado también una discusión de su idea del universo y su referencia a Dios. El Nuevo Ateísmo da por supuesto que la ciencia moderna excluye taxativamente la existencia de Dios. Sin embargo, estos no son los únicos ateos. Tanto desde el campo de la ciencia (vg. Steven Weinberg, Carl Sagan, el mismo Roger Penrose, como igualmente desde el campo de la filosofía en los últimos siglos y en la actualidad, numerosos pensadores han llenado las filas del ateísmo. La filosofía clásica de la modernidad dogmática fue atea en gran parte; de ahí la dificultad, mantenida durante siglos, de que se entablase un diálogo entre el teísmo cristiano antiguo y aquel ateísmo dogmático de la modernidad.

  20. A Quarta Dimensão do Instante-Já

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Aires Franceschini


    Full Text Available O presente artigo, cujo título faz referência a uma citação de Clarice Lispector em Água Viva (1973, trabalha a questão temporal na obra da autora, levando-se em conta apontamentos da Física Quântica para explicar a dinâmica não linear do tempo, incluindo-se questões da Teoria da Relatividade. Prezou-se relacionar o conceito de quadrimensão, que tanto influenciou os artistas de vanguarda, derrubando-se o valor de tempo-cronológico na literatura. Além de Einstein, Minkowski, Sagan e Hawking, o texto se respalda no tempo de duração interior de Bergson, bem como em concepções de Heidegger. A relação de circularidade também foi levantada, dialogando a obra de Lispector com o quadro “Urutu” (1928, de Tarsila do Amaral.

  1. Photometric Study of Uranian Satellites (United States)

    Kesten, Philip R.


    The best summary of my work at NASA is expressed in the following abstract, submitted the Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society and to be presented at the annual meeting in Madison in October. We report photometric measurements of Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel and Titania (10.4 Aug. 1995), and Neptune's satellite Triton (21.2 Sept. 1995) with the infrared camera (IRCAM) and standard J (1.13 - 1.42 microns), H (1.53 - 1.81 microns), and K (2.00 - 2.41 microns) filters at the 3.8-m UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea. The individual images frames are 256 x 256 pixels with a platescale of .286 arcsec/pixel, resulting in a 1.22 arc min field of view. This summer brought the IR photometry measurements nearly to a close. As indicated by the abstract above, I will present this work at the annual DPS meeting in October. In anticipation of the opening of the new Carl Sagan Laboratory for Cosmochemisty, of which I will be a participating member, I also devoted a considerable fraction of the summer to learning the biochemistry which underlies the experiments to be conducted. To put the end of the summary close to the beginning, it was a most productive summer.

  2. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen (United States)


    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at:

  3. Batendo à porta do céu o bóson de Higgs e como a física modern ilumina o universo

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa


    Nesta obra a autora conduz seu mais novo trabalho, seduzindo o leitor pelas descobertas e teorias mais recentes da fisica, conforme realiza uma apaixonada - e necessaria - defesa da importancia da ciencia em nossas vidas. Na veia de autores como Stephen Hawking, Michio Kaku, Brian Greene e Carl Sagan, Randall explora seculos de conhecimento cientifico para tracar uma rica e esclarecedora historia do nosso Universo - do seu nascimento ate a inevitavel morte. Explica tambem o funcionamento do LHC, o maior acelerador de particulas do mundo, uma estrutura gigantesca construida na Suica que vem ajudando cientistas de todo o mundo a solucionar os misterios da materia e da origem da vida. Num capitulo feito especialmente apos a descoberta do boson de Higgs, a chamada 'particula de Deus', Randall elucida as consequencias deste que e um dos mais importantes avancos da historia da fisica. Valendo-se de uma prosa agil e explicativa, e travando um dialogo com profissionais de diversas areas, como roteiristas de cinema, c...

  4. What possible life forms could exist on other planets: a historical overview. (United States)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence


    Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than real considerations about the habitability of our solar system, but it opened the way to some reflections about the possible life forms on other planets. The nineteenth century took up this idea again in a context of planetary studies showing the similarities as well as the differences of the celestial bodies orbiting our Sun. Astronomers attempted to look deeper into the problem of habitability such as Richard Proctor or Camille Flammarion, also well-known for their fine talent in popular writings. While the Martian canals controversy was reaching its height, they imagined how the living forms dwelling in other planets could be. Nowadays, no complex exo-life is expected to have evolved in our solar system. However, the famous exobiologist Carl Sagan and later other scientists, formulated audacious ideas about other forms of life in the light of recent discoveries in planetology. Through these few examples, this paper underlines the originality of each author's suggestions and the evolution and contrast of ideas about the possible life forms in the universe.

  5. Evolution as a molecular cooperative phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.


    We discuss an hypothesis according to which microscopic mechanisms due to cooperation, at the molecular level, may have been key factors in the evolution of life on Earth. We view our hypothesis as a natural extension to the molecular level of viewing cooperation (symbiosis) as an evolutionary driving force; this does not restrict the interpretation of the evolutionary process to be the result of slow accumulation of mutations in the DNA. Some evidence supporting this hypothesis is discussed: (a) The Salam enhancement factor. This molecular phenomenon was recently introduced in order to understand the bases of the first unifying principle of biochemistry, namely that transcription of all known genes in prokaryotes, protists, metazoan, and metaphytes are translated into L-amino acids, except for some bacterial membrane proteins. (b) The role that cooperative phenomena may have played in the origin of evolution itself, i.e., in the resolution of Sagan's ultraviolet paradox. (c) The relationship between evolution and the constraints imposed by embryonic development. This is considered from the point of view of molecular cooperative phenomena. (author). Refs

  6. Entropy and the Magic Flute (United States)

    Morowitz, Harold J.


    Harold Morowitz has long been highly regarded both as an eminent scientist and as an accomplished science writer. The essays in The Wine of Life , his first collection, were hailed by C.P. Snow as "some of the wisest, wittiest and best informed I have ever read," and Carl Sagan called them "a delight to read." In later volumes he established a reputation for a wide-ranging intellect, an ability to see unexpected connections and draw striking parallels, and a talent for communicating scientific ideas with optimism and wit. With Entropy and the Magic Flute , Morowitz once again offers an appealing mix of brief reflections on everything from litmus paper to the hippopotamus to the sociology of Palo Alto coffee shops. Many of these pieces are appreciations of scientists that Morowitz holds in high regard, while others focus on health issues, such as America's obsession with cheese toppings. There is also a fascinating piece on the American Type Culture Collection, a zoo or warehouse for microbes that houses some 11,800 strains of bacteria, and over 3,000 specimens of protozoa, algae, plasmids, and oncogenes. Here then are over forty light, graceful essays in which one of our wisest experimental biologists comments on issues of science, technology, society, philosophy, and the arts.

  7. Organic matter in the Titan lakes, and comparison with primitive Earth (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N.; McKay, C.; Wilhite, P.; Beeler, D.; Carter, M.; Schurmeier, L.; Jagota, S.; Kawai, J.; Nna-Mvondo, D.; Cruikshank, D.; Embaye, T.


    Titan is the only world in the solar system besides the Earth that has liquid on its surface. The liquid in the lakes is thought to be composed primarily of ethane with methane and nitrogen in solution. The clouds are thought to be composed of liquid methane drops. Surface liquid is present in polar lakes and in surface materials at equatorial sites. Studying the chemical processing that potentially results from organic material interacting with this liquid is one of the main goals of proposed missions to Titan. We have been engaged in producing tholin under Titan-like conditions for more than three decades, first at the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University in collaboration with Late Dr. Carl Sagan and for over a decade at Laboratory for Planetary Studies at NASA Ames Research Center and Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, SETI Institute. Our focus is to understand the capabilities for analysis of tholin solubility in liquid methane and ethane for flight instruments. Our results are expected to contribute to an understanding of the organic chemistry on Titan and to the development of an explicit and targeted scientific strategy for near term analysis of the products of organic-liquid interactions on Titan. Organics are produced as a haze in Titan's high atmosphere due to photolysis of methane with the Sun's extreme ultraviolet light and subsequent reaction with N. Also tholins are formed at a much higher level on Titan by charged particles of Saturn magnetosphere. However, the presence of organics is not the sole feature, which makes Titan significant to astrobiology; organics are widely present in the outer solar system. The reason Titan is a prime target for future outer solar system missions is the combination of organic material and liquid on the surface; liquid that could over a medium for further organic synthesis. NASA recently selected for further study a Discovery proposal TiME to investigate the chemistry of the

  8. Terra Sapiens: The Role of Science in Fostering a Wisely Managed Earth (United States)

    Grinspoon, D. H.


    Carl Sagan was sometimes shunned by the scientific community for his successful popularizations, but another factor was his activism on issues such as nuclear weapons and climate change. The question of whether Earth has entered a new geological epoch characterized by human influence has gained significance beyond the narrow question of stratigraphic nomenclature. The anthropocene has raised new questions about the 'nature of nature', about the false - or at least fluid - dichotomy between wild and managed environments, about what it is that, in a world already profoundly altered by human activities, we should be trying to conserve, and ultimately about how humanity can learn to live comfortably with world-changing technology. It also raises challenging questions about the role of scientists in the public arena. Astrobiology is largely a scientific study of the relationship between planets and life. On Earth this relationship has taken a dramatic new turn - a planetary transformation potentially as significant as the origin of life, the great oxygenation or the Cambrian 'explosion'. We are not the first species to cause catastrophic change in the quest for a new energy source. The cyanobacteria, in perfecting photosynthesis, liberated vast quantities of free oxygen, wreaking havoc on the global biosphere and climate. And yet, obviously, there seems to be something important differentiating us from cyanobacteria. When we try to describe that difference we use poorly defined (some may even say ironic) words like 'intelligence', 'consciousness', 'foresight', 'awareness' and 'responsibility.' Looking at the anthropocene as an event in planetary evolution gives us new perspective on the meaning of these terms. We may also ask if these phenomena could somehow be unique to Earth and if, given the plethora of exponential changes occurring now, they can become part of a stable or long-lived planetary epoch. It can be shown quantitatively that the prospect for successful

  9. Dinamiche di scambio tra cinema e letteratura: i sottotitoli di Colette per Jeunes filles en uniforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Palma


    Full Text Available Nel 1932 Colette realizza i sottotitoli francesi del film tedesco Mädchen in Uniform (T. fr. : Jeunes filles en uniforme, 1931, diretto da Leontine Sagan e tratto da un testo teatrale di Christa Winsloe. La scrittrice viene interpellata dal distributore francese della pellicola, ma accetta il lavoro solo dopo avere visto il film, che analizza attentamente e giudica estremamente riuscito. Si ha la conferma dell’interesse della scrittrice per il mondo delle immagini in movimento, oltre allo stimolante intrecciarsi di alcuni elementi del plot, dei personaggi e dell’ambientazione del film con quelli dei volumi colettiani delle Claudine, con i quali Mädchen in Uniform condividerà anche una significativa e duratura diffusione e popolarità.Il contatto tra la letteratura e il cinema non si esaurisce quindi nella traduzione di un testo per il cinema da parte di una scrittrice, ma prosegue in più direzioni. Vi è anche l’aspetto pubblicitario (e meramente economico, di cui beneficiano e sono consapevoli entrambe le parti: lo stesso “personaggio” Colette si sovrappone all’immagine che si intende dare di Jeunes filles en uniforme. Il film, inoltre, è uno dei titoli fondamentali negli studi sulla storia del cinema gay e lesbico. In questo ambito, questa collaborazione è significativa in termini di ricezione di una pellicola a sfondo lesbico perché l’accostamento del nome di Colette ha senz’altro contribuito all’accoglienza del film in Francia.En 1932, Colette rédige les sous-titres français du film allemand Mädchen in Uniform (Jeunes filles en uniforme, 1931, adapté par l’Autrichienne Léontine Sagan d’une pièce de Christa Winsloe. L'écrivain est sollicitée par le distributeur français, mais elle n'accepte le travail qu'après avoir vu le film, qu'elle analyse attentivement et juge très réussi. On peut y voir la confirmation de son intérêt pour l'univers des images animées. Mais en outre, on relève de nombreux et

  10. Hypoxia is no hype: Perspectives across Phylogeny, Stem Cell differentiation & Geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    including the embryonic, hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells [3]. Hypoxia also becomes important in cancer biology as it promotes the self-renewal of the cancer initiating cells or cancer stem cells [4]. In vitro models of meticulous documentation of the dynamic gaseous inter-cellular and intra-cellular environments similar to the one reported by Ito et al if evolved can be put in use for future in vivo manipulation of parameters like hypoxia to have a better understanding of its influence over cellular differentiation and lineage specification. References: Ito A, Aoyama T, Yoshizawa M, Nagai M, Tajino J, Yamaguchi S, Iijima H, Zhang X, Kuroki H. The effects of short-term hypoxia on human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, viability and p16INK4A mRNA expression: Investigation using a simple hypoxic culture system with a deoxidizing agent. J Stem Cells Regen Med. 2015; 11(1:25-31. Ivanovic Z. Hypoxia or in situ normoxia: The stem cell paradigm. J Cell Physiol. 2009 May; 219(2:271-5. Mohyeldin A, Garzón-Muvdi T, Quiñones-Hinojosa A. Oxygen in stem cell biology: a critical component of the stem cell niche. Cell Stem Cell. 2010 Aug 6;7 (2:150-61. Li Z, Rich JN. Hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factors in cancer stem cell maintenance. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010; 345:21-30.

  11. Expanding horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    , isolated they need suitable media for expansion and delivery. Dr. H.N. Madhavan et al article describes the use of such a medium (Mebiol Gel for transplanting corneal limbal stem cells. Even if cells are ready for delivery, we should first have suitable animal models to test them and the article Garikipati Venkata Naga Srikanth et al is a good article describing are such animal model, that can be used to testing efficacy of stem cell. Aoyama et al article on using cell therapy for avascular osteonecrosis of femoral head reiterates the fact that stem cell therapy has a potential to cure a wide range of diseases and encourages all of us to continue in our guest to take stem cell therapy to treat hither to untreatable diseases. The article by Senthil Kumar Pazhanisamy et al highlights the fact that our current understanding of genome instabilities is limited. It is my personal opinion that with a better understanding of genome organization (which may take several years we can possibly predict the occurrence of tumorogenesis and reject such stem cells obtained at source from possible use in therapy. So that we would have no more cases of tumors post stem cell therapy Happy reading! Yours sincerely,The Editorial team.

  12. Strategic Location and Territorial Integrity: The Role of Subsidiary Sites in the Classic Maya Kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Anaya Hernández


    Full Text Available The Upper Usumacinta region was the scene of an intense interaction between the different kingdoms of the Classic Maya Period. This interaction took the form of political and marriage alliances as well as warfare and is well attested in the inscribed monuments of the region, especially towards the Late Classic Period (c. AD 600-900. Through this interaction the Maya rulers would not only assert their claim to power but also ensure the boundaries of their kingdoms, with an eye to accruing a vaster domain. The definition of the political organisation and territorial extent of the Maya Lowland kingdoms is an issue that has attracted the attention of various scholars (Adams 1981; Adams and Jones 1981; Ball and Taschek 1991; Flannery 1972; Freidel 1981; Hammond 1974; 1981; Inomata and Aoyama 1996; Mathews 1988; 1991; Sanders 1981. Like these scholars, I have presented a model aimed at estimating the territorial extent of the kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta region, taking into account the physical characteristics of the terrain (Anaya Hernández 2001. In this article I approach this issue again, focusing this time on the importance that the subsidiary centres located at strategic locations across the landscape had for the maintenance of the territorial integrity of the kingdoms of Pomoná and Piedras Negras. The political importance of these sites is reflected in the efforts that the kings of these polities went through to warrant the loyalty of the rulers of these secondary centres, as can be attested by the presence of a sculptured stela at the site of Panhalé, in the vicinity of Pomoná, and an inscribed wooden box found within the Redención del Campesino Valley that makes reference to a Piedras Negras ruler. To address this issue I took advantage of the capabilities that GIS offers to model movement across the physical setting in order to define the potential boundaries between the aforementioned kingdoms in the light of the available

  13. Harlow Shapley's Biological Universe: Cosmic Evolution and its Uses (United States)

    Palmeri, J.


    Harlow Shapley was an astronomer with a lifelong interest in biological questions. An early fascination with ants acquired at Mount Wilson became a continuing avocation. During his years in California, Shapley made frequent trips to La Jolla biological station and interacted with prominent biologists. At Harvard in the 1920s Shapley initiated a series of interdisciplinary seminars, one of which was on "The Origin of Life." At this time he also displayed an interest in the question of life in the universe. In response to an inquiry from Charles Abbot of the Smithsonian, Shapley identified "life in the universe" as one of the most important scientific questions of the day. Shapley's continuing interest in these questions found expression in his many popularizations - articles, books, lectures, and other media. (A decade before Sagan's memorable appearances on the Johnny Carson show, Shapley was engaging in his own dialogue with the American public on life in the universe, through Tonight Show host Jack Paar). Evolution was the idea that underlay Shapley's discussions of these biological themes and the vehicle through which he popularized science as well as his own vision of the wider significance of science for humanity. As an astronomer with a profound interest in biological subjects, Shapley was uniquely positioned to popularize cosmic evolution, and to use this theme to promote his belief that science could serve as a kind of "stellar theology." Shapley's case illustrates how cosmic evolution, like biological evolution, has served as more than a scientific account of nature; it has become an idea invested with moral and cultural significance. Shapley's promotion of cosmic evolution throughout the 1950s and 1960s can be understood against the backdrop of developments in the sciences as well as the historical and personal factors that shaped his career as a spokesman for science. This research was supported by grants from the American Institute of Physics and the

  14. Were Ocean Impacts an Important Mechanism to Deliver Meteoritic Organic Matter to the Early Earth? Some Inferences from Eltanin (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Gersonde, Rainer; Kuhn. Gerhard


    Several workers have addressed the potential for extraterrestrial delivery of volatles, including water and complex organic compounds, to the early Earth. For example, Chyba and Sagan (1992) argued that since impacts would destroy organic matter, most extraterrestrial organics must be delivered in the fine-fractions of interplanetary dust. More recent computer simulations (Pierazzo and Chyba, 1999), however, have shown that substantial amounts of amino acids may survive the impacts of large (km-sized) comets and that this may exceed the amounts derived from IDPs or Miller-Urey synthesis in the atmosphere. Once an ocean developed on the early Earth, impacts of small ,asteroids and comets into deep-ocean basins were potentially common and may have been the most likely events to deliver large amounts of organics. The deposits of the late Pliocene impact of the Eltanin asteroid into the Bellingshausen Sea provide the only record of a deep-ocean (approx. 5 km) impact that can be used to constrain models of these events. This impact was first discovered in 1981 as an Ir anomaly in sediment cores collected by the USNS Eltanin in 1965 (Kyte et al., 1981). In 1995, Polarstem expedition ANT XII/4 made the first geological survey of the suspected impact region. Three sediment cores sampled around the San Martin seamounts (approx. 57.5S, 91 W) contained well-preserved impact deposits that include disturbed ocean sediments and meteoritic impact ejecta (Gersonde et al., 1997). The latter is composed of shock- melted asteroidal materials and unmelted meteorites. In 2001, the FS Polarstem returned to the impact area during expedition ANT XVIII/5a. At least 16 cores were recovered that contain ejecta deposits. These cores and geophysical data from the expedition can be used to map the effects of the impact over a large region of the ocean floor.

  15. Perspectivas historiográficas de las prácticas de lectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Pardo Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Con el propósito de identificar elementos teóricos que orienten una descripción conceptual e histórica de las prácticas de lectura, el artículo recoge las voces de autores que, a su vez lectores, narran y describen sus propias historias de lectura: Alberto Manguel, Roger Chartier, Michel de Certeau, Ana Teberosky y Guglielmo Cavallo (prácticas de lectura y la lectura; Robert Darnton, Peter Burke y Renán Silva (fundamentos históricos e historiográficos; Giovanni Papini, Carl Sagan y Marcel Proust (los espacios e historias sobre prácticas de lectura. Con base en ello se adoptan tres perspectivas: la primera habla de un acercamiento a la lectura silenciosa como un hito en la transformación del aprendizaje y de los procesos cognitivos y de la intimidad en la práctica de lectura; la segunda, el impacto de la imprenta en las prácticas de lectura, una invención mecánica que generaliza el uso del papel en la impresión de textos y revoluciona las condiciones sociales, políticas y religiosas de la época, el acceso a la información, la transformación de los formatos de impresión y la producción y divulgación del conocimiento; y finalmente, un acercamiento conceptual a las prácticas de lectura, los abordajes investigativos desde el concepto de práctica y una aproximación histórica a las prácticas de lectura.

  16. Lasers in space (United States)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Forbes, A.; Bingham, R.; Kellett, B. J.; Mathye, A.


    A variety of laser applications in space, past, present, future and far future are reviewed together with the contributions of some of the scientists and engineers involved, especially those that happen to have South African connections. Historically, two of the earliest laser applications in space, were atmospheric LIDAR and lunar ranging. These applications involved atmospheric physicists, several astronauts and many of the staff recruited into the Soviet and North American lunar exploration programmes. There is a strong interest in South Africa in both LIDAR and lunar ranging. Shortly after the birth of the laser (and even just prior) theoretical work on photonic propulsion and space propulsion by laser ablation was initiated by Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz and Eugen Saenger. Present or near future experimental programs are developing in the following fields: laser ablation propulsion, possibly coupled with rail gun or gas gun propulsion; interplanetary laser transmission; laser altimetry; gravity wave detection by space based Michelson interferometry; the de-orbiting of space debris by high power lasers; atom laser interferometry in space. Far future applications of laser-photonic space-propulsion were also pioneered by Carl Sagan and Robert Forward. They envisaged means of putting Saenger's ideas into practice. Forward also invented a laser based method for manufacturing solid antimatter or SANTIM, well before the ongoing experiments at CERN with anti-hydrogen production and laser-trapping. SANTIM would be an ideal propellant for interstellar missions if it could be manufactured in sufficient quantities. It would be equally useful as a power source for the transmission of information over light year distances. We briefly mention military lasers. Last but not least, we address naturally occurring lasers in space and pose the question: "did the Big Bang lase?"

  17. Combustion-Driven Oscillation in Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Corporation (Retired), 198 James Avenue, Atherton, CA 94027 (United States)


    At this moment in thousands of process heaters all over the world there are, to borrow a phrase from the late Carl Sagan, 'billions and billions' of Btu/hr beneficially being released entirely free of pulsation. On those few occasions, perhaps a dozen and a half in my career, when I would get the inevitable 'Why me?' call, I have generally responsed with something like, 'Consider yourself lucky, you have a rare scientific curiosity on your hands'. Reflecting on the solutions ultimately found, I'm reminded that many years ago my friend Abbott Putnam shared with me an early AGA (American Gas Association) field-service bulletin that included a prescription for eliminating combustion-driven oscillations in home heating units; viz., 'Drill a hole; if that doesn't work, drill another hole' or words to that effect. Many times have I wished that I still had a copy of that bulletin and in this paper we will have occasion, once again, to reflect upon the value of that advice. In this paper we will discuss an instance that arose in a pioneering installation of a breakthrough development of 'extremely', to distinguish it from 'ultra', low-NOx lean premix burner technology. We will illustrate how, when and under what circumstances combustion-driven oscillation can arise; we will touch on the many alternatives for its elimination that were considered and investigated; and we will discuss three practical alternatives for eliminating combustion-driven oscillations.

  18. How NASA's Space Science Support Network Can Assist DPS Members in Their Public Engagement Efforts (United States)

    Miner, E. D.; Lowes, L. L.


    In her Carl Sagan Medal lecture last year, Heidi Hammel talked of the dos and don'ts of education and public outreach efforts by DPS members. She pointed out a number of misconceptions about what does and does not constitute "good EPO" and encouraged members to consult with "the experts" if they would like to improve their EPO effectiveness and reach. She named the DPS Education and Public Outreach Officer, Larry Lebofsky, his Deputy, Lou Mayo, and the DPS Press Officer, Ellis Miner, who also co-directs NASA's Solar System Exploration EPO Forum with Leslie Lowes. NASA's Space Science Support Network has been in existence for about six years. It has been directed by DPS member Jeff Rosendhal and is now serving as a model for NASA's new Education Enterprise. Members of the Support Network are prepared to assist (and haves been assisting) space scientists throughout the US and abroad in deciding where to spend their EPO efforts most effectively. The service is provided free of cost and includes, among other services, the following: (1) helping to establish partnerships between educators and scientists, (2) helping to link scientists and professional EPO organizations, (3) helping to link scientists to national youth and community groups, (4) providing ready access to EPO electronic and hardcopy products, (5) providing advice and direction in the preparation of EPO proposals to NASA, (6) helping to maintain several national networks of EPO volunteers, (7) encouraging (at home institutions) the broadening of scientist EPO efforts, (8) maintaining self-help websites for scientists interested in EPO.

  19. From Ozma to Cyclops: The Beginnings of American SETI, 1959-70 (United States)

    Sullivan, W. T.


    The modern era in SETI (Search for Extraterrstrial Intelligence) began with two independent proposals in the late 1950s. In 1959 Phillip Morrison and Guiseppe Cocconi at Cornell published a short theoretical paper in ``Nature," while simultaneously Frank Drake at the brand-new NRAO in West Virginia developed a receiver for the first radio observations, called Project Ozma. In 1960 Drake monitored two nearby solar-like stars, Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani, for several months with a scanning one-channel radiometer at 21-cm on an 85-ft diameter dish. Drake's interest, along with that of his boss Otto Struve, then led to a remarkable small meeting at Green Bank in 1961, at which time the Drake Equation was first put forth as an organizing concept for estimating the possible number of extraterrestrial civilizations. The next milestone was the appearance of ``Intelligent Life in the Universe" by Iosif Shklovsky and Carl Sagan (1966), which widely circulated the idea of SETI. The growth of NASA's exobiology program (although primarily focused on microbial life and the origin of life) throughout the 1960s also legitimized the field and culminated in the Viking mission to Mars in 1976. In 1970 NASA sponsored a large summer workshop charged with the task of designing a feasible radio telescope for SETI. The resulting report, ``Project Cyclops: A Design Study of a System for Detecting Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life" (1971), was the first detailed look at all aspects of the problem, and set the tone for future NASA involvement in SETI. This talk will briefly cover this history, in particular the radio astronomy aspects, and will include a portion of a tape recording of a talk given by Drake in 1960 even as Project Ozma was in progress.

  20. Nuclear astrophysics: a new era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiescher, Michael; Aprahamian, Ani [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame (United States); Regan, Paddy [Department of Physics, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)


    The latest generation of radioactive-ion-beam facilities promises to shed light on the complex nuclear processes that control the evolution of stars and stellar explosions. The most fundamental question in nature is where do we come from, or, put another way, what are we made of? The late Carl Sagan poetically said that we are all made of stardust, but the origin of the elements has fascinated scientists for thousands of years. Many of the greatest medieval and renaissance scientists dabbled in alchemy, trying to create the elements that make up the cosmos, but we had to wait until the early 20th century to recognize that elements are really defined by the number of protons in the nucleus. According to our current understanding, after the big bang most of the normal or baryonic material in the universe consisted of the lightest two elements, hydrogen and helium, with only trace amounts of lithium and beryllium. All the heavier elements that occur naturally on Earth were created from this original material via a series of nuclear reactions in the cores of stars or in stellar explosions. Over the last decade, ground-based telescopes and satellite-based Observatories have opened new windows on the stars across the electromagnetic spectrum, from infrared to gamma radiation. New technology now makes it possible to observe and analyse short-lived stellar explosions. Indeed, the distribution of elements in 'planetary nebula' and in the ejecta of supernovae and novae give a direct glimpse of individual nucleosynthesis processes. In the February issue of Physics World, Michael Wiescher, Paddy Regan and Ani Aprahamian describe how sate-of-the-art facilities are set to plug many of the gaps in our understanding of nuclear astrophysics. (U.K.)

  1. PiHi Observations at the ATA, Conventional and Unconventional SETI (United States)

    Harp, Gerald; Wilcox, B.; Arbunich, J.; Blair, S.; Backus, P. R.; Tarter, J. C.; Shostak, S.; Jordan, J.; Kilsdonk, T.; Ackermann, R. F.; Ross, J.; ATA Team


    Many radio SETI searches focus on the frequency range where the HI (1.42 GHz) and OH lines (1.6-1.7 GHz) lines are landmarks delineating the water hole This is only a small fraction of the terrestrial microwave window (TMW) from 1-10 GHz. This survey occurs near the center of the TMW at 4.462336275 GHz or π times the HI frequency. We call this the PiHI ("pie high") survey. The inspiration for PiHI observations comes from Carl Sagan in his book, Contact. This survey builds upon and extends a previous survey at PiHI (Blair, D. G. et al. (1992), MNRAS, 257, 105) with greater sensitivity, resolution, and coverage. We survey the nearest 94 main sequence stars in the HabCat catalog (Turnbull, M. C. and Tarter, J. C. (2003), ApJS, 145, 181) with spectral classes between F9 and G7 (max. radius 62 pc). The ATA's flexibility allows simultaneous measurements of targeted observations on stars (with beamformers) and 1° FOV "blind” observations of the areas around target stars (with imaging correlator). The targeted observations are carried out with a high resolution (0.7 Hz) spectrometer and integration times on the order of 200 s. The spectral imaging correlator measures a 50 x 50 grid of points with 3 kHz spectral resolution. This survey shows several signals of minor interest were discovered, though none of the signals reported are continuously "on,” which is an important characteristic for the positive identification of an ETI signal. The ATA has been funded through generous grants from the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation, the SETI Institute, UC Berkeley, the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 0540599), Sun Microsystems, Xilinx, Nathan Myhrvold, Greg Papadopoulos, and other corporations and individual donors.

  2. The Restless Universe - Understanding X-Ray Astronomy in the Age of Chandra and Newton (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.


    Carl Sagan once noted that there is only one generation that gets to see things for the first time. We are in the midst of such a time right now, standing on the threshold of discovery in the young and remarkable field of X-ray astronomy. In The Restless Universe , astronomer Eric Schlegel offers readers an informative survey of this cutting-edge science. Two major space observatories launched in the last few years--NASA's Chandra and the European Newton --are now orbiting the Earth, sending back a gold mine of data on the X-ray universe. Schlegel, who has worked on the Chandra project for seven years, describes the building and launching of this space-based X-ray observatory. But the book goes far beyond the story of Chandra . What Schlegel provides here is the background a nonscientist would need to grasp the present and follow the future of X-ray astronomy. He looks at the relatively brief history of the field, the hardware used to detect X-rays, the satellites--past, present, and future--that have been or will be flown to collect the data, the way astronomers interpret this data, and, perhaps most important, the insights we have already learned as well as speculations about what we may soon discover. And throughout the book, Schlegel conveys the excitement of looking at the universe from the perspective brought by these new observatories and the sharper view they deliver. Drawing on observations obtained from Chandra, Newton , and previous X-ray observatories, The Restless Universe gives a first look at an exciting field which significantly enriches our understanding of the universe.

  3. The current status of evidence for and against postnatal oogenesis in mammals: a case of ovarian optimism versus pessimism? (United States)

    Tilly, Jonathan L; Niikura, Yuichi; Rueda, Bo R


    Whether or not oogenesis continues in the ovaries of mammalian females during postnatal life was heavily debated from the late 1800s through the mid-1900s. However, in 1951 Lord Solomon Zuckerman published what many consider to be a landmark paper summarizing his personal views of data existing at the time for and against the possibility of postnatal oogenesis. In Zuckerman's opinion, none of the evidence he considered was inconsistent with Waldeyer's initial proposal in 1870 that female mammals cease production of oocytes at or shortly after birth. This conclusion rapidly became dogma, and remained essentially unchallenged until just recently, despite the fact that Zuckerman did not offer a single experiment proving that adult female mammals are incapable of oogenesis. Instead, 20 years later he reemphasized that his conclusion was based solely on an absence of data he felt would be inconsistent with the idea of a nonrenewable oocyte pool provided at birth. However, in the immortal words of Carl Sagan, an "absence of evidence is not evidence of absence." Indeed, building on the efforts of a few scientists who continued to question this dogma after Zuckerman's treatise in 1951, we reported several data sets in 2004 that were very much inconsistent with the widely held belief that germ cell production in female mammals ceases at birth. Perhaps not surprisingly, given the magnitude of the paradigm shift being proposed, this work reignited a vigorous debate that first began more than a century ago. Our purpose here is to review the experimental evidence offered in recent studies arguing support for and against the possibility that adult mammalian females replenish their oocyte reserve. "Never discourage anyone who continually makes progress, no matter how slow."-Plato (427-347 BC).

  4. Oral histories in meteoritics and planetary science—XXIV: William K. Hartmann (United States)

    Sears, Derek W. G.


    In this interview, William Hartmann (Bill, Fig. 1) describes how he was inspired as a teenager by a map of the Moon in an encyclopedia and by the paintings by Chesley Bonestell. Through the amateur journal "Strolling Astronomer," he shared his interests with other teenagers who became lifelong colleagues. At college, he participated in Project Moonwatch, observing early artificial satellites. In graduate school, under Gerard Kuiper, Bill discovered Mare Orientale and other large concentric lunar basin structures. In the 1960s and 1970s, he used crater densities to study surface ages and erosive/depositional effects, predicted the approximately 3.6 Gyr ages of the lunar maria before the Apollo samples, discovered the intense pre-mare lunar bombardment, deduced the youthful Martian volcanism as part of the Mariner 9 team, and proposed (with Don Davis) the giant impact model for lunar origin. In 1972, he helped found (what is now) the Planetary Science Institute. From the late 1970s to early 1990s, Bill worked mostly with Dale Cruikshank and Dave Tholen at Mauna Kea Observatory, helping to break down the Victorian paradigm that separated comets and asteroids, and determining the approximately 4% albedo of comet nuclei. Most recently, Bill has worked with the imaging teams for several additional Mars missions. He has written three college textbooks and, since the 1970s, after painting illustrations for his textbooks, has devoted part of his time to painting, having had several exhibitions. He has also published two novels. Bill Hartmann won the 2010 Barringer Award for impact studies and the first Carl Sagan Award for outreach in 1997.

  5. Impossible Predictions of the Unprecedented: Analogy, History, and the Work of Prognostication (United States)

    Denning, Kathryn

    At the beginning of exobiology and SETI as research programs circa 1960, it was reasonable and responsible for scientists and others to consider the potential effects of a detection of other life, or contact with it, upon humanity. It is no coincidence that this was a time of reckoning with the power of science and technology. The Cold War was settling in, space programs were beginning, and the technologies of war and those of discovery were then, as now, intertwined, in a way that made Carl Sagan, Philip Morrison, Joshua Lederberg, and others, concerned for humanity's future, and the future of life. Those concerns are as well-founded as ever. However, 50 years on, after half a century of predictions and untested hypotheses, we still only know that a detection of extraterrestrial life could come tomorrow, in the next century, or never. Many potential scenarios have been identified and explored, planetary protection protocols have been implemented for astrobiology, policy concerning SETI detections has been created and debated, and some valuable empirical work has been done concerning potential cultural reactions. We might now reasonably ask: what are our real goals here? And do they match what we are actually accomplishing? Are these exercises still beneficial, or are they reaching the point of diminishing returns? Might there be undesirable effects of prognostications about detection and contact? Elsewhere, I have discussed at some length what I think can sensibly be done to prepare for a detection. This leaves me with a further argument to make here: first, that the use of historical analogies of intercultural contact on Earth to predict or explore the potential consequences of contact with ETI may now be essentially useless or perhaps worse than useless; second, that the longstanding practice of prediction about contact now also invites scrutiny in terms of its utility; and third, that turning our attention to pressing topics at the intersection of astrobiology

  6. Strategies for Teaching Astronomy (United States)

    Bennett, J.


    No matter whether you are teaching school children, undergraduates, or colleagues, a few key strategies are always useful. I will present and give examples for the following five key strategies for teaching astronomy. 1. Provide a Contextual Framework: It is much easier to learn new facts or concepts if they can be ``binned" into some kind of pre-existing mental framework. Unless your listeners are already familiar with the basic ideas of modern astronomy (such as the hierarchy of structure in the universe, the scale of the universe, and the origin of the universe), you must provide this before going into the details of how we've developed this modern picture through history. 2. Create Conditions for Conceptual Change: Many people hold misconceptions about astronomical ideas. Therefore we cannot teach them the correct ideas unless we first help them unlearn their prior misconceptions. 3. Make the Material Relevant: It's human nature to be more interested in subjects that seem relevant to our lives. Therefore we must always show students the many connections between astronomy and their personal concerns, such as emphasizing how we are ``star stuff" (in the words of Carl Sagan), how studying other planets helps us understand our own, and so on. 4. Limit Use of Jargon: The number of new terms in many introductory astronomy books is larger than the number of words taught in many first courses in foreign language. This means the books are essentially teaching astronomy in a foreign language, which is a clear recipe for failure. We must find ways to replace jargon with plain language. 5. Challenge Your Students: Don't dumb your teaching down; by and large, students will rise to meet your expectations, as long as you follow the other strategies and practice good teaching.

  7. How Big is Earth? (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.


    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory,, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is

  8. Radial-Velocity Signatures of Magnetic Features on the Sun Observed as a Star (United States)

    Palumbo, M. L., III; Haywood, R. D.; Saar, S. H.; Dupree, A. K.; Milbourne, T. W.


    In recent years, the search for Earth-mass planets using radial-velocity measurements has become increasingly limited by signals arising from stellar activity. Individual magnetic features induce localized changes in intensity and velocity, which combine to change the apparent radial velocity of the star. Therefore it is critical to identify an indicator of activity-driven radial-velocity variations on the timescale of stellar rotation periods. We use 617.3 nm photospheric filtergrams, magnetograms, and dopplergrams from SDO/HMI and 170.0 nm chromospheric filtergrams from AIA to identify magnetically-driven solar features and reconstruct the integrated solar radial velocity with six samples per day over the course of 2014. Breaking the solar image up into regions of umbrae, penumbrae, quiet Sun, network, and plages, we find a distinct variation in the center-to-limb intensity-weighted velocity for each region. In agreement with past studies, we find that the suppression of convective blueshift is dominated by plages and network, rather than dark photospheric features. In the future, this work will be highly useful for identifying indicators which correlate with rotationally modulated radial-velocity variations. This will allow us to break the activity barrier that currently precludes the precise characterization of exoplanet properties at the lowest masses. This work was supported by the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number AGS-1560313. This work was performed in part under contract with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute.

  9. Full-sky survey searching for ultra-narrow-band artificial CW signals: analysis of the results of Project META (United States)

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.


    Project META (Megachannel ExtraTerrestrial Assay), a full-sky survey for artificial narrow-band signals, has been conducted from the Harvard/Smithsonian 26 m radiotelescope at Agassiz Station and from one of the two 30 m radiotelescopes of the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). The search was performed near the 1420 MHz line of neutral hydrogen, and its second harmonic, using two 8.4 X 10(superscript 6) channel Fourier spectrometers of 0.05 Hz resolution and 400 kHz of instantaneous bandwidth. The observing frequency was corrected both for motions with respect to three astronomical inertial frames, and for the effect of Earth's rotation, which provides a characteristic changing signature for narrow-band signals of extraterrestrial origin. Among the 6 X 10(superscript 13) spectral channels searched in the northern hemisphere, Horowitz and Sagan reported 37 candidates events exceeding the average threshold of 1.7 X 10(superscript -23) W m(superscript -2), while in the southern hemisphere among 2 X 10(superscript 13) spectral channels analyzed we found 19 events exceeding the same threshold. The strongest signals that survive culling for terrestrial interference lie in or near the Galactic Plane. The first high resolution southern target search around 71 stars (-90 degrees intelligence. It is showed that these narrow-band non-repeating 'events' found by Project META can be generated by (a) radiometer noise fluctuations, (b) a population of constant galactic sources which undergo deep fading and amplification due to interstellar scintillation, consistent with ETI transmissions and (c) real, transient signals of either terrestrial or extraterrestrial origin. The Bayesian test shows that hypothesis (b) and (c) are both highly preferred to (a), but the first two are about equally likely. Using this analysis we discuss the best observing strategies to determine the real origin of these 'events'.

  10. The Pleasures and Perils of Popularization (United States)

    Grinspoon, David H.


    Carl Sagan often reminded us that we are privileged to be space explorers, and we should never take public support for granted. As jobs go, planetary exploration sure beats flipping burgers. It can also seem like a bourgeois extravagance in a world with some serious mayhem and deprivation. We've all encountered the attitude epitomized by the recent Onion headline: "NASA Announces Plan to Launch $700 Million into Space". But planetary science is highly relevant to some burning societal issues. Indeed it is slightly strange to see concepts we labored over in grad school, like "albedo", "insolation” and "infrared opacity” now tossed about in Newsweek. Today, the man and woman in the street are quite aware that climate modeling and glaciology are relevant. It is up to us to explain that comparative planetology is also indispensable. In my career so far, I've tried to balance deep involvement in both research and public outreach. Sometimes this feels like too many jobs, but at least sometimes they are synergistic. Being an active researcher, you can speak to the public with an inside, authentic, behind-the-scenes voice. Interacting with the media on a regular basis helps you (indeed forces you) to stay current in a broad range of subject matter, and that can nurture your research. That all sounds pretty high minded, but public speaking, writing, and media interviews are great fun, and they get easier. Actually, writing is often as much fun as dental work. But usually worth it. These activities feed the soul (and the ego and even occasionally the bank account...). If they help spread the word about the wonders of the solar system, the mysteries of life in the universe and the experiences of working scientists, well that's pretty cool, too.

  11. A High Mass & Low Envelope Fraction for the Warm Neptune K2-55b (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney; Sinukoff, Evan; Fulton, Benjamin; Lopez, Eric; Beichman, Charles; Howard, Andrew; Knutson, Heather; Werner, Michael; Schlieder, Joshua; Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Isaacson, Howard; Krick, Jessica; Gorjian, Varoujan; Livingston, John; Petigura, Erik; Akeson, Rachel; Batygin, Konstantin; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Crepp, Justin; Jasmine Gonzales, Erica; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Hirsch, Lea; Kosiarek, Molly; Weiss, Lauren


    The NASA K2 mission is using the Kepler spacecraft to search for transiting planets in multiple fields along the ecliptic plane. One of the planets detected by K2 is K2-55b, a warm Neptune in a short-period orbit (2.8 days) around a late K dwarf. We previously obtained near-infrared spectra from IRTF/SpeX to characterize the system and found that the host star K2-55 has a radius of 0.715 (+0.043/-0.040) solar radii, a mass of 0.668 (+/- 0.069) solar masses, and an effective temperature of 4300K (+100/-107). We then combined our updated stellar properties with new fits to the K2 photometry to estimate a planet radius of 4.38 (+0.29/-0.25) Earth radii, confirmed the transit ephemeris using Spitzer/IRAC (GO 11026, PI Werner), and embarked on radial velocity observations with Keck/HIRES to measure the planet mass. Our RV data suggest that K2-55b is much more massive than expected, indicating that the planet has a high density despite having a relatively high mass. The lack of a significant volatile envelope tests current theories of gas giant formation and indicates that K2-55b may have avoided runaway accretion by migration, delayed formation, or inefficient core accretion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Sagan Fellowship Program and the NASA K2 Guest Observer Program. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  12. All Over the World: Mid-Twentieth Century Radio Astronomy and the Origin of the International SETI Network (United States)

    Charbonneau, Rebecca


    Cold War mythology is rife with stories about secrecy, competition, espionage, and animosity. Yet the history behind the myth-- the overlooked scientists collaborating outside of the aims of the state-- also tells an interesting story. This paper examines the challenges of international scientific collaboration during the Cold War, focusing especially on a case study concerning Soviet radio astronomer Iosif Samuilovich Shklovskii and U.S. astrophysicist Carl Sagan, and their collaborative work on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Despite the hyper-politics that instigated and fueled the Space Race, SETI was held up as an ideal internationalist science, with the lofty goal of uniting all of humanity by situating it within a cosmic community. Although the internationalism of SETI discourse is not entirely unfounded due to its roots in international collaboration, further research indicates that such internationalism was in reality instilled with geopolitics, international conflict, and even espionage. That said, however, the cultural and philosophical perspectives of individual SETI scientists led them to operate within the tensions between national and ideological restraints and their own personal philosophical perspectives. In reviewing the letters of correspondence, conference proceedings, interviews, transcripts of lectures, and autobiographical writings of early-SETI radio astronomers, this paper ultimately argues that, although SETI was not the ideal internationalist science it was portrayed as, SETI pioneers were able to connect and form international networks within a contentious system which often centred on the restriction of free information and international collaboration through their mutual unconventional scientific interests, and facilitated by their personal utopian futurist philosophies.

  13. The signs of ocular-surface disorders after switching from latanoprost to tafluprost/timolol fixed combination: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumichi H


    Full Text Available Hideaki Okumichi,1 Yoshiaki Kiuchi,1 Tetsuya Baba,2 Takashi Kanamoto,3 Tomoko Naito,4,5 Shunsuke Nakakura,6 Hitoshi Tabuchi,6 Hiroki Nii,7 Chie Sueoka,7 Yosuke Sugimoto1,8 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hiroshima Memorial Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Konko Hospital, Asakuchi, Japan; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Saneikai Tsukazaki Hospital, Himeji, Japan; 7Department of Ophthalmology, Hiroshima General Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan; 8Department of Ophthalmology, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the ocular-surface safety of a 0.001% benzalkonium chloride-containing tafluprost/timolol fixed combination (TTFC in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension who have inadequate intraocular pressure (IOP control with latanoprost monotherapy.Methods: This study is a multicenter, prospective, single-arm, open-label clinical study. Patients with POAG or ocular hypertension who have inadequate IOP control with latanoprost monotherapy were considered eligible. After providing informed consent, patients continued latanoprost monotherapy for 12 weeks, followed by a switch to TTFC. We evaluated the extent of ocular-surface damage using superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK score, tear breakup time (TBUT, hyperemia score, IOP, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and heart rate at 0, 4, and 12 weeks after switching.Results: A total of 68 patients were enrolled, of whom, 64 patients were included in the final analysis. No significant changes in SPK score, TBUT, or hyperemia score were observed at 4 and 12 weeks compared with week 0. IOP decreased significantly at 4 (13.9±2.5 mmHg and 12

  14. Effect of combination tablets containing amlodipine 10 mg and irbesartan 100 mg on blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with hypertension

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    Yagi S


    Full Text Available Shusuke Yagi,1 Akira Takashima,1 Minoru Mitsugi,2 Toshihiro Wada,2 Junko Hotchi,1 Ken-ichi Aihara,3 Tomoya Hara,1 Masayoshi Ishida,1 Daiju Fukuda,4 Takayuki Ise,1 Koji Yamaguchi,1 Takeshi Tobiume,1 Takashi Iwase,1 Hirotsugu Yamada,1 Takeshi Soeki,1 Tetsuzo Wakatsuki,1 Michio Shimabukuro,4 Masashi Akaike,5 Masataka Sata11Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Shikoku Central Hospital, Shikokuchuo, 3Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Sciences, 4Department of Cardio-Diabetes Medicine, 5Department of Medical Education, Graduate School of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima, JapanBackground: Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and mortality. Patients who receive insufficient doses of antihypertensive agents or who are poorly adherent to multidrug treatment regimens often fail to achieve adequate blood pressure (BP control. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB and calcium channel blocker (CCB combination tablet containing a regular dose of irbesartan (100 mg and a high dose of amlodipine (10 mg with regard to lowering BP and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated data from 68 patients with essential hypertension whose treatment regimen was changed either from combination treatment with an independent ARB and a low-dose or regular-dose CCB or from a combination tablet of ARB and a low-dose or regular-dose CCB to a combination tablet containing amlodipine 10 mg and irbesartan 100 mg, because of incomplete BP control. Previous treatments did not include irbesartan as the ARB.Results: The combination tablet decreased systolic and diastolic BP. In addition, it significantly decreased serum uric acid, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased high

  15. Long-term effect of galantamine on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease versus a simulated disease trajectory: an observational study in the clinical setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa R


    Full Text Available Ryoko Nakagawa,1 Takashi Ohnishi,1 Hisanori Kobayashi,1 Toshio Yamaoka,2 Tsutomu Yajima,3 Ai Tanimura,4 Toshiya Kato,4 Kazutake Yoshizawa1 1Evidence Generation Department, Medical Affairs Division, 2Clinical Data Management Department, R&D Division, 3Biostatistics Department, Quantitative Science Division, 4Drug Surveillance Department, R&D Division, Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K., Tokyo, Japan Background: Long-term maintenance of cognitive function is an important goal of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but evidence about the long-term efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors is sparse. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of galantamine for AD in routine clinical practice, we conducted a 72-week post-marketing surveillance study. The effect of galantamine on cognitive function was estimated in comparison with a simulated disease trajectory. Patients and methods: Patients with mild-to-moderate AD received flexible dosing of galantamine (16–24 mg/day during this study. Cognitive function was assessed by the mini mental state examination (MMSE and the clinical status was determined by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I. Changes of the MMSE score without treatment were estimated in each patient using Mendiondo’s model. Generalized linear mixed model analysis was performed to compare the simulated MMSE scores with the actual scores. Results: Of the 661 patients who were enrolled, 642 were evaluable for safety and 554 were assessed for efficacy. The discontinuation rate was 46.73%. Cognitive decline indicated by the mean change of actual MMSE scores was significantly smaller than the simulated decline. Individual analysis demonstrated that >70% of patients had better actual MMSE scores than their simulated scores. Significant improvement of CGI-I was also observed during the observation period. Adverse events occurred in 28.5% of patients and were serious in 8.41%. The reported events generally corresponded with the

  16. Pemetrexed in maintenance treatment of advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

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    Minami S


    Full Text Available Seigo Minami,1 Takashi Kijima2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Osaka Police Hospital, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Pemetrexed, a multitargeting antifolate cytotoxic drug, plays a leading role in front-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Following its approval as second-line monotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic non-squamous NSCLC, pemetrexed has established itself as the first-line regimen in combination with cisplatin, and its powerful antitumor effects and less cumulative toxicities were then taken advantage of in the JMEN and PARAMOUNT trials, respectively, to pioneer a new treatment strategy of switch and continuation maintenance monotherapy. These developments have brought about a marked paradigm shift, and made pemetrexed indispensable in the treatment for non-squamous NSCLC. So far, only three drugs have been approved for maintenance therapy; pemetrexed both by switch and continuation maintenance, erlotinib by switch maintenance, and bevacizumab by continuation maintenance. Compared with observation alone after defined cycles of the first-line chemotherapy, subsequent pemetrexed maintenance therapy has provided significantly longer survival and infrequent severe adverse events. The cost-effectiveness of pemetrexed maintenance therapy is controversial, as well as the other two maintenance drugs, bevacizumab and erlotinib. The latest attractive attention is a combination maintenance therapy. We may have to consider epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation status for selection of a combination pattern. A combination maintenance therapy of pemetrexed plus bevacizumab is potential for patients with wild-type EGFR status, while a EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-containing combination is promising for patients with active EGFR mutation status. Pemetrexed will be

  17. Responsiveness of blood and sputum inflammatory cells in Japanese COPD patients, non-COPD smoking controls, and non-COPD nonsmoking controls

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    Kawayama T


    Full Text Available Tomotaka Kawayama,1 Takashi Kinoshita,1 Kazuko Matsunaga,2 Akihiro Kobayashi,3 Tomoyuki Hayamizu,4 Malcolm Johnson,5 Tomoaki Hoshino11Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fukuoka Sanno Hospital, Fukuoka, 3Biomedical Data Science Department, 4Medical Affairs Respiratory Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 5Respiratory Global Franchise, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UKPurpose: To compare pulmonary and systemic inflammatory mediator release, pre- and poststimulation, ex vivo, in cells from Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, non-COPD smoking controls, and non-COPD nonsmoking controls (NSC.Patients and methods: This was a nontreatment study with ten subjects per group. Inflammatory biomarker release, including interleukin (IL-6 and -8, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and sputum cells with and without lipopolysaccharide or TNF-α stimulation.Results: In PBMC, basal TNF-α release (mean ± standard deviation was significantly different between COPD (81.6±111.4 pg/mL and nonsmoking controls (9.5±5.2 pg/mL (P<0.05. No other significant differences were observed. Poststimulation biomarker release tended to increase, with the greatest changes in the COPD group. The greatest mean increases were seen in the lipopolysaccharide-induced release of matrix metalloproteinase-9, TNF-α, and IL-6 from PBMC. Pre- and poststimulation data from sputum samples were more variable and less conclusive than from PBMC. In the COPD group, induced sputum neutrophil levels were higher and macrophage levels were lower than in either control group. Significant correlations were seen between the number of sputum cells (macrophages and neutrophils and biomarker levels (IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α.Conclusion: This was the first

  18. Acceleration training for managing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study

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    Oh S


    Full Text Available Sechang Oh,1 Takashi Shida,1 Akemi Sawai,1 Tsuyoshi Maruyama,2 Kiyoshi Eguchi,2 Tomonori Isobe,1 Yoshikazu Okamoto,3 Noriko Someya,4 Kiyoji Tanaka,4 Emi Arai,1 Akiko Tozawa,5 Junichi Shoda1 1Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 2Department of Rehabilitation, Tsukuba University Hospital, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 5Protea Japan Co Ltd, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan Background: While aerobic training is generally recommended as therapeutic exercise in guidelines, the effectiveness of resistance training has recently been reported in the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Acceleration training (AT is a new training method that provides a physical stimulation effect on skeletal muscles by increasing gravitational acceleration with vibration. AT has recently been indicated as a component of medicine. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of AT in the management of NAFLD in obese subjects.Methods: A total of 18 obese patients with NAFLD who had no improvement in liver function test abnormalities and/or steatosis grade after 12 weeks of lifestyle counseling were enrolled in an AT program. These patients attended a 20-minute session of AT twice a week for 12 consecutive weeks.Results: During the AT program, the NAFLD patients showed a modest increase in the strength (+12.6% and cross-sectional area (+3.1% of the quadriceps, coupled with a significant reduction in intramyocellular lipids (−26.4%. Notably, they showed a modest reduction in body weight (−1.9%, abdominal visceral fat area (−3.4%, and hepatic fat content (−8.7%, coupled with a significant reduction in levels of aminotransferase (−15.7%, γ-glutamyltransferase (−14.4%, leptin (−9.7%, interleukin-6 (−26.8%, and tumor necrosis factor-α (−17.9%, and a significant increase of adiponectin (+8.7%. On a health

  19. The social functional outcome of being naturalistically treated with paliperidone extended-release in patients with schizophrenia

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    Nakagawa R


    Full Text Available Ryoko Nakagawa,1 Takashi Ohnishi,1 Hisanori Kobayashi,1 Akihide Wakamatsu,2 Ai Tanimura,3 Kazuo Morita,3 Toshio Yamaoka,3 Hideo Usui,3 Yoshimasa Ogawa,3 Akiko Fujino,3 Kazutake Yoshizawa11Evidence Generation Department, Medical Affairs Division, 2Medical Affairs Strategy Department, Medical Affairs Division, 3Drug Safety Surveillance Department, Japan Safety and Surveillance Division, Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K., Tokyo, JapanBackground: Social functioning is an important outcome for patients with schizophrenia. To evaluate the effects of paliperidone extended-release (PAL-ER on social function, symptomatology, and safety in the routine clinical practice, we conducted a 1-year post-marketing surveillance study of PAL-ER. We also explored relationships between symptomatic improvement and socially functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia.Patients and methods: Patients with an established diagnosis of schizophrenia were allowed flexible 3–12 mg/day dosing during the surveillance. Patients were assessed on social functioning using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS and on symptomatology using the Clinical Global Impression–Schizophrenia scale. All adverse events (AEs were also collected.Results: A total of 1,429 patients were enrolled in the surveillance study, of whom 1,405 were evaluable for safety and 1,142 were evaluable for efficacy. The treatment discontinuation rate for any reason during the observation period was 34.66%. Significant improvements were observed on both Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and Clinical Global Impression–Schizophrenia scale during the observation period. The percentage of patients with socially functional remission (SOFAS ≥61 also increased significantly. A significant association between early improvements in positive symptoms, sex, severity of negative symptoms at baseline, and socially functional remission was observed. A total of 33.52% of patients

  20. Presymptomatic genetic analysis during pregnancy for vascular type Ehlers–Danlos syndrome

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    Naing BT


    Full Text Available Banyar Than Naing,1 Atsushi Watanabe,1,2 Shinji Tanigaki,3 Masae Ono,4 Mitsutoshi Iwashita,3 Takashi Shimada1,21Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Division of Clinical Genetics, Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Pediatrics, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The vascular type of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS, EDS type IV (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [MIM] #130050 is characterized by thin, translucent skin, easy bruising, and arterial, intestinal, and/or uterine fragility during pregnancy, which may lead to sudden death. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder caused by type III procollagen gene (COL3A1: MIM #120180 mutations. Approximately 50% of the COL3A1 mutations are inherited from an affected parent, and 50% are de novo mutations. Each child of an affected individual has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation and developing the disorder. Pregnant women with vascular EDS are at an increased risk of uterine and arterial rupture during the peripartum period, with high maternal morbidity and mortality rates. We report the first case of an asymptomatic 35-year-old woman at a risk of complications of vascular EDS who underwent presymptomatic evaluation during pregnancy. The sequencing results of both her brother and mother had a one-base-pair deletion, resulting in Glutamate at position 730 changing to Lysine and causing a frame shift and premature termination codon at 61 amino acids from the mutation position (p. Glu730Lysfs*61 on exon 32 of COL3A1. This deletion caused frameshift, leading to a premature termination codon (TAG at 181 nucleotides downstream in exon 35, which could not be detected by previous total RNA (ribonucleic acid method. Thus, she was at risk of complications of vascular EDS, and diagnostic testing was employed

  1. PREFACE: International & Interdisciplinary Workshop on Novel Phenomena in Integrated Complex Sciences: from Non-living to Living Systems (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Ohta, Hiroto; Murase, Masatoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo


    In this workshop recent advancements in experiments and theories were discussed on magnetism and superconductivity, emergent phenomena in biological material, chemical properties and economic problems of non-living and living systems. The aim of the workshop was to discuss old, but also new problems from a multidisciplinary perspective, and to understand the general features behind diversity in condensed matter physics, experimental chemistry and physics in biology and economic science. The workshop was broadly based, and was titled 'International & Interdisciplinary Workshop on Novel Phenomena in Integrated Complex Sciences from Non-living to Living Systems'. However, the primary focus was on magnetism and superconductivity, and NMR research into strongly correlated electrons. The meeting was held as an ICAM workshop, upon official approval in January 2010. Both young scientists and graduate students were invited. We hope that these young scientists had the chance to talk with invited speakers and organizers on their own interests. We thank the participants who contributed through their presentations, discussions and these papers to the advancement of the subject and our understanding. The proceedings are published here in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series (UK). We thank the International Advisory Committee for their advice and guidance: Evgeny Antipov Moscow State University, Russia Nicholas Curro University of California, Davis, USA Minghu Fang Zhejiang University, China Jurgen Haase University of Leipzig, Germany Takashi Imai McMaster University, Canada Peter Lemmens TU Braunschweig, Germany Herwig Michor Vienna TU, Austria Takamasa Momose University of British Columbia, Canada Raivo Stern NICPB, Estonia Louis Taillefer University of Sherbrooke, Canada Masashi Takigawa University of Tokyo, Japan This workshop was mainly organized by the International Research Unit of Integrated Complex System Science, Kyoto University, and was supported by ICAM

  2. Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties

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    Shooji Yamada, Hiroshi Yamaguchi and Sunao Ishihara


    manganese nanoparticles to improve the chemical analysis of biological samples by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Matsumoto et al have prepared sugar microarrays via click chemistry and have applied this to the detection and characterization of proteins. Yoshimura et al have expanded the single-nucleotide polymorphism typing method to differentiate genes from various food crops, such as indica and japonica rice. Finally, Takashi et al have designed a nanoparticle-based strip sensor, which can be used for rapid evaluation of the psychological condition of animals and humans.We hope that this focus issue will help readers to understand, from a materials science viewpoint, different aspects of frontier research into NEMS.

  3. Clinical outcomes of endoscope-assisted vitrectomy for treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

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    Yokoyama S


    Full Text Available Sho Yokoyama,1 Takashi Kojima,2 Toshio Mori,3 Taisuke Matsuda,1 Hiroyuki Sato,3 Norihiko Yoshida,4 Tatsushi Kaga,1 R Theodore Smith,5 Kazuo Ichikawa6 1Department of Ophthalmology, Japan Community Healthcare Organization Chukyo Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Iida Municipal Hospital, Iida, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Japanese Red Cross Gifu Hospital, Gifu, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 6Chukyo Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan Summary: We evaluated the clinical outcomes for ophthalmic endoscope-assisted vitrectomy in consecutive patients with uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. The primary success rate was 98.4% (125/127 without performing a posterior drainage retinotomy or using perfluorocarbon liquids (PFCL for subretinal fluid drainage.Purpose: To investigate the clinical outcomes of endoscope-assisted vitrectomy in patients with uncomplicated RRD.Methods: We examined 127 eyes from consecutive patients who underwent repair of RRD by 23- or 25-gauge endoscope-assisted vitrectomy, with a minimum follow-up of 3 months. Eyes with the following criteria were excluded: Giant retinal tears, grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy, dense vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment secondary to other ocular diseases, and prior retinal or vitreous surgery. All cases underwent subretinal fluid drainage, endolaser photocoagulation and fundus inspection were performed under ophthalmic endoscopic observation. Success rate, visual acuity, surgery time and complications were evaluated.Results: Primary and final success rate was 98.4% (125/127 and 100% (127/127, respectively, Surgery time was 59.6±26.3 minutes. The best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved from 20/100 to 20/20 (P<0.0001. There were 2 cases (1.6% of creation of a peripheral drainage retinotomy and 4

  4. “Frequent exacerbator” is a phenotype of poor prognosis in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Tomioka R


    Full Text Available Ryusuke Tomioka,1,2 Tomotaka Kawayama,1 Masashi Suetomo,1,2 Takashi Kinoshita,1 Yoshihisa Tokunaga,1 Haruki Imaoka,1 Kazuko Matsunaga,1 Masaki Okamoto,1 Tomoaki Hoshino1 1Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, 2Respiratory Medicine, Chikugo City Hospital, Chikugo, JapanBackground: The prognosis of Japanese patients with COPD who suffer repeated exacerbations is unclear, although Westerners with such episodes have a poor prognosis.Materials and methods: We conducted a 1-year prospective observational trial involving 90 Japanese patients with COPD: 58 nonexacerbators, 12 infrequent exacerbators, and 20 frequent exacerbators classified on the basis of exacerbation frequency (zero, one, and two or more exacerbations/year, respectively, during the previous year were observed prospectively for 1 year. The characteristics of frequent exacerbators, the frequency of exacerbation, and the period until the first event were then compared among the groups.Results: A total of 78 patients completed the study. Frequent exacerbators had a significantly higher risk of frequent exacerbation in the following year than the case for nonexacerbators (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.94 [1.21–7.17], P=0.0340, but not in comparison with infrequent exacerbators (1.51 [0.49–4.63], P>0.05. The mean annual frequency of exacerbations in the following year was significantly (P=0.0020 higher in the frequent exacerbators (1.4 exacerbations/year than in the nonexacerbators (0.4, but not in the infrequent exacerbators (0.9, P>0.05. The mean period until the first exacerbation was significantly shorter in the frequent exacerbators than in the infrequent or nonexacerbators (P=0.0012. Independent risk factors for future frequent exacerbation included the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, more severe airflow obstruction, and use of inhaled corticosteroids.Conclusion: Our present

  5. Case of femoral diaphyseal stress fracture after long-term risedronate administration diagnosed by iliac bone biopsy

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    Nagai T


    Full Text Available Takashi Nagai, Keizo Sakamoto, Koji Ishikawa, Emi Saito, Takuma Kuroda, Katsunori Inagaki Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Showa University School of Medicine, Shinagwa-ku, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Bisphosphonate excessively inhibits bone resorption and results in pathological fracture of the femur or ilium. The subject of this study was administered risedronate for 7 years; we suspected an easy fracture of the femoral diaphysis. In this study, we report the results of this patient's bone biopsy and bone morphometric analysis. A 76-year-old female patient presented with right femoral pain. Bone mineral density of the anteroposterior surface of the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 was decreased and levels of bone turnover markers were high. Therefore, we initiated treatment with risedronate. As she continued the medication, urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase (bone-type isozyme were found to be within the normal ranges. After 7 years of administration, the patient experienced pain when she put weight on the right femur and right femoral pain while walking. Plain radiographic examination revealed polypoid stress fracture-like lesions on the right femoral diaphysis and on the slightly distal-lateral cortical bone. Similar lesions were observed on magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy. We suspected severely suppressed bone turnover. Bone biopsy was obtained after labeling with tetracycline, and bone morphometric analysis was performed. On microscopic examination, slight double tetracycline labeling was observed. The trabeculae were narrow, and the numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were decreased. Further, rates of bone calcification and bone formation were slow. Hence, we diagnosed fracture as a result of low turnover osteopathy. Risedronate was withdrawn, and Vitamin D3 was administered to improve the bone turnover. At 6 months, abnormal signals on magnetic resonance

  6. FOREWORD: Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties (United States)

    Yamada, Shooji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Sunao


    to improve the chemical analysis of biological samples by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Matsumoto et al have prepared sugar microarrays via click chemistry and have applied this to the detection and characterization of proteins. Yoshimura et al have expanded the single-nucleotide polymorphism typing method to differentiate genes from various food crops, such as indica and japonica rice. Finally, Takashi et al have designed a nanoparticle-based strip sensor, which can be used for rapid evaluation of the psychological condition of animals and humans. We hope that this focus issue will help readers to understand, from a materials science viewpoint, different aspects of frontier research into NEMS.

  7. Effects of switching from prandial premixed insulin therapy to basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy on glycemic control and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Ito H


    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Ito, Mariko Abe, Shinichi Antoku, Takashi Omoto, Masahiro Shinozaki, Shinya Nishio, Mizuo Mifune, Michiko ToganeDepartment of Diabetes, Metabolism and Kidney Disease, Edogawa Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effects of switching from prandial premixed insulin therapy (PPT injected three times a day to basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy (B2B on glycemic control and quality of life were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: The clinical course was prospectively observed during the first 16 weeks after switching to B2B (insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine before breakfast and dinner in 27 subjects previously treated with PPT using 50/50 premixed insulin. The Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ was administered at the start and end of the study.Results: The glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level (8.3%±1.8% to 8.2%±1.1% and the DTSQ score did not change between the start and end of the study. An improvement in HbA1c level was found in nine (33% subjects. The change in HbA1c showed a significant negative correlation with baseline HbA1c, and was significantly better in patients with a baseline HbA1c >8.0% than in those with an HbA1c ≤8.0% (−0.9±2.0 versus 0.3±0.6, respectively, P=0.02. The change in DTSQ score representing treatment satisfaction was significantly greater in patients whose HbA1c level was improved than in those in whom it was not (2.7±3.6 versus −0.8±3.5, P=0.04.Conclusion: B2B was noninferior to PPT with regard to HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. B2B should be considered particularly for subjects whose glycemic control is poor despite PPT.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin therapy, basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy, prandial premixed insulin therapy, Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire

  8. Rationale and design of the VISION study: a randomized, open-label study to evaluate the long-term safety of vonoprazan as maintenance treatment in patients with erosive esophagitis

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    Uemura N


    Full Text Available Naomi Uemura,1 Yoshikazu Kinoshita,2 Ken Haruma,3 Takashi Yao,4 Ryoji Kushima,5 Tatsuhiro Kanoo6 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Kohnodai Hospital, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Shimane, Japan; 3Department of General Internal Medicine 2, Kawasaki Medical School General Medical Center, Okayama, Japan; 4Department of Human Pathology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital, Shiga, Japan; 6Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Erosive esophagitis (EE occurs when the epithelial mucosa is damaged due to gastric acid reflux, and the incidence of this disease is increasing in Japan due to changes in diet and lifestyle. The condition can be treated using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs that act by irreversibly blocking the H+,K+-ATPase responsible for acid secretion. Vonoprazan is a K+ competitive channel inhibitor, which reversibly and potently inhibits gastric acid secretion. However, long-term data on vonoprazan use are limited. The aim of the VISION trial is to investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of vonoprazan in comparison with the PPI lansoprazole. This randomized, multicenter, 5-year, open-label study has a planned recruitment of 195 participants (2:1 allocation vonoprazan:lansoprazole from 33 sites in Japan. The study comprises an 8-week “healing” phase (vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg p.o. and a 260-week “maintenance” phase (vonoprazan 10 mg or lansoprazole 15 mg. Safety populations in both phases are defined as participants who receive at least one dose of the study or control drug in the healing and maintenance phases, respectively. The full analysis set in both phases is defined as participants who are randomized and receive at least one dose of the study or

  9. Bacteriological incidence in pneumonia patients with pulmonary emphysema: a bacterial floral analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

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    Naito K


    Full Text Available Keisuke Naito,1 Kei Yamasaki,1 Kazuhiro Yatera,1 Kentaro Akata,1 Shingo Noguchi,1 Toshinori Kawanami,1 Kazumasa Fukuda,2 Takashi Kido,1 Hiroshi Ishimoto,3 Hiroshi Mukae3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2Department of Microbiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, 3Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki City, Nagasaki, Japan Abstract: Pulmonary emphysema is an important radiological finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, but bacteriological differences in pneumonia patients according to the severity of emphysematous changes have not been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the bacteriological incidence in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of pneumonia patients using cultivation and a culture-independent molecular method. Japanese patients with community-acquired pneumonia (83 and healthcare-associated pneumonia (94 between April 2010 and February 2014 were evaluated. The BALF obtained from pneumonia lesions was evaluated by both cultivation and a molecular method. In the molecular method, ~600 base pairs of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes in the BALF were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and clone libraries were constructed. The nucleotide sequences of 96 randomly selected colonies were determined, and a homology search was performed to identify the bacterial species. A qualitative radiological evaluation of pulmonary emphysema based on chest computed tomography (CT images was performed using the Goddard classification. The severity of pulmonary emphysema based on the Goddard classification was none in 47.4% (84/177, mild in 36.2% (64/177, moderate in 10.2% (18/177, and severe in 6.2% (11/177. Using the culture-independent molecular method, Moraxella catarrhalis was significantly more frequently detected in moderate or severe emphysema patients than in patients with no or mild emphysematous changes. The

  10. Effect of carbon ion implantation on the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings for artificial joints

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    Koseki H


    Full Text Available Hironobu Koseki,1 Masato Tomita,2 Akihiko Yonekura,2 Takashi Higuchi,1 Sinya Sunagawa,2 Koumei Baba,3,4 Makoto Osaki2 1Department of Locomotive Rehabilitation Science, Unit of Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Sakamoto, Nagasaki, Japan; 3Industrial Technology Center of Nagasaki, Ikeda, Omura, Nagasaki, Japan; 4Affiliated Division, Nagasaki University School of Engineering, Bunkyo, Nagasaki, Japan Abstract: Metal-on-metal (MoM bearings have become popular due to a major advantage over metal-on-polymer bearings for total hip arthroplasty in that the larger femoral head and hydrodynamic lubrication of the former reduce the rate of wear. However, concerns remain regarding adverse reactions to metal debris including metallosis caused by metal wear generated at the taper-head interface and another modular junction. Our group has hypothesized that carbon ion implantation (CII may improve metal wear properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear properties and friction coefficients of CII surfaces with an aim to ultimately apply these surfaces to MoM bearings in artificial joints. CII was applied to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo alloy substrates by plasma source ion implantation. The substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and a 3D measuring laser microscope. Sliding contact tests were performed with a simple geometry pin-on-plate wear tester at a load of 2.5 N, a calculated contact pressure of 38.5 MPa (max: 57.8 MPa, a reciprocating velocity of 30 mm/s, a stroke length of 60 mm, and a reciprocating cycle count of 172,800 cycles. The surfaces of the CII substrates were generally featureless with a smooth surface topography at the same level as untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Compared to the untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy, the CII-treated bearings had lower friction coefficients, higher resistance to catastrophic damage, and

  11. Skin hydration of the heel with fissure in patients with diabetes: a cross-sectional observational study

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    Oe M


    Full Text Available Makoto Oe,1 Kimie Takehara,2 Hiroshi Noguchi,3 Yumiko Ohashi,4 Mayu Fukuda,1 Takashi Kadowaki,5 Hiromi Sanada1,6 1Global Nursing Research Center, 2Department of Advanced Nursing Technology, 3Department of Life Support Technology (Molten, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 4Department of Nursing, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 5Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, 6Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Foot fissure should be prevented in patients with diabetes due to the likelihood of subsequent diabetic ulcer. The purpose of this study was to investigate a cutoff point for skin hydration with fissure and the factors associated with low skin hydration in patients with diabetes. Subjects and methods: Subjects were patients with diabetes who visited the diabetic foot clinic and were evaluated for skin hydration on the heel between April 2008 and March 2015. Information about fissure, skin hydration, age, sex, autonomic neuropathy, angiopathy, and tinea pedis were collected from the medical charts. Skin hydration on the heel was measured using a moisture checker. Skin hydration was compared between heels with and without fissure, and a cutoff for skin hydration with fissure was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Based on the determined cutoff, factors associated with lower skin hydration were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Participants comprised 693 patients. Mean±SD age was 66.8±10.8 years, and 57.0% of subjects were male. The frequency of fissures on the heels was 10.4%. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for skin hydration in the presence of fissure was 0.717. Twenty percent was selected as the cutoff point, offering sensitivity of 0.478 and specificity of 0.819. Logistic regression analysis showed correlations between three factors (male sex, tinea

  12. Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortical hemodynamic response in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task

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    Hirosawa R


    Full Text Available Rikuei Hirosawa,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Seiji Nishida,2 Takuya Ishida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Yuichi Takei,3 Kenji Fukui1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 2Maizuru Medical Center, Kyoto, 3Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy has helped our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and has advantages including noninvasiveness, lower cost, and ease of use compared with other imaging techniques, like functional magnetic resonance imaging. The verbal fluency task is the most common and well established task used to assess cognitive activation during near-infrared spectroscopy. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, may play important roles in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. This study aimed to evaluate hemodynamic responses in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with OCD using near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task and to compare these with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses in healthy controls. Methods: Twenty patients with OCD and 20 controls matched for age, gender, handedness, and estimated intelligence quotient participated in this study. The verbal fluency task was used to elicit near-infrared spectroscopic activation and consisted of a 30-second pre-task, followed by three repetitions of a 20-second verbal fluency task (total 60 seconds, followed by a 70-second post-task period. The near-infrared spectroscopy experiment was conducted on the same day as surveys of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Z-scores for changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin were compared between the OCD patients and controls in 14 channels set over the

  13. Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Yamamoto H


    Full Text Available Haruka Yamamoto,1 Hideto Tsuchida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Seiji Nishida,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Akihito Fujimori,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yoshihisa Wada,1 Takafumi Yoshida,2 Chiaki Taga,3 Kenji Fukui11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Kyoto Cognitive Behavior Therapy Counseling Room, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Patients and methods: Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.Results: By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control

  14. Comparison between bilateral implantation of a trifocal intraocular lens and blended implantation of two bifocal intraocular lenses

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    Vilar C


    Full Text Available César Vilar,1,2 Wilson Takashi Hida,1–3 André Lins de Medeiros,1,2 Klayny Rafaella Pereira Magalhães,2 Patrick Frensel de Moraes Tzelikis,1,2 Mario Augusto Pereira Dias Chaves,2,4 Antônio Francisco Pimenta Motta,2,3 Pedro Carlos Carricondo,1–3 Milton Ruiz Alves,3 Walton Nosé5 1Cataract Division, Brasília Ophthalmologic Hospital (HOB, Brasília-DF, Brazil; 2Renato Ambrosio Ophthalmologic Research Center (CEORA, 3Ophthalmology Department, São Paulo University – USP, São Paulo-SP, Brazil; 4Cataract Division, ProVisão, João Pessoa-PB, Brazil; 5Ophthalmology Department, Paulista Medical School – UNIFESP, São Paulo-SP, Brazil Purpose: To compare visual outcomes and performance between bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens (IOL Acrysof®PanOptix® TFNT00 and blended implantation of two different near add power bifocal IOLs: Acrysof® Restor® SV25T0 in dominant eye and Acrysof® Restor® SN6AD1 in the nondominant eye.Methods: This prospective, nonrandomized, consecutive and comparative study assessed 20 patients (40 eyes who had bilateral cataract surgery performed using the IOLs described. Patients were divided into groups, bilateral trifocal implant and blended implant. Evaluation included measurement of binocular uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity at 4 m (UDVA, CDVA and uncorrected intermediate (60 cm and near (at 40 cm visual acuity; contrast sensitivity (CS and visual defocus curve.Results: Postoperative CDVA comparison showed no statistical significance between groups. UDVA was significantly better in the trifocal groups. Under photopic conditions, the trifocal group had better CS in higher frequencies with and without glare. The binocular defocus curve demonstrated a trifocal behavior in both groups, with the bilateral trifocal group exhibiting better performance for intermediate vision.Conclusion: Both lens combinations were able to provide good near, intermediate and distance vision

  15. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature

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    Blom RM


    Full Text Available Rianne M Blom,1 Nienke C Vulink,1 Sija J van der Wal,1 Takashi Nakamae,1–3 Zhonglin Tan,1,4 Eske M Derks,1 Damiaan Denys1,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 3Department of Neural Computation for Decision-Making, ATR Brain Information Communication Research Laboratory Group, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Hangzhou Mental Health Center, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: Body integrity identity disorder (BIID is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy

  16. Efficacy and safety of pirfenidone for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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    Takeda Y


    Full Text Available Yoshito Takeda,1 Kazuyuki Tsujino,2 Takashi Kijima,1 Atsushi Kumanogoh1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kinki Central Hospital of the Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Itami, Hyogo, Japan Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating chronic fibrotic lung disease. Although the precise cause of the disease is still unknown, recent studies have shown that the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis involves multiple mechanisms, with abnormal behavior of alveolar epithelial cells considered a primary event. Pirfenidone is a multifunctional, orally available small molecule with anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities, and has been shown to be a modulator of cytokines and growth factors, including TGF-ß1, TNF-α, bFGF, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, and IL-18 in animal models. Although its precise mechanism of action is not currently clear, pirfenidone is considered to exert inhibitory effects on multiple pathways involved in the pathogenesis of IPF. Two randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials in Japan demonstrated that pirfenidone significantly reduced the rate of decline of vital capacity in IPF patients. A Phase III study showed a significant increase in progression-free survival of patients in pirfenidone-treated groups compared to the placebo group. These results paved the way for the approval of pirfenidone for the treatment of IPF patients in Japan in 2008. The promising results of the Phase II study in Japan led to a larger international Phase III trial (CAPACITY. Subsequently, pirfenidone has also been approved in the European Union, South Korea, and Canada to date. Pirfenidone treatment is generally tolerated. Major adverse events are gastrointestinal symptoms, including decreased appetite, abdominal discomfort and nausea, photosensitivity, and fatigue, but

  17. Evaluation of an advanced pressure ulcer management protocol followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses: a non-randomized controlled trial

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    Kaitani T


    Full Text Available Toshiko Kaitani,1 Gojiro Nakagami,2 Junko Sugama,3 Masahiro Tachi,4 Yutaka Matsuyama,5 Yoshiki Miyachi,6 Takashi Nagase,2 Yukie Takemura,7 Hiromi Sanada2 1School of Nursing, Sapporo City University, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Nursing, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi, Japan; 5Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 6Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 7Department of Nursing, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Aims and objectives: We investigated the effectiveness and safety of an advanced pressure ulcer (PU management protocol comprising 1 ultrasonography to assess the deep tissue, 2 use of a non-contact thermometer to detect critical colonization, 3 conservative sharp debridement, 4 dressing selection, 5 negative pressure wound therapy, and 6 vibration therapy in comparison with those of a conventional approach. Each protocol was followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses (WOCNs. Background: At present, there is no systematic PU management protocol for nurses that includes appropriate assessment and intervention techniques for deep tissue injury and critical colonization. In Japan, there is no such protocol that the nurses can follow without a physician’s orders. Design and methods: This was a prospective non-randomized controlled trial. Over a 3-week period, we evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced protocol by comparing the PU severity and healing on the basis of the DESIGN-R scale and presence of patients' discomfort. We recruited ten WOCNs to follow

  18. Reduction in Vegetable Intake Disparities With a Web-Based Nutrition Education Intervention Among Lower-Income Adults in Japan: Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Nakamura, Saki; Inayama, Takayo; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi


    maintain and increase vegetable intake for other groups. Current Controlled Trials (UMIN-ICDR): UMIN000019376; icdr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000022404 (Archived by WebCite at ©Saki Nakamura, Takayo Inayama, Kazuhiro Harada, Takashi Arao. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 24.11.2017.

  19. Metabolic effect of combined telmisartan and nifedipine CR therapy in patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Y


    Full Text Available Yuji Shimizu,1,4 Fumiyasu Yamasaki,4 Takashi Furuno,1,4 Toru Kubo,1 Takayuki Sato,3,4 Yoshinori Doi,1 Tetsuro Sugiura21Medicine and Geriatrics, 2Clinical Laboratory, 3Cardiovascular Control, Kochi Medical, School, Nankoku, Japan; 4Section of Cardiology, Inoue Hospital, Takaoka, JapanBackground: In addition to exerting a blood pressure (BP-lowering effect, telmisartan produces favorable metabolic effects via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation. While a combination of telmisartan and a calcium channel blocker is often used to achieve a target BP level, the metabolic effects of this drug combination remain unclear. Therefore, this study evaluated the metabolic effects of telmisartan plus nifedipine controlled release (CR therapy, in hypertensive patients without metabolic disease.Methods: Sixteen patients with essential hypertension, who had not undergone antihypertensive therapy in the previous 6 months, were studied. Patients were initiated on telmisartan (40 mg/day. If their office BP was not reduced to 140/90 mmHg after 6 weeks, nifedipine CR (20–40 mg per day was added for 18 weeks. The other patients whose BP had achieved the target of 140/90 mmHg, continued only telmisartan.Results: Telmisartan reduced BP (174 ± 13/92 ± 10 to 143 ± 22/78 ± 11 mmHg; P < 0.01 at 6 weeks in 16 patients, but eight patients did not achieve target BP levels and required addition of nifedipine. Telmisartan also resulted in a reduction in the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (1.30 ± 0.65 to 1.10 ± 0.42; P < 0.05 at 6 weeks, but did not affect adiponectin or leptin levels. Addition of nifedipine (n = 8 resulted in a reduction in BP (158 ± 18/80 ± 13 to 131 ± 8/73 ± 13 mmHg; P < 0.01 at 18 weeks, but did not affect the HOMA-IR (1.10 ± 0.40 to 1.02 ± 0.56; ns. In patients who did not require addition of nifedipine (n = 8, BP levels remained nearly identical at 18 weeks (127 ± 13/73 ± 9 to 128 ± 13/68 ± 8

  20. Changes in metamorphopsia in daily life after successful epiretinal membrane surgery and correlation with M-CHARTS score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinoshita T


    Full Text Available Takamasa Kinoshita,1,2 Hiroko Imaizumi,1 Hirotomo Miyamoto,1 Utako Okushiba,1 Yuki Hayashi,2 Takashi Katome,2 Yoshinori Mitamura2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Sapporo City General Hospital, Sapporo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan Purpose: To determine the correlation between the changes in metamorphopsia in daily life environment and the M-CHARTS scores after epiretinal membrane (ERM removal, and to determine the criterion for determining whether clinically significant changes in the metamorphopsia score have occurred in M-CHARTS. Methods: We studied 65 eyes undergoing vitrectomy for unilateral ERM. Self-administered questionnaires were used to examine the metamorphopsia in their daily life. The degree of metamorphopsia was determined by M-CHARTS. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the best predictor of the changes in metamorphopsia in daily life. To determine the reproducibility of the M-CHARTS score, another set of 56 eyes with ERM was tested twice on two different days. Results: The postoperative changes in the logarithm of the M-CHARTS score was defined as M2-value. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the M2-value as a predictor of the changes in metamorphopsia in daily life was larger than area under the receiver operating characteristic curve obtained for any other parameter. The optimal cutoff value was -0.4. The 95% limits of agreement between test and retest measurements had a reproducibility of ±0.3 logarithm of the M-CHARTS score. Taking into account not only the reproducibility but also the consistency with the subjective changes, we determined the criterion for clinically significant changes in the M-CHARTS scores as a change of the M2-value by ≥0.4. Conclusion: Evaluating the changes in the M-CHARTS scores in logarithmic form is favorable not only theoretically but also

  1. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N


    Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain

  2. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium, Sessions 'X. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' and 'Y. Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials - Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization' (United States)

    Takahara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Seiichi


    Tashiro (Toyota Technological Institute) Professor Kazuo Sakurai(Kitakyushu University) Professor Keiji Tanaka (Kyushu University) Dr Sono Sasaki (JASRI/Spring-8) Professor Naoya Torikai (KENS) Professor Moonhor Ree (POSTECH) Professor Kookheon Char (Seoul National University) Professor Charles C Han (CAS) Professor Atsushi Takahara(Kyushu University) Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials, Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization (Symposium Y of IUMRS-ICA2008) Seiichi Kawahara, Rong-Ming Ho, Hiroshi Jinnai, Masami Kamigaito, Takashi Miyata, Hiroshi Morita, Hideyuki Otsuka, Daewon Sohn, Keiji Tanaka It is our great pleasure and honor to publish peer-reviewed papers, presented in Symposium Y 'Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization' at the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008), which was held on 9-13 December 2008, at Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan. 'Polymeric nano-soft-materials' are novel outcomes based on a recent innovative evolution in polymer science, i.e. precision polymer synthesis, self-assembling and functionalization of multi-component systems. The materials are expected to exhibit specific functions and unique properties due to their hierarchic morphologies brought either by naturally-generated ordering or by artificial manipulation of the systems, e.g., crystallization and phase-separation. The emerging precision synthesis has brought out new types of polymers with well-controlled primary structures. Furthermore, the surface and interface of the material are recognized to play an important role in the outstanding mechanical, electrical and optical properties, which are required for medical and engineering applications. In order to understand structure-property relationships in the nano-soft-materials, it is indispensable to develop novel characterization techniques. Symposium Y

  3. PREFACE: Workshop Photograph and Program (United States)


    Workshop photograph Workshop Program Sunday 28 March 201019:00-21:00 Reception at Okura Frontier Hotel Tsukuba(Buffet style dinner with drink) Monday 29 March 2010Introduction (Chair: André Rubbia (ETH Zurich))09:00 Welcome address (05') Atsuto Suzuki (KEK)09:05 Message from CERN on neutrino physics (10') Sergio Bertolucci (CERN)09:15 Message from FNAL on neutrino physics (10') Young Kee Kim (FNAL)09:25 Message from KEK on neutrino physics (10') Koichiro Nishikawa (KEK)09:35 Introductory remark on GLA2010 (10') Takuya Hasegawa (KEK) Special session (Chair: Koichiro Nishikawa (KEK))09:45 The ICARUS Liquid Argon TPC (45') Carlo Rubbia (CERN)10:30-11:00 Coffee break Main goals of Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging Experiments I (Chair: Takashi Kobayashi (KEK))11:00 Results from massive underground detectors (non accelerator) (30') Takaaki Kajita (ICRR, U. of Tokyo)11:30 Present long baseline neutrino experiments (30') Chang Kee Jung (SUNY Stony Brook)12:00-12:10 Workshop picture12:10-14:00 Lunch break Main goals of Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging Experiments II (Chair: Takashi Kobayashi (KEK))14:00 Physics goals of the next generation massive underground experiments (30') David Wark (Imperial College London)14:30 Near detectors for long baseline neutrino experiments (20') Tsuyoshi Nakaya (Kyoto U.) Lessons on Liquid Argon Charge Imaging technology from ongoing developments (Chair: Chang Kee Jung (SUNY Stony Brook))14:50 WARP (30') Claudio Montanari (U. of Pavia)15:20 ArDM (30') Alberto Marchionni (ETH Zurich)15:50 From ArgoNeuT to MicroBooNE (30') Bonnie Fleming (Yale U.)16:20 250L (30') Takasumi Maruyama (KEK)16:50 The DEAP/CLEAN project (20') Mark Boulay (Queen's U.)17:10-17:40 Coffee break Lessons from Xe based Liquids Imaging detectors (Chair: Flavio Cavanna (U. of L'Aquilla))17:30 MEG (20') Satoshi Mihara (KEK)17:50 The XENON project (20') Elena Aprile (Columbia U.)18:10 XMASS (20') Hiroyuki Sekiya (ICRR, U. of Tokyo) Studies on physics performance (Chair

  4. Mineralogic and compositional properties of Martian soil and dust: results from Mars Pathfinder (United States)

    Bell, J.F.; McSween, H.Y.; Crisp, J.A.; Morris, R.V.; Murchie, S.L.; Bridges, N.T.; Johnson, J. R.; Britt, D.T.; Golombek, M.P.; Moore, H.J.; Ghosh, A.; Bishop, J.L.; Anderson, R.C.; Brückner, J.; Economou, T.; Greenwood, J.P.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Hargraves, R.M.; Hviid, S.; Knudsen, J.M.; Madsen, M.B.; Reid, R.; Rieder, R.; Soderblom, L.


    Mars Pathfinder obtained multispectral, elemental, magnetic, and physical measurements of soil and dust at the Sagan Memorial Station during the course of its 83 sol mission. We describe initial results from these measurements, concentrating on multispectral and elemental data, and use these data, along with previous Viking, SNC meteorite, and telescopic results, to help constrain the origin and evolution of Martian soil and dust. We find that soils and dust can be divided into at least eight distinct spectral units, based on parameterization of Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) 400 to 1000 nm multispectral images. The most distinctive spectral parameters for soils and dust are the reflectivity in the red, the red/blue reflectivity ratio, the near-IR spectral slope, and the strength of the 800 to 1000 nm absorption feature. Most of the Pathfinder spectra are consistent with the presence of poorly crystalline or nanophase ferric oxide(s), sometimes mixed with small but varying degrees of well-crystalline ferric and ferrous phases. Darker soil units appear to be coarser-grained, compacted, and/or mixed with a larger amount of dark ferrous materials relative to bright soils. Nanophase goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, and maghemite are leading candidates for the origin of the absorption centered near 900 nm in IMP spectra. The ferrous component in the soil cannot be well-constrained based on IMP data. Alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) measurements of six soil units show little variability within the landing site and show remarkable overall similarity to the average Viking-derived soil elemental composition. Differences exist between Viking and Pathfinder soils, however, including significantly higher S and Cl abundances and lower Si abundances in Viking soils and the lack of a correlation between Ti and Fe in Pathfinder soils. No significant linear correlations were observed between IMP spectral properties and APXS elemental chemistry. Attempts at constraining

  5. Communicating Science to Society (United States)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie


    scientist, presenting the results and methodology of a groundbreaking lecture series at the University of Manchester, in which undergraduate and postgraduate students were taught how to be more effective communicators using methods derived from theatrical technique. Carl Sagan told us, "Science is an absolutely essential tool for any society. And if the scientists will not bring this about, who will?" It is our job to engage with the general public to ensure that this is the case.

  6. Prospectiva de la cadena láctea del departamento de Nariño al horizonte del año 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mejía Zambrano


    Full Text Available El estudio está fundamentado en el contexto de la prospectiva ectoral pertinente en el análisis del devenir del desarrollo agroindustrial de la Cadena Láctea en el Departamento de Nariño, orientada a conocer su posición competitiva de cara al advenimiento de asimétricos tratados de libre comercio, que afectará, según la Sociedad de Agricultores y Ganaderos de Nariño-Sagan, alrededor de 30.0000 familias que derivan su sustento de la producción de leche. La primer parte del estudio se apoya en el símil metodológico del Árbol de Competencia, considerando los factores críticos tecnológicos y no tecnológicos de la Agenda Prospectiva de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico de La Cadena Láctea Colombiana 2007, factores que se esgrimen a lo largo del estudio. Esta analogía se estructuró con base a pesquisa documental, trabajo de campo en zonas de mayor producción láctea a través de un muestreo aleatorio simple proporcional2 y estudio Delphi. Secuencialmente se presenta el análisis estructural, ejercicio deductivo y expresión de una de reflexión colectiva, que califica los impactos de las variables de las diferentes dimensiones del entorno, sustentado en referentes de expertos y criterios del autor. Este método permitió identificar las variables clave que se constituyen en factores de cambio. Posteriormente, a través del “juego de actores” se identificó los actores dominantes y divergentes, representados por las amenazantes transnacionales europeas y norteamericanas; los actores sociales de la región se encuentran en un plano subordinado y con bajo poder de negociación. Haciendo gala de la planeación por escenarios y validado en el análisis morfológico se diseñó el escenario apuesta denominado: “Agroindustria Láctea, Construcción Proactiva”, cuyos factores de cambio tienen una agenda alcanzable, si los actores estratégicos lo deciden antes del año 2020, ubicándose en ignota distancia la conquista de

  7. A Tale Of 160 Scientists, Three Applications, a Workshop and a Cloud (United States)

    Berriman, G. B.; Brinkworth, C.; Gelino, D.; Wittman, D. K.; Deelman, E.; Juve, G.; Rynge, M.; Kinney, J.


    The NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) hosts the annual Sagan Workshops, thematic meetings aimed at introducing researchers to the latest tools and methodologies in exoplanet research. The theme of the Summer 2012 workshop, held from July 23 to July 27 at Caltech, was to explore the use of exoplanet light curves to study planetary system architectures and atmospheres. A major part of the workshop was to use hands-on sessions to instruct attendees in the use of three open source tools for the analysis of light curves, especially from the Kepler mission. Each hands-on session involved the 160 attendees using their laptops to follow step-by-step tutorials given by experts. One of the applications, PyKE, is a suite of Python tools designed to reduce and analyze Kepler light curves; these tools can be invoked from the Unix command line or a GUI in PyRAF. The Transit Analysis Package (TAP) uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to fit light curves under the Interactive Data Language (IDL) environment, and Transit Timing Variations (TTV) uses IDL tools and Java-based GUIs to confirm and detect exoplanets from timing variations in light curve fitting. Rather than attempt to run these diverse applications on the inevitable wide range of environments on attendees laptops, they were run instead on the Amazon Elastic Cloud 2 (EC2). The cloud offers features ideal for this type of short term need: computing and storage services are made available on demand for as long as needed, and a processing environment can be customized and replicated as needed. The cloud environment included an NFS file server virtual machine (VM), 20 client VMs for use by attendees, and a VM to enable ftp downloads of the attendees' results. The file server was configured with a 1 TB Elastic Block Storage (EBS) volume (network-attached storage mounted as a device) containing the application software and attendees home directories. The clients were configured to mount the applications and

  8. Looking for a hypothetical jovian metabolisms to explain a paucity of ammonia (United States)

    Wong, M. L.


    km-2—may offer more disequilibria for life. Using a combination of thermodynamic calculations, photochemical modeling, and order-of-magnitude arguments, we will assess the possibilities of NH3-consuming metabolisms like the one above, and compare the total energy that they can deliver to that needed for Sagan & Saltpeter's (1976) ecosystem of "floaters" and "sinkers."

  9. Physiology, anaerobes, and the origin of mitosing cells 50 years on. (United States)

    Martin, William F


    Endosymbiotic theory posits that some organelles or structures of eukaryotic cells stem from free-living prokaryotes that became endosymbionts within a host cell. Endosymbiosis has a long and turbulent history of controversy and debate going back over 100 years. The 1967 paper by Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) forced a reluctant field to take endosymbiotic theory seriously and to incorporate it into the fabric of evolutionary thinking. Margulis envisaged three cellular partners associating in series at eukaryotic origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, but on multiple different occasions in her 1967 account. Today, the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and plastids (each single events, the data now say) is uncontested textbook knowledge. The host has been more elusive, recent findings identifying it as a member of the archaea, not as a sister group of the archaea. Margulis's proposal for a spirochaete origin of flagellae was abandoned by everyone except her, because no data ever came around to support the idea. Her 1967 proposal that mitochondria and plastids arose from different endosymbionts was novel. The paper presented an appealing narrative that linked the origin of mitochondria with oxygen in Earth history: cyanobacteria make oxygen, oxygen starts accumulating in the atmosphere about 2.4 billion years ago, oxygen begets oxygen-respiring bacteria that become mitochondria via symbiosis, followed by later (numerous) multiple, independent symbioses involving cyanobacteria that brought photosynthesis to eukaryotes. With the focus on oxygen, Margulis's account of eukaryote origin was however unprepared to accommodate the discovery of mitochondria in eukaryotic anaerobes. Today's oxygen narrative has it that the oceans were anoxic up until about 580 million years ago, while

  10. Looking Forward, Looking Back: Future Challenges for Narrative Research An event commemorating the tenth anniversary of the Centre for Narrative Research, University of East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Andrews


    Full Text Available The Centre for Narrative Research was founded at the turn of the millenium. To commemorate its tenth anniversary, we organised an event which took place on November 10, 2010, at the Marx Memorial Library in London. The day had a very flexible format. We began with a few opening words from the three co-directors (Molly Andrews, Corinne Squire, and Maria Tamboukou and the Research Fellow (Cigdem Esin of CNR. This was followed by contributions from six leading narrative scholars (Jens Brockmeier, Michael Erben, Mark Freeman, Margareta Hydén, Margaretta Jolly, and Olivia Sagan to which Alexandra Georgakopoulou and Matti Hyvärinen then responded. Following lunch, the sixty participants were broken up into smaller groups, where they discussed issues raised in the morning session. The day concluded with a final discussion piece offered by Mike Rustin. The six presenters were faced with a formidable challenge. We invited them to write pieces of approximately 500 words on "the promise and challenges for future narrative research, including critiques of and hopes for our own scholarship." These were prepared in advance of the event, and sent to the discussants, who were asked not only to comment upon the set of issues raised, but also to provide a framework for looking at the problems as a whole set. Not only did the contributors and discussants come from a range of different backgrounds and geographical locations, but the range of intellectual interests represented by those who attended the day was very marked: poets, writers of fiction, policy makers, psychoanalysts, sociologists, psychologists, political scientists, social workers, and others. Perhaps the most outstanding feature of the day was the conversations which happened across boundaries, characterised by both a search for common ground as well as a recognition of the different intellectual standpoints represented by the people there. What follows are written versions of the prepared, spoken

  11. Using Storytelling to Communicate Science to the Public (United States)

    Calderazzo, J.


    "Science is the greatest of all adventure stories," says physicist Brian Greene, author of The Elegant Universe. "It's been unfolding for thousands of years as we have sought to understand ourselves and our surroundings . . . and needs to be communicated in a manner that captures this drama." Carl Sagan and Neil deGrasse Tyson, the old and new storytelling hosts of Cosmos, would agree. So would Rachel Carson, who used one of the oldest and simplest of all story forms, the fable, to coax her readers into a complicated tale of pesticides, chemistry, and ecological succession. Silent Spring may well be the most influential science book of the last fifty years. More than ever, scientists need to communicate clearly and passionately to the public, the media, and decision-makers. Not everyone can be as articulate as a Jane Goodall or an Alan Rabinowitz. But humans are storytelling animals, and recent communications research suggests that information conveyed in story form activates more parts of the brain than when it is conveyed by bullet point or other non-narrative ways. Even a shy and retiring researcher can easily learn to use, at minimum, small and subtle techniques to find common ground with an audience who will not forget the message. Additionally, much recent communications research suggests strongly that the most memorable and effective way to coomunicate with the public is by conveying shared values or common ground. Stories--common to virtually every human society over time--inherently do that. As a literary and nonfiction writer for 40 years, and a university teacher of nonfiction and science/nature wiritng for the last 30, I know this first hand as well as through core scholarship about literature and narrative theory. Among other things, my talk will explore how some of the above science communication stars have used these sometimes-buried communication strategies--and how others can, too. Not crucial, but a brief interactive excerise I could conduct would

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP'09) (United States)

    Gruntorad, Jan; Lokajicek, Milos


    Physics Milos Lokajicek (co-chair), Institute of Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague Vojtech Petracek, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering and especially the Programme Committee for their careful choice of conference contributions and their enormous work with organization of 340 post conference proceedings paper review Ludek Matyska (chair), CESNET Online Computing Volker Gülzow, DESY Jiri Masik, University of Manchester/on leave from Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague Event Processing Elizabeth Sexton-Kennedy, FNAL Tomas Davidek, Charles University, Prague Software Components, Tools and Databases Paolo Calafiura, LBNL Julius Hrivnac, LAL Track 4 Hardware and Computing Fabrics Takashi Sasaki, KEK Jiri Chudoba, Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague Grid Middleware and Networking Technologies Francesco Giacomini, CERN Ales Krenek, Masaryk University, Brno/CESNET Distributed Processing and Analysis Latchezar Betev, CERN Simon Lin, ASGC, Taipei Dagmar Adamova, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague Collaborative Tools Eva Hladka, Masaryk University, Brno/CESNET Thank you to all who made CHEP'09 a success. Jan Gruntorad and Milos Lokajicek CHEP'09 Conference Chairs Prague, March 2010 The PDF and HTML files contain a list of all CHEP'09 contributions.

  13. FOREWORD Foreword (United States)

    Appourchaux, Thierry


    (chairman), Annie Baglin, William Chaplin, Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard, Laurent Gizon, Michael Thompson, Takashi Sekii (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo) and John Leibacher (IAS, Orsay, France; GONG / NSO, Tucson, Arizona, United States). This volume consists of 86 articles organised in sections reflecting the scientific programme of the conference: 012001-012024 Local helioseismology 012025-012030 Solar diameter, irradiance and activity 012031-012044 Solar and stellar modelling 012045-012056 Low degree stellar seismology 012057-012063 First results from space missions 012064-012082 Convection, dynamo and flows 012083-012086 Prospective All papers are freely accessible on the internet, in colour, at, and an interactive picture of the conference is available in the attached PDF. I am also grateful to the Local Organizing Committee for making this conference a success: Catherine Cougrand (secretary), Stéphane Caminade (web designer), Delphine Prival (administration) and Jean-Paul Rozet (logistics). I could not have done it without your help! Last but not least, let me also thank the official photographer of the conference, Pierre Assus, for producing excellent photographs, including the group photo. Please feel free to send me an e-mail at if you would like copies of these pictures. Thierry Appourchaux Editor Orsay, France 24 December 2010 Conference photograph IAS logo  Université Paris-Sud logo  CNRS logo  SOHO logo ESA logo  NASA logo  Gong logo  EADS ASTRIUM logo

  14. Management of radioactive materials and wastes: status, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Didier; Devin, Patrick; Tanguy, Loic; Bernard, Herve; Minon, Jean-Paul; Leclaire, Arnaud; Gilli, Ludivine; Lheureux, Yves; Pescatore, Claudio; Barbey, Pierre; Schneider, Thierry; Gay, Didier; Forest, Isabelle; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Baglan, Nicolas; Desnoyers, Bruno; Pieraccini, Michel; Poncet, Philippe; Seguin, Bertille; Calvez, Marianne; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Bancelin, Estelle; Fillion, Eric; Segura, Yannick; Vernaz, Etienne; Granier, Guy; De Preter, Peter; Petitfrere, Michael; Laye, Frederic; Nakamura, Takashi; Gin, Stephane; Lebaron-Jacobs, Laurence; Dinant, Sophie; Vacquier, Blandine; Crochon, Philippe; Griffault, Lise; Smith, Graham


    studies - Safety and continuous improvements (Estelle BANCELIN - EDF, Eric FILLION - CEA); - Comparative analysis between a very-low level waste storage facility and a conventional waste storage facility (Yannick SEGURA - ANDRA); - Research on nuclear wastes (Etienne VERNAZ - CEA); - Wastes characterization and intercomparison exercise (Guy GRANIER - CETAMA); - Belgium situation with respect to the long-term management of radioactive wastes (Peter DE PRETER - ONDRAF); - Wastes management in post-accident situation - the CODIRPA works (Frederic LAYE - ASN); - Wastes management in contaminated areas: Japanese situation and experience feedback 2 years after the Fukushima accident (Takashi NAKAMURA - JANUS); Radioactive waste management in the USA (Stephane GIN - CEA) - Monitoring and environmental impact of radioactive waste storage sites (Sophie DINANT - ANDRA); - Lessons learnt from a mortality and cancer impact study in the vicinity of the Aube storage facility (Blandine VACQUIER - InVS); - Evaluation of dosimetric impacts of uranium mine tailings using modeling and comparison with environmental monitoring results (Philippe CROCHON - AREVA); - Cigeo's long-term impact - methodology and presentation of the biosphere approach (Lise GRIFFAULT - ANDRA); - Evaluation of long-term impacts of radioactive waste storage facilities - Lessons learnt and perspectives of the BIOPROTA program (Graham SMITH - GMS Abingdon Ltd)

  15. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012) (United States)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun


    Technology, and was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China. On behalf of the organizing committee of FGM-2012, I express my great appreciation to their support of the symposium. Nearly 100 scholars and students from Japan, Brazil, Germany, Russia, United States of America, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Turkey, Singapore, China, and so on, attended FGM-2012, and 57 of the presented papers were collected and selected for publication. The subjects of these papers cover simulation and characterization, advanced fabrication technology, novel application of FGM and layer materials. I cordially thank all of the authors and attendees for their support, and my appreciation is also given to the advisory committee, organizing committee, and the conference volunteers for their hard work. Professor Zhangjian Zhou Proceedings Editor Beijing, December 2012 Committees International Advisory Committee Professor Glaucio H Paulino, USA Professor Marek-Jerzy Pindera, USA Professor Jeong-Ho Kim, USA Professor Emer Fazil Erdogan, USA Professor Dr Monika Willert-Porada, Germany Professor Emer Wolfgang G J Bunk, Germany Professor Omer Van Der Biest, Belgium Professor Michael M Gasik, Finland Professor Evgeny Levashov, Russia Professor Lianmeng Zhang, China Professor Qingjie Zhang, China Professor Wei Pan, China Professor Chang-Chun Ge, China Professor Jing-Feng Li, China Professor Zhangjian Zhou, China Associate Professor Serkan Dag, Turkey Professor Fernando A Rochinha, Brazil Professor Emilio C N Silva, Brazil Professor Luis August Rocha, Portugal Dr Sasa Novak, Slovenia Dr Masayuki Niino, Japan Professor Akira Kawasaki, Japan Professor Ichiro Shiota, Japan Dr Akinaga Kumakawa, Japan Dr Yoshikazu Shinohara, Japan Professor Kiyotaka Matsuura, Japan Professor Yoshinari Miyamoto, Japan Professor Takashi Goto, Japan Professor Yoshimi Watanabe, Japan Professor Kazuhiro Hasezaki, Japan Professor Soshu Kirihara, Japan Professor Emer Toshio Hirai, Japan Mr Choji Endou, Japan Dr

  16. Improvements in Patient Acceptance by Hospitals Following the Introduction of a Smartphone App for the Emergency Medical Service System: A Population-Based Before-and-After Observational Study in Osaka City, Japan. (United States)

    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Izawa, Junichi; Gibo, Koichiro; Komukai, Sho; Hayashida, Sumito; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi


    control group and 10.93% (32,819/300,395) in the smartphone app group. No change over time in the number of difficulties in hospital acceptance was found before the introduction of the smartphone app (regression coefficient: -2.43, 95% CI -5.49 to 0.64), but after its introduction, the number of difficulties in hospital acceptance gradually decreased by month (regression coefficient: -11.61, 95% CI -14.57 to -8.65). Sharing information between an ambulance and a hospital by using the smartphone app at the scene was associated with decreased difficulty in obtaining hospital acceptance. Our app and findings may be worth considering in other areas of the world where emergency medical information systems with IT are needed. ©Yusuke Katayama, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Kosuke Kiyohara, Taku Iwami, Takashi Kawamura, Junichi Izawa, Koichiro Gibo, Sho Komukai, Sumito Hayashida, Takeyuki Kiguchi, Mitsuo Ohnishi, Hiroshi Ogura, Takeshi Shimazu. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (, 11.09.2017.

  17. PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008) (United States)

    Tanaka, Takaho


    supported by Tokyo University of Science, Suwa and foundations including, the Kajima Foundation, Foundation for Promotion of Material Science and Technology of Japan and Nippon Sheet Glass Foundation for Materials Science and Engineering, as well as companies including JFE Steel Corporation, Shincron Co, Ltd, Toyo Kohan Co, Ltd, Fukuda Metal Foil and Powder Co, Ltd, Japan New Metals Co, Ltd, H C Starck Ltd and Fritsch Japan Co, Ltd. Editors Chair Takaho Tanaka (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) Vice chairs Koun Shirai (Osaka University, Japan) Kaoru Kimura (The University of Tokyo, Japan) Ken-ichi Takagi (Tokyo City University, Japan) Touetsu Shishido (Tohoku University, Japan) Shigeru Okada (Kokushikan University) Hideaki Itoh (Nagoya University,Japan) Katsumitsu Nakamura (Nihon University, Japan) Organizing committee of ISBB 2008 K Takagi Chairman (Tokyo City University) T Tanaka Program Committee Chairman (National Institute for Materials Science) K Kimura Secretary (The University of Tokyo) J Akimitsu (Aoyama University)K Shirai (Osaka University) H Itoh (Nagoya University)T Shishido (Tohoku University) K Nakamura (Nihon University)K Soga (Tokyo University of Science) K Nishiyama (Tokyo University of Science, Suwa)M Takeda (Nagaoka University of Technology) S Okada (Kokushikan University)Y Yamazaki (Toyo Kohan Co, Ltd) International Scientific Committee 0f ISBB (2008-2011) K Takagi Chairman (Japan) B Albert (Germany) J-F Halet (France) M Takeda (Japan) M Antadze (Georgia) H Hillebrecht (Germany) T Tanaka (Japan) J Bauer (France) W Jung (Germany) R Telle (Germany) I Boustani (Germany) K Kimura (Japan) M Trenary (USA) D Emin (USA) T Mori (Japan) O Tsagareishvili (Georgia) M Engler (Germany) P D Ownby (USA) H Werheit (Germany) N Frage (Israel) P Rogl (Austria) G Will (Germany) Yu Grin (Germany) S Shalamberidze (Georgia) O Yucel (Turkey) V N Gurin (Russia) N Shitsevalova (Ukraine) G Zhang (China)

  18. Life in the Clouds of Venus? An Experimental Synthetic Biology Approach (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Amatya, D.; Bajar, B.; Geilich, B.; Hu, J.; Jackson, C. J.


    The surface of Venus constitutes the most hellish and biologically inhospitable planetary surface in our solar system, boasting a pH of 0, blistering winds that can melt lead, and pressures of 60 atm. However, during the earlier years of the solar system, without the runaway greenhouse effect that has plagued the planet, Venus potentially housed oceans and perhaps even life. There is a possibility that microbes could have retreated into hospitable niches in the atmosphere, as suggested by Carl Sagan as early as 1967 [1]. For example, 50 km above the raging hell of the Venusian surface, exists a relatively temperate environment that might serve as reservoir for life. This astrobiology project seeks to explore life at the extremes and to theorize whether microbial communities could not only survive but also reproduce in the Venusian atmosphere. Specifically, we ask: are aerosols viable microbial environments? But before we can test for life in the clouds, we have to develop a proper reporter to visualize cell growth in situ. For this purpose, we aimed to develop cell-growth dependent reporters to serve as remote biosensors for cell growth. We developed two using the polA promoter, a DNA-replication dependent promoter, and nrd operon promoter, a cell-cycle dependent promoter. Using these cell-growth reporters, the next step is to aerosolize microbes expressing these reporters in a suspension chamber adapted from a Millikan Drop Apparatus to assay reproduction in an aerosolized environment. Better yet is to test the reproduction of microbes in a microgravity regime such as on ISS.Approach: We engineered two cell-cycle dependent genetic reporters. One was the polA promoter which codes for DNA Polymerase I, a gene active in DNA replication [2]. The other was the nrdP. The activation of ribonucleotide reductase reduces ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides and is involved in the bacterial cell cycle [3]. This promoter began activation during the initiation of DNA

  19. What works in planetary science outreach and what doesn't: an attempt to create a functional framing (United States)

    Urban, Z.


    "demagogy", to build a base of common interest. As a principle, the goal is that the other sides in the discussion do not feel they are forced by aggressive or reckless opponents to abandon their views, just to think them over again, now taking into account pro-planetary science arguments they fully neglected or underestimated before. Almost as a rule, the proper detailed analysis of counter-arguments in relation to their position within the value system of critics and "doubters" helps to improve one's own starting points and both strategy and tactics of objectively relevant presentation. Taken as a whole, the planetary science outreach framing along these lines was already adopted by several scientists and/or science mediators. Including classics as the late Carl Sagan. It has weak points, too, of course, but as long as one keeps in mind the need to fulfil basic scientific rigour, it is valid and useful

  20. Reseñas de libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Galindo Lucas


    , Rosa, Diccionario crítico de mitos y símbolos del nazismo. Barcelona, Acantilado Quaderns Crema, 2003, 509 pp.Páginas 208-210Julio Pérez SerranoSánchez Recio, Glicerio; Tascón Fernández, Julio (eds., Los empresarios de Franco. Política y economía en España, 1936-1957. Barcelona, Crítica, 2003, 360 pp.Páginas 210-213Jesús Romero GonzálezTerzian, Yervant; Bilson, Elizabeth (eds., El Universo de Carl Sagan. Madrid, Cambridge University Press, 1999, 336 pp.Páginas 213-216Rafael Gómez Sánchez

  1. Teaching and learning the geological knowledge as a part of the science education general field (United States)

    Aguirre-Pérez, Constancio


    space sciences" emphasizes still further such character receiving the contributions of physics, chemistry, biology and environmental science in a kind of scientific-technical mixture which enriches the discipline itself and constitutes a fundamental basis for the evolution of knowledge in its broadest sense (Martinez Frias et al. 2008). In this paper we propose to show some of the experiences and didactic innovations in the teaching of geology found in the scientific literature in recent years and likewise part of an author's own work on the establishment of analogies on the time variable based on Carl Sagan's cosmic calendar. With these analogies we try to approximate geologic times to the understanding of high school and first university courses students (Aguirre-Perez, C. 2008) REFERENCES ALIBERAS, J. GUTIÉRREZ, R. and IZQUIERDO, M. (1989). La Didáctica de las Ciencias: Una empresa racional. Enseñanza de las Ciencias, 7 (3), pp. 227-284. GUTIÉRREZ, R. (1987). Psicología y aprendizaje de las Ciencias. El modelo de Ausubel. Enseñanza de las Ciencias, 5 (2), pp. 118-128. MARTÍNEZ FRÍAS, J. LUNAR, R. RODRÍGUEZ-LOSADA, J.A. EFF-DARWICH, A. and MADERO JARABO, J. (2008)"La Geología en la exploración planetaria (Geology inplanetary exploration). Geo-temas 10, pp. 1621-1624. PEDRINACI, E. (2000): La Enseñanza y el aprendizaje del conocimiento geológico. Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales. Teoría y Práctica de la Enseñanza de las ciencias, pp. 479-503. Ed. Marfil.

  2. Miller-Urey Experiments to Assess the Production of Amino Acids under Impact Conditions on Early Titan (United States)

    Turse, Carol; Khan, A.; Leitner, J. J.; Firneis, M. G.; Schulze-Makuch, D.


    We performed Miller-Urey type experiments to determine the organic synthesis of amino acids under conditions that have likely occurred on Saturn's moon Titan and are also relevant to Jupiter's moon Europa. We conducted the first set of experiments under early Earth conditions, similar to the original Miller-Urey experiments (Miller, 1953). In brief, the 250ml round bottom flask was filled with approximately 200mL of filtered sterile water and the apparatus was placed under vacuum for 10 minutes to purge the water of gases. The system was then flushed with hydrogen gas and placed under vacuum three times. Gases were then added in the following order: hydrogen gas to 0.1 bar, methane gas to 0.45 bar and ammonia to 0.45 bar ( 1bar total). The water was then brought to a boil and the spark was applied using the tesla coil up to a maximum of 50,000 volts. The apparatus was run for approximately 5-7 days. Between the runs the apparatus was cleaned using a hot 10% sodium hydroxide solution followed by a dilute sulfuric acid wash and four rinses with Millipure water. In the second set of experiments we simulated conditions that could have existed on an early, warm Titan or after an asteroid strike on Titan (Schulze-Makuch and Grinspoon, 2005), particularly if the strike would have occurred in the subpolar areas that exhibit vast ethane-methane lakes. If the asteroid or comet would be of sufficient size, it would also puncture the icy crust and access a vast reservoir of the subsurface liquid ammonia-water mixture. Thompson and Sagan (1992) showed that a liquid water-ammonia body could exist for millions of years on Titan after an asteroid impact. Thus, we modified the experimental conditions as described above and report on the results. Assuming a moderate impact in the subpolar areas of Titan, we used an atmosphere of currently 1.5 bar, but increased the partial pressure of methane to 1 bar (and 0.1 bar ammonia assuming a minor amount of ammonia-water ice being evaporated

  3. Does the Galactic Bulge Have Fewer Planets? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The Milky Ways dense central bulge is a very different environment than the surrounding galactic disk in which we live. Do the differences affect the ability of planets to form in the bulge?Exploring Galactic PlanetsSchematic illustrating how gravitational microlensing by an extrasolar planet works. [NASA]Planet formation is a complex process with many aspects that we dont yet understand. Do environmental properties like host star metallicity, the density of nearby stars, or the intensity of the ambient radiation field affect the ability of planets to form? To answer these questions, we will ultimately need to search for planets around stars in a large variety of different environments in our galaxy.One way to detect recently formed, distant planets is by gravitational microlensing. In this process, light from a distant source star is bent by a lens star that is briefly located between us and the source. As the Earth moves, this momentary alignment causes a blip in the sources light curve that we can detect and planets hosted by the lens star can cause an additional observable bump.Artists impression of the Milky Way galaxy. The central bulge is much denserthan the surroundingdisk. [ESO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kornmesser/R. Hurt]Relative AbundancesMost source stars reside in the galactic bulge, so microlensing events can probe planetary systems at any distance between the Earth and the galactic bulge. This means that planet detections from microlensing could potentially be used to measure the relative abundances of exoplanets in different parts of our galaxy.A team of scientists led by Matthew Penny, a Sagan postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, set out to do just that. The group considered a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by microlensing and asked the following question: are the planet abundances in the galactic bulge and the galactic disk the same?A Paucity of PlanetsTo answer this question, Penny and collaborators derived the expected

  4. Obituary: Sidney Edelson, 1916-2002 (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald Keith


    including the U.S. Naval Observatory (1948-56), the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (1956-1964), NASA Ames Research Center (1964-1972) and the University of Graz Austria (1972-1974). During the period 1975-1985, he acted as a consultant for solar energy initiatives and in 1978-1981, he served as a volunteer science advisor for Congressman Robert Lagomarsino in Santa Barbara California. Upon the death of his wife Erny in 1992, he endowed two Erny Margaret Edelson memorial scholarships at Santa Barbara City College, one in nursing and one in radiography. In honor of Carl Sagan, he endowed a third scholarship in planetary sciences. Also in honor of his wife, he donated ancient works of Chinese art to the Santa Barbara Museum of Art. One of the activities for which he was most proud was his support, at Ames, of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, an activity for which he received an Apollo Achievement Award. He had both a distinguished military career and a successful scientific career. Sidney's siblings are his brothers Leon and Jack Edelson and his sisters, Edith Caballero, Dr. Terry Smolar, and Sophia Forman (now deceased).

  5. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.


    's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

  6. Chemistry in the Dunes of Titan: Tribochemical Reactions of Complex Organics and Water Ice (United States)

    Beauchamp, J. L.; Thomas, D. A.


    . Experiments modeling such systems are being conducted with laboratory-produced tholins and model unsaturated hydrocarbons, nitriles, imines, and aromatic compounds, and the results and implications of these studies will be presented. 1. Coates, A. J., A. Wellbrock, G. R. Lewis, G. H. Jones, D. T. Young, F. J. Crary, and J. H. Waite Jr (2009), Planet. Space Sci., 57(14-15), 1866-1871. 2. Crary, F. J., B. A. Magee, K. Mandt, J. H. Waite Jr, J. Westlake, and D. T. Young (2009), Planet. Space Sci., 57(14-15), 1847-1856. 3. Khare, B. N., C. Sagan, E. T. Arakawa, F. Suits, T. A. Callcott, and M. W. Williams (1984), Icarus, 60(1), 127-137. 4. Ramirez, S. I., P. Coll, A. da Silva, R. Navarro-González, J. Lafait, and F. Raulin (2002), Icarus, 156(2), 515-529. 5. Imanaka, H., and M. A. Smith (2010), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107(28), 12423-12428. 6. Lorenz, R. D., et al. (2006), Science, 312(5774), 724-727. 7. O'Brien, D. P., R. D. Lorenz, and J. I. Lunine (2005), Icarus, 173(1), 243-253. 8. Neish, C. D., A. Somogyi, and M. A. Smith (2010), Astrobiology, 10(3), 337-347. 9. Beyer, M. K., and H. Clausen-Schaumann (2005), Chem. Rev., 105(8), 2921-2948. 10. Kajdas, C., and K. Hiratsuka (2009), Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J, 223(6), 827-848.

  7. The moon as a stepping stone for a spacefaring civilization (United States)

    Multhaup, K.


    sitting on the surface of the moon. It will enable astronauts to pick up where Harrison Schmitt—the first (and to date last) geologist to walk on the moon—left off in 1972. Image: NASA. In the second tier though, the focus of science shifts away from basic understanding. We shall apply our scientific knowledge and use it to settle on other worlds. Why? Simply because we are an exploratory species! Human exploration of the solar system does not need to be justified by science. This misjudgement is with us ever since we first discussed the true value of Apollo. The concept of man in space is of paramount importance in itself. Not many will adapt this view. But there is more. Carl Sagan wrote: "… every surviving civilization is obliged to become spacefaring—not because of exploratory or romantic zeal, but for the most practical reason imaginable: staying alive." In this context, understanding how the planets, moons and asteroids work will be a key to becoming true solar system dwellers and protect our well-being against selfimposed threats or cosmic catastrophes. The moon as a stepping stone Maybe the timing of the Apollo program was a mistake. We took the second step well before the first. The first step should have been establishing ourselves in low Earth orbit. Now we are in the process of doing so—although the sheer impact of our early "giant leap" has made it difficult for NASA over the years to sell less ambitious programs to the various adminsitrations of the U.S. and to the public. Or to the scientific community. Of course, the shuttle and ISS programs do not serve exploration per se. "That's not exploration; that's like driving a bus over the same highway two hundred miles," the above cited Sagan also said. But through the shuttle and the station that we built using it, we are learning how to live and work in space. Fig. 4 Today's astronauts are living and working in low Earth orbit. Image: NASA. Now, we are ready for the second step. While we could also

  8. Can the biogenicity of Europa's surfical sulfur be tested simultaneously with penetrators and ion traps? (United States)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Bhattacherjee, A. B.; Dudeja, S.; Kumar, N.; Seckbach, J.


    We suggest a biogenic interpretation of the sulfur patches on the Europan icy surface. This hypothesis is testable by LAPLACE, or a later mission, in which the instrumentation on board are penetrators, or ion traps, with component selection including miniaturized mass spectrometry. The argument in favor of such instrumentation and component selection is as follows: Extreme environments with microbes can act as models for extraterrestrial life (Seckbach et al., 2008). Suggestions have ranged from Venusian environments (Sagan, 1967, Seckbach and Libby, 1970) to Mars (Grilli Caiola and Billi, 2007). Active photosynthetic microbial communities are found on Antarctica, both in and on ice, in fresh water, in saline lakes and streams and within rocks. In the dry valley lakes of Antarctica close to the McMurdo Base, microbial mats are known to selectively remove a huge quantity of sulfur (Parker et al., 1982). Lake Vostok in Antarctica possesses a perennially thick (3 to 4 km) ice-cover that precludes photosynthesis, thus making this subglacial environment a good model system for determining how a potential Europan biota might emerge, evolve and distribute itself. Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a subsurface water ocean, which lies beneath an ice layer that might be too thick to allow photosynthesis, just as in Lake Vostok. However, disequilibrium chemistry driven by charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere could produce sufficient organic and oxidant molecules for an Europan biosphere (Chyba, 2000). We restrict our attention to microbial mats that could still be thriving in spite of the extreme conditions of radiation on Europa. We are especially concerned with sulfur patches discovered by the Galileo mission. In the near future there are technologies available to settle the question of habitability on Europa, such as penetrators that are currently being developed for preliminary trials nearer to the Earth—the Moon-Lite mission (Smith et al., 2008). If analogies

  9. [Research and control of relapse tuberculosis cases]. (United States)

    Yamagishi, Fumio; Toyota, Makoto


    lesions in chest X-p, sputum smear positive and heavy alcohol-drinkers. The factors leading to defaulting of the treatment were lack in understanding of the treatment and their economic problems. Reexamination of the treatment and support of the patients are important to prevent the retreatment of the pulmonary tuberculosis. 6. Proportion of drug resistance among relapse tuberculosis cases, summary of Ryoken studies 1977-2002: Takashi YOSHIYAMA (Fukujuji Hospital). We have no historical analysis of the proportion of drug resistance among relapse TB cases. Therefore we would like to analyze the proportion of drug resistance among relapse cases in Japan. Re-analysis of the data of drug susceptibility survey of Ryoken from 1977 to 2002. The proportion of relapse cases among Ryoken has decreased in 1982-1987 and that proportion was 10% in 2002. The average age of relapse cases was 5 years older than the new cases and it was 66 years in 2002. The proportion of drug resistance among relapse cases has decreased form 39% (in 1977) to 16% (in 2002) for isoniazid, was stable and around 10% for rifampicin with 7.5% in 2002. The risk factors for drug resistance were younger age, foreigners and part time job. The proportion of drug resistance was higher among cases that were failure with previous treatment, then default with previous treatment and lower among cases with cure/completion at the previous treatment but this tendency was without significance.

  10. PREFACE: Tenth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP2007) (United States)

    Inoue, Kunio; Suzuki, Atsuto; Mitsui, Tadao


    Otsuka, and Ms Yuri Endo, our workshop secretaries, for their continuous and excellent work in the organization of the conference, and to Ms Chiyo Itoh, and Ms Machiko Mizutani, for their invaluable assistance during the conference. We also gratefully thank the technical staff: Tomoaki Takayama, Hiromitsu Hanada, Takashi Nakajima, for their invaluable help. As announced at the end of the conference, TAUP 2009 will be held in Gran Sasso, Italy, hosted by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) with the chair of Professor Eugenio Coccia. Kunio Inoue, Atsuto Suzuki and Tadao Mitsui COMMITTEES TAUP Steering Committee F T Avignone U South Carolina B C Barish CALTECH E Bellotti U Milano/INFN J Bernabéu U Valencia A Bottino (chair) U Torino/INFN V de Alfaro U Torino/INFN T Kajita ICRR U Tokyo C W Kim Johns Hopkins Univ /KIAS E Lorenz U München V Matveev INR Moskow J Morales U Zaragoza D Sinclair U Carleton M Spiro IN2P3 TAUP 2007 International Advisory Committee J J Aubert CNRS Marseille M Baldo-Ceolin U Padova/INFN V Berezinsky INFN-LNGS/INR L Bergström U Stockholm R Bernabei U Roma Tor Vergata/INFN A Bettini U Padova/INFN S Bilenky JINR Dubna D O Caldwell U C Santa Barbara E Coccia INFN-LNGS/U Roma Tor Vergata J Cronin U Chicago A Dar Technion Haifa G Domogatsky INR Moscow H Ejiri U Osaka J Ellis CERN E Fernández IFAE Barcelona E Fiorini U Milano/INFN G Fogli U Bari/INFN T Gaisser U Delaware G Gelmini UCLA G Gerbier CEA Saclay F Halzen U Wisconsin W Haxton U Washington T Kirsten MPI Heidelberg L Maiani U Roma/INFN A McDonald Queen's U K Nakamura KEK E Peterson U Minneapolis R Petronzio INFN/U Roma Tor Vergata G Raffelt MPI München R Rebolo IAC Tenerife L Resvanis U Athens P Salati U Savoie/LAPTH Annecy A Smirnov ICTP Trieste N Spooner U Sheffield S Ting MIT/CERN Y Totsuka U Tokyo M S Turner FNAL/U Chicago J W F Valle IFIC Valencia D Vignaud APC Paris F von Feilitzsch T U München G Zatsepin INR Moscow TAUP 2007 Organizing Committee A Bottino U Torino/INFN D

  11. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures (United States)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei


    nanometer scale. This special section contains interesting papers on graphene, h-BN and related 'honeycomb' compounds on solid surfaces, which are currently in development. Interfacial interaction strongly modifies the electronic and atomic structures of these overlayer systems and substrate surfaces. In addition, one can recognize a variety of growth phenomena by changing the surface and growth conditions, which are promising as regards fabricating those noble nanosystems. We have great pleasure in acknowledging the enthusiastic response and participation of our invited authors and their diligent preparation of the manuscripts. Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures contents Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structuresThomas Geber and Chuhei Oshima Templating of arrays of Ru nanoclusters by monolayer graphene/Ru Moirés with different periodicitiesEli Sutter, Bin Wang, Peter Albrecht, Jayeeta Lahiri, Marie-Laure Bocquet and Peter Sutter Controllable p-doping of graphene on Ir(111) by chlorination with FeCl3N A Vinogradov, K A Simonov, A V Generalov, A S Vinogradov, D V Vyalikh, C Laubschat, N Mårtensson and A B Preobrajenski Optimizing long-range order, band gap, and group velocities for graphene on close-packed metal surfacesF D Natterer, S Rusponi, M Papagno, C Carbone and H Brune Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces: chemical vapor deposition versus liquid phase depositionSamuel Grandthyll, Stefan Gsell, Michael Weinl, Matthias Schreck, Stefan Hüfner and Frank Müller High-yield boron nitride nanosheets from 'chemical blowing': towards practical applications in polymer compositesXuebin Wang, Amir Pakdel, Chunyi Zhi, Kentaro Watanabe, Takashi Sekiguchi, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando BCx layers with honeycomb lattices on an NbB2(0001) surfaceChuhei Oshima Epitaxial growth of boron-doped graphene by thermal decomposition of B4CWataru Norimatsu, Koichiro Hirata, Yuta Yamamoto, Shigeo Arai and Michiko

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanatip Kesavadhana


    -Bintuni, and hinterland. Leiden: DSALCUL, Jakarta: ISIR, 1997, vii + 120 pp. [Irian Jaya Source Materials 15.] - Robert W, Hefner, Daniel Chirot, Essential outsiders: Chinese and Jews in the modern transformation of Southeast Asia and Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997, vii + 335 pp., Anthony Reid (eds. - Bob Hering, Lambert Giebels, Soekarno, Nederlandsch onderdaan; Biografie 1901-1950. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1999, 531 pp. - Karin van Lotringen, David Brown, The state and ethnic politics in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge, 1994, xxi + 354 pp. - Ethan Mark, Takashi Shiraishi, Approaching Suharto’s Indonesia from the margins. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1994, 153 pp. - Harry Poeze, J.A. Manusama, Eigenlijk moest ik niet veel hebben van de politiek; Herinneringen aan mijn leven in de Oost 1910-1953. Utrecht: Moluks Historisch Museum, ‘s-Gravenhage: Bintang, 1999, 301 pp. - Nico Schulte Nordholt, Hans Antlöv, Exemplary centre, administrative periphery; Rural leadership and the New Order in Java. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1995, xi + 222 pp. [Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Monograph Series 68.] - Cornelia M.I. van der Sluys, Danielle C. Geirnaert-Martin, The woven land of Laboya; Socio-cosmic ideas and values in West Sumba, eastern Indonesia. Leiden: Centre for Non Western Studies, Leiden University, 1992, xxxv + 449 pp. [CNWS Publications 11.] - Nicholas Tarling, Tom Marks, The British acquisition of Siamese Malaya (1896-1909. Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 1997, vii + 167 pp. - B.J. Terwiel, Chanatip Kesavadhana, Chulalangkorn, roi de Siam: Itineraire d’un voyage à Java en 1886. Paris: EHESS, 1993, vi + 204 pp. [Cahier d’Archipel 20.] - Jaap Timmer, Polly Wiessner, Historical vines; Enga networks of exchange, ritual, and warfare in Papua New Guinea, with translations and assistance by Nitze Pupu. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998, xvii + 494 pp., Akii Tumu (eds. - Robert van Niel, Margaret

  13. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 (United States)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.


    , Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. We thank those who contributed to this symposium as well as members of the 'Soft Matter Physics' project for their valuable discussions and collaborations. Non-equilibrium soft matter contents Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models G Garbès Putzel and M Schick Dynamical membrane curvature instability controlled by intermonolayer friction Anne-Florence Bitbol, Jean-Baptiste Fournier, Miglena I Angelova and Nicolas Puff Numerical investigations of the dynamics of two-component vesicles Takashi Taniguchi, Miho Yanagisawa and Masayuki Imai Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique Y Sakuma, N Urakami, T Taniguchi and M Imai Hydration, phase separation and nonlinear rheology of temperature-sensitive water-soluble polymers Fumihiko Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Koga, Isamu Kaneda and Françoise M Winnik Morphology and rheology of an immiscible polymer blend subjected to a step electric field under shear flow H Orihara, Y Nishimoto, K Aida, Y H Na, T Nagaya and S Ujiie Surfactant-induced friction reduction for hydrogels in the boundary lubrication regime Kosuke Kamada, Hidemitsu Furukawa, Takayuki Kurokawa, Tomohiro Tada, Taiki Tominaga, Yukihiro Nakano and Jian Ping Gong Fabrication and structural analysis of polyrotaxane fibers and films Yasuhiro Sakai, Kentaro Ueda, Naoya Katsuyama, Koji Shimizu, Shunya Sato, Jun Kuroiwa, Jun Araki, Akira Teramoto, Koji Abe, Hideaki Yokoyama and Kohzo Ito Micellization kinetics of diblock copolymers in a homopolymer matrix: a self-consistent field study Raghuram Thiagarajan and David C Morse Hierarchical self-assembly of two-length-scale multiblock copolymers Gerrit ten Brinke, Katja Loos, Ivana Vukovic and Gerrit Gobius du Sart Kaleidoscopic morphologies from ABC star-shaped terpolymers Yushu Matsushita, Kenichi Hayashida, Tomonari Dotera and Atsushi Takano Direct and inverted nematic

  14. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from ISAMMA 2010 (Sendai, Japan, 12-16 July 2010) Invited papers from ISAMMA 2010 (Sendai, Japan, 12-16 July 2010) (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; Saito, H.


    Yanagihara, Yuta Toyoda and Eiji Kita Monte Carlo simulations of the magnetocaloric effect in magnetic Ni-Mn-X (X = Ga, In) Heusler alloys V D Buchelnikov, V V Sokolovskiy, S V Taskaev, V V Khovaylo, A A Aliev, L N Khanov, A B Batdalov, P Entel, H Miki and T Takagi Changes in electronic states and magnetic free energy in La1-zCez(FexSi1-x)13 magnetic refrigerants A Fujita, S Fujieda and K Fukamichi Garnet composite films with Au particles fabricated by repetitive formation for enhancement of Faraday effect H Uchida, Y Mizutani, Y Nakai, A A Fedyanin and M Inoue Control of magnetic domain wall displacement using spin current in small in-plane magnetic field in Permalloy nanowires Yoshihiko Togawa, Takashi Kimura, Ken Harada, Akira Tonomura and Yoshichika Otani Magnetic-field tunable transmittance in a ferrofluid-filled silicon nitride photonic crystal slab H M Lee, L Horng and J C Wu Evaluation of a miniature magnetostrictive actuator using Galfenol under tensile stress Toshiyuki Ueno, Hidemitsu Miura and Sotoshi Yamada Sub-nm resolution depth profiling of the magnetic structure of thin films by the depth-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique K Amemiya and M Sakamaki

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Metcalf


    Netherlands East Indies: Scenarios, plans, policy 1892-1920], Amsterdam: Van Soeren, 1988, 482 pp. - Rudy de Jongh, Sjoerd Rienk Jaarsma, Waarneming en interpretatie. Vergaring en gebruik van ethnografische informatie in Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea (1950-1962. Utrecht: Interdisiplinair Sociaal Wetenschappelijk Onderzoekinstituut Rijksuniversiteit, 1990. 247 pp. English summary. - Ward Keeler, J.Joseph Errington, Structure and style in Javanese: A semiotic view of linguistic etiquette, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988, 290 pp. - Ank Klomp, Raymond T. Smith, Kinship and class in the West Indies; A genealogical study of Jamaica and Guyana, Cambridge etc.: Cambridge Studies in Social Anthropology, Cambridge University Press, 1988. - G.J. Knaap, A.H.P. Clemens, Het belang van de Buitengewesten; Economische expansie en koloniale staatsvorming in de Buitengewesten van Nederlands-Indië 1870-1942, NEHA-series III, deel 7, Amsterdam: NEHA, viii + 306 pp. 1989., J.Th. Lindblad (eds. - Jaap de Moor, E.S. van Eyck van Heslinga, Van compagnie naar koopvaardij; De scheepvaartverbinding van de Bataafse Republiek met de koloniën in Azië 1795-1806, Amsterdam: De Bataafsche Leeuw, 1988. [Hollandse Historische Reeks, no. IX.] 320 pp., kaart, ills., tabellen, bibliografie, index. - Otto van den Muijzenberg, Jean-Claude Lejosne, Le journal de voyage de G. van Wuysthoff et de ses assistants au Laos (1641-1642, Metz: Editions du Centre de Documentation du Cercle de Culture et de Recherches Laotiennes, 1987. 370 pp., 3 indices, bibliography, maps, illustrations. - Gert J. Oostindie, M.J. van den Blink, Olie op de golven; De betrekkingen tussen Nederland/Curaçao en Venezuela gedurende de eerste helft van de twintigste eeuw, Amsterdam: De Bataafsche Leeuw, 1988, 128 pp. - Rien Ploeg, Robert M. Hill II, Continuities in highland Maya social organisation, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, xxii + 176 pp., 1987., John Monaghan (eds. - Harry A. Poeze, Takashi Shiraishi, An

  16. Thunderstorm activity in early Earth: same estimations from point of view a role of electric discharges in formation of prebiotic conditions (United States)

    Serozhkin, Yu.


    , discharges in mesosphere - sprites, elves and jets) puts a question about comparison of the potential efficiency of various discharges for the synthesis of biochemical compounds. The efficiency of lightning's discharges and coronal discharge is compared by Chyba and Sagan [4]. Authors do a conclusion about greater efficiency of lightning discharge for synthesis of organic substances. How to estimate efficiency of various types of discharges at synthesis of chemical compounds? It seems that in the absence of full understanding of mechanism of synthesis under effect of discharges it is necessary to begin from an estimation of quantity of substance located in the field of discharge and energy of discharge. However by viewing a role of energy it is necessary to remember, that at discharge of the usual lightning its main part is spent for a heating of the channel up to high temperatures, at which the organic compounds can not be preserved. We are compared the usual lightning, electrical discharges in mesosphere (sprites etc.) and lightning at eruption of volcanoes. In the Table are shown the following data about the basic types of the terrestrial lightning: - quantity of flashes in one year; - volume occupied by discharge (for usual lightning product of cross section of the channel on length of lightning); - quantity of air in this volume; - product quantity of air on number of flashes in one year. From these dates follows that: - the frequency and energy (≈ 5·102 MJ) of usual lightings make their basic candidate for a role of an energy source for synthesis in atmosphere. Terrestrial lightning is played important role at transformation of low-molecular compounds (NOx). - the huge volume and amount of substance in area of sprites give a reason to speak about their large possibilities for synthesis. As to energy, in sprites (≈ 10 MJ) are absent the losses on heating of substance. The efficiency of its using for synthesis will be more, than in usual lightning. At last time

  17. PREFACE: Introduction to the proceedings of Dynamics Days South America 2010 (United States)

    Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.


    São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Rubens SampaioPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Ruedi StoopSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyUZH/ETHZ Zurich - Switzerland Sylvio Ferraz MelloUniversidade de São PauloSão Paulo - SP - Brazil Takashi YoneyamaITA - Instituto Tecnológico de AeronáuticaSão José dos Campos - SP - Brazil Ying-Cheng LaiArizona State UniversityTempe - AZ - USA Organizing Committee Antonio Carlos Roque da SilvaUSP - Universidade de São PauloRibeirão Preto - SP - Brazil Antonio F Bertachini de Almeida Prado (Co-chair)INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas EspaciaisSão José dos Campos - SP - Brazil Arturo C MartiFacultad de CienciaMontevideo - Uruguai Carlos Leopoldo Pando LambruschiniBenemérita Universidad Autónoma de PueblaPuebla - Mexico Edson Denis LeonelUNESP - "Júlio de Mesquisa Filho"Rio Claro - SP - Brazil Elbert E N Macau (Chair)INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas EspaciaisSão José dos Campos - SP - Brazil Gerard Olivar TostUniversidad National de ColombiaManizales - Colombia Hamilton VarelaUSP - Universidade de São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Hilda Cerdeira (Co-chair)IFT - Instituto de Física TeóricaSão Paulo - SP - Brazil Iberê Luiz CaldasUSP - Universidade de São PauloSão Paulo - SP - Brazil José Manoel BalthazarUNESP - "Júlio de Mesquisa Filho"Rio Claro - SP - Brazil José Roberto Castilho PiqueiraUSP - Universidade de São PauloSão Paulo - SP - Brazil Luciano da Fontoura CostaUSP - Universidade de São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Luiz de Siqueira Martins FilhoUFABC - Universidade Federal do ABCSanto André - SP - Brazil Marcel G ClercUniversidad de ChileSantiago - Chile Miguel VizcardoUniversidad de ArequipaArequipa - Peru Gonzalo Marcelo Ramirez ÁvilaUniversidad Mayor de San AndrésLa Paz - Bolivia Marco Aurélio Pires IdiartUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto Alegre - RS - Brazil Marcus de AguiarUNICAMPCampinas - SP - Brazil Mario CosenzaUniversidad de Los Andes

  18. [Tuberculosis care and new horizon of Japanese society]. (United States)

    Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Nagayama, Naohiro


    Current tuberculosis (TB) problems are reflections of Japanese society. Living or dying alone among the elderly, difficulty in finding jobs or withdrawal into themselves among the youths are features of modem society. The future needs for TB care were discussed on specific topics of TB among the elderly, foreigners and the homeless. Presenters showed the importance of the patient-centered care in collaboration with public health and welfare services. Both patients and staffs will see others shining, as they touch each other in the deep part of human existence. A diabetic ex-TB patient talked his experience in his treatment. His window of mind was gradually opened from inside with the continuous support in DOTS by the staff of the public health center. To accumulate these experiences of a heartwarming atmosphere will have the effective power on establishment of social supporting systems. This symposium can be a step towards humanized society or a new horizon of public health which can answer to another need of inner cry of a sick people particularly among the socially disadvantaged who are the victims of the weakness of society. 1. Current situation and issues of elderly tuberculosis patients: Eriko SHIGETO (NHO Higashihiroshima Medical Center). By the analysis of 102 tuberculosis patients of 70 years old and above who were registered at Hiroshima Prefectural Health Center in 2009, 41 patients had severe complications such as diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, malignancy or cerebrovascular disorder. Their prognosis was rather poor and the ADL tended to be worsened during hospitalization. Though 16 of the 34 deaths were caused with non-tuberculosis diseases, the ratio of the tuberculosis deaths was higher (4/17) among the patients living alone. Sufficient care of the elderly for early diagnosis, care system to treat various complications and patient support are required. 2. Provision of medical interpreters to help foreigners with tuberculosis in Tokyo: Takashi

  19. Obituary: William Gordon (1918-2010) (United States)

    Terzian, Yervant


    atmospheric section to investigate the changes in the physical parameters of the ionosphere. Bill Gordon, in 1966, moved to Rice University in Houston, Texas, where he was a Distinguished Professor and Senior Administrator (Dean, Provost and Vice President). The Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in 1970 was designated as 'The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center' (NAIC), and began to be funded as a National Center by the National Science Foundation. Cornell has remained the managing institution since that time. Early in the 1970s a grant from the NSF made it possible to replace the surface of the telescope with perforated rigid panels allowing it to operate at least up to 5000 MHz. In the 1990s the long imperfect line feeds were replaced by a complex Gregorian system that greatly increased the sensitivity of the telescope. This allowed the radiation to be collected at a focal point rather than via a long line. These and other major improvements have kept the telescope as the most sensitive radio/radar telescope in the world. Observations of pulsars at Arecibo resulted in the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics to Joseph Taylor and Russell Hulse who indirectly showed that gravitational waves exist, as Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts. In 1990 Aleksander Wolszczan discovered a special pulsar and he was able to show that it was surrounded by earth size planets. The exotic and photogenic giant radar/radio telescope has also been featured in prominent movies such as the James Bond 'Golden Eye' in 1995, and Carl Sagan's 'Contact' in 1997. Bill's many graduate students from Cornell and Rice, simply adored him. One of his students, Dr. Richard A. Behnke, has said 'Simply he was the greatest man I have known'. Bill was married to Elva Freile Gordon for 61 years. Elva died in 2001. Bill later remarried with Elizabeth Bolgiano Gordon. In his career Bill received many awards. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, and

  20. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Iturriaga Barco


    énez BautistaMansurnoor, Iik Arifin, Islam in an Indonesian World Ulama of Madura. Yogyakarta, Gadjah Mada University Press, 1990, 471 pp.Páginas 225-226Ibrahim Abu BakarMoradiellos, Enrique, 1936. Los mitos de la Guerra Civil. Barcelona, Península, 2004, 249 pp.Páginas 226-228José Luis Rodríguez JiménezPedrol Robira, Xabier; Pisarello Prados, Gerardo, La Constitución furtiva. Por una construcción social y democrática de Europa. Barcelona, Icaria, 2004, 112 pp.Páginas 228-230Andrés Herrera FeligrerasSagan, Carl et al., Murmurs of Earth. The Voyager interstellar record. New York, Random House, 1992, 2nd ed., 275 pp.Páginas 230-232Rafael Gómez SánchezSchirrmacher, Frank, El complot de Matusalem. Madrid, Taurus, 2004, 253 pp.Páginas 232-234José Francisco Tinao Martín-PeñaStiglitz, Joseph E., Los felices 90. La semilla de la destrucción. Madrid, Santillana, 2003, 415 pp.Páginas 234-237Alfonso Galindo LucasViejo Fernández, José Antonio, Modernización demográfica y transformaciones económicas en Sanlúcar de Barrameda (1900-1936. Cádiz, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz; Fundación de Cultura de Sanlúcar de Barrameda, 2004, 176 pp.Páginas 237-239Alejandro Román Antequera

  1. The Early History of Life (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.


    ago, for the most part the planet was peaceful. Even the most active volcanoes are mostly quiet; meteorites large enough to extinguish all dinosaurs may have hit as often as every few thousand years, but this is not enough to be a nuisance to a bacterium (except when the impact boiled the ocean); while to the photosynthesizer long-term shifts in the solar spectrum may be less of a problem than cloudy hazy days. Though, admittedly, green is junk light to biology, the excretion from the photosynthetic antennae, nevertheless even a green sky would have had other wavelengths also in its spectrum.Most important of all, like all good houses, this planet had location: Earth was just in the right spot. Not too far from the faint young Sun (Sagan and Chyba, 1997), it was also far enough away still to be in the comfort zone ( Kasting et al., 1993) when the mature Sun brightened. As many have pointed out, when Goldilocks arrived, she found everything just right. But what is less obvious is that as she grew and changed, and the room changed too, she commenced to rearrange the furniture to make it ever righter for her. Thus far, the bears have not arrived, though they may have reclaimed Mars from Goldilocks's sister see ( Figure 1). (3K)Figure 1. The habitable zone (Kasting et al., 1993). Too close to the Sun, a planet's surface is too hot to be habitable; too far, it is too cold. Early in the history of the solar system, the Sun was faint and the habitable zone was relatively close; 4.5 Ga later, with a brighter Sun, planets formerly habitable are now too hot, and the habitable zone has shifted out. Note that boundaries can shift. By changing its albedo and by altering the greenhouse gas content of the air, the planet can significantly widen the bounds of the habitable zone (Lovelock, 1979, 1988).

  2. The microbe capture experiment in space: Fluorescence microscopic detection of microbes captured by aerogel (United States)

    Sugino, Tomohiro; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Okudaira, Kyoko; Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    particles such as clay). The surface of micro-particles captured by aerogel is often vitrified. The non-specific fluorescent light is often observed from vitrified materials. Therefore, we need to distinguish fluorescent light of stained microbes from that of vitrified ma-terials. We are going to use two types of differences (wavelength dependence and attenuation rate of fluorescent) between stained microbes with DNA-specific fluorescent dye and other ma-terials such as clay and aerogel. Fluorescent light of stained microbes shows attenuation faster than that of vitrified materials. Fluorescent light of vitrified materials shows broader range of emission spectra than that of stained microbes. In addition, we simulated the high-speed collision experiment of micro-particles to the aerogel with the two stage light gas gun (ca. 4 km/s). The micro-particles containing pre-stained and dried cells of Deinococcus radiodurans mixed with clay material were used for the collision experiment, and the captured particles were observed with fluorescence microscope. This experiment suggests that the captured microbes can be detected and be distinguished from clay materials. Reference [1] Yang, Y. et al. (2009) Biol. Sci. Space, 23, 151-163. [2] Yang, Y., et al. (2008) Biol. Sci. Space 22:18-25. [3] Yang, Y., et al. (2008) JAXA-RR-08-001: 34-42. [4] Yang, Y., et al. (2009) Internatl. J. Syst. Evol. Bacteriol., 59: 1862-1866. [5] Yang, Y. et al. (2010) Internatl. J. Syst. Evol. Bacteriol. (in press). [6] Arrhenius, S. (1908) Worlds in the Making-the Evolution of the Universe (translation to English by H. Borns) Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York. [7]Crick, F. (1981) Life Itself. Simon Schuster, New York. [8] W.L. Nicholson et al., Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 548. [9] G. Horneck et al., Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 31 (2001) 527. [10] Chyba, C. and C. Sagan (1992) Nature 355: 125-132. [11] Sandford, S. A., et al. (2006) Science 314: 1720-1724. [12] Yamagishi, A., et al. (2008

  3. Obituary: Damon Paul Simonelli, 1959-2004 (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie Jean; Veverka, Joseph


    Damon Paul Simonelli died unexpectedly on 1 December 2004 after he collapsed of heart failure at his home near Pasadena, California. Damon led pioneering studies in the scientific exploration of the satellites of the Solar System with spacecraft. He was a longtime member of the AAS's Division for Planetary Sciences community. Only two weeks before his death he attended the 2004 DPS meeting in Louisville where he presented a paper on the surface roughness of Phoebe based on Cassini observations. Damon was born in the Bronx, New York, on 15 August 1959. His father, Aldo Simonelli (d. 1990), was a clarinetist for the New York City Opera Company, and his mother, Alice Kennard Simonelli, was a secretary. His parents met while they were both students at the Julliard School. Family history has it that Damon's mother was an opera student, but she ruined her voice after singing when she had the flu. By junior high school, Damon had become a master at convincing his mother to wake him up at 3 AM to watch televised moonwalks, and to allow the entire family to view Star Trek episodes at the dinner table. Damon graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1976, with a composition on the New York State Regents exam that mentioned the significance of bicentennial toilet bowl lids. In addition to placing great emphasis on humor, the Simonelli family valued education. Damon's younger sister Danelle graduated from Vassar College and has served many years as a U. S. Park Ranger at Liberty Island. Damon graduated with a BA summa cum laude in physics from Cornell in 1980, where he had begun working with Carl Sagan. Damon had painstakingly gone through all the Viking images to look for any possibility of sentient life on Mars (he didn't find any). Perhaps the arrival of data from the first great explorers of the outer Solar System - Voyagers 1 and 2 - convinced Damon to continue at Cornell with Joe Veverka. While at Cornell, Damon began his pioneering work on the use of

  4. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004 (United States)

    Dermott, Stanley F.


    Astronomer Royal in 1956, but soon left England for greater opportunities in the United States. He spent two years (1957-58) at Harvard, first as a professor and then as the Robert Wheeler Willson Professor of Applied Astronomy before accepting positions as chairman of astronomy and Director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research at Cornell University in 1959. He took great pride in the astronomy department that blossomed into greatness under his leadership. The department, which only had one other faculty member when he was appointed, reflected Tommy's strengths, ranging from radio astronomy and the Arecibo dish, to infrared, theoretical and planetary astronomy. His many distinguished hires included Carl Sagan. At Cornell, he was Assistant Vice President for Research from 1969-71 and the John L.Wetherill Professor from 1971 until his retirement in 1987. His many honors included Fellow of the Royal Society (London); Member of the National Academy of Sciences (US); Gold Medal and George Darwin Lecture, Royal Astronomical Society, London; and Honorary Doctor of Science, Cambridge University. He also served on the US President's Science Advisory Committee, although he came to be a strong critic of NASA and the Shuttle program. Tommy was a handsome, charming and generous man and a loyal colleague who formed many long-lasting friendships. A witty and articulate speaker, he was regarded by some as a scientific maverick who delighted in controversy. In reality, he was an iconoclast whose strength was in penetrating analysis of the assumptions on which some of our most important theories are based. He is survived by his second wife, Carvel (nee Beyer) Gold of Ithaca whom he married in 1972, and by the couple's daughter, Lauren Gold of West Palm Beach, Florida, as well as by three daughters from his first marriage to Merle Eleanor Tuberg in 1947: Lindy Bryant of Philadelphia, Lucy Gold of Ithaca and Tanya Vanesse of Carmel, N.Y., and by six grandchildren. He was

  5. Preface: Eighth European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudio, Spitaleri; Livio, Lamia; Gianluca, Pizzone Rosario


    often quoted statement of Carl Sagan, “We are all star stuff,” is exhaustively describing one of the great discoveries of the 20th century as well as the main aim of nuclear astrophysics. The present theory of stellar nucleosynthesis (based on the famous paper B 2 FH) predicts chemical evolution of the Universe, which is testable by looking at stellar spectral lines, meteorites, pre-solar grains or other means of investigation. Quantum mechanics explains why different atoms emit light at characteristic wavelengths, and so by studying the light emitted from different stars, one may infer the atmospheric composition of individual stars. However, upon undertaking such a task, observations indicate a strong correlation between a star’s heavy element content (metallicity) and its age (red shift). Big bang nucleosynthesis tells us that the early universe consisted of only the light elements, and so one expects the first stars to be composed of hydrogen, helium, and lithium, the three lightest elements. The recent achievements of WMAP and Planck missions, with the precise measurement of many cosmological parameters, have re-ignited the interest on the primordial nucleosynthesis, especially for the still unclear Lithium primordial abundance. Stellar structure and the H-R diagram indicate that the lifetime of a star depends greatly on its initial mass and chemical composition, so that massive stars are very short-lived, and less massive stars are longer-lived. As a star dies, nuclear astrophysics argues that it will enrich the interstellar medium with “heavy elements” (in this case all elements heavier than lithium, the third element), from which new stars are formed. This account is consistent with the observed correlation between stellar metallicity and red shift. The theory of stellar nucleosynthesis would not be very convincing if reliable nuclear physics inputs are adopted. By carefully scrutinizing the table of nuclides, nuclear astrophysicists were able to